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Sample records for average quality factors

  1. Quality factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in rads (or grays), to dose equivalent, expressed in rems (or seiverts). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both the linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE's obtained from biological experiments depend in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism, and the experimental conditions. Judgement is involved, therefore, in the choice of the quality factor. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were raised first in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to possible future increases between a factor of three and ten in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of two in Q for neutrons. Both the ICRP and NRCP are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of two. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. 33 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  3. Quality factor measurements at NTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose equivalent rate in the radiation field outside of the polydoor at the Neutron Therapy Facility has been measured, using a Chipmunk, assuming a quality factor (QF) of 5, to be 25 mrem/hr. This kind of dose rate if true introduced occupancy restrictions and NTF is operating under an exemption. Based on the previous CR-39 studies of the neutron field around NTF,and the amount of shielding around the NTF, it was difficult to believe that a significant neutron field exists in this area, and contributes to the measured dose rate. If the field was mostly due to gamma rays the QF setting on the Chipmunk could be reliably set to a value of one. One method of obtaining a qualitative understanding of the relative abundance of neutron and gamma contribution to the absorbed doses, is to measure the quality factor for the field. This was determined using a recombination chamber. The recombination chamber is a gas filled ion chamber that can measure the average quality factor of a radiation field of unknown composition and energy spectrum. To use the recombination chamber in an unknown field, one needs to measured a calibration curve using radiation fields of known quality factor. The individual neutron and gamma components of the radiation field were also determined in these studies by use of an Andersson-Braun counter to measure the dose equivalent rate due to neutrons, and a Cutup ion chamber to measure the gamma dose rate. The neutron dose equivalent rate in this area of NTF has been estimated by Vylet and is consistent with the present measurements

  4. Quality factor measurements at NTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaziri, K.; Krueger, F.; Kroc, T.; Lauten, G.; Lennox, A.; Leveling, T.

    1993-12-17

    The dose equivalent rate in the radiation field outside of the polydoor at the Neutron Therapy Facility has been measured, using a Chipmunk, assuming a quality factor (QF) of 5, to be 25 mrem/hr. This kind of dose rate if true introduced occupancy restrictions and NTF is operating under an exemption. Based on the previous CR-39 studies of the neutron field around NTF,and the amount of shielding around the NTF, it was difficult to believe that a significant neutron field exists in this area, and contributes to the measured dose rate. If the field was mostly due to gamma rays the QF setting on the Chipmunk could be reliably set to a value of one. One method of obtaining a qualitative understanding of the relative abundance of neutron and gamma contribution to the absorbed doses, is to measure the quality factor for the field. This was determined using a recombination chamber. The recombination chamber is a gas filled ion chamber that can measure the average quality factor of a radiation field of unknown composition and energy spectrum. To use the recombination chamber in an unknown field, one needs to measured a calibration curve using radiation fields of known quality factor. The individual neutron and gamma components of the radiation field were also determined in these studies by use of an Andersson-Braun counter to measure the dose equivalent rate due to neutrons, and a Cutup ion chamber to measure the gamma dose rate. The neutron dose equivalent rate in this area of NTF has been estimated by Vylet and is consistent with the present measurements.

  5. Neutron quality factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting factor for neutrons (Qn, or the corresponding new modifying factor, wR) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Qn from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Qn will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of open-quotes quality factorclose quotes (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Qn; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Qn. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Qn. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC)

  6. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  7. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians.Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran.Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment.Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  8. Research on Average Length of Stay based on Factor Analysis%基于因子分析的医院平均住院日研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项小婵; 陈漫漫; 张智品

    2016-01-01

    The average length of stay is one of the sensitive indicators for medical quality and work efficiency. With medical record analysis and questionnaire, the influencing factors of average length of stay were screened out, which was processed with factor analysis and ranked according to their importance. Based on factor analysis results, main of influencing factors of average length of stay were analyzed and discussed and the management measures and policy recommendations were put forward so as to improve medical quality.

  9. Environmental factors and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michal;

    2009-01-01

    , trihalomethanes (THMs), mobile phones) on semen quality, by reviewing most recent published literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to environmental factors and semen quality for the last ten years were identified by a search of the Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and...

  10. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  11. Properties of Modal Quality Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Geyi, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Spherical wave functions play an important role in the theoretical study of antenna. When they are used to investigate the stored energy outside the circumscribing sphere of the antenna, two different types of modal quality factors appear which exhibit some interesting properties. These properties can be easily demonstrated by numerical tabulations but have never proved rigorously and have remained unsolved for many years. An attempt is made in this paper to try to solve these longstanding problems. New properties and new power series expansions for the modal quality factors have been obtained, which essentially belong to the spherical Bessel functions and therefore are universally applicable.

  12. A Review on Audit Quality Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinniakani, Seyed; Inácio, Coelho Helena; Mota, Rui

    2014-01-01

    “Audit Quality” is not easy to define because of many diverse factors affecting quality. According to the consultation paper of the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB), audit quality is the significant issue that requires more considerable attention. Understanding how audit quality is important requires investigating audit quality factors more precisely. So, the present article aims to review and summarize the different audit quality factors, comparing the results ach...

  13. Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Chart as a Suitable Tool for Nuchal Translucency Quality Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hynek, M.; Smetanová, D.; Stejskal, D.; Zvárová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2014), s. 367-376. ISSN 0197-3851 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nuchal translucency * exponentially weighted moving average model * statistics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.268, year: 2014

  14. Dependence of the Average Lorentz Factor on Temperature in Relativistic Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Wei-Ke; QIU Xi-Jun; SHI Chun-Hua; ZHU Zhi-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    @@ For the relativistic plasma, how to fix the Lorentz factors of the particles is an important but difficult problem.We resolve this problem by demonstrating the exact relation between the average Lorentz factor and temperature in relativistic plasmas. A rather simple relation is also obtained for the ultra-relativistic case.

  15. Wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis dominant and average trees submitted to drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Telles de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined, in trees of dominant and average diameter, the influence of air seasoning followed by kiln drying in the sawn wood quality of 14 years old stand of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, located in Capivari do Sul municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling of trees was performed after a pilot inventory on the basis of the dominant and average diameter at breast height (DBH. After cutting down the trees, there were selected the logs located between the DBH and 25% of commercial height. The logs were then sawn using into boards that were submitted to air seasoning from green up to 18% of moisture content, followed by kiln drying until 13% of moisture content. End checking and board crook were evaluate after sawing, following air seasoning and kiln drying. The results indicate that, both for dominant and average trees, end checking and board crook were not influenced by different wood process stage. However, the contrast between dominant and average trees shows that the magnitude of defects is higher in the average trees.

  16. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  17. Factors involved in poultry quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Castañeda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality has been defined as all consumers’ desirable characteristics focused by poultry producers and processor in order to be satisfied. The demand of poultry quality holds the desirable carcass characteristics and poultry cuts and deboned meat. Carcass characteristics are pigmentation, appearance, size and weight. On other hand deboned meat is the base for manufactured products with added value, representing a change in the traditional presentation of poultry, caused by consumers demand. In the change of whole carcass to added value products processors face different issues related to meat quality related to tenderness, color, water holding capacity and cohesion capacity, characteristics reported in chicken and turkey meat. These characteristics are in relation with pale, soft and exudative (PSE meat, with a pale color, soft texture and low water holding capacity, associated to antemortem and postmortem stress.

  18. Some properties of the microdosimetric quality factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some individual and general properties of the quality factor Q, defined in ICRU Report 40, were studied by analysis of microdosimetric spectra for various types of radiation. By analysis of an individual lineal energy spectrum, we may assess the role of partial factors in the resultant value of Q. The general analysis applicable to any lineal energy spectrum enables simple estimates of Q. The upper limit of the quality factor can be determined from the dose-mean lineal energy. An approximate estimate of the quality factor can easily be made. (author)

  19. Effect of filter on average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsaeng, C.; Krisanachinda, A.; Theerakul, K.

    2016-03-01

    To determine the average glandular dose and entrance surface air kerma in both phantoms and patients to assess image quality for different target-filters (W/Rh and W/Ag) in digital mammography system. The compressed breast thickness, compression force, average glandular dose, entrance surface air kerma, peak kilovoltage and tube current time were recorded and compared between W/Rh and W/Ag target filter. The CNR and the figure of merit were used to determine the effect of target filter on image quality. The mean AGD of the W/Rh target filter was 1.75 mGy, the mean ESAK was 6.67 mGy, the mean CBT was 54.1 mm, the mean CF was 14 1bs. The mean AGD of W/Ag target filter was 2.7 mGy, the mean ESAK was 12.6 mGy, the mean CBT was 75.5 mm, the mean CF was 15 1bs. In phantom study, the AGD was 1.2 mGy at 4 cm, 3.3 mGy at 6 cm and 3.83 mGy at 7 cm thickness. The FOM was 24.6, CNR was 9.02 at thickness 6 cm. The FOM was 18.4, CNR was 8.6 at thickness 7 cm. The AGD from Digital Mammogram system with W/Rh of thinner CBT was lower than the AGD from W/Ag target filter.

  20. Key quality factors at urban interchanges.

    OpenAIRE

    Dell Asin, Giulia; Monzón de Cáceres, Andrés; López Lambas, Maria Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Quality of service should not be overlooked in public transport planning and policy making, as it influences modal shift from car use to more sustainable means. Little research has been conducted on the quality of public transport interchanges from the perspective of current travellers (i.e. perceived quality). This work is thus aimed at identifying key quality factors in urban interchanges, through an exploratory approach (multiple correspondence analysis) that provides novel elements for fu...

  1. Quality factors to consider in condensate selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.

  2. An average/deprivation/inequality (ADI analysis of chronic disease outcomes and risk factors in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maio Fernando G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of the global economic and epidemiological burden of chronic non-communicable diseases has increased in recent years. However, much of the research on this issue remains focused on individual-level risk factors and neglects the underlying social patterning of risk factors and disease outcomes. Methods Secondary analysis of Argentina's 2005 Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo (National Risk Factor Survey, N = 41,392 using a novel analytical strategy first proposed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, which we here refer to as the Average/Deprivation/Inequality (ADI framework. The analysis focuses on two risk factors (unhealthy diet and obesity and one related disease outcome (diabetes, a notable health concern in Latin America. Logistic regression is used to examine the interplay between socioeconomic and demographic factors. The ADI analysis then uses the results from the logistic regression to identify the most deprived, the best-off, and the difference between the two ideal types. Results Overall, 19.9% of the sample reported being in poor/fair health, 35.3% reported not eating any fruits or vegetables in five days of the week preceding the interview, 14.7% had a BMI of 30 or greater, and 8.5% indicated that a health professional had told them that they have diabetes or high blood pressure. However, significant variation is hidden by these summary measures. Educational attainment displayed the strongest explanatory power throughout the models, followed by household income, with both factors highlighting the social patterning of risk factors and disease outcomes. As educational attainment and household income increase, the probability of poor health, unhealthy diet, obesity, and diabetes decrease. The analyses also point toward important provincial effects and reinforce the notion that both compositional factors (i.e., characteristics of individuals and contextual factors (i.e., characteristics

  3. High quality-factor optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various resonators are investigated for microwave photonic applications. Micro-sphere, disk and fiber ring resonators were designed, realized and characterized. Obtained quality factors are as high as Q = 1010. (paper)

  4. Factors Affecting Audit Committee Quality in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okaro Sunday Chukwunedu; Okafor Gloria Ogochukwu; Oraka Azubuike Onuora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that affect audit committee quality in Nigeria. A hand administered questionnaire survey of 52 accounting professionals was undertaken. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the most common factors. Independent t-tests were used to determine whether there were any significant differences in the perceptions of the factors according to gender, job type and experience. The questionnaire findings, which include some factors peculiar to Nige...

  5. On the laws of thermodynamics from the escort average and on the uniqueness of statistical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the relation between the statistical weight and the laws of thermodynamics. Our path bases on the infinitesimal perturbation from outside of the thermodynamical system. It is fair to say that the form of the first laws of thermodynamics and the Clausius' definition of thermodynamic entropy are commensurately altered once we employ the escort average of statistical weight but preserves the forms in the limit of the usual weight. We also see an example for the unique determination of the statistical factor (so-called the Gibbs theorem) in addition to the Boltzmann and the Tsallis ones

  6. An Approach to Adaptive Correction Factors in Depth-Averaged Model for Debris Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yih-Chin; Cheng, Chin-Kai; Lai, Guan-Cen

    2016-04-01

    In modeling the debris flows, the governing equations are often given in depth-averaged form, where scaling analysis is employed to reduce the complexity and expense in computation. As a result, the non-uniform distributions of the sediment concentration and velocity along the flow thickness bring the correction parameters into the equation system. Since the flows are generally not at steady state, these distributions vary dynamically, so that the values of the correction factors should not be given by constant values. With the concept of two-phase mixture, we revisit the depth-averaged balance equations, where four correction factors are present and inevitable in the resultant model equations if the distributions of the sediment concentration and velocity along the flow thickness are non-uniform. Through theoretical analysis and experimental investigation, we found that a piecewise-linear distribution for velocity and a linear distribution of sediment concentration in the immature debris flows (where the clear water exists) seem plausible. This assumption may significantly simplify the complicated determination of the correction factors. In the resultant model equations, the correcting parameters due to the non-uniform distributions are present, which are of significant impacts on the characteristic of the equation system, and play crucial roles in performing the numerical simulation. In this study, the values of these factors with respect to the corresponding profiles are investigated. By means of numerical examples, we shall illustrate their impacts on the flow behaviors, such as the concentration variation, the geometry of the deposit and the maximum run-out distance.

  7. Determination of time-average equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny in air, the measurement system made up of opened solid state nuclear track detector and filtered one is established. The HURC(Hanyang University Radon Cup) is used as a detector chamber in combination with a CR-39 track detector. The methodology using track density ratio of two SSNTDs, suggested by Domanski, is used to determine the equilibrium factor. To test the validity of this relationship between the equilibrium factor and track density ratio, calibration experiments are carried out with the pair-cup system for radon and its progeny in the radon chamber at the National Radiological Protection Board(NRPB, UK). To test the performance of the pair-cup system, intercomparison experiments are carried out with another radon and its progeny detectors in radon chamber at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS, Korea). The calibration factor associated with the filtered SSNTD for radon, obtained from calibration experiments, is 9.59±0.49 Bq·m-3 per tracks·cm-2·d-1 and the other is 1.6x10-3±1.6x10-4 WL per tracks·cm-2·d-1 for radon progeny. The results of the validity-test found that the methodology using the track density ratio between the open and filtered cup are applicable to determination of the equilibrium factor for a long-term exposure period, from 100 kBq·h·m-3 to 200 kBq·h·m-3 of accumulated radon concentration. Besides, the pair-cup system reflects well the change of equilibrium. The methodology and the established system can apply to measurement of the time-average equilibrium factor in underground mines or basements associated with high radon exposures

  8. Nanodosimetry-based quality factors for radiation protection in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Reinhard W; Wroe, Andrew J; Bashkirov, Vladimir A; Garty, Guy Y; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, Rachel; Shchemelinin, Sergei; Gargioni, Elisabetta; Grosswendt, Bernd; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation and monitoring of the cancer risk from space radiation exposure is a crucial requirement for the success of long-term space missions. One important task in the risk calculation is to properly weigh the various components of space radiation dose according to their assumed contribution to the cancer risk relative to the risk associated with radiation of low ionization density. Currently, quality factors of radiation both on the ground and in space are defined by national and international commissions based on existing radiobiological data and presumed knowledge of the ionization density distribution of the radiation field at a given point of interest. This approach makes the determination of the average quality factor ofa given radiation field a rather complex task. In this contribution, we investigate the possibility to define quality factors of space radiation exposure based on nanodosimetric data. The underlying formalism of the determination of quality factors on the basis of nanodosimetric data is described, and quality factors for protons and ions (helium and carbon) of different energies based on simulated nanodosimetric data are presented. The value and limitations of this approach are discussed. PMID:19205298

  9. Nanodosimetry-based quality factors for radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation and monitoring of the cancer risk from space radiation exposure is a crucial requirement for the success of long-term space missions. One important task in the risk calculation is to properly weigh the various components of space radiation dose according to their assumed contribution to the cancer risk relative to the risk associated with radiation of low ionization density. Currently, quality factors of radiation both on the ground and in space are defined by national and international commissions based on existing radiobiological data and presumed knowledge of the ionization density distribution of the radiation field at a given point of interest. This approach makes the determination of the average quality factor of a given radiation field a rather complex task. In this contribution, we investigate the possibility to define quality factors of space radiation exposure based on nanodosimetric data. The underlying formalism of the determination of quality factors on the basis of nanodosimetric data is described, and quality factors for protons and ions (helium and carbon) of different energies based on simulated nanodosimetric data are presented. The value and limitations of this approach are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Nanodosimetry-based quality factors for radiation protection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Bashkirov, Vladimir A. [Dept. of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Garty, Guy Y. [RARAF, Columbia Univ., Irvington, NY (United States); Breskin, Amos; Chechik, Rachel; Shchemelinin, Sergei [Dept. of Particle Physics, Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Gargioni, Elisabetta; Grosswendt, Bernd [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Rosenfeld, Anatoly B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Evaluation and monitoring of the cancer risk from space radiation exposure is a crucial requirement for the success of long-term space missions. One important task in the risk calculation is to properly weigh the various components of space radiation dose according to their assumed contribution to the cancer risk relative to the risk associated with radiation of low ionization density. Currently, quality factors of radiation both on the ground and in space are defined by national and international commissions based on existing radiobiological data and presumed knowledge of the ionization density distribution of the radiation field at a given point of interest. This approach makes the determination of the average quality factor of a given radiation field a rather complex task. In this contribution, we investigate the possibility to define quality factors of space radiation exposure based on nanodosimetric data. The underlying formalism of the determination of quality factors on the basis of nanodosimetric data is described, and quality factors for protons and ions (helium and carbon) of different energies based on simulated nanodosimetric data are presented. The value and limitations of this approach are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual and Average Member of Critical Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop additional Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for the periods 10,000 years and 1,000,000 years after the repository closure. In addition, Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for the average member of a critical group are calculated for those additional radionuclides postulated to reach the environment during the period after 10,000 years and up to 1,000,000 years. After the permanent closure of the repository, the engineered systems within the repository will eventually lose their abilities to contain radionuclide inventory, and the radionuclides will migrate through the geosphere and eventually enter the local water table moving toward inhabited areas. The primary release scenario is a groundwater well used for drinking water supply and irrigation, and this calculation takes these postulated releases and follows them through various pathways until they result in a dose to either a member of critical group or a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The pathways considered in this calculation include inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure

  12. Supply, Human Capital, and the Average Quality Level of the Science and Engineering Labor Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Howard P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores how institutional and technological change affect the quality of the science and engineering labor force. Sources of imbalance between demand and supply are considered, along with the effects of institutional and technological change. A model is introduced to relate changes in market imbalance to both labor force quality and…

  13. Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Tricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

  14. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; McBeth, Rafe A.; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA (Z , β) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, β, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA (Z , β) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA (Z , β). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The

  15. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Thomas B; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Townsend, Lawrence W; McBeth, Rafe A; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA(Z,β) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, β, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA(Z,β) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA(Z,β). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The revised

  16. Factors of life quality material dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea CAMBIR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be focused on Multinomial Logistic Regression models to examine the social and demographic factors that may influence the components of life quality material dimension in terms of income and durable goods. As statistical source for the regression model will be use the Household Budget Survey. Within the predictors of the model could be mentioned: gender, age, marital status, education level, residential area. Statistical software used for the analysis is R Project along with specific package for multinomial logistic regression. This research will contribute to know the determinants of life quality material dimension in Romania.

  17. PRICE VS QUALITY COMPETITION AND THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF AVERAGE PRICES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattoscio Nicola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the relationship between the average export prices and the distance between the origin and the destination market in international trade. Distance between trading partners obviously stands at the core of I international trade literature and is strictly related with the issue of how countries and firms compete on export markets when transport costs become increasingly stiff. Heterogeneous-Firm Trade (HFT models predict that only most competitive firms are able to export on distant markets, where it is more difficult to recover from freight costs. However, this simple concept does not lead to unambiguous predictions on the spatial pattern of average export f.o.b. prices. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  18. PRICE VS QUALITY COMPETITION AND THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF AVERAGE PRICES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoscio Nicola; Affortunato Francesca

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the relationship between the average export prices and the distance between the origin and the destination market in international trade. Distance between trading partners obviously stands at the core of I international trade literature and is strictly related with the issue of how countries and firms compete on export markets when transport costs become increasingly stiff. Heterogeneous-Firm Trade (HFT) models predict that only most competitive firms are able to export...

  19. Optimizing the anode-filter combination in the sense of image quality and average glandular dose in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjonen, Mari; Strömmer, Pekka

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the optimized image quality and average glandular dose in digital mammography, and provides recommendations concerning anode-filter combinations in digital mammography, which is based on amorphous selenium (a-Se) detector technology. The full field digital mammography (FFDM) system based on a-Se technology, which is also a platform of tomosynthesis prototype, was used in this study. X-ray tube anode-filter combinations, which we studied, were tungsten (W) - rhodium (Rh) and tungsten (W) - silver (Ag). Anatomically adaptable fully automatic exposure control (AAEC) was used. The average glandular doses (AGD) were calculated using a specific program developed by Planmed, which automates the method described by Dance et al. Image quality was evaluated in two different ways: a subjective image quality evaluation, and contrast and noise analysis. By using W-Rh and W-Ag anode-filter combinations can be achieved a significantly lower average glandular dose compared with molybdenum (Mo) - molybdenum (Mo) or Mo-Rh. The average glandular dose reduction was achieved from 25 % to 60 %. In the future, the evaluation will concentrate to study more filter combinations and the effect of higher kV (>35 kV) values, which seems be useful while optimizing the dose in digital mammography.

  20. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolomé, Javier, E-mail: j.bartolome@fis.ucm.es; Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier [Department of Materials Physics, Faculty of Physics, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  1. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In2O3 microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 105 and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10−16 N/Hz1/2 demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure

  2. Factors of life quality material dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea CAMBIR

    2015-01-01

    This paper will be focused on Multinomial Logistic Regression models to examine the social and demographic factors that may influence the components of life quality material dimension in terms of income and durable goods. As statistical source for the regression model will be use the Household Budget Survey. Within the predictors of the model could be mentioned: gender, age, marital status, education level, residential area. Statistical software used for the analysis is R Project along with s...

  3. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop applicat...

  4. Factors affecting quality of informed consent.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavelle-Jones, C; Byrne, D J; Rice, P; Cuschieri, A.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the factors influencing quality of informed consent. DESIGN--Prospective study comprising interviews with patients and patients' completing standard questionnaires. SETTING--Academic surgical unit of large teaching hospital. PATIENTS--265 patients undergoing intrathoracic, intraperitoneal, and vascular surgical procedures. Of these patients, 192 have been followed up for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' recall of information at various points in the study; th...

  5. Factors Influencing Watershed Average Erosion Rates Calculated from Reservoir Sedimentation in Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, A.; Snyder, N. P.; David, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Reservoir Sedimentation Database (ResSed), a catalogue of reservoirs and depositional data that has recently become publically available, allows for rapid calculation of sedimentation rates and rates of capacity loss over short (annual to decadal) timescales. This study is a statistical investigation of factors controlling watershed average erosion rates (E) in eastern United States watersheds. We develop an ArcGIS-based model that delineates watersheds upstream of ResSed dams and calculate drainage areas to determine E for 191 eastern US watersheds. Geomorphic, geologic, regional, climatic, and land use variables are quantified within study watersheds using GIS. Erosion rates exhibit a large amount of scatter, ranging from 0.001 to 1.25 mm/yr. A weak inverse power law relationship between drainage area (A) and E (R2 = 0.09) is evident, similar to other studies (e.g. Milliman and Syvitski, 1992; Koppes and Montgomery, 2009). Linear regressions reveal no relationship between mean watershed slope (S) and E, possibly due to the relatively low relief of the region (mean S for all watersheds is 6°). Analysis of Variance shows that watersheds in formerly glaciated regions exhibit a statistically significant lower mean E (0.06 mm/year) than watersheds in unglaciated regions (0.12 mm/year), but that watersheds with different dam purposes show no significant differences in mean E. Linear regressions reveal no relationships between E and land use parameters like percent agricultural land and percent impervious surfaces (I), but classification and regression trees indicate that watersheds in highly developed regions (I > 34%) exhibit mean E (0.36 mm/year) that is four times higher than watersheds in less developed (I < 34%) regions (0.09 mm/year). Further, interactions between land use variables emerge in formerly glaciated regions, where increased agricultural land results in higher rates of annual capacity loss in reservoirs (R2 = 0.56). Plots of E versus timescale of

  6. A Precise Cluster Mass Profile Averaged from the Highest-Quality Lensing Data

    CERN Document Server

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Medezinski, Elinor; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We outline our methods for obtaining high precision mass profiles, combining independent weak-lensing distortion, magnification, and strong-lensing measurements. For massive clusters the strong and weak lensing regimes contribute equal logarithmic coverage of the radial profile, permitting a stringent test of theoretical models. The utility of high-quality data is limited by the cosmic noise from large scale structure along the line of sight, producing covariance between radial bins, particularly behind the cluster center, where magnified sources lie at greater distances. This noise is overcome when stacking clusters, as too are the effects of cluster asphericity and substructure, allowing a tighter comparison of the mean profile with theoretical models. We derive a mean radial mass profile of four very similar mass clusters of very high-quality HST and Subaru images, in the range R=40kpc/h to 2800kpc/h, where the inner radial boundary is sufficiently large to avoid smoothing from miscentering effects. The st...

  7. Quality factor: conceptual problems and practical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past ten years a growing divide has become apparent between the dosimetric concepts designed to provide measures of stochastic risks and those designed for the measurement and control of exposures to radiation. Those designed to provide estimates of risk, e.g. effective dose equivalent, might need to be further refined to incorporate the latest scientific beliefs and evidence about the dependence on radiation quality and dose rate as well as on age and sex. Both animal and human evidence strongly supports a belief that different tissues and different types of neoplasm will have different dependencies on radiation quality and dose rate. For practical purposes of risk estimation it is necessary to select the same values for all human neoplasms. There are reasons for using life shortening in animals as a basis for this purpose, but the data for the dependence on the whole range of radiation qualities is meagre. To provide some stability for the new concepts of measurement and calibration it may be better to accommodate changing perceptions on radiation risks by specifying different levels of exposure for different types of radiation without changing the current quality factors for the measurement quantities. (author)

  8. Diode Pumped Alkali Vapor Lasers - A New Pathway to High Beam Quality at High Average Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R H; Boley, C D; Rubenchik, A M; Beach, R J

    2005-05-06

    Resonance-transition alkali-vapor lasers have only recently been demonstrated [1] but are already attracting considerable attention. Alkali-atom-vapor gain media are among the simplest possible systems known, so there is much laboratory data upon which to base performance predictions. Therefore, accurate modeling is possible, as shown by the zero- free-parameter fits [2] to experimental data on alkali-vapor lasers pumped with Ti:sapphire lasers. The practical advantages of two of the alkali systems--Rb and Cs--are enormous, since they are amenable to diode-pumping [3,4]. Even without circulating the gas mixture, these lasers can have adequate cooling built-in owing to the presence of He in their vapor cells. The high predicted (up to 70%) optical-to-optical efficiency of the alkali laser, the superb (potentially 70% or better) wall-plug efficiency of the diode pumps, and the ability to exhaust heat at high temperature (100 C) combine to give a power-scalable architecture that is lightweight. A recent design exercise [5] at LLNL estimated that the system ''weight-to-power ratio'' figure of merit could be on the order of 7 kg/kW, an unprecedented value for a laser of the 100 kW class. Beam quality is expected to be excellent, owing to the small dn/dT value of the gain medium. There is obviously a long way to go, to get from a small laser pumped with a Ti:sapphire or injection-seeded diode system (of near-perfect beam quality, and narrow linewidth) [1, 4] to a large system pumped with broadband, multimode diode- laser arrays. We have a vision for this technology-development program, and have already built diode-array-pumped Rb lasers at the 1 Watt level. A setup for demonstrating Diode-array-Pumped Alkali vapor Lasers (DPALs) is shown in Figure 1. In general, use of a highly-multimode, broadband pump source renders diode-array-based experiments much more difficult than the previous ones done with Ti:sapphire pumping. High-NA optics, short focal

  9. Underwater image quality enhancement through Rayleigh-stretching and averaging image planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Ahmad Shahrizan Abdul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Visibility in underwater images is usually poor because of the attenuation of light in the water that causes low contrast and color variation. In this paper, a new approach for underwater image quality improvement is presented. The proposed method aims to improve underwater image contrast, increase image details, and reduce noise by applying a new method of using contrast stretching to produce two different images with different contrasts. The proposed method integrates the modification of the image histogram in two main color models, RGB and HSV. The histograms of the color channel in the RGB color model are modified and remapped to follow the Rayleigh distribution within certain ranges. The image is then converted to the HSV color model, and the S and V components are modified within a certain limit. Qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate that the proposed method outperforms other state-of- the-art methods in terms of contrast, details, and noise reduction. The image color also shows much improvement.

  10. Factors Related to Predicting Grade Point Averages of Dislocated Workers at a Rural Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James Brent

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine relationships which existed between selected demographics and college grade point averages "GPAs" for dislocated workers and non dislocated workers enrolled in career-technical courses at a rural community college. The variables included in the study are age, gender, and marital status. The study also…

  11. Temperature-averaged and total free-free Gaunt factors for $\\kappa$ and Maxwellian distributions of electrons

    CERN Document Server

    de Avillez, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Optically thin plasmas may deviate from thermal equilibrium and thus, electrons (and ions) are no longer described by the Maxwellian distribution. Instead they can be described by $\\kappa$-distributions. The free-free spectrum and radiative losses depend on the temperature-averaged (over the electrons distribution) and total Gaunt factors, respectively. Thus, there is a need to calculate and make available these factors to be used by any software that deals with plasma emission. Methods. We recalculated the free-free Gaunt factor for a wide range of energies and frequencies using hypergeometric functions of complex arguments and the Clenshaw recurrence formula technique combined with approximations whenever the difference between the initial and final electron energies is smaller than $10^{-10}$ in units of $z^2Ry$. We used double and quadruple precisions. The temperature- averaged and total Gaunt factors calculations make use of the Gauss-Laguerre integration with 128 nodes. Results. The temperature-av...

  12. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: I. Five-year average pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine genetic, performance, and carcass factors explaining variation in carcass value and profitability. Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age and pen-fed a high-concentrate diet (108.99 dollars/t) for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d before allotment. Calves were implanted with Synovex C at weaning and successively with Synovex S (Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, IA) and Revalor S (Intervet, Inc., Millsboro, DE). Steers consumed a 90% concentrate diet (98.93 dollars/t), consisting primarily of coarse cracked corn and corn silage, for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Five-year price data were collected for feedstuffs, dressed beef, and grid premiums, and discounts. Average dressed beef price was 110.67 dollars/45.4 kg. Premiums (dollars/45.4 kg) were given for Prime (5.62 dollars), Average Choice (1.50 dollars), and yield grades (YG) 1 (2.46 dollars), 2A (1.31 dollars), and 2B (1.11 dollars). Discounts (dollars/45.4 kg) were given for Standard (-16.85 dollars), Select (-8.90 dollars), and YG 3A (-0.12 dollars), 3B (-0.19 dollars), 4 (-14.16 dollars), and 5 (-19.56 dollars). Discounts were given for HCW extremes as well (409 to 431 kg, -0.64 dollars; 432 to 454 kg -11.39 dollars; > 454 kg, -19.71 dollars). Input costs included annual cow costs (327.77 dollars), veterinary/medical and labor (35 dollars per animal), feed markup (22 dollars/t), yardage (0.25 dollars/d per animal), and interest (10%). Dependent variables were carcass value and profit per steer. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, G:F, HCW, calculated YG, and marbling score (MS). Carcass value was correlated (P Carcass weight, MS, and YG accounted for nearly 80% of the variation in carcass value among steers, explaining 51, 10, and 8%, respectively. Profit was correlated (P Carcass weight, MS, YG, and DMI accounted for

  13. Quality factor control in a lasing microcavity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandaf; Schwartz

    2000-04-01

    We consider a dynamics model of lasing microcavities, a class of optical resonators (1-10 &mgr;m in diameter) used in microlasers and for optical coupling of optical fibers. Inside such a cavity light circulates around the perimeter and is trapped by internal reflection. This is known as "whispering gallery" or high-Q modes. The cavity is a deformable cylindrical (or spherical) dielectric and at certain deformations light can escape by refraction. The quality of the resonator or Q factor, is defined as Q=omegatau, where tau is the escape time and omega is the frequency of light. We show that by appropriately deforming the cavity, the Q factor can be controlled by prolonging or shortening the average length of time spent by light trajectories inside the cavity. PMID:11088138

  14. Temperature-averaged and total free-free Gaunt factors for κ and Maxwellian distributions of electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Optically thin plasmas may deviate from thermal equilibrium and thus, electrons (and ions) are no longer described by the Maxwellian distribution. Instead they can be described by κ-distributions. The free-free spectrum and radiative losses depend on the temperature-averaged (over the electrons distribution) and total Gaunt factors, respectively. Thus, there is a need to calculate and make available these factors to be used by any software that deals with plasma emission. Methods: We recalculated the free-free Gaunt factor for a wide range of energies and frequencies using hypergeometric functions of complex arguments and the Clenshaw recurrence formula technique combined with approximations whenever the difference between the initial and final electron energies is smaller than 10-10 in units of z2Ry. We used double and quadruple precisions. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculations make use of the Gauss-Laguerre integration with 128 nodes. Results: The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors depend on the κ parameter, which shows increasing deviations (with respect to the results obtained with the use of the Maxwellian distribution) with decreasing κ. Tables of these Gaunt factors are provided. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Biophysics of NASA radiation quality factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NASA has implemented new radiation quality factors (QFs) for projecting cancer risks from space radiation exposures to astronauts. The NASA QFs are based on particle track structure concepts with parameters derived from available radiobiology data, and NASA introduces distinct QFs for solid cancer and leukaemia risk estimates. The NASA model was reviewed by the US National Research Council and approved for use by NASA for risk assessment for International Space Station missions and trade studies of future exploration missions to Mars and other destinations. A key feature of the NASA QFs is to represent the uncertainty in the QF assessments and evaluate the importance of the QF uncertainty to overall uncertainties in cancer risk projections. In this article, the biophysical basis for the probability distribution functions representing QF uncertainties was reviewed, and approaches needed to reduce uncertainties were discussed. (author)

  16. Average current control of DC-DC Cuk Converters as Power Factor Corrector

    OpenAIRE

    Ashima Kulshreshtha; Anmol R. Saxena

    2015-01-01

    The era of electronic devices in all loads due to the manufacturing technologies replaced many conventional electrical or mechanical loads including lighting loads where Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) is becoming an emerging technique with many advantages. High frequency switching dc-dc converter is a new technology to control the load and the supply side simultaneously. Due to additional harmonics generated by these switching converters power factor correction has become a necessit...

  17. Impact factor: a valid measure of journal quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Somnath; Saint, Sanjay; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Impact factor, an index based on the frequency with which a journal's articles are cited in scientific publications, is a putative marker of journal quality. However, empiric studies on impact factor's validity as an indicator of quality are lacking. The authors assessed the validity of impact factor as a measure of quality for general medical journals by testing its association with journal quality as rated by clinical practitioners and researchers.

  18. Process optimization in high-average-power ultrashort pulse laser microfabrication: how laser process parameters influence efficiency, throughput and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schille, Joerg; Schneider, Lutz; Loeschner, Udo

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, laser processing of technical grade stainless steel and copper using high-average-power ultrashort pulse lasers is studied in order to gain deeper insight into material removal for microfabrication. A high-pulse repetition frequency picosecond and femtosecond laser is used in conjunction with high-performance galvanometer scanners and an in-house developed two-axis polygon scanner system. By varying the processing parameters such as wavelength, pulse length, fluence and repetition rate, cavities of standardized geometry are fabricated and analyzed. From the depths of the cavities produced, the ablation rate and removal efficiency are estimated. In addition, the quality of the cavities is evaluated by means of scanning electron microscope micrographs or rather surface roughness measurements. From the results obtained, the influence of the machining parameters on material removal and machining quality is discussed. In addition, it is shown that both material removal rate and quality increase by using femtosecond compared to picosecond laser pulses. On stainless steel, a maximum throughput of 6.81 mm3/min is achieved with 32 W femtosecond laser powers; if using 187 W picosecond laser powers, the maximum is 15.04 mm3/min, respectively. On copper, the maximum throughputs are 6.1 mm3/min and 21.4 mm3/min, obtained with 32 W femtosecond and 187 W picosecond laser powers. The findings indicate that ultrashort pulses in the mid-fluence regime yield most efficient material removal. In conclusion, from the results of this analysis, a range of optimum processing parameters are derived feasible to enhance machining efficiency, throughput and quality in high-rate micromachining. The work carried out here clearly opens the way to significant industrial applications.

  19. Product quality as a key factor of the enterprise competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Bilan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main approaches to the definition of the category "product quality" are considered in the article. The definition of product quality as the set of characteristics that reflect the necessary consumer properties of products are formulated by the author. The factors of forming of the products quality are analysed, advantages that will be got by an enterprise from improving product quality and factors that stimulate or restrain this process are defined. Main reasons of objective necessity to increase the level of quality of products (services and realization of management and providing of necessary products quality based on a continuous cycle are distinguished. Directions of improvement of product quality due to the certification of the quality management system of an enterprise in accordance with ISO 9001, improvement of raw materials quality, improvement of material and technical support of production, improvement of labour quality, the orientation of the enterprise on consumer demand and quality control are suggested

  20. Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 hea...

  1. Determinant factors of job quality in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Crespo; Nádia Simões; José Castro Pinto

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of job quality in Europe based on an individual level approach. Using data from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey, covering 31 countries, we propose a multidimensional indicator of job quality based on eight objective and three subjective dimensions and evaluate the influence of worker and firm characteristics on the overall job quality level as well as on each of its constituent dimensions. Our results confirm the influence of worker and firm character...

  2. Effects of extended storage on egg quality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2005-11-01

    Eggs were collected from a single inline processing facility weekly for 3 wk (replicates). The eggs were stored at 4 degrees C and 80% RH. Sampling began the day after collection and continued each week for 10 wk. During analysis, 24 eggs were examined for egg weight, albumen height, Haugh units (HU), shell strength, and vitelline membrane strength for each replicate. Egg weight decreased (P Eggs from the second replicate were significantly (P eggs in replicate 2 compared with the other replicates (P shell strength between replicates or during extended storage. A significant difference (P membrane strength between replicates, but this difference was less than 0.05 g. The elasticity of the vitelline membrane decreased during storage (P egg weight, albumen height, and HU. However, average HU values were still within the range for grade A. Shell strength was not affected by extended storage. Vitelline membrane elasticity also decreased, which could lead to yolks more easily rupturing as consumers crack the eggs. The results indicated that although the physical quality factors monitored in this study decreased during storage, egg quality was still acceptable beyond current recommended shelf life guidelines. PMID:16463976

  3. Preadoptive Factors Predicting Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples’ Relationship Quality Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined pre-adoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the first year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the first year of parenthood, regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, pre-adoption, reported higher leve...

  4. The deformed uncertainty relation and the corresponding beam quality factor

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K; Wang, S M; Li, Kang; Zhao, Dao Mu; Wang, Shao Min

    1996-01-01

    By using the theory of deformed quantum mechanics, we study the deformed light beam theoretically. The deformed beam quality factor M_q^2 is given explicitly under the case of deformed light in coherent state. When the deformation parameter q being a root of unity, the beam quality factor M_q^2 \\leq 1.

  5. Radiation quality factor of spherical antennas with material cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the radiation quality factor and resonances of spherical antennas with material cores. Conditions for cavity and radiating resonances are given, and a theoretical description of the radiation quality factor, as well as simple expressions describing the relative...... permeability and permittivity for an antenna of fixed electrical size is performed....

  6. Relationships of milk yield and quality of six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality to calf preweaning average daily gain (ADG) of beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvie...

  7. The Negative Factors Affecting Total Quality Applications in Educational Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Soner M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore the factors, which hinder the “total quality applications” in educational organisations particularly in schools. Throughout the literature, the total quality management has been recognized as an approach to promote customer satisfaction and continuous improvement in work places. By focusing on the problem solving and quality-centered work organisation, this approach has been recognized to enhance the quality of the work through effective collaboration...

  8. Factors Associated With Sleep Quality Among Operating Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Pohl, Joanne M.; Redman, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Blue collar workers generally report high job stress and are exposed to loud noises at work and engage in many of the health behavioral factors, all of which have been associated with poor sleep quality. However, sleep quality of blue collar workers has not been studied extensively, and no studies have focused Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators) among whom daytime fatigue would place them at high risk for accidents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine variables associated with sleep quality among Operating Engineers. This was a cross-sectional survey design with a dependent variable of sleep quality and independent variables of personal and related health behavioral factors. A convenience sample of 498 Operating Engineers was recruited from approximately 16,000 Operating Engineers from entire State of Michigan in 2008. Linear regression was used to determine personal and related health behavior factors associated with sleep quality. Multivariate analyses showed that personal factors related to poor sleep quality were younger age, female sex, higher pain, more medical comorbidities and depressive symptoms and behavioral factors related to poor sleep quality were nicotine dependence. While sleep scores were similar to population norms, approximately 34% (n=143) showed interest in health services for sleep problems. While many personal factors are not changeable, interventions to improve sleep hygiene as well as interventions to treat pain, depression and smoking may improve sleep quality resulting in less absenteeism, fatal work accidents, use of sick leave, work disability, medical comorbidities, as well as subsequent mortality. PMID:23393021

  9. Romanian Coast of the Black Sea - Quality of Tourism Services and Choice Destination Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bulin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Romanian seaside is a summer destination for tourists Romans and not only, offering multiple holiday resorts. This paper propose to identify attitudes and perceptions of tourists on the quality of tourism services on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea. Authors is focused to measuring the perception of Romanian tourists on the quality of the Romanian seaside, the recovery of the tourism potential, the service personnel and appreciation of rates/quality balance. Also, we propose to identify key factors of choice of seaside destinations. The research hypothesis are: perceived quality of service is average to poor, coastal tourism potential is underexploited, the prices are high for the quality offered, and insufficiently trained service personnel; is the fact that the choice of holiday destination depends on a number of factors, not one critical.

  10. New Measure of Boolean Factor Analysis Quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.

    Vol. 1. Heidelberg: Springer, 2011 - (Dobnikar, A.; Lotrič, U.; Šter, B.), s. 100-109. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 6593). ISBN 978-3-642-20281-0. ISSN 0302-9743. [ICANNGA'2011. International Conference /10./. Ljubljana (SI), 14.04.2011-16.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262; GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * information gain * expectation-maximization * associative memory * neural network application * Boolean matrix factorization * bars problem * Hopfield neural network Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  11. Subjective sleep quality in perimenopausal women and its related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zhang; Fen Lia; Yongjie Lin; Qiu Sheng; Xuewen Yu; Xinwen Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sleep quality and its related factors among perimenopausal women. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was administered to 506 perimenopausal women. The questionnaire included the influencing factors on the sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales (SDS), the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety (SAS) and the Modified Kupperman Index (KI). Data were analyzed by SPSS11.5. Results: The mean PSQI was 5.97±4.30.Twenty-four percent of perimenopausal women reported poor sleep. Age and perimenopausal symptoms were significantly correlated with sleep quality. The sleep quality of the 45~49 age group was the poorest and the 40~44 age group was the best. The women who had higher Kupperman index were more likely to be poor sleepers. There was no significant correlation between occupation and sleep quality. Night sweat, depression, anxiety, hot flash, stressful life event, and regular exercise were significantly and independently related with sleep quality. Among them, regular exercise was a protective factor of sleep quality. Conclusion:High incidence of poor sleep quality exists among perimenopausal women. Some effective interventions should be taken to improve the sleep quality of perimenopausal women.

  12. Training, Quality Assurance Factors, and Tools Investigation: a Work Report and Suggestions on Software Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pen-Nan

    1991-01-01

    Previously, several research tasks have been conducted, some observations were obtained, and several possible suggestions have been contemplated involving software quality assurance engineering at NASA Johnson. These research tasks are briefly described. Also, a brief discussion is given on the role of software quality assurance in software engineering along with some observations and suggestions. A brief discussion on a training program for software quality assurance engineers is provided. A list of assurance factors as well as quality factors are also included. Finally, a process model which can be used for searching and collecting software quality assurance tools is presented.

  13. Healthcare Professionals’ Perception and Related Factors About Total Quality Management

    OpenAIRE

    Birkan TAPAN; Gayef, Albena; Adem SEZEN; ALICI, Selin; YILDIRIM, Nurdan

    2015-01-01

    Quality defied as extent of features of any product or service to meet expectations of consumers enjoying such product or service. Although it was a concept fist emerged in manufacturing industry, today, it has become an important competitive factor for service institutions as well. Total Quality Management approach is drawing more and more interest as international borders start to fade out in parallel with globalization and increasing competition. Total Quality Management is a management st...

  14. Healthcare Professionals’ Perception and Related Factors About Total Quality Management

    OpenAIRE

    TAPAN, Birkan; Selin ALICI; Gayef, Albena; YILDIRIM, Nurdan; Sezen, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Quality defined as extent of features of any product or service to meet expectations of consumers enjoying such product or service. Although it was a concept first emerged in manufacturing industry, today, it has become an important competitive factor for service institutions as well. Total Quality Management approach is drawing more and more interest as international borders start to fade out in parallel with globalization and increasing competition. Total Quality Management is a ma...

  15. High quality factor, fully switchable THz superconducting metasurface

    OpenAIRE

    Scalari, Giacomo; Maissen, Curdin; Cibella, Sara; Leoni, Roberto; Faist, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q=54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with an high Q and inductive elements with ...

  16. Quality factor improvement of silicon nitride micro string resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Malm, Bjarke; Boisen, Anja

    Resonant micro and nano strings are of interest for sensor applications due to their extraordinary high quality factors, low mass and tunable resonant frequency. It has been found that the quality factor of strings is usually limited by clamping loss. In this work, clamping loss has been addresse...... factor values in air were measured for the shortest strings with the highest resonant frequency having an optimal width to height ratio.......Resonant micro and nano strings are of interest for sensor applications due to their extraordinary high quality factors, low mass and tunable resonant frequency. It has been found that the quality factor of strings is usually limited by clamping loss. In this work, clamping loss has been addressed...... by varying the clamping design and string geometry. We present silicon nitride micro strings with quality factors (Q) of up to 4 million in high vacuum achieved by minimizing clamping loss. For applications such as for chemical sensing, strings need to vibrate at atmospheric pressure. Maximal quality...

  17. Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Patients in Iran and Factors Affecting It: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Yaghoubi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are always one of the major causes of mortality in the world affecting all aspects of patients’ lives. Therefore, this study was conducted to summarize and provide a clear view of quality of life in these patients in Iran through a systematic review on the results of previously conducted studies. Methods: In a systematic review, required information was collected by searching keywords of Iran, quality of life, heart failure, cardiac, heart, and their Persian equivalents in databases of Science Direct, Pubmed, IRAN doc, SID, Medlib and Magiran. The selected time period for searching articles was since 2000 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were: releasing of article during 2000 to 2012, articles reporting patients’ quality of life in any domains of heart diseases, and articles published in Persian and English. Extracted results first were summarized in Extraction Table, and then analyzed manually. Results: Finally 18 of 1592 found articles were included in the study. A total of 3,797 cardiac patients' quality of life was measured using six different tools, the most important one of which was SF36 questionnaire. Among eight dimensions of SF36 questionnaire, the highest mean was for social role functioning with average score of 58.37 and the lowest for physical limitation (physical role functioning with score of 42.95. Overall, mean of eight dimensions was 53.19. Among 4 general domains of quality of life, physical activity had the lowest average of 43.63 and average of general dimensions of quality of life was 47.65. The most important factors affecting quality of life were sex, age, education, marital status, occupational status, suffering duration, number of hospitalizations etc. Conclusion: The results of the studies showed relatively low quality of life of cardiovascular patients in general. Therefore, according to the introduced effective factors in this study, it is necessary to consider regular programs

  18. Dietary quality, lifestyle factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional statusThe contribution of diet and lifestyle factors to healthy ageing was

  19. Preadoptive factors predicting lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples' relationship quality across the transition to adoptive parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z; Kashy, Deborah A

    2010-06-01

    The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption. PMID:20545395

  20. A 18-W Signal Average Power Nanosecond LiB3O5 Optical Parametric Oscillator around 860 nm and the Beam Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-Qing; GENG Ai-Cong; BO Yong; PENG Qin-Jun; CUI Da-Fu; XU Zu-Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ We report a compact high average power optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an all-solid-state nanosecond 532-nm laser. Based on the merit of non-critically phase-matched crystals without walk-off effect, a 60-mm-long LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal is used as the OPO nonlinear crystal to enhance the conversion efficiency and to increase the output power. The maximum average power of signal output is up to 18 W at 860nm for pump power of 65 W. This is the highest signal average power generated by a nanosecond OPO in single bulk LBO,to the best of our knowledge. The dynamic characteristics of beam quality are investigated. Our experimental results demonstrate that good OPO conversion efficiency and high output power can be obtained even with relatively poor pump beam quality.

  1. Efficient prediction of the quality factors of micromechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinbok; Cho, Maenghyo; Rhim, Jaewook

    2010-01-01

    A high quality factor (Q-factor) is one of the major requirements of high-performance resonators. An understanding of the dissipation mechanism is crucial for maximizing the quality factor by reducing the energy loss. Thermoelastic damping has been well-known as the important intrinsic dissipation that affects the quality factor of micro-resonators. In this study, a finite element formulation based on the weak form of fully coupled thermoelastic problems is suggested. The coupled thermoelastic equation usually leads to a large-size complex eigenvalue problem, which is very massive and time-consuming to solve. Therefore, we also applied the model order reduction (MOR) scheme to this coupled multiphysical problem in order to achieve computational efficiency. The present approach is validated by comparing the numerical results and analytical solutions.

  2. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, DG. Measuring methods of DG were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of DG from the measurement of incident air kerma, Ki, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the DG measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  3. Quaternion Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  4. The TIMSS Study: The Quality of Education in Mathematics and Natural Sciences in Russia Exceeds Average International Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, G.

    2010-01-01

    In terms of the quality of the teaching of mathematics and the natural sciences, Russia's school students in the fourth and eighth grades rank among the top ten countries out of the fifty-nine countries taking part in the TIMSS-2007 study. For Russia, TIMSS [Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study] is the first international…

  5. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalari, G., E-mail: scalari@phys.ethz.ch; Maissen, C.; Faist, J. [Institute of Quantum Electronics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (Switzerland); Cibella, S.; Leoni, R. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN), CNR, via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  6. High quality factor, fully switchable THz superconducting metasurface

    CERN Document Server

    Scalari, Giacomo; Cibella, Sara; Leoni, Roberto; Faist, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q=54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with an high Q and inductive elements with an high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  7. Updating the tritium quality factor: the argument for conservatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor (Q) chosen for tritium beta radiation. In 1969 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended using 1 as the Q for all low energy beta radiation. Considerable improvements have been made in evaluating exposures to tritium at very low dose rates and in refining physiological and biological endpoints since the 1969 ICRP recommendations. This study summarizes recent experiments to determine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium. Based upon our study of published data related to quality factor, its importance in the calculation of dose, and the currently accepted conservative philosophy in radiation protection, it is concluded that a value of 2 would seem to be more defensible for environmental assessments and that a reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed

  8. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement

  9. Project quality management critical success factors for buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Low, Sui Pheng

    2014-01-01

    The book presents the development of the Construction Quality Assessment System (CONQUAS), Singapore’s de facto quality performance measurement system, explains the application of the Quality Management System (QMS) to manage CONQUAS and identifies 33 critical success factors (CSFs) for achieving high CONQUAS scores. Through CONQUAS, the reader benefits from understanding how the Singapore government developed and implemented the first objective system for measuring what many building professionals have perceived to be elusive quality standards in the construction industry. The book presents both the theoretical concepts as well as the practical aspects to achieving strategic Project Quality Management that is anchored on the CSFs to building best practices. To realistically reflect the practical aspects and challenging issues faced by stakeholders in the construction industry, questionnaire surveys were conducted with building professionals to distinguish the importance level and extent of adoption of the ...

  10. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Nicolas; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Tsioutsios, Ioannis; Schädler, Kevin G; Dubin, François; Koppens, Frank H L; Bachtold, Adrian

    2016-08-10

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 10(4) at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 10(4) at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  11. Quantification frameworks and their application for evaluating the software quality factor using quality characteristic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many problems, related with safety, frequently occur because Digital Instrument and Control Systems are widely used and expanding their ranges to many applications in Nuclear Power Plants. It, however, does not hold a general position to estimate an appropriate software quality. Thus, the Quality Characteristic Value, a software quality factor through each software life cycle, is suggested in this paper. The Quality Characteristic Value is obtained as following procedure: 1) Scoring Quality Characteristic Factors (especially correctness, traceability, completeness, and understandability) onto Software Verification and Validation results, 2) Deriving the diamond-shaped graphs by setting values of Factors at each axis and lining every points, and lastly 3) Measuring the area of the graph for Quality Characteristic Value. In this paper, this methodology is applied to Plant Control System. In addition, the series of quantification frameworks exhibit some good characteristics in the view of software quality factor. More than any thing else, it is believed that introduced framework may be applicable to regulatory guide, software approval procedures, due to its soundness and simple characteristics. (authors)

  12. Factors associated with stoma quality of life among stoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chunli Liao; Ying Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QOL) concerns in patients with stomas is a globally important health issue. Currently, a lack of understanding into which factors influence QOL post-colostomy hinders the ability of health care professionals to provide appropriate instruction and care needed to improve a patient's QOL. Objectives: To determine the level of stoma-specific QOL and to determine which factors associate with stoma-specific QOL among patients with a stoma. Methods: A convenience s...

  13. Quality of Life Factor as Breast Cancer Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Gledo, Ibrahim; Pranjic, Nurka; Parsko, Subhija

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have observed risk factors for breast cancer. We investigated the association between quality life factors as breast cancer risks in a case-control study in industrial Zenica- Doboj Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The case-control study was included 200 women, 100 without (control subjects) and 100 women with diagnosed breast cancer. We used questionnaires about breast cancer risks“ as study tool. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs...

  14. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Mishra; Prabal Kaushal; Nikita Gupta; Shivani Singh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from cus...

  15. Filling factor characteristics of masking phase-only hologram on the quality of reconstructed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanbo; Chu, Daping

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluates the filling factor characteristics of masking phase-only hologram on its corresponding reconstructed image. A square aperture with different filling factor is added on the phase-only hologram of the target image, and average cross-section intensity profile of the reconstructed image is obtained and deconvolved with that of the target image to calculate the point spread function (PSF) of the image. Meanwhile, Lena image is used as the target image and evaluated by metrics RMSE and SSIM to assess the quality of reconstructed image. The results show that the PSF of the image agrees with the PSF of the Fourier transform of the mask, and as the filling factor of the mask decreases, the width of PSF increases and the quality of reconstructed image drops. These characteristics could be used in practical situations where phase-only hologram is confined or need to be sliced or tiled.

  16. A simple quality factor for characterization of thin silicon films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočka, Jan; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Stuchlík, Jiří; Fejfar, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 354, 19-25 (2008), s. 2227-2230. ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SN/3/172/05 Keywords : microcrystalline silicon * deposition process * high growth rate * quality evaluation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2008

  17. Nuclear reaction effects in use of newly recommended quality factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The biological risk for energetic ion exposure cannot be reliably estimated exclusive of the target nuclear reaction products produced within the local tissue. A theoretical basis is derived for evaluating target fragment contributions that are evaluated for the newly proposed quality factor.

  18. DEPENDENCE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CRITICAL QUALITY FACTORS AND SOCIAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvarez García

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the empirical study conducted in 186 tourist accommodation businesses in Spain certified under the “Q for Tourist Quality”, own System Quality Management. It was raised with the purpose of analyzing the structure of the relationship between critical quality factors and results-social impact, how they operate and the level of their influence on obtaining these results within the company. Starting from a deep theoretical revision we propose a theoretical model together with the hypotheses to be tested, and we proceed to validation using the technique of Structural Equation Models. The results obtained show that companies wishing to improve their social impact should take into account that leadership is the most important factor to achieve it. Leadership indirectly affects the social impact through its influence on alliances and resources, quality policy/planning, personnel management and learning.

  19. Average Interest

    OpenAIRE

    George Chacko; Sanjiv Ranjan Das

    1997-01-01

    We develop analytic pricing models for options on averages by means of a state-space expansion method. These models augment the class of Asian options to markets where the underlying traded variable follows a mean-reverting process. The approach builds from the digital Asian option on the average and enables pricing of standard Asian calls and puts, caps and floors, as well as other exotica. The models may be used (i) to hedge long period interest rate risk cheaply, (ii) to hedge event risk (...

  20. Optical Quality and Related Factors in Ocular Hypertension: Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-jing; Yang, Yan-ning; Huang, Lin-ying; Wang, Bo; Han, Yu-can; Yan, Jiang-bo

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the optical quality and related factors in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods. This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 12 eyes with OHT and 20 control eyes underwent testing with Optical Quality Analysis System II (OQAS II) to evaluate the modulation transfer function cut off frequency (MTF cutoff), the Strehl 2D ratio (SR), objective scatter index (OSI), tear-film mean OSI (TFOSI), and the OQAS values (OV100%,OV20%, and OV9%). Results. The optical quality of patients with OHT declined, with lower MTF cutoff (OHT 36.86 ± 7.11 cpd , controls 48.50 ± 4.04 cpd, t = −4.60, P Optical quality of patients with OHT is reduced, with lower MTF cutoff, SR, OV100%, OV20%, and OV9%. MTF cutoff is negatively related to age. PMID:27293874

  1. Determining the Quality of Sleep in Menopausal Women and Factors That Disturb the Quality of Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Çetinkaya Şen, Yeşim

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the status of sleep quality in Turkish women of menopausal age group in an Afyon Province sample, and to determine the factors causing sleep disturbances in menopausal women. Women Diagnosing Form and Sleep Apnea Symptoms Determining Form, Menopausal Signs Screening List, Beck Depression Scale, and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index were used as data collecting tools. Sampling of the study consisted of all the women living in the district of 2...

  2. The study of surgical image quality evaluation system by subjective quality factor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yang, Xirong; Yu, Honggang; Koullick, Edouard

    2016-03-01

    GreenLightTM procedure is an effective and economical way of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH); there are almost a million of patients treated with GreenLightTM worldwide. During the surgical procedure, the surgeon or physician will rely on the monitoring video system to survey and confirm the surgical progress. There are a few obstructions that could greatly affect the image quality of the monitoring video, like laser glare by the tissue and body fluid, air bubbles and debris generated by tissue evaporation, and bleeding, just to name a few. In order to improve the physician's visual experience of a laser surgical procedure, the system performance parameter related to image quality needs to be well defined. However, since image quality is the integrated set of perceptions of the overall degree of excellence of an image, or in other words, image quality is the perceptually weighted combination of significant attributes (contrast, graininess …) of an image when considered in its marketplace or application, there is no standard definition on overall image or video quality especially for the no-reference case (without a standard chart as reference). In this study, Subjective Quality Factor (SQF) and acutance are used for no-reference image quality evaluation. Basic image quality parameters, like sharpness, color accuracy, size of obstruction and transmission of obstruction, are used as subparameter to define the rating scale for image quality evaluation or comparison. Sample image groups were evaluated by human observers according to the rating scale. Surveys of physician groups were also conducted with lab generated sample videos. The study shows that human subjective perception is a trustworthy way of image quality evaluation. More systematic investigation on the relationship between video quality and image quality of each frame will be conducted as a future study.

  3. High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanmu; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than 10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high Q-factor of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows th...

  4. Optimal Composition of Modal Currents For Minimal Quality Factor Q

    CERN Document Server

    Capek, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a powerful, yet simple, procedure how to acquire a current approaching the lower bound of quality factor Q. This optimal current can be determined for an arbitrarily shaped electrically small radiator made of a perfect conductor. Quality factor Q is evaluated by Vandenbosch's relations yielding stored electromagnetic energy as a function of the source current density. All calculations are based on a matrix representation of the integro-differential operators. This approach simplifies the entire development and results in a straightforward numerical evaluation. The optimal current is represented in a basis of modal currents suitable for solving the optimization problem so that the minimum is approached by either one mode tuned to the resonance, or, by two properly combined modes. An overview of which modes should be selected and how they should be combined is provided and results concerning rectangular plate, spherical shell and fractal shapes of varying geometrical complexity are presented...

  5. Measuring neutron dose and quality factors with tissue equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods used to obtain absolute neutron dose measurements and quality factor determination from the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) are reviewed. Exposure to nearly monoenergetic neutrons with energies from 200 keV to 7.5 MeV indicate that the absorbed dose due to fast neutrons measured by the TEPC averaged 3% higher, with a standard deviation (1 sigma) of 9%, than the tissue kerma calculated from neutron fluence measurements. The absorbed dose due to fast neutrons measured by the TEPC agreed within 0.6% of the calculated tissue kerma for a PuBe neutron source, whose neutron yield was determined within 2% by the United States National Bureau of Standards. Data are presented which show the TEPC measures quality factors accurately enough for health physics purposes for neutrons with energies between 200 keV and 5 MeV

  6. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E; Victor L. Fulgoni III

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weig...

  7. Open-Access Colonoscopy in Ontario: Associated Factors and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hadlock, Shane; Rabeneck, Linda; Paszat, Lawrence F.; Sutradhar, Rinku; Wilton, Andrew S; Tinmouth, Jill

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Open-access (OA) colonoscopy may increase efficiency and decrease wait times; however, because the patient is seen for the first time at the endoscopy appointment, previous processes, such as information about the procedure, preparation and appropriate triage, may be suboptimal.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with OA colonoscopy and to determine the relationship between OA colonoscopy and an important quality measure, incomplete colonoscopy.METHODS: A population-based ana...

  8. Factors Affecting Quality of Life of the Homebound Elderly Hemiparetic Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Murakami, Masahito; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the quality of life (QOL) of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 21 homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients who were 65 years old or over and required care for daily living (12 males and 9 females, average age: 79.3 ± 8.4 years old). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) wa...

  9. Analysis of linear energy transfers and quality factors of charged particles produced by spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf and 244Pu in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorbed doses, linear energy transfers (LETs) and quality factors of secondary charged particles in organs and tissues, generated via the interactions of the spontaneous fission neutrons from. 252Cf and. 244Pu within the human body, were studied using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) coupled with the ICRP Reference Phantom. Both the absorbed doses and the quality factors in target organs generally decrease with increasing distance from the source organ. The analysis of LET distributions of secondary charged particles led to the identification of the relationship between LET spectra and target-source organ locations. A comparison between human body-averaged mean quality factors and fluence-averaged radiation weighting factors showed that the current numerical conventions for the radiation weighting factors of neutrons, updated in ICRP103, and the quality factors for internal exposure are valid. (authors)

  10. Research about the Influence of Environmental Factors on Breeders Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Along the growth period of the breeders, the monitoring of environmental parameters is a fundamental condition toensure the quality of the breeders used for reproduction. The results from the research presented in this paper wereobtained following experimental type investigations developed in vegetation and cold season within Carja 1-Vasluifish farm, on chemical and biological samples which were analyzed within the research laboratory of the Departmentof Aquaculture, Environmental Science and Cadastre. Were analyzed parameters which influence bio-productivity:temperature, oxygen, pH, the concentration of nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, the density and abundance ofphytoplankton and zooplankton, the individual weight and health condition of breeders. Analyzed parametersincluded mean values recorded in the optimal range for fish waters, as reflected in the numerical density andabundance of plankton and the average weight of Asian cyprinids breeders with a plankton nutritional spectrum.

  11. Semiconductor nano-gap antennas with high quality factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Mitsuharu; Ajiki, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Metallic islands with nano-gap structure are one of the most popular optical antennas. We theoretically propose a new nano-gap antenna utilizing exciton resonance of semiconductor. A light field at the nano-gap (hot spot) formed between two CuCl islands is significantly enhanced by a factor of metallic antennas. However, the hot spot of the semiconducting antenna exhibits much higher quality factor (Q ~104) at T = 40 K than those of metallic antennas which do not exceed Q ~ 100 . Our result suggests the semiconducting antenna would function as a new type of photonic cavity. The calculation method is based on a finite element method which can take into account exciton resonance. We also systematically study the geometry dependence of the enhancement factor and Q factor. In contrast to metallic antenna, blunt edges of semiconducting islands at the gap are preferable in order to achieve high enhancement factor. This is because of the fact that exciton wave function extends near the edge for blunt geometry.

  12. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  13. Does Satisfaction with Teaching Quality Factors Bring Conceptual Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifur Rehman Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore classroom teaching quality factors that determine the satisfaction level and ultimately bring conceptual change among students. This study tests the theories of customer satisfaction in educational psychology research on a sample of 972 respondents. Overwhelmingly the results point out that male students were highly dissatisfied and have little impact on conceptual change whereas female students were reported significant level of satisfaction and conceptual change. In conclusion, detailed empirical analyses promote the theory of learning-satisfaction with classroom teaching bring conceptual change.

  14. A simple quality factor for characterization of thin silicon films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočka, Jan; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Stuchlík, Jiří; Fejfar, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 354, 19-25 (2008), s. 2227-2230. ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA1010413; GA AV ČR IAA1010316; GA MŽP(CZ) SN/3/172/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : microcrystalline silicon * deposition process * high growth rate * quality evaluation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2008

  15. Taking image quality factor into the OPC model tuning flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo

    2007-03-01

    All OPC model builders are in search of a physically realistic model that is adequately calibrated and contains the information that can be used for process predictions and analysis of a given process. But there still are some unknown physics in the process and wafer data sets are not perfect. Most cases even using the average values of different empirical data sets will still take inaccurate measurements into the model fitting process, which makes the fitting process more time consuming and also may cause losing convergence and stability. The Image quality is one of the most worrisome obstacles faced by next-generation lithography. Nowadays, considerable effort is devoted to enhance the contrast, as well as understanding its impact on devices. It is a persistent problem for 193nm micro-lithography and will carry us for at least three generations, culminating with immersion lithography. This work is to weight different wafer data points with a weighting function. The weighting function is dependent on the Normal image log slope (NILS), which can reflect the image quality. Using this approach, we can filter wrong information of the process and make the OPC model more accurate. CalibreWorkbench is the platform we used in this study, which has been proven to have an excellent performance on 0.13um, 90nm and 65nm production and development models setup. Leveraging its automatic optical-tuning function, we practiced the best weighting approach to achieve the most efficient and convergent tuning flow.

  16. Surface engineering of the quality factor of metal coated microcantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed noise measurements to obtain the quality factor (Q) and frequency shift of gold coated microcantilevers before and after surface modification using focused ion beam. As a result of our studies, it is demonstrated that surface engineering offers a promising method to control and increase the Q factor up to 50% for operation in vacuum. Surface modification could also lead to deviations from the known Q ∼ P−1 behavior at low vacuum pressures P within the molecular regime. Finally, at higher pressures within the continuum regime, where Q is less sensitive to surface changes, a power scaling Q ∼ Pc with c ≈ 0.3 was found instead of c = 0.5. The latter is explained via a semi-empirical formulation to account for continuum dissipation mechanisms at significant Reynolds numbers Re ∼ 1

  17. Damping scaling factors for elastic response spectra for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions: "average" horizontal component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Abrahamson, Norman; Campbell, Kenneth; Silva, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and nonstructural systems can have other damping ratios. This paper develops a new model for a damping scaling factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE for damping ratios between 0.5% to 30%. The model is developed based on empirical data from worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. Dependencies of the DSF on potential predictor variables, such as the damping ratio, spectral period, ground motion duration, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site conditions, are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by the inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions show weak influence on the DSF. The proposed damping scaling model provides functional forms for the median and logarithmic standard deviation of DSF, and is developed for both RotD50 and GMRotI50 horizontal components. A follow-up paper develops a DSF model for vertical ground motion.

  18. Neutron Thermal Cross Sections, Westcott Factors, Resonance Integrals, Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Calculated from Major Evaluated Data Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-...

  19. APPROACH OF FIVE-YEAR-AVERAGE HAZARD RATES FOR THE BREAST CANCER PATIENTS AND ANALYSES OF PROGNOSTIC FACTORS-AN APPLICATION OF COX REGRESSION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gai Xueliang; Fan Zhimin; Liu Guojin; Jacques Brisson

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare with five-year survival after surgery for the 116 breast cancer patients treated at the First Teaching Hospital (FTH) and the 866 breast cancer patients at Hopital du Saint-Sacrement (HSS). Methods:Using Cox regression model, after eliminating the confounders, to develop the comparison of the five-year average hazard rates between two hospitals and among the levels of prognostic factors. Results: It has significant difference for the old patients (50 years old or more)between the two hospitals. Conclusion: Tumor size at pathology and involvement of lymph nodes were important prognostic factors.

  20. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-04-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters.

  1. Uncertainty calculation in the RIO air quality interpolation model and aggregation to yearly average and exceedance probability taking into account the temporal auto-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiheu, Bino; Nele, Veldeman; Janssen, Stijn; Fierens, Frans; Trimpeneers, Elke

    2010-05-01

    RIO is an operational air quality interpolation model developed by VITO and IRCEL-CELINE and produces hourly maps for different pollutant concentrations such as O3, PM10 and NO2 measured in Belgium [1]. The RIO methodology consists of residual interpolation by Ordinary Kriging of the residuals of the measured concentrations and pre-determined trend functions which express the relation between land cover information derived from the CORINE dataset and measured time-averaged concentrations [2]. RIO is an important tool for the Flemish administration and is among others used to report, as is required by each member state, on the air quality status in Flanders to the European Union. We feel that a good estimate of the uncertainty of the yearly average concentration maps and the probability of norm-exceedance are both as important as the values themselves. In this contribution we will discuss the uncertainties specific to the RIO methodology, where we have both contributions from the Ordinary Kriging technique as well as the trend functions. Especially the parameterisation of the uncertainty w.r.t. the trend functions will be the key indicator for the degree of confidence the model puts into using land cover information for spatial interpolation of pollutant concentrations. Next, we will propose a method which enables us to calculate the uncertainty on the yearly average concentrations as well as the number of exceedance days, taking into account the temporal auto-correlation of the concentration fields. It is clear that the autocorrelation will have a strong impact on the uncertainty estimation [3] of yearly averages. The method we propose is based on a Monte Carlo technique that generates an ensemble of interpolation maps with the correct temporal auto-correlation structure. From a generated ensemble, the calculation of norm-exceedance probability at each interpolation location becomes quite straightforward. A comparison with the ad-hoc method proposed in [3], where

  2. Comparison of Different Numerical Methods for Quality Factor Calculation of Nano and Micro Photonic Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2014-01-01

    Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed.......Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed....

  3. Comparison of Different Numerical Methods for Quality Factor Calculation of Nano and Micro Photonic Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed.......Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed....

  4. A quality metric for homology modeling: the H-factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Luccio Eric

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of protein structures provides fundamental insight into most biochemical functions and consequently into the cause and possible treatment of diseases. As the structures of most known proteins cannot be solved experimentally for technical or sometimes simply for time constraints, in silico protein structure prediction is expected to step in and generate a more complete picture of the protein structure universe. Molecular modeling of protein structures is a fast growing field and tremendous works have been done since the publication of the very first model. The growth of modeling techniques and more specifically of those that rely on the existing experimental knowledge of protein structures is intimately linked to the developments of high resolution, experimental techniques such as NMR, X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. This strong connection between experimental and in silico methods is however not devoid of criticisms and concerns among modelers as well as among experimentalists. Results In this paper, we focus on homology-modeling and more specifically, we review how it is perceived by the structural biology community and what can be done to impress on the experimentalists that it can be a valuable resource to them. We review the common practices and provide a set of guidelines for building better models. For that purpose, we introduce the H-factor, a new indicator for assessing the quality of homology models, mimicking the R-factor in X-ray crystallography. The methods for computing the H-factor is fully described and validated on a series of test cases. Conclusions We have developed a web service for computing the H-factor for models of a protein structure. This service is freely accessible at http://koehllab.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/toolkit/h-factor.

  5. Examining the Factor Structure and Hierarchical Nature of the Quality of Life Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Christina

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable debate in the area of individual quality of life research regarding the factor structure and hierarchical nature of the quality of life construct. Our purpose in this study was to test via structural equation modeling an a priori quality of life model consisting of eight first-order factors and one second-order factor. Data…

  6. Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

    2014-05-01

    Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV

  7. Analysis of ecological quality of the environment and influencing factors in China during 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005-2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005-2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005-2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

  8. MULTILAYER MICROSTRIP ANTENNA QUALITY FACTOR OPTIMIZATION FOR BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. SRIVASTAVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The impedance bandwidth, one of the important characteristics of microstrip patch antennas, can be significantly improved by using a multilayer dielectric configuration. In this paper the focus is on bandwidth enhancement technique of a multilayer patch antenna for X-band applications. In order to enhance the bandwidth, antenna losses are contained by controlling those quality factors which can have a significant impact on the bandwidth for a given permittivity and thickness of the substrate. This has been achieved by conformal transformation of the multidielectric microstrip antenna. For the ease of analysis Wheelers transformation is used to map the complex permittivity of a multilayer substrate to a single layer. Method of Moments and Finite Difference Time Domain approaches are used for the computation of results.

  9. THE INSPECTION LIKE QUALITY FACTOR IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Oliver Pozo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Inspection, along with other educational sectors, shapes from complementarity, coordination and communication between them, the architecture of the educational system. Each has its specificity and its own space in Education. The aim of this study is simply identify and define the location of the inspection into the education system, between educational administration and schools, and the "why" (their mission, and consistent with it, "which makes" (its functions and assignations. Mission and functions that take place in schools, at the sight of the Educational Administration and the society, through the Inspectorate as organization. Of the principles underlying this organization and of the communication, training, and technical and professional exchange that drives through their organizational structures, will depend its leadership in Education and to be seen as a quality factor.

  10. Factors affecting the quality of plutonium deposits by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-high resolution alpha spectrometry by microcalorimetry has demonstrated a dramatic improvement in alpha energy resolution over silicon based detectors. To characterize the optimal resolution obtained by the microcalorimeter alpha spectrometers, high quality deposits that are virtually massless are required; electrodeposition is the preferred method for the preparation of high quality deposits. In order to better understand the factors that contribute to lower alpha energy resolution and deposit yield, we have conducted a study to determine the effect of some of the parameters that are used for preparing electrodeposits. We have compared four different electrodeposition methods and four different substrate materials to determine the effect on the deposit yield and alpha energy resolution of plutonium as measured by full width at half maximum using silicon based detectors. Furthermore, we wanted to understand the effect of contaminants from environmental samples on electrodeposits. Therefore, the effect on deposit yield and alpha energy resolution with several common soil constituents (Al3+, Eu3+, Fe3+, K+, Lu3+, Mg2+, Na+, Zn2+) have been studied. (author)

  11. On the quality of quality-factor in gap-closing electrostatic resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present analytic expressions for three common measures of the dynamic response in gap-closing electrostatic resonators. We show that peak gain, peak sharpness and logarithmic decrement are distinctively different and are not equal to the quality-factor of the unloaded system. We experimentally validate our theoretical predictions by characterizing the dynamic response of test devices. The significance of this work is that it clarifies the correct way in which the performance of MEMS resonators should be reported to avoid ambiguity. (paper)

  12. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  13. Setting of scaling factors and average radioactivity concentration on container-filled and solidified waste packages generated from Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Plants Unit 1-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report evaluates the appropriateness of the point of view addressed from Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., an enterprise in charge of radioactive waste disposal. The low-level radioactive wastes produced from Kashiwazaki Kariwa Power Plants Unit 1 - 5 as in container-filled and solidified packages in 200L drums were investigated for adequateness of using the same scaling factors and confirming the average radioactivity concentration of H-3, C-14, Co-60, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, Tc-99, I-129, Cs-137, and total alpha-emitting nuclei before sending to Rokkasho radioactive waste storing center. (S. Ohno)

  14. Drip loss in pork: influencing factors and relation to further meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K

    2007-11-01

    The paper deals with some general features of drip loss and the most important factors influencing it. Moreover, it shows some exemplary results of an own investigation. Up to now there is no generally valid definition of drip loss available. Therefore measurement procedures have to be strongly standardized, otherwise they provide no comparable results. Drip loss depends on the shortening of sarcomeres which is regulated by the interaction of muscle temperature and rigour development. Hence, the chilling conditions are highly important. However, the main point is the velocity and the extent of the pH fall after slaughter. All factors influencing the occurrence of quality deviations like PSE, DFD, Acid meat, RSE, PFN will inevitably affect the degree of drip loss too. Under the conditions of an own study, investigating material of a progeny testing station, untypically, one third of the loins with higher-than-average wateriness were red rather than pale, and one third of the loins with higher-than-average brightness were only slightly exudative, which is untypical too. Pork with higher-than-average brightness and low wateriness exhibited, apart from the colour deviation, no crucial disadvantages. It showed only a marginally higher loss during storage, thawing and heating. Pork with higher-than-average drip loss - regardless of dark or pale colour - was predominantly combined with a pH(1) less than 6.2, an electrical conductivity 24 h p.m. higher than 5.0 and a loin area higher than 56 cm(2). PMID:17988246

  15. Factors Influencing the Quality of Encapsulation in Rock Bolting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Naj; Craig, Peter; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Bolt installation quality is influenced by various factors, some are well known and others are less recognised. A programme of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to examine various factors of relevance to the load transfer mechanism between the bolt, resin and rock to ensure test methods truly represent field performance. Short encapsulation tests were undertaken as part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded project (C21011) with the ultimate aim of developing standard test methods for assessing bolt encapsulation with chemical resin anchor installations. The field study consisted of a series of Short Encapsulation Pull Tests (SEPT) carried out in three mines with different geological conditions to determine the most representative and practical method of SEPT. Additional field work included installation of bolts into threaded steel tubes for subsequent removal and laboratory evaluation. A series of pull tests was carried out by installing bolts in overhead rig mounted sandstone block, cast in concrete with controlled encapsulation length. Factors of importance considered included; borehole diameter, resin annulus thickness, installation time (including bolt spin to the back and "spin at back"), the effect of gloving and hole over drill. It was found that the borehole diameter had a detrimental effect on the encapsulation bonding strength. Bolt installation time of approximately 10 s constituted an acceptable time for effective bolt installation and within the resin manufacturers recommended time of 14 s. Maintaining constant length of encapsulation was paramount for obtaining consistency and repeatability of the test results. Finally, a numerical simulation study was carried out to assess the capabilities of FLAC 2D software in simulating the pull testing of rock bolts.

  16. Associated Factors of Sleep Quality and Behavior among Students of Two Tertiary Institutions in Northern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P P; Say, Y H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the associated factors of sleep quality and behavior among Malaysian tertiary students. The response rate to the questionnaire study was 41.0%. 1,118 students (M = 486, F = 632; mean age = 20.06 ± 1.53 years) were recruited from Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak campuses) who completed a sleep quality and behavior questionnaire based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES) and craving of high-calorie foods. Results showed that students had the following sleeping habits - bed time = 2.41 a.m. ± 3.35 hr, rise time = 9.00 a.m. ± 1.76 hr, sleep latency = 16.65 ± 14.30 min and sleep duration = 7.31 ± 1.45 hr. 32.9% of the students were defined as poor quality sleepers, 30.6% suffering excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 81.6% were categorized as individuals with 'definitely eveningness', defined as people who are definitely most alert in the late evening hours and prefer to go to bed late. There were no significant gender differences in sleep quality, 'chronotype' and EDS. Although there was no association of sleep quality and EDS with cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and class skipping, EDS was associated with the tendency to fall asleep in class. Body Mass Index (BMI) was not associated with total sleep, PSQI, ESS and MES scores. Meanwhile, high-calorie food craving was associated with sleep duration, PSQI and ESS, but not MES. In conclusion, poor sleep behavior among Malaysian tertiary students in this study was not associated with gender, academic performance and BMI, but was associated with craving of high-calorie foods instead. PMID:23749006

  17. Quantum dot micropillar cavities with quality factors exceeding 250,000

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Christian; Gold, Peter; Reitzenstein, Stephan; Hoefling, Sven; Kamp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic investigation of quantum dot - micropillar cavities with unprecedented quality factors. We observe a pronounced dependency of the quality factor on the measurement scheme, and find that significantly larger quality factors can be extracted in photoreflectance compared to photoluminescence measurements. While the photoluminescence spectra of the microcavity resonances feature a Lorentzian lineshape and Q-factors up to 184,000, the reflectance spectra have a Fano-...

  18. Bivariate distributions in statistical spectroscopy studies: Fixed-J level densities, fixed-J averages and spin cut-off factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical studies with the TBRE ensemble, supplemented by numerical calcultions with realistic interactions show that for large particle numbers, the bivariate cumulants (ksub(rs)) defined for the Hamiltonian operator (H) and the Jsub(z) operator, are very small; vertical strokeksub(rs)vertical stroke< or approx.0.3 for 3<=r+s<=6. As a result the expansions around a bivariate normal density are meaningful for the fixed-M densities (rho(E,M)). We adopt a bivariate Edgeworth expansion for rho(E,M) and give a compact form for the same. Finally using this rho(E,M) (which also define fixed-J densities uniquely), new series expansions are given for fixed-M (and hence for fixed-J) averages of the powers of H and also for the spin cut-off factors. (orig.)

  19. Relationship between the Water Body Chlorophyll-a and Water Quality Factors of Wetlands Baiguishan Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Oiu-sheng; TIAN Xun; WANG Guo-zhen; JI Xiao-cun; LI Jiu-xuan; ZHAO Zhen

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to explore the relationship between water body Chlorophyll-a and water quality factors of wetlands Baiguishan reservoir. [ Method] Chlorophyll-a and water quality factors of water quality of Wetlands BaiGuishan Reservoir was studied, the analysis of the relationship on water quality of Wetlands Baiguishan Reservoir was made by use of trophic status indices and SPSS17.0 statistical analysis.[ Result] Total phosphorus was an irnportant factor of influence Chlorophyll-a in reservoir, water body had slight eutrophication phenomenon in reservoir of July to October in 2010. [ Conclusion] Comprehensive management should be strengthened so as to improve the water quality of Baiguishan wetland.

  20. A simple parameterization for quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a simple analytic approximation of the radiation quality factor (Q) as a function of linear energy transfer for use in radiation protection calculations. The paper also presents estimated quality factors in water for protons over a broad range of incident energies. It is shown that the quality factors are less than unity for all proton energies greater than 13 MeV.

  1. Quality of Working Life of Nurses and its Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Azizi-Fini, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses as the largest group of health care providers should enjoy a satisfactory quality of working life to be able to provide quality care to their patients. Therefore, attention should be paid to the nurses’ working life. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the quality of nurses' working life in Kashans' hospitals during 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 nurses during 2012. The data-gathering instrument consisted of two parts. T...

  2. Public services – key factor to quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Cristina DIMIAN; Andreea BARBU

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how public services can contribute to enhancing quality of life. We try to answer three research questions: Which are the relevant economic and social aspects that need to be taken into account when we want to measure quality of life? Which services of general interest have the most significant impact on life satisfaction? What is the role of human resources in improving the quality of public services and, through them, the quality of life? To achie...

  3. Factors Influencing Perceptions of Service Quality in Cooperative Extension Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaza, Nwamaka A.; Rutherford, Brian N.; Widdows, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the direct and indirect impact of empowerment on service quality as perceived by Extension staff. Using a sample 283 respondents, the results revealed that along with empowerment, constructs such as job satisfaction and organizational identification positively affected service quality. Undoubtedly, each of these variables…

  4. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  5. WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE QUALITY SERVICE IMPROVEMENT IN MONTENEGRO: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjica Perovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using an Ordinary Least Square regression (OLS, we investigate whether intangible elements influence tourist's perception about service quality. Our empirical results based on tourist survey in Montenegro, indicate that intangible elements of tourism product have positive impact on tourist's overall perception of service quality in Montenegro.

  6. WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE QUALITY SERVICE IMPROVEMENT IN MONTENEGRO: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Djurdjica Perovic; Tatjana Stanovcic; Ilija Moric; Sanja Pekovic

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, using an Ordinary Least Square regression (OLS), we investigate whether intangible elements influence tourist's perception about service quality. Our empirical results based on tourist survey in Montenegro, indicate that intangible elements of tourism product have positive impact on tourist's overall perception of service quality in Montenegro.

  7. Factors Associated With Quality of Life in Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiriziba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU is a serious and costly complication in diabetes which affects approximately 15% of patients with diabetes and affects their quality of life (QOL. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with QOL in patients with DFU. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 60 patients (32 males and 28 females hospitalized for DFU, performed through convenience sampling. Data related factors and the QOL questionnaire for patients with DFU were abridged. This questionnaire has 29 questions in six dimensions of enjoying life, physical health, daily activities dependence, negative emotions, concern about wound, and wound caring, which evaluate the QOL in patients with DFU. The scoring method for this tool is five optional Likert. Descriptive and analytic statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 60 patients with DFU, 53% were male and 47% female with an average age of 58.08 ± 11.95 years and average QOL of 41.1 ± 9.15. Statistical analysis showed that age (P = 0.002, employment (P ≤ 0001, socioeconomic status (P = 0.016, leg ulcer (P ≤ 0001, and the number of foot ulcer (P = 0.017 had a statistically significant relationship with QOL and its dimensions. Other variables did not have a significant relationship with QOL, but some of them such as smoking during negative emotions (P = 0.046 and marital status affecting the foot care difficulties (P = 0.03 had significant statistical relationships with QOL. Conclusions Diabetic foot ulcer affects different aspects of life and can reduce patient’s QOL. To improve the care behaviors and have a better control of foot ulcers and improve the QOL for these patients, taking into account factors such as age, occupation, marital status, number of wounds, and economic status is essential to plan for care and health needs in these patients.

  8. Professional Quality of Life and Associated Factors Among Ugandan Midwives Working in Mubende and Mityana Rural Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliira, Rhoda Suubi; Ssendikadiwa, Vito Bosco

    2016-03-01

    Objective To explore the professional quality of life and associated factors among Ugandan midwives working in Mubende and Mityana rural district to recommend interventions to improve professional well-being and outcomes of midwifery care. Background Professional quality of life of midwives working in rural areas may be influenced by several personal and work setting factors of care professionals often impacting the quality and outcomes of patient care. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 224 midwives working in two rural districts of Uganda. Findings The majority of participants were female (80 %), with an associate degree in midwifery (92 %). The mean age and years of experience were 34 ± 6.3 and 4 ± 2.1 years, respectively. The mean scores on the professional quality of life scale showed average compassionate satisfaction (19 ± 4.88), burnout (36.9 ± 6.22) and secondary traumatic stress (22.9 ± 6.69). The midwives' compassion satisfaction was related to psychological well-being (p job satisfaction (p status (p satisfaction in their professional work. Therefore, employers need to provide deliberate work based services such as counselling, debriefing, training and social support to enhance midwives professional quality of life and quality of midwifery care and practice. PMID:26525560

  9. A Study of Evaluation System of Restricting Factors in Training Students' Qualities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-yan

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies evaluation system of restricting factors in training students' qualities by modern mathematical method of analysis hierarchy process and principal factor analysis, and to build up a mathematical model of evaluation system.

  10. Factors associated with low quality of life in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso Clareci Silva; Caiaffa Waleska Teixeira; Bandeira Marina; Siqueira Arminda Lucia; Abreu Mery Natali Silva; Fonseca José Otávio Penido

    2005-01-01

    Interest in quality of life in mental health care has been stimulated by the deinstitutionalization of psychiatric patients as well as a parallel interest in understanding the scope of their daily lives. This study aims to investigate the socio-demographic and clinical variables related to low quality of life, using a cross-sectional design to evaluate quality of life by means of the QLS-BR scale. We interviewed a sample of 123 outpatients from a reference mental health center in Divinópolis,...

  11. PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF QUALITY DENTAL CARE

    OpenAIRE

    Надежда Алексеевна Кудинова

    2013-01-01

    Purpose to examine the motivational space, values and health-social and psychological portrait of patients who rated the quality of dental care.Methodology historical, sociological, statistical. Results: In a market economy, patients’ satisfaction is of one of the most important regulators of demand.  Estimate of the quality of dental services (QDS) depends on the patients having stable socio-psychological status being in a certain system of values, in space of some motives and needs. Got dat...

  12. Do Non-Economic Quality of Life Factors Drive Immigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewer, Joshua J.; Pacheco, Gail; Rossouw, Stephanié

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the immigration literature by generating two unique non-economic quality of life (QOL) indices and testing their role on recent migration patterns. Applying the generated quality of life indices in conjunction with other independent welfare measures to an extended gravity model of immigration for 16 OECD destination countries from 1991 to 2000 suggests an insignificant role for QOL in the immigration process. The panel results suggest that other economic variables su...

  13. CONDITIONS OF ENTRY TO THE TEACHING PROFESSION: A FACTOR FOR ACHIEVING EDUCATIONAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francelia Jazmín Aguirre-Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Achieving educational quality in Mexico has long been a difficult task, which has led the federal government to generate further reforms in education. In particular, the formation of basic education teachers, going through a transition period from the implementation of curriculum reform in education Average, which meets the requirements of the professionalization of the teaching career. The new curriculum 2012 raises a number of general and professional competencies that future teachers will have to develop during their initial training; a determining factor in the achievement of the graduate profile is the academic and personal fitness of students enrolled in the Normal Education. Hence the importance of analyzing and assessing young people who are aspiring to the teaching profession, how is the reality of the selection processes that are experienced in teacher training institutions and what is the current regulations to regulate the entry. Triangular recognize that this analysis allows to improve the quality of teacher training is necessary to generate highly selective mechanisms to get the most suitable people with a desire to train and teach.

  14. Protein quality as determined by the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score: evaluation of factors underlying the calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert R; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Kim, Il-Young; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recently recommended the adoption of a new and improved scoring system (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score [DIAAS]) to quantify dietary protein quality. The DIAAS is based on the relative digestible content of the indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the amino acid requirement pattern. Factors involved in calculation of the DIAAS include: use of the content and profile of IAAs as the basis for quality; methods for determination of the protein and amino acid content of the protein source; accuracy of individual requirement values for IAAs; normalization of IAA requirements by the estimated average requirement for protein; and basing the DIAAS on the true ileal digestibility of each IAA in the test protein. This review outlines the rationale for including each of these factors in the calculation of the DIAAS and describes associated potential errors. PMID:27452871

  15. Assessment criteria and factors of forming quality of working life in new economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rjabokon' Ivan Aleksandrovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The interrelation of values system, employee values orientations and quality of working life is analyzed in the article. The modern methodological approaches to forming and appraising quality of working life based on determination of the impact of different factors of employees` quality of working life development in the new economy have been analyzed. The factors of forming of quality of working life based on needs, labor conditions, values and values orientations of employees are determined. The role of values and values orientations of the staff in forming the quality of working life is shown.

  16. Quality factors quantification/assurance for software related to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance plan is needed to guarantee the software quality. The use of such a plan involves activities that should take place all along the life cycle, and which can be evaluated using the so called quality factors. This is due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be measured, but some of its manifestations can be used for this purpose. In the present work, a methodology to quantify a set of quality factors is proposed, for software based systems to be used in safety related areas in nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. The human factors of quality and QA in R D environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.G.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving quality is a human activity. It is therefore important to consider the human in the design, development and evaluation of work processes and environments in an effort to enhance human performance and minimize error. It is also important to allow for individual differences when considering human factors issues. Human Factors is the field of study which can provide information on integrating the human into the system. Human factors and quality are related for the customer of R D work, R D personnel who perform the work, and the quality professional who overviews the process of quality in the work. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  18. INFLUENCE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION FACTORS IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS QUALITY FOR THE USER SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    María Isabel de la Garza Ramos; Esther García Pedroche; José Melchor Medina Quintero

    2009-01-01

    This research studies the influence range of the organizational, planning and technical factors within the information quality, system quality and information systems services quality, in the user satisfaction, based on the designed model research for this purpose. The empirical study takes place in six Higher Education Institutes (94 questionnaires) by the Partial Least Square statistic tool. The results has shown that Organizational Factor (information needs, management support, institution...

  19. Factors that determine the quality of bigeye tuna, caught in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    C.C. Nóbrega; P.P. Mendes; E.S. Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Tuna are highly prized in Oriental cuisine, and the bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) is of great commercial importance. Quality is assessed by the tuna meat quality, freshness, texture and fat, which can be altered by factors inherent to capture, such as days of onboard storage, months of the year, whether the catch was living or dead, fish weight and year. These factors were correlated to identify those that affect quality. We obtained data from nine vessels, from January 2007 to April 2010, cre...

  20. Critical Success Factors of Total Quality Management Implementation In Higher Education Institution: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Norhayati Zakuan; Shalini Muniandy; Muhamad Zameri Mat Saman; Mohd. Shoki Md. Ariff; Sapiah Sulaiman; Rozita Abd Jalil

    2012-01-01

    This paper determines the research area of critical success factors of total quality management (TQM) implementation in higher education institutions which has potential to be explored and generate new knowledge, to improve the total quality management practices and outcome especially in higher education institutions. This paper has reviewed all the literature which is relevant to critical success factors of total quality management (TQM) and its implementation in various areas. The review is...

  1. Comparison of quality of life between urban and rural gastric cancer patients and analysis of influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Tian; Zhen-Chun Chen; Bin Wu; Xin Meng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The conception of quality of life has been widely accepted by clinic doctors. Evaluations of the treatment effect of chronic diseases have been changed to depend not only on the survival time, but also on the quality of life of the patients. Fuzhou City and Changle County are highincidence areas of the gastric cancer in Fujian Province.The aims of this research were to compare the quality of life of urban patients with that of rural patients and analyze the factors influencing quality of life of gastric cancer patients in Fujian Province.METHODS: The samples were drawn with cluster sampling. The urban sample consisted of 162 patients aged 25 to 75 with 143 males and 19 females. The rural sample consisted of 200 patients aged 32 to 78 with 166 males and 34 females. The patients in both the urban and rural areas were investigated, and their scores on 21 items reflecting the quality of life were measured. The methods of ttest and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data.RESULTS: The average total scores of quality of life of the urban patients and rural patients were 64.11 and 68.69respectively. There was a significant difference between the means of two samples (P = 0.0004). Seven variables in the regression model estimated by the urban sample and 4 variables in the model by the rural sample were at the level of significance α = 0.05. Family income, nutrition and rehabilitating exercise were selected into both the urban and rural regression models.CONCLUSION: Most of the gastric cancer patients have poor quality of life in Fujian Province and the rural patients have lower quality of life than that of urban patients. The patients having more family income have better quality of life, and enhanced nutrition and doing rehabilitating exercise are helpful in improving the quality of life of the gastric cancer patients.

  2. Sleep quality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, associated factors and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and mortality. However, limited information exists on the distribution and determinants of sleep quality and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in Chinese populations. We aimed to evaluate this in the current study. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50–70 years from urban and rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai. Using a questionnaire, sleep quality was measured in levels of well, common and poor. Comprehensive measures of socio-demographical and health factors and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease were recorded. These were evaluated in association with sleep quality using logistic regression models. Results Half of the population reported good sleep quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, women and Beijing residents had almost half the probability to report good sleep quality. Good physical and mental health (good levels of self-rated health (OR 2.48; 95%CI 2.08 to 2.96 and no depression (OR 4.05; 95%CI 3.12 to 5.26 related to an increased chance of reporting good sleep quality, whereas short sleep duration ( Conclusion Levels of good sleep quality in middle-age and elderly Chinese were low. Gender, geographical location, self-rated health, depression and sleep quantity were major factors associated with sleep quality. Prospective studies are required to distil the factors that determine sleep quality and the effects that sleep patterns exert on cardio-metabolic health.

  3. A review of the scientific basis for the quality factor for fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the ICRP has recommended that the quality factor for fast neutrons be increased by a factor of two. They did not give a detailed explanation of the reasons for their recommendations, but indicated that the reasons would be developed as part of a much larger review of the quality factor for all radiations. Since it is AECB's policy to follow ICRP's recommendations unless there is good reason not to do so, and since the changing of the quality factor for neutrons has not been generally accepted by other countries a review of the scientific basis for the neutron quality factor was requested. This report gives results of that review. The report reviews the available published information on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons and on the physical basis for the neutron quality factor for use in personnel dosimetry programs. It is concluded that some, but by no means all, of the RBE data supports an increased quality factor, but the relevance of this data to the quality factor for use in radiaton protection is not clear for two reasons. Firstly, the biological endpoints are not all directly extrapolatable to late stochastic effects in humans, and secondly, the current conservative selection of a quality factor for neutrons, and the conservative practise of equating whole body dose to the maximum dose equivalent, leads to a factor of about 10 conservatism in the assignment of neutron dose equivalents. The overall conclusion of the review is that there is no compelling reason to increase the quality factor for neutrons at least until the ICRP has completed its comprehensive review of the subject. 58 refs

  4. Factors influencing assessment quality in higher vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, L.; Gulikers, J.T.M.; Dijkstra, A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of assessments that are fit to assess professional competence in higher vocational education requires a reconsideration of assessment methods, quality criteria and (self)evaluation. This article examines the self-evaluations of nine courses of a large higher vocational education inst

  5. Do Non-Economic Quality of Life Factors Drive Immigration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Gail Anne; Rossouw, Stephanie; Lewer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the immigration literature by generating two unique non-economic quality of life (QOL) indices and testing their role on recent migration patterns. Applying the generated QOL indices in conjunction with four independent welfare measures to an augmented gravity model of immigration, this paper finds an insignificant…

  6. Factors associated with low quality of life in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Clareci Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in quality of life in mental health care has been stimulated by the deinstitutionalization of psychiatric patients as well as a parallel interest in understanding the scope of their daily lives. This study aims to investigate the socio-demographic and clinical variables related to low quality of life, using a cross-sectional design to evaluate quality of life by means of the QLS-BR scale. We interviewed a sample of 123 outpatients from a reference mental health center in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, clinically diagnosed with schizophrenia. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. The results showed that low quality of life is associated with one or more of the following: male gender, single marital status, low income plus low schooling, use of three or more prescribed psychoactive drugs, psychomotor agitation during the interview, and current follow-up care. The study identifies plausible indicators for the attention and care needed to improve psychiatric patient treatment.

  7. EVALUATION OF QUALITY CATERING SERVICES AS A FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of quality catering services on the increase of consumers’ confidence. The survey data were collected among 200 inhabitants of the district town of the province of Silesia taking into account their gender, age and occupational status. The research tool was the authoring questionnaire. The scope of the research included the quality of catering services, including customer service, and the level of customer satisfaction and know why the use of catering services. The results indicate a close correlation between the quality of catering services (cleanliness of premises, interior design, appearance / hygiene service staff and customers’ satisfaction. The majority of the respondents seldom use the food service and catering establishments; they choose affordable business premises, mostly fast food. Then, their attention is paid to their own tastes and prices, of the offered dishes. For the polled a very important criterion for choosing a place is the service staff of the establishment (manners, hygiene, appearance. The quality of catering services is very important for the customers, as it determines the choice of the catering facility and increases consumers’ loyalty in the institution.

  8. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR. PMID:24922980

  9. Factors of impact on dynamics and quality of accounts receivable of enterprise: theoretical aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Бєлозерцев, Василь Сергійович

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes the views of researchers on the factors that impact accounts receivable of enterprises. Systematization of factors of impact on the dynamics and quality of accounts receivable of enterprises has been scientifically proved. In order to provide the most capable system of accounts receivable management at enterprises, it is proposed to consider the system of factors of impact on its quality at the macro and micro levels that will allow regulate the debt relationship betwee...

  10. Quality research methods as a factor of improvement of preproduction sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudek-Burlikowska

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A new approach for quality improvement of preproduction sphere in production company with usagequality research methods has been presented.Design/methodology/approach: The possibility of usage of quality research methods are connected withimprovement of preproduction sphere of organization. Interdependence of the quality control and qualityresearch methods in preproduction sphere and management processes has been taken into account.Findings: At the present time the enterprises should integrate management system in preproduction sphere andtheir continuous improvement with quality management, knowledge management and intellectual capital. Suchkind of strategy will enable to achieve success for these companies.Research limitations/implications: Described quality methods in preproduction sphere and quality analysis ofproduct modernity can be employed in companies, in which quality control has been implemented.Practical implications: Averaging Quality Rating method can be used in companies for estimation of qualityindex of product modernity. Usage of this method can improve functionality of preproduction sphere.Originality/value: Describing and comparing modernity of product inside company with usage AveragingQuality Rating method has been presented. This method is a propose of new lifting strategy of effectivities andefficiencies activities of preproduction sphere.

  11. Factors that determine the quality of bigeye tuna, caught in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Nóbrega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuna are highly prized in Oriental cuisine, and the bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus is of great commercial importance. Quality is assessed by the tuna meat quality, freshness, texture and fat, which can be altered by factors inherent to capture, such as days of onboard storage, months of the year, whether the catch was living or dead, fish weight and year. These factors were correlated to identify those that affect quality. We obtained data from nine vessels, from January 2007 to April 2010, creating an information bank of 21,908 bigeye tuna. Fish quality and parameters were related using multiple linear regression analysis, in which the variables were included in the model by a stepwise procedure (F>4. We found that live catch, heavier fish and fewer days of storage positively affected the quality, and that there is a seasonality of quality related to biological factors, which are not amenable to control.

  12. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  13. Quality factors in the life cycle of software oriented to safety systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of software in safety related systems for nuclear power plants, makes it necessary to include the software quality assurance concept. The software quality can be defined as the adjustment degree between the software and the specified requirements and user expectations. To guarantee a certain software quality level it is necessary to make a systematic and planned set of tasks, that constitute a software quality guaranty plan. The application of such a plan involves activities that should be performed all along the software life cycle, and that can be evaluated through the so called quality factors, due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be directly measured, but indirectly as some of it manifestations. In this work, a software life cycle model is proposed, for nuclear power plant safety related systems. A set os software quality factors is also proposed , with its corresponding classification according to the proposed model. (author)

  14. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components. (paper)

  15. Analysis of psychological factors for quality assessment of interactive multimodal service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori

    2005-03-01

    We proposed a subjective quality assessment model for interactive multimodal services. First, psychological factors of an audiovisual communication service were extracted by using the semantic differential (SD) technique and factor analysis. Forty subjects participated in subjective tests and performed point-to-point conversational tasks on a PC-based TV phone that exhibits various network qualities. The subjects assessed those qualities on the basis of 25 pairs of adjectives. Two psychological factors, i.e., an aesthetic feeling and a feeling of activity, were extracted from the results. Then, quality impairment factors affecting these two psychological factors were analyzed. We found that the aesthetic feeling is mainly affected by IP packet loss and video coding bit rate, and the feeling of activity depends on delay time and video frame rate. We then proposed an opinion model derived from the relationships among quality impairment factors, psychological factors, and overall quality. The results indicated that the estimation error of the proposed model is almost equivalent to the statistical reliability of the subjective score. Finally, using the proposed model, we discuss guidelines for quality design of interactive audiovisual communication services.

  16. Relationships of milk yield and quality from six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Mays, A R; Turner, K E; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-04-01

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality of beef cows to calf preweaning ADG in beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Romosinuano and from Brangus dams to determine whether the relationships were homogeneous across cow breed group. Approximately 50 cows/yr were milked monthly for 6 mo in each of the 7 yr of this study. Milk traits were included in models as linear and quadratic covariates along with interactions of the covariates with sire breed. Tests for curvilinearity and homogeneity of regression coefficients indicated the relationship of calf preweaning ADG to milk yield and quality was quadratic and homogeneous across Charolais and Gelbvieh; linear and homogeneous across Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano; and linear and different from other sire breeds in Herefords (P Brangus (P 0.05) of a relationship in Bonsmara, Charolais, Hereford, or Romosinuano. There was little evidence (P > 0.05) of a relationship of calf preweaning ADG to MUN in any of the sire breed groups. Results from this study confirmed the importance of the influence of milk yield and quality on calf preweaning growth but indicated this influence can depend on the breed composition of the cow. Furthermore, results suggest that breed origin or adaptation may have influenced the relationships of calf preweaning ADG to cow milk yield and quality. PMID:26020207

  17. Influential Factors Analysis of the Average Length of Stay pre-operation of Selective Operation,%择期手术术前住院日影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫红; 赵莉丽; 吴虎兵

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influencing factors of the average stay in hospital before selective operation through the first page of medical record information ,thus can provide statistical basis for raising the management level of the hospital ,the efficiency and quality of the medical services .Methods The data was processed with descriptive statistics ,two sample t -test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance .Results 24538 records were available under the condition .The average stay in hospital be-fore operation has significant statistical difference for different age and different date of admission ( P<0 .05);Five concomitant dis-eases average stay in hospital before operation have significant statistical difference for different age and different date of admission (P<0 .05);Conclusions Age and concomitant diseases are two important influential factors of the average stay in hospital before selec -tive operation .Risk assessment before admission and the hospital policy can influence the average stay in hospital before operation . The average stay in hospital before selective operation can be shorten through reasonably providing the resource ,promoting day surgery and clinical pathway management .%  目的采用病案首页信息数据,对择期手术术前平均住院日的影响因素进行分析,为提高医院的管理水平、整体服务效率和医疗服务质量,降低患者的经济负担,提供统计分析依据.方法数据处理采用描述性统计、两独立样本 t检验及单因素方差分析方法.结果符合条件的病例数共24,538例,患者在年龄和不同时间入院,其术前平均住院日总体上有显著性统计差异(P<0.05);5种伴随病的术前平均住院日均有显著性统计差异(P<0.05).结论年龄与伴随疾病是术前平均住院日的重要影响因素,入院前风险评估以及医院政策制定直接影响术前住院日,所以合理配备医院资源,大力开展日间手术和临床

  18. Mechanical quality factor of mirror substrates for VIRGO

    CERN Document Server

    Amico, P; Carbone, L; Gammaitoni, L; Punturo, M; Travasso, F; Vocca, H

    2002-01-01

    Thermal noise in the mirror substrates is expected to be the main limit to the VIRGO sensitivity in the 50-500 Hz frequency range. The mechanical quality of the mirror substrates and the geometry of their suspension are expected to affect the noise level of the detector output. High mechanical Q have been obtained for different large fused silica substrates under VIRGO suspension conditions. Moreover, calcium fluoride substrates are shown to provide a more promising option for the design of future cryogenic, low thermal noise interferometers.

  19. Average nuclear surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of the nuclear surface energy is discussed for semi-infinite matter. This definition is extended also for the case that there is a neutron gas instead of vacuum on the one side of the plane surface. The calculations were performed with the Thomas-Fermi Model of Syler and Blanchard. The parameters of the interaction of this model were determined by a least squares fit to experimental masses. The quality of this fit is discussed with respect to nuclear masses and density distributions. The average surface properties were calculated for different particle asymmetry of the nucleon-matter ranging from symmetry beyond the neutron-drip line until the system no longer can maintain the surface boundary and becomes homogeneous. The results of the calculations are incorporated in the nuclear Droplet Model which then was fitted to experimental masses. (orig.)

  20. Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps

  1. Indoor environmental quality factors interaction analysis - using office environment as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Ti Chang; Jui-Jung Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    The environment of employee’s workspace is thought to be related to job performance. In other words, good office environment is considered as having the function to increase work efficiency (Larsen, Adams, Deal, Kweon, and Tyler, 1998; Sundstrom, Town, Rice, Osborn, and Brill, 1994). In this study, seven factors of indoor environmental quality (Lee and Kim, 2009) were adopted to establish the model for evaluating indoor environmental quality of offices. These indoor environmental quality rela...

  2. AN EVALUATION OF WEBSITES QUALITY FACTORS IN AGRO TRAVEL AND ECOTOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Lathiras, Petros; Zopidou, Anastasia; Mylonakis, John; Tahinakis, Panayiotis; Protogeros, Nikolaos; Valachis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is an information intensive industry and as a service industry, information is the most significant quality factor for the industry. E-tourism is part of electronic trade that includes the fastest developing technologies that assist to the hospitality and tourism strategic planning and management. The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the quality of 3 Internet sites and detecting their strong and weak points by analyzing quality into its constituent dimensions. Research w...

  3. Explore the Service Quality of Taiwan's Public Elementary Schools through Three-factor and IPGA Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Kuang Hsu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the administrative service quality of Taiwan's public elementary schools by using Three-Factor model and Importance-Performance and Gap Analysis model. The objects of this research are the public elementary schools' teachers in Taiwan. We collected data through questionnaire investigation and got 271 valid questionnaires. The results show Administration Service Quality of school is characterized with two-dimensional quality. And to improve Administra...

  4. INFLUENCE OF OPTICAL AND NEURAL FACTORS ON QUALITY OF THE PERCEIVED IMAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Karitāns, Varis

    2012-01-01

    INFLUENCE OF OPTICAL AND NEURAL FACTORS ON QUALITY OF THE PERCEIVED IMAGE An eye is an optical system suffering from optical aberrations. Ocular aberrations influence both visual perception and visibility of retinal features. As technologies of adaptive optics advanced it became possible to control optical quality of an eye at very high level. Dependence of visual functions on optical quality of an eye is widely studied. There is no scientific agreement regarding the role o...

  5. Factors predicting team climate, and its relationship with quality of care in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Eccles Martin P; Goh Teik T; Steen Nick

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Quality of care in general practice may be affected by the team climate perceived by its health and non-health professionals. Better team working is thought to lead to higher effectiveness and quality of care. However, there is limited evidence available on what affects team functioning and its relationship with quality of care in general practice. This study aimed to explore individual and practice factors that were associated with team climate, and to explore the relatio...

  6. High-average-power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the High-Average-Power Laser Program at LLNL are to develop a broad technology base for solid state lasers and to demonstrate high-average-power laser operation with more efficiency and higher beam quality than has been possible with current technology. Major activities are the zig-zag laser testbed and the gas-cooled-slab laser test bed. This section describes these activities as well as discussion of material development; nonlinear optics; laser materials, and applications

  7. 影响因子分数平均值在SCI论文奖励中的应用%The Application of Impact Factor Point Average in SCI Paper Reward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志标

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a scientific and objective method to reward SCI paper is an important part of academic paper reward system. A new evaluation index— Impact Factor Point Average (IFPA) was quoted and it’s applicable in SCI paper reward was studied in this paper. The results showed that the IFPA is a preferable quantitative index for evaluating the quality of academic paper. It is highly applicable so that it can be used to appraise SCI articles.%引用一种新的评价指标——影响因子分数平均值(IFPA),探究其在SCI论文奖励中的应用。结果表明,IFPA 是一个较好的评价学术论文质量的量化指标,并且具有较强的可操作性,在 SCI 论文奖励中具有良好的应用价值和前景。

  8. Factors Determining The Quality Of Products Made From Recycled Paper Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Velichka Marinova; Temenuga Stoykova

    2014-01-01

    The quality of products from recycled paper materials is determined by factors, which upon their interaction contribute to the formation of a complex of consumer properties of the end-products. The underlying factors are in a state of interconnectedness and interdependence formed by the peculiarities of the processes of recycling paper. The relation can be presented as follows: waste paper – supplementary chemical substances – technological processing – quality of the end-product. The degree ...

  9. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  10. Bloch-Wave Engineered Submicron Diameter Micropillars with Quality Factors Exceeding 10,000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofling, S.; Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels;

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic design submicron diameter quantum-dot micropillars have been designed and implemented for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Ultra-high experimental quality factors (>10,000) are obtained for submicron diameters and strong light-matter interaction is observed.......Adiabatic design submicron diameter quantum-dot micropillars have been designed and implemented for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Ultra-high experimental quality factors (>10,000) are obtained for submicron diameters and strong light-matter interaction is observed....

  11. Average Range and Network Synchronizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of structural properties of a network on the network synchronizability is studied by introducing a new concept of average range of edges. For both small-world and scale-free networks, the effect of average range on the synchronizability of networks with bounded or unbounded synchronization regions is illustrated through numerical simulations. The relations between average range, range distribution, average distance, and maximum betweenness are also explored, revealing the effects of these factors on the network synchronizability of the small-world and scale-free networks, respectively. (general)

  12. Nutrition myths - the factor influencing the quality of children's diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Mrosková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the influence of parents' belief in nutrition myths on the frequency of their serving certain foods to their children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Survey carried out with 297 respondents - parents of children aged 5-18 years. The data collection took place between September 2013 and December 2014. The questionnaire focussed on 14 nutrition myths related to selected foods (milk, dairy products, meat, offal, fruit, vegetables, eggs, fish, legumes, soya, and flour dishes. At the same time, the parents reported the frequency of their serving the monitored foods to their children. In the statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used. Results: For nine nutrition myths we found significant negative coefficients between a certain nutrition myth and the frequency of the serving of the food. The nutrition myths related to the consumption of fish (r = -0.328, eggs (r = -0.203, soya (r = -0.301; -0.290, offal (r = -0.155, meat (r = -0.128, milk (r = -0.272; -0.254, and fruit/vegetables (r = -0.104. Conclusion: The belief in nutrition myths appears to be a determinant modifying parental behaviour and subsequently the quality of children's diets.

  13. Factors affecting the quality control of 99Tcm-tetrofosmin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objective of this study was to investigate the quality control (QC) procedure of 99Tcm-tetrofosmin utilizing the following parameters: type of ITLC-SC media used in the chromatography system; effect of sample size; effect of altering solvent ratios; and comparison with Amprep) column (Amersham). Previously, Geyer et al. (J Nucl Med Technol 1995; 23: 186-189) validated the use of a miniaturized chromatography system utilizing 10 cm x 1 cm ITLC-SG strips instead of the manufacturer's recommended 20 cm x 2 cm, resulting in a more rapid QC procedure. They also investigated the effects of sample size and varying solvent ratios. We decided to utilize the same miniaturized system, since this was a system we used daily. Our method involved running the miniaturized chromatography systems and then analysing the strips on a radiochromatogram scanner. The different media used were ITLC-SG paper with no support (a), with plastic support (b) (c), and with aluminium foil support (d). The effect of various sample sizes (1, 3 and 6 μl) was also investigated. In addition, we wanted to validate the importance of the manufacturer's recommended ratio of the chromatography solvent system (35:65 acetone:dichloromethane) (Myoview, Amersham International, 1996). Furthermore, we assessed the efficacy of the chromatography system against the Amprep column (e). The initial results indicate that there is a difference when different ITLC-SG media and sample sizes are used, so that care must be taken when analysing the results. It must also be noted that the solvent ratio can also have an effect on the result. The Amprep column proves to be a very quick and reliable method for QC of 99Tcm-tetrofosmin

  14. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  15. Association between socioeconomic factors and sleep quality in an urban population-based sample in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this assoc...... quality. Several factors, such as anxiety, depression and health status, are associated with poorer sleep quality, but at the same time, these factors occur more often within lower social classes....... from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression...

  16. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections. PMID:26717078

  17. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Betzabeth Ticona Benavente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8% and Professional Training (30.5% and low sleep quality (78.8%. The Professional Communication, Professional Training and Theoretical Activity are positively correlated to sleep quality. Work activity, academic year and time for daily studies contributed to a low quality of sleep. Conclusion: Few stress factors from the academic environment and some socio-demographic characteristics contributed to the reduction of sleep quality in students.

  18. Nanotube mechanical resonators with quality factors of up to 5 million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Eichler, A; Güttinger, J; Dykman, M I; Bachtold, A

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotube mechanical resonators have attracted considerable interest because of their small mass, the high quality of their surfaces, and the pristine electronic states they host. However, their small dimensions result in fragile vibrational states that are difficult to measure. Here, we observe quality factors Q as high as 5 × 10(6) in ultra-clean nanotube resonators at a cryostat temperature of 30 mK, where we define Q as the ratio of the resonant frequency over the linewidth. Measuring such high quality factors requires the use of an ultra-low-noise method to rapidly detect minuscule vibrations, as well as careful reduction of the noise of the electrostatic environment. We observe that the measured quality factors fluctuate because of fluctuations of the resonant frequency. We measure record-high quality factors, which are comparable to the highest Q values reported in mechanical resonators of much larger size, a remarkable result considering that reducing the size of resonators is usually concomitant with decreasing quality factors. The combination of ultra-low mass and very large Q offers new opportunities for ultra-sensitive detection schemes and quantum optomechanical experiments. PMID:25344688

  19. Nationwide rural well water survey, the quality of household water and factors influencing it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of water in 1 421 drinking—water wells was monitored in a nationwide well water study. Samples were taken once from all wells, and during three seasons from 421 wells. The wells were selected in such a way that the sample would be as representative as possible of the quality of the drinking—water in households’ own wells in ru— ral areas. The study comprised general water quality parameters, influence of sampling season, and factors related to the type, the condition and the pollution of the wells. In part of the well waters selenium, radioactivity and pesticides were determined. The effect of plumbing materials on the quality of water was also examined. The health—based criteria of the quality of drinking—water were not met in 50 — 70 % of the well waters monitored, depending upon the sampling time. The most common defects were the occurrence of bacteria indicating faecal pollution (2— 25 %) and a high concentration of nitrate (11 — 13 %) and fluoride (7 — 16 %). The tar— get values set for the other properties affecting the usableness of water were not met in 80 % of the well waters examined. The most common defects in this respect were the turbidity and the colour of water (40 — 50 %), the occurrence of iron (20 — 25 %) and manganese (20 %), and a low ph value. Depending upon the area, only 11 — 15 % of the wells met all the criteria related to the corrosive effect of the water. About 17 % of the households in the study suffered from periodical or continuous insufficiency of water. The types of well were dug wells with concrete sink rings in 72 %, and drilled bedrock wells in 20 % of te cases. The rest were spring wells or dug wells with stone walls. The condition of a well was, according 10 the judgement of the sampler, good in 58 %, satisfactory in 36 % and poor in 6 % of the households. Seasonal variation could be seen mainly in the occurrence of faecal bacteria. Distinct differences in the quality of water appeared

  20. High-quality-factor Bragg onion resonators with omnidirectional reflector cladding

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong; Liang, Wei; Yariv, Amnon; Fleming, J.G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2003-01-01

    We propose to approximate a spherically symmetric Bragg resonator in an onionlike geometry. We develop a transfer-matrix theory for calculation of the quality factors and analyze the effect of the onion stem on cavity Q factors. We find that it is possible to achieve significant inhibition of spontaneous emission in an onion resonator with omnidirectional cladding layers.

  1. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  2. High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We theoretically propose a microresonator on a silver chip. The microresonator supports hybrid plasmonic modes with highly localized electromagnetic fields (ultra-small mode volumes ∼0.1 μm3) and long photon lifetime (high quality factors >400) at room temperature, both of which exceed the traditional plasmonic microresonators. The total quality factor is found to be limited by two factors, the metal absorption and the radiation loss, and exhibit a tradeoff with the mode volume. This type of hybrid plasmonic microresonators holds great potential in fundamental physics and applications, for instance, cavity quantum electrodynamics in weak coupling regime and low-threshold microlasers.

  3. Mechanical quality factor enhancement in a silicon micromechanical resonator by low-damage process using neutral beam etching technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication and evaluation of silicon micromechanical resonators using neutral beam etching (NBE) technology is presented. An etching technique based on a low energy neutral beam of Cl2/F2/O2 is introduced for making nano-trench patterns on 5 µm-thick silicon. The NBE technology has been investigated to form a highly-anisotropic etching shape. A 5 μm-deep trench pattern having smooth side walls with a gap width of 230 nm is achieved by using NBE. Additionally, a fabrication method for silicon resonators using NBE technology is proposed. The resonant frequency of the fabricated devices with a length of 500 μm, width of 440 μm and thickness of 5 μm is 9.66 MHz, and the average quality factor (Q) value is around 78 000. The devices fabricated by both deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and NBE are evaluated and compared. The devices fabricated by NBE show that the motional resistances are reduced by almost 11 times from 645 kΩ to 59 kΩ and their output signals (insertion loss) are increased by approximately 15 dB in comparison with those fabricated by DRIE. Especially, devices fabricated by NBE provide the higher Q factors (average Q factor value of around 78 000) than those (average Q factor value of around 61 000) fabricated by DRIE in the same resonator parameters and measurement conditions. (paper)

  4. Assessing the Quality of Life in Elderly People and Related Factors in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Khaje-Bishak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elderly people may suffer from the multiple health disorders due to the vulnerability for many physical and mental disturbances. Quality of life in elderly population can be affected by many environmental factors. The aim of this study was aimed to examine the quality of life in elderly people in Tabriz, Iran in 2012. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 184 elderly people (male=97; female=87 with age ≥ 60 years. The participants surveyed in this study were elderly people who were living in the community and come voluntarily to the daily care centers. Validated Persian self-reported version of World Health Organization Quality of Life-BRIEF (WHOQOL-BRIEF questionnaire including 26 broad and comprehensive questions were used to determine the quality of life in elderly people. Independent t-test and Pearson correlation were used to compare differences and correlation between the total score of quality of life and influential factors. Results: Total score the quality of life in both genders was 90.75 (13.37 (range between 26-130. Male elderly had slightly high score in the quality of life; however, these differences were not significant. A significant difference was observed between having cardiovascular diseases, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, hearing and visual impairments with total score in the quality of life. Also, there was no significant difference between gender and age variables with total score in the quality of life. Conclusion: Policies and programs should be considered for improving the quality of life. Future studies are needed for assessing other influential factors on the quality of life in elderly population.

  5. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from p...

  6. Modifiable and fixed factors predicting quality of life in people with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, N M; Hall, S. J.; Browne, S.; Macleod, U; Mitchell, E.; Lee, A J; Johnston, M.; Wyke, S.; Samuel, L; Weller, D.; Campbell, N C

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with colorectal cancer have impaired quality of life (QoL). We investigated what factors were most highly associated with it.Methods: Four hundred and ninety-six people with colorectal cancer completed questionnaires about QoL, functioning, symptoms, co-morbidity, cognitions and personal and social factors. Disease, treatment and co-morbidity data were abstracted from case notes. Multiple linear regression identified modifiable and unmodifiable factors independently predict...

  7. Improvement of average film quality in RBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ sputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of RBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ (R includes Y, Er and Nd) have been deposited by four-gun dc magnetron sputtering from metallic targets in Xe-O/sub 2/ gas mixture and post-annealed in flowing O/sub 2/. Extensive optimization of the film deposition process has been achieved for erbium-based films which can be produced with good characteristics on a variety of substrates. Fine-grained polycrystalline films with sharp resistive transitions are produced on single-crystal and polycrystalline YSZ, MgO, ZrO/sub 2/-buffered sapphire, and silver-buffered sapphire. Broader transitions are observed on buffered silicon wafers. These erbium films often show grain sizes as small as 20-30 nm and, with the addition of an rf oxygen glow discharge in the deposition system, are quite smooth despite furnace post-annealing. Highly-oriented 1-2-3 film growth is observed on SrTiO/sub 3/ and LaAlO/sub 3/ single-crystal substrates. Four-point resistivity measurements show transitions as narrow as 1 K, while magnetization and rf frequency shift measurements show more detail about film quality. Films are characterized by XRD, SNMS, Auger, XPS and cross-sectional EDX profiling. The authors also report on the use of in situ deposition of silver as a passivation layer for the 1-2-3- surface

  8. Symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse at midlife, quality of life, and risk factors. : POP symptoms, Qol and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fritel, Xavier; Varnoux, Noëlle; Zins, Marie; Breart, Gérard; Ringa, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVE: To estimate quality of life, prevalence, and risk factors associated with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) among middle-aged women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was mailed to 3,114 women aged 50-61 years in the GAZEL cohort; 2,640 (85%) returned it. Symptomatic POP was defined by feeling a bulge from the vagina (sometimes, often, or all the time compared with never or rarely). Quality of life was determined with the Not...

  9. Sleep quality and some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Yavuz Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Sleep disorders are remarkable public health problems as they adversely affect physical, mental and social health and may cause accidents and decline in academic performance and labor productivity. Aim of the study is assessing sleep quality and determining some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university. METHOD: It is a cross sectional study conducted with 277 students, 180 of whom are female. Data were collected via a questionnaire including Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and socio-demographic characteristics query. RESULTS: According to PSQI, 41.1% of students have bad sleep quality. Sleep quality of male students and students who are overweight/obese or living in more crowded rooms in the hall of residence is worse than other students and #8217;. Prevalence of bad sleep quality is higher in medication users, participants thinking that they have problems in sleeping or falling asleep and had stressful experience in the last month. The differences between groups were statistically significant. In logistic regression analyzes, using medication (OR=2.54, having problems in sleep (OR=12.75, having problems in falling asleep (OR=8.83 and bad experiences in the last month (OR=2.66 have effects on sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions about sleep disorders are important due to their preventable characteristics. Developing healthy life habits, improving physical conditions and coping with stress will be effective on preventing and treating sleep disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 93-100

  10. Factors influencing quality of life and predictors of low quality of life scores in patients on treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis: a cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Olufunke O Adeyeye; Ogunleye, Olayinka O; Ayodele Coker; Yetunde Kuyinu; Bamisile, Raymond T; Udeme Ekrikpo; Babatunde Onadeko

    2014-01-01

    There is paucity of information on the quality of life of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Nigeria. This study assessed the factors influencing their quality of life and the independent predictors of low quality of life scores. Two hundred and sixty consecutive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital were evaluated for health related quality of life using the World Health Organization Quality of life instrument (WHOQoL-BREF). Sociodemographic...

  11. Testing for factor price equality with unobserved differences in factor quality or productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Andrew B.; Stephen J. Redding; Peter K. Schott

    2013-01-01

    We develop a method for identifying departures from relative factor price equality that is robust to unobserved variation in factor productivity. We implement this method using data on the relative wage bills of nonproduction and production workers across 170 local labor markets comprising the continental United States for 1972, 1992, and 2007. We find evidence of statistically significant differences in relative wages in all three years. These differences increase in magnitude over time and ...

  12. Neutron resonance averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs

  13. TU-F-BRE-06: Flattening-Filter-Free Beam Quality Correction Factor Determination Using Experimental and Monte Carlo Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate beam quality correction factors for the flattening-filter-free (FFF) energies of the TrueBeam™ accelerator based on a dosimetry formalism for small and nonstandard fields. Methods: Three detectors - an Exradin W1 scintillator, Sun Nuclear EDGE diode, and LiF(Mg,Tl) TLD-100 chips - were investigated to determine their applicability as tools to measure quality correction factors for ionization chambers in the small and nonstandard fields of the TrueBeam™. Volume-averaging effects and energy dependence were observed in fields ranging from 1×1 to 40×40 cm2 for 6 MV and 10 MV beam energies using both FFF and flattened beam modes. Correction factors were determined for three ionization chambers: an Exradin A12 Farmer-type chamber, an Exradin A1SL scanning chamber, and an Exradin A26 reference-class microchamber. Beam quality corrections were also obtained using a benchmarked model of the TrueBeam™ created with the BEAMnrc user code of EGSnrc. Results: All three detectors demonstrated measureable energy dependence in the megavoltage range. The EDGE diode was deemed the most appropriate tool for beam quality correction factor measurements due to its low energy dependence and small size; however, alanine will be used in the future to reduce energy dependent effects even further. Measured kQmsr,Q corrections of up to 4% were found for the 6MV FFF and 10 MV FFF beams, corresponding to a discrepancy of up to 3% compared to TG-51-determined dose. Up to a 10% kQclin,Qmsr correction was measured for small fields referenced to a 10×10 cm2 field of the same energy. Much larger corrections were determined using the Monte Carlo model, and these discrepancies require further investigation. Conclusion: Progress has been made toward determining beam quality correction factors for the small and nonstandard fields of the TrueBeam™ accelerator. Further work must be done to ensure greater accuracy in patient treatments with this new modality

  14. CONDITIONS OF ENTRY TO THE TEACHING PROFESSION: A FACTOR FOR ACHIEVING EDUCATIONAL QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Francelia Jazmín Aguirre-Gómez; Claudia Dévora-Rodríguez; Enrique Valenzuela-Dorado

    2015-01-01

    Achieving educational quality in Mexico has long been a difficult task, which has led the federal government to generate further reforms in education. In particular, the formation of basic education teachers, going through a transition period from the implementation of curriculum reform in education Average, which meets the requirements of the professionalization of the teaching career. The new curriculum 2012 raises a number of general and professional competencies that future teachers wi...

  15. Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6–12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a semi-structured clinical interview, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Childhood Depression Rating Scale (CDRS-R). Average BD youth YMRS (...

  16. Poor Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnancy is a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Meifen; Li, Xiaoyi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Hao; Qiu, Chunbo; Zhang, Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether poor sleep quality of third-trimester pregnancy is a risk factor for postpartum depression. Material/Methods Third-trimester pregnant women (T0, n=293) were tested using the first socio-demographic, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessments, and received a diagnosis of depression. Three months (T1, n=223) after delivery, scale filling was finished and the structured interview was performed a...

  17. The Contribution of Technological Factors on Knowledge Sharing Quality among Government Officers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Mohd Bakhari; Yusof, Zawiyah M.

    2010-01-01

    The findings of the study clearly indicate the achievement of the objectives for the study. Apparently, technological factors have significant positive relationship with knowledge sharing quality. ICT know-how is discovered as the strongest predictor of knowledge sharing quality among Malaysian government officers followed by ICT infrastructure and ICT tools. This shows the role of technology is crucial in knowledge management especially in facilitating and accelerating communications among e...

  18. Resolution-limit-free and local Non-negative Matrix Factorization quality functions for graph clustering

    OpenAIRE

    van Laarhoven, Twan; Marchiori, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Many graph clustering quality functions suffer from a resolution limit, the inability to find small clusters in large graphs. So called resolution-limit-free quality functions do not have this limit. This property was previously introduced for hard clustering, that is, graph partitioning. We investigate the resolution-limit-free property in the context of Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) for hard and soft graph clustering. To use NMF in the hard clustering setting, a common approach is...

  19. Quality Factor Measurements of Various Types of Quartz Crystal Resonators Operating Near 4 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliou, Serge; Goryachev, Maxim; Abbe, Philippe; Vacheret, Xavier; Tobar, Michael E; Bourquin, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Quartz crystal resonators can exhibit huge quality factors (in excess of 1 billion) at liquid-helium temperature. However, they must satisfy a set of conditions to meet this high level of performance. With the help of experimentation, the main conditions are identified, such as the material quality, the energy trapping due to the vibrational mode structure, as well as the corresponding influence of the support mechanism and the effects of the electrodes. PMID:26701342

  20. Factors Affecting Customers’ Satisfaction and Perception: Case Study of Islamic Banks’Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayah Cheriyah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the perception and expectation of the Islamic bank customers on the banks’ service quality, and how these factors affect their satisfaction and their intention to buy and to use the Islamic banks products and services.This finding implies that the Islamic banks should have pay more attention to their service quality since it would have a positif influence on customer satisfaction and purchase intention.

  1. Factors Affecting the Consumer Willingness to Buy Based on the Quality of the Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Rui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study from the perspective of the quality of the signal by 191 consumers in Nanjing questionnaire using SPSS statistical software factors to consider when consumers choose yogurt were analyzed, analysis safety certification, durability, price, brand awareness and whether the quality of the signal in the supermarket to buy consumer willingness to buy influence in varying degrees and finally put forward specific recommendations based on the analysis results.

  2. Factors Affecting Customers’ Satisfaction and Perception: Case Study of Islamic Banks’Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Yayah Cheriyah; Widya Sulistyowati; Ade Cornelia; Viverita

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the perception and expectation of the Islamic bank customers on the banks’ service quality, and how these factors affect their satisfaction and their intention to buy and to use the Islamic banks products and services.This finding implies that the Islamic banks should have pay more attention to their service quality since it would have a positif influence on customer satisfaction and purchase intention.

  3. Factors associated with data quality in the routine health information system of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Glèlè Ahanhanzo, Yolaine; Ouedraogo, Laurent T; Kpozèhouen, Alphonse; Coppieters, Yves; Makoutodé, Michel; Wilmet-Dramaix, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Background Routine health information systems (RHIS) are crucial to the acquisition of data for health sector planning. In developing countries, the insufficient quality of the data produced by these systems limits their usefulness in regards to decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with poor data quality in the RHIS in Benin. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study included health workers who were responsible for data collection i...

  4. Factors affecting quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, Tahir

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are currently the most common cause of death worldwide and associated with significant impairment of quality of life (QOL). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the QOL patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in our country and the factors associated with QOL in these patients. Materials and Methods: The study population was composed of 85 patients diagnosed with stable CHD. The data were collected using Ferrans and Powers' Quality of Life Index Ca...

  5. Quality of life and factors related to it in cardiovascular patients after heart surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Shohreh Seyam; Ali Reza Heidarnia; Sedigheh sadat Tavafian

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent and important cause of death all over the world, which affect the patients' quality of life. These diseases involve many problems for patients and a lot of cost for the society. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality of life and factors related to it in cardiovascular patients after heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional one in which. 110 cardiovascular patients...

  6. Simultaneous measurement of quality factor and wavelength shift by phase shift microcavity ring down spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cheema, M Imran; Hayat, Ahmad A; Peter, Yves-Alain; Armani, Andrea M; Kirk, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    Optical resonant microcavities with ultra high quality factors are widely used for biosensing. Until now, the primary method of detection has been based upon tracking the resonant wavelength shift as a function of biological events. One of the sources of noise in all resonant-wavelength shift measurements is the noise due to intensity fluctuations of the laser source. An alternative approach is to track the change in the quality factor of the optical cavity by using phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy, a technique which is insensitive to the intensity fluctuations of the laser source. Here, using biotinylated microtoroid resonant cavities, we show simultaneous measurement of the quality factor and the wavelength shift by using phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy. These measurements were performed for disassociation phase of biotin-streptavidin reaction. We found that the disassociation curves are in good agreement with the previously published results. Hence, we demonstrate not only the applicatio...

  7. Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas With Quality Factors Approaching the Chu Lower Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Yaghjian, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quality factor Q for electrically small current distributions and practical antenna designs radiating the TE10 magnetic dipole field. The current distributions and the antenna designs employ electric currents on a spherical surface enclosing a magneto-dielectric material that...... permeability yields the quality factor Q that constitutes the lower bound for a magnetic dipole antenna with a magneto-dielectric core. Furthermore, the smaller the antenna the closer its quality factor Q can approach the Chu lower bound. Simulated results for the TE10-mode multiarm spherical helix antenna...... with a magnetic core reach a Q that is 1.24 times the Chu lower bound for an electrical radius of 0.192....

  8. Factor Analysis in Assessing the Research Methodology Quality of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Elena URDA-CÎMPEAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many high quality systematic reviews available from medical journals, data bases and other electronic sources differ in quality and provide different answers to the same question. The literature recommended the use of a checklist type approach, which exceeds many of the problems associated with measurements. Aim: This study proposes to identify in a checklist type approach the most commonly used factors (from a methodological point of view in assessing the quality of systematic reviews, and then mirror the actual stage of medical writing. We want to analyze the factors’ occurrence and / or their development in the text and in the abstract of systematic reviews published in 2011. Methods: The present study randomly selected only free full text systematic reviews published in 2011, systematic reviews found in Pubmed and in Cochrane Database. The most commonly used factors were identified in PRISMA statement and quality measurement tools. Results: The evaluated systematic reviews mentioned or developed several of the factors studied. Only 78% of the papers surveyed have used the correct IMRAD format and 59% of them have mentioned the sample size used. The correspondence between the content of the paper and its abstract is summarized in the proportion of 54.63% and 51.85% for the two sets of factors, and it can lead to scarce appreciation of the article provided that only abstracts are read. Conclusions: Researchers do not properly take into consideration scientific articles and assessment tools used for quality evaluation. They should place more value over methodological factors which help assess systematic review quality, while journals form the only party who can enforce quality standards in medical writing.

  9. An analysis of the regional disparity in the average educational expenditure per senior secondary student and its relevant factors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Baifu

    2006-01-01

    The essay deals with regional disparities in the average educational expenditure of every ordinary senior secondary student,including budget funds for education,the proportion appropriated to the ordinary senior high school by the government,tuition fee per student and the proportion of tuition fees of the total educational expenditure.By analyzing the relevant educational and economic indicators,we find that the average educational expenditure and tuition of every student in the western area are lower than those in the eastern and the middle area while the proportion of funds allocated by the government is the highest.However,in the middle area,both of the government appropriation of education funds for every student and its proportion of the total educational expenditure are the lowest in China,but on the other hand the proportion of tuition fee of the total educational expenditure and the income of the rural residents are the highest.Therefore,the aim of this essay is to took at the reasons why there are such differences.

  10. Factors associated with the quality of laboratory performance in the United Kingdom external quality assessment scheme for serum growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, J; Hanning, I

    1988-05-31

    A search was made for associations between poor performance in the UK External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for serum growth hormone (GH), and a range of factors including assay method, laboratory workload and staffing, and Internal Quality Control (IQC) procedures. On the basis of the factors identified as being associated with poor performance we recommend the following. 1. Laboratories using RIA for GH should routinely analyse samples at two dilutions and report a mean result. 2. The use of 125I-GH which is 5 or more weeks old should be avoided. Tracer should also be chromatographed to remove aggregate before use. 3. Laboratories using RIA should avoid using a standard curve which covers too wide a range concentration; a curve midpoint (ie GH concentration to reduce the zero standard binding by 50%) of about 8 mU/l or less is probably acceptable. 4. It should be noted that high workloads present a risk of some loss in quality of responsible for checking IQC data. 6. Laboratories which do not have the resources to maintain fully their own RIA as outlined above should carefully consider use of an unbiased, precise IRMA. The UK EQAS has identified two assays (Boots-Celltech Sucrosep, NETRIA) that appear to meet these criteria [2]. The above observations may also be relevant to immunoassays for other peptide hormones. PMID:3383443

  11. Structural equation model to investigate the factors influencing quality performance in Indian construction projects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Shanmugapriya; K Subramanian

    2015-09-01

    Indian construction industry has seen remarkable growth and it is an integral part of the economy with massive foreign investments which demands quality construction. The pressure to reduce time and cost of construction increases the risk on the part of stakeholders with respect to quality and safety of the construction. The problem is serious and dangerous in developing countries like India which requires focus and attention for sustained growth in construction sector. This research reports on the adoption and development of structural equation model to study the fundamental relationship between five enablers of European Foundation for quality management (EFQM) framework to improve the quality performance in Indian construction projects. Data collected from clients, contractors and consultants of Indian construction industry through questionnaire survey was used to analyze the conceptual framework using smart PLS software. The conceptual model in this research includes eight hypotheses and T-statistics values is used for checking the significance of the hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that leadership factor has strongest total effect on people factor (Path coefficient = 0.77) and process factor has strongest effect in achieving the goals of quality performance improvement in construction projects (Path coefficient = 0.7). The results indicate that Indian construction organizations must give top priority to leadership and process related problems in various phases of the project to result in continuous improvement in quality performance.

  12. Sleep Quality and Factors Influencing Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Quality in the General Internal Medicine Inpatient Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Dobing

    Full Text Available Sleep quality in hospitalized Canadian General Internal Medicine patients is not well characterized. Our goals were to characterize hospital sleep quality in this population and identify potentially modifiable barriers to good sleep.GIM inpatients at a quaternary centre in Edmonton, Canada completed a survey, including the Verran-Snyder Halpern (VSH questionnaire, to characterize the previous night's sleep within 48 hours prior to discharge. A chart review was also completed to assess comorbidities, discharge diagnoses, and pharmaceutical sleep aid use.Patients reported significantly worse nighttime sleep duration in hospital compared with home (mean 5.5 versus 7.0 hours per night, p < 0.0001. Sleep quality was poor, as measured by the VSH disturbance (mean 371, effectiveness (190, and supplementation (115 subscales. Variables independently associated with poorer sleep duration in multivariable regression include prior diagnosis of sleep disorder and multi-patient occupancy rooms. Age, sex, admitting diagnosis, length of stay, frequency of vital checks, and use of sleep pharmaceuticals during the index hospitalization were not associated with sleep duration. The most frequently reported reasons for poor sleep included noise (59%, nursing interruptions (30%, uncomfortable beds (18%, bright lights (16%, unfamiliar surroundings (14%, and pain (9%.Sleep quality for GIM inpatients is significantly worse in hospital than at home. There is a need to test non-pharmacologic interventions to address the most frequently identified factors causing poor sleep hygiene for GIM inpatients.

  13. Sleep Quality and Factors Influencing Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Quality in the General Internal Medicine Inpatient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobing, Selina; Frolova, Natalia; McAlister, Finlay

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep quality in hospitalized Canadian General Internal Medicine patients is not well characterized. Our goals were to characterize hospital sleep quality in this population and identify potentially modifiable barriers to good sleep. Methods GIM inpatients at a quaternary centre in Edmonton, Canada completed a survey, including the Verran-Snyder Halpern (VSH) questionnaire, to characterize the previous night’s sleep within 48 hours prior to discharge. A chart review was also completed to assess comorbidities, discharge diagnoses, and pharmaceutical sleep aid use. Results Patients reported significantly worse nighttime sleep duration in hospital compared with home (mean 5.5 versus 7.0 hours per night, p < 0.0001). Sleep quality was poor, as measured by the VSH disturbance (mean 371), effectiveness (190), and supplementation (115) subscales. Variables independently associated with poorer sleep duration in multivariable regression include prior diagnosis of sleep disorder and multi-patient occupancy rooms. Age, sex, admitting diagnosis, length of stay, frequency of vital checks, and use of sleep pharmaceuticals during the index hospitalization were not associated with sleep duration. The most frequently reported reasons for poor sleep included noise (59%), nursing interruptions (30%), uncomfortable beds (18%), bright lights (16%), unfamiliar surroundings (14%), and pain (9%). Conclusions Sleep quality for GIM inpatients is significantly worse in hospital than at home. There is a need to test non-pharmacologic interventions to address the most frequently identified factors causing poor sleep hygiene for GIM inpatients. PMID:27280292

  14. Critical Success Factors of Total Quality Management Implementation In Higher Education Institution: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Zakuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines the research area of critical success factors of total quality management (TQM implementation in higher education institutions which has potential to be explored and generate new knowledge, to improve the total quality management practices and outcome especially in higher education institutions. This paper has reviewed all the literature which is relevant to critical success factors of total quality management (TQM and its implementation in various areas. The review is focused on the implementations, the impacts on the organization’s performance and the encouraged indicators to the adoption of total quality management (TQM in the organization. This study concludes the critical success factors of total quality management (TQM and its implementation in higher education institutions. Because of lack of identified reason, many organizations do not adopt TQM approach into their organization. However, certain organization and institutions already indentified the benefits from TQM implementations on their organization performance and they believe this approach could give them a chance to achieving their goals. The findings of this paper are a proposed conceptual model which consists of TQM critical success factors implementation and its impact of higher education institutions performance.

  15. Broken symmetry dielectric resonators for high quality-factor Fano metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Campione, Salvatore; Basilio, Lorena I; Warne, Larry K; Langston, William L; Luk, Ting S; Wendt, Joel R; Reno, John L; Keeler, Gordon A; Brener, Igal; Sinclair, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach to dielectric metasurface design that relies on a single resonator per unit cell and produces robust, high quality-factor Fano resonances. Our approach utilizes symmetry breaking of highly symmetric resonator geoemetries, such as cubes, to induce couplings between the otherwise orthogonal resonator modes. In particular, we design perturbations that couple "bright" dipole modes to "dark" dipole modes whose radiative decay is suppressed by local field effects in the array. Our approach is widely scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies. We first unravel the Fano resonance behavior through numerical simulations of a germanium resonator-based metasurface that achieved a quality-factor of ~1300 at ~10.8 um. Then, we present two experimental demonstrations operating in the near-infrared (~1 um): a silicon-based implementation that achieved a quality-factor of ~350; and a gallium arsenide-based structure that achieves a quality-factor of ~600 - the highest near-infrared quality-...

  16. INTEGRATING FACTOR ANALYSIS AND ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS FOR LIBRARY SERVICE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Venkata Subbaiah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to propose a methodology f or identifying and prioritizing the user needs pertaining to library services. I n order to categorize the user needs into quality dimensions, Factor analysis has been carried out on user responses obtained through questionnaire survey. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is employed to determine the priority ratings of the library quality dimensions. The priority structure of the quality dimension s provides an idea for the library management to allocate the resources in an effective manner to achieve more user satisfaction. A case study is presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

  17. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of anisotropic pressure-free models. Adopting the Buchert scheme, we recast the averaged scalar equations in Bianchi-type form and close the standard system by introducing a propagation formula for the average shear magnitude. We then investigate the evolution of anisotropic average vacuum models and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. The presence of nonzero average shear in our equations also allows us to examine the constraints that a phase of backreaction-driven accelerated expansion might put on the anisotropy of the averaged domain. We close by assessing the status of these and other attempts to define and calculate 'average' spacetime behaviour in general relativity

  18. Factors affecting the quality of voice in the early glottic cancer treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To prospectively analyze the objective voice quality before and after radiotherapy (RT) for early glottic cancer and to evaluate the role of different factors that may affect it. Methods: Patients with T1-T2N0M0 glottic cancer underwent voice quality assessment before treatment and after radical RT. Post-RT voice quality was compared to the voice at diagnosis and the voice of healthy individuals used as controls. A comprehensive set of voice parameters were measured. The effects of age, smoking history, T stage, anterior commissure (AC) involvement, radiation dose, fractionation and volumes on pre-treatment and post-treatment voice quality were analyzed. Results: The voice quality data of 50 patients were analyzed. Following treatment, there was a significant improvement in the majority of measured parameters. However, perturbation and HNR remained inferior compared to controls. A history of smoking, AC involvement and larger RT volumes resulted in poorer voice parameters following RT. There was no significant impact of age alone. T2 tumors had an inferior voice quality before treatment, but did not remain inferior following RT. Hypofractionated RT did not show any negative impact. Conclusions: There is a considerable improvement of voice quality following RT. Several factors may have specific effects on pre-treatment and post-treatment voice

  19. Quality factor enhancement of Nano electromechanical systems by capacitive driving beyond the resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Barois, T; Poncharal, P; Vincent, Philippe; Ayari, A

    2016-01-01

    Nano electromechanical systems are considered as ultra sensitive devices for mass and force detection. Capacitive actuation is widely used in these devices but is known to degrade the quality factor of the resonator due to DC electrostatic damping. We report the enhancement of the quality factor of SiC vibrating nanowires detected nano optomechanically and electrically by applying an AC capacitive driving at a frequency above both the resonance frequency and the electrical cutoff frequency. Self-oscillations are demonstrated for optimal conditions. We developed an analytical model of the phenomenon and showed that it can lead to an improvement of the force sensitivity. * anthony.ayari@univ-lyon1.fr 1

  20. Quality-Factor Enhancement of Nanoelectromechanical Systems by Capacitive Driving Beyond Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barois, T.; Perisanu, S.; Poncharal, P.; Vincent, P.; Purcell, S. T.; Ayari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems are considered as ultrasensitive devices for mass and force detection. Capacitive actuation is widely used in these devices but is known to degrade the quality factor of the resonator due to dc electrostatic damping. We report the enhancement of the quality factor of SiC vibrating nanowires detected nano-optomechanically and electrically by applying an ac capacitive driving at a frequency above both the resonance frequency and the electrical cutoff frequency. Self-oscillations are demonstrated for optimal conditions. We develop an analytical model of the phenomenon and show that it can lead to an improvement of the force sensitivity.

  1. Relative biological effectiveness of neutrons and conventional values of quality factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hygiene system of irradiation control among other hypotheses and conventions also uses the agreed values of the factors of radiation quality, accepted mainly on the basis of extrapolation and generalization of comparative experiments and irradiation of small experimental animals and cell cultures. There are practically no data on the relative biological effectiveness of the irradiation of man with small doses. The justification is discussed of the extrapolation of RBE of neutrons determined at higher doses and small non-uniformities of irradiation. Also discussed are the frequently appearing views of the necessity of reviewing the recommended values of quality factors. (author)

  2. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  3. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  4. Uncertainties of predicted soil-to-plant transfer factors because of averaging the impact of space, time, local conditions and crop variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript deals with the uncertainties which are associated with the estimates of the mean soil-to-plant transfer factors which are based on the IUR (International Union of Radioecologists) data base. Some features of this project are described. (orig./HP)

  5. Space Radiation Quality Factors and the Delta Ray Dose and Dose-Rate Reduction Effectiveness Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Cacao, Eliedonna; Alp, Murat

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the authors recommend that the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor used for space radiation risk assessments should be based on a comparison of the biological effects of energetic electrons produced along a cosmic ray particles path in low fluence exposures to high dose-rate gamma-ray exposures of doses of about 1 Gy. Methods to implement this approach are described. PMID:26808878

  6. Quality of life of cancer patients - definition, stages of survival and factors of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the review is to represent the state of assessment of quality of life of cancer patients in the investigation of different authors. It is important to know the basic ideas of quality of life during the complex treatment of cancer patients, in order to choose such methods that will lead to an improvement of their living. The definition of the concept 'quality of life', the stages that patients pass and the influencing factors should be familiar to the therapists. Today patients live longer after a complex treatment - it is important how and what challenges they are facing together with their relatives and the medical staff. The attempts to define and measure the quality of life of cancer patients date from the last ten years. This is a social demand to get such medical care, which should be at a certain level leading not only to a longer survival but this life to be of a higher quality. The patients' perceptions and preferences concerning quality of life must be given greater emphasis in cancer treatment decision making which will better his state after a competent explanation of therapists. A quality of life of every patient is as an individual problem as a part of the social health. A classification of the problem of quality of life will enlarge the oncological therapeutic concept

  7. The variation of the tidal quality factor of convective envelopes of rotating low-mass stars along their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, S.

    2015-12-01

    More than 1500 exoplanets have been discovered around a large diversity of host stars (from M- to A-type stars). Tidal dissipation in their convective envelope is a key actor that shapes the orbital architecture of short-period systems and that still remains unknown. Using a simplified two-layer assumption and grids of stellar models, we compute analytically an equivalent modified tidal quality factor, which is proportional to the inverse of the frequency-averaged dissipation due to the viscous friction applied by turbulent convection on tidal waves. It leads the conversion of their kinetic energy into heat and tidal evolution of orbits and spin. During their Pre-Main-Sequence, all low-mass stars have a decrease of the equivalent modified tidal quality factor for a fixed angular velocity of their convective envelope. Next, it evolves on the Main Sequence to an asymptotic value that is minimum for 0.6M_⊙ K-type stars and that increases by several orders of magnitude with increasing stellar mass. Finally, the rotational evolution of low-mass stars strengthens tidal dissipation during the Pre-Main-Sequence.

  8. The variation of the tidal quality factor of convective envelopes of rotating low-mass stars along their evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mathis, S

    2015-01-01

    More than 1500 exoplanets have been discovered around a large diversity of host stars (from M- to A-type stars). Tidal dissipation in their convective envelope is a key actor that shapes the orbital architecture of short-period systems and that still remains unknown. Using a simplified two-layer assumption and grids of stellar models, we compute analytically an equivalent modified tidal quality factor, which is proportional to the inverse of the frequency-averaged dissipation due to the viscous friction applied by turbulent convection on tidal waves. It leads the conversion of their kinetic energy into heat and tidal evolution of orbits and spin. During their Pre-Main-Sequence, all low-mass stars have a decrease of the equivalent modified tidal quality factor for a fixed angular velocity of their convective envelope. Next, it evolves on the Main Sequence to an asymptotic value that is minimum for $0.6M_{\\odot}$ K-type stars and that increases by several orders of magnitude with increasing stellar mass. Finall...

  9. Assessment Scales, Associated Factors and the Quality of Life Score in Pregnant Women in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Farideh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Kariman, Nourossadat

    2016-01-01

    Women experience physical, chemical, endocrine gland and organ changes during pregnancy that limit their activities and reduce their quality of life. The present study was conducted to investigate the quality of life in pregnant women in Iran, the assessment scales used to measure this variable and the factors associated with it.The present study searched databases including Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, Mahiran, IranDoc and Google Scholar using keywords such as pregnant women, Iran, quality of life, pregnancy and prenatal and their Persian equivalents to find relevant articles conducted in Iran and ultimately found 20 articles to review without any regard for their time, language and publication site.Studies conducted in Iran to assess the quality of life in pregnant women have used four tools, including the SF-36, the WHOQOL-BRIEF, the SF-12 and the Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire. The mean quality of life score obtained using these different tools varied from 61.18±13.21 to 66.48±15.57. Social support, socioeconomic status, the pregnancy being wanted, satisfaction with life and sexual function were related directly to the quality of life, while prenatal mental disorders, the severity of pregnancy nausea and vomiting and sleep disorders were related inversely to it.Given the lack of a specific tool designed to assess the quality of life in pregnant women, general tools were used for its assessment. Further studies are thus required to design a specific localized tool and to also assess the relationship between the quality of life and its associated factors. PMID:27241421

  10. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  11. Quality of Life and Its Related Factors of Radiation Therapy Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this master's thesis is to utilize basic data in order to improve the quality of life of cancer patients who received radiation therapy after analysing related factors that influence patient's quality of life and obtaining information about physical, mental problems of patients. By using a structured questionnaire about various characteristics and forms of support, I carried out a survey targeting 107 patients that experienced radiation therapy at a university hospital in the Daejeon metropolitan area from July 15 to August 15, 2010 and analysed the factors influencing quality of life. In case of pain due to disease, 65.15 and painless 81.87 showed a high grade quality of life. As body weight decreases, the quality of life become lower. When the grade of quality of life according to economic characteristics was compared, all items except treatment period showed a difference (P=0.000). When the score of social support, family support, medical support and self-esteem was low, the mark of quality of life showed respectively 61.71, 68.77, 71.31, and 69.39 on the basis of 128 points. When the score of support form was high, the mark of quality of life showed 90.47, 83.29, 90.40, and 90.36 (P<0.05). When analyzing the correlation between social support, family support, medical support and self-esteem and the degree of quality of life, social support was 0.768, family support 0.596, medical support 0.434, self-esteem 0.516. They indicated the correlation of meaningful quantity statistically (P<0.01). The factors that improved the quality of life were married state, having a job and painless status. As monthly income increases, the quality of life was also much improved (P<0.05). Among the factors related to quality of life, social support and medical support and higher self-esteem scores of the quality of life score increased 0.979 point, 0.508 points and 1.667 point, respectively. In conclusion, the quality of life of cancer patients that received

  12. Quality of Life and Its Related Factors of Radiation Therapy Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ryung Mi; Jung, Won Seok; Oh, Byeong Heon; Jo, Jun Young; Kim, Gi Chul; Choi, Tae Gyu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyunghee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sok Goo [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this master's thesis is to utilize basic data in order to improve the quality of life of cancer patients who received radiation therapy after analysing related factors that influence patient's quality of life and obtaining information about physical, mental problems of patients. By using a structured questionnaire about various characteristics and forms of support, I carried out a survey targeting 107 patients that experienced radiation therapy at a university hospital in the Daejeon metropolitan area from July 15 to August 15, 2010 and analysed the factors influencing quality of life. In case of pain due to disease, 65.15 and painless 81.87 showed a high grade quality of life. As body weight decreases, the quality of life become lower. When the grade of quality of life according to economic characteristics was compared, all items except treatment period showed a difference (P=0.000). When the score of social support, family support, medical support and self-esteem was low, the mark of quality of life showed respectively 61.71, 68.77, 71.31, and 69.39 on the basis of 128 points. When the score of support form was high, the mark of quality of life showed 90.47, 83.29, 90.40, and 90.36 (P<0.05). When analyzing the correlation between social support, family support, medical support and self-esteem and the degree of quality of life, social support was 0.768, family support 0.596, medical support 0.434, self-esteem 0.516. They indicated the correlation of meaningful quantity statistically (P<0.01). The factors that improved the quality of life were married state, having a job and painless status. As monthly income increases, the quality of life was also much improved (P<0.05). Among the factors related to quality of life, social support and medical support and higher self-esteem scores of the quality of life score increased 0.979 point, 0.508 points and 1.667 point, respectively. In conclusion, the quality of life of cancer patients that

  13. CORRELATING OBJECTIVE FACTORS WITH VIDEO QUALITY EXPERIENCED BY END USERS ON P2PTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Pham-Thi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To succeed in providing services, the quality of services should meet users’ satisfaction. This is a motivation to study the relationship between the service quality and the real perceived quality of users, which is commonly referred to as the quality of experience (QoE. However, most of existing QoE studies that focus on video-on-demand or IPTV services analyze only the influence of network behaviors to video quality. This paper focuses on P2P video streaming services, which are becoming a significant portion of Internet traffic, and pays attention to the change of users’ perception with the adjustment of objective factors as well as network behaviors. We propose to use mean opinion score and peak signal to noise ratio methods as QoE evaluations to consider the effect of the chunk loss ratio, the group-of-picture size, and the chunk size. The experimental results provide a convincing reference to build the complete relationship between objective factors and QoE. We believe that this assessment will contribute to study a new service quality evaluation mechanism based on users’ satisfaction in the future.

  14. Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA): a study protocol for a nationwide, multilevel analysis of relationships between hospital quality management systems and patient factors

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Natalie; Clay-Williams, Robyn; Hogden, Emily; Pye, Victoria; Li, Zhicheng; Groene, Oliver; Suñol, Rosa; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the growing body of research on quality and safety in healthcare, there is little evidence of the association between the way hospitals are organised for quality and patient factors, limiting our understanding of how to effect large-scale change. The ‘Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia’ (DUQuA) study aims to measure and examine relationships between (1) organisation and department-level quality management systems (QMS), clinician leadership and culture, a...

  15. Investigation of bandwidth, efficiency, and quality factor for circular patch antennas with magneto-dielectric substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This article documents an investigation of the effect of a magneto-dielectric substrate on the performance of a circular patch antenna; in particular, the radiation efficiency, the quality factor, and the bandwidth. Both analytical and numerical methods have been used to model the patch antenna...

  16. Microcrystalline diamond cylindrical resonators with quality-factor up to 0.5 million

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate high quality-factor 1.5 mm diameter batch-fabricated microcrystalline diamond cylindrical resonators (CR) with quality-factors limited by thermoelastic damping (TED) and surface loss. Resonators were fabricated 2.6 and 5.3 μm thick in-situ boron-doped microcrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The quality-factor (Q) of as-fabricated CR's was found to increase with the resonator diameter and diamond thickness. Annealing the CRs at 700 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere led to a three-fold increase in Q, a result we attribute to thinning of the diamond layer via reaction with residual O2 in the annealing furnace. Post-anneal Q exceeding 0.5 million (528 000) was measured at the 19 kHz elliptical wineglass modes, producing a ring-down time of 8.9 s. A model for Q versus diamond thickness and resonance frequency is developed including the effects of TED and surface loss. Measured quality factors are shown to agree with the predictions of this model

  17. Silicon nitride membrane resonators at millikelvin temperatures with quality factors exceeding 10^8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, M.; Cohen, M.A.; Steele, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the mechanical dissipation of the fundamental mode of millimeter-sized, high quality-factor (Q) metalized silicon nitride membranes at temperatures down to 14 mK using a three-dimensional optomechanical cavity. Below 200 mK, high-Q modes of the membranes show a diverging increase of Q with

  18. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

  19. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  20. Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokus, Diane

    2008-01-01

    High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…

  1. Microcrystalline diamond cylindrical resonators with quality-factor up to 0.5 million

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Daisuke; Yang, Chen; Lin, Liwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Heidari, Amir [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Najar, Hadi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Horsley, David A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate high quality-factor 1.5 mm diameter batch-fabricated microcrystalline diamond cylindrical resonators (CR) with quality-factors limited by thermoelastic damping (TED) and surface loss. Resonators were fabricated 2.6 and 5.3 μm thick in-situ boron-doped microcrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The quality-factor (Q) of as-fabricated CR's was found to increase with the resonator diameter and diamond thickness. Annealing the CRs at 700 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere led to a three-fold increase in Q, a result we attribute to thinning of the diamond layer via reaction with residual O{sub 2} in the annealing furnace. Post-anneal Q exceeding 0.5 million (528 000) was measured at the 19 kHz elliptical wineglass modes, producing a ring-down time of 8.9 s. A model for Q versus diamond thickness and resonance frequency is developed including the effects of TED and surface loss. Measured quality factors are shown to agree with the predictions of this model.

  2. Relative Importance of Quality Factors and Determinants in the Selection of Foreign Language Courses in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Miranda de Oliveira Arruda Gomes; Cláudio André Gondim Nogueira; Gilmara Elke Dutra Dias

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a research of the relative importance of quality factors and determinants for the selection of language courses in a virtual environment, according to Lee e Kozar (2006). The method used was the Analytic Hierarchy Process. A survey was carried out with 200 individuals who had experiences with any type of educational service in the virtual environment. The more significant factor was the system’s quality, followed by the quality of service, the quality of the information...

  3. Technical factors of quality management in gamma-ray spectrometry of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of a quality management system is the best way to comply with international requirements concerning the achievement of confident and traceable analytical results. Some important points dealing with the technical factors of quality management in gamma-ray spectrometry of environmental samples are discussed. The experience obtained from analytical procedure validation is presented. Results of the application of standardized procedures to the analysis of ALMERA intercomparison samples, as well as the outcome of the utilization of certified reference materials for the quality control of measurement are presented. In fact, the implantation of simple technical principles reports reliable results and allows to elevate the quality of the measurements at a cost relatively low according to the real possibilities of the small laboratories, even in developing countries. (author)

  4. Health-related quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Which factors are of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, L.; Sørensen, J.; Ostergaard, M.; Hetland, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing joint pain, loss of function and decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL in RA patients is associated with several risk factors; in this paper the evidence relating to the most important risk factors is reviewed....... Modern medical therapy has improved HRQoL in RA patients, while demographic factors (female sex and older age), low socioeconomic status (in terms of education and position in the work force) and the presence of comorbid conditions appear to be associated with poorer HRQoL Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3/3...

  5. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  6. Fractionated irradiation of meningiomas of the optic nerve: the average ocular dose is a predictive factor of the visual function future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As radiotherapy is efficient in terms of tumour growth control in the case of optic nerve meningiomas and allows a stabilization of visual acuity, but as radio-induced toxicity may threaten the functional benefit, the authors report a study which aimed at identifying predictive factors of a pejorative evolution of the visual function for patients submitted to radiotherapy for an optic nerve meningioma. Files of ten patients have been analyzed in terms clinical, radiological and dosimetric aspects. Visual acuity and visual field before and after conformational radiotherapy have been compared by means of the Wilcoxon Rank test. It appears that the visual function future can be threatened by irradiation side effects. Short communication

  7. Factors affecting the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in inpatient units: perception of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clairton Marcos Citolino Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, in the perception of nurses, the factors that affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in adult inpatient units, and investigate the influence of both work shifts and professional experience length of time in the perception of these factors. METHOD A descriptive, exploratory study conducted at a hospital specialized in cardiology and pneumology with the application of a questionnaire to 49 nurses working in inpatient units. RESULTS The majority of nurses reported that the high number of professionals in the scenario (75.5%, the lack of harmony (77.6% or stress of any member of staff (67.3%, lack of material and/or equipment failure (57.1%, lack of familiarity with the emergency trolleys (98.0% and presence of family members at the beginning of the cardiopulmonary arrest assistance (57.1% are factors that adversely affect the quality of care provided during CPR. Professional experience length of time and the shift of nurses did not influence the perception of these factors. CONCLUSION The identification of factors that affect the quality of CPR in the perception of nurses serves as parameter to implement improvements and training of the staff working in inpatient units.

  8. Determination of the principal factors of river water quality through cluster analysis method and its prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang GUO; Ying ZHAO; Peng WANG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network model was built to predict the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODMn) measured by permanganate index in Songhua River. To enhance the prediction accuracy, principal factors were determined through the analysis of the weight relation between influencing factors and forecasting object using cluster analysis method, which optimized the topological structure of the prediction model input items of the artificial neural network. It was shown that application of the principal factors in water quality prediction model can improve its forecasting skill significantly through the comparison between results of prediction by artificial neural network and the measurements of the CODMn. This methodology is also applicable to various water quality prediction targets of other water bodies and it is valuable for theoretical study and practical application.

  9. Using sequential analysis procedures to rank the influencing factors of public work's quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency in management of public work projects, screening and controlling influencing factors affecting the quality of a public work project is essential. This study synthesized 9 influential categories including 91 factors related to quality management of public works in Taiwan using a sequential analysis procedure. According to the Borda-values of influencing factors obtained from a first stage questionnaire, the number of primary factors selected by the responsible entities and the design-supervisory entities were 44 and 45 respectively. A Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP)was used to prioritize and rank these factors. The top five factors ranked by the responsible entities were (1) introduction of the earned value analysis, (2) working efficiency, (3) environmental laws and regulations, (4) price-index fluctuation, and (5) on-site safety management. The top five factors ranked by the design-supervisory entities were (1) man power, (2) laws and regulations, (3)price-index fluctuation, (4) traffic conditions, and (5) faulty design.

  10. Economic cost analysis of service quality as a factor of sustainable development of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko Olena Ivanivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article possibilities of economic analysis are considered in the context of improvement of quality of service and effective realization of the charges related to him. The analysis of existent principles of theory of cognition is conducted, that directly related to the economic analysis of quality. The basic factors of forming and improvement of functioning of quality of service for providing of competitiveness subjects of ménage are considered at the market of commodities in the state and after his limits. There were determined the main factors, which affect the sum and level of spending on quality of service. It is well-proven that charges on quality of service are a difficult economic category, and the mainly existent methods of account and accounting do not allow directly and exactly to select such charges of enterprise structures. It is for this purpose necessary to conduct the concrete and detailed (empiric analysis of structure of charges and its elements.

  11. Understanding critical factors for the quality and shelf-life of MAP fresh meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preeti; Wani, Ali Abas; Saengerlaub, Sven; Langowski, Horst-Christian

    2011-02-01

    Due to increased demands for greater stringency in relation to hygiene and safety issues associated with fresh food products, coupled with ever-increasing demands by retailers for cost-effective extensions to product shelf-lives and the requirement to meet consumer expectations in relation to convenience and quality, the food packaging industry has rapidly developed to meet and satisfy expectations. One of the areas of research that has shown promise, and had success, is modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The success of MAP-fresh meat depends on many factors including good initial product quality, good hygiene from the source plants, correct packaging material selection, the appropriate gas mix for the product, reliable packaging equipment, and maintenance of controlled temperatures and humidity levels. Advances in plastic materials and equipment have propelled advances in MAP, but other technological and logistical considerations are needed for successful MAP systems for raw chilled meat. Although several parameters critical for the quality of MA packed meat have been studied and each found to be crucial, understanding of the interactions between the parameters is needed. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely available, scattered information about the various integrated critical factors responsible for the quality and shelf life of MA packed meat with an interest to stimulate further research to optimize different quality parameters. PMID:21328110

  12. Risk factors for voice quality after radiotherapy for early glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: In the majority of patients irradiated for early glottic cancer an abnormal voice was reported. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors influencing voice quality after radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancer. Methods: The voices of 75 male patients irradiated for T1 glottic carcinoma were assessed subjectively and objectively by acoustic analyses and aerodynamic measurements. The laryngeal function and morphology were evaluated by videolaryngostroboscopy. The data on smoking habits, the associated diseases influencing voice quality, the extent of the tumor, the type of biopsy, and the irradiation technique were collected from the medical records. The data on the factors influencing voice quality were compared for patients with a normal/near-normal voice and those with a hoarse voice. Results: Voice quality was at least slightly abnormal in 94.7% and 81.3% of patients, when assessed perceptively and objectively, respectively. Smoking after the completed treatment, more severe morphologic alterations of the vocal folds, dryness of the throat, incomplete closure of the vocal folds and functional voice disorders expressed as supraglottic activity adversely influenced the voice quality. A good correlation between the perceptive voice assessment and the acoustic analyses was established. Conclusions: After the successful irradiation for T1 glottic carcinoma, the great majority of the patients have at least a slightly hoarse voice. A better voice outcome could be achieved if radiotherapy was followed by the patient's cessation of smoking and the appropriate voice therapy.

  13. Average-energy games

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyer, Patricia; Markey, Nicolas; Randour, Mickael; Larsen, Kim G.; Laursen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this ...

  14. Assessment of the effect of quality factors on the assortment structure in poplar plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality factors affecting the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations were researched on nine temporary sample plots in the period 1997-2004, from the aspect of the implementation of roundwood standards. Sample plots were selected depending on the factors, the effect of which was studied. The following factors were researched: clonal species, planting pattern, flood risk, pruning of branches, plantation position and age. The study was performed by the original methodology. Based on the study results, it is concluded that knots have the highest effect on the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations, regardless of the site and stand conditions. Their effect rises significantly with the increase of tree diameter. Also, the analyses show that the number of large and rotten knots on the tree trunk increases considerably with the older age. In the flooded area, the sweep of the lower part of the stem is more intensive and multiple curvatures are frequent on the trees growing immediately along the river, whereas curvature decreases with the distance from the river bank. Based on the study results, it is concluded that the percentage of best quality assortments is considerably reduced by the above wood defects.

  15. The relationship between risk factors for falling and the quality of life in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdirenc Mehtap

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are one of the major health problems that effect the quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between quality of life (Short Form-12 and the risk factors of falls (balance, functional mobility, proprioception, muscle strength, flexibility and fear of falling in older adults. Methods One hundred sixteen people aged 65 or older and living in the T.C. Emekli Sandigi Narlidere nursing home participated in the study. Balance (Berg Balance test, functional mobility (Timed Up and Go, proprioception (joint position sense, muscle strength (back/leg dynamometer, flexibility (sit and reach and fear of falling (Visual Analogue Scale were assessed as risk factors for falls. The quality of life was measured by Short Form-12 (SF-12. Results A strong positive correlation was observed between Physical Health Component Summary of SF-12, General Health Perception and balance, muscle strength. Proprioception and flexibility did not correlated with SF-12 (p > 0.05. There was negative correlation between Physical Health Component Summary of SF-12, General Health Perception and fear of falling, functional mobility (p Conclusion We concluded that the risk factors for falls (balance, functional mobility, muscle strength, fear of falling in older adults are associated with quality of life while flexibility and proprioception are not.

  16. Influence of some Terroir Viticole Factors on Quantity and Quality of Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana G. ROTARU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available High wine quality can be only achieved with an appropriate vineyard management. However a lot of other factors will play also a decisive role: climate, soil, topography, micro-climate, human factors genetics, environmental and technological factors a.s.o.. Since years exists a discussion about the influence of the pedo-climatic system on wine quality. It can be summarized as terroir. The purpose of this study is to delimit some micro-areas in the Cotnari region which warrant the production of a certain type of wine, a quality. This is the first study attempting to characterize the terroir concept for Cotnari vineyards. It is applied on the behavior of traditional varieties of wine grapes grown in the region: Grasa de Cotnari, Feteasca alba, Francusa and Tamaioasa romaneasca. In a first run it was found out that the two Natural territorial base unit exert a distinct influence yield, sugar content and must acidity. This system has to be improved with further research in order to judge the vineyards in that region more precisely. The results of this study can be used to determine with precision micro-areas that will produce quality wines.

  17. Factors in pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candek-Potokar, M; Skrlep, M

    2012-02-01

    This study reviews the factors of pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham. When processing is standardized, the quality of the final dry-cured product is primarily determined by the quality of the meat before curing (green ham). This has been defined as the aptitude for seasoning and is determined by the green ham weight, adipose tissue quantity and quality, meat physico-chemical properties and the absence of visual defects. Various ante-mortem factors including pig age and weight, genetic type, diet, feeding strategy and slaughter conditions determine green ham properties such as the dynamics of water loss, salt intake and, as a consequence, proteolysis and lipolysis. Muscle conditions (pH, salt concentration, water content and availability, temperature) influence enzymatic activity and development of characteristic texture and flavor. Generally, hams of older and heavier pigs present better seasoning aptitude because of higher adiposity. Adiposity is also positively correlated with fat saturation, which is desired to avoid rancidity and oiliness. The fatty acid profile of tissue lipids can be manipulated by diet composition. Feeding strategy affects tissue accretion and protein turnover, thus directly impacting proteolysis. With respect to the impact of pig genotype on dry-cured ham quality, local breeds are generally considered more suitable for producing quality dry hams; however, the majority of dry-cured hams on the market today are from modern pig breeds raised in conventional systems, providing lean hams. The importance of all these factors of pig production is discussed and synthesized, with an emphasis on the main difficulties encountered in dry-cured ham production. PMID:22436192

  18. Nanotube mechanical resonators with quality factors of up to 5 million

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Joel; Eichler, Alexander; Güttinger, Johannes; Dykman, Mark I.; Bachtold, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube mechanical resonators have attracted considerable interest because of their small mass, the high quality of their surface, and the pristine electronic states they host. However, their small dimensions result in fragile vibrational states that are difficult to measure. Here we observe quality factors $Q$ as high as $5\\times10^6$ in ultra-clean nanotube resonators at a cryostat temperature of 30 mK, where we define $Q$ as the ratio of the resonant frequency over the linewidth. M...

  19. Eleven influential factors for quality of life in adults with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongge Wang; Hao Wang; Jianhua Cheng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research focused on the quality of life of epileptic patients began only very recently in China; in particular, most research has focused on children, but less on epileptic adults.OBJECTIVE: To survey and analyze 11 influential factors for quality of life in adults with epilepsy by using quality of life epilepsy-31 scale.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Hospital Affiliated to Jinan University; Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 107 adults with epilepsy for longer than one year were selected from Department of Neurology, First Hospital Affiliated to Jinan University between March 2004 and December 2006. The included patients met the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Epileptic Attack published by International Anti-Epilepsy League in 1981, and they provided informed consent. METHODS: General states, including course, attack frequency, marriage status, educational level, occupational types, economic status, attack types, drug types, and drug amount, were recorded. There were seven aspects in the Quality of Life Epilepsy-31 scale, including attack worry, life satisfaction, emotion, vigor/tiredness, drug influence, cognitive function, and social function. The scores positively correlated with the quality of life. Possible influential factors for quality of life were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and multivariate regression analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Course, attack frequency, marriage status, educational level, occupational types, economic status, attack types, drug types, drug amount, age, and sex.RESULTS: A total of 107 epileptic patients were included in the final analysis. Influential factors for quality of life in epileptic adults included attack frequency, educational level, economic status, attack types, drug amount, age, and course of disease (P < 0.05). Among them, attack frequency negatively correlated with attack worry, life

  20. Society demands for the quality of education as a factor of modern education space forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors research the problems of increasing in modern conditions society demands for qualitative characteristics of education services. The quality of education is considered as one of the determining factors of forming educational space. The paper analyzes the influence of social and economic conditions inherent in the post-industrial era on forming and transforming of education space at the modern stage of society development, shows the ways to overcome emerging contradictions. The authors pay special attention to the significance of project approach in solving the problems of improving education quality.

  1. An Investigation into the Relationship between Audit Quality and Its Factors: Evidence from the FTSE 100

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, M

    2013-01-01

    The subject of the paper is to investigate the relationship between audit quality and its factors (including the audit client size, capital structure, audit fees, non-audit service fees, Big 4, firm tenure and cash from operations) during the financial crisis. The data of FTSE 100 from 2007 to 2011 will be selected as a sample for the study. Here the discretionary accruals as the proxy for audit quality will be calculated by Jones model and modified Jones model. Based on the prior studies, th...

  2. Association between quality of the diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida Ventura, Danyelle; de Matos Fonseca, Vânia; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves; Marinheiro, Lizanka Paola Figueiredo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; de Miranda Chaves, Celia Regina Moutinho; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques

    2014-01-01

    Background Climateric is a phase of women’s life marked by the transition from the reproductive to the non-reproductive period. In addition to overall weight gain, the menopause is also associated with the increase of abdominal fat. We used The Healthy Eating Index as a summary measure to evaluate the major components and the quality of women’s diet after the onset of the menopause. This study aims at examining the association between the quality of the diet and cardiometabolic risk factors i...

  3. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... natural approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  4. Average Angular Velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Essen, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to th...

  5. On the Averaging Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Fibich, Gadi; Gavious, Arieh; Solan, Eilon

    2012-01-01

    Typically, models with a heterogeneous property are considerably harder to analyze than the corresponding homogeneous models, in which the heterogeneous property is replaced with its average value. In this study we show that any outcome of a heterogeneous model that satisfies the two properties of differentiability and interchangibility is O(\\epsilon^2) equivalent to the outcome of the corresponding homogeneous model, where \\epsilon is the level of heterogeneity. We then use this averaging pr...

  6. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... natural approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  7. Averaged extreme regression quantile

    OpenAIRE

    Jureckova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Various events in the nature, economics and in other areas force us to combine the study of extremes with regression and other methods. A useful tool for reducing the role of nuisance regression, while we are interested in the shape or tails of the basic distribution, is provided by the averaged regression quantile and namely by the average extreme regression quantile. Both are weighted means of regression quantile components, with weights depending on the regressors. Our primary interest is ...

  8. Quality-factor amplification in piezoelectric MEMS resonators applying an all-electrical feedback loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An all-electrical velocity feedback control to enhance the quality factor of piezoelectric aluminium nitride (AlN)-based microcantilevers and microbridges was implemented. Two alternatives to obtain a velocity-proportional signal were demonstrated depending on the top electrode configuration. For a straightforward electrode design in one-port configuration (i.e. self-actuation and self-sensing), a velocity signal, proportional to the piezoelectric current, was used in the feedback loop by cancelling out the dielectric current electronically. For top electrodes allowing a two-port configuration (i.e. one for actuation and one for sensing), the piezoelectric current is directly extracted and its relationship with velocity is analysed taking the symmetry of the modal shape into account. Standard operational amplifier-based configurations for the feedback circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board. Quality factors were determined from the transient electrical response of the devices. Comparable results were obtained from the displacement spectrum applying a laser Doppler vibrometer. Quality factors as high as 2 × 105, corresponding to an enhancement factor of about 200, were achieved in air for the lowest gain margin achievable before the circuit becomes unstable, making this kind of device more competitive for mass sensor applications due to enhanced spectral resolution.

  9. Factors Influencing RNs' Perceptions of Quality Geriatric Care in Rural Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Daniel D; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Kovner, Christine; Boltz, Marie; Kolanowski, Ann; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    The rapidly aging population and their frequent use of hospital services will create substantial quality challenges in the near future. Redesigning rural hospital work environments is the key to improving the quality of care for older adults. This study explored how the work environment influences registered nurses' (RNs') perceived quality of geriatric care in rural hospitals. We used an exploratory mixed-methods research design emphasizing the qualitative data (in-depth, semi-structured interviews). Quantitative data (questionnaire) measuring the RN work environment were also collected to augment qualitative data. Four themes emerged: (a) collegial RN relationships, (b) poor staffing/utilization, (c) technology benefits/challenges, and (d) RN-physician interactions, which were identified as key factors influencing the quality of geriatric care. We concluded that rural hospital work environments may not be optimized to facilitate the delivery of quality geriatric care. Targeted interventions are needed to improve overall quality of care for hospitalized older adults in rural settings. PMID:24319004

  10. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (pfoods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies. PMID:25516329

  11. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan. PMID:25369921

  12. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    OpenAIRE

    Beverley G. Hope; Zhiru Li

    2004-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that a...

  13. Sex, Race, and the Quality of Life Factors Most Important to Patients’ Well-Being Among Those Seeking Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Roger B.; Jones, Dan B.; Apovian, Caroline A.; Chiodi, Sarah; Huskey, Karen W.; Hamel, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests obesity-related social stigma and impairment in work function may be the two most detrimental quality of life (QOL) factors to overall well-being among patients seeking weight loss surgery (WLS); whether the relative importance of QOL factors varies across patient sex and race/ethnicity is unclear. Methods We interviewed 574 patients seeking WLS at two centers. We measured patient’s health utility (preference-based well-being measure) as determined via standard gamble scenarios assessing patients’ willingness to risk death to achieve weight loss or perfect health. Multivariable models assessed associations between patients’ utility and five weight-related QOL domains stratified by gender and race: social stigma, self-esteem, physical function, public distress (weight stigma), and work life. Results Depending on patients’ sex and race/ethnicity, mean utilities ranged from 0.85 to 0.91, reflecting an average willingness to assume a 9–15 % risk of death to achieve their most desired health/weight state. After adjustment, African Americans (AAs) reported higher utility than Caucasians (+ 0.054, p=0.03), but utilities did not vary significantly by sex. Among Caucasian and AA men, impairment in physical functioning was the most important factor associated with diminished utility; social stigma was also a leading factor for Caucasian men. Among Caucasian women, self-esteem and work function appeared equally important. Social stigma was the leading contributor to utility among AA women; QOL factors did not appear as important among Hispanic patients. Conclusion AAs reported higher utilities than Caucasian patients. Individual QOL domains that drive diminished well-being varied across race/ethnicity and sex. PMID:26630951

  14. Hybrid Active-Passive Microwave Photonic Filter with High Quality Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid high quality factor (Q-factor) microwave photonic filter with a cascaded active filter and a passive filter is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The active infinite impulse response filter is realized by a recirculating delay line loop with a semiconductor optical amplifier, and a much narrower 3 dB bandwidth of response peaks can be achieved. A passive finite impulse response filter is realized by an unbalance Mach–Zehnder interferometer, and it is cascaded to select the desired filter frequencies and to suppress the intermediate peaks. Compared with the purely active filter scheme, the free spectrum range and the Q-factor of the hybrid structure can be doubled. Stable operation and a high Q-factor of 362 are experimentally demonstrated

  15. Measurement of mechanical quality factors of polymers in flexural vibration for high-power ultrasonic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tabaru, Marie; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    A method for measuring the mechanical quality factor (Q factor) of materials in large-amplitude flexural vibrations was devised on the basis of the original definition of the Q factor. The Q factor, the ratio of the reactive energy to the dissipated energy, was calculated from the vibration velocity distribution. The bar thickness was selected considering the effect of the thickness on the estimation error. In the experimental setup, a 1-mm-thick polymer-based bar was used as a sample and fixed on the top of a longitudinal transducer. Using transducers of different lengths, flexural waves in the frequency range of 20-90kHz were generated on the bar. The vibration strain in the experiment reached 0.06%. According to the Bernoulli-Euler model, the reactive energy and dissipated energy were estimated from the vertical velocity distribution on the bar, and the Q factors were measured as the driving frequency and strain were varied. The experimental results showed that the Q factors decrease as the driving frequencies and strains increase. At a frequency of 28.30kHz, the Q factor of poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) reached approximately 460 when the strain was smaller than 0.005%. PPS exhibited a much higher Q factor than the other tested polymers, which implies that it is a potentially applicable material as the elastomer for high-power ultrasonic devices. PMID:27065470

  16. Quality of Life and the Associated Psychological Factors in Caregivers of Children with PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Alirezaei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the association of psychological factors and life stressors with quality of life in caregivers of children with PKU. "nMethods: Participants were caregivers of children with PKU who were referred to a child and adolescent consultation-liaison psychiatry clinic for a clinical follow up. Their demographic characteristics were recorded at first. WHOQOL-BREF and Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS were used to assess quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress in participants. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-11.5 statistical software. "nResults: A total number of 49 caregivers were enrolled for the study. The mean age of participants and their children were 35.63±8.82, and 9.84±6.62 respectively.  Of the participants, 59.2% were mothers and 40.8% were fathers. Of the children, 51% were girls and 49% were boys. According to the results, 57.1, 50.1 and 57.1 percent of the participants had mild to severe levels of depression, anxiety and stress scores respectively. The most associated factors with quality of life were as follows: caregivers' occupation; anxiety; and depression mean scores. "nConclusion: Results of the current study showed that caregivers of children with PKU have lower levels of quality of life in comparison with the general population; and the most correlated factors with quality of life were the caregivers' occupation (especially unemployment , and high levels of depression and anxiety.

  17. Beam quality conversion factors for parallel-plate ionization chambers in MV photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of plane-parallel ion chambers in high-energy photon beams through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Ten plane-parallel ion chamber types were obtained from the major ion chamber manufacturers. Absorbed dose-to-water calibration coefficients are measured for these chambers and k{sub Q} factors are determined. In the process, the behaviors of the chambers are characterized through measurements of leakage currents, chamber settling in cobalt-60, polarity and ion recombination behavior, and long-term stability. Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose to the air in the ion chamber and absorbed dose to water are obtained to calculate k{sub Q} factors. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors are investigated by varying material properties and chamber dimensions. Results: Chamber behavior was variable in MV photon beams, especially with regard to chamber leakage and ion recombination. The plane-parallel chambers did not perform as well as cylindrical chambers. Significant differences up to 1.5% were observed in calibration coefficients after a period of eight months although k{sub Q} factors were consistent on average within 0.17%. Chamber-to-chamber variations in k{sub Q} factors for chambers of the same type were at the 0.2% level. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors ranged between 0.34% and 0.50% depending on the chamber type. Average percent differences between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors were - 0.02%, 0.18%, and - 0.16% for 6, 10, and 25 MV beams, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent agreement is observed on average at the 0.2% level between measured and Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors. Measurements indicate that the behavior of these chambers is not adequate for their use for reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams without a more extensive QA program than currently used for cylindrical reference-class ion chambers.

  18. Beam quality conversion factors for parallel-plate ionization chambers in MV photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of plane-parallel ion chambers in high-energy photon beams through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Ten plane-parallel ion chamber types were obtained from the major ion chamber manufacturers. Absorbed dose-to-water calibration coefficients are measured for these chambers and kQ factors are determined. In the process, the behaviors of the chambers are characterized through measurements of leakage currents, chamber settling in cobalt-60, polarity and ion recombination behavior, and long-term stability. Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose to the air in the ion chamber and absorbed dose to water are obtained to calculate kQ factors. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated kQ factors are investigated by varying material properties and chamber dimensions. Results: Chamber behavior was variable in MV photon beams, especially with regard to chamber leakage and ion recombination. The plane-parallel chambers did not perform as well as cylindrical chambers. Significant differences up to 1.5% were observed in calibration coefficients after a period of eight months although kQ factors were consistent on average within 0.17%. Chamber-to-chamber variations in kQ factors for chambers of the same type were at the 0.2% level. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated kQ factors ranged between 0.34% and 0.50% depending on the chamber type. Average percent differences between measured and calculated kQ factors were - 0.02%, 0.18%, and - 0.16% for 6, 10, and 25 MV beams, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent agreement is observed on average at the 0.2% level between measured and Monte Carlo calculated kQ factors. Measurements indicate that the behavior of these chambers is not adequate for their use for reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams without a more extensive QA program than currently used for cylindrical reference-class ion chambers.

  19. Measurement of a high electrical quality factor in a niobium resonator for a gravitational radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical quality factors of a 10-g niobium resonator were measured at 4.4 K and were found to be 8.1 x 10 to the 6th, and 3.8 x 10 to the 6th, respectively. The value for the electrical quality factor is high enough for a system operating at 50 mK at a sensitivity level of one phonon. The resonator's low damping properties make it suitable for use as a transducer for a cryogenic three-mode gravitational radiation detector. A practical design is given for the mounting of the resonator on a 2400-kg aluminum-bar detector. Projections are made for the sensitivity of a 2400-kg bar instrumented as a three-mode system with this resonator inductively coupled to a SQUID.

  20. High quality factor nanophotonic resonators in bulk rare-earth doped crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tian; Rochman, Jake; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-11

    Numerous bulk crystalline materials exhibit attractive nonlinear and luminescent properties for classical and quantum optical applications. A chip-scale platform for high quality factor optical nanocavities in these materials will enable new optoelectronic devices and quantum light-matter interfaces. In this article, photonic crystal nanobeam resonators fabricated using focused ion beam milling in bulk insulators, such as rare-earth doped yttrium orthosilicate and yttrium vanadate, are demonstrated. Operation in the visible, near infrared, and telecom wavelengths with quality factors up to 27,000 and optical mode volumes close to one cubic wavelength is measured. These devices enable new nanolasers, on-chip quantum optical memories, single photon sources, and non-linear devices at low photon numbers based on rare-earth ions. The techniques are also applicable to other luminescent centers and crystal. PMID:26832284

  1. Normal modes and quality factors of spherical dielectric resonators: I — Shielded dielectric sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R A Yadav; I D Singh

    2004-06-01

    Electromagnetic theoretic analysis of shielded homogeneous and isotropic dielectric spheres has been made. Characteristic equations for the TE and TM modes have been derived. Dielectric spheres of radii of the order of $$m size are found suitable for the optical frequency region whereas for the microwave region radii of the order of mm size are found suitable. Parameters suitable for their application in the optical and microwave frequency ranges have been used to compute the frequencies corresponding to the normal modes for the TE and TM modes. Expressions for the quality factors for realistic resonators, i.e., for a dielectric sphere with a non-zero conductivity and a metal shield with a finite conductivity have also been derived for the TE and TM modes. Computations of the quality factors have been made for resonators with parameters suitable for the optical and the microwave regions.

  2. High quality factor nanophotonic resonators in bulk rare-earth doped crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Numerous bulk crystalline materials exhibit attractive nonlinear and luminescent properties for classical and quantum optical applications. A chip-scale platform for high quality factor optical nanocavities in these materials will enable new optoelectronic devices and quantum light-matter interfaces. In this article, photonic crystal nanobeam resonators fabricated using focused ion beam milling in bulk insulators, such as rare-earth doped yttrium orthosilicate and yttrium vanadate, are demonstrated. Operation in the visible, near infrared, and telecom wavelengths with quality factors up to 27,000 and optical mode volumes close to one cubic wavelength is measured. These devices enable new nanolasers, on-chip quantum optical memories, single photon sources, and non-linear devices at low photon numbers based on rare-earth ions. The techniques are also applicable to other luminescent centers and crystals.

  3. Mode of allocation and social demographic factors correlate with impaired quality of life after liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Heits, Nils; Meer, Gunnar; Bernsmeier, Alexander; Guenther, Rainer; Malchow, Bjoern; Kuechler, Thomas; Becker, Thomas; Braun, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related Quality of life (HRQoL) is a major goal of clinical management after liver transplantation (LTx). There is still disagreement on the effects of social-demographic factors and changes in the allocation system on HRQoL. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social-demographic factors, mode of organ-allocation, waiting time and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on HRQoL after LTx. Methods HRQoL was assessed using the EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire, which was sen...

  4. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polish...

  5. [Factors to be considered in the production and introduction of high-quality protein foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, J F

    1980-03-01

    A wide variety of factors can influence the development, production and introduction of high-quality protein foods in a given country. Such factors can be grouped in three main areas: I. Factors depending upon the country itself. II. Factors related with the identity of the food and III. Factors inherent to the consumer. The role of the food industry and of the government are discussed in area I, and such aspects as improvement of staples, availability of raw materials, health programs and energy crisis are briefly commented. Area II covers product identity in relation to used ingredients. Nutritional quality and requirements as well as the danger of increasing the price of the product after being in the market are briefly discussed. The consumer's attitude, preferences and personal reactions towards the presentation of the food are covered in area III. Also marketing approach, promotion, labels and possible influence of the name are discussed. The launching of "incaparina" in Venezuela in 1964 and the reasons for its failure are commented from the different points of view covered in the above sections. PMID:7447587

  6. Study into the Applicability of Laser Beam Quality Factor M2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; TIAN Xiao-hong; XIN Jian-guo

    2006-01-01

    The applicable condition of single-frequency laser beam quality factor M2 is studied. Any real single-frequency laser beam can be classified as Gaussian mode and non-Gaussian mode according to the transverse field distribution. Non-Gaussian transverse field distribution can be analytically expressed as the sum of Hermite-Gaussian functions. The propagation function and M2 factor expression for non-Gaussian mode can be obtained by the second moment definition of laser beam spot. The analytical results show, the same as that of Gaussian mode, that the propagation function follows the hyperbolic law and the value of M2 factor is a constant for non-Gaussian mode. But, different non-Gaussian field distributions may have the same M2 value. That means M2 factor cannot reflect the quality of non-Gaussian laser beams correctly. We conclude that the M2 factor is applicable only to ideal Gaussian laser beam generated by stable resonators.

  7. INFLUENCE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION FACTORS IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS QUALITY FOR THE USER SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel de la Garza Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence range of the organizational, planning and technical factors within the information quality, system quality and information systems services quality, in the user satisfaction, based on the designed model research for this purpose. The empirical study takes place in six Higher Education Institutes (94 questionnaires by the Partial Least Square statistic tool. The results has shown that Organizational Factor (information needs, management support, institutional objectives satisfaction is which has the most impact because its high correlation value (R=0.624; R=0.435 yR=0.428 and significance (p<0.001, p<0.01 and p<0.01 in the three raised hypotheses, taking into consideration an explained variance of 78.8% in the User Satisfaction. In the same way, with the quality in general, the users think that the information systems help to satisfy their information needs and increase their productivity into making decisions in their jobs.

  8. Quality of life and its influencing factors in patients with posttraumatic epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Song-yan; HAN Xue-mei; YAN Ya-yun; SUN Bo-jian; CHANG Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the quality of life in patients with post-traumatic epilepsy and discuss the influencing factors.Methods: We assessed 105 patients with post-traumatic epilepsy and 100 healthy people as control using Quality of Life Scale-31 (QOL-31), Self-rating Depressing Scale (SDS) and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and conducted retrospective analysis on the depression, anxiety, site of trauma, control of seizure, EEG and therapeutic compliance.Results: Patients with post-traumatic epilepsy scored much lower than the control group on QOL-31 (P<0.01), but higher than the control group on SDS and SAS (P<0.01).Multiple regression analysis indicated that major influencing factors on the quality of life were anxiety, therapeutic compliance, depression, poor control of epileptic seizure and site of trauma.Conclusions: The quality of life in patients with posttraumatic epilepsy has significantly declined. Doctors should pay attention to psychological and mental problems of patients with epilepsy, such as depression and anxiety,enhancing therapeutic compliance and controlling epileptic seizure, which are the keys to improving prognosis.

  9. A Power Factor Corrected SMPS with Improved Power Quality for Welding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Swati; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Pandey, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of a power factor corrected Arc Welding Power Supply (AWPS) with a boost converter at the front end and three full-bridge (FB) converters connected in parallel at the load end. The modular arrangement of the FB converters offers several meritorious features like usage of power devices with comparatively lower voltage and current ratings, ease of power expandability, easy maintenance, etc. The boost converter operates in continuous conduction mode minimizing the input current ripple and leading to the lowest RMS current thereby improving the input power quality. Individual control loops are designed for each power stage. A dual loop control scheme is employed to incorporate over-current limit on the proposed AWPS which ensures excellent weld bead quality. The proposed AWPS is implemented to validate its performance over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm its fast parametrical response to load and source voltage variations and over-current protection leading to improved welding performance and weld bead quality. The system is found to perform extremely well with very low input current THD and unity power factor, adhering to international power quality norms.

  10. What factors have an influence on a quality teaching practice in Sciences?

    OpenAIRE

    Solbes Matarredona, Jordi; Furió Más, Carlos; Domínguez Sales, María Consuelo; Fernández, J.; Tarín, Francisco; Guisasola Aranzábal, Jenaro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to know to what extent in-service teachers who have not participated in science teaching training courses neither have performed any research in this field develop a quality teaching practice and what factors have influenced to achieve it. Questionnaires and non-participating observation protocols about the classroom work have been used as well as semi-structured interviews with a sample of teachers to obtain data. These instruments try to characterize the teaching ac...

  11. 3D microwave cavity with magnetic flux control and enhanced quality factor

    OpenAIRE

    Reshitnyk, Yarema; Jerger, Markus; Fedorov, Arkady

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) superconducting microwave cavities with large mode volumes typically have high quality factors ($>10^6$). This is due to a reduced sensitivity to surface dielectric losses, which is the limiting source of dissipation in two-dimensional transmission line resonators. In recent years, 3D microwave cavities have been extensively used for coupling and interacting with superconducting quantum bits (qubits), providing a versatile platform for quantum information processing and...

  12. Factors affecting the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Sema Üstündag; Ayten Demir Zencirci

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS) and analyzed via basi...

  13. Quality of Life and Influential Factors in Patients Implanted With a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Naoko P; Okada, Ikuko; Imamura, Teruhiko; Kagami, Yukie; Endo, Miyoko; Nitta, Daisuke; Fujino, Takeo; Muraoka, Hironori; Minatsuki, Shun; Maki, Hisataka; Inaba, Toshiro; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Hatano, Masaru; Yao, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improving quality of life (QOL) has become an important goal in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy. We aimed (1) to assess the effect of an implantable LVAD on patients QOL, (2) to compare LVAD patients QOL to that of patients in different stages of heart failure (HF), and (3) to identify factors associated with patients QOL. Methods and Results: The QOL of 33 Japanese implantable LVAD patients was assessed using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (ML...

  14. Fear of Falling in Subacute Hemiplegic Stroke Patients: Associating Factors and Correlations with Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Doo Young; Kim, Wan Ho; Lee, Kwang Lae; Yoon, Yong Hoon; Park, Jeong Mi; Shin, Jung In; Kim, Seong Kyu; Kim, Dong Goo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the associating factors of fear of falling (FOF) and the correlations between FOF and quality of life (QOL) on subacute stroke patients in Korea. Method Fifty hemiplegic subacute stroke patients in our clinic were recruited. We directly asked patients with their fear of falling and interviewed them with the Korean version of falls efficacy scale-international (KFES-I). We divided the participants into two groups; with FOF and without FOF. We compared these groups with t...

  15. Demographic factors affecting quality of life of hemodialysis patients – Lahore, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anees, Muhammad; Malik, Muzammil Riaz; Abbasi, Tanzeel; Nasir, Zeeshan; Hussain, Yasir; Ibrahim, Muhamamd

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the demographic factors affecting Quality Of Life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. Patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and on maintenance HD for more than three months were included during the period March to June 2012. Patient of ESRD not on dialysis and Acute Renal Failure were excluded. One hundred and twenty five patients who fulfilled the criteri...

  16. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diet Quality in a Working Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn; Kenneth L Brigham

    2013-01-01

    The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult population. Participants (N= 640) were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study and characterized by a mean age of 48(SD = 11) years, 67% women, and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices...

  17. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins de; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Pereira, Luciano José; Maria Letícia RAMOS-JORGE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. Material and Methods Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the s...

  18. Socio-Cultural Factor As Determinant of Female Leadership Quality; Implications for Human Resource Development

    OpenAIRE

    ABOLADE Dupe Adesubomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of socio-cultural factors on the leadership quality of male and female leaders in work organisations that could enhance organisational effectiveness. A descriptive survey research design method was adopted for the study. One hundred and fifty respondents from five purposefully selected work organisations were selected for the study, thirty randomly selected respondents from each workplace. 145 well filled questionnaires out of the 150 were used for data a...

  19. Were medicine quality and pharmaceutical management contributing factors in diminishing artemisinin efficacy in Guyana and Suriname?

    OpenAIRE

    Pribluda, Victor S; Evans, Lawrence; Barillas, Edgar; Marmion, John; Lukulay, Patrick; Chang, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname unveiled diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. The migrant characteristics of the population at risk and the potential development of resistance pose a serious health threat in the region. Assessment of factors that may have contributed to this situation is warranted, and analysis of the data generated in those countries on quality and pharmaceutical managements of anti-malarials may contribute to a better ...

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life and its Predictive Factors among Infertile Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi, Sekineh; Kamalifard, Mahin; Mahzad Sedaghiani, Mehrzad; Montazeri, Ali; Dehghanpour Mohammadian, Elham

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aimed to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its predictive factors among infertile women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on infertile women referring to Majidi Infertility Center (Tabriz, Iran). The data was collected through self-administered questionnaires including clinical and demographic characteristics and the Persian version of 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). One-sample t-test, independent ...

  1. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Barrow, John D.; Tsagas, Christos G.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of pressure-free Bianchi-type models. Adopting the Buchert averaging scheme, we identify the kinematic backreaction effects by focussing on spacetimes with zero or isotropic spatial curvature. This allows us to close the system of the standard scalar formulae with a propagation equation for the shear magnitude. We find no change in the already known conditions for accelerated expansion. The backreaction terms are expressed as algebraic relations between the mean-square fluctuations of the models' irreducible kinematical variables. Based on these we investigate the early evolution of averaged vacuum Bianchi type $I$ universes and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. We also discuss the possibility of accelerated expansion due to ...

  2. Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.

  3. Physics and material science of ultra-high quality factor superconducting resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrogen doping into niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity walls aiming to improve the fundamental mode quality factor is the subject of the research in the given work. Quantitative nitrogen diffusion into niobium model calculating the concentration profile was developed. The model estimations were confirmed with secondary ion mass spectrometry technique measurements. The model made controlled nitrogen doping recipe optimization possible. As a result the robust reproducible recipe for SRF cavity walls treatment with nitrogen doping was developed. The cavities produced with optimized recipe met LCLS-II requirements on quality factor of 2.7 · 1010 at acceleration field of 16 MV/m. The microscopic effects of nitrogen doping on superconducting niobium properties were studied with low energy muon spin rotation technique and magnetometer measurements. No significant effect of nitrogen on the following features was found: electron mean free path, magnetic field penetration depth, and upper and surface critical magnetic fields. It was detected that for nitrogen doped niobium samples magnetic flux starts to penetrate inside the superconductor at lower external magnetic field value compared to the low temperature baked niobium ones. This explains lower quench field of SRF cavities treated with nitrogen. Quality factor improvement of fundamental mode forced to analyze the high order mode (HOM) impact on the particle beam dynamics. Both resonant and cumulative effects caused by monopole and dipole HOMs respectively are found to be negligible within the requirements for LCLS-II.

  4. Physics and material science of ultra-high quality factor superconducting resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vostrikov, Alexander [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The nitrogen doping into niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity walls aiming to improve the fundamental mode quality factor is the subject of the research in the given work. Quantitative nitrogen diffusion into niobium model calculating the concentration profile was developed. The model estimations were confirmed with secondary ion mass spectrometry technique measurements. The model made controlled nitrogen doping recipe optimization possible. As a result the robust reproducible recipe for SRF cavity walls treatment with nitrogen doping was developed. The cavities produced with optimized recipe met LCLS–II requirements on quality factor of 2.7 ∙ 1010 at acceleration field of 16 MV/m. The microscopic effects of nitrogen doping on superconducting niobium properties were studied with low energy muon spin rotation technique and magnetometer measurements. No significant effect of nitrogen on the following features was found: electron mean free path, magnetic field penetration depth, and upper and surface critical magnetic fields. It was detected that for nitrogen doped niobium samples magnetic flux starts to penetrate inside the superconductor at lower external magnetic field value compared to the low temperature baked niobium ones. This explains lower quench field of SRF cavities treated with nitrogen. Quality factor improvement of fundamental mode forced to analyze the high order mode (HOM) impact on the particle beam dynamics. Both resonant and cumulative effects caused by monopole and dipole HOMs respectively are found to be negligible within the requirements for LCLS–II.

  5. A feasibility study of the implementation of total quality management based on soft factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Shahin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  The aim of this paper is to examine the feasibility of implementing TQM based on soft factors, which can influence the successful implementation of TQM.Design/methodology/approach: A framework has been developed for the TQM soft factors based on literature review and respectively, questionnaires which are directly related to the addressed factors have been designed and distributed to the employees of an engineering service company as the main enablers of improving the effectiveness of TQM.Findings: The findings imply that committed leadership, closer customer relationship, benchmarking and process improvement have the most correlations amongst the TQM soft factors. Training is the only factor which is not correlated to other soft factors. Leadership has also the highest value among the soft factors.Research limitations/implications: The proposed framework is costly and time consuming due to the large number of questions it holds. In this study, it is assumed that sub factors have the same importance. But there is a possibility in which these subdivisions do not have the same relative importance weight. The study is also limited to one company and therefore, the findings should not be generalized.Practical implications: The proposed TQM soft factors framework can be useful for those organizations which consider TQM as an integrated quality management system as the major foundation for achievement of competitive advantage.Originality/value: A comprehensive framework for TQM soft factors has been presented since it involves almost all of the soft factors addressed in the literature.

  6. 情感性精神障碍患者平均住院日及影响因素分析%AVERAGE HOSPITAL STAY AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李再宝

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the average hospital stay and its influencing factors in patients with af-fective disorder .Methods The case data of 330 patients with affective disorder were collected to analyze the ways of paying medical cost ,influencing factors and therapeutic measures .Results The average hospital stay of the 330 cases was (56 .88 ± 45 .65)days ,and the stepwise regression analysis revealed that the main influencing factors of average length of stay were side effect ,psychotic symptoms ,the ways of pay-ing medical cost ,two-phase affective disorders ,family relation ,curative effect and education background . Conclusion The average hospital stay of patients with affective disorder is affected by many factors and comprehensive measures should be taken to shorten the average hospital stay .%目的:探讨情感性精神障碍患者平均住院日及其影响因素。方法采集330例情感性精神障碍患者的病案资料,分析患者住院日及其一般情况、医疗费用支付方式、疾病相关因素、治疗措施等情况。结果330例情感性精神障碍患者平均住院日为(56.88±45.65)d ,逐步回归分析显示影响平均住院日的因素主要为药物副反应、伴有精神病性症状、医疗费支付方式、双相情感性精神障碍、家庭关系、疗效和文化程度。结论情感性精神障碍患者平均住院日受多种因素的影响,采取综合措施才能缩短其平均住院日。

  7. Average Angular Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Essén, H

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.

  8. On sparsity averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in Carrillo et al. (2012) and Carrillo et al. (2013) introduced a novel regularization method for compressive imaging in the context of compressed sensing with coherent redundant dictionaries. The approach relies on the observation that natural images exhibit strong average sparsity over multiple coherent frames. The associated reconstruction algorithm, based on an analysis prior and a reweighted $\\ell_1$ scheme, is dubbed Sparsity Averaging Reweighted Analysis (SARA). We review these advances and extend associated simulations establishing the superiority of SARA to regularization methods based on sparsity in a single frame, for a generic spread spectrum acquisition and for a Fourier acquisition of particular interest in radio astronomy.

  9. Determination of Quality Correction Factors for a Plane-Parallel Chamber in High Energy Electron Beams using Monte Carlo Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality correction factor for used beam and qualities is strongly required for clinical dosimetry by TRS-398 protocol of IAEA. In this study the quality correction factors for a commercial plane-parallel ionization chamber in high energy electron beams were calculated by Monte Carlo code (DOSRZnrc/EGSnrc). In comparison of quality correction factor, the difference between this study and TRS-398 were within 1% in 5-20 MeV. In case of 4MeV the difference was 1.9%. As an independent method of determination of quality correction factor this study can be applied to evaluate values in the protocol or calculate the factor for a new chamber.

  10. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality

  11. Factors influencing success in quality-improvement collaboratives: development and psychometric testing of an instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grol Richard PTM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To increase the effectiveness of quality-improvement collaboratives (QICs, it is important to explore factors that potentially influence their outcomes. For this purpose, we have developed and tested the psychometric properties of an instrument that aims to identify the features that may enhance the quality and impact of collaborative quality-improvement approaches. The instrument can be used as a measurement instrument to retrospectively collect information about perceived determinants of success. In addition, it can be prospectively applied as a checklist to guide initiators, facilitators, and participants of QICs, with information about how to perform or participate in a collaborative with theoretically optimal chances of success. Such information can be used to improve collaboratives. Methods We developed an instrument with content validity based on literature and the opinions of QIC experts. We collected data from 144 healthcare professionals in 44 multidisciplinary improvement teams participating in two QICs and used exploratory factor analysis to assess the construct validity. We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency. Results The 50-item instrument we developed reflected expert-opinion-based determinants of success in a QIC. We deleted nine items after item reduction. On the basis of the factor analysis results, one item was dropped, which resulted in a 40-item questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model provided the best fit. The components were labeled 'sufficient expert team support', 'effective multidisciplinary teamwork', and 'helpful collaborative processes'. Internal consistency reliability was excellent (alphas between .85 and .89. Conclusions This newly developed instrument seems a promising tool for providing healthcare workers and policy makers with useful information about determinants of success in QICs. The psychometric properties of the instrument are

  12. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong to...

  13. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  14. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions. PMID:27153819

  15. Factors associated with quality of life among hemodialysis patients in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Baizura Md Yusop

    Full Text Available Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90 were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS and Physical Composite Summary (PCS of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0-100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30% of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m(2 and more than 80% (n=77 achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80% and protein (n=68,75% recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1 ± 19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0 ± 8.6 and 39.6 ± 8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000 and lower serum calcium (p=0.004, while higher blood flow (p=0.000, higher serum creatinine (p=0.000 and lower protein intake (p=0.006 were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality

  16. Factores moduladores de la percepción de la calidad docente. [Modulating factors in the perception of teaching quality].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casero, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the existing research findings in relation to the research of the factors that are presumably involved in university students’ evaluations of the teaching quality they receive, possibly threatening the validity of the construct. The review is organized around the three implicated sources in the perceptive process of the student, being the student himself, the professor, and the context. The review concludes that, despite some minor effects, the factors under analysis do not represent a substantial threat to the system’s validity. The unproductive debate that has gone on for decades about guarantees in the evaluation of teaching staff has largely been used to cover up the absence of a desire to institutionalize this kind of evaluation system. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo presentar una revisión sobre los hallazgos existentes en relación a la investigación de los factores supuestamente implicados en la valoración que el alumnado universitario realiza sobre la tarea docente de sus profesores, pudiendo suponer una amenaza a la validez de dicho constructo. La revisión se presenta organizada en torno a las tres fuentes implicadas en el proceso perceptivo del alumno, siendo éstas el propio alumno, el profesor y el contexto. La revisión concluye que, a pesar de efectos menores, los factores analizados no representan una amenaza substancial a la validez del sistema. El debate infructuoso que se ha producido durante décadas sobre las garantías en la valoración del personal docente ha sido usado en gran parte para encubrir la falta de deseo de institucionalizar este tipo de sistemas de evaluación.

  17. Factors affecting the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Üstündag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS and analyzed via basic descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. Results: Patients were women (54.8%, married (83.5%, elementary school graduates (57.1%, housewives (44.6% and undergoing fluorouracil-based therapy (47.2%, and almost all patients had religious and cultural rituals for the disease. Women experienced worse physical and social well-being than men (P = 0.001, P = 0.0001. Singles had worse psychological and general well-being (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001. Housewives had the worst physical and social well-being (P 0.05. Breast cancer and sarcoma patients had the worst social well-being than other cancer patients. The N-SAS points of patients were not affected by blessings/prays, vow/sacrifice, consulting local herbalists and visiting "ocaks (folk physicians" (P > 0.05. Patients with bad quality of life practiced lead pouring and amulets (P < 0.05. Gender was the first factor affecting the quality of life. Conclusion: Advanced studies on individual quality of life factors affecting cancer would empower nurses for better personal care techniques and patients for easily overcoming the disease.

  18. Effect of quality factors especially of sweep of poplar trees on assortment structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors of quality which affect the sawing yield were researched for poplar plantations, from the aspect of the application of national standards for roundwood. The research was performed in the period 2002-2003 on two temporary sample plots, in poplar plantations Populus×euramericana I-214 aged 25 years. The sample plots were selected depending on the clone species, planting pattern, and plantation flood risk, and branch pruning. The analyzed quality factors are: knots, minimal dimensions, sweep, false heart, ovality and tapering. The measured data were processed according to the original methodology. Based on the study results, the significance of quality factors was ranked in two different stand situations. Of all the study factors, knots have the highest effect on log yield, which is especially significant in marking for cross cutting of the larger trees. The sweep of trees in poplar plantations with higher flood risk is greater compared to the sweep of trees in plantations which are in the zone protected from floods. In poplar plantation Populus×euramericana I-214 which is exposed to frequents flooding (OP-2, sweep is the third significant factor, compared to the plantation protected from floods (OP‑3, where sweep is the fifth factor according to significance. The effect of sweep in the plantation exposed to flooding is 2.4 times higher than the effect of sweep in the plantation protected from floods. Total value of the assortments made of tree trunk grows with the increase of tree diameter on both sample plots. This correlation is represented by the function Y=a·Xb, and the correlation between the variables is complete. The value of assortments of a certain quality for the study stand conditions can be calculated by the selected model functions, i.e. represented by assortment tables. This study shows inter alia, that there is not a unique model for all poplar plantations when the value percentage of assortments is determined

  19. Photon quality correction factors for ionization chambers in an epithermal neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation field of a neutron beam optimized for boron neutron capture therapy constitutes of a mixture of a photon and a neutron component. The photon and neutron absorbed dose to tissue have different biological effectiveness, suggesting that they should be determined separately. The thermal neutron absorbed dose component can be determined in phantom materials using activation probes. The photon and the fast neutron component can be determined using ionization chambers. The response of ionization chambers in different photon beams has recently been reported for conventional radiation therapy. Thus far, the beam quality correction factors kQ-factors) for photons for ionization chambers in epithermal neutron beams have been assumed equal to unity or estimated through measurements in accelerator produced photon beams. In the present study the kQγ- factors have been determined for two commercially available detectors in an epithermal neutron beam optimized for BNCT using the Monte Carlo method

  20. Improvement in the quality factors for photonic crystal nanocavities via visualization of the leaky components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2016-05-01

    A method that simply improves the quality (Q) factors of two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities using a three-dimensional finite-difference time domain calculation is described. The leaky area for a high-Q nanocavity mode is visualized in a real cavity structure by extracting the leaky components within a light cone in momentum space and by transferring them back into real space using an inverse Fourier transformation. The Q factor is remarkably improved by appropriately shifting the positions of air holes at the leaky area. We design three-missing-air-hole and zero-cell-defect nanocavities with Q factors of 5,000,000 and 1,700,000, respectively, for demonstration. PMID:27137567

  1. Quality of life and emotional state relation to social and disease factors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikaliūkštienė, Aldona

    2011-01-01

    Quality of the life and emotional state of patients with type 2 diabetes depending on the factors of the patient (gender, body mass index, education, social group, marital status and harmful habits (smoking) and on the factors of the disease (duration of the diabetes, complications, treatment method, hypertension, changes of nutritional habits and physical activity after determination of DM) was analyzed. Also relation between quality of the life and factors of the patient (gender, body mass ...

  2. [Effects of environmental factors at different altitudes on leaves and fruit quality of Fuji apple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Wen; Gao, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Dong; Han, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Liu, Hang-Kong

    2014-08-01

    To inquire the different performances of the leaves and fruit quality of Fuji apple tress at various altitudes and their responses to the environmental factors, indices including leaf morphology, anatomy, δ13 C, and fruit quality of the Fuji apple trees at respective altitudes of 1375 m, 1575 m and 1715 m were investigated and their responses to environmental factors were determined following stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that 6 factors like the warmth index, Bailey's index, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), coldness index, ultraviolet B and the annual precipitation dominantly affected the characteristic parameters of leaves and fruit. Elevation increase was matched by the decreasing warmth index, rising Bailey' s index, intenser PAR, higher coldness index, stronger ultraviolet B and heavier annual precipitation; meanwhile, the leaf structure and fruit quality parameters also displayed evident trends of change accordingly, namely, leaf parameters like leaf thickness, cuticle thickness, ratio of palisade and spongy, maximum conduit diameter, δ13C and nitrogen content per unit area increased gradually, and oppositely, leaf length-width ratio, specific leaf area, stoma length-width ratio and ratio of upper and lower epidermis to the leaf thickness decreased gradually; similarly, fruit parameters such as fruit shape index, fruit hardness, sugar-acid ratio, total color and the a/b-value ascended while the titratable acid and the hue angle descended. With increasing the altitude, the photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency of leaves were enhanced, and the fruit sugar-acid ratio climbed and the fruit flavor and color improved. Therefore, it could be safely concluded that within the altitude range between 1375 and 1715 m, environmental factors at a higher altitude favored Fuji apple growth. PMID:25509074

  3. Air quality: how to assess air quality management policies on a short and on a long term? The integration of the climate factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the activities and works performed by the INERIS Institute in the development of tools for the assessment of air quality management policies including the climate factor. This comprises the development of simulations within the frame of the SALUT'AIR project, and also within the frame of the reviewing of the European policy on air quality (directives 2008/50/CE on ambient air quality and 2001/81/CE on national limits of emissions of some pollutants). The CHIMERE model of chemistry and transport is one of these tools. Simulations are performed to analyse the impact of scenarios of air quality management on a short term, in terms of pollutant emissions, pollutant concentration, and particle concentrations. The integration of a climate factor is justified by the existence of interactions between climate and air quality

  4. Covariant approximation averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  5. The averaging principle

    OpenAIRE

    Fibich, Gadi; Gavious, Arieh; Solan, Eilon

    2012-01-01

    Typically, models with a heterogeneous property are considerably harder to analyze than the corresponding homogeneous models, in which the heterogeneous property is replaced with its average value. In this study we show that any outcome of a heterogeneous model that satisfies the two properties of \\emph{differentiability} and \\emph{interchangibility}, is $O(\\epsilon^2)$ equivalent to the outcome of the corresponding homogeneous model, where $\\epsilon$ is the level of heterogeneity. We then us...

  6. Factors Affecting the Quality and Quantity of Sleep in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Esmaily

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep disturbance is common in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery and has been recognized for more than 30 years. New literature suggests the importance of sleep and rest for restoration, protection and promotion of function and wellbeing of these patients. Because of the importance of the role of nurses in diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders, this study was conducted to determine possible effective factors on sleep quality and sleep quantity of patients after CABG. Methods: This longitudinal, descriptive and correlational study was conducted on 91 patients admitted to Imam Reza Hospital in Mashad City in 2005-2006. Subjects were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected by interview in three stages: 24 hours before surgery, as well as 6 weeks and 10 weeks after surgery. Subjective sleep quality was measured with PSQI and sleep quantity was measured with sleep log. The first two interviews were done at the hospital clinic and the last via telephone. Data was analyzed in SPSS using student T test, Pearson correlation coefficient and General Linear Model. Results: According to Univariable analysis, variables such as age (p=0.03, aorta clamp time (p=0.003, mechanical ventilation time (p=0.01, staying time in hospital (p=0.04 can affect sleep quantity 10 weeks after surgery. Previous history of sleep disorder (p=0.005, diabetes (p=0.02, use of diuretic drugs before surgery (p=0.04 and ACEI drugs after surgery (p=0.01 can affect sleep quality 10 weeks after surgery. Conclusion: Sleep disorder history (p=0.01, use of diuretic drugs before surgery (p=0.04 and sleep quantity 6 weeks after surgery (p=0.01 have been the most effective factors on sleep quality 10 weeks after surgery, whereas quality of life 10 weeks after surgery (p=0.04 has been the most effective factor on sleep quantity 10 weeks after surgery. There is therefore a necessity for presenting approaches in order to

  7. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  8. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS. The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05. Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009, high self-reported health (p < 0.002, and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04 had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health.

  9. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

  10. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, James, E-mail: james.renaud@mail.mcgill.ca; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Sarfehnia, Arman [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Marchant, Kristin [Allan Blair Cancer Centre, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Regina, Saskatchewan S4T 7T1, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A1 (Canada); McEwen, Malcolm; Ross, Carl [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. Methods: A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Results: The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9–20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%–0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%–0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, k{sub ecal}, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM’s TG-51 protocol

  11. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. Methods: A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Results: The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9–20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%–0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%–0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, kecal, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM’s TG-51 protocol. General

  12. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  13. Quality-Shaping Factors and Endodontic Treatment amongst General Dental Practitioners with a Focus on Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Sune; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap between the endodontic outcome that can be achieved and the outcome observed on the basis of worldwide general dental practitioner data. The quality of root canal treatment (RCT) is shaped by the dentist's knowledge, attitude, and skills, but it may also be influenced by the patient......'s demands and degree of satisfaction. The topic has only been sparsely investigated. Although dental health has increased over the years in Denmark, the number of performed root fillings has also increased, probably because the number of tooth extractions have declined and more molar teeth have been treated....... Caries appears to be the main cause for performing RCT and a preventive approach by employing stepwise excavation may reduce RCT, but this strategy does not remove the gap. Factors influencing RCT quality could be the status on adoption of nickel-titanium rotary technology, more focus on infection...

  14. Impact of selected risk factors on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The construct quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) combines mortality and overall health status and can be used to quantify the impact of risk factors on population health. The purpose of the study was to estimate the impact of tobacco smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity...... the Danish Health Survey 2000, and Danish EQ-5D values. RESULTS: The quality-adjusted life expectancy of 25-year-olds was 10-11 QALYs shorter for heavy smokers than for those who never smoke. The difference in life expectancy was 9-10 years. Men and women with high alcohol consumption could expect to...... lose about 5 and 3 QALYs, respectively. Sedentary persons could expect to have about 7 fewer QALYs than physically active persons. Obesity shortened QALYs by almost 3 for men and 6 for women. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity strongly reduce life...

  15. Determination of quality factor in mixed radiation fields using a recombination chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recombination chamber was used for determination of the recombination index of radiation quality (Q4). The possibility of calculation of the quality factor defined by ICRP Report 60 from the measured Q4 values is discussed. The calculations were performed for the experimental results, obtained in radiation fields of fast neutrons (from 0.9 MeV up to 14 MeV), high energy (350 MeV) neutrons, high energy (200 MeV) protons and for alpha particles. It was found that the calculation procedure can be used for most existing mixed radiation fields with accuracy of about 25%, if the photon component of the absorbed dose is independently determined. (author)

  16. Factors-related to quality of life in post myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi; M. Saeed Heydarnejad

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors related to quality of life in post myocardial infarction patients. Methods: The subjects were 150 post myocardial infarction patients who were receiving follow up care at Hajar Hospital. SeE-administered questionnaires consisting of physical-and mental health-quality of life (QoL) during a 14-month follow-up were designed. A χ2 test was used to determine relationships between variables. Results: There was significant correlation between demographic variables such as insurance and retirees between the subjects tested. In addition, a significant relationship between the pain intensity, fatigne, reducing or losing job performance and QoL was found. Conclusion: The role of nurses to fulfill all social, psychotically and mental requirements of the patients with myocardial infarction is highly appreciated.

  17. Increased quality factor in superconducting microstrip resonators by selective removal of the gold contact layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present measurements of the unloaded quality factor of superconducting microstrip resonators at 77 K and 3.86 GHz. The resonators were made of 0.3 μm thick YBa2Cu3O7 films with a transition temperature of 90 K on both sides of ceria-buffered 3 inch sapphire wafers. In particular, we investigated the effect of a 0.3 μm thick gold contact layer on the resonator performance. It was found that the gold layer decreases the quality factor by a factor of almost 5. This result is due to an additional microwave loss in the gold film which can be quantitatively described by the impedance transformation rules for transmission lines. On the basis of the quantitative analysis, we suggest a selective removal of the contact layer by appropriate patterning in order to eliminate the extra loss without deterioration of the low-ohmic galvanic contact to the microwave housing. The experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method. Their comparison with the calculated surface current density in the ground plane shows that the contact layer has to be in an area where the current is zero. Furthermore, the results reveal that the surface current density distribution in the ground plane and microstrip depends on the microwave power. (author)

  18. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5 μm thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24 ± 3 W m−1 K−1 for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46 kHz–8 MHz and showed a maximum measured Q ≈ 86 000 at fn = 46.849 kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ≈788 GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond

  19. Academic mobility as a key factor of quality assurance in tertiary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilova, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Academic mobility of both faculty and students forms a critical element of the international dimension of higher education and is one of the most important factors of quality assurance of higher education institutions worldwide. Internationalization and globalization of Russian higher education system is having one of the major impacts on the quality management and assurance. Faculty and student mobility figures are now one of the core factors for obtaining state accreditation for Russian universities as well as an important indicator showing the university success and prestige. The aim of the paper is a closer look at the perspectives and results of the academic mobility, the factors stimulating and discouraging mobility, and the outcomes of the mobility influencing the education in Russian universities. Siberian State Aerospace University has had more than 10 years experience in organizing student mobility. Most of the problems in carrying out international activities are common for the whole Russia but still there are some peculiarities featuring technical universities situated in the centre of Russia.

  20. Weighting factors for radiation quality: How to unite the two current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality factor, Q(L), used to be the universal weighting factor to account for radiation quality, until - in its 1991 Recommendations - the ICRP established a dichotomy between 'computable' and 'measurable' quantities. The new concept of the radiation weighting factor, wR, was introduced for use with the 'computable' quantities, such as the effective dose, E. At the same time, the application of Q(L) was restricted to 'measurable' quantities, such as the operational quantities ambient dose equivalent or personal dose equivalent. The result has been a dual system of incoherent dosimetric quantities. The most conspicuous inconsistency resulted for neutrons, for which the new concept of wR had been primarily designed. While its definition requires an accounting for the gamma rays produced by neutron capture in the human body, this effect is not adequately reflected in the numerical values of wR, which are now suitable for mice, but are - at energies of the incident neutrons below 1 MeV - conspicuously too large for man. A recent Report 92 to ICRP has developed a proposal to correct the current imbalance and to define a linkage between the concepts Q(L) and wR. The proposal is here considered within a broader assessment of the rationale that led to the current dual system of dosimetric quantities. (authors)

  1. Quench-Induced Degradation of the Quality Factor in Superconducting Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Checchin, M; Romanenko, A; Grassellino, A; Sergatskov, D A; Posen, S; Melnychuk, O; Zasadzinski, J F

    2016-01-01

    Quench of superconducting radio-frequency cavities frequently leads to the lowered quality factor Q0, which had been attributed to the additional trapped magnetic flux. Here we demonstrate that the origin of this magnetic flux is purely extrinsic to the cavity by showing no extra dissipation (unchanged Q0) after quenching in zero magnetic field, which allows us to rule out intrinsic mechanisms of flux trapping such as generation of thermal currents or trapping of the rf field. We also show the clear relation of dissipation introduced by quenching to the orientation of the applied magnetic field and the possibility to fully recover the quality factor by requenching in the compensated field. We discover that for larger values of the ambient field, the Q-factor degradation may become irreversible by this technique, likely due to the outward flux migration beyond the normal zone opening during quench. Our findings are of special practical importance for accelerators based on low- and medium-beta accelerating stru...

  2. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS under the new epidemic characteristics in China and the associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Improvement of quality of life has been one of goals in health care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. In China, the epidemic characteristics have changed and transmission is now most commonly sexual contact. However, the assessment of quality of life of PLWHA under new characteristics has limited reporting. This study was designed to assess the quality of life among PLWHA who contracted disease mainly via sexual contact and to clarify the associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning Province. Sample size (800 was calculated based on the fatality rate and enlarged with consideration on the loss of response. Participants were sampled by tables of random numbers among all registered PLWHA. Questionnaires pertaining to quality of life (SF-36 and related factors (demographic characteristics, social support and network, HIV/AIDS awareness, and behavior factors were distributed during December 2010-April 2011. 783 effective responses were obtained. RESULTS: The average scores of physical component summary (PCS, mental component summary (MCS, and total score (TS were 66.8±21.9 (Mean±SD, 62.2±20.9, and 64.5±20.2. General linear model analysis revealed that, in standardized estimate (β sequence, PCS was significantly associated with monthly income, perceived social support, antiretroviral therapy, transmission, and ethnicity; MCS was associated with perceived social support, antiretroviral therapy, condom use, monthly income, transmission, ethnicity, and alcohol consumption; whereas TS was associated with perceived social support, antiretroviral therapy, monthly income, transmission, condom use, and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life for PLWHA who contracted HIV mainly via sexual contact was worse and both physical conditions and social integration were impacted. Under current epidemic characteristics, efforts to increase social support and enhance the implementation of supporting policy are

  3. Quality Minus Junk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We define a quality security as one that has characteristics that, all-else-equal, an investor should be willing to pay a higher price for: stocks that are safe, profitable, growing, and well managed. High-quality stocks do have higher prices on average, but not by a very large margin. Perhaps...... because of this puzzlingly modest impact of quality on price, high-quality stocks have high risk-adjusted returns. Indeed, a quality-minus-junk (QMJ) factor that goes long high-quality stocks and shorts low-quality stocks earns significant risk-adjusted returns in the U.S. and globally across 24 countries....... The price of quality – i.e., how much investors pay extra for higher quality stocks – varies over time, reaching a low during the internet bubble. Further, a low price of quality predicts a high future return of QMJ. Finally, controlling for quality resurrects the otherwise moribund size effect....

  4. Unravel biophysical factors on river water quality response in Chilean Central-Southern watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevenes, Mariela A; Arumí, José L; Farías, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Identifying the key anthropogenic (land uses) and natural (topography and climate) biophysical drivers affecting river water quality is essential for efficient management of water resources. We tested the hypothesis that water quality can be predicted by different biophysical factors. Multivariate statistics based on a geographical information system (GIS) were used to explore the influence of factors (i.e., precipitation, topography, and land uses) on water quality (i.e., nitrate (NO 3 (-) ), phosphate (PO 4 (3 -) ), silicate (Si(OH)4), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (DO), temperature (T), conductivity (EC), and pH) for two consecutive years in the Itata and Biobío river watersheds, Central Chile (36° 00' and 38° 30'). The results showed that (NO 3 (-) ), (PO 4 (3 -) ), Si(OH)4, TSS, EC, and DO were higher during rainy season (austral fall, winter, and spring), whereas BOD and temperature were higher during dry season. The spatial variation of these parameters in both watersheds was related to land use, topography (e.g., soil moisture, soil hydrological group, and erodability), and precipitation. Soil hydrological group and soil moisture were the strongest explanatory predictors for PO 4 (3 -) , Si(OH)4 and EC in the river, followed by land use such as agriculture for NO 3 (-) and DO and silviculture for TSS and Si(OH)4. High-resolution water leaching and runoff maps allowed us to identify agriculture areas with major probability of water leaching and higher probability of runoff in silviculture areas. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that land uses (agriculture and silviculture) explained in 60 % the river water quality variation. Our finding highlights the vulnerability of Chilean river waters to different biophysical drivers, rather than climate conditions alone, which is amplified by human-induced degradation. PMID:27038616

  5. Factors associated with health related quality of life after a hip or knee total replacement, according to a gender approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. López Alonso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the factors associated with Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL, and Symptoms and Physical Functional Disability (S&PFD after a Hip or Knee Total Replacement, according to a gender approach. A longitudinal cohort study design is performed at “La Merced” (Osuna. Sevilla and “Torrecárdenas” (Almería Hospitals, via telephone interview since October 2004 to November 2006. The study included all people who underwent a hip or knee total replacement. The dependent variables were HRQL and S&PFD, both measured via short versions of the COOP/WONCA and WOMAC questionnaires.Results: 311 people were included, who were mostly women (82,63% and 70 years old (average. The hip and knee replacement obtained an statistically significant improvement on HRQL (20,5% and S&PFD (28,2%, with no gender difference. Five variables were associated to HRQL for Women: HRQL previous to surgery, hospital, local infection as a complication, autonomy for daily living, and marital status. All of them were associated to men, except the last two ones. About S&PFD, six variables were associated for women: HRQL and S&PFD previous to surgery, hospital, local infection as a complication, body mass index and marital status. All of them were associated to men, except the last two ones.Factors associated to improve on HRQL and S&PFD in male population are few, though they find a great explanation of the improvement. Different situation arise on female population because more factors obtained a substantially inferior explanation.

  6. Robust Averaging Level Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rosander, Peter; Isaksson, Alf; Löfberg, Johan; Forsman, Krister

    2011-01-01

    Frequent inlet flow changes typically cause problems for averaging level controllers. For a frequently changing inlet flow the upsets do not occur when the system is in steady state and the tank level at its set-point. For this reason the tuning of the level controller gets quite complicated, since not only the size of the upsets but also the time in between them relative to the hold up of the tank have to be considered. One way to obtain optimal flow filtering while directly accounting for futur...

  7. Questionnaire survey on factors influencing comfort with indoor environmental quality in Danish housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Wargocki, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire survey in Danish homes investigated the factors that influence occupants’ comfort. The questionnaire contained questions on inhabitants’ behaviour, their knowledge as regards building systems designed for controlling the indoor environment and the ways in which they achieve comfort....... A total of 2499 questionnaires were sent to inhabitants of the most common types of housing in Denmark; 645 persons replied (response rate of 26%). The results show that the main indoor environmental parameters (visual, acoustic and thermal conditions, and air quality) are considered by occupants to...

  8. Comparison of Free Spectral Range and Quality Factor for Two-Dimensional Square and Circular Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国伟华; 黄永箴; 陆巧银; 于丽娟

    2004-01-01

    Free spectral range of whispering-gallery (WG)-like modes in a two-dimensional (2D) square microcavity is found to be twice that in a 2D circular microcavity. The quality factor of the WG-like mode with the low mode number in a 2D square microcavity, calculated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique and the Pade approximation method, is found to exceed that of the WG mode in 2D circular microcavity with the same cavity dimension and close mode wavelength.

  9. Oscillatory variations in the Q factors of high quality micropillar cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzenstein, S.; Gregersen, Niels; Kistner, C.; Strauss, M.; Schneider, C.; Pan, L.; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Höfling, S.; Mørk, Jesper; Forchel, A.

    2009-01-01

    hundred nanometers and increases in amplitude with increasing reflectivity of the planar microcavity structures. The experimental results are well reproduced by numerical calculations which support the interpretation that the Q oscillations are caused by coupling of propagating Bloch modes of different......We report on the observation of oscillatory variations in the quality Q factor of quantum dot-micropillar cavities based on planar Bragg reflectors. The oscillatory behavior in the Q versus diameter dependence appears in the diameter range between 1.0 and 4.0 m, has a characteristic period of a few...

  10. Silicon nitride membrane resonators at millikelvin temperatures with quality factors exceeding 10^8

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, M; Cohen, M A; G. A. Steele

    2015-01-01

    We study the mechanical dissipation of the fundamental mode of millimeter-sized, high quality-factor (Q) metalized silicon nitride membranes at temperatures down to 14 mK using a three-dimensional optomechanical cavity. Below 200 mK, high-Q modes of the membranes show a diverging increase of Q with decreasing temperature, reaching Q=1.27×108Q=1.27×108 at 14 mK, an order of magnitude higher than that reported before. The ultra-low dissipation makes the membranes highly attractive for the study...

  11. Lessons learnt from quality improvement in radiological service : Four key factors for sucess

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Oskar; Österström, Anna

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn this study, we describe a Quality Improvement (QI) intervention in three radiology departments within the Swedish health care system, with a special focus on access and methodology. AimThe goals for the QI-intervention were to implement best practice for patients with suspected colon cancer, and reduce the Turn Around Time (TAT).The aim of the study was to identify relevant factors for successful QI in order to further develop the organisation to create a system of continuous QI ...

  12. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Ujan; Zan, L. S.; Wang, H B; Ujan, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142). Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population bree...

  13. Large quality factor in sheet metamaterials made from dark dielectric meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Aditya; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials-or artificial electromagnetic materials-can create media with properties unattainable in nature, but mitigating dissipation is a key challenge for their further development. Here, we demonstrate a low-loss metamaterial by exploiting dark bound states in dielectric inclusions coupled to the external waves by small nonresonant metallic antennas. We experimentally demonstrate a dispersion-engineered metamaterial based on a meta-atom made from alumina, and we show that its resonance has a much larger quality factor than metal-based meta-atoms. Finally, we show that our dielectric meta-atom can be used to create sheet metamaterials with negative permittivity or permeability.

  14. Factors affecting the quality of anticoagulation with warfarin: experience of one cardiac centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurus, Tomasz; Cichocka-Radwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The risk of complications in anticoagulation therapy can be reduced by maximising the percentage of time spent by the patient in the optimal therapeutic range (TTR). However, little is known about the predictors of anticoagulation control. The aim of this paper was to assess the quality of anticoagulant therapy in patients on warfarin and to identify the factors affecting its deterioration. Material and methods We studied 149 patients who required anticoagulant therapy with warfarin due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation and/or venous thromboembolism. Each patient underwent proper training regarding the implemented treatment and remained under constant medical care. Results The mean age of the patients was 68.8 ± 12.6 years, and 59% were male. A total of 2460 international normalised ratio (INR) measurements were collected during the 18-month period. The mean TTR in the studied cohort was 76 ± 21%, and the median was 80%. The level at which high-quality anticoagulation was recorded for this study was based on TTR values above 80%. Seventy-five patients with TTR ≥ 80% were included in the stable anticoagulation group (TTR ≥ 80%); the remaining 74 patients constituted the unstable anticoagulation group (TTR < 80%). According to multivariate stepwise regression analysis, the independent variables increasing the risk of deterioration of anticoagulation quality were: arterial hypertension (OR 2.74 [CI 95%: 1.06-7.10]; p = 0.038), amiodarone therapy (OR 4.22 [CI 95%: 1.30-13.70]; p = 0.017), and obesity (OR 1.11 [CI 95%: 1.02-1.21]; p = 0.013). Conclusions The presence of obesity, hypertension, or amiodarone therapy decreases the quality of anticoagulation with warfarin. High quality of anticoagulation can be achieved through proper monitoring and education of patients. PMID:26855650

  15. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  16. Quality of life and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in a community health care program population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mário Baptista Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life in a population that attended a specific community event on health care education, and to investigate the association of their quality of life with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors INTRODUCTION: Interest in health-related quality of life is growing worldwide as a consequence of increasing rates of chronic disease. However, little is known about the association between quality of life and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: This study included 332 individuals. Demographics, blood pressure, body mass index, and casual glycemia were evaluated. The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire on quality of life was given to them. The medians of the scores obtained for the physical, psychological, emotional, and environmental domains were used as cutoffs to define "higher" and "lower" scores. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to define the parameters associated with lower scores. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity were associated with lower scores in the physical domain. Dyslipidemia was also associeted with lower scores in the psychological domain. Male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. Aging was inversely associated with decreased quality of life in the environmental domain. CONCLUSION: The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to a decreased quality of life. Conversely, male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. These findings suggest that exercising should be further promoted by health-related public programs, with a special focus on women.

  17. ZnO UV photodetector with controllable quality factor and photosensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Campos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowires have an enormous potential for applications as ultra-violet (UV photodetectors. Their mechanism of photocurrent generation is intimately related with the presence of surface states where considerable efforts, such as surface chemical modifications, have been pursued to improve their photodetection capabilities. In this work, we report a step further in this direction demonstrating that the relative photosensitivity and quality factor (Q factor of the photodetector are entirely tunable by an applied gate voltage. This mechanism enables UV photodetection selectivity ranging from wavelengths from tens of nanometers (full width at half maximum - FWHM down to a narrow detection of 3 nm. Such control paves the way for novel applications, especially related to the detection of elements that have very sharp luminescence.

  18. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

  19. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2014-10-15

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF₂) with an ultra-high quality (Q) factor above 10⁹ at 1550 nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of 2 nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion Q-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of 3. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high-energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF₂ resonators potentially becomes feasible. PMID:25361142

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOLOGICAL POLLUTION FACTORS ON THE QUALITY OF CONSUMPTION EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Silviu BEIA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eggs’ microbiological status intended for human consumption represents a determining factor of products’ quality and safety. The possible contamination of eggs with pathogene microorganisms presents a major risk for food safety. In comparison with meat and milk, eggs have a better capacity of conservation and therefore they are more resistant to the aggression of damaging factors. However it is a perishable product and its age as food may cause affections to consumers. One cannot find out the defficiencies and prevent the risks of food safety without the awareness and knowledge of microbiological, enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms that occur in the process of eggs’ becoming old. Thus, one can establish the critical limits in which eggs as food may endanger consumers’ health status.

  1. Utility and Weight of Factors of Bus Transit’ s Service Quality Analysis in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong Liu; Tangyi Guo

    2015-01-01

    Service quality is a major factor that affects how public transport users evaluate bus service. In order to evaluate how bus users make trade⁃offs across travel cost, time, reliability, etc., and to investigate the extent to which the components of service quality vary according to relevant trip characteristics, this paper analyzes service quality of bus transit with the conjoint analysis. Through data analysis, the levels ’ utility values of reliability, waiting time, walking time, etc.,on the commuter trip and the non⁃commuter trip are gotten, so it is the utility function of the transit system. Then the factors’ weights are obtained through the utility values. The results show that on the commuter trip, passengers value reliability the most, which is followed by waiting time and walking time, while in⁃bus environment, price and station environment’ s weights are small. While on the non⁃commuter trip, the weights in a higher order to lower order are the first for reliability, the second for in⁃bus environment, the third for walking time, the fourth for station environment and the last for ticket price.

  2. THE QUALITY OF THE TOURIST DESTINATIONS A KEY FACTOR FOR INCREASING THEIR ATTRACTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daliborka Blazeska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the tourism is extremely important for any country including Republic of Macedonia, it is necessary to pay attention to the quality of the tourist destinations and increasing of their attractiveness. So winners in the field of tourism will be those countries that have attractive tourist destination that will attract a lot of visitors. In this paper is defined the relationship between the factors of attractiveness of the destination and the achieving of competitiveness. In order to become competitive in the global market, the tourist destination has to be innovative and to continually search for new competitive advantages. Those kind of competitive advantages enable stable and long-term sustainable development of the tourist destination. In this paper special emphasis is put to the monitoring of the quality of the tourist destination with constant inquiries of the tourists (domestic and foreign regarding the most important segments of the quality of the tourist product which they are using, in order to perceive the satisfaction or the eventual dissatisfaction in order to be taken concrete strategies for the following period. The obtained results clearly confirm the dissatisfaction with the road infrastructure and signalization, the price of the services and the conditions for the stay, as well as the additional attractions that were expected to get.

  3. Adsorbate migration effects on continuous and discontinuous temperature-dependent transitions in the quality factors of graphene nanoresonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform classical molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the mechanisms underpinning the unresolved, experimentally observed temperature-dependent scaling transition in the quality factors of graphene nanomechanical resonators (GNMRs). Our simulations reveal that the mechanism underlying this temperature scaling phenomenon is the out-of-plane migration of adsorbates on GNMRs. Specifically, the migrating adsorbate undergoes frequent collisions with the GNMR, which strongly influences the resulting mechanical oscillation, and thus the quality factors. We also predict a discontinuous transition in the quality factor at a lower critical temperature, which results from the in-plane migration of the adsorbate. Overall, our work clearly demonstrates the strong effect of adsorbate migration on the quality factors of GNMRs. (paper)

  4. Factors influencing health-related quality of life in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk; Chatchawan Silpakit; Ronnachai Kongsakon; Patchareeya Satitpornkul; Chaleaw Sripetch; Anya Khanthavit

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the factors contributing to healthrelated quality of life (HRQL) in chronic liver disease (CLD).METHODS: Patients with CLD and age- and sexmatched normal subjects performed the validated Thai versions of the short-form 36 (SF-36) by health survey and chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the impact of disease severity, demography, causes of CLD,socioeconomic factors, and self-rating health perception on HRQL.RESULTS: Two-hundred and fifty patients with CLD and fifty normal subjects were enrolled into the study. Mean age and the numbers of low educated, unemployed,blue-collar career and poor health perception increased significantly from chronic hepatitis to Child's Classes A to B to C. Advanced stage of CLD was related to deterioration of HRQL. Increasing age and female reduced physical health area. Low socioeconomic factors and financial burden affected multiple areas of HRQL.In overall, the positive impact of self-rating health perception on HRQL was consistently showed.CONCLUSION: Advanced stages of chronic liver disease, old age, female sex, low socioeconomic status and financial burden are important factors reducing HRQL. Good health perception improves HRQL regardless of stages of liver disease.

  5. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, B. R., E-mail: Bryan.Muir@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rogers, D. W. O., E-mail: drogers@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 ColonelBy Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ′}) are provided. These

  6. Expedient methods of respiratory protection. III. Submicron particle tests and summary of quality factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of readily available materials, such as cotton fabrics, toweling, a surgical mask, and a single-use respirator, for providing emergency respiratory protection was evaluated by determining the filtration efficiency as a function of aerosol particle size over the size range of 0.001 to 5.0 μm and as a function of filtration face velocity. Filtration face velocity was set at 1.5, 5.0, and 15.0 cm/s. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to obtain efficiency measurements for particles 0.5 μm in diameter and smaller, and summarizes the results of all three phases of this research. Particles with diameters from 0.10 to 0.50 μm proved to be the most difficult sizes of particles to remove. Particles smaller than 0.10 μm were removed due to diffusion while particles larger than 0.50 μm were removed due to inertia and gravitational settling. Deposition of the smallest particles was favored by the use of low face velocities. A fractional efficiency curve was determined for each material at each velocity for comparison. Values of the quality factor [-1n(penetration]/(pressure drop), were calculated. Quality factors were less for wet materials than for dry; less at high velocities rather than low; and best for the single-use respirator mask, next best for the surgical mask and often third best for the toweling (washcloth)

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis for indicators of perceived environmental quality of the stadium (IPEQS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Sara; Fornara, Ferdinando

    2015-09-01

    Studies conducted in the 1980s (see Canter et al. in Football in its place. An environmental psychology of football grounds. Routledge, London, 1989) highlighted the prominent role of the spatial-physical features of football grounds in influencing users' perception of safety, comfort, and general satisfaction towards the stadium experience. In particular, the importance of fulfilling the spectators' needs of personal space (e.g. presence of an open view, proper distance between the seats) and movement opportunity was analysed. The aim of this study is to confirm the factorial structure of a set of indicators--the IPEQS--concerning the perceived quality of an array of aspects (i.e. architectural, social, functional, and safety issues) related to the stadium design. Participants (N = 255), who were selected on the basis of their stadium experience, filled in a self-report questionnaire measuring a set of indicators developed on the basis of both validated tools [i.e. the perceived residential environment quality indicators (PREQIs): Bonaiuto et al. in J Environ Psychol 19:331-352, 1999] and outcomes of semi-structured interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed for each scale, and reliability assessments were then carried out for each indicator. IPEQS' factorial structures found through the CFA procedure substantially confirm the results of exploratory factor analyses run with previous data. Outcomes of this study should provide a useful tool for managers and designers of football grounds, in order to improve the overall experience of the spectators. PMID:26239754

  8. Using condition factor and blood variable biomarkers in fish to assess water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Sakuragui, Marise M; Paulino, Marcelo G; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2011-10-01

    The condition factor and blood variables, including erythrocyte lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in two ecologically distinct fish species (Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus) were evaluated at five sites in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir (Brazil) to assess water quality. Aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor epoxide, and metolachlor were detected at different concentrations in four of the sites. Condition factor was not directly affected by such contaminants. A negative correlation between hematocrit and heptachlor was detected in P. maculatus. Positive correlations between red blood cells and heptachlor as well as an interactive effect of metolachlor and aldrin/dieldrin were detected in A. fasciatus. The erythrocytes of both species collected from the contaminated sites showed high levels of LPO, an increase in SOD and GPx activities and a decrease in CAT activity. Although the leukocyte number and the differential percentage of leukocytes varied among the sites, the hematological variables, the LPO levels, and the antioxidant enzyme activities could be used to assess water quality, regardless of the differences in the responses of the fish species. PMID:21152972

  9. Understanding variation in quality of antibiotic use for community-acquired pneumonia: Effect of patient, professional and hospital factors

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, Jeroen; Hulscher, Marlies; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Cox, Angela; Gyssens, Inge; Van Der Meer, Jos,; Grol, Richard

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To develop effective and targeted interventions to improve care for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), insight is needed into the factors that influence the quality of antibiotic use. Therefore, we measured the performance of nine quality indicators and studied determinants of variation in the quality of antibiotic use. Patients and methods: Data on 498 prospectively included patients with CAP from eight medium-sized Dutch hospitals were extracted from t...

  10. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  11. Student Motivation and the "Feel Good" Factor: An Empirical Examination of Motivational Predictors of University Service Quality Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yit Sean; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.

    2015-01-01

    With the globalisation of the higher education industry, service quality in the higher education services is seen as a vital factor in determining a university's competitive advantage. The purpose of this study is to extend current conceptualisation of quality research in higher education by investigating the influence of self-determination…

  12. Factors Associated with Pain, Disability and Quality of Life in Patients Suffering from Frozen Shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Bagheri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frozen shoulder is resulting in limb disability and reduction of quality of life but the factors associated with patients’ disability and quality of life is not clear. To assess pain, disability, the quality of life and factors associated with them in patients suffering from frozen shoulder.  Methods: We enrolled 120 patients (37 men and 83 women with phase-II idiopathic frozen shoulder in our cross-sectional study. Demographic data were collected and shoulder range of motion was measured in four different directions (elevation, abduction, external and internal rotation in both upper limbs. Patients were asked to fill out Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS and, Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36 as well as Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaires. We asked the patients to fill out the Hamilton anxiety and depression questionnaires. Results: The mean of VAS pain, DASH, PCS, and MCS scores were 69(18, 53(17, 35(8.0, and 42(10 respectively. All the domains of SF36 questionnaires where below the normal population except physical function. VAS pain score was correlated to Hamilton depression scores in both bivariate and mulivarilable analysis. DASH score were correlated to sex, age, ROM, and both Hamilton anxiety and depression scores; However, DASH score only impact with Hamilton anxiety and ROM independently. PCS is correlated to age and MCS to Hamilton depression. Conclusion: Patient with frozen shoulder are more suffering from pain and disability secondary to psychiatric parameters such as depression and anxiety than demographic features or even restriction of range of motion.

  13. Factors Associated with Pain, Disability and Quality of Life in Patients Suffering from Frozen Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Farshid; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H.; Moradi, Ali; Bidgoli, Hamid Farahpour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frozen shoulder is resulting in limb disability and reduction of quality of life but the factors associated with patients’ disability and quality of life is not clear. To assess pain, disability, the quality of life and factors associated with them in patients suffering from frozen shoulder. Methods: We enrolled 120 patients (37 men and 83 women) with phase-II idiopathic frozen shoulder in our cross-sectional study. Demographic data were collected and shoulder range of motion was measured in four different directions (elevation, abduction, external and internal rotation) in both upper limbs. Patients were asked to fill out Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS) and, Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) as well as Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires. We asked the patients to fill out the Hamilton anxiety and depression questionnaires. Results: The mean of VAS pain, DASH, PCS, and MCS scores were 69(18), 53(17), 35(8.0), and 42(10) respectively. All the domains of SF36 questionnaires where below the normal population except physical function. VAS pain score was correlated to Hamilton depression scores in both bivariate and mulivarilable analysis. DASH score were correlated to sex, age, ROM, and both Hamilton anxiety and depression scores; However, DASH score only impact with Hamilton anxiety and ROM independently. PCS is correlated to age and MCS to Hamilton depression. Conclusion: Patient with frozen shoulder are more suffering from pain and disability secondary to psychiatric parameters such as depression and anxiety than demographic features or even restriction of range of motion.

  14. Improving Organizational Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Egypt through Promoting the Human Factors in Quality Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shobery, M. Maha; El-Iskandrani, M. A.; Hegazy, M.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a sample of 96 Egyptian manufacturing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) was studied inrelation to human factors (HFs) dependent quality management system (QMS). These were in three distinctindustry groups: food & beverage, textiles & garments and leather & footwear. Human factors considered arederived from the seven criteria of the Egyptian Quality Award (EgyQA) and were used as the basis of aquestionnaire survey.The SWOT analysis for the survey results revealed the urgent ne...

  15. Stored Energy and Quality Factor of Spherical Wave Functions–in Relation to Spherical Antennas With Material Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels V.; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    wave, the excitation coefficients for the internal and external spherical waves, the radiated power, the internal and external stored electric and magnetic energies, the difference of total electric and total magnetic energy, the cavity and radiating resonance conditions, and the quality factor. We...... investigate the variation of the internal/external and electric/magnetic stored energies with the electrical size of the antenna to study their relative significance for the quality factor....

  16. Sociological research of factors of formation of quality of labor life from the position of worker and employer

    OpenAIRE

    Taraban, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Analysis and evaluation of the factors of formation of the quality of working life from the position of an employer and an employee. Methods/methodology of carrying out the work Expert survey of the employees of Irkutsk, questionnaire survey of the employed population of Irkutsk. Results A comparative analysis of the opinions of employers and workers on issues of definition of the most significant factors forming the quality of working life, and the evaluation of the level of the qual...

  17. Factors that Affect the Quality of Inputs in Manufacturing Organisations: A Case Study of Nampak Kenya Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Maina G; H.M.Bwisa

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection, Supply base reduction and supplier development among other factors plays a vital role in ensuring that manufacturing organizations get an acceptable quality of inputs from their suppliers. The purpose of this study is to carry out a research on how the above factors affect the quality of inputs in manufacturing organizations in Kenya. Studies carried out by previous researchers showed that manufacturing organizations lose a lot of money and time patching up issue brought a...

  18. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Selected Carbonate Aquifers in the United States,1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water in the United States; however, these aquifers can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program collected samples from wells and springs in 12 carbonate aquifers across the country during 1993-2005; water-quality results for 1,042 samples were available to assess the factors affecting ground-water quality. These aquifers represent a wide range of climate, land-use types, degrees of confinement, and other characteristics that were compared and evaluated to assess the effect of those factors on water quality. Differences and similarities among the aquifers were also identified. Samples were analyzed for major ions, radon, nutrients, 47 pesticides, and 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Geochemical analysis helped to identify dominant processes that may contribute to the differences in aquifer susceptibility to anthropogenic contamination. Differences in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon and in ground-water age were directly related to the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Other geochemical indicators, such as mineral saturation indexes and calcium-magnesium molar ratio, were used to infer residence time, an indirect indicator of potential for anthropogenic contamination. Radon exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 300 picocuries per liter in 423 of 735 wells sampled, of which 309 were drinking-water wells. In general, land use, oxidation-reduction (redox) status, and degree of aquifer confinement were the most important factors affecting the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Although none of these factors individually accounts for all the variation in water quality among the aquifers, a combination of these characteristics accounts for the majority of the variation. Unconfined carbonate aquifers that had high

  19. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Zhang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hong Miao; Xiaoke Wang

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing,the capital of China,has resulted in serious air pollution problems.Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality,especially since 1998.The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention.We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations.The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends:a decreasing trend,an increasing trend and a fiat trend.SO2,dustfall,B[a]P,NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern,while NOx showed an increasing trend,and CO,ozone pollution,total suspended particulate (TSP),as well as Pb fit the flat trend.The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution.Seasonally,the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March.The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality.Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency,the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal,reduction in pollution sources,and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution,particularly since 1998.

  20. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley G. Hope

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that add value and increase user satisfaction. The paper presents findings from an empirical study of eighty-four Web users. Results show that hygiene factors for our respondents were: Timeliness, Content attractiveness, Content coverage, Usefulness, and Navigation, while motivators were: Writing style, Layout, Archives, Services, Interactivity, and Multimedia presentation. Four factors were borderline: Journalism ethics, Ease of use, Front page and headlines, and Locating information. However, the research reveals some differences in classification of factors across culture, sex, and age.

  1. Three factors that influence the overall quality of the stereoscopic 3D content: image quality, comfort, and realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Raluca; Ladret, Patricia; Guérin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In today's context, where 3D content is more abundant than ever and its acceptance by the public is probably de_nitive, there are many discussions on controlling and improving the 3D quality. But what does this notion represent precisely? How can it be formalized and standardized? How can it be correctly evaluated? A great number of studies have investigated these matters and many interesting approaches have been proposed. Despite this, no universal 3D quality model has been accepted so far that would allow a uniform across studies assessment of the overall quality of 3D content, as it is perceived by the human observers. In this paper, we are making a step forward in the development of a 3D quality model, by presenting the results of an exploratory study in which we started from the premise that the overall 3D perceived quality is a multidimensional concept that can be explained by the physical characteristics of the 3D content. We investigated the spontaneous impressions of the participants while watching varied 3D content, we analyzed the key notions that appeared in their discourse and identi_ed correlations between their judgments and the characteristics of our database. The test proved to be rich in results. Among its conclusions, we consider of highest importance the fact that we could thus determine three di_erent perceptual attributes ( image quality, comfort and realism ( that could constitute a _rst simplistic model for assessing the perceived 3D quality.

  2. On the mechanical quality factors of cryogenic test masses from fused silica and crystalline quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeter, Anja; Schnabel, Roman; Reid, Stuart; Martin, Iain; Rowan, Sheila; Schwarz, Christian; Koettig, Torsten; Neubert, Ralf; Thürk, Matthias; Vodel, Wolfgang; Tünnermann, Andreas; Danzmann, Karsten; Seidel, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors (IGWDs) are operated at room temperature with test masses made from fused silica. Fused silica shows very low absorption at the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. It is also well suited to realize low thermal noise floors in the detector signal band since it offers low mechanical loss, i. e. high quality factors (Q factors) at room temperature. However, for a further reduction of thermal noise, cooling the test masses to cryogenic temperatures may prove an interesting technique. Here we compare the results of Q factor measurements at cryogenic temperatures of acoustic eigenmodes of test masses from fused silica and its crystalline counterpart. Our results show that the mechanical loss of fused silica increases with lower temperature and reaches a maximum at 30 K for frequencies of slightly above 10 kHz. The losses of crystalline quartz generally show lower values and even fall below the room temperature values of fused silica below 10 K. Our results show that in ...

  3. Estimating the influence of social-economic factors on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsiya Sayetovna Gatina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define the group of factors influencing on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal services organization. Methods methods of systemic analysis and synthesis economicstatistical analysis. Results using the statistical methods of analysis a group of factors is defined which should be taken into account when developing the strategy of services market in housing and communal sphere. The objective of the strategy is to increase the level of quality services to the population of Russia in the housing and communal industry. Scientific novelty the indicators are revealed of the quality of communal services formed under socialeconomic factors. When analyzing the data of the matrix of interfactoral influence those were extinguished which show the largest influence on the level of services market development in housing and communal sphere. Practical value is the ability to use the assessment results to develop measures to improve the quality of housing and communal services organizations. nbsp

  4. Identification and Ranking of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment Approach: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohaghar

    2014-02-01

    Based on the information accessible for the researchers, this is one of the first works which evaluates the key factors of successful knowledge management through fuzzy quality function deployment approach. It is expected that the proposed method would represent appropriate tools for enterprises which have decided to implement knowledge management because it prioritizes the critical success factors based on the knowledge management outcomes.

  5. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Daliri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection.

  6. Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

  7. Cavity-coupled guided resonances with high quality factors in photonic crystal heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    We study the optical characteristics of a photonic crystal (PhC) heterostructure cavity consisting of two-dimensional monolayer PhC, sandwiched between two identical passive multilayers. In the range of stopband of the multilayer, guided resonance of the sandwiched PhC are excited by the evanescent waves of the multilayer stack and the quality factor of these cavity-coupled guided resonances is about 10e6. The calculated field distribution facilitates the distinction between the cavity defect modes and the coupled guided resonances of the proposed design. The line shapes of the resonances are explained using a theoretical model. Significant decrease in the lasing threshold is observed for these resonant modes in comparison to the defect modes. These results will find use in designing compact PhC-based ultra-low threshold lasers and narrow band filters.

  8. MISO Current-mode Biquad Filter with Independent Control of Pole Frequency and Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaikla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a three-inputs single-output biquadratic filter performing completely standard functions: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject and all-pass functions, based on current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA. The quality factor and pole frequency can be electronically/independently tuned via the input bias current. The proposed circuit uses 2 CCCCTAs and 2 grounded capacitors without external any resistors which is very suitable to further develop into an integrated circuit. The filter does not require double input current signal. Each function response can be selected by suitably selecting input signals with digital method. Moreover, the circuit possesses high output impedance which would be an ideal choice for current-mode cascading. The PSPICE simulation results are included to verify the workability of the proposed filter. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

  9. Ultracompact resonator with high quality-factor based on a hybrid grating structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    subwavelength grating layer and an un-patterned high-refractive-index cap layer, being surrounded by low index materials. Since the cap layer may include a gain region, an ultracompact laser can be realized based on the hybrid grating resonator, featuring many advantages over high-contrast-grating resonator......We numerically investigate the properties of a hybrid grating structure acting as a resonator with ultrahigh quality factor. This reveals that the physical mechanism responsible for the resonance is quite different from the conventional guided mode resonance (GMR). The hybrid grating consists of a...... lasers. The effect of fabrication errors and finite size of the structure is investigated to understand the feasibility of fabricating the proposed resonator....

  10. Surface-enhanced gallium arsenide photonic resonator with a quality factor of six million

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Biswarup; Cadiz, Fabian; Morgenroth, Laurence; Ulin, Vladimir; Berkovitz, Vladimir; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Amo, Alberto; Combrié, Sylvian; Gérard, Bruno; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Gallium Arsenide and related compound semiconductors lie at the heart of optoelectronics and integrated laser technologies. Shaped at the micro and nano-scale, they allow strong interaction with quantum dots and quantum wells, and promise to result in stunning devices. However gallium arsenide optical structures presently exhibit lower performances than their silicon-based counterparts, notably in nanophotonics where the surface plays a chief role. Here we report on advanced surface control of miniature gallium arsenide optical resonators, using two distinct techniques that produce permanent results. One leads to extend the lifetime of free-carriers and enhance luminescence, while the other strongly reduces surface absorption originating from mid-gap states and enables ultra-low optical dissipation devices. With such surface control, the quality factor of wavelength-sized optical disk resonators is observed to rise up to six million at telecom wavelength, greatly surpassing previous realizations and opening n...

  11. Free-standing high quality factor thin-film lithium niobate micro-photonic disk resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Renyuan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN or just niobate) thin-film micro-photonic resonators have promising prospects in many applications including high efficiency electro-optic modulators, optomechanics and nonlinear optics. This paper presents free-standing thin-film lithium niobate photonic resonators on a silicon platform using MEMS fabrication technology. We fabricated a 35um radius niobate disk resonator that exhibits high intrinsic optical quality factor (Q) of 484,000. Exploiting the optomechanical interaction from the released free-standing structure and high optical Q, we were able to demonstrate acousto-optic modulation from these devices by exciting a 56MHz radial breathing mechanical mode (mechanical Q of 2700) using a probe.

  12. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL. PMID:26388123

  13. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ujan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  14. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ujan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  15. Factors associated with the quality of prenatal care: an approach to premature birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Cristina Melo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo assess the quality of prenatal care in mothers with premature and term births and identify maternal and gestational factors associated with inadequate prenatal care.METHODCross-sectional study collecting data with the pregnant card, hospital records and interviews with mothers living in Maringa-PR. Data were collected from 576 mothers and their born alive infants who were attended in the public service from October 2013 to February 2014, using three different evaluation criteria. The association of prenatal care quality with prematurity was performed by univariate analysis and occurred only at Kessner criteria (CI=1.79;8.02.RESULTSThe indicators that contributed most to the inadequacy of prenatal care were tests of hemoglobin, urine, and fetal presentation. After logistic regression analysis, maternal and gestational variables associated to inadequate prenatal care were combined prenatal (CI=2.93;11.09, non-white skin color (CI=1.11;2.51; unplanned pregnancy (CI=1.34;3.17 and multiparity (CI=1.17;4.03.CONCLUSIONPrenatal care must follow the minimum recommended protocols, more attention is required to black and brown women, multiparous and with unplanned pregnancies to prevent preterm birth and maternal and child morbimortality.

  16. A Survey on Socio-Economic Factors in Relation to Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ahmadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study has been performed by quantitative approach, survey method, and questionnaire technique.The theoretical framework has been synthesized from Maslow's theory of hierarchical needs, and humanecological-systems theory. Based on the main concepts of the theories, and regarding the populationcharacteristics, some indicators have been extracted. Data have been collected from 400 samples, calculatedby Cochran' formulae, residing in Birjand city at the age of 15-65 years old with multistage cluster samplingmethod. Our basic assumption is that the intensity and direction of Quality of Life is subjective-objectiveand in turn, it is influenced and determined by subjective-objective factors. On this basis, by SPSS programand statistics such as analysis of variance and univariate regression, the relationships between Quality ofLife and nine independent variables were analyzed. These variables include: social origin, employmentposition, level of education, occupational rating, level of income, benefitting from networks of socialsupport, socialization manner in family, using mass media, and modern/traditional attitudes. The resultsshow that all of these nine relationships have been significant and positive. Additionally, in multivariateregression the five variables –level of education, socialization manner in family, level of using mass media,level of benefitting from social support networks, and occupational rating— have been included in theequation, and they have collectively explained 44 percent of variances of dependent variable.

  17. Comparison between control factors of high quality continental reservoirs in Bohai Bay basin and Ordos basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junmao ZHENG; Jun YOU; Dongbo HE

    2008-01-01

    Bohai Bay basin,a typical extensional rift basin,and Ordos basin,an intra-craton down-warped basin,represent two important basin types in China.Because of their respective features,the main control factors for their high quality reservoirs are different.In Bohai Bay basin,the sandbody shows great variety in types and severely separated distribution and its high quality reservoirs are mostly controlled by the vertical secondary pore and vertical abnormal pressure.On the other hand,the sandbody in Ordos basin features a relative lack of variety,good continuity,indistinct vertical zone,and its reservoirs are mainly controlled bY the diagenetic differentiation caused by different sedimentation inside the sandbody.Therefore,in the Bohai Bay basin,the exploration should be based on the analysis of sedimentary facies and the favorable diagenefic zones and formations.The focus in Ordos basin,however,should be put on the relatively high permeability sandstones in a generally low permeable sandstone background.

  18. Factors associated with quality of life in patients with severe asthma: the impact of pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Silva Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify, characterize, and quantify associations of various factors with quality of life (QoL in patients with asthma, according to the pharmacotherapy employed. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 49 patients (≥ 18 years of age with severe uncontrolled or refractory asthma treated at a specialized outpatient clinic of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System, regularly using high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICs or other medications, and presenting comorbidities. At a single time point, QoL was assessed with the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ. The overall AQLQ score and those of its domains were correlated with demographic variables (gender and age; Asthma Control Questionnaire score; pharmacotherapy (initial IC dose, inhaler devices, and polytherapy; and comorbidities. RESULTS: Better AQLQ scores were associated with asthma control-overall (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.004-0.341; p < 0.001, "symptoms" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001, and "emotional function" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001-and with IC dose ≤ 800 µg-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 0.249; 95% CI: 0.070-0.885; p = 0.029. Worse AQLQ scores were associated with polytherapy-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 3.651; 95% CI: 1.061-12.561; p = 0.036-and number of comorbidities ≤ 5-"environmental stimuli" domain (OR = 5.042; 95% CI: 1.316-19.317; p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, the importance of this issue, and the lack of studies taking pharmacotherapy into consideration warrant longitudinal studies to establish a causal relationship between the identified factors and QoL in asthma patients.

  19. Relations between protein production, protein quality and environmental factors in Pisum mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seed protein content of 138 radiation-induced Pisum mutants was determined. The variability of this genetically well-defined material agrees approximately with that of the world collection of Pisum sativum. Some environmental factors to a great extent influence the protein production of the mutants and the initial line. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the relations between the genetically controlled protein production and its dependence upon the environmental factors. This is especially evident if the protein situation of the same genotypes cultivated under the moderate climatic conditions of middle Europe is compared with the subtropical conditions of India. A generally firm correlation between seed size and protein content could not be found in material regarding 148 different mutants of our assortment. Therefore, the selection of small-grained mutants does not result in a selection of protein-rich genotypes in Pisum sativum. Considering all the criteria positively and negatively influencing the protein production, a positive situation could be found in some mutants, especially in the fasciated ones. Furthermore, an improvement of the protein quality could be reached by a genetically conditioned alteration of the globulin-albumin ratio leading to an increase of some essential amino acids such as methionine and lysine. The combined action of mutant genes results in unexpected changes of the protein quantity as well as the quality of the recombinants in relation to their parental mutants. The comparison of some essential amino acids of our useful mutants with those of the varieties of other genera of the Leguminosae shows certain trends of biochemical alterations realized during evolutionary development of the family. (author)

  20. Factors affecting the use of patient survey data for quality improvement in the Veterans Health Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Elizabeth A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how to use patient feedback to improve experiences of health care. The Veterans Health Administration (VA conducts regular patient surveys that have indicated improved care experiences over the past decade. The goal of this study was to assess factors that were barriers to, or promoters of, efforts to improve care experiences in VA facilities. Methods We conducted case studies at two VA facilities, one with stable high scores on inpatient reports of emotional support between 2002 and 2006, and one with stable low scores over the same period. A semi-structured interview was used to gather information from staff who worked with patient survey data at the study facilities. Data were analyzed using a previously developed qualitative framework describing organizational, professional and data-related barriers and promoters to data use. Results Respondents reported more promoters than barriers to using survey data, and particularly support for improvement efforts. Themes included developing patient-centered cultures, quality improvement structures such as regular data review, and training staff in patient-centered behaviors. The influence of incentives, the role of nursing leadership, and triangulating survey data with other data on patients' views also emerged as important. It was easier to collect data on current organization and practice than those in the past and this made it difficult to deduce which factors might influence differing facility performance. Conclusions Interviews with VA staff provided promising examples of how systematic processes for using survey data can be implemented as part of wider quality improvement efforts. However, prospective studies are needed to identify the most effective strategies for using patient feedback to improve specific aspects of patient-centered care.

  1. Identification and Ranking of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment Approach: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohaghar; Mehdi Shami Zanjani; Mozhgan Nouri

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to rank the critical success factors of knowledge management using fuzzy quality function deployment (QFD) approach in MECO Company. The research has utilized a three-step qualitative-quantitative-qualitative strategy. At the first step (1st qualitative phase), the critical success factors of knowledge management and knowledge management outcomes were characterized in MECO. Then, the critical success factors of knowledge management which were identified ...

  2. Measuring team factors thought to influence the success of quality improvement in primary care: a systematic review of instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Sue E; Bosch, Marije; Buchan, Heather; Green, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Background Measuring team factors in evaluations of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) may provide important information for enhancing CQI processes and outcomes; however, the large number of potentially relevant factors and associated measurement instruments makes inclusion of such measures challenging. This review aims to provide guidance on the selection of instruments for measuring team-level factors by systematically collating, categorizing, and reviewing quantitative self-report instr...

  3. Factors contributing to quality of life in COPD patients in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon HY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Young Kwon,1,2 Eugene Kim2 1Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 2Institute of Health and Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic lung disease, and the burden of COPD is expected to increase in the rapidly aging nation of South Korea. This study aims to examine the factors contributing to health-related quality of life (HRQOL in COPD patients.Patients and methods: This study was based on 6-year-data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012. COPD was diagnosed in 2,734 survey participants and the severity was graded according to the criteria set by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D index was used to assess the quality of life.Results: The EQ-5D index scores for COPD patients and the general population were 0.915±0.003 and 0.943±0.001, respectively. Males, younger people, and patients with higher education attainment and income levels had a higher utility score. In addition, the adjusted EQ-5D index scores for severity level IV significantly decreased by 0.100 (P=0.041, compared to the severity group I scores. No significant differences were found in stage II and III patients. Comorbidities (excluding cancer and hypertension appeared to negatively influence HRQOL among COPD patients. In particular, depression (EQ-5D index score =-0.089, P=0.0003 and osteoporosis (EQ-5D index score= -0.062, P=0.0039 had a significant influence, while smoking status did not appear to influence patient HRQOL.Conclusion: In this study, we found that the higher the severity of COPD, the lower the quality of life. In particular, patients with depression and osteoporosis had a relatively low utility score. Therefore, these comorbidities should be carefully monitored in order to improve quality

  4. Relative Importance of Quality Factors and Determinants in the Selection of Foreign Language Courses in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Miranda de Oliveira Arruda Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a research of the relative importance of quality factors and determinants for the selection of language courses in a virtual environment, according to Lee e Kozar (2006. The method used was the Analytic Hierarchy Process. A survey was carried out with 200 individuals who had experiences with any type of educational service in the virtual environment. The more significant factor was the system’s quality, followed by the quality of service, the quality of the information, and the quality of a specific vendor. The main sub-factors were responsiveness, response time, navigability, and security. The study concludes that better-structured social networks facilitate purchases and can induce consumers to change their behavior, moving from conventional to virtual environments. The discovery of the quality factor hierarchy for selecting the social network to study languages suggests that the developers should design websites that present more aesthetic, comfortable, and effective educational services provision, in accordance with the consumers’ expectations.

  5. The role of nuclear factor κB in the cellular response to different radiation qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Kristina

    2013-04-11

    Radiation is currently one of the most important limiting factors for manned space flight. During such missions, there is a constant exposure to low doses of galactic cosmic radiation and in particular high-energy heavy ions. Together this is associated with an increased cancer risk which currently cannot be sufficiently reduced by shielding. As such, cellular radiation response needs to be further studied in order to improve risk estimation and develop appropriate countermeasures. It has been shown that exposure of human cells to accelerated heavy ions, in fluences that can be reached during long-term missions, leads to activation of the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Heavy ions with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 90 to 300 keV/μm were most effective in activating NF-κB. NF-κB as an important modulating factor in the cellular radiation response could improve cellular survival after heavy ion exposure, thereby influencing the cancer risk of astronauts. The NF-κB pathway may be a potential pharmacological target in the mitigation of radiation response during space missions; such as the prevention of massive cell death after high dose irradiation (acute effects), in addition to neoplastic cell transformation during chronic low-dose exposure (late effects). The aim of this work was to examine the role of NF-κB in the cellular response to space-relevant radiation. Firstly, NF-κB activation in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) after exposure to different radiation qualities and quantities was investigated. Key elements of different NF-κB sub-pathways were chemically inhibited to analyze their role in NF-κB activation induced by low and high LET ionizing radiation. Finally a cell line, stably transfected with a plasmid coding for a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) for a knockdown of the NF-κB subunit RelA, was established to assess the role of RelA in the cellular response to space-relevant radiation. The knockdown was verified on several levels and the cell

  6. The role of nuclear factor κB in the cellular response to different radiation qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is currently one of the most important limiting factors for manned space flight. During such missions, there is a constant exposure to low doses of galactic cosmic radiation and in particular high-energy heavy ions. Together this is associated with an increased cancer risk which currently cannot be sufficiently reduced by shielding. As such, cellular radiation response needs to be further studied in order to improve risk estimation and develop appropriate countermeasures. It has been shown that exposure of human cells to accelerated heavy ions, in fluences that can be reached during long-term missions, leads to activation of the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Heavy ions with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 90 to 300 keV/μm were most effective in activating NF-κB. NF-κB as an important modulating factor in the cellular radiation response could improve cellular survival after heavy ion exposure, thereby influencing the cancer risk of astronauts. The NF-κB pathway may be a potential pharmacological target in the mitigation of radiation response during space missions; such as the prevention of massive cell death after high dose irradiation (acute effects), in addition to neoplastic cell transformation during chronic low-dose exposure (late effects). The aim of this work was to examine the role of NF-κB in the cellular response to space-relevant radiation. Firstly, NF-κB activation in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) after exposure to different radiation qualities and quantities was investigated. Key elements of different NF-κB sub-pathways were chemically inhibited to analyze their role in NF-κB activation induced by low and high LET ionizing radiation. Finally a cell line, stably transfected with a plasmid coding for a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) for a knockdown of the NF-κB subunit RelA, was established to assess the role of RelA in the cellular response to space-relevant radiation. The knockdown was verified on several levels and the cell

  7. A review of factors influencing underground construction quality and the performance of engineered features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research to identify and rank the factors that should be considered for an assessment of the radioactive containment capability of repository engineered features. Containment is to be achieved through the use of multiple barriers to radionuclide movement, including the waste, waste container, repository structures and backfill, and repository seals. A review of the literature is used to identify radionuclide mobilisation and transport processes for the anticipated environmental conditions, and to compile a data base of repository design features, functional requirements, and design objectives. For selected design components, the report identifies alternative designs and factors contributing to design, focusing on the requirements for a design process, design specifications, construction requirements, and quality assurance requirements for the both design and construction. Existing practice in large, underground civil construction projects is used as a part of comparison, in conjunction with reported performance assessments, to determine those areas in which the repository developer will need to provide additional data, justification, and documentation prior to construction to ensure that performance requirements can be achieved. (Author)

  8. [Influence of obstetric factors on the quality of cord blood units collected for allogeneic transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, V; Atanassova, M; Nikolov, A; Zlatkov, V; Mihaylova, A; Naumova, E

    2012-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) as a source of haematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation has many advantages over bone marrow and peripheral blood, however, a main limitation to its use in clinical setting is cell numbers. This study aimed to assess the impact of mother/neonatal factors on the quality of CB units, collected for allogeneic transplantation. We analyzed 33 CB units collected in University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology "Maichin dom" and donated to the National public bank for stem cells, University Hospital "Alexandrovska", Sofia. A significant increase (p < 0.001) of total nucleated cell (TNC) values was found after CB processing. A trend of higher values of CD34+ cells was observed in CB units obtained from vaginal deliveries compared to Cesarian section births, and from female newborns compared to their male counterparts. CD34+ cell number positively correlated with CD34+ percentage and TNC count. Our preliminary data demonstrate the need of a large retrospective evaluation of different obstetric factors in order to establish criteria for appropriate selection in our country of umbilical cord blood donors for public banking. PMID:23234008

  9. Demographic factors affecting quality of life of hemodialysis patients – Lahore, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anees, Muhammad; Malik, Muzammil Riaz; Abbasi, Tanzeel; Nasir, Zeeshan; Hussain, Yasir; Ibrahim, Muhamamd

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the demographic factors affecting Quality Of Life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. Patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and on maintenance HD for more than three months were included during the period March to June 2012. Patient of ESRD not on dialysis and Acute Renal Failure were excluded. One hundred and twenty five patients who fulfilled the criteria were included. Demographic data containing age, sex, residence, socio economic status, education, mode of traveling for dialysis, total time consumed in dialysis were collected by the investigators. QOL index was measured using 26 items, WHO QOL BREF. Results: There were 89(71.2%) male and 36(28.8%) female patients. Environmental domain score was highest (p=0.000) than all other domains in HD Patients. In overall analysis age, marital status and total time consumed in getting HD effect QOL significantly (p=social relation in QOL (p=social relation domain. Monthly income and place of residence is positive predictor of QOL in environment domain. Conclusion: Gender, age, marital status, unemployment, residence of rural area, economical status, distance covered to reach hospital, mode of transport, total time consumed in getting HD, effect QOL in HD patient. Education level is a positive factor for improving QOL of HD patients. PMID:25225539

  10. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities

  11. Importance of factors determining the low health-related quality of life in people presenting with a diabetic foot ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, V; Thorsen, H; Holstein, P E;

    2013-01-01

    To identify the factors responsible for the low health-related quality of life associated with foot ulcers and the relative importance of these factors.......To identify the factors responsible for the low health-related quality of life associated with foot ulcers and the relative importance of these factors....

  12. Virtual Averaging Making Nonframe-Averaged Optical Coherence Tomography Images Comparable to Frame-Averaged Images

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Developing a novel image enhancement method so that nonframe-averaged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images become comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Methods Twenty-one eyes of 21 healthy volunteers were scanned with noneye-tracking nonframe-averaged OCT device and active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT device. Virtual averaging was applied to nonframe-averaged images with voxel resampling and adding amplitude deviation with 15-time repetitions. Signal-to...

  13. Identifying Factors Influencing Pancreatic Cancer Management to Inform Quality Improvement Efforts and Future Research: A Scoping Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Soong, Daniel; Gallinger, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients appear to receive suboptimal care. We conducted a systematic review to identify factors that influence PC management which are amenable to quality improvement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the references of eligible studies were searched from 1996 to July 2014. Two authors independently selected and reviewed eligible studies. Identified factors were mapped onto a framework of determinants of care delivery and outcomes. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using Downs and Black criteria. Most of the 33 eligible studies were population-based observational studies conducted in the United States. Patient (age, socioeconomic status, race) and institutional (case volume, academic status) factors influence care delivery and outcomes (complications, mortality, readmission, survival). Two studies implemented interventions to improve quality of care (centralization to high-volume hospitals, multidisciplinary care). One study examined system determinants (referral wait times). No studies examined the influence of guideline or provider characteristics. The overall lack of health services research in PC is striking. Factors and interventions identified here can be used to plan PC quality improvement programs. Further research is needed to explore the influence of guideline and provider factors on PC management and evaluate the impact of quality improvement interventions. PMID:26752254

  14. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic li...

  15. Quality of engineering surveysas a factor of natural-technogenic systems formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashperyuk Pavel Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction in urban areas is often related to reusing previously developed sites, which requires solving additional tasks both by builders and surveyors additional. The tasks are related to the evaluation of already changed natural (geological environment of this area and its further investigation in connection with the proposed creation of a new natural-technogenic system (NTS. This article presents some examples of the influence of engineering survey quality on adopting extraordinary project solutions excluding the negative impact on NTS formation in the process of construction and operation of facilities in Moscow. In particular it is stated that the lack of control in the process of land works and transfer from the platform of water-bearing communications may ultimately lead to a different change in the strength and deformation properties of soil at the base of structures, and in some cases to geoecological disfuncion of the newly created NTS due to adverse geological processes development. The author draws attention to the complexity and responsibility of engineering geological surveys in the areas of developing powerful (>10 m strata of bulk soils. The article considers some aspects of the influence of the temperature regime of soils in the foundation structures active zone on heat and moisture transfer in these soils, their condition and deformation properties in city area. A particular example of the construction of a high-rise building in Moscow has shown that the presence of heat-bearing communications within 3—10 m from the earth's surface may increase the annual average temperature of the strata up to 30 degrees and more, thus, dismantling such communications leads to different changes in the established temperature regime and conditions of clay soils. It is noted that the forecast of the change in basic physical and mechanical properties of the base soil in urban conditions is not possible without thermometric work during

  16. Prioritizing the effective factors in translation quality of assessment (TQA) in practice: from experience translator’s viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATIMEHR, Maryam; POORDARYAIENEJAD, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. One of the recurring themes in the field of translation studies has been translation quality assessment (TQA). TQA, generally speaking, refers to systematic analysis of translated texts in order to evaluate them based on specific criteria. TQA has been of great interest to both translators and teachers. TQA may be beneficial in one closely related way; that is provides translators with factors to follow in pursuit of high quality translations. In order to achieve its goal, the prese...

  17. Psychosocial factors associated with adherence to treatment and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Prisla Ücker Calvetti; Grazielly Rita Marques Giovelli; Gabriel José Chittó Gauer; João Feliz Duarte Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article was to investigate the biopsychosocial factors that influence adherence to treatment and the quality of life of individuals who have been successfully following the HIV/AIDS treatment. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study carried out with 120 HIV positive participants in the south of Brazil. Among the variables studied, of note are: perceived stress, social support, symptoms of anxiety and depression and quality of life. Results: The results show...

  18. Effect of Website Quality Factors on the Success of Agricultural Products B2C E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Ping; ZHAO, DONGMEI

    2014-01-01

    By applying analytic hierarchy process to extend the D&M IS success model, this paper builds a user preference hierarchical model for online consumers to select the most preferred website; this model is mainly constituted by the quality of information, service, system and supplier. Empirical study on agricultural products B2C field has shown that service quality is the most important factor affecting the website selections of online consumers, and e-commerce businesses should make greater eff...

  19. Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago; Henry M. Bwisa

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 resp...

  20. Determination of Basic Factors of Influence and Indexes of Evaluation of Quality of Labour Life of Workers of Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yastremskaya Elena N.; Stamatin Aleksandr V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the factors influencing the quality of working life of workers in industry as an example of mechanical engineering is investigated. The main components of the quality of working life is defined conditions, financial incentives, intangible promotion, social security, state of the environment. The influence of defined components on productivity is proven. The results of research for mechanical engineering of fifth technological structure in Kharkiv region allow to conclude that al...

  1. Computation of External Quality Factors for RF Structures by Means of Model Order Reduction and a Perturbation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Flisgen, Thomas; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    External quality factors are significant quantities to describe losses via waveguide ports in radio frequency resonators. The current contribution presents a novel approach to determine external quality factors by means of a two-step procedure: First, a state-space model for the lossless radio frequency structure is generated and its model order is reduced. Subsequently, a perturbation method is applied on the reduced model so that external losses are accounted for. The advantage of this approach results from the fact that the challenges in dealing with lossy systems are shifted to the reduced order model. This significantly saves computational costs. The present paper provides a short overview on existing methods to compute external quality factors. Then, the novel approach is introduced and validated in terms of accuracy and computational time by means of commercial software.

  2. Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG

    CERN Document Server

    Romanenko, A; Crawford, A C; Sergatskov, D A; Melnychuk, O

    2014-01-01

    Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: 1) record quality factors $Q > 2\\times10^{11}$ up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; 2) $Q\\sim3\\times10^{10}$ at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

  3. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the same age group. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and an interview. Discomfort intensity and bio-psychosocial variables were assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance questionnaire. Self-esteem was determined using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and both simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Although most individuals did not present discomfort, there was a prevalence of 15.9% of impact on individuals' daily life exclusively due to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance . Age [PR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-8.5], speech impairment [PR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6], poor oral hygiene [PR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8] and tooth mobility [PR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.1] remained independently associated with a greater prevalence of discomfort (P ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Discomfort associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances exerted a negative influence on the quality of life of the adolescents comprising the present study. The determinants of this association were age, poor oral hygiene, speech impairment and tooth mobility.

  4. Effects of environmental factors on edible oil quality of organically grown Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lundon, Aina R; Haugen, John-Erik; Vogt, Gjermund; Borge, Grethe Iren A; Henriksen, Britt I F

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential for the production of edible oil from organically grown camelina ( Camelina sativa L. Crantz), focusing on the influence of environmental factors on nutritional quality parameters. Field experiments with precrop barley were conducted in Norway in the growing seasons 2007, 2008, and 2009. Trials were fully randomized with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, 0 and 120 kg total N ha(-1), and two levels of sulfur (S) fertilization, 0 and 20 kg total S ha(-1). Weather conditions, that is, temperature and precipitation, were recorded. Additional experiments were performed in the years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of replacing precrop barley with precrop pea. Seed oil content was measured by near-infrared transmittance, and crude oil compositions of fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and phospholipids were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed significant seasonal variations in seed oil content and oil composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids that to a great extent could be explained by the variations in weather conditions. Furthermore, significant effects of N fertilization were observed. Seed oil content decreased at the highest level of N fertilization, whereas the oil concentrations of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), erucic acid (22:1n-9), tocopherols, and campesterol increased. Pea compared to barley as precrop also increased the 18:3n-3 content of oil. S fertilization had little impact on oil composition, but an increase in tocopherols and a decrease in brassicasterol were observed. In conclusion, organically grown camelina seems to be well suited for the production of edible oil. Variations in nutritional quality parameters were generally small, but significantly influenced by season and fertilization. PMID:23514260

  5. Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for

  6. The Quality of Genetic Counseling and Connected Factors as Evaluated by Male BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajula, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Moilanen, Jukka S; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2016-06-01

    There is little written about the quality of genetic counseling for men with the BRCA1/2 mutation. The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of genetic counseling and connected factors according to Finnish male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers' (n = 35) perspectives and reasons for seeking genetic counseling. Data were collected from the Departments of Clinical Genetics at five Finnish university hospitals. The exploratory study design was conducted using a 51-item questionnaire based on a previously devised quality of counseling model and analyzed using non-parametric tests and principle content analysis. The satisfaction level with genetic counseling was high, especially with regard to the content of genetic counseling. The benefit of genetic counseling on the quality of life differed significantly (p education, affected the perceived quality of genetic counseling. The results of the study could be used to tailor genetic counseling for male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:26416184

  7. Three factors that influence the overall quality of the stereoscopic 3D content: image quality, comfort, and realism

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, Raluca; Ladret, Patricia; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    2013-01-01

    ISBN : 9780819494269 International audience In today's context, where 3D content is more abundant than ever and its acceptance by the public is probably definitive, there are many discussions on controlling and improving the 3D quality. But what does this notion represent precisely? How can it be formalized and standardized? How can it be correctly evaluated? A great number of studies have investigated these matters and many interesting approaches have been proposed. Despite this, no un...

  8. Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Dukka B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures. However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%; in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38 of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA 1, our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction 2, which

  9. New determination of the D0→K−π+π0 and D0→K−π+π+π− coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the coherence factors (RKππ0 and RK3π) and the average strong-phase differences (δDKππ0 and δDK3π) for the decays D0→K−π+π0 and D0→K−π+π+π− are presented. These parameters are important inputs to the determination of the unitarity triangle angle γ in B∓→DK∓ decays, where D designates a D0 or D¯0 meson decaying to a common final state. The measurements are made using quantum correlated DD¯ decays collected by the CLEO-c experiment at the ψ(3770) resonance, and augment a previously published analysis by the inclusion of new events in which the signal decay is tagged by the mode D→KS0π+π−. The measurements also benefit from improved knowledge of external inputs, namely the D0D¯0 mixing parameters, rDKπ and several D-meson branching fractions. The measured values are RKππ0=0.82±0.07, δDKππ0=(164−14+20)°, RK3π=0.32−0.28+0.20 and δDK3π=(225−78+21)°. Consideration is given to how these measurements can be improved further by using the larger quantum-correlated data set collected by BESIII.

  10. Determination of correction factor for X-ray radiographic sensitivity when image quality indicator is placed on film side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray radiographic sensitivity was studied by a simultaneous exposure of two sets of image quality indicator where one of them was placed on the stainless steel spectrum facing X-ray source while the other was placed under the specimen facing the film. Single wall single image and double wall single image exposure techniques were used. A significant difference in radiographic sensitivity was obtained between these two positions of image quality indicator when specimen thickness exceeding 3 mm. A correction factor curve was obtained for correcting the radiographic sensitivity data when the image quality indicator is placed on the specimen facing the film. (author)

  11. The effective quality factor at low temperatures in dynamic force microscopes with Fabry-Pérot interferometer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Hendrik; Milde, Peter; Zerweck, Ulrich; Eng, Lukas M.; Hoffmann, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The oscillation of a cantilever in ultrahigh vacuum dynamic force microscopy is sometimes measured with the help of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer. We show that the photoinduced forces present in such an interferometer can artificially increase or decrease the effective quality factor of the cantilever. We examine this effect on the basis of a PtIr-coated rectangular silicon cantilever at temperatures between 7.7 and 30 K. By measuring resonance curves we demonstrate that the magnitude of the effective quality factor changes with cantilever-fiber distance, laser power, and temperature.

  12. SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF FACTORS OF FORMATION OF QUALITY OF LABOR LIFE FROM THE POSITION OF WORKER AND EMPLOYER

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Vyacheslavovna Taraban

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Analysis and evaluation of the factors of formation of the quality of working life from the position of an employer and an employee.Methods/methodology of carrying out the work  Expert survey of the employees of Irkutsk, questionnaire survey of the employed population of Irkutsk.ResultsA comparative analysis of the opinions of employers and workers on issues of definition of the most significant factors forming the quality of working life, and the evaluation of the level of the qualit...

  13. Key Factors for a High-Quality Peritoneal Dialysis Program — The Role of the PD Team and Continuous Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) has increased very fast in China over the last decade. Renji Hospital, affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, is a recognized high-quality PD unit with a high PD utilization rate, excellent patient and technique survival (1-year and 5-year patient survival rate of 93% and 71%, and 1-year and 5-year technique survival of 96% and 82%, respectively), low peritonitis rate and a well-documented good quality of life of the treated patients. We believe that a dedicated and experienced PD team, a structured patient training program, continuous patient support, establishing and utilizing standardized protocols, starting PD with low dialysis dose, monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs), and continuous quality improvement (CQI) are the key factors underlying this successful PD program. PMID:24962961

  14. Key factors for a high-quality peritoneal dialysis program--the role of the PD team and continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi

    2014-06-01

    The proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) has increased very fast in China over the last decade. Renji Hospital, affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, is a recognized high-quality PD unit with a high PD utilization rate, excellent patient and technique survival (1-year and 5-year patient survival rate of 93% and 71%, and 1-year and 5-year technique survival of 96% and 82%, respectively), low peritonitis rate and a well-documented good quality of life of the treated patients. We believe that a dedicated and experienced PD team, a structured patient training program, continuous patient support, establishing and utilizing standardized protocols, starting PD with low dialysis dose, monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs), and continuous quality improvement (CQI) are the key factors underlying this successful PD program. PMID:24962961

  15. Self-ratings of eight factors of quality management at Naval Avionics Center

    OpenAIRE

    Hocevar, Susan Page; Applegate, Carolyn L.; Thomas, Kenneth Wayne

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this report is the implementation of Total Quality Management in ten DoD organizations. The Participating organizations were all identified by the Federal Quality Institute as either winners or finalists of the Productivity/Quality Management and Budget. Qualitative data collected included interviews with either top executives or TQM coordinators, documentation of quality management activities. A questionnaire survey was also administered to the executive steering committee of ea...

  16. 影响精液质量的因素%Influencing factors of semen quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世荣

    2012-01-01

    精液异常是男性不育的主要指征,拥有健康精液是优生优育的重要保证,随着科学技术的发展,各种影响生育的不良因素被逐渐认识.据报道,近几年我国育龄男性精液质量异常人数呈上升趋势,有关人员曾对此做过研究和统计,其中包括对一次性射精量、精液黏稠度、精液液化时间、以及精子总数、精子密度、正常精子形态、精子运动情况和精子成活率、活动率等,通过流行病学调查分析认为,造成精液异常的主要原因除年龄因素之外,物理因素、化学因素、生物因素、营养因素、病理因素以及不良的生活习惯都有可能对其产生影响.参照WHO标准,结合我国相关调查,总结造成育龄男性精液异常的各种原因,对确保精液质量的健康大有意义.因此,加强对环境的保护,调整生活方式,保持良好的身体状态十分重要.%The seminal abnormality is a main indication of male infertility, and healthy sperm play an important role on guarantee of healthy pregnancy and scientific nurture. With the development of science and technology, various harmful factors of fertility have been discovered gradually. It has been reported that the number of seminal abnormality cases increases year by year in China in the recent years. Many researchers have carried out the study and analysis on it, which include ejaculate volume, semen viscosity, semen liquefaction time, total sperm count, sperm density, normal sperm morphology, sperm motion, sperm survival rate, sperm activity rate and so on. The epidemiological investigation shows that the main causes of seminal abnormality include age, physical factors, chemical factors, biological factors, nutritional factors, pathological factors and bad habits. According to WHO standard, combined with relevant investigations, summarizing the various causes of seminal abnormality in reproductive male population has great significance for ensuring the semen

  17. Quality of life after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: an evaluation of diet and other factors using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life instrument.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J C

    2012-02-03

    similar to the general group (7 vs. 6 daily bowel movements with full continence in all parous patients). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients suffered dietary restrictions, forcing them to adopt a fixed dietary regimen. Breach of this regimen would impact on their quality of life. Hence composition of diet and timing of intake are important determinants of quality of life after ileal pouch formation. Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and those with a history of pouchitis had poorer Cleveland Global Quality of Life scores than ulcerative colitis patients without a background of pouchitis. This indicates that they also had poorer quality of life. Parous patients had the lowest Cleveland Global Quality of Life scores, indicating the poorest quality of life. These differences did not correlate with poorer pouch function, highlighting the influence of non-pouch-related factors in quality of life after ileal pouch formation.

  18. Confounding factors in using upward feedback to assess the quality of medical training: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anli Yue Zhou Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Upward feedback is becoming more widely used in medical training as a means of quality control. Multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. This study aims to identify factors that could influence upward feedback, especially in medical training. Methods: A systematic review using a structured search strategy was performed. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both medical and non-medical literature, were included. A simple pro-forma was used initially to identify the pertinent areas of upward feedback, so that a focused pro-forma could be designed for data extraction. Results: A total of 204 articles were reviewed. Most studies on upward feedback bias were evaluative studies and only covered Kirkpatrick level 1-reaction. Most studies evaluated trainers or training, were used for formative purposes and presented quantitative data. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common overt biases, whereas method of feedback was the most commonly implied bias within articles. Conclusion: Although different types of bias do exist, upward feedback does have a role in evaluating medical training. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common biases. Further research is required to evaluate which types of bias are associated with specific survey characteristics and which are potentially modifiable.

  19. Error analysis for intrinsic quality factor measurement in superconducting radio frequency resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnychuk, O.; Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss error analysis for intrinsic quality factor (Q0) and accelerating gradient (Eacc) measurements in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) resonators. The analysis is applicable for cavity performance tests that are routinely performed at SRF facilities worldwide. We review the sources of uncertainties along with the assumptions on their correlations and present uncertainty calculations with a more complete procedure for treatment of correlations than in previous publications [T. Powers, in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27]. Applying this approach to cavity data collected at Vertical Test Stand facility at Fermilab, we estimated total uncertainty for both Q0 and Eacc to be at the level of approximately 4% for input coupler coupling parameter β1 in the [0.5, 2.5] range. Above 2.5 (below 0.5) Q0 uncertainty increases (decreases) with β1 whereas Eacc uncertainty, in contrast with results in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27], is independent of β1. Overall, our estimated Q0 uncertainty is approximately half as large as that in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27].

  20. Evaluating Persistent Postoperative Pain in One Tertiary Hospital: Incidence, Quality of Life, Associated Factors, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes-Pereira, Luis; Valdoleiros, Ines; Reis, Pedro; Abelha, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent postoperative pain (PPP) is defined as persistent pain after surgery of greater than three months’ duration. Objectives Identify the incidence of PPP in our hospital and its associated factors; evaluate quality of life (QoL) and treatment of patients. Patients and Methods We conducted an observational prospective study in adults proposed to various types of surgery using the brief pain inventory short form preoperatively (T0), one day after surgery, and three months later (T3). If the patient had pain at T3 and other causes of pain were excluded, they were considered to have PPP, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form was applied. QoL was measured with the EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D). Results One hundred seventy-five patients completed the study. The incidence of PPP was 28%, and the affected patients presented lower QoL. The majority referred to a moderate to severe level of interference in their general activity. Cholecystectomies were less associated with PPP, and total knee/hip replacements were more associated with it. Preoperative pain, preoperative benzodiazepines or antidepressants, and more severe acute postoperative pain were associated with the development of PPP. Half of the patients with PPP were under treatment, and they refer a mean symptomatic relief of 69%. Conclusions This study, apart from attempting to better characterize the problem of PPP, emphasizes the lack of its treatment. PMID:27252908

  1. Factors Affecting the Quality of Concrete Containing Solar PV Cells through Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng An

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to comply with the implementation of sustainable development, the construction industry through the use of less polluting green energy technology is already imminent and more had to do. Production of Portland cement consumes large amount of energy and releases lots of carbon dioxide, nevertheless, the developing of sustainable society means more urgent and important to search for new cementitious materials to replace Portland cement in future constructions. The research employs Taguchi method to identify the key factors influencing the performance of alkali activated silica fume concrete in which amorphous silicon solar cells are ground and added into the mixture. Taguchi method has made valuable contributions to statistics and engineering. It provides techniques for investigating variation in experiments, system, parameter and tolerance design, all of which have been influential in improving manufactured quality. The conclusions were made thru ANOVA and F-test based on the statistical analyses. Next, we expect the inconsistence observed in the study to be further resolved by Grey Relational Analysis which is a normalization evaluation technique to solve the complicated multi-performance characteristics optimization effectively.

  2. Controlling damping and quality factors of silicon microcantilevers by selective metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic microresonators coated with relatively thin metallic films are widely used for sensing, scanning probe microscopy, signal processing and vibration energy harvesting. The metallization improves optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity, but invariably degrades the quality factor (Q) of resonance by increasing the amount of energy dissipated during vibration. Developing strategies for controlling damping due to metallization is vital for the design of high-performance microresonators. This paper presents a strategy based on the insight that dissipation is a function of the deformation experienced by the thin film during oscillation. Therefore, damping can be controlled by patterning the metal in regions of low strain. A simple analytical model is developed to quantify the change in damping as a function of selective metallization along the length of a microcantilever. The predictions of this model are in good agreement with measurements of damping in single-crystal silicon microcantilevers that are partially coated on one surface with 100 nm thick aluminum films. Crucially, damping due to clamping, support and viscous losses is minimized in these structures to enable a careful comparison of theory with experiments. Coating 20% of the length of the beam starting from the tip has no significant impact on damping in either the first or the second mode of vibration. In contrast, placing the same size of metallization at the root leads to considerable dissipation; in the first mode, the damping due to this patch is ∼60% of that caused by a full coat.

  3. Quality assurance of nuclear power plants - an important factor for nuclear safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear technology may have some undesirable effects on society with the long term storage and deposition of long lived radioactive wastes as well as with some nonproliferation issues. One of the most important factors influencing the safety of a nuclear power plant is the correct and reliable functioning of the control and safety systems including all I≅C equipment inside the plant and in the controlled environment outside the plant. In fact during normal operation these systems substitute the operator's control of the NPP and give time to the operators to perform the necessary calculations and take the proper measures to ensure the desired operational status. In this respect it is particularly important that all these systems and instrumentation are properly qualified so that all the information regarding the reliability, operability, seismic protection etc. can be correct and the algorithms installed in the safety systems can function properly and effectively. A special concern is the proper qualification of the radiation protection equipment because this directly influences the health of the operating personnel. The report presents some important requirements concerning quality assurance and qualification of I≅C systems in the Kozloduy NPP, as well as the way this is supervised in Bulgaria. (author)

  4. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found f...

  5. Averaged Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Isidro, Eddy G Chirinos; Piattella, Oliver F; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological backreaction effects in Buchert's averaging formalism on the basis of an explicit solution of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dynamics which is linear in the LTB curvature parameter and has an inhomogeneous bang time. The volume Hubble rate is found in terms of the volume scale factor which represents a derivation of the simplest phenomenological solution of Buchert's equations in which the fractional densities corresponding to average curvature and kinematic backreaction are explicitly determined by the parameters of the underlying LTB solution at the boundary of the averaging volume. This configuration represents an exactly solvable toy model but it does not adequately describe our "real" Universe.

  6. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO2 laser welding

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhiwei; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high Q-factor of 2.12*10^6 in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid.

  7. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO₂ laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwei; Lin, Jintian; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high-Q-factor of 2.12 × 10(6) in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid. PMID:26480452

  8. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO_2 laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwei; Lin, Jintian; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high Q-factor of 2.12*10^6 in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid.

  9. What are the most important factors that determine the overall quality of dermatology residency training: A resident survey

    OpenAIRE

    Guffey, Darren; Feldman, Steven R.; Huang, William W

    2015-01-01

    Currently no broadly accepted and standardized objective ranking system for dermatology residency programs exist. A new ranking system was recently developed in an attempt to address this issue. However, it remains unclear if the algorithm employed is based on factors that have a tangible impact on the quality of training provided by dermatology residency programs [1]. Our authors surveyed all current dermatology residents in order to investigate the factors that they feel are most important ...

  10. Comparison of Mouse Brain DTI Maps Using K-space Average, Image-space Average, or No Average Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Shu-Wei; Mei, Jennifer; Tuel, Keelan

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is achieved by collecting a series of diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). Signal averaging of multiple repetitions can be performed in the k-space (k-avg) or in the image space (m-avg) to improve the image quality. Alternatively, one can treat each acquisition as an independent image and use all of the data to reconstruct the DTI without doing any signal averaging (no-avg). To compare these three approaches, in this study, in vivo DTI data was collected from five ...

  11. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  12. Analysis the Correlation Between Dual Source CT Coronary Angiography Image Quality and Various Influencing Factors%双源CT冠状动脉成像图像质量与影响因素的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石惠; 马强; 王爱军; 平学军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between various influencing factors and image quality, and to explore appropriate solutions. Methods To collect the scaning parameters of 926 cases , such as average heart rate , heart rate change, FOV, Pitch values , the data of cardiac cycle, the volume and rate of iodinated contrast media, trigger threshold, trigger time and evaluate the images qaulity, analysis of the scan parameters and the relationship between image quality and affect factors. Results Of sevaral factors , the average heart rate, heart rate change,the FOV and the image quality was statistically significant correlation. Average heart rate and heart rate changes and the image quality was negatively correlated ; FOV was positively correlated with the image quality. The others factors associated with the image quality was not statistically. Conclusion In DSCTCA, the image quality affected by many factors, but heart rate, heart rate change and FOV are the main influencing factors.%目的 分析多种图像质量影响因素与图像质量的关系,探讨相应的解决方案.方法 回顾性分析926例行双源CT( dual-source CT,DSCT)冠状动脉成像资料,分析其平均心率、心率变化、视野(FOV)、螺距(Pitch)值、采集心动周期数、对比剂注射流率、对比剂用量、触发阈值、触发时间等扫描参数与冠状动脉成像图像质量的相关性.结果 影响因素中平均心率、心率变化及FOV与图像质量有统计学意义的相关关系.平均心率及心率变化与DSCT冠状动脉CTA图像质量呈负相关;FOV与图像质量呈正相关.心动周期、Pitch值、对比剂注射流率、对比剂用量、触发阈值、触发时间与图像质量无统计学意义的相关.结论 冠状动脉CT成像图像质量受多种因素影响,其中心率、心率变化及FOV是影响图像质量的主要因素.

  13. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  14. Factors Associated with Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Quality of School-Based Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Foster, Lyndsay R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with middle school students' perceptions of the quality of the sexual health education (SHE) they received at school. Participants were 478 predominately White young people (256 girls, 222 boys) in grades 6-8 who completed a survey assessing their demographic characteristics; dating and sexual…

  15. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  16. The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

  17. Magnetic field emission comparison at different quality factors with series-series compensation network for inductive power transfer to vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Inductive power transfer is non-contact transfer of energy by means of magnetic fields. A higher secondary side quality factor at fixed input current ensures a linear increase in power transfer across the air gap. But also at the same time magnetic emissions to the surroundings increase. First of...

  18. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison at Different Quality Factors with Series-Parallel Compensation Network for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Input current of wireless power transfer system is limited by current rating of power converter on the primary side. Power rating of wireless power transfer system increases linearly with the quality factor for series-parallel topology of the system at a given primary current. Magnetic emissions to...

  19. Progression and prognostic factors of motor impairment, disability and quality of life in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, B.; Muslimovic, D.; Geloven, N. van; Speelman, J.D.; Schmand, B.; Haan, R.J. de

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine progression and prognostic factors of progression rate of motor impairment, disability, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease. METHODS: A group of 126 patients with newly diagnosed PD recruited from outpatient clinics participated in t

  20. Progression and prognostic factors of motor impairment, disability and quality of life in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Post; D. Muslimovic; N. van Geloven; J.D. Speelman; B. Schmand; R.J. de Haan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine progression and prognostic factors of progression rate of motor impairment, disability, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease. Methods: A group of 126 patients with newly diagnosed PD recruited from outpatient clinics participated in t

  1. Psychosocial factors of coronary heart disease and quality of life among Roma coronary patients : a study matched by socioeconomic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Ondusova, Daniela; Studencan, Martin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life (HRQL) differ between Roma and non-Roma coronary patients and to what degree socioeconomic status (SES) explains these differences. We included 138 patients out of 437 interviewed: 46 Roma, all with l

  2. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary groupings. The…

  3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)…

  4. Chamber Quality Factors for the NACP-02 Chamber in 60Co Beams: Comparison of EGSnrc and PENELOPE Monte Carlo Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new comparison of the values published for the chamber quality factor fc,Q0 of a NACP-02 plane-parallel chamber in 60Co, calculated with the Monte Carlo (MC) systems EGSnrc and PENELOPE, shows a difference of approximately 0.5%. The authors analyse possible reasons for this difference and recalculate the chamber quality factor with EGSnrc. Variations in the simulation transport parameters of EGSnrc result in changes smaller than the difference. An investigation of the most important uncertainties of cross-sectional data, considering variations in the mean excitation energy of stopping powers and in the total photon cross-sections, shows uncertainties comparable to the differences between the two codes for the chamber quality factor. Variations of the front wall thickness of the NACP-02 chamber, in the range of discrepancies with manufacturer data reported in the literature, result in significant changes in the calculated values. However, the difference in fc,Q0 cannot be explained in terms of these modifications. Hence, although both codes have been demonstrated to yield artefact free ion chamber simulations, a convergence of results for this particular problem cannot be achieved. An uncertainty estimate which takes into account the 0.5% difference for the MC calculated chamber quality factors seems to be a reasonable assumption. (author)

  5. Enhanced quality factors and force sensitivity by attaching magnetic beads to cantilevers for atomic force microscopy in liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Hoof, Sebastian; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid remains complicated due to the strong viscous damping of the cantilever resonance. Here we show that a high-quality resonance (Q>20) can be achieved in aqueous solution by attaching a microgram-bead at the end of the nanogram-cantilever. The resulting increase in cantilever mass causes the resonance frequency to drop significantly. However, the force sensitivity --- as expressed via the minimum detectable force gradient --- is hardly affected, because of the enhanced quality factor. Via the enhancement of the quality factor, the attached bead also reduces the relative importance of noise in the deflection detector. It can thus yield an improved signal-to-noise ratio when this detector noise is significant. We describe and analyze these effects for a set-up which includes magnetic actuation of the cantilevers and which can be easily implemented in any AFM system that is compatible with an inverted optical microscope.

  6. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal variation. Log SCC was negatively correlated with TDM (r=-0.35), AMC (r=-0.37), and NMC (r=-0.15) and positively correlated with PPD (r=0.40). Log TVC

  7. Factors affecting groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge aquifers, eastern United States, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Gross, Eliza L.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological analyses of water from 230 wells and 35 springs in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, sampled between 1993 and 2002, indicated that bedrock type (carbonate or siliciclastic rock) and land use were dominant factors influencing groundwater quality across a region extending from northwestern Georgia to New Jersey. The analyses included naturally occurring compounds (major mineral ions and radon) and anthropogenic contaminants [pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)], and contaminants, such as nitrate and bacteria, which commonly increase as a result of human activities. Natural factors, such as topographic position and the mineral composition of underlying geology, act to produce basic physical and geochemical conditions in groundwater that are reflected in physical properties, such as pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity, and in chemical concentrations of dissolved oxygen, radon, and major mineral ions. Anthropogenic contaminants were most commonly found in water from wells and springs in carbonate-rock aquifers. Nitrate concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels in 12 percent of samples, most of which were from carbonate-rock aquifers. Escherichia coli (E. coli), pesticide, and VOC detection frequencies were significantly higher in samples from sites in carbonate-rock aquifers. Naturally occurring elements, such as radon, iron, and manganese, were found in higher concentrations in siliciclastic-rock aquifers. Radon levels exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter in 74 percent of the samples, which were evenly distributed between carbonate- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers. The land use in areas surrounding wells and springs was another significant explanatory variable for the occurrence of anthropogenic compounds. Nitrate and pesticide concentrations were highest in samples collected from sites in agricultural areas and

  8. An analyse of quality of life of elderly person in community and influencing factors%社区老人生命质量及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤军克; 李惠英; 陈林利; 尤佳恺; 赵耐青

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the quality of life of elderly person living at community,and to find out the related influencing factors and thus to provide references for policies makers to improve the of life quality of the elderly person.Methods To investigate quality of life for elderly person living at community in Minhang district of Shanghai by adopting SF-36 form. Meanwhile,to find out the principal influencing factors on quality of life by adopting both single-factor and multiple-factor analysis.Results The score of life quality of senior citizen in local was as following 71.94±23.29(Physical Function),73.64±43.03(Role Physical),80.24±20.25(Bodily Pain),53.20±19.07(General Health),70.40±15.67(Vitality),83.79±20.24(Social Function),81.13±37.16(Role Emotional),78.14±15.43(Mental Health),74.06±17.49(Weighted average).There were two aspects of the factors that influencing elderly persons' the quality of life:disease-related (coronary heart disease,arthritis,diabetes mellitus,cerebrovascular accident,cataract,gall-stone and chronic bronchitis) and non-disease-related (habitation,physical exercise,age,gender,entertainment and record of employment). Conclusions The controllable factors that impact on quality of life of elderly living at community is habitation,physical exercise,entertainment and disease.%目的 了解社区老人生命质量及其影响因素,为有关部门提高老年人生命质量提供决策依据.方法 采用健康状况调查问卷中文版(SF-36)调查上海市闵行区社区老人生命质量,采用单因素、多因素统计方法进行数据处理.结果 老年人生命质量情况为:躯体功能(71.94±23.29)分,躯体角色(73.64±43.03)分,肌体疼痛(80.24±20.25)分,一般健康状况(53.20±19.07)分,生命力(70.40±15.67)分,社会功能(83.79±20.24)分,情感角色(81.13±37.16)分,心理健康(78.14±15.43)分,加权平均分为(74.06±17.49)分.影响社区老人生命质量的因素有疾病(冠心病、关节炎、

  9. Measuring the Quality of Hospital Services Hospital Specific Factors and Individual Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Is an increase in the quality of health services, as perceived by the hospital, appreciated by the consumers? If so, patients should respond positively to an increase in the quality of hospital services. Using two indicators to capture the quality of hospital services I investigate the relationship between these indicators and inpatients experiences. The health sector has increased substantially in most OECD countries over the last few decades. In Norway, total health care expenditures a...

  10. Study on estimate method of wave velocity and quality factor to fault seals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhensheng; LIU Deliang; LIU Bo; YANG Qiang; LI Jingming

    2005-01-01

    Based on ultrasonic test of fault rocks, the responses for wave velocity and quality factor (Q value) to lithology, porosity and permeability of fault rocks and mechanical property of faults are studied. In this paper, a new quantitative estimate method of fault seals is originally offered. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Wave velocity and Q value increase and porosity decreases with the increase in stress perpendicular to joint; (2) In compressive and compresso-shear fault rocks that are obviously anisotropic compared with their original rocks, the wave velocity and Q value are greater in the direction parallel with foliation, and usually less perpendicular to it. In tensile and tenso-shear fault rocks that are not obviously anisotropic, the wave velocity and Q value are under that of original rocks; (3) In foliated fault rocks, the direction with minimal wave velocity and Q value is the best direction for sealing; on the contrary it is the best for flowing; (4) Structural factures develop mainly along foliation, the minimal wave velocity and Q value reflect the flowing capacity in parallel direction to foliation, and the maximal wave velocity as well as Q value reflect the sealing capacity in normal direction to foliation. The new estimate method is based upon contrast of wave velocity and Q value between fault rocks and their original rocks, and is divided into three parts that are respectively to identify rock's lithology, to judge mechanic property of faults and to Judge sealing capacity of faults. Although there is vast scale effect between ultrasonic wave and seismic wave, they have similar regularity of response to fabric and porosity of faults. This research offers new application for seismic data and petrophysical basis for seismological estimation of fault seals. The estimate precision will be improved with the enhancement of three-dimensional seismic prospecting work.

  11. The Quality of Entrepreneurial Environment as a Factor of Foreign Direct Investments Inflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kuzmisin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper is built on the fact that foreign direct investments have the potential to influence the structure and quality of economic development and competitiveness that many scientific researches and studies have already confirmed. The paper presents entrepreneurial environment as a significant factor for increasing country’s competitiveness. It clarifies and proves relationship between entrepreneurial environment, or more precisely its barriers, and foreign direct investment inflows. The starting point is identification of the barriers of the Slovak entrepreneurial environment according to Doing Business 2012 by comparing Slovakia with the Visegrad Four Countries. Subsequently relationship of barriers (paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, protecting investors and FDI inflows on the sample of 25 leading countries for foreign investors according to FDI Confidence Index (Brazil, China, Germany, India, USA etc. is tested by Spearman's rank correlation test. The paper specifies barriers of EE, which removal would have a real impact on increasing FDI inflows into economy of Slovakia with relevant effects on its competitiveness.Research limitations were determined by the availability of statistical data, relatively large sample of surveyed economies in the world and comparison with other assessments (indices of FDI and competitiveness of countries. Given the limits on the scope of a magazine article, we will continue in our research in more detail in the future. Specific attention in this context will be devoted to the impact of investment incentives on FDI inflows. Methodology and selection of applied testing tool in synergy with selected statistical set of datas can bring new approach to the studied field and can stimulate extension of possibilities reached in this paper. The value of this paper lays in the specification of weak points of the Slovak entrepreneurial environment in the context of  its location

  12. Quality of Life and Related Factors Among People With Spinal Cord Injuries in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghimian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Spinal Cord Injury (SCI is one of the biggest health problems. Disabilities resulting from injuries such as spinal disability requires special attention because of their potential reduced to cause adverse effects in different systems of the body. Today, improving the Quality of Life (QOL in patients with SCIs is an important goal of treatment. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the QOL and related factors among people with SCIs. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 106 patients with SCI were selected through sampling based on census. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a Short-Form 36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaire for measuring the QOL among patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS 14 software and descriptive and inferential statistics. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean QOL in these patients was 37.1 ± 1.7 years (21 - 65 years and mean disease duration was 7.3±6 years. The most common injury was paraplegia. Most of the patients have moderate QOL (54.7 %. The results showed a significant relationship between QOL and marital status and employment status (P < 0.05. Also, results showed a significant relationship between QOL and education levels (P = 0.002, age (P = 0.001, and duration of illness (P = 0.001.The highest and lowest scores were 64 ± 7.1 and 36 ± 5.3 for understanding General Health (GH and role physical, respectively. Conclusions The results show that patients with SCI have a moderate health-related QOL Determining the QOL is needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses of patients with spinal cord injuries. Planning principles is recommended in order to reform the disability.

  13. Impact of environmental factors on water quality and toxic proliferation of cyanobacteria in Karaoun lake (Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Near East region already suffers from the effects of gradual climate change and will be among the most affected regions to climate change in the future. Consequently, productivity in agriculture is expected to decrease due to high temperatures. In addition, drought, floods and soil degradation will threaten the food security in the Eastern Arabic countries. Water is considered as the critical factor in this region; slight changes in rainfall patterns will have considerable impact. It has been proved that potential climate changes are likely to disrupt most ecosystems through changes in their physicochemical conditions and the population organisms living in these ecosystems. In this context the assessment of impacts on populations and phytoplankton communities has been studied in Lake Karaoun beginning of 1992. The Lake Karaoun was characterized by a diversified algal microflora with the existence of 98 species of phytoplankton and the predominance of about sixty species of diatoms mainly Aulacoseira granulata accompanied by a high concentration of dinoflagellates Ceratium hirundinella. Regional changes in climate and the increasing anthropogenic activities have deeply affected this ecosystem. Excessive external imputs of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) from domestic sewage, the discharge of industrial waste in the Litani river as well as intensive agricultural practices led to eutrophication.The physico-chemical studies showed a deterioration of water quality defined by high levels of eutrophic elements (nitrates and nitrites) and changes in phosphate concentrations (0 to 7.4mg / l) in relation to cyanobacterial bloom populations. In spring 2009 the occurrence of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum Forti for the first time in Karaoun Lake marked the beginning of Lake Karaoun blooms formation. During summer and with rising temperatures (between 25 and 32 deg C), A. ovalisporum disappears completely and was replaced by Microcystis aeruginosa. The end of 2009 was marked

  14. Factors Affecting Audit Quality : Number of Assignments & age of the auditor

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    Today, around the world, the profession of audit is in the eye of the public. Companies worldwide must have an auditor assuring the governance of the company and that the annual reports are in all essentials correct which at times can be difficult. This raises the question of what is a high quality audit. The most used definition of audit quality is DeAngelo’s (1981) which expresses the quality in terms of the auditor’s competence and independence. The quality is then dependent on the probabi...

  15. Physical and social factors determining quality of life for veterans with lower-limb amputation(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Ipsen, Thomas; Doherty, Patrick; Langberg, Henning

    Purpose Most veterans live for many years after their war-related traumatic lower-limb amputation, which is why understanding which factors influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains important to their long-term management. The objective of this study was to perform a review of the......-limb amputation(s), HRQoL outcome and veterans. Physical and social factors that influence HRQoL were extracted. Results The literature search identified 2073 citations, leading to the inclusion of 10 studies in the systematic review. Physical activity level, sport participation, level of amputation, back pain......, years of education, as well as duration and severity of phantom pain were found to be determining factors for HRQoL among veterans with lower-limb amputation. Conclusions The identified physical and social determinants were similar to those found in civilian traumatic amputees. More high quality...

  16. Calculation of the importance of quality factors in braille application process on labels by screen UV-varnishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Repeta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oriented graph has been drawn in the article according to fixed factors of the quality of applying Braille screen printing on the label by screen UV-varnishes. Using hierarchical representation of relationships between factors in the form of oriented graphs we have ranked the factors of the screen printing process of Braille elements by UV-varnishes and calculated their corresponding coefficients. We have found that the most ranked are such factors as the surface energy of the printing material, the printing speed, the temperature of UV-varnish and its viscosity. Received results of ranking will enable to synthesize the model of the process’ priority factors and to reveal the possibilities of regulations of geometrical parameters of the tactile font elements.

  17. Factor analysis and cluster analysis applied to assess the water quality of middle and lower Han River in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The Han River basin is one of the most important industrial and grain production bases in the central China. A lot of factories and towns have been established along the river where large farmlands are located nearby. In the last few decades the water quality of the Han River, specifically in middle and lower reaches, has gradually declined. The agricultural nonpoint pollution and municipal and industrial point pollution significantly degrade the water quality of the Han River. Factor analysis can be applied to reduce the dimensionality of a data set consisting of a large number of inter-related variables. Cluster analysis can classify the samples according to their similar characters. In this study, factor analysis is used to identify major pollution indicators, and cluster analysis is employed to classify the samples based on the sample locations and hydrochemical variables. Water samples were collected from 12 sample sites collected from Xiangyang City (middle Han River) to Wuhan City (lower Han River). Correlations among 25 hydrochemical variables are statistically examined. The important pollutants are determined by factor analysis. A three-factor model is determined and explains over 85% of the total river water quality variation. Factor 1, including SS, Chl-a, TN and TP, can be considered as the nonpoint source pollution. Factor 2, including Cl-, Br-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Fe2+ and PO43-, can be treated as the industrial pollutant pollution. Factor 3, including F- and NO3-, reflects the influence of the groundwater or self-purification capability of the river water. The various land uses along the Han River correlate well with the pollution types. In addition, the result showed that the water quality of Han River deteriorated gradually from middle to lower Han River. Some tributaries have been seriously polluted and significantly influence the mainstream water quality of the Han River. Finally, the result showed that the nonpoint pollution and the point

  18. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.

  19. Factors Influencing Team Performance in a Continuous Quality Improvement Process in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, Victoria Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by…

  20. Small scale biomass heating systems: Standards, quality labelling and market driving factors - An EU outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study a comparative evaluation of several existing quality labels and standards for small scale biomass heating systems (BHS) and the biomass fuels they use was performed. With the introduction of pellet fuels, biomass heating technology achieved enough maturity to successfully compete with oil/gas heating devices in terms of ease of use, utilization of energy and pollutant emissions. From indoor air quality and related health risks point of view, quality labelling of both BHS and fuel they use leads to stricter emissions, efficiency and safety requirements as compared to National and EU standards. Several measures supporting this green energy market in the active countries (Sweden, Nordic countries, Germany, France and Austria) were investigated. It was found that policies and financial incentives such as the Finance Law (2005-2009) in France and Market Incentives Programme (1999-2006) in Germany are the most successful. German regulations and quality label (Blue Angel) provide the stringent quality requirements for residential BHS. In Belgium, Wallonia is the most active region for biomass energy utilization (83.5 MW for residential heating in 2007). A quality label for small scale BHS however does not yet exist. An equivalent label (Optimaz) exists for oil fired residential boilers. Emphasis has been placed upon using Optimaz as a reference and to compare with other existing quality labels. As a result, an effort had been made to move ahead in the preliminary study for development of a quality label for Belgian.