WorldWideScience

Sample records for average body surface

  1. The Average Body Surface Area of Adult Cancer Patients in the UK: A Multicentre Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Joseph J.; Joanne Botten; Fergus Macbeth; Adrian Bagust; Peter Clark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of chemotherapy drugs are dosed based on body surface area (BSA). No standard BSA values for patients being treated in the United Kingdom are available on which to base dose and cost calculations. We therefore retrospectively assessed the BSA of patients receiving chemotherapy treatment at three oncology centres in the UK between 1(st) January 2005 and 31(st) December 2005.A total of 3613 patients receiving chemotherapy for head and neck, ovarian, lung, upper GI/pancreas, breast ...

  2. The average body surface area of adult cancer patients in the UK: a multicentre retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Sacco

    Full Text Available The majority of chemotherapy drugs are dosed based on body surface area (BSA. No standard BSA values for patients being treated in the United Kingdom are available on which to base dose and cost calculations. We therefore retrospectively assessed the BSA of patients receiving chemotherapy treatment at three oncology centres in the UK between 1(st January 2005 and 31(st December 2005.A total of 3613 patients receiving chemotherapy for head and neck, ovarian, lung, upper GI/pancreas, breast or colorectal cancers were included. The overall mean BSA was 1.79 m(2 (95% CI 1.78-1.80 with a mean BSA for men of 1.91 m(2 (1.90-1.92 and 1.71 m(2 (1.70-1.72 for women. Results were consistent across the three centres. No significant differences were noted between treatment in the adjuvant or palliative setting in patients with breast or colorectal cancer. However, statistically significant, albeit small, differences were detected between some tumour groups.In view of the consistency of results between three geographically distinct UK cancer centres, we believe the results of this study may be generalised and used in future costings and budgeting for new chemotherapy agents in the UK.

  3. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using...

  4. Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, P.

    Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.

  5. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to selected receiving surface water bodies for long-term average hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 for Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misut, Paul E.; Monti,, Jack

    2016-10-05

    To assist resource managers and planners in developing informed strategies to address nitrogen loading to coastal water bodies of Long Island, New York, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation initiated a program to delineate a comprehensive dataset of groundwater recharge areas (or areas contributing groundwater), travel times, and outflows to streams and saline embayments on Long Island. A four-layer regional three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model of hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 was used to provide delineations of 48 groundwater watersheds on Long Island. Sixteen particle starting points were evenly spaced within each of the 4,000- by 4,000-foot model cells that receive water-table recharge and tracked using forward particle-tracking analysis modeling software to outflow zones. For each particle, simulated travel times were grouped by age as follows: less than or equal to 10 years, greater than 10 years and less than or equal to 100 years, greater than 100 years and less than or equal to 1,000 years, and greater than 1,000 years; and simulated ending zones were grouped into 48 receiving water bodies, based on the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Waterbody Inventory/Priority Waterbodies List. Areal delineation of travel time zones and groundwater contributing areas were generated and a table was prepared presenting the sum of groundwater outflow for each area.

  6. Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global surface temperatures in 2010 tied 2005 as the warmest on record. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) was established in 1982 as...

  7. Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Averages, 1985-2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of four images showing seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) averages for the entire earth. Data for the years 1985-2001 are averaged to...

  8. Precalculating the average luminance of road surface in public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1967-01-01

    The influence of the reflection properties of the road surface on the aspect of the street lighting and the importance of the use of luminance has been shown. A method is described with which the value to be expected of the average road surface luminance can be easily found.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN J-INTEGRAL AND FRACTURE SURFACE AVERAGE PROFILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.G. Cao; S.F. Xue; K.Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the causes that led to the formation of cracks in materials, a novel method that only considered the fracture surfaces for determining the fracture toughness parameters of J-integral for plain strain was proposed. The principle of the fracture-surface topography analysis (FRASTA) was used. In FRASTA, the fracture surfaces were scanned by laser microscope and the elevation data was recorded for analysis. The relationship between J-integral and fracture surface average profile for plain strain was deduced. It was also verified that the J-integral determined by the novel method and by the compliance method matches each other well.

  10. Yearly-averaged daily usefulness efficiency of heliostat surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.M.; Habeebuallah, M.B.; Al-Rabghi, O.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

    1992-08-01

    An analytical expression for estimating the instantaneous usefulness efficiency of a heliostat surface is obtained. A systematic procedure is then introduced to calculate the usefulness efficiency even when overlapping of blocking and shadowing on a heliostat surface exist. For possible estimation of the reflected energy from a given field, the local yearly-averaged daily usefulness efficiency is calculated. This efficiency is found to depend on site latitude angle, radial distance from the tower measured in tower heights, heliostat position azimuth angle and the radial spacing between heliostats. Charts for the local yearly-averaged daily usefulness efficiency are presented for {phi} = 0, 15, 30, and 45 N. These charts can be used in calculating the reflected radiation from a given cell. Utilization of these charts is demonstrated.

  11. Aerodynamic Surface Stress Intermittency and Conditionally Averaged Turbulence Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Aeolian erosion of dry, flat, semi-arid landscapes is induced (and sustained) by kinetic energy fluxes in the aloft atmospheric surface layer. During saltation -- the mechanism responsible for surface fluxes of dust and sediment -- briefly suspended sediment grains undergo a ballistic trajectory before impacting and `splashing' smaller-diameter (dust) particles vertically. Conceptual models typically indicate that sediment flux, q (via saltation or drift), scales with imposed aerodynamic (basal) stress raised to some exponent, n, where n > 1. Since basal stress (in fully rough, inertia-dominated flows) scales with the incoming velocity squared, u^2, it follows that q ~ u^2n (where u is some relevant component of the above flow field, u(x,t)). Thus, even small (turbulent) deviations of u from its time-averaged value may play an enormously important role in aeolian activity on flat, dry landscapes. The importance of this argument is further augmented given that turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer exhibits maximum Reynolds stresses in the fluid immediately above the landscape. In order to illustrate the importance of surface stress intermittency, we have used conditional averaging predicated on aerodynamic surface stress during large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over a flat landscape with momentum roughness length appropriate for the Llano Estacado in west Texas (a flat agricultural region that is notorious for dust transport). By using data from a field campaign to measure diurnal variability of aeolian activity and prevailing winds on the Llano Estacado, we have retrieved the threshold friction velocity (which can be used to compute threshold surface stress under the geostrophic balance with the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory). This averaging procedure provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Preliminary evidence indicates that surface stress peaks are associated with the passage of

  12. Aerodynamic surface stress intermittency and conditionally averaged turbulence statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Lanigan, David

    2015-11-01

    Aeolian erosion is induced by aerodynamic stress imposed by atmospheric winds. Erosion models prescribe that sediment flux, Q, scales with aerodynamic stress raised to exponent, n, where n > 1 . Since stress (in fully rough, inertia-dominated flows) scales with incoming velocity squared, u2, it follows that q ~u2n (where u is some relevant component of the flow). Thus, even small (turbulent) deviations of u from its time-mean may be important for aeolian activity. This rationale is augmented given that surface layer turbulence exhibits maximum Reynolds stresses in the fluid immediately above the landscape. To illustrate the importance of stress intermittency, we have used conditional averaging predicated on stress during large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over an arid, bare landscape. Conditional averaging provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Preliminary evidence indicates that surface stress peaks are associated with the passage of inclined, high-momentum regions flanked by adjacent low-momentum regions. We characterize geometric attributes of such structures and explore streamwise and vertical vorticity distribution within the conditionally averaged flow field. This work was supported by the National Sci. Foundation, Phys. and Dynamic Meteorology Program (PM: Drs. N. Anderson, C. Lu, and E. Bensman) under Grant # 1500224. Computational resources were provided by the Texas Adv. Comp. Center at the Univ. of Texas.

  13. Examination of the Average Chipping Rate on the Edges of Milled Granite Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyurika István Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this article was carried out for the purpose of developing a quantitative marker for defining the average edge chipping rate of milled granite surfaces and for testing and proving whether this quantitative marker can effectively be applied. Another aim of the research was to test the applicability of the developed measurement method and the precision of the body representing the volume loss caused by chipping. The surface edges of the milled specimens were digitised using a laser scanner and chipped volumes were defined on the basis of a body generated with the help of a point cloud, and then the errors of the volumes produced by the evaluation-purpose software were examined using a digital microscope. The investigations proved that the proposed measurement method is accurate and that the replacement body defined through measurements appropriately approximates the volume of chippings in the case of milled granite surfaces.

  14. Measuring skew in average surface roughness as a function of surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.

    2015-08-01

    Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces polishing time, saves money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. This study characterized statistics of average surface roughness as a function of polishing time. Average surface roughness was measured at 81 locations using a Zygo® white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set was fit to a normal and Largest Extreme Value (LEV) distribution; then tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the average data changes as a function of polishing time.

  15. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. PMID:21500105

  16. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  17. Formulae for configuration averages of products of one-body and two-body operators in many-fermion spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margetan, F.J.

    1982-11-01

    The trace reduction theorems (TRT) of J.N. Ginocchio and S. Ayik have greatly simplified the evaluation of the average expectation value of an operator in a basis of many-fermion states. Such averages are required for moment-method calculations of the statistical properties of many-fermion systems. The present work is aimed at simplifying the practical application of the TRT. Symmetries are used to detect distinct terms which have equal contributions to the operator average, and the minimum list of formulas which need be evaluated is presented. This is done for each product of one-body and two-body operators having four or fewer factors. The resulting formulas are applicable to both scalar average and configuration average calculations.

  18. Body Surface Area Prediction in Odorrana grahami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying CHEN; Jiongyu LIU; Qiang DAI; Jianping JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) was regarded as a more readily quantiifable parameter relative to body mass in the normalization of comparative biochemistry and physiology. The BSA prediction has attracted unceasing research back more than a century on animals, especially on humans and rats. Few studies in this area for anurans were reported, and the equation for body surface area (S) and body mass (W):S=9.9 W 0.56, which was concluded from toads of four species in 1969, was generally adopted to estimate the body surface areas for anurans until recent years. However, this equation was not applicable to Odorrana grahami. The relationship between body surface area and body mass for this species was established as:S=15.4 W 0.579. Our current results suggest estimation equations should be used cautiously across different species and body surface area predictions on more species need to be conducted.

  19. Parents' and boys' perceptions of boys' body size for average and high BMI boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Lynn S

    2011-07-01

    A study on 49 preadolescent boys and their parents was performed to determine if differences existed in boys' body esteem and body size perceptions and to determine how accurately parents perceive their sons' body size. The boys were grouped by their body mass index (BMI) into average and high BMI groups. The boys completed the Body Esteem Scale; the boys and the parents rated the boys' body size perceptions. No differences were found in the boys' body esteem. The boys in the high BMI group perceived themselves as bigger than the boys in the average BMI group, and the parents of the boys with a high BMI perceived their sons as bigger. The boys in the high BMI group rated their current figure as heavier than their ideal figure. The results supported that the boys and the parents were aware of the boys' current body size. However, the parents of the boys with high BMI were more accepting of a larger ideal body figure. PMID:21689273

  20. Evidence of potential averaging over the finite surface of a bioelectric surface electrode.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.P. van; Lowery, M.M.; Lapatki, B.; Stegeman, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Most bioelectric signals are not only functions of time but also exhibit a variation in spatial distribution. Surface EMG signals are often "summarized" by a large electrode. The effect of such an electrode is interpreted as averaging the potential at the surface of the skin beneath the electrode. W

  1. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    The set of all surface tensors of a convex body K (Minkowski tensors derived from the surface area measure of K) determine K up to translation, and hereby, the surface tensors of K contain all information on the shape of K. Here, shape means the equivalence class of all convex bodies that are...... translates of each other. An algorithm for reconstructing an unknown convex body in R 2 from its surface tensors up to a certain rank is presented. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the shape of an unknown convex body can be approximated when only a finite number s of surface tensors are available. The...... output of the reconstruction algorithm is a polytope P, where the surface tensors of P and K are identical up to rank s. We establish a stability result based on a generalization of Wirtinger’s inequality that shows that for large s, two convex bodies are close in shape when they have identical surface...

  2. Partial Averaging and Resonance Trapping in a Restricted Three-Body System

    OpenAIRE

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2001-01-01

    Based on the value of the orbital eccentricity of a particle and also its proximity to the exact resonant orbit in a three-body system, the Pendulum Approximation (Dermott & Murray 1983) or the Second Fundamental Model of Resonance (Andoyer 1903; Henrard & Lemaitre 1983) are commonly used to study the motion of that particle near its resonance state. In this paper, we present the method of partial averaging as an analytical approach to study the dynamical evolution of a body near a resonance....

  3. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  4. 1994 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  5. 2002 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  6. 2000 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  7. 1995 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  8. 2001 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  9. 1999 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  10. 1998 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  11. 1996 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  12. 2003 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  13. 1997 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  14. 1993 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  15. Influence of spatial heterogeneity of local surface albedo on the area-averaged surface albedo retrieved from airborne irradiance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    E. Jäkel; M. Wendisch; Mayer, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Spectral airborne upward and downward irradiance measurements are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo. Real surfaces are not homogeneous in their reflectivity. Therefore, this work studies the effects of the heterogeneity of surface reflectivity on the area-averaged surface albedo to quantify how well aircraft measurements can resolve the small-scale variability of the local surface albedo.

  16. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    We present two algorithms for reconstruction of the shape of convex bodies in the two-dimensional Euclidean space. The first reconstruction algorithm requires knowledge of the exact surface tensors of a convex body up to rank s for some natural number s. The second algorithm uses harmonic intrinsic...

  17. Partial Averaging and Resonance Trapping in a Restricted Three-Body System

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, N

    2002-01-01

    Based on the value of the orbital eccentricity of a particle and also its proximity to the exact resonant orbit in a three-body system, the Pendulum Approximation (Dermott & Murray 1983) or the Second Fundamental Model of Resonance (Andoyer 1903; Henrard & Lemaitre 1983) are commonly used to study the motion of that particle near its resonance state. In this paper, we present the method of partial averaging as an analytical approach to study the dynamical evolution of a body near a resonance. To focus attention on the capabilities of this technique, a restricted, circular and planar three-body system is considered and the dynamics of its outer planet while captured in a resonance with the inner body is studied. It is shown that the first-order partially averaged system resembles a mathematical pendulum whose librational motion can be viewed as a geometrical interpretation of the resonance capture phenomenon. The driving force of this pendulum corresponds to the gravitational attraction of the inner bo...

  18. Inequalities for the surface area of projections of convex bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Giannopoulos, Apostolos; Koldobsky, Alexander; Valettas, Petros

    2016-01-01

    We provide general inequalities that compare the surface area S(K) of a convex body K in ${\\mathbb R}^n$ to the minimal, average or maximal surface area of its hyperplane or lower dimensional projections. We discuss the same questions for all the quermassintegrals of K. We examine separately the dependence of the constants on the dimension in the case where K is in some of the classical positions or K is a projection body. Our results are in the spirit of the hyperplane problem, with sections...

  19. Influence of spatial heterogeneity of local surface albedo on the area-averaged surface albedo retrieved from airborne irradiance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    E. Jäkel; M. Wendisch; Mayer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral airborne upward and downward irradiance measurements are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo. Real surfaces are not homogeneous in their reflectivity. Therefore, this work studies the effects of the heterogeneity of surface reflectivity on the area-averaged surface albedo to quantify how well aircraft measurements can resolve the small-scale variability of the local surface albedo. For that purpose spatially heterogeneous surface albedo maps were input into a 3-dimensiona...

  20. Influence of spatial heterogeneity of local surface albedo on the area-averaged surface albedo retrieved from airborne irradiance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    E. Jäkel; M. Wendisch; Mayer, B.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral airborne upward and downward irradiance measurements are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo. Real surfaces are not homogeneous in their reflectivity. Therefore, this work studies the effects of the heterogeneity of surface reflectivity on the area-averaged surface albedo to quantify how well aircraft measurements can resolve the small-scale variability of the local surface albedo. For that purpose spatially heterogeneous surface albedo maps were inpu...

  1. Many-body Systems Interacting via a Two-body Random Ensemble average energy of each angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Yoshinaga, N

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the regularities of energy of each angular momentum $I$ averaged over all the states for a fixed angular momentum (denoted as $\\bar{E}_I$'s) in many-body systems interacting via a two-body random ensemble. It is found that $\\bar{E}_I$'s with $I \\sim I_{min}$ (minimum of $I$) or $I_{max}$ have large probabilities (denoted as ${\\cal P}(I)$) to be the lowest, and that ${\\cal P}(I)$ is close to zero elsewhere. A simple argument based on the randomness of the two-particle cfp's is given. A compact trajectory of the energy $\\bar{E}_I$ vs. $I(I+1)$ is found to be robust. Regular fluctuations of the $P(I)$ (the probability of finding $I$ to be the ground state) and ${\\cal P}(I)$ of even fermions in a single-$j$ shell and boson systems are found to be reverse, and argued by the dimension fluctuation of the model space. Other regularities, such as why there are 2 or 3 sizable ${\\cal P}(I)$'s with $I\\sim I_{min}$ and ${\\cal P}(I) \\ll {\\cal P}(I_{max})$'s with $I\\sim I_{max}$, why the coefficien...

  2. `Optimal' triangulation of surfaces and bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traas, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    A new criterion is given for constructing an optimal triangulation of surfaces and bodies. The triangulation, called the {\\em tight} triangulation, is convexity preserving and accepts long, thin triangles whenever they are useful. Both properties are not shared by the maxmin triangulation, which in

  3. A supramodal representation of the body surface

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, F.; Longo, Matthew R.; Iannetti, G.D.; Haggard, P.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to accurately localize both tactile and painful sensations on the body is one of the most important functions of the somatosensory system. Most accounts of localization refer to the systematic spatial relation between skin receptors and cortical neurons. The topographic organization of somatosensory neurons in the brain provides a map of the sensory surface. However, systematic distortions in perceptual localization tasks suggest that localizing a somatosensory stimulus involves m...

  4. Ra and the average effective strain of surface asperities deformed in metal-working processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Petersen, A. S

    1975-01-01

    Based upon a slip-line analysis of the plastic deformation of surface asperities, a theory is developed determining the Ra-value (c.l.a.) and the average effective strain in the surface layer when deforming asperities in metal-working processes. The ratio between Ra and Ra0, the Ra-value after...... and before deformation, is a function of the nominal normal pressure and the initial slope γ0 of the surface asperities. The last parameter does not influence Ra significantly. The average effective strain View the MathML sourcege in the deformed surface layer is a function of the nominal normal pressure...

  5. On averaging force curves over heterogeneous surfaces in atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, I; Kalaparthi, V; Kreshchuk, M; Dokukin, M E

    2012-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to study mechanics at the nanoscale. Biological surfaces and nanocomposites have typically heterogeneous surfaces, both mechanically and chemically. When studying such surfaces with AFM, one needs to collect a large amount of data to make statistically sound conclusions. It is time- and resource-consuming to process each force curve separately. The analysis of an averaged raw force data is a simple and time saving option, which also averages out the noise and measurement artifacts of the force curves being analyzed. Moreover, some biomedical applications require just an average number per biological cell. Here we investigate such averaging, study the possible artifacts due to the averaging, and demonstrate how to minimize or even to avoid them. We analyze two ways of doing the averaging: over the force data for each particular distance (method 1, the most commonly used way), and over the distances for each particular force (method 2). We derive the errors of the methods in finding to the true average rigidity modulus. We show that both methods are accurate (the error is 100×), method 2 underestimates the average rigidity modulus by a factor of 2, whereas the error of method 1 is only 15%. However, when analyzing the different surface chemistry, which reveals itself in the changing long-range forces, the accuracy of the methods behave oppositely: method 1 can produce a noticeable averaging artifact in the deriving of the long-range forces; whereas method 2 can be successfully used to derive the averaged long-range force parameters without artifacts. We exemplify our conclusions by the study of human cervical cancer and normal epithelial cells, which demonstrate different degrees of heterogeneity. PMID:22917859

  6. On the Correlation of Effective Terahertz Refractive Index and Average Surface Roughness of Pharmaceutical Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Ervasti, Tuomas; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have studied terahertz (THz) pulse time delay of porous pharmaceutical microcrystalline compacts and also pharmaceutical tablets that contain indomethacin (painkiller) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the matrix of the tablet. The porosity of a pharmaceutical tablet is important because it affects the release of drug substance. In addition, surface roughness of the tablet has much importance regarding dissolution of the tablet and hence the rate of drug release. Here, we show, using a training set of tablets containing API and with a priori known tablet's quality parameters, that the effective refractive index (obtained from THz time delay data) of such porous tablets correlates with the average surface roughness of a tablet. Hence, THz pulse time delay measurement in the transmission mode provides information on both porosity and the average surface roughness of a compact. This is demonstrated for two different sets of pharmaceutical tablets having different porosity and average surface roughness values.

  7. Dispersive Media Subcell Averaging in the FDTD Method using Corrective Surface Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Hamm, Joachim; Hess, Ortwin

    2013-01-01

    We present a corrective subcell averaging technique that improves on the accuracy of the volume-averaged finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in the presence of dispersive material interfaces. The method is based on an alternative effective-medium formulation that captures field discontinuities at interfaces as electric and magnetic surface currents. In calculating the spectra of strongly dispersive Mie scatterers we demonstrate that the derived FDTD algorithm is both highly efficient and able to approximately restore second order accuracy.

  8. BOREAS AES Five-Day Averaged Surface Meteorological and Upper Air Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) provided BOREAS with hourly and daily surface meteorological data from 23 of the AES meteorological stations located across Canada and upper air data from 1 station at The Pas, Manitoba. Due to copyright restrictions on the full resolution surface meteorological data, this data set contains 5-day average values for the surface parameters. The upper air data are provided in their full resolution form. The 5-day averaging was performed in order to create a data set that could be publicly distributed at no cost. Temporally, the surface meteorological data cover the period of January 1975 to December 1996 and the upper air data cover the period of January 1961 to November 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  9. Many-body nodal hypersurface and domain averages for correlated wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2013-01-01

    We outline the basic notions of nodal hypersurface and domain averages for antisymmetric wave functions. We illustrate their properties and analyze the results for a few electron explicitly solvable cases and discuss possible further developments.

  10. Surface Representation of Polycrystal Physical Properties: All Crystal Classes, Simple Average Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, O.; Fuentes, L. (Lidia); Gómez, J. I.

    1996-01-01

    Algorithms for polycrystal physical properties estimation are presented. Bunge's spherical harmonics treatment of surface representations, under simple average approximation, is applied. Specific formulae for so-called longitudinal magnitudes are given. Physical properties associated to tensors of second-, third- and fourth-rank are considered. All crystal and sample symmetries are covered.

  11. A Study of Single- and Double-Averaged Second-Order Models to Evaluate Third-Body Perturbation Considering Elliptic Orbits for the Perturbing Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Domingos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The equations for the variations of the Keplerian elements of the orbit of a spacecraft perturbed by a third body are developed using a single average over the motion of the spacecraft, considering an elliptic orbit for the disturbing body. A comparison is made between this approach and the more used double averaged technique, as well as with the full elliptic restricted three-body problem. The disturbing function is expanded in Legendre polynomials up to the second order in both cases. The equations of motion are obtained from the planetary equations, and several numerical simulations are made to show the evolution of the orbit of the spacecraft. Some characteristics known from the circular perturbing body are studied: circular, elliptic equatorial, and frozen orbits. Different initial eccentricities for the perturbed body are considered, since the effect of this variable is one of the goals of the present study. The results show the impact of this parameter as well as the differences between both models compared to the full elliptic restricted three-body problem. Regions below, near, and above the critical angle of the third-body perturbation are considered, as well as different altitudes for the orbit of the spacecraft.

  12. Near surface spatially averaged air temperature and wind speed determined by acoustic travel time tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Raabe

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic travel time tomography is presented as a possibility for remote monitoring of near surface airtemperature and wind fields. This technique provides line-averaged effective sound speeds changing with temporally and spatially variable air temperature and wind vector. The effective sound speed is derived from the travel times of sound signals which propagate at defined paths between different acoustic sources and receivers. Starting with the travel time data a tomographic algorithm (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique, SIRT is used to calculate area-averaged air temperature and wind speed. The accuracy of the experimental method and the tomographic inversion algorithm is exemplarily demonstrated for one day without remarkable differences in the horizontal temperature field, determined by independent in situ measurements at different points within the measuring field. The differences between the conventionally determined air temperature (point measurement and the air temperature determined by tomography (area-averaged measurement representative for the area of the measuring field 200m x 260m were below 0.5 K for an average of 10 minutes. The differences obtained between the wind speed measured at a meteorological mast and calculated from acoustic measurements are not higher than 0.5 ms-1 for the same averaging time. The tomographically determined area-averaged distribution of air temperature (resolution 50 m x 50 m can be used to estimate the horizontal gradient of air temperature as a pre-condition to detect horizontal turbulent fluxes of sensible heat.

  13. Intercomparison of whole-body averaged SAR in European and Japanese voxel phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbylow, Peter J.; Hirata, Akimasa; Nagaoka, Tomoaki

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides an intercomparison of the HPA male and female models, NORMAN and NAOMI with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) male and female models, TARO and HANAKO. The calculations of the whole-body SAR in these four phantoms were performed at the HPA, at NICT and at the Nagoya Institute of Technology (NIT). These were for a plane wave with a vertically aligned electric field incident upon the front of the body from 30 MHz to 3 GHz for isolated conditions. As well as investigating the general differences through this frequency range, particular emphasis was placed on the assumptions of how dielectric properties are assigned to tissues (particularly skin and fat) and the consequence of using different algorithms for calculating SAR at the higher frequencies.

  14. How can acoustic resonance reduce the average velocity in a falling body?

    OpenAIRE

    V. Torres-Zúñiga

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a simple experiment is described to overcome the misconception that acoustic pressure and levitation effects are difficult to observe in school laboratories. Analysis of the free fall velocity of a toy parachute inside a vertical tube, driven by sound in a range of frequencies around the resonant condition, exhibits the resonance frequency, the node pressure zones, and the optimal conditions to obtain acoustical levitation of a light body.

  15. Effects of stratospheric aerosol surface processes on the LLNL two-dimensional zonally averaged model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effects of incorporating representations of heterogeneous chemical processes associated with stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol into the LLNL two-dimensional, zonally averaged, model of the troposphere and stratosphere. Using distributions of aerosol surface area and volume density derived from SAGE 11 satellite observations, we were primarily interested in changes in partitioning within the Cl- and N- families in the lower stratosphere, compared to a model including only gas phase photochemical reactions

  16. Association of body surface area and body composition with heart structural characteristics of female swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    SHEIKHSARAF, BAHAREH; ALLAH, NIKBAKHT HOJAT; ALI, AZARBAYJANI MOHAMMAD

    2010-01-01

    In healthy nonathletic populations, some left ventricle (LV) parameters such as LV mass (LVM) and LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD) can be predicted by some of body size parameters such as body surface area (BSA), fat-free mass (FFM), and height (H). These body size parameters use to remove covariate influence of body size from cardiac dimension variables and allow comparisons to be made between individuals and groups of different body size. Endurance exercise has been associated with change...

  17. Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Juan

    2010-03-01

    The thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body are studied here, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs. It is first shown that the 'local' thermodynamic variables of the state of the surface are only the temperature, the chemical potentials and the surface strain tensor (true thermodynamic variables, for a viscoelastic solid or a viscous fluid). A new definition of the surface stress is given and the corresponding surface thermodynamics equations are presented. The mechanical equilibrium equation at the surface is then obtained. It involves the surface stress and is similar to the Cauchy equation for the volume. Its normal component is a generalization of the Laplace equation. At a (body-fluid-fluid) triple contact line, two equations are obtained, which represent: (i) the equilibrium of the forces (surface stresses) for a triple line fixed on the body; (ii) the equilibrium relative to the motion of the line with respect to the body. This last equation leads to a strong modification of Young's classical capillary equation.

  18. Surface Packages for Geophysical Exploration of Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geophysical exploration of small rubble pile bodies is fundamentally important for understanding the mechanics of gravitationally bound aggregates. The mechanical and geotechnical properties of these bodies are not understood from an experimental perspective, and have only been studied theoretically and using numerical simulations. To carry out experiments in this environment requires the development and deployment of surface packages to the body surface to enable physical interactions and measurements. This talk will discuss how such experiments can be developed and used in the small body environment. It will particularly focuse on one approach that uses a combination of surface seismic sources and probes to measure the seismic properties of a rubble pile. The small body dynamical environment is particularly well suited for the deployment of such surface packages for exploration and scientific measurement purposes. This is mainly due to their meager gravity fields, which allow the delivery of complex instruments to the surface with impact speeds that are at most a meter per second — equivalent to dropping an object from less than a 5 cm height on Earth. Despite this seeming advantage, the delivery and mobility of such packages on the surface of a small body remains a challenging endeavor, and to date the delivery of surface packages to small bodies has had a mixed success rate. Issues that must be accounted for include the delivery trajectories for probes to the surface, motion on the surface of a small body, and interactions between a probe and a small body surface. Studies of all of these issues both theoretically and experimentally will be presented, along with proposed applications to achieve scientific goals on the surfaces of small bodies.

  19. Reading the Surface: Body Language and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Andrejevic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role played by body language in recent examples of popular culture and political news coverage as a means of highlighting the poten-tially deceptive haracter of speech and promising to bypass it altogether. It situ-ates the promise of "visceral literacy" - the alleged ability to read inner emotions and dispositions - within emerging surveillance practices and the landscapes of risk they navigate. At the same time, it describes portrayals of body language analysis as characteristic of an emerging genre of "securitainment" that instructs viewers in monitoring techniques as it entertains and informs them. Body lan-guage ends up caught in the symbolic impasse it sought to avoid: as soon as it is portrayed as a language that can be learned and consciously "spoken" it falls prey to the potential for deceit. The article's conclusion considers the way in which emerging technologies attempt to address this impasse, bypassing the attempt to infer underlying signification altogether.

  20. Estimation of the whole-body averaged SAR of grounded human models for plane wave exposure at respective resonance frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Yanase, Kazuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Chan, Kwok Hung; Fujiwara, Osamu; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Conil, Emmanuelle; Wiart, Joe

    2012-12-21

    According to the international guidelines, the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) is used as a metric of basic restriction for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. It is well known that the WBA-SAR largely depends on the frequency of the incident wave for a given incident power density. The frequency at which the WBA-SAR becomes maximal is called the 'resonance frequency'. Our previous study proposed a scheme for estimating the WBA-SAR at this resonance frequency based on an analogy between the power absorption characteristic of human models in free space and that of a dipole antenna. However, a scheme for estimating the WBA-SAR in a grounded human has not been discussed sufficiently, even though the WBA-SAR in a grounded human is larger than that in an ungrounded human. In this study, with the use of the finite-difference time-domain method, the grounded condition is confirmed to be the worst-case exposure for human body models in a standing posture. Then, WBA-SARs in grounded human models are calculated at their respective resonant frequencies. A formula for estimating the WBA-SAR of a human standing on the ground is proposed based on an analogy with a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna. First, homogenized human body models are shown to provide the conservative WBA-SAR as compared with anatomically based models. Based on the formula proposed here, the WBA-SARs in grounded human models are approximately 10% larger than those in free space. The variability of the WBA-SAR was shown to be ±30% even for humans of the same age, which is caused by the body shape. PMID:23202273

  1. Cell Surface Receptor Theory of Disease Infectivity; Body's Defence and Normal Body Functioning in Living Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study of the pattern of Candida spp. infection of the human body and the mode and pattern of reaction of the human body to this infection showed that disease infectivity and self healing by plants followed the same procedures and patterns. Approach: A comparism of these procedures and patterns of natural self- healing of disease infection by the human body and plants/plant parts with the cutaneous Candida spp. killing and elimination procedures and patterns of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract, showed that cell surface receptors are the sites through which disease infects the body and also the sites at which the body is defended. They are also the sites where activities which result in normal body functioning are carried out. The mode and patterns of Cutaneous Candida infection in a human subject and its containment by the body was examined and photographed. The disease infection and self healing procedures and patterns of plants were also examined in comparism with those of their healthy counterparts and photographed. The findings from the observations on disease infectivity and natural body’s defence patterns and procedures of the plant parts studied and those of the human body in reaction to Candida spp. infection were compared with those of the Candida spp. killing procedures and patterns of aqueous and Arachis hypogeal oil extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf. Results: The findings of this study also showed that disease-infective organisms gain access to the body of a host through attachment to the cell surface receptors of that host which are placed linearly and are interconnected by channels. The results of the study also indicated that living organisms have a main endogenous substance that mediates both their body’s defence and their normal physiological functioning which is therefore the owner of the cell surface receptor. Other endogenous substances which participate in normal body functioning/body’s defence or in

  2. Division of Icy Bodies into Groups Based on Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Tourtellottte, S. W.

    2008-09-01

    We propose the division of the icy bodies in the outer Solar System into five groups based on their surface properties. This division can be equivalently made by three definitions involving: size/orbit/color; measured surface properties; the physical mechanisms that reprocess the surfaces. Our first group is the Small/Red bodies (including the red Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects, and Scattered Disk Objects) which are 1.5 mag. These surfaces all have albedo history leaving only their original rocky material to cover the surface. Our third group is the Intermediate bodies (Quaoar, Orcus, and Charon) with diameters 800-1400 km. Their surfaces have lost some of the volatile ices (methane and nitrogen in particular) to Jeans escape, while the remaining ices contain ammonia and crystalline water ice with some cryovolcanism. Our fourth group is the Large bodies (Pluto, Eris, Sedna, Triton, and 2005 FY9) with diameters >1400; km. These bodies are large enough to support active cryovolcanism plus seasonal frost formation/sublimation and are large enough so that the methane and nitrogen ices dominate because they have not been lost to Jeans escape. Our fifth group is the Collisional bodies (including the 2003 EL61 collisional family) which all have similar orbits. Their surfaces all have very neutral colors, low opposition surges, and relatively high albedos, because the volatile ices were all lost during the collision leaving a young surface with only water ice.

  3. A formula for human average whole-body SARwb under diffuse fields exposure in the GHz region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple formula to determine the human average whole-body SAR (SARwb) under realistic propagation conditions is proposed in the GHz region, i.e. from 1.45 GHz to 5.8 GHz. The methodology is based on simulations of ellipsoidal human body models. Only the exposure (incident power densities) and the human mass are needed to apply the formula. Diffuse scattered illumination is addressed for the first time and the possible presence of a Line-of-Sight (LOS) component is addressed as well. As validation, the formula is applied to calculate the average whole-body SARwb in 3D heterogeneous phantoms, i.e. the virtual family (34 year-old male, 26 year-old female, 11 year-old girl, and 6 year-old boy) and the results are compared with numerical ones—using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method—at 3 GHz. For the LOS exposure, the average relative error varies from 28% to 12% (resp. 14–12%) for the vertical polarization (resp. horizontal polarization), depending on the heteregeneous phantom. Regarding the diffuse illumination, relative errors of −39.40%, −11.70%, 10.70%, and 10.60% are obtained for the 6 year-old boy, 11 year-old girl, 26 year-old female, and 34 year-old male, respectively. The proposed formula estimates well (especially for adults) the SARwb induced by diffuse illumination in realistic conditions. In general, the correctness of the formula improves when the human mass increases. Keeping the uncertainties of the FDTD simulations in mind, the proposed formula might be important for the dosimetry community to assess rapidly and accurately the human absorption of electromagnetic radiation caused by diffuse fields in the GHz region. Finally, we show the applicability of the proposed formula to personal dosimetry for epidemiological research. (paper)

  4. Comment on 'Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, E M

    2010-10-27

    In a recent publication by Olives (2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 085005) he studied 'the thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs' and believed that 'a new definition of the surface stress is given'. However, using the usual way of deriving the equations of Gibbs-Duhem type the author, nevertheless, has fallen into a mathematical discrepancy because he has tried to unite in one equation different thermodynamic systems and 'a new definition of the surface stress' has appeared known in the usual theory of elasticity.

  5. Surface Motion Relative to the Irregular Celestial Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi

    2016-01-01

    We study the motion and equilibria of the grains on the surface of the irregular celestial body (hereafter called irregular bodies). Motions for the grains on the smooth and unsmooth surfaces are discussed, respectively. The linearized equations of motion relative to a surface equilibrium point and its characteristic equations are presented. Considering the stick-slip effect, the damping forces and the spring forces for the grain are calculated, then the linearized equations of motion and the characteristic equations relative to the surface equilibrium points are derived. The number of non-degenerate surface equilibria is an even number. We compute the motion of a grain released above three different regions relative to the irregular asteroid 6489 Golevka, including the flat surface, the concave region, and the convex region. Following the grain release and initial bounce, three kinds of motions exist, the orbital motion, the impact motion and the surface motion. We find that the maximum height of the next ho...

  6. TECHNOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES OF CONTACTLESS MEASURING THE BODY SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The regular measuring of the body surface temperature can help to evaluate health condition of animals and react immediately on the first symptoms of illness. There are many of technological possibilities of contactless measuring the body surface temperature. It is important to find the right part of the body which the temperature will show the first possible symptoms of illness. This experiment with dairy cows and heifers was realized at the farm in Petrovice. The body surface temperature and rectal temperature of animals were observed in dairy cows and heifers. It was rated 3 different groups of dairy cows and heifers in 2 stables. The body temperature was obtained by the thermocamera. The temperatures were shot from the 3 different parts of body of animals (the body core, the eyes and the udder. The relative humidity, temperature, cooling value environment and flow rate in stable were measured as further independent variables. The aim of this study was finding how body temperature correlate together with health of animals, reproduction, milk quality, vital signs and productivity of dairy cows and heifers.

  7. Averaged subtracted polarization imaging for endoscopic diagnostics of surface microstructures on translucent mucosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Katsuhiro

    2016-07-01

    An endoscopic image processing technique for enhancing the appearance of microstructures on translucent mucosae is described. This technique employs two pairs of co- and cross-polarization images under two different linearly polarized lights, from which the averaged subtracted polarization image (AVSPI) is calculated. Experiments were then conducted using an acrylic phantom and excised porcine stomach tissue using a manual experimental setup with ring-type lighting, two rotating polarizers, and a color camera; better results were achieved with the proposed method than with conventional color intensity image processing. An objective evaluation method that uses texture analysis was developed and used to evaluate the enhanced microstructure images. This paper introduces two types of online, rigid-type, polarimetric endoscopic implementations using a polarized ring-shaped LED and a polarimetric camera. The first type uses a beam-splitter-type color polarimetric camera, and the second uses a single-chip monochrome polarimetric camera. Microstructures on the mucosa surface were enhanced robustly with these online endoscopes regardless of the difference in the extinction ratio of each device. These results show that polarimetric endoscopy using AVSPI is both effective and practical for hardware implementation.

  8. Exploration of regional surface average heat flow from meteorological and geothermal series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian-Qian; Wei Dong-Ping; Sun Zhen-Tian; Zhang Xiao-Hui

    2013-01-01

    We attempt to compute the Surface Average Heat Flow (SAHF) from long-term temperature observations of one hundred seventy-seven observational points at the depths of 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 m, which were relatively evenly distributed in mainland China. We first employ Fourier transformation to remove the influence of atmospheric temperature variations from the observation series, which are classified into the type of the steady-state temperature monotonously increasing with depth (type I) and other three types. Then we compare our results obtained from the data of type I, of which the values are thought to equal to those of the mean borehole heat flow, with those obtained from traditional heat flow observations mainly distributed in North China Craton. In computations of the SAHF at the observation stations, we deduce the thermal diffusivity and volumetric specific heat of the soil by employing harmonic solutions of the heat conduction equation for the same moisture group as the first step, and then we determine the SAHF using Fourier’s law. Our results indicate that the SAHF derived from shallow earth geothermal data can reflect the heat flow field to a large extent.

  9. Reconstruction of n-dimensional convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid

    In this paper, we derive uniqueness and stability results for surface tensors. Further, we develop two algorithms that reconstruct shape of n-dimensional convex bodies. One algorithm requires knowledge of a finite number of surface tensors, whereas the other algorithm is based on noisy measurements...

  10. The acute effect of lower-body training on average power output measured by loaded half-squat jump exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Krčmár

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High muscular power output is required in many athletic endeavors in order for success to be achieved. In the scientific community postactivation potentiation and its effect on performance are often discussed. There are many studies where the effect of resistance exercise on motor performance (such as vertical jump performance and running speed has been investigated but only a few of them studied power output. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute responses to a 2 set loaded half-squat jumps and 2 set loaded back half-squat protocols designed to induce the acute maximum average power output during loaded half-squat jumps. Methods: A randomized cross-over design was used. 11 participants of this study performed 3 trials in randomized order separated by at least 48 hours where maximum average power output was measured. The specific conditioning activities were comprised of 2 sets and 4 repetitions of half-squat jumps, 2 sets and 4 repetitions of back half-squat exercises and a control protocol without an intervention by specific a conditioning activity. Participants were strength trained athletes with different sport specializations (e.g. ice-hockey, volleyball. Mean age of the athletes was 22 ± 1.8 years, body mass 80 ± 7.1 kg and body height 185 ± 6.5 cm. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to determine differences between pre- and post-condition in each protocol, as well as between conditioning protocols, and also effect size was used to evaluate practical significance. Results: Maximum average power was significantly enhanced after application of the half-squat jump condition protocol (1496.2 ± 194.5 to 1552 ± 196.1 W, Δ ~ 3.72%, p < .001 and after application of the back half-squat protocol (1500.7 ± 193.2 to 1556 ± 191.2 W, Δ ~ 3.68%, p < .001 after 10 min of rest. Power output after control protocol was

  11. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band

  12. Liquid-body resonance while contacting a rotating superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Matthew Lai Ho; Cheng, Michael; Katariya, Mayur; Muradoglu, Murat; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Zahidi, Alifa Afiah Ahmad; Yu, Yang; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2015-11-01

    We advance a scheme in which a liquid body on a stationary tip in contact with a rotating superhydrophobic surface is able to maintain resonance primarily from stick-slip events. With tip-to-surface spacing in the range 2.73 ≤ h body was found to exhibit resonance independent of the speed of the drum. The mechanics were found to be due to a surface-tension-controlled vibration mode based on the natural frequency values determined. With spacing in the range 2.45 ≤ h body was found to vary with rotation of the SH drum. This was due to the stick-slip events being able to generate higher energy fluctuations causing the liquid-solid contact areas to vary since the almost oblate spheroid shape of the liquid body had intrinsically higher surface energies. This resulted in the natural frequency perturbations being frequency- and amplitude-modulated over a lower frequency carrier. These findings have positive implications for microfluidic sensing. PMID:26577818

  13. Surface Inspection Of Automotive Bodies By Reflective Computer Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y. Y.; Jin, G. C.; Tang, S. H.

    1988-12-01

    A simple but practical optical technique for automated surface inspection of car bodies is presented. The method which is based on light reflection is applicable to inspecting specularly reflective surfaces such as painted car bodies. A structured light signal consists of linear grating is imaged by a video camera via the surface to be inspected. With this arrangement, the surface being inspected acts as a mirror. Presence of surface flaws causes the grating to be locally perturbed. The grating-image is digitized and analyzed by a computer. Several algorithms are developed which automatically identifies the surface flaws by analyzing the perturbation in the grating-image. The technique allows surface flaws to be quantified in terms of slope deviation or depth variation. The sensitivity of the technique is very high permitting minute flaws to be detected. In the paper the theory of the technique will be presented together with experimental validation. The technique possesses numerous practical features such as requiring no special surface preparation, allowing evaluation in place, requiring minimum environmental safeguards, allowing rapid testing and evaluation, providing reliable and quantitative results, and it can be automated. Therefore the technique has clearly exhibited a great potential for being developed into a production-line inspection tool.

  14. Ensemble averaged surface normal impedance of material using an in-situ technique: preliminary study using boundary element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuru, Toru; Tomiku, Reiji; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Okamoto, Noriko; Murakami, Masahiko

    2009-06-01

    An in-situ measurement technique of a material surface normal impedance is proposed. It includes a concept of "ensemble averaged" surface normal impedance that extends the usage of obtained values to various applications such as architectural acoustics and computational simulations, especially those based on the wave theory. The measurement technique itself is a refinement of a method using a two-microphone technique and environmental anonymous noise, or diffused ambient noise, as proposed by Takahashi et al. [Appl. Acoust. 66, 845-865 (2005)]. Measured impedance can be regarded as time-space averaged normal impedance at the material surface. As a preliminary study using numerical simulations based on the boundary element method, normal incidence and random incidence measurements are compared numerically: results clarify that ensemble averaging is an effective mode of measuring sound absorption characteristics of materials with practical sizes in the lower frequency range of 100-1000 Hz, as confirmed by practical measurements. PMID:19507960

  15. Average Orientation Is More Accessible through Object Boundaries than Surface Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Heeyoung; Levinthal, Brian R.; Franconeri, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    In a glance, the visual system can provide a summary of some kinds of information about objects in a scene. We explore how summary information about "orientation" is extracted and find that some representations of orientation are privileged over others. Participants judged the average orientation of either a set of 6 bars or 6 circular gratings.…

  16. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 μA/cm2. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface

  17. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia, E-mail: zhang-alice@pku.edu.cn [National Key Lab of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 μA/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  18. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Kassianov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged spectral surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation. The feasibility of our retrieval for routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements: (1 spectral atmospheric transmission from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm; (2 tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths; and (3 areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS observations. These integrated datasets cover both temporally long (2008–2013 and short (April–May 2010 periods at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Southern Great Plains site and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE, defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved areal-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE ≤ 0.015 and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between tower-based measurements of daily-averaged surface albedo for completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated.

  19. Standard Deviation of Spatially-Averaged Surface Cross Section Data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the spatial variability of the normalized radar cross section of the surface (NRCS or Sigma(sup 0)) derived from measurements of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) for the period from 1998 to 2009. The purpose of the study is to understand the way in which the sample standard deviation of the Sigma(sup 0) data changes as a function of spatial resolution, incidence angle, and surface type (land/ocean). The results have implications regarding the accuracy by which the path integrated attenuation from precipitation can be inferred by the use of surface scattering properties.

  20. Downscaling MODIS Surface Reflectance to Improve Water Body Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghong Che

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. Accurate mapping of surface water dynamic is vital for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. MODIS provides twice observation per day, making it perfect for monitoring temporal water dynamic. Although MODIS provides two bands at 250 m resolution, accurately deriving water area always depends on observations from the spectral bands with 500 m resolution, which limits its discrimination ability over small lakes and rivers. The paper presents an automated method for downscaling the 500 m MODIS surface reflectance (SR to 250 m to improve the spatial discrimination of water body extraction. The method has been tested at Co Ngoin and Co Bangkog in Qinghai-Tibet plateau. The downscaled SR and the derived water bodies were compared to SR and water body mapped from Landsat-7 ETM+ images were acquired on the same date. Consistency metrics were calculated to measure their agreement and disagreement. The comparisons indicated that the downscaled MODIS SR showed significant improvement over the original 500 m observations when compared with Landsat-7 ETM+ SR, and both commission and omission errors were reduced in the derived 250 m water bodies.

  1. Cleaning Dirty Surfaces: A Three-Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoehr, Bastian; Hall, Colin; Evans, Drew; Murphy, Peter

    2016-07-20

    Human interaction with touch screens requires physical touch and hence results in contamination of these surfaces, resulting in the necessity of cleaning. In this study we discuss the three bodies of this problem and how each component contributes and can be controlled. Utilizing a standard fingerprint machine and a standard cleanability test, this study examines the influence of parameters such as the wiping speed and pressure, the material and surface area of the cloths, and the surface energy of the contaminated surfaces. It was shown that fingerprint contamination undergoes shear banding and hence is not easily removed. The degree of material removal depends on the position of the shear plane, which is influenced by surface energies and shear rates. PMID:27351355

  2. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  3. Change Of Distribution The Average Annual Temperature Indian Ocean Surface Under Modern Climate Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Холопцев, О. В.; Никифорова, М. П.; Жукова, Т. А.

    2014-01-01

    During the modern warming surface temperatures of the Indian Ocean rose steadily, driven by a reduction of its upwelling. In the twenty-first century, a large part of the waters of the ocean in this process appeared opposite trend, that due to the action of the global ocean heat conveyor has already led to a decrease in the flow of heat coming from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic.

  4. Averaging theory for the structure of hydraulic jumps and separation in laminar free-surface flows

    OpenAIRE

    Bohr, Tomas; Putkaradze, Vachtang; Watanabe, Shinya

    1997-01-01

    We present a simple viscous theory of free-surface flows in boundary layers, which can accommodate regions of separated flow. In particular this yields the structure of stationary hydraulic jumps, both in their circular and linear versions, as well as structures moving with a constant speed. Finally we show how the fundamental hydraulic concepts of subcritical and supercritical flow, originating from inviscid theory, emerge at intermediate length scales in our model.

  5. Averaging Theory for the Structure of Hydraulic Jumps and Separation in Laminar Free-Surface Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple viscous theory of free-surface flows in boundary layers, which can accommodate regions of separated flow. In particular, this yields the structure of stationary hydraulic jumps, both in their circular and linear versions, as well as structures moving with a constant speed. Finally, we show how the fundamental hydraulic concepts of subcritical and supercritical flow, originating from inviscid theory, emerge at intermediate length scales in our model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Determination of averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces according to results obtained by numerical simulation of flow in turbomachinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the increasing need for energy saving worldwide, the designing process of turbomachinery, as an essential part of thermal and hydroenergy systems, goes in the direction of enlarging efficiency. Therefore, the optimization of turbomachinery designing strongly affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. In the designing process of turbomachinery blade profiling, the model of axisymmetric fluid flows is commonly used in technical practice, even though this model suits only the profile cascades with infinite number of infinitely thin blades. The actual flow in turbomachinery profile cascades is not axisymmetric, and it can be fictively derived into the axisymmetric flow by averaging flow parameters in the blade passages according to the circular coordinate. Using numerical simulations of flow in turbomachinery runners, its operating parameters can be preliminarily determined. Furthermore, using the numerically obtained flow parameters in the blade passages, averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces in blade profile cascades can also be determined. The method of determination of averaged flow parameters and averaged meridian streamlines is presented in this paper, using the integral continuity equation for averaged flow parameters. With thus obtained results, every designer can be able to compare the obtained averaged flow surfaces with axisymmetric flow surfaces, as well as the specific work of elementary stages, which are used in the procedure of blade designing. Numerical simulations of flow in an exemplary axial flow pump, used as a part of the thermal power plant cooling system, were performed using Ansys CFX. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 kW to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia

  7. Electrostatic dust transport on the surfaces of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Schwan, J.; Hsu, H. W.; Horanyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The surfaces of airless bodies are charged due to the exposure to solar wind plasma and UV radiation. Dust particles on the regolith of these surfaces can become charged, and may move and even get lofted due to electrostatic force. Electrostatic dust transport has been a long-standing problem that may be related to many observed phenomena on the surfaces of airless planetary bodies, including the lunar horizon glow, the dust ponds on asteroid Eros, the spokes in Saturn's rings, and more recently, the collection of dust particles ejected off Comet 67P, observed by Rosetta. In order to resolve these puzzles, a handful of laboratory experiments have been performed in the past and demonstrated that dust indeed moves and lifts from surfaces exposed to plasma. However, the exact mechanisms for the mobilization of dust particles still remain a mystery. Current charging models, including the so-called "shared charge model" and the charge fluctuation theory, will be discussed. It is found that neither of these models can explain the results from either laboratory experiments or in-situ observations. Recently, single dust trajectories were captured with our new dust experiments, enabling novel micro-scale investigations. The particles' initial launch speeds and size distributions are analyzed, and a new so-called "patched charge model" is proposed to explain our findings. We identify the role of plasma micro-cavities that are formed in-between neighboring dust particles. The emitted secondary or photo- electrons are proposed to be absorbed inside the micro-cavities, resulting in significant charge accumulation on the exposed patches of the surfaces of neighboring particles. The resulting enhanced Coulomb force (repulsion) between particles is likely the dominant force to mobilize and lift them off the surface. The role of other properties, including surface morphology, cohesion and photoelectron charging, will also be discussed.

  8. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  9. Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA to calibrate probabilistic surface temperature forecasts over Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Soltanzadeh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA, an attempt was made to obtain calibrated probabilistic numerical forecasts of 2-m temperature over Iran. The ensemble employs three limited area models (WRF, MM5 and HRM, with WRF used with five different configurations. Initial and boundary conditions for MM5 and WRF are obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS and for HRM the initial and boundary conditions come from analysis of Global Model Europe (GME of the German Weather Service. The resulting ensemble of seven members was run for a period of 6 months (from December 2008 to May 2009 over Iran. The 48-h raw ensemble outputs were calibrated using BMA technique for 120 days using a 40 days training sample of forecasts and relative verification data.

    The calibrated probabilistic forecasts were assessed using rank histogram and attribute diagrams. Results showed that application of BMA improved the reliability of the raw ensemble. Using the weighted ensemble mean forecast as a deterministic forecast it was found that the deterministic-style BMA forecasts performed usually better than the best member's deterministic forecast.

  10. On the average temperature of airless spherical bodies and the magnitude of Earth’s atmospheric thermal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Volokin, Den; ReLlez, Lark

    2014-01-01

    The presence of atmosphere can appreciably warm a planet’s surface above the temperature of an airless environment. Known as a natural Greenhouse Effect (GE), this near-surface Atmospheric Thermal Enhancement (ATE) as named herein is presently entirely attributed to the absorption of up-welling long-wave radiation by greenhouse gases. Often quoted as 33 K for Earth, GE is estimated as a difference between planet’s observed mean surface temperature and an effective radiating temperature calcul...

  11. Parameterizing radiative transfer to convert MAX-DOAS dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged mixing ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Sinreich, R.; A. Merten; Molina, L.; R. Volkamer

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel parameterization method to convert multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) differential slant column densities (dSCDs) into near-surface box-averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude. It parameterizes radiative transfer model calculations and significantly reduces the c...

  12. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Evgueni Kassianov; James Barnard; Connor Flynn; Laura Riihimaki; Joseph Michalsky; Gary Hodges

    2014-01-01

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged spectral surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation. The feasibility of our retrieval for routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements: (1) spectral atmospheric transmission from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiomet...

  13. Cryosurgery for hemangiomas of the body surface and oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, H; Shioya, N; Tanaka, S

    1980-06-01

    The indications for and limitations of cryosurgery for various types of hemangiomas on the body surface or in the intraoral region are reported based on our clinical experience. In our opinion, cryosurgery is not the method of choice in the management of hemangiomas but is useful under certain conditions, as with a localized cavernous under certain conditions, as with a localized cavernous hemangioma in the facial or intraoral region. It is also valuable for strawberry marks with bleeding or infection and may be acceptable for small port-wine stains; in the treatment of extensive port-wine stains, a resulting hypertrophic scar or depigmentation may present difficulties. PMID:7436280

  14. Magnetic levitation of metamaterial bodies enhanced with magnetostatic surface resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Bingham, Chris; Padilla, Willie; Smith, David R

    2011-01-01

    We propose that macroscopic objects built from negative-permeability metamaterials may experience resonantly enhanced magnetic force in low-frequency magnetic fields. Resonant enhancement of the time-averaged force originates from magnetostatic surface resonances (MSR) which are analogous to the electrostatic resonances of negative-permittivity particles, well known as surface plasmon resonances in optics. We generalize the classical problem of MSR of a homogeneous object to include anisotropic metamaterials, and consider the most extreme case of anisotropy where the permeability is negative in one direction but positive in the others. It is shown that deeply subwavelength objects made of such indefinite (hyperbolic) media exhibit a pronounced magnetic dipole resonance that couples strongly to uniform or weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field and provides strong enhancement of the magnetic force, enabling applications such as enhanced magnetic levitation.

  15. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  16. BODY SURFACE EXPOSURE SIDTRIBUTION OF EXAMINEES RECEIVED UPPER G.T.T.X—RAY EXAMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯定华; 程祺钧

    1995-01-01

    A special cloth for keeping LiF(Mg,Cu,P) TL dosimetry elements is worn by examinees.The exposures of 128 examinees received upper G.I.T(gastro-intestinal tract)X-ray examination are measured.The reference point of the maximum body surface exposure given is at the middle of stomach.The average of this point is (4.97±1.94)×10-4C.kg-1 person-1 examination-1 and (1.33±0.28)×10-4C.kg-1.min-1.

  17. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (≤0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for “nearby” overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  18. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  19. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney function is mostly expressed in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common feature is the expression as ml/min per 1.73 m(2) , which represents the adjustment of the individual kidney function to a standard body surface area (BSA) to allow comparison between individuals....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA......-indexed GFR vs. mean absolute GFR were analyzed with a t-test for paired data. Bland-Altman plot was used to analyze agreement between the indexed and absolute GFR values. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: BSA-GFR in patients with a BSA

  20. Numerosity judgments for tactile stimuli distributed over the body surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A large body of research now supports the claim that two different and dissociable processes are involved in making numerosity judgments regarding visual stimuli: subitising (fast and nearly errorless) for up to 4 stimuli, and counting (slow and error-prone) when more than 4 stimuli are presented. We studied tactile numerosity judgments for combinations of 1-7 vibrotactile stimuli presented simultaneously over the body surface. In experiment 1, the stimuli were presented once, while in experiment 2 conditions of single presentation and repeated presentation of the stimulus were compared. Neither experiment provided any evidence for a discontinuity in the slope of either the RT or error data suggesting that subitisation does not occur for tactile stimuli. By systematically varying the intensity of the vibrotactile stimuli in experiment 3, we were able to demonstrate that participants were not simply using the 'global intensity' of the whole tactile display to make their tactile numerosity judgments, but were, instead, using information concerning the number of tactors activated. The results of the three experiments reported here are discussed in relation to current theories of counting and subitising, and potential implications for the design of tactile user interfaces are highlighted. PMID:16583769

  1. [Ventricular activation sequence estimated by body surface isochrone map].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H; Ishikawa, T; Takami, K; Kojima, H; Yabe, S; Ohsugi, S; Miyachi, K; Sotobata, I

    1985-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the body surface isochrone map (VAT map) for identifying the ventricular activation sequence, and it was correlated with the isopotential map. Subjects consisted of 42 normal healthy adults, 18 patients with artificial ventricular pacemakers, and 100 patients with ventricular premature beats (VPB). The sites of pacemaker implantations were the right ventricular endocardial apex (nine cases), right ventricular epicardial apex (five cases), right ventricular inflow tract (one case), left ventricular epicardial apex (one case), and posterior base of the left ventricle via the coronary sinus (two cases). An isopotential map was recorded by the mapper HPM-6500 (Chunichi-Denshi Co.) on the basis of an 87 unipolar lead ECG, and a VAT isochrone map was drawn by a minicomputer. The normal VAT map was classified by type according to alignment of isochrone lines, and their frequency was 57.1% for type A, 16.7% for type B, and 26.2% for type C. In the VAT map of ventricular pacing, the body surface area of initial isochrone lines represented well the sites of pacemaker stimuli. In the VAT map of VPB, the sites of origin of VPB agreed well with those as determined by the previous study using an isopotential map. The density of the isochrone lines suggested the mode of conduction via the specialized conduction system or ventricular muscle. The VAT map is a very useful diagnostic method to predict the ventricular activation sequence more directly in a single sheet of the map. PMID:2419457

  2. 4 km AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Global Day-Night Sea Surface Temperature Monthly and Yearly Averages, 1985-2009 (NODC Accession 0077816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a set of monthly and yearly global day-night sea surface temperature averages, derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 sea surface...

  3. Ceres' deformational surface features compared to other planetary bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Gathen, Isabel; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Elgner, Stephan; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Nass, Andrea; Otto, Katharina; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Schröder, Stefanus E.; Schulzeck, Franziska; Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland; De Sanctis, Maria C.; Schenk, Paul; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Williams, Dave A.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-04-01

    On March 2015, NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the dwarf planet Ceres and has been providing images of its surface. Based on High Altitude Mapping Orbiter (HAMO) clear filter images (140 m/px res.), a Survey mosaic (~400 m/px) and a series of Low Altitude Mapping Orbiter (LAMO) clear filter images (35 m/px) of the Dawn mission [1], deformational features are identified on the surface of Ceres. In order to further our knowledge about the nature and origin of these features, we start a comparative analysis of similar features on different planetary bodies, like Enceladus, Ganymede and the Moon, based on images provided by the Cassini, Galileo and Lunar Orbiter mission. This study focuses on the small scale fractures, mostly located on Ceres' crater floors, in comparison with crater fractures on the planetary bodies named above. The fractures were analyzed concerning the morphology and shape, the distribution, orientation and possible building mechanisms. On Ceres, two different groups of fractures are distinct. The first one includes fractures, normally arranged in subparallel pattern, which are usually located on crater floors, but also on crater rims. Their sense of direction is relatively uniform but in some cases they get deformed by shearing. The second group consists of joint systems, which spread out of one single location, sometimes arranged concentric to the crater rim. They were likely formed by cooling-melting processes linked to the impact process or up doming material. Fractures located on crater floors are also common on the icy satellite Enceladus [3]. While Enceladus' fractures don't seem to have a lot in common compared to those on Ceres, we assume that similar fracture patterns and therefore similar building mechanism can be found e.g. on Ganymede and especially on the Moon [2]. Further work will include the comparison of the fractures with additional planetary bodies and the trial to explain why fracturing e.g. on Enceladus differs from that on

  4. Surface wetting and its effect on body and surface temperatures of domestic laying hens at different thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf, S; Kahraman, N Seber; Firat, M Z

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of surface wetting at different thermal conditions on core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures in laying hens. Hens were sprinkled on the head and dorsal surface by releasing a sprinkling dosage of 10 mL.bird(-1). The first measurement was taken presprinkling, and the second was taken immediately postsprinkling and then repeated every 5 min for 20 min. The cooling water needs for intermittent partial surface wetting to relieve acute heat stress in the laying hens were quantified for 48 domestic laying hens under 4 experimental thermal conditions. The hens were kept at 4 thermal conditions at average dry-bulb temperatures of 31.30 +/- 0.03, 33.20 +/- 0.08, 36.01 +/- 0.12, and 40.24 +/- 0.08 degrees C; RH of 67.68 +/- 0.37, 51.78 +/- 1.98, 24.59 +/- 0.90, and 16.12 +/- 1.55%; and air velocities of 0.09 +/- 0.00, 0.07 +/- 0.00, 0.08 +/- 0.00, and 0.09 +/- 0.00 m.s(-1), respectively. The differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal groups were 0.15, 0.18, 0.23, and 0.22 degrees C for core body temperature; 1.63, 1.44, 2.51, and 0.97 degrees C for core head temperature; and 1.23, 1.37, 1.41, and 0.64 degrees C for core dorsal temperature at thermal conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. There were significant differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal condition groups. It was concluded that the spraying interval was directly proportional to the product of the vapor pressure deficit and the thermal resistance of convective mass transfer of the wetted hens, because there were no significant differences in the air velocity among the 4 thermal condition groups and the air velocity was very low. PMID:19038798

  5. Validity of the site-averaging approximation for modeling the dissociative chemisorption of H2 on Cu(111) surface: A quantum dynamics study on two potential energy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new finding of the site-averaging approximation was recently reported on the dissociative chemisorption of the HCl/DCl+Au(111) surface reaction [T. Liu, B. Fu, and D. H. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184705 (2013); T. Liu, B. Fu, and D. H. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 144701 (2014)]. Here, in order to investigate the dependence of new site-averaging approximation on the initial vibrational state of H2 as well as the PES for the dissociative chemisorption of H2 on Cu(111) surface at normal incidence, we carried out six-dimensional quantum dynamics calculations using the initial state-selected time-dependent wave packet approach, with H2 initially in its ground vibrational state and the first vibrational excited state. The corresponding four-dimensional site-specific dissociation probabilities are also calculated with H2 fixed at bridge, center, and top sites. These calculations are all performed based on two different potential energy surfaces (PESs). It is found that the site-averaging dissociation probability over 15 fixed sites obtained from four-dimensional quantum dynamics calculations can accurately reproduce the six-dimensional dissociation probability for H2 (v = 0) and (v = 1) on the two PESs

  6. Prognostic impact of average iodine density assessed by dual-energy spectral imaging for predicting lung tumor recurrence after stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Fujioka, Ichitaro; Tanaka, Mitsuki; Ono, Shuichi; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of average iodine density as assessed by dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) for lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). From March 2011 to August 2014, 93 medically inoperable patients with 74 primary lung cancers and 19 lung metastases underwent DE-CT prior to SBRT of a total dose of 45-60 Gy in 5-10 fractions. Of these 93 patients, nine patients had two lung tumors. Thus, 102 lung tumors were included in this study. DE-CT was performed for pretreatment evaluation. Regions of interest were set for the entire tumor, and average iodine density was obtained using a dedicated imaging software and evaluated with regard to local control. The median follow-up period was 23.4 months (range, 1.5-54.5 months). The median value of the average iodine density was 1.86 mg/cm(3) (range, 0.40-9.27 mg/cm(3)). Two-year local control rates for the high and low average iodine density groups divided by the median value of the average iodine density were 96.9% and 75.7% (P = 0.006), respectively. Tumors with lower average iodine density showed a worse prognosis, possibly reflecting a hypoxic cell population in the tumor. The average iodine density exhibited a significant impact on local control. Our preliminary results indicate that iodine density evaluated using dual-energy spectral CT may be a useful, noninvasive and quantitative assessment of radio-resistance caused by presumably hypoxic cell populations in tumors.

  7. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

    1992-04-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  8. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleo...

  9. Novel surface associated polyphosphate bodies sequester uranium in the filamentous, marine cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Celin; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2013-12-01

    A filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa, has been shown to harbour surface associated, acid soluble polyphosphate bodies. Uranium immobilization by such polyphosphate bodies, reported in cyanobacteria for the first time, demonstrates a novel uranium sequestration phenomenon.

  10. Human Body Modeling and Posture Simulating Based on 3D Surface Scan Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永有; 张辉; 任少云; 蒋寿伟

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for modeling the human body by considering the motion state and the shape of whole body. The body model consists of a skeleton kinematic model and a surface model. The former is used to determine the posture of the body,and the latter is used to generate the body shape according to the given posture. The body surface is reconstructed with multi-segment B-spline surfaces based on the 3D scan data from a real human body.Using only a few joints parameters and the original surface scan data, the various body postures and the shape can be generated easily. The model has a strong potential of being used for ergonomic design,garment design, virtual reality environment, as well as creating human animation, etc.

  11. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda;

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  12. Parameterizing radiative transfer to convert MAX-DOAS dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged mixing ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinreich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel parameterization method to convert multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS differential slant column densities (dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude. It parameterizes radiative transfer model calculations and significantly reduces the computational effort, while retrieving ~ 1 degree of freedom. The biggest benefit of this method is that the retrieval of an aerosol profile, which usually is necessary for deriving a trace gas concentration from MAX-DOAS dSCDs, is not needed. The method is applied to NO2 MAX-DOAS dSCDs recorded during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006 measurement campaign. The retrieved volume mixing ratios of two elevation angles (1° and 3° are compared to volume mixing ratios measured by two long-path (LP-DOAS instruments located at the same site. Measurements are found to agree well during times when vertical mixing is expected to be strong. However, inhomogeneities in the air mass above Mexico City can be detected by exploiting the different horizontal and vertical dimensions probed by the MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS instruments. In particular, a vertical gradient in NO2 close to the ground can be observed in the afternoon, and is attributed to reduced mixing coupled with near-surface emission inside street canyons. The existence of a vertical gradient in the lower 250 m during parts of the day shows the general challenge of sampling the boundary layer in a representative way, and emphasizes the need of vertically resolved measurements.

  13. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  14. Methods of building standard intermediate people model based on average body model%基于平均体模型的标准中间体人台建模方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子田; 杨阳; 水翠翠

    2015-01-01

    In order to get the standard intermediate people model, firstly, the body point cloud data are obtained by measurement of human body. Based on the average body model data which has been established after processing point cloud data of the human body and adjusting human body model, through the research about the relation between standard intermediate characteristic parts, the regression equation of the characteristic position and human body height and chest circumference is established, and the standard size of characteristic parts is gotten. The shape factor method is adopted to adjust the point cloud model and the standard intermediate point cloud model is obtained. Finally in MATLAB environment, by using NURBS tool box, the surface modeling is accurately realized, and the standard intermediate model is obtained.%为得到标准中间体人台模型,首先通过测体获得人体躯干点云数据;在对人体点云数据处理和人体模型调整后获得平均体模型数据的基础上,通过对标准中间体特征部位关系的研究,建立特征部位与人体身高和胸围的回归方程,求得特征部位的标准尺寸;采用形状因子方法对点云模型进行调整,得到标准中间体点云模型;并在MATLAB环境下,通过NURBS工具箱准确地实现了曲面建模,最终得到标准中间体模型。

  15. Comparison of methods for area-averaging surface energy fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces using high-resolution non-hydrostatic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Günther; Kerschgens, Michael

    2005-03-01

    The quantification of subgrid land surface heterogeneity effects on the scale of climate and numerical weather prediction models is of vital interest for the energy budget of the atmospheric boundary layer and for the atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle. This paper focuses on heterogeneity effects for the exchange processes between land surfaces and the atmosphere. The results are based on high-resolution non-hydrostatic model simulations for the LITFASS area near Berlin. This area represents a highly heterogeneous landscape of 20 × 20 km2 around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg of the German Weather Service (DWD). Model simulations were carried out using the non-hydrostatic model FOOT3DK of the University of Köln with resolutions of 1 km and 250 m.The performance of different area-averaging methods for the turbulent surface fluxes was tested for the LITFASS area, namely the aggregation, mosaic and tile methods. For one tile method (station-tile), the experimental setup of the surface energy balance stations of the LITFASS98 experiment was investigated. Two different simulation types are considered: (1) realistic topography and idealized synoptic forcing; (2) realistic topography and realistic synoptic forcing for LITFASS98 cases. A double one-way nesting procedure is used for nesting FOOT3DK in Lokalmodell of the DWD.The mosaic method shows good results, if the wind speed is sufficiently high. During weak-wind convective conditions, errors are particularly large for the latent heat flux on the 20 × 20 km2 scale. The aggregation method yields generally higher errors than the mosaic method, which even increase for higher wind speeds. The main reason is the strong surface heterogeneity associated with the lakes and forests in the LITFASS area. The main uncertainty of the station-tile method is the knowledge of the area coverage in combination with the representativity of the stations for the land-use type and surface conditions. The results of

  16. Computational fluid dynamic studies of certain ducted bluff-body flowfields relevant to turbojet combustors. Volume 2: Time-averaged flowfield predictions for a proposed centerbody combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    1986-07-01

    The near-wake region in a ducted bluff-body combustor was investigated by finite-difference computations. The numerical predictions are based upon the time-independent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the k-epsilon turbulence model. The steady-state calculations address both nonreacting and reacting flowfields in a novel configuration to more realistically simulate some of the essential features of the primary zone of a gas turbine combustion chamber. This configuration is characterized by turbulent mixing and combustion in the recirculating near-wake region downstream of an axisymmetric bluff body due to two annular air streams--an outer swirl-free flow and an inner swirling flow--and a central fuel jet. The latter contains propane for reacting flows and carbon dioxide for nonreacting flows. In view of the large number of geometrical and flow parameters involved, the reported results are concerned with only a limited parametric examination with the major emphasis being on nonreacting flows. Questions addressed for a particular set of geometric parameters include the effects of variation of mass flow rates in all three streams and the influence of swirl in the middle stream. Reacting computations investigate the influence of swirl on combustion, as well as that of combustion on the flowfield.

  17. Survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surface of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-11-01

    granulometrically fine material on the surface of small asteroids does not prove the predominance of thermal stresses over rupture by meteorite impacts as a factor in the comminution of the surface material. We then analyzed images of lunar rocks of decimeters- to meters-size whose lunar surface exposure ages were radiometrically dated. This analysis shows that the presence of the fragment on the lunar surface for a time period 26-400 Ma (that is, ~3×108 to 5×109 day-night thermal cycles) did not lead to the formation of any features conclusively supporting rock destruction by thermal cycles. In turn, this means that on the lunar surface as well as on the surface of other bodies at 1 AU and further from the Sun, the destruction of rocks by thermal fatigue is secondary compared to rock rupture by the meteorite impacts. The possible implications of the difference in environments on fast spinning asteroids and on the Moon require additional analysis Then utilizing the entire catalog of inner solar system minor planet orbits out to Jupiter as a proxy for the distribution of potential impactors throughout the inner solar system, we calculated the meteorite flux and impact velocities for a number of airless bodies to use them for estimates of survival times of rock boulders on their surfaces (normalized to those for lunar boulders). We found that if the average survival time for meter-size rock boulders on the surface of the Moon is 1, then considering rupture by the meteorite impacts as the major process of rock destruction, for Phobos it is ~0.8, for Deimos ~0.7, for asteroid Itokawa ~1, for Eros ~0.3, for Vesta and Ceres ~0.03 and for the average of the first 150 Trojans discovered is ~12.5. Implications of these findings are that on the surfaces of Vesta and Ceres, compared to the Moon, the regolith layer should generally have a larger thickness and higher maturity, while small craters with rocky ejecta are rare. On the typical Trojans, where impact flux is closer to that on the

  18. Influence of the surface averaging procedure of the current density in assessing compliance with the ICNIRP low-frequency basic restrictions by means of numerical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppetti, N.; Andreuccetti, D.

    2009-08-01

    Although the calculation of the surface average of the low-frequency current density distribution over a cross-section of 1 cm2 is required by ICNIRP guidelines, no reference averaging algorithm is indicated, neither in the ICNIRP guidelines nor in the Directive 2004/40/EC that is based on them. The lack of a general standard algorithm that fulfils the ICNIRP guidelines' requirements is particularly critical in the prospective of the 2004/40/EC Directive endorsement, since the compliance to normative limits refers to well-defined procedures. In this paper, two case studies are considered, in which the calculation of the surface average is performed using a simplified approach widely used in the literature and an original averaging procedure. This analysis, aimed at quantifying the expected differences and to single out their sources, shows that the choice of the averaging algorithm represents an important source of uncertainty in the application of the guideline requirements.

  19. Biomimetic Coating of Modified Titanium Surfaces with Hydroxyapatite Using Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Nazir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the viability of coating commercially pure titanium (CPTi surfaces, modified via sandblasting and acid etching, with hydroxyapatite (HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings using a simulated body fluid (SBF solution. The samples were immersed in SBF from 3 to 7 days. The morphology and the chemistry of the HA/tricalcium phosphate coating were then analysed. Prior to immersion in SBF, the samples were sandblasted and acid etched to mimic the morphology and roughness of commercially available dental implants. The SBF aided in the formation of crystalline HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings on all the samples. The coatings were uniform and had roughness values higher than the underlying substrate. The highest roughness values for the coatings on the surfaces were obtained at 7 days of immersion in SBF with average Sa values of 2.9 ± 0.2 µm. The presence of HA/tricalcium phosphate on the surfaces was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR analysis. This study shows that it is possible to obtain an adequate and uniform hydroxyapatite coating on pure titanium substrates in a shorter period of time with characteristics that favour the ultimate goal of implants therapy, that is, osseointegration.

  20. Quaternion Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  1. Wave Loading on Bodies in the Free Surface Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

    OpenAIRE

    Omidvar, Pourya

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates wave loading on bodies in the free surface using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). This includes wave loading on fixed bodies, waves generated by heaving bodies in still water and the heave response of a body in waves, representing a wave energy device. SPH is a flexible Lagrangian technique for CFD simulations, which in principle applies to steep and breaking waves without special treatment allowing us to simulate highly nonlinear and potentially violent flows e...

  2. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  3. Downscaling MODIS Surface Reflectance to Improve Water Body Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Xianghong Che; Min Feng; Hao Jiang; Jia Song; Bei Jia

    2015-01-01

    Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. Accurate mapping of surface water dynamic is vital for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. MODIS provides twice observation per day, making it perfect for monitoring temporal water dynamic. Although MODIS provides two bands at 250 m resolution, accurately deriving water area always depends on observations from the spectral bands with 500 m resolution, which limits its discrimination abilit...

  4. Influence of Surface Treatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel in Simulated Human Body Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Jafari; Mohammad Jafar Hadianfard

    2009-01-01

    In the present research, the influence of chromium enrichment by surface treatment on corrosion resistance of type 316L stainless steel in body environment was investigated. For this study, weight loss test during 18 months, cyclic and liner polarization tests before and after surface treatment and metallography by electron and light microscopy were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method was used to determine the chromium concentration in the surface layer after surface treatment. Results show that the surface treatment has improved corrosion resistance of the type 316L stainless steel in body environment.

  5. Body surface monitor for measuring radioactive contamination of the general population after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new body surface monitor for monitoring the surface radioactive contamination of the general population living and working around the site in the early stages of a nuclear accident has been designed. The body surface monitors will be installed in a medium-sized bus with a thyroid counter and moved to the place where measurement is required. The different characteristics needed for the body surface monitor to measure the general population from those of monitors used in nuclear power stations are discussed. The detection sensitivity of the plastic scintillator was measured under various geometric conditions and the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) was found to be lower than 1 Bq/cm2 in a 10-second count time. Two body surface monitors can measure 2,880 persons in eight hours. (author)

  6. Electromagnetic Fields at the Surface of Human-Body Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic fields around an infinitely long cylinder with different material parameters are analyzed. The cylinder is modeled as muscle, skin, fat, and perfect electric conductor respectively. The cylinder is illuminated by a plane wave incident from different angles and with both...... transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization. The results show that the material assumption when modeling the human body as a homogeneous material is very important. Furthermore, it is shown that one assumption might lead to higher fields for a specific polarization, angle of incidence...

  7. Tomo-PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body with surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Jeon, Young Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-02-01

    A three-dimensional surface of an arbitrarily moving body in a flow field was reconstructed using the DAISY descriptor and epipolar geometry constraints. The surface shape of a moving body was reconstructed with tomographic PIV flow measurement. Experimental images were captured using the tomographic PIV system, which consisted of four high-speed cameras and a laser. The originally captured images, which contained the shape of the arbitrary moving body and the tracer particles, were separated into the particle and surface images using a Gaussian smoothing filter. The weak contrast of the surface images was enhanced using a local histogram equalization method. The histogram-equalized surface images were used to reconstruct the surface shape of the moving body. The surface reconstruction method required a sufficiently detailed surface pattern to obtain the intensity gradient profile of the local descriptor. The separated particle images were used to reconstruct the particle volume intensity via tomographic reconstruction approaches. Voxels behind the reconstructed body surface were neglected during the tomographic reconstruction and velocity calculation. The three-dimensional three-component flow vectors were calculated based on the cross-correlation functions between the reconstructed particle volumes. Three-dimensional experiments that modeled the flows around a flapping flag, a rotating cylinder, and a flapping robot fish tail were conducted to validate the present technique.

  8. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.A. [Medical Physics and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jane.rogers@university-b.wmids.nhs.uk; Blake-James, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Green, S.; Beddoe, A.H. [Medical Physics and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-07

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of {sup 40}K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their {sup 40}K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing. (author)

  9. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. A.; Blake-James, M.; Green, S.; Beddoe, A. H.

    2002-03-01

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of 40K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their 40K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing.

  10. Restudies on Body Surface of Dung Beetle and Application of Its Bionics Flexible Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiurong Sun; Jianqiao Li; Hong Cheng; Zhendong Dai; Luquan Ren

    2004-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the structures of the setae on the surface of a dung beetle Copris ochus, Motschulsky. There are lots of setae on the body surface, especially on the ventral part surface and lateral to the legs which are different in size, arrangement and shape. These setae have different lengths and many thorns on the whole seta. The top ends of these setae stand up without furcations which direct uprightly towards the surface of the touched soil. By the method of removing these setae, getting the insect weight before and after digging into the dung we affirm farther that the setae on the beetle body surface form the anti-stick and non-adherent gentle interface. The soil machines and components made by imitating the gentle body surface of beetles have favorable non-adherent results.

  11. Many-body effects in simple metal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Natschläger, S

    2001-01-01

    equations are used to describe the electromagnetic field of the photon, wherein the electron system enters via the material equations. Using Green's functions, the Schroedinger equation with the perturbing Hamiltonian describing the photon field is solved for the scattering amplitude for various angles of photon penetration and electron emission, yielding the probability that an electron leaves the system. The procedure is self consistent. Since most photoemission experiments use relatively thick films, the infinite half space is used here. weakest. As a surface-mode is strongly localized in the surface, whereas the bulk-mode is extended throughout the film, the type of plasmon can be determined from the shape of the induced density. This determination may become ambiguous in the vicinity of level crossing, and additional information can be obtained from the asymptotic current, the shape of which does not change, when one follows a particular dispersion. In the second part we use a simple classical approach i...

  12. On the impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathai, V.; Govardhan, R.N.; Arakeri, V.H.

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the vertical impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface. Previous studies have shown that bodies with a convex nose, like a sphere, produce a well defined splash with a relatively large cavity behind the model. In contrast, we find that with a

  13. Interdependence between body surface area and ultraviolet B dose in vitamin D production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, M K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, P A;

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation.......Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation....

  14. Minimizing Cache Misses Using Minimum-Surface Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Michael; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A number of known techniques for improving cache performance in scientific computations involve the reordering of the iteration space. Some of these reorderings can be considered as coverings of the iteration space with the sets having good surface-to-volume ratio. Use of such sets reduces the number of cache misses in computations of local operators having the iteration space as a domain. First, we derive lower bounds which any algorithm must suffer while computing a local operator on a grid. Then we explore coverings of iteration spaces represented by structured and unstructured grids which allow us to approach these lower bounds. For structured grids we introduce a covering by successive minima tiles of the interference lattice of the grid. We show that the covering has low surface-to-volume ratio and present a computer experiment showing actual reduction of the cache misses achieved by using these tiles. For planar unstructured grids we show existence of a covering which reduces the number of cache misses to the level of structured grids. On the other hand, we present a triangulation of a 3-dimensional cube such that any local operator on the corresponding grid has significantly larger number of cache misses than a similar operator on a structured grid.

  15. Influences of combined therapies with traditional Chinese medicine on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ping SHEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the influences of traditional Chinese medicinal combined therapies on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram (AEMG ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods  One hundred and twenty outpatients with mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM group and a brace group. TCM group patients underwent i Navigation of the spinal balance (twice a day, 40min/ time, until to skeletal maturity; ii Balance manipulation (twice a week, 25min/time, lasted 12 months; iii Small needle-knife therapy (once a week, 10 times. The brace group patients were treated with a Milwaukee brace. The Cobb angle was measured after 12 and 24 months of treatment, pulmonary function was determined after 12 months of treatment, and AEMG ratio of the surface electromyogram was measured 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, and intergroup comparison was performed. Results  The Cobb angle significantly decreased in both groups 12 months after treatment (P0.05 in the TCM group and brace group, respectively, 12 months after treatment and 62.5% and 34.7% (P<0.05, respectively, 24 months aftertreatment. Pulmonary function was significantly improved 12 months after treatment in TCM group (P<0.05 but significantly decreased in brace group (P<0.05. The AEMG ratio was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and tended to remain at 1 after stopping treatment in TCM group, showed that the muscle imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, but was adverse in brace group (P<0.05, showed that the muscle imbalance aggravated. No side effect of the therapeutic method was found. Conclusions  The spinal balance therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine theory has excellent therapeutic efficacy and safety, and can significantly ameliorate the imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, improve lung function index, and have better compliance. The AEMG ratio is a

  16. Transformation of body force localized near the surface of a half-space into equivalent surface stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouge, Clémence; Lhémery, Alain; Ségur, Damien

    2013-10-01

    An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) or a laser used to generate elastic waves in a component is often described as a source of body force confined in a layer close to the surface. On the other hand, models for elastic wave radiation more efficiently handle sources described as distributions of surface stresses. Equivalent surface stresses can be obtained by integrating the body force with respect to depth. They are assumed to generate the same field as the one that would be generated by the body force. Such an integration scheme can be applied to Lorentz force for conventional EMAT configuration. When applied to magnetostrictive force generated by an EMAT in a ferromagnetic material, the same scheme fails, predicting a null stress. Transforming body force into equivalent surface stresses therefore, requires taking into account higher order terms of the force moments, the zeroth order being the simple force integration over the depth. In this paper, such a transformation is derived up to the second order, assuming that body forces are localized at depths shorter than the ultrasonic wavelength. Two formulations are obtained, each having some advantages depending on the application sought. They apply regardless of the nature of the force considered. PMID:24116402

  17. Features of deformation of metal body surfaces under impact of a water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganin, A. A.; Khismatullina, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model and computational results on dynamics of a perfect elastic-plastic body under the load arising during impact of a high-velocity liquid jet with the hemispherical end. The body is simulated by the isotropic linearly-elastic semi-space, its plastic state is described by the von Mises condition. The dependence of features of the body surface deformation on the body material is studied. The problem is considered in the axisymmetric statement. The axis of symmetry is that of the jet. The loaded domain is a circle with its radius rapidly growing from zero to the jet radius. The pressure in the loaded domain is non-uniform both in time and space. Three metal alloys (aluminium, copper-nickel and steel) are considered as the body material. The loading of the body surface in all the cases corresponds to the impact of a water jet with the radius 100 pm and the velocity 300 m/s. It has been shown that under such impact a nanometer pit arises on the body surface at the center of the domain of the jet action. The profile of the pit and its maximal depth depend on the body material.

  18. Retrieving Sea Surface Salinity With Multi-Angular L-band Brightness Temperatures: Improvement By Spatio-Temporal Averaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Camps Carmona, Adriano José; Vall-Llossera Ferran, Mercedes Magdalena; Duffo Ubeda, Núria; Torres Torres, Francisco; Corbella Sanahuja, Ignasi; Batres Gonzalez, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was selected in May 1999 by the European Space Agency to provide global and frequent soil moisture and sea surface salinity maps. SMOS' single payload is Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS), an L band two-dimensional aperture synthesis interferometric radiometer with multiangular observation capabilities. Most geophysical parameter retrieval errors studies have assumed the independence of measurements both in time and ...

  19. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitations, for instance, its inability to capture the distribution of lean mass and adipose tissue, which is a better predictor of diabetes and CVDs, and its curved ("U-shaped" relationship with mortality hazard. Other anthropometric measures and their relation to obesity have been studied, each with its advantages and limitations. In this work, we introduce a new anthropometric measure (called Surface-based Body Shape Index, SBSI that accounts for both body shape and body size, and evaluate its performance as a predictor of all-cause mortality.We analyzed data on 11,808 subjects (ages 18-85, from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004, with 8-year mortality follow up. Based on the analysis, we introduce a new body shape index constructed from four important anthropometric determinants of body shape and body size: body surface area (BSA, vertical trunk circumference (VTC, height (H and waist circumference (WC. The surface-based body shape index (SBSI is defined as follows: SBSI = ((H(7/4(WC(5/6/(BSA VTC (1 SBSI has negative correlation with BMI and weight respectively, no correlation with WC, and shows a generally linear relationship with age. Results on mortality hazard prediction using both the Cox proportionality model, and Kaplan-Meier curves each show that SBSI outperforms currently popular body shape indices (e.g., BMI, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, A Body Shape Index (ABSI in predicting all

  20. Optical Body-Surface Profiling with Coded Markers for Medical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Tzong Jeng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a three-dimensional body-surface optical measurement technique by solving the correspondence problem with the coded markers. The coded markers are printed patterns fixed on the object to be measured. The unique code number of each marker is decoded by using computer-based image processing. Given more than 212 available codes, the three dimensional profile of the torso surface is well approximated with the coded markers. In addition, the focal length and the camera location are found automatically by using the fiducial coded markers at given locations. The proposed body-surface measurement method is suitable for solving the registration problem for non-anatomical medical images such as body-surface potential maps (BSPM and magnetocardiograms (MCG.

  1. Surface morphology of chitin highly related with the isolated body part of butterfly (Argynnis pandora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bitim, Betül; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Koyuncu, Turgay

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to understand the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin samples isolated from the wings and the other body parts except the wings (OBP) of a butterfly species (Argynnis pandora). The same isolation method was used for obtaining chitin specimens from both types of body parts. The chitin content of the wings (22%) was recorded as being much higher than the OBP (8%). The extracted chitin samples were characterized via FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM, and elemental analysis techniques. Results of these characterizations revealed that the chitins from both structures (wings and OBP) were very similar, except for their surface morphologies. SEM results demonstrated one type of surface morphology for the wings and four different surface morphologies for the OBP. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the surface morphology of the chitin is highly related with the body part.

  2. Parameterizing radiative transfer to convert MAX-DOAS dSCDs into near-surface box averaged mixing ratios and vertical profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sinreich, R.; A. Merten; Molina, L.; R. Volkamer

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel parameterization method to convert Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) differential Slant Column Densities (dSCDs) into near-surface box averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, does not require a-priori assumptions about the trace gas vertical distribution and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude....

  3. Numerical simulation of motion and deformation of ring bubble along body surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宝玉; 张阿漫

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulation for fluid flow over an attached rigid body with a deformable ring bubble is analyzed based on the velocity potential theory together with the boundary element method (BEM). The analysis is focused on the axisymmetric case. The bubble surface is treated as a well defined air-liquid interface and is tracked by a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The points of intersection between the bubble and body are treated, specially in the numerical procedure. The auxiliary function method is adopted to calculate the pressure on the body surface and in the flow field. The convergence study is undertaken to assess the developed numerical method and the computation code. Some case studies are undertaken in which the interactions between the bubble/body and the incoming flow field are simulated. The effects of various physical parameters on the interactions are investigated.

  4. Distribution, Arrangement and Interconnectedness of Cell Surface Receptor sites in the body of an Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors have been identified as the sites of disease infectivity in living organisms in a previous study. Drugs used for the treatment or cure of infections have to eliminate infections through attacking infective organisms at the cell surface receptors to which the infective organisms are attached. Problem statement: The present study examines a wide sample of living things to get more information on the relationship of one cell surface receptor to other cell surface receptors in the body of an organism. Approach: The arrangement of cell surface receptors on the external covering of a few samples of fruits, leaves, stems, dry wood of a plant; wall gecko and some parts of the human body, were examined and photographed. Transverse and/or Longitudinal sections of soursop fruit and sycamore fruit were also examined and photographed. The five different coverings of the fleshy part of a coconut were also photographed. The photographs were studied to note the relationship of disease infection attached to cell surface receptors on the external surface of an organ to disease infection on the innermost covering of the same organ. Results: The results of the study showed that all living things had ubiquitous distribution of cell surface receptors which are usually observable with the unaided eye as dots or spots on the external covering of an organ, tissue or cell. The dots or receptor sites of cell surface receptors in the study are arranged in lines which were perpendicular, oblique, transverse or arranged in any other lineal geometrical form. The lineally arranged cell surface receptors were noted to be connected by grooves, channels or pipes which joined other receptor channels or intersected with them. Smaller cell surface receptor channels emptied into bigger channels or continued as small sized channels that ran side by side in a connective tissue bundle. These connective tissue bundles that carried many independent small-sized cell

  5. DNS of turbulent flow past a bluff body with a compliant tensegrity surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Anish; Bewley, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study turbulent incompressible flow past a bluff body with a compliant surface. We use a 3D time-dependent coordinate transformation to account for the motion of the bluff body surface. Spatially, the flow domain is discretized using a dealiased pseudospectral method in the axial and azimuthal directions, while the radial (wall-normal) direction is discretized using a finite difference scheme. The grid is stretched in the azimuthal direction, which is handled spectrally. This leads to a unique challenge when solving the Poisson equation in the fractional step method for the time march, which we address with both multigrid and preconditioned BiCGStab algorithms. We are presently extending this flow code with a model for the compliant bluff body surface based on the ``tensegrity fabric'' paradigm which combines compressive members (bars) and tensile members (tendons) in a stable, flexible network.

  6. Body surface related flow rate nomograms in a normal pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wese, F X; Gaum, L D; Liu, T P; Wong, A K; Hardy, B E; Churchill, B M

    1989-01-01

    Uroflow studies for 511 normal pediatric subjects (272 boys, 239 girls) were analyzed statistically. Nomograms relating peak flow to volume voided and body surface were established. An acceptable lower limit for peak flow was obtained from the data and a volume voided range was calculated so that both criteria could be used with 90% probability to define the normal voiding situation. Body surface area was found to be a more reliable index than age in the establishment of nomograms. In the male population the 90% probability applied to a significantly greater volume voided reliability. In the female population mean peak flow rate rose with increased body surface. Finally, in both sexes the 10% lower limit was closer to the regression mean, allowing a tighter distribution around this value. PMID:2763926

  7. Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects

  8. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chen and Ming-Hsu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations and no rotation, in association with averaging periods of 15 - 480 min, were applied to compute surface heat and water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance approach. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC watershed, located in central Taiwan. For no rotation and double rotation approaches, an adequate averaging period of 15 or 30 min was suggested for better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. For the planar-fit rotation approach, an adequate averaging period of 60 or 120 min was recommended, and a typical averaging period of 30 min is not superior to that of 60 or 120 min in terms of better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. The Ogive function analysis revealed that the energy closure was improved with the increase of averaging time by capturing sensible heat fluxes at low-frequency ranges during certain midday hours at LHC site. Seasonal variations of daily energy closure fractions, high in dry season and low in wet season, were found to be associated with the surface dryness and strength of turbulent development. The mismatching of flux footprint areas among flux sensors was suggested as the cause of larger CF variations during the dry seasons as that indicated by the footprint analysis showing scattered source areas. During the wet season, the underestimation of turbulent fluxes by EC observations at the LHC site was attributed to weak turbulence developments as the source area identified by the footprint analysis was closer to the flux tower than those scattered in dry season.

  9. Core and body surface temperatures of nesting leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J; McCafferty, Dominic J; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-07-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are the largest species of marine turtle and the fourth most massive extant reptile. In temperate waters they maintain body temperatures higher than surrounding seawater through a combination of insulation, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. Nesting involves physical activity in addition to contact with warm sand and air, potentially presenting thermal challenges in the absence of the cooling effect of water, and data are lacking with which to understand their nesting thermal biology. Using non-contact methods (thermal imaging and infrared thermometry) to avoid any stress-related effects, we investigated core and surface temperature during nesting. The mean±SE core temperature was 31.4±0.05°C (newly emerged eggs) and was not correlated with environmental conditions on the nesting beach. Core temperature of leatherbacks was greater than that of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at a nearby colony, 30.0±0.13°C. Body surface temperatures of leatherbacks showed regional variation, the lateral and dorsal regions of the head were warmest while the carapace was the coolest surface. Surface temperature increased during the early nesting phases, then levelled off or decreased during later phases with the rates of change varying between body regions. Body region, behavioural phase of nesting and air temperature were found to be the best predictors of surface temperature. Regional variation in surface temperature were likely due to alterations in blood supply, and temporal changes in local muscular activity of flippers during the different phases of nesting. Heat exchange from the upper surface of the turtle was dominated by radiative heat loss from all body regions and small convective heat gains to the carapace and front flippers. PMID:25965013

  10. FREE-SURFACE WAVES AND FAR WAKES GENERATED BY A FLOATING BODY IN A VISCOUS FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dong-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The free-surface waves and the flow field due to a body moving on the surface of an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth were studied analytically. The floating body was modeled as a normal point pressure on the free surface. Based on the Oseen approximation for governing equations and the linearity assumption for boundary conditions, the exact solutions in integral form for the free-surface elevation, the velocities and the pressure were given. By employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme, the asymptotic representations in far field for large Reynolds numbers were derived explicitly. The effect of viscosity on the wave profiles was expressed by an exponential decay factor, which removes the singular behavior predicted by the potential theory.

  11. Using a Volume Discretization Method to Compute the Surface Gravity of Irregular Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-hui; Hu, Shou-cun; Wang, Su; Ji, Jiang-hui

    2016-01-01

    In the orbit design for small body exploration missions, it is important to take the effect of the gravitation of the small body into consideration. However, the majority of small bodies in the solar system are irregularly shaped with a non-uniform density distribution, this makes it difficult to precisely calculate the gravitational fields of these bodies. This paper proposes a method to model the gravitational field of an irregularly shaped small body, and calculate the corresponding spherical harmonic coefficients. This method is based on the shape of the small body resulted from the observed light curve, and uses finite volume elements to approximate the body shape. The spherical harmonic coefficients can be derived numerically by computing the integrals according to their definitions. A comparison is made with the polyhedron method. Taking the asteroid (433) Eros as an example, the spherical harmonic coefficients calculated by this method are compared with the result derived from the inversion of the NEAR (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) spacecraft' orbit data, and the comparison shows that the error of C20 is less than 2%. Using this method, we have calculated the gravity field of (1996) FG3 which is a candidate target in our future space exploration mission. Taking (4179) Toutatis, the target body of the Chang'e 2's flyby mission, as an example, the distribution of surface gravitational potential is calculated, in combination with the shape model derived from the radar data, it provides a theoretical basis for analyzing the surface soil distribution and flow direction from the optical images obtained in this mission. This method suits the objects of inhomogeneous density distribution, and can be used to provide the reliable gravitational data of small bodies for the orbit design and landing in future asteroid exploration missions.

  12. Surface temperature evolution and the location of maximum and average surface temperature of a lithium-ion pouch cell under variable load profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutam, Shovon; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Omar, Noshin;

    2014-01-01

    This experimental work attempts to determine the surface temperature evolution of large (20 Ah-rated capacity) commercial Lithium-Ion pouch cells for the application of rechargeable energy storage of plug in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. The cathode of the cells is nickel...

  13. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations ...

  14. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO2 atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm2 of water in steps of 5 g/cm2) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the high Z and energy transport (HZETRN), quantum multiple-scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation(QMSFRG), and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions.(author)

  15. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saganti, P.B.; Cucinotta, F.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Johnson Space Center; Wilson, J.W.; Schimmerling, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    2002-12-01

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO{sub 2} atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm{sup 2} of water in steps of 5 g/cm{sup 2}) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the high Z and energy transport (HZETRN), quantum multiple-scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation(QMSFRG), and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions.(author)

  16. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, Premkumar B.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2002-01-01

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO2 atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm2 of water in steps of 5 g/cm2) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the HZETRN, QMSFRG, and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions.

  17. Calculation of 8-methoxypsoralen dose according to body surface area in PUVA treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuntabhai, A.; Farr, P.M. [Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology; Diffey, B.L. [Dryburn Hospital, Durham (United Kingdom). Regional Medical Physics Department

    1995-12-01

    In 41 patients about to start PUVA, the dose of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) was calculated conventionally according to body weight (0.6 mg/kg), or according to body surface area (25 mg/m{sup 2}) predicted from height and weight measurements. The two different methods of dosing were used on consecutive treatment days and the plasma 8-MOP concentration was measured on each occasion 2 h after ingestion of the crystalline form of 8-MOP, given to the nearest 10 mg. Body weight calculated doses ranged from 30 to 60 mg with a significant difference in the plasma 8-MOP concentration between the dose groups, indicating a systematic variation according to the weight of the patient. When calculated according to body surface area, only two doses were used (40 or 50 mg), and there was no significant difference in plasma 8-MOP concentration between the groups. Calculation of the dose of 8-MOP using body surface area may be performed quickly and simply provided the height and weight of individual patients is known. We provide evidence that this method of dosing will improve the therapeutic effect of PUVA in psoriasis. (Author).

  18. Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, G; Nazarov, S A

    2009-01-01

    The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

  19. Dose banding as an alternative to body surface area-based dosing of chemotherapeutic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Chatelut (Etienne); M.L. White-Koning (M.); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); F. Puisset (F.); S.D. Baker (Sharyn); A. Sparreboom (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Dose banding is a recently suggested dosing method that uses predefined ranges (bands) of body surface area (BSA) to calculate each patients dose by using a single BSA-value per band. Thus, drugs with sufficient long-term stability can be prepared in advance. The main advanta

  20. Should blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass be individualized more than to body surface area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Larsson, A; Andreasen, Jan Jesper;

    Blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is calculated on body surface area (BSA). Increasing comorbidity, age and weight of today's cardiac patients question this calculation as it may not reflect individual metabolic requirement. The hypothesis was that a measured cardiac index (CI) prior...... not improve cerebral and systemic oxygenation compared to a blood flow based on BSA....

  1. Instabilities on crystal surfaces: The two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlon, E.; van Beijeren, H.; Mazzeo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The free energy of crystal surfaces that can be described by the two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model has been calculated in a mean-field approximation. The system may model ionic crystals with a bcc lattice structure (for instance CsCl). Crossings between steps are energetically favored

  2. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  3. Modeling the time-varying interaction between surface water and groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliege, Steffen; Steidl, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar; Merz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The countless kettle holes (small lakes) in the Late Pleistocene landscapes of Northern Europe have important ecological and hydrological functions. On the one hand they act as depressions in which water and solutes of mainly agriculturally used catchments accumulate. On the other hand they operate as biochemical reactors with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, and as major sinks for nutrients and contaminants. Even small kettle holes often are hydraulically connected to the uppermost groundwater system: Groundwater discharges into the kettle hole on one side, and the aquifer is recharged from the kettle hole water body on the other side. Thus kettle hole biogeochemical processes are both affected by groundwater and vice versa. Groundwater flow direction and velocity into and out of the kettle hole often is not stable over time. Groundwater flow direction might reverse at the downstream part, resulting in repeated recycling of groundwater and corresponding solute turnover within the kettle holes. A sound understanding of this intricate interplay is a necessary prerequisite for better understanding of the biogeochemistry of this terrestrial-aquatic interface. A numerical experiment was used to quantify the lateral solute exchange between a kettle hole and the surrounding groundwater. A vertical cross section through the real existing catchment of a kettle hole was chosen. Glacial till represents the lower boundary. The heterogeneity of the subsurface was reproduced by various parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties as well as varying the thickness of the unconfined aquifer or the lateral boundary conditions. In total 24 different parameterizations were implemented in the modeling software HydroGeoSphere (HGS). HGS is suitable to calculate the fluid exchange between surface and subsurface simultaneously and in a physically based way. The simulation runs were done for the period from November 1994 to October 2014. All results were

  4. Use of bionic inspired surfaces for aerodynamic drag reduction on motor vehicle body panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-wen SONG; Guo-geng ZHANG; Yun WANG; Shu-gen HU

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the successful applications of biological non-smoothness,we introduced bionic non-smooth surfaces as appendices into vehicle body design,aiming to further reduce aerodynamic drag.The size range of the non-smooth units with pits and grooves was determined according to our analysis with the mechanisms underlying non-smooth unit mediated aerodynamic drag reduction.The bionic non-smooth units reported here were designed to adapt the structure of a given vehicle body from the point of boundary layer control that reduces the burst and the loss of turbulent kinetic energy.The engine cover lid and vehicle body cap were individually treated with the non-smooth units,and the treated vehicles were subjected to aerodynamic drag coefficient simulation tests using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis method.The simulation results showed that,in comparison with smooth surfaces,properly designed non-smooth surfaces can have greater effects on drag reduction.The mechanism underlying drag reduction mediated by non-smooth surfaces was revealed by further analyses,in which the effects of non-smooth and smooth surfaces were directly compared.

  5. Numerical simulation on drag reduction of revolution body through bionic riblet surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations of flow fields on the bionic riblet and the smooth revolution bodies were performed based on the SST k-ω turbulence model in order to explain the mechanisms of the skin friction drag reduction, base drag reduction on the riblet surface, and flow control behaviors of riblet surface near the wall. The simulation results show that the riblet surface arranged on the rearward of the revolution body can reduce the skin friction drag by 8.27%, the base drag by 9.91% and the total drag by 8.59% at Ma number 0.8. The riblet surface reduces the skin friction drag by reducing the velocity gradient and turbulent intensity, and reduces the base drag by weakening the pumping action on the dead water region which behind the body of revolution caused by the external flow. The flow control behavior on boundary layer shows that the riblet surface can cut the low-speed flow near the wall effectively, and restrain the low-speed flow concentrating in span direction, thus weaken the instability of the low speed steaks produced by turbulent flow bursting.

  6. Indexing of renal function parameters by body surface area: intelligence or folly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Indexation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by body surface area (BSA) is often done without raising any questions. In this article, we will shortly review the limitations of such indexation and illustrate potential errors in clinical practice due to this indexation. Adjusting the GFR by BSA is particularly misleading in patients with abnormal body size (obese and anorectic). We will also insist on the fact that indexation by BSA is not required for the GFR longitudinal follow-up. Additionally, we will discuss the implications and consequences of BSA indexation on the creatinine-based equations, such as the Cockcroft-Gault and the MDRD study equations.

  7. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA) Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Colin; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S; Potvin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recent miniaturizations of gyroscopes offer the possibility of resolving this shortcoming and obtaining better estimates of body accelerations of swimming animals. We derived accelerations using gyroscope data for swimming Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and determined how well the measured accelerations correlated with actual swimming speeds and with theoretical drag. We also compared dive averaged dynamic body acceleration estimates that incorporate gyroscope data, with the widely used Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) metric, which does not use gyroscope data. Four Steller sea lions equipped with biologging tags were trained to swim alongside a boat cruising at steady speeds in the range of 4 to 10 kph. At each speed, and for each dive, we computed a measure called Gyro-Informed Dynamic Acceleration (GIDA) using a method incorporating gyroscope data with accelerometer data. We derived a new metric-Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA), which is the average gain in speed per flipper stroke divided by mean stroke cycle duration. Our results show that the gyro-based measure (APBA) is a better predictor of speed than ODBA. We also found that APBA can estimate average thrust production during a single stroke-glide cycle, and can be used to estimate energy expended during swimming. The gyroscope-derived methods we describe should be generally applicable in swimming animals where propulsive accelerations can be clearly identified in the signal-and they should also

  8. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. PMID:26990562

  9. The role of body surface area in quantity discrimination in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although some fish species have been shown to be able to discriminate between two groups (shoals) of conspecifics differing in the number of members, most studies have not controlled for continuous variables that covary with number. Previously, using angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) we started the systematic analysis of the potential influence of such continuous variables, and found that they play different roles in shoal discrimination depending on whether large (≥ 4 fish) or small (<4 fish) shoals were contrasted. Here, we examine the potential role of the overall body surface area of stimulus fish in shoal preference, a prominent variable not yet examined in angelfish. We report that both when numerically large (5 versus 10 fish) and when small (2 versus 3 fish) shoals were contrasted, angelfish were unable to discriminate the numerically different shoals as long as the surface area of the contrasted shoals was equated. Thus, we conclude that body surface may be an important continuous variable in shoal discrimination. This conclusion was further supported by the analysis of preference when shoals of the same numerical size but different body surface area were contrasted. We found subjects to spend significantly more time close to the shoals with the greater overall surface area. Last, we conducted an experiment in which we simultaneously controlled a set of continuous variables, including overall surface area, and found angelfish to use the number of shoal members as a cue only in large shoal contrasts but not in small shoal contrasts. This result suggests the potential existence of different processing systems for large and small numbers in fish. PMID:24386299

  10. The role of body surface area in quantity discrimination in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M Gómez-Laplaza

    Full Text Available Although some fish species have been shown to be able to discriminate between two groups (shoals of conspecifics differing in the number of members, most studies have not controlled for continuous variables that covary with number. Previously, using angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare we started the systematic analysis of the potential influence of such continuous variables, and found that they play different roles in shoal discrimination depending on whether large (≥ 4 fish or small (<4 fish shoals were contrasted. Here, we examine the potential role of the overall body surface area of stimulus fish in shoal preference, a prominent variable not yet examined in angelfish. We report that both when numerically large (5 versus 10 fish and when small (2 versus 3 fish shoals were contrasted, angelfish were unable to discriminate the numerically different shoals as long as the surface area of the contrasted shoals was equated. Thus, we conclude that body surface may be an important continuous variable in shoal discrimination. This conclusion was further supported by the analysis of preference when shoals of the same numerical size but different body surface area were contrasted. We found subjects to spend significantly more time close to the shoals with the greater overall surface area. Last, we conducted an experiment in which we simultaneously controlled a set of continuous variables, including overall surface area, and found angelfish to use the number of shoal members as a cue only in large shoal contrasts but not in small shoal contrasts. This result suggests the potential existence of different processing systems for large and small numbers in fish.

  11. Infrared thermoimages display of body surface temperature reaction in experimental cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zhang; Yuan-Gen Zhu; Shu-You Wang; Hui-Min Ma; Yan-Yan Ye; Wei-Xing Fu; Wei-Guo Hu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To display the thermoirnages of the body surface inexperimental cholecystitis, to observe the body surfacetemperature reaction in visceral disorders, and to study if the theory of body surface-viscera correlation is true and the mechanism of temperature changes along the meridians. METHODS: By injecting bacteria ssuspension into the stricturebile duct and gallbladder, 21 rabbits were prepared as acutepyogenic cholangiocholecystitis models, with another 8rabbits prepared by the same process except withoutinjection of bacteria suspension as control. The body surfaceinfrared thermoimages were continuously observed on thehair shaven rabbit skin with AGA-782 thermovision 24 hbefore, 1-11 d after and (2,3 wk) 4 wk after the operation witha total of over 10 records of thermoimages.RESULTS: Twelve cases out of 21 rabbits with cholecystitisrevealed bi-lsteral longitudinal high temperature lines in itstrunk; with negative findings in the control group. The high-temperature line appeared on d l-d2, first in the right trunk,after the preparation of the model, about 7 d after the modelpreparation, the lines appeared at the left side too,persisting for 4 wk. The hyper-temperature line revealed 1.1-2.7 ℃ higher than before the model preparation, 0.7-2.5 ℃higher than the surrounding skin. The length of the hightemperature line might reach a half length of the body trunk,or as long as the whole body itself.CONCLUSION: The appearance of the longitudinal hightemperature lines st the lateral aspects of the trunk in theexperimental group is directly bound up with theexperimental animals pyogenic cholecystitis, with itsrunning course quite similar to that of the GallbladderChannel of Foot Shaoyang, but different to the zones ofhyperalgesia and site of referred pain in cholecystitis.

  12. N-body dynamics on closed surfaces: the axioms of mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatto, Stefanella; Dritschel, David G.; Schaefer, Rodrigo G.

    2016-08-01

    A major challenge for our understanding of the mathematical basis of particle dynamics is the formulation of N-body and N-vortex dynamics on Riemann surfaces. In this paper, we show how the two problems are, in fact, closely related when considering the role played by the intrinsic geometry of the surface. This enables a straightforward deduction of the dynamics of point masses, using recently derived results for point vortices on general closed differentiable surfaces M endowed with a metric g. We find, generally, that Kepler's Laws do not hold. What is more, even Newton's First Law (the law of inertia) fails on closed surfaces with variable curvature (e.g. the ellipsoid).

  13. Enhanced flyby science with onboard computer vision: Tracking and surface feature detection at small bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas J.; Thompson, David R.; Bue, Brian D.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Chien, Steve A.; Gharibian, Dero; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2015-10-01

    Spacecraft autonomy is crucial to increase the science return of optical remote sensing observations at distant primitive bodies. To date, most small bodies exploration has involved short timescale flybys that execute prescripted data collection sequences. Light time delay means that the spacecraft must operate completely autonomously without direct control from the ground, but in most cases the physical properties and morphologies of prospective targets are unknown before the flyby. Surface features of interest are highly localized, and successful observations must account for geometry and illumination constraints. Under these circumstances onboard computer vision can improve science yield by responding immediately to collected imagery. It can reacquire bad data or identify features of opportunity for additional targeted measurements. We present a comprehensive framework for onboard computer vision for flyby missions at small bodies. We introduce novel algorithms for target tracking, target segmentation, surface feature detection, and anomaly detection. The performance and generalization power are evaluated in detail using expert annotations on data sets from previous encounters with primitive bodies.

  14. Identification of surface cracks in magnetic bodies using wavelets on a bounded interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Hafiz, S.K., E-mail: sabdelhafiz@gmail.co [Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12211 (Egypt); Adly, A.A., E-mail: adlyamr@gmail.co [Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12211 (Egypt)

    2011-01-15

    Non-destructive identification of cracks in steel bodies has always been an issue of great interest to numerous industrial sectors. Examples in which such non-destructive testing is of considerable importance include railways, pipelines and structural supports. This paper proposes a technique that employs the application of static magnetic field parallel to the surface under consideration while monitoring emanating fields using an orthogonally oriented hall sensor. In this approach, wavelets on a bounded interval are utilized to identify the precise location of surface cracks, which are considerably smaller than the active sensing element dimensions. Simulation results demonstrating the advantages of the proposed approach are given in the paper.

  15. Radiation flaw detector for testing non-uniform surface bodies of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation flaw detector for testing bodies of revolution with non-uniform surface, welded joints, etc., based on spatial filtration and differentiation of ionizing radiation flux has been described. The calculation of the most important unit of flaw detector - integrators - is made. Experimental studies of the sensitivity have shown, that the radiation flaw detector can be used for rapid testing of products with the sensitivity comparable with the sensitivity of radiographic testing of steel

  16. New model for estimating the relationship between surface area and volume in the human body using skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasabova, Boryana E; Holliday, Trenton W

    2015-04-01

    A new model for estimating human body surface area and body volume/mass from standard skeletal metrics is presented. This model is then tested against both 1) "independently estimated" body surface areas and "independently estimated" body volume/mass (both derived from anthropometric data) and 2) the cylindrical model of Ruff. The model is found to be more accurate in estimating both body surface area and body volume/mass than the cylindrical model, but it is more accurate in estimating body surface area than it is for estimating body volume/mass (as reflected by the standard error of the estimate when "independently estimated" surface area or volume/mass is regressed on estimates derived from the present model). Two practical applications of the model are tested. In the first test, the relative contribution of the limbs versus the trunk to the body's volume and surface area is compared between "heat-adapted" and "cold-adapted" populations. As expected, the "cold-adapted" group has significantly more of its body surface area and volume in its trunk than does the "heat-adapted" group. In the second test, we evaluate the effect of variation in bi-iliac breadth, elongated or foreshortened limbs, and differences in crural index on the body's surface area to volume ratio (SA:V). Results indicate that the effects of bi-iliac breadth on SA:V are substantial, while those of limb lengths and (especially) the crural index are minor, which suggests that factors other than surface area relative to volume are driving morphological variation and ecogeographical patterning in limb prorportions.

  17. Physiological variables affecting surface film formation by native lamellar body-like pulmonary surfactant particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobi, Nina; Siber, Gerlinde; Bouzas, Virginia; Ravasio, Andrea; Pérez-Gil, Jesus; Haller, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is a surface active complex of lipids and proteins that prevents the alveolar structures from collapsing and reduces the work of breathing by lowering the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface (ALI). Surfactant is synthesized by the alveolar type II (AT II) cells, and it is stored in specialized organelles, the lamellar bodies (LBs), as tightly packed lipid bilayers. Upon secretion into the alveolar lining fluid, a large fraction of these particles retain most of their packed lamellar structure, giving rise to the term lamellar body like-particles (LBPs). Due to their stability in aqueous media, freshly secreted LBPs can be harvested from AT II cell preparations. However, when LBPs get in contact with an ALI, they quickly and spontaneously adsorb into a highly organized surface film. In the present study we investigated the adsorptive capacity of LBPs at an ALI under relevant physiological parameters that characterize the alveolar environment in homeostatic or in pathological conditions. Adsorption of LBPs at an ALI is highly sensitive to pH, temperature and albumin concentration and to a relatively lesser extent to changes in osmolarity or Ca(2+) concentrations in the physiological range. Furthermore, proteolysis of LBPs significantly decreases their adsorptive capacity confirming the important role of surfactant proteins in the formation of surface active films. PMID:24582711

  18. Africa-Wide Monitoring of Small Surface Water Bodies Using Multisource Satellite Data: A Monitoring System for FEWS NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Continental Africa has the largest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs and rivers, yet it suffers with problems such as water availability and access. Furthermore, African countries are amongst the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards such as droughts and floods. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access is bound to increase. The U.S Geological Survey Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water bodies in Africa. Under this project, multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor these water bodies in Africa. First, small water bodies are mapped using satellite data such as Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat, and high resolution Google Earth imagery. Stream networks and watersheds for each water body are identified using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data. Finally, a hydrologic modeling approach that uses satellite-derived precipitation estimates and evapotranspiration data calculated from global data assimilation system climate parameters is applied to model water levels. This approach has been implemented to monitor nearly 300 small water bodies located in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data in East Africa demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60% of the observed gauge variability with an average RMSE of 22%. Current and historic data (since 2001) on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration for each water body is made available in near real time. The water point monitoring network

  19. Postural adjustments to support surface perturbations during reaching depend upon body-target reference frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderley, Alicia J; Leonard, Julia A; Green, Andrea; Ouckama, Ryan; Stapley, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether target position relative to the body modifies the postural adjustments produced when reaching movements are perturbed by unexpected displacements of the support surface. Eleven healthy participants reached to a target located at their midline, acromion height and at 130% their outstretched arm length. They stood on two force plates mounted on a moveable platform, capable of delivering horizontal forward ramp-and-hold perturbations. Three types of trial were given: reach only (R), perturbations only (P) and reaching movements during which a perturbation was given at a random delay after reach onset (RP). The target could be mounted either on a frame suspended from the ceiling such that it remained world-fixed (exocentric target, RP/X) or at an equivalent position on the moving platform so that it moved with the body (egocentric target, RP/E). Arm and body 3D kinematics and muscle activity from the right tibialis anterior (rTA) and soleus (rSOL) muscles were recorded. Normalised rTA activity was significantly lower in RP than in P trials. Furthermore, long-latency rTA muscle activity was lower in RP/E than in RP/X conditions when perturbations were given during either the arm deceleration phase of reaching. The rSOL muscle activity was lowest for the RP/E (arm deceleration) condition. When balance is perturbed during reaching, the manner in which the target moves relative to the body determines the muscle activity produced in the lower-limb muscles. Furthermore, a target that moves with the body requires a different regulation of muscle activity compared with one that moves independently of the body. PMID:25294498

  20. A study of body-to-surface wave conversion associated with deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z.; Ni, S.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding converted surface waves is helpful because they could improve the accuracy of earthquake location if the exacted scattered point is known as well as serve to image shallow structures with dispersion features. Previous studies have reported a few observations of body-to-surface-wave conversion associated with deep earthquakes. For example, Wagner and Langston used coda intensity analysis and f-k analysis to confirm a P-to-Rg wave and performed forward modeling with T-matrix method demonstrating that a 1km relief was responsible for the observed body-to-surface wave scattering. Moreover, Furumura et al. observed unusual Rayleigh waves converted from S wave observed at Australia with deep earthquakes occurred along Kermadec-Tonga trench and a 2D Pseudospetral method is adopted to illustrate that the Rayleigh waves could be explained by ridge structures. Both T-matrix and pseudospetral algorithms are based on numerical methods. However, we lack a theory to study the mechanism of those surface waves quantitatively. For instance, the relationship between the topography with the dominate frequency of converted surface waves could be resolved thoroughly with a theoretical approach. From this perspective, we carried out a theoretical method to calculate the converted Rayleigh wave with surface topography. During the calculation, a homogeneous half space medium is assumed and the path of the converted phase is divided into two segments. Firstly, we will introduce our theoretical method in detail and a comparison of our results and SEM results will be presented to verify our methods. Secondly, the topography effect and the transfer efficiency of P and S wave will be examined quantitatively with different source mechanisms. Then, we will report an observation of unusual large amplitude surface waves transferred from body waves at local stations. Our preliminary result shows that those anomalous waves are identified as Rayleigh wave and are probably generated by

  1. A 40-year-old gossypiboma (foreign body granuloma) mimicking a malignant femoral surface tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakayama, Kenshi; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Kidani, Teruki; Miyawaki, Joji; Yamamoto, Haruyasu [Ehime University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ehime (Japan); Sugawara, Yoshifumi [Ehime University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ehime (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    The patient was a 61-year-old man who developed gossypiboma of the left thigh and femur resulting in the imaging appearances of a malignant surface tumor. He had a past history of surgery on the left femur for open fracture 40 years previously. Radiographs and CT showed a soft tissue mass with osteolysis and periosteal thickening of the left femur. On MRI, the mass showed heterogeneous signal intensity with contrast enhancement at the periphery, suggesting a malignancy. {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP bone scintigraphy showed a faint ring-like uptake, but thallium -201 scintigraphy did not show any uptake in the tumor. An extensive intralesional excision was performed. Postoperative histopathological examination showed a fibrous foreign body with reactive changes. There were neither viable cells nor atypical giant cells around the foreign body. No malignant change was evident. Based on surgical and histopathological examinations, the tumor was finally diagnosed as gossypiboma related to a retained surgical sponge. (orig.)

  2. Averaging kernel prediction from atmospheric and surface state parameters based on multiple regression for nadir-viewing satellite measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Worden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A current obstacle to the observation system simulation experiments (OSSEs used to quantify the potential performance of future atmospheric composition remote sensing systems is a computationally efficient method to define the scene-dependent vertical sensitivity of measurements as expressed by the retrieval averaging kernels (AKs. We present a method for the efficient prediction of AKs for multispectral retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 based on actual retrievals from MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere on the Earth Observing System (EOS-Terra satellite and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument on EOS-Aura, respectively. This employs a multiple regression approach for deriving scene-dependent AKs using predictors based on state parameters such as the thermal contrast between the surface and lower atmospheric layers, trace gas volume mixing ratios (VMRs, solar zenith angle, water vapor amount, etc. We first compute the singular value decomposition (SVD for individual cloud-free AKs and retain the first three ranked singular vectors in order to fit the most significant orthogonal components of the AK in the subsequent multiple regression on a training set of retrieval cases. The resulting fit coefficients are applied to the predictors from a different test set of test retrievals cased to reconstruct predicted AKs, which can then be evaluated against the true retrieval AKs from the test set. By comparing the VMR profile adjustment resulting from the use of the predicted vs. true AKs, we quantify the CO and O3 VMR profile errors associated with the use of the predicted AKs compared to the true AKs that might be obtained from a computationally expensive full retrieval calculation as part of an OSSE. Similarly, we estimate the errors in CO and O3 VMRs from using a single regional average AK to represent all retrievals, which has been a common approximation in chemical OSSEs

  3. Unsteady Free-surface Waves Due to a Submerged Body in Two-dimensional Oseen Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUDong-qiang; AllenT.CHWANG

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional unsteady free-surface waves due to a submerged body moving in an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth is considered.The disturbed flow is governed by the unsteadyOseen equations with the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions linearized for the free-surface waves.Accordingly, the body is mathematically simulated by an Oseenlet with a periodically oscillating strength.By means of Fourier transforms,the exact solution for the free-surface waves is expressed by an integral with a complex dispersion function, which explicitly shows that the wave dynamics is characterized by a Reynolds number and a Strouhal number.By applying Lighthill's theorem, asymptotic representations are derived for the far-field waves with a sub-critical and a super-critical Strouhal number. It is found that the generated waves due to the oscillating Oseenlet consist of the steady-state and transient responses. For the viscous flow with a sub-critical Strouhal number, there exist four waves: three propagate downstream while one propagates upstream.However, for the viscous flow with a super-critical Strouhal number, there exist two waves only,which propagate downstream.

  4. The Mechanism of Drag Reduction around Bodies of Revolution Using Bionic Non-Smooth Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-mei Tian; Lu-quan Ren; Qing-ping Liu; Zhi-wu Han; Xiao Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Bionic non-smooth surfaces (BNSS) can reduce drag. Much attention has been paid to the mechanism of shear stress reduction by riblets. The mechanism of pressure force reduction by bionic non-smooth surfaces on bodies of revolution has not been, well investigated. In this work CFD simulation has revealed the mechanism of drag reduction by BNSS, which may work in three ways. First, BNSS on bodies of revolution may lower the surface velocity of the medium, which prevents the sudden speed up of air on the cross section. So the bottom pressure of the model would not be disturbed sharply, resulting in less energy loss and drag reduction. Second, the magnitude of vorticity induced by the bionic model becomes smaller because, due to the sculpturing, the growth of tiny air bubbles is avoided. Thus the large moment of inertia induced by large air bubble is reduced. The reduction of the vorticity could reduce the dissipation of the eddy. So the pressure force could also be reduced. Third, the thickness of the momentum layer on the model becomes less which, according to the relationship between the drag coefficient and the momentum thickness, reduces drag.

  5. The localization of focal heart activity via body surface potential measurements: tests in a heterogeneous torso phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterling, F; Liehr, M; Haueisen, J [Biomagnetic Center, Department of Neurology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena (Germany); Schimpf, P [Department of Computer Science, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, WA (United States); Liu, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: wetterlf@tcd.ie

    2009-09-21

    The non-invasive localization of focal heart activity via body surface potential measurements (BSPM) could greatly benefit the understanding and treatment of arrhythmic heart diseases. However, the in vivo validation of source localization algorithms is rather difficult with currently available measurement techniques. In this study, we used a physical torso phantom composed of different conductive compartments and seven dipoles, which were placed in the anatomical position of the human heart in order to assess the performance of the Recursively Applied and Projected Multiple Signal Classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm. Electric potentials were measured on the torso surface for single dipoles with and without further uncorrelated or correlated dipole activity. The localization error averaged 11 {+-} 5 mm over 22 dipoles, which shows the ability of RAP-MUSIC to distinguish an uncorrelated dipole from surrounding sources activity. For the first time, real computational modelling errors could be included within the validation procedure due to the physically modelled heterogeneities. In conclusion, the introduced heterogeneous torso phantom can be used to validate state-of-the-art algorithms under nearly realistic measurement conditions.

  6. The localization of focal heart activity via body surface potential measurements: tests in a heterogeneous torso phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, F.; Liehr, M.; Schimpf, P.; Liu, H.; Haueisen, J.

    2009-09-01

    The non-invasive localization of focal heart activity via body surface potential measurements (BSPM) could greatly benefit the understanding and treatment of arrhythmic heart diseases. However, the in vivo validation of source localization algorithms is rather difficult with currently available measurement techniques. In this study, we used a physical torso phantom composed of different conductive compartments and seven dipoles, which were placed in the anatomical position of the human heart in order to assess the performance of the Recursively Applied and Projected Multiple Signal Classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm. Electric potentials were measured on the torso surface for single dipoles with and without further uncorrelated or correlated dipole activity. The localization error averaged 11 ± 5 mm over 22 dipoles, which shows the ability of RAP-MUSIC to distinguish an uncorrelated dipole from surrounding sources activity. For the first time, real computational modelling errors could be included within the validation procedure due to the physically modelled heterogeneities. In conclusion, the introduced heterogeneous torso phantom can be used to validate state-of-the-art algorithms under nearly realistic measurement conditions.

  7. Microskin autografting in the treatment of burns over 70% of total body surface area: 14 years of clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Liang, Xun; Sun, Li; Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Wang, Yong-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Despite the fact that early excision and grafting have significantly improved burn outcomes, the management of severely burned patients whose burn size exceeds 70% total body surface area (TBSA) still represents a big challenge for burn surgeons all over the world. During the period of 1997-2010 at our centre, aggressive excision and microskin autografting were performed in 63 severely burned patients. Their burn sizes ranged from 70% to 98% TBSA with a mean of 84.9%. The average full-thickness burn was 66.3% (range, 29-94%). Thirty patients had concomitant inhalation injury. Two to 7 days after burn, these patients underwent aggressive excisions ranging from 25% to 60% TBSA and transplantation of microskin autograft overlaid with allograft. The ratios of donor-site to recipient-site surface area were between 1:6 and 1:18. Signs of epithelialization were shown within 35-55 days. The wound healing rate was 74.9% (176/235), with 51.1% of cases (120/235) healing completely and 23.8% (56/235) improving. Microskin autografting yielded an overall survival rate of 63.5%; only 23 patients died. Our clinical experience in using the microskin autografting for burn coverage suggests that the technique is very effective in covering extensive burns, and that it is particularly useful when graft donor sites are very limited due to its high utilization rate of donor site. The factors affecting the outcome of microskin autografting are discussed herein.

  8. Experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the phase averaged performance characteristics of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.

  9. Surface characterization of stainless steel AISI 316 L in contact with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are often used in orthopedic surgery. In the more developed countries, stainless steel is used only for temporary implants since it does not hold up as well as other alloys to corrosion in a physiological medium. Nevertheless, stainless steel alloys are frequently used for permanent implants in developing countries. Therefore, more knowledge about its reaction to corrosion is needed as well as the characteristics of the surface layer generated in a physiological medium in order to control potential toxicity from the release of metallic ions into the organism. The surface films usually have a different composition and chemical state from the base material. The surface characterization of alloys used in orthopedic surgery should not be underestimated, since it heavily influences the behavior of the implant through the relationship of the surface film-tissue and the possible migration of metallic ions from the base metal to the surrounding tissue. This work presents a study of the surface composition and resistance to the corrosion of stainless steel AISI 316L in simulated body fluid (SBF) aired at pH 7.25 and 37oC. The resistance to the corrosion was studied with an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves (CW)

  10. Parameterizing radiative transfer to convert MAX-DOAS dSCDs into near-surface box averaged mixing ratios and vertical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinreich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel parameterization method to convert Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS differential Slant Column Densities (dSCDs into near-surface box averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, does not require a-priori assumptions about the trace gas vertical distribution and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude. It parameterizes radiative transfer model calculations and significantly reduces the computational effort. The biggest benefit of this method is that the retrieval of an aerosol profile, which usually is necessary for deriving a trace gas concentration from MAX-DOAS dSCDs, is not needed.

    The method is applied to NO2 MAX-DOAS dSCDs recorded during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006 measurement campaign. The retrieved volume mixing ratios of two elevation angles (1° and 3° are compared to volume mixing ratios measured by two long-path (LP-DOAS instruments located at the same site. Measurements are found to agree well during times when vertical mixing is expected to be strong. However, inhomogeneities in the air mass above Mexico City can be detected by exploiting the different horizontal and vertical dimensions probed by MAX-DOAS measurements at different elevation angles, and by LP-DOAS. In particular, a vertical gradient in NO2 close to the ground can be observed in the afternoon, and is attributed to reduced mixing coupled with near surface emission. The existence of a vertical gradient in the lower 250 m during parts of the day shows the general challenge of sampling the boundary layer in a representative way and emphasizes the need of vertically resolved measurements.

  11. Surface water bodies according to the water framework directive 2000/60/EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Water Frameworks Directive 2000/60/CE establishes quality objectives for water bodies and the monitoring and classification elements, leaving great space for the concrete application of specific criteria and methodologies to EC member States. The Directive gives strong importance to biological parameters, hydro morphological parameters and to chemical parameters, in particular priority and priority hazardous substances. The paper present the monitoring criteria for surface waters with specific reference to biological parameters and defines the shift to the new system, showing results of the monitoring activity already performed in Veneto region

  12. Whole body surface electron irradiation in the treatment of mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, T.C.M.; Salzman, F.A.; Moschella, S.L.; Tolman, E.L.; Wright, K.A.

    1979-02-01

    The records of 200 patients with generalized cutaneous mycosis fungoides treated with whole body surface electron irradiation were reviewed. Type of skin lesion appeared to be the most important factor with respect to both survival and generalized skin disease-free interval. High-dose irradiation did not seem to influence prognosis significantly compared with a relatively conservative dose. The cure rate for the entire group was 7%. For a more homogeneous dose distribution, the eight-field technique is now used instead of the original four-field method. A new formula is proposed to standardize the reporting of doses.

  13. Formation of oligopeptides on the surface of small bodies in solar system by cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, M. B.; Kuzicheva, E. A.; Dodonova, N. Ya.; Antropov, A. E.

    1997-05-01

    The present experiment indicates that oligopeptides are easily produced in solid state from mixtures of simple amino acids by irradiating with high energy charged particles. We investigated such amino acids and their mixtures as tryptophan, tyrosine and glycine. The thin films was irradiated with protons (6.6 MeV). Such dipeptides as Trp-Trp, Gly-Tyr, Tyr-Gly, and Tyr-Tyr have been detected as products of irradiation. Cosmic rays might be an effective energy source for abiotic formation of bioorganic compounds on the surface of small bodies in the solar system on early stage of formation of planets as well as at present day.

  14. Mortality according to age and burned body surface in the Virgen del Rocio University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cía, T; Mallén, J; Márquez, T; Portela, C; Lopez, I

    1999-06-01

    The application of updated clinical protocols for the treatment of burned patients is showing very good results. The mortality curves according to age and the percentage of burned body surface could be of great use for the comparison of clinical results between different burns units. The probability of survival in 1000 consecutive patients admitted to the Burns Unit of the Virgen del Rocio University Hospital between July, 1993 and August, 1997, is compared, by graphic analysis, with the mortality curves of other centers, obtaining similar results. We conclude that the results of medical attendance in our unit are in line with those considered as a reference.

  15. Prospects of using Bayesian model averaging for the calibration of one-month forecasts of surface air temperature over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chansoo; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the prospect of calibrating probabilistic forecasts of surface air temperature (SAT) over South Korea by using Bayesian model averaging (BMA). We used 63 months of simulation results from four regional climate models (RCMs) with two boundary conditions (NCEP-DOE and ERA-interim) over the CORDEX East Asia. Rank histograms and residual quantile-quantile (R-Q-Q) plots showed that the simulation skills of the RCMs differ according to season and geographic location, but the RCMs show a systematic cold bias irrespective of season and geographic location. As a result, the BMA weights are clearly dependent on geographic location, season, and correlations among the models. The one-month equal weighted ensemble (EWE) outputs for the 59 stations over South Korea were calibrated using the BMA method for 48 monthly time periods based on BMA weights obtained from the previous 15 months of training data. The predictive density function was calibrated using BMA and the individual forecasts were weighted according to their performance. The raw ensemble forecasts were assessed using the flatness of the rank histogram and the R-Q-Q plot. The results showed that BMA improves the calibration of the EWE and the other weighted ensemble forecasts irrespective of season, simulation skill of the RCM, and geographic location. In addition, deterministic-style BMA forecasts usually perform better than the deterministic forecast of the single best member.

  16. Many-body and quantum effects in the surface tension and surface energy of liquid neon and argon using the Fowler’s approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fowler’s expression for calculation of the surface tension and energy has been used. ► Quantum corrections considered using the FH and WK approaches for liquid neon. ► Two simple three-body potentials used for a two-body potential of argon. ► Improvement in the results obtained by including the quantum and three-body effects. - Abstract: The Fowler’s expression for calculation of the reduced surface tension and surface energy has been used with Lennard–Jones (LJ) and two-body Hartree–Fock dispersion (HFD)-like potentials for neon and argon, respectively. The required radial distribution functions (RDFs) have been used from two recently determined expressions in the literature and a new equation proposed in this work. Quantum corrections for neon system have been considered using the Feynman–Hibbs (FH) and Wigner–Kirkwood (WK) approaches. To take many-body forces into account for argon system, the simple three-body potentials of Wang and Sadus (2006) and Hauschild and Prausnitz (1993) used with the HFD-like potential without requiring an expensive three-body calculation. The results show that the quantum and three-body effects improve the prediction of the surface tension of liquid neon and argon using the Fowler’s expression.

  17. Atmospheres and surfaces of small bodies and dwarf planets in the Kuiper Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller E.L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs are icy relics orbiting the sun beyond Neptune left over from the planetary accretion disk. These bodies act as unique tracers of the chemical, thermal, and dynamical history of our solar system. Over 1000 Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs and centaurs (objects with perihelia between the giant planets have been discovered over the past two decades. While the vast majority of these objects are small ( 6-meter telescopes, have allowed for the first detailed studies of their surfaces and atmospheres. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy of KBOs and centaurs has revealed a great diversity of surface compositions. Only the largest and coldest objects are capable of retaining volatile ices and atmospheres. Knowledge of the dynamics, physical properties, and collisional history of objects in the Kuiper belt is important for understanding solar system formation and evolution.

  18. Applicability of meteorological statistics over a 5-year period to evaluation of annual average of radionuclide concentration in surface air. Based on meteorological statistics for 20 years at Oarai Research and Development Center, JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of annual average of radionuclide concentration in surface air obtained from atmospheric dispersion factor is intended to determine a public dose as a primary source for the safety analysis of nuclear facilities in normal operation. Oarai Research and Development Center (ORDC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency have used fixed 5-year meteorological statistics for derivation of atmospheric dispersion factors as average conditions. To show that the meteorological statistics for any 5-year period could be used as representative data for evaluation of average conditions, annual average (1-year average) and 5-year average of evaluated radionuclide concentrations derived from the meteorological data observed over a 20-year period (1991-2010) at ORDC were analyzed. Fluctuations of evaluated radionuclide concentrations of any 5-year averages were smaller than those of 1-year averages. Further, any 5-year averages were sufficiently convergent to 20-year average. Because any 5-year averages contained no rejections by the F-test (5% significance level), they were not statistically different to the rest of 20 years data set, instead that some of 1-year averages could be rejected. It means that any 5-year averages of radionuclide concentration evaluations are well representative for the safety analysis of normal operation of the nuclear facilities in ORDC. (author)

  19. Joint body and surface wave tomography applied to the Toba caldera complex (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan; Shapiro, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    We developed a new algorithm for a joint body and surface wave tomography. The algorithm is a modification of the existing LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009) developed for local earthquake tomography. The input data for the new method are travel times of P and S waves and dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. The main idea is that the two data types have complementary sensitivities. The body-wave data have good resolution at depth, where we have enough crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution. The surface wave dispersion curves can be retrieved from the correlations of the ambient seismic noise and in this case the sampled path distribution does not depend on the earthquake sources. The contributions of the two data types to the inversion are controlled by the weighting of the respective equations. One of the clearest cases where such approach may be useful are volcanic systems in subduction zones with their complex magmatic feeding systems that have deep roots in the mantle and intermediate magma chambers in the crust. In these areas, the joint inversion of different types of data helps us to build a comprehensive understanding of the entire system. We apply our algorithm to data collected in the region surrounding the Toba caldera complex (north Sumatra, Indonesia) during two temporary seismic experiments (IRIS, PASSCAL, 1995, GFZ, LAKE TOBA, 2008). We invert 6644 P and 5240 S wave arrivals and ~500 group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. We present a series of synthetic tests and real data inversions which show that joint inversion approach gives more reliable results than the separate inversion of two data types. Koulakov, I., LOTOS code for local earthquake tomographic inversion. Benchmarks for testing tomographic algorithms, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 99(1), 194-214, 2009, doi:10.1785/0120080013

  20. Pressure variation by a magnetohydrodynamic method at the surface of a body placed in a supersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapushkina, T. A.; Erofeev, A. V.; Ponyaev, S. A.

    2014-07-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the possibility of pressure variation near the surface of a body placed in a supersonic flow as a model of an aerofoil or the nose of an aircraft by organizing a surface gas discharge in a magnetic field transverse to the flow. The flow parameters and pressure are mainly affected by the ponderomotive Lorentz force acting on the gas in the direction orthogonal to the direction of the organized discharge current and leading to the removal or compression of the gas at the surface of the body and, hence, a variation of pressure. Experimental data on the visualization of the flow and on the pressure at the surface of the body are considered for various configurations of the current and intensities of the gas discharge and magnetic field; it is demonstrated that such configurations of the current and magnetic field near the surface of the body under investigation can be organized in such a way that the pressure at the front part as well as the upper and lower surfaces of the body under investigation can be increased or decreased, thus changing the aerodynamic drag and the aerofoil lift. Such a magnetohydrodynamic control over aerodynamic parameters of the aircraft can be used during takeoff and landing as well as during steady-state flight and also during the entrance into dense atmospheric layers. This will considerably reduce the thermal load on the surface of the body in the flow.

  1. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  2. Traces of illegal drugs on body surfaces: indicator for consumption or dealing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberl, Franz; Bonenberger, Johannes; Berg, Ralf-Peter; Zimmermann, Rudolph; Sachs, Hans W.

    1997-01-01

    Customs investigation and drug enforcement services are interest in a rapid and reliable identification of smugglers and dealers. In contrast workplace testing and traffic controls are aiming at the detection of intoxicated persons via the determination of illegal narcotics in body fluids like urine or blood. DRUGWIPE is a pen size, test strip based immunochemical detector for narcotic contaminations on surfaces. It is extremely simple to apply and takes about two minutes to read test results without depending upon any further technical means. This paper describes the applicability of DRUGWIPE to identify drug smugglers or dealers as well as consumers. With respect to the situation and the initial suspicion the test indicates handling as well as consumption. In cooperation with the Institute for Legal Medicine in Munich suspicious drivers were examined with DRUGWIPE for the abuse of illegal narcotics. Test results from this test series are presented and compared with the results from the blood or urine analysis. The question whether the detected traces of illegal narcotics on the body surface of suspicious drivers are combing transpiration or external contamination are discussed.

  3. Magnetic fields produced by rotating symmetrical bodies with homogeneous surface charge density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Morales, R.; Murguía-Romero, G.; Calles, A.; Cabrera-Bravo, E.; Morán-López, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    We present a numerical calculation for the stationary magnetic field produced by different rotating bodies with homogeneous and constant surface charge density. The calculation is done by superposing the magnetic field produced by a set of loops of current which mimic the magnetic field produced by belts of current defined by slices of fixed width. We consider the cases of a sphere, ellipsoids, open and closed cylinders and a combination of these in a dumbbell-like shell. We also plot their magnetic field lines using a technique that make use of the Runge–Kutta fourth-order method. Up to our knowledge, the case of closed cylinders was not calculated before. In contrast to previous results, we find that the magnetic field inside finite hollow bodies is homogeneous only in the case of a sphere. This is consequence of the fact that, for the sphere, the surface of any slice taken perpendicularly to the rotation axis, depends only on its thickness, like in the case of an infinite cylinder.

  4. Many-body dispersion effects in the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Reinhard J; Ruiz, Victor G; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-09-14

    A correct description of electronic exchange and correlation effects for molecules in contact with extended (metal) surfaces is a challenging task for first-principles modeling. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of collective van der Waals dispersion effects beyond the pairwise approximation for organic-inorganic systems on the example of atoms, molecules, and nanostructures adsorbed on metals. We use the recently developed many-body dispersion (MBD) approach in the context of density-functional theory [Tkatchenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 236402 (2012) and Ambrosetti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A508 (2014)] and assess its ability to correctly describe the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces. We briefly review the MBD method and highlight its similarities to quantum-chemical approaches to electron correlation in a quasiparticle picture. In particular, we study the binding properties of xenon, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid, and a graphene sheet adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface. Accounting for MBD effects, we are able to describe changes in the anisotropic polarizability tensor, improve the description of adsorbate vibrations, and correctly capture the adsorbate-surface interaction screening. Comparison to other methods and experiment reveals that inclusion of MBD effects improves adsorption energies and geometries, by reducing the overbinding typically found in pairwise additive dispersion-correction approaches. PMID:26374001

  5. Many-body dispersion effects in the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Reinhard J. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Ruiz, Victor G.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    A correct description of electronic exchange and correlation effects for molecules in contact with extended (metal) surfaces is a challenging task for first-principles modeling. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of collective van der Waals dispersion effects beyond the pairwise approximation for organic–inorganic systems on the example of atoms, molecules, and nanostructures adsorbed on metals. We use the recently developed many-body dispersion (MBD) approach in the context of density-functional theory [Tkatchenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 236402 (2012) and Ambrosetti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A508 (2014)] and assess its ability to correctly describe the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces. We briefly review the MBD method and highlight its similarities to quantum-chemical approaches to electron correlation in a quasiparticle picture. In particular, we study the binding properties of xenon, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid, and a graphene sheet adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface. Accounting for MBD effects, we are able to describe changes in the anisotropic polarizability tensor, improve the description of adsorbate vibrations, and correctly capture the adsorbate–surface interaction screening. Comparison to other methods and experiment reveals that inclusion of MBD effects improves adsorption energies and geometries, by reducing the overbinding typically found in pairwise additive dispersion-correction approaches.

  6. Determination of hand and palm area as a ratio of body surface area in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pawan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate estimation of body surface area (BSA burn is important. In small and patchy burns, the patient′s hand is used to estimate percentage of burn which is traditionally considered as 1%. There is discrepancy about what percentage of TBSA is constituted by the palm and hand. Therefore, this study was designed to determine correctly the TBSA represented by the palmar surface of the entire hand and palm in the Indian population. Material and Methods: 300 healthy adult (male and female and 300 healthy children (male and female were included in the study. TBSA was calculated using DuBois formula and hand and palm surface area was calculated using hand tracing on plain paper. The hand/palm percentage of BSA (ratio was determined by dividing hand/palm surface area by total BSA. Results: The mean hand and palm ratio for adults was 0.92% and 0.50%, respectively. The mean hand and palm ratio in children was 1.06% and 0.632%, respectively. Conclusion: The hand area (palm plus digits is more closely represented to 1% of TBSA in Indian population.

  7. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  8. Joint Geophysical Imaging of the Utah Area Using Seismic Body Waves, Surface Waves and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Maceira, M.; Toksoz, M. N.; Burlacu, R.; Yang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We present a joint geophysical imaging method that makes use of seismic body wave arrival times, surface wave dispersion measurements, and gravity data to determine three-dimensional (3D) Vp and Vs models. An empirical relationship mapping densities to Vp and Vs for earth materials is used to link them together. The joint inversion method takes advantage of strengths of individual data sets and is able to better constrain the velocity models from shallower to greater depths. Combining three different data sets to jointly invert for the velocity structure is equivalent to a multiple-objective optimization problem. Because it is unlikely that the different “objectives” (data types) would be optimized by the same parameter choices, some trade-off between the objectives is needed. The optimum weighting scheme for different data types is based on relative uncertainties of individual observations and their sensitivities to model parameters. We will apply this joint inversion method to determine 3D Vp and Vs models of the Utah area. The seismic body wave arrival times are assembled from waveform data recorded by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional network for the past 7 years. The surface wave dispersion measurements are obtained from the ambient noise tomography study by the University of Colorado group using EarthScope/USArray stations. The gravity data for the Utah area is extracted from the North American Gravity Database managed by the University of Texas at El Paso. The preliminary study using the seismic body wave arrival times indicates strong low velocity anomalies in middle crust beneath some known geothermal sites in Utah. The joint inversion is expected to produce a reasonably well-constrained velocity structure of the Utah area, which is helpful for characterizing and exploring existing and potential geothermal reservoirs.

  9. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon

    2016-04-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  10. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétan Chevalier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  11. Narrowband interference mitigation in body surface to external communication in UWB body area networks using first-order Hermite pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Deepak Kumar; Das, Susmita

    2016-06-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) is the most preferred candidate for body area networks (BAN). The higher data rate and lower multipath fading makes it highly suitable for the design of BAN. However, narrowband interference (NBI) may significantly degrade the performance of UWB. The paper presents an effective method of NBI mitigation for UWB BAN. The method uses modified Hermite pulse (MHP) in lieu of Gaussian and other pulse shapes. The spectral characteristics of the MHP make them immune to interference. The performance has been tested in various body postures in the CM4 channel model of the BAN, and further validated by transmitting medical signals like electrocardiography and MRI. The results show that MHP pulse is highly immune to NBI.

  12. A method of surface marker location optimization for tumor motion estimation in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bo, E-mail: luboufl@gmail.com; Park, Justin C.; Fan, Qiyong; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Chen, Yunmei [Department of Mathematics, University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Accurately localizing lung tumor localization is essential for high-precision radiation therapy techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Since direct monitoring of tumor motion is not always achievable due to the limitation of imaging modalities for treatment guidance, placement of fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to act as a surrogate for tumor position prediction is a practical alternative for tracking lung tumor motion during SBRT treatments. In this work, the authors propose an innovative and robust model to solve the multimarker position optimization problem. The model is able to overcome the major drawbacks of the sparse optimization approach (SOA) model. Methods: The principle-component-analysis (PCA) method was employed as the framework to build the authors’ statistical prediction model. The method can be divided into two stages. The first stage is to build the surrogate tumor matrix and calculate its eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors. The second stage is to determine the “best represented” columns of the eigenvector matrix obtained from stage one and subsequently acquire the optimal marker positions as well as numbers. Using 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and breath hold CT imaging data, the PCA method was compared to the SOA method with respect to calculation time, average prediction accuracy, prediction stability, noise resistance, marker position consistency, and marker distribution. Results: The PCA and SOA methods which were both tested were on all 11 patients for a total of 130 cases including 4DCT and breath-hold CT scenarios. The maximum calculation time for the PCA method was less than 1 s with 64 752 surface points, whereas the average calculation time for the SOA method was over 12 min with 400 surface points. Overall, the tumor center position prediction errors were comparable between the two methods, and all were less than 1.5 mm. However, for the extreme scenarios (breath hold), the

  13. A method of surface marker location optimization for tumor motion estimation in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accurately localizing lung tumor localization is essential for high-precision radiation therapy techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Since direct monitoring of tumor motion is not always achievable due to the limitation of imaging modalities for treatment guidance, placement of fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to act as a surrogate for tumor position prediction is a practical alternative for tracking lung tumor motion during SBRT treatments. In this work, the authors propose an innovative and robust model to solve the multimarker position optimization problem. The model is able to overcome the major drawbacks of the sparse optimization approach (SOA) model. Methods: The principle-component-analysis (PCA) method was employed as the framework to build the authors’ statistical prediction model. The method can be divided into two stages. The first stage is to build the surrogate tumor matrix and calculate its eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors. The second stage is to determine the “best represented” columns of the eigenvector matrix obtained from stage one and subsequently acquire the optimal marker positions as well as numbers. Using 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and breath hold CT imaging data, the PCA method was compared to the SOA method with respect to calculation time, average prediction accuracy, prediction stability, noise resistance, marker position consistency, and marker distribution. Results: The PCA and SOA methods which were both tested were on all 11 patients for a total of 130 cases including 4DCT and breath-hold CT scenarios. The maximum calculation time for the PCA method was less than 1 s with 64 752 surface points, whereas the average calculation time for the SOA method was over 12 min with 400 surface points. Overall, the tumor center position prediction errors were comparable between the two methods, and all were less than 1.5 mm. However, for the extreme scenarios (breath hold), the

  14. The Color of Small Bodies: Mineralogy, Surface Properties, History and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, L. A.

    2002-12-01

    The technique of spectral reflectance was first applied to the brightest asteroids in 1970. Spectral reflectance of 4 Vesta demonstrated the technique's usefulness for identifying mineralogy of asteroid surfaces. A survey of asteroids was made using 25 interference filters spanning 0.33-1.0 μm. Spectral characteristics were grouped. Concurrently, laboratory measurements of minerals, rocks and meteorites were acquired and mineralogical interpretation of asteroid surfaces was made. Telescope apertures increased, IR detectors and thin film filters became available and spectrometers extending into the near-infrared were developed. With increasing knowledge of absorption and spectral features came more detailed knowledge of the surface composition of asteroids. New technology of the 1980's brought us the 52-color asteroid survey. The availability of CCD's enabled studies of smaller, fainter asteroids in the visible and resulted in good characterization of narrower and shallower absorption bands that are often the only bands found on dark asteroid surfaces. The 8-color asteroid filters were selected to measure fainter asteroids. This approach was based on color differences and permitted asteroid surveys to sample a larger population. With time, specific regions of the asteroid belt have been studied. Hildas, Trojans, asteroids near resonances, e.g. the 3:1 Kirkwood gap, and asteroid families. Most recently colors and reflectance spectra of TNO's and Centaurs are available. Similarities and differences between asteroids and other small bodies in the solar system permit us to derive information about the surface processes and compositional variation providing clues to the formation and processes in the early Solar System. As we understand the limits of this technique, we go to different spectral regions where different physical processes are active. Combining remote sensing techniques can provide constraints on compositional interpretations that are ambiguous when based

  15. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  16. Touch-free measurement of body temperature using close-up thermography of the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Benjamin; Wagner, Heike; Gmoser, Johanna; Wörner, Anja; Löschberger, Anna; Peters, Laura; Frey, Anna; Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In experimental animal research body temperature (BT) is measured for the objective determination of an animals' physiological condition. Invasive, probe-based measurements are stressful and can influence experimental outcome. Alternatively BT can be determined touch-free from the emitted heat of the organism at a single spot using infrared thermometers [1]. To get visual confirmation and find more appropriate surfaces for measurement a hand-held thermal imager was equipped with a self-made, cheap, 3D-printable close-up lens system that reproducibly creates eight-time magnified thermal images and improves sensitivity. This setup was used to establish ocular surface temperature (OST), representing the temperature of the brain-heart axis, as a touch-free alternative for measurement of BT in mice, rats, rabbits and humans.OST measurement after isoflurane exposure and myocardial infarction (MI) experiments in mice revealed high physiological relevance and sensitivity, the possibility to discriminate between MI and sham operations in one hour and even long-term outcome-predictive capabilities of OST after MI. Summarized here we present: •Self-made close-up lens for thermal imaging cameras for eight-time magnification•Establishment of OST for touch-free determination of BT in rodents and humans•Short- and long-term predictive capabilities of OST in experimental MI in mice. PMID:27284532

  17. Effects of pericardial effusates of various conductivities on body-surface potentials in dogs. Documentation of the eccentric spheres model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D A; Hamlin, R L; Weed, H R

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the cause and magnitude of changes in the body-surface potentials occurring when: (1) fluids of various conductivity were added to the pericardial sac, or (2) the volume of the blood within chambers of the heart was either increased or decreased. Fluids added to the pericardium were physiological saline, whole-blood, and mineral oil. Magnitudes of body-surface potentials were compared to the predictions based on a mathematical eccentric spheres model of the heart and torso developed previously by Rudy and Plonsey. Data demonstrated conclusively that there is a nonlinear relationship between the body-surface potentials and the conductivity of the pericardial layer. This relationship is one in which the body-surface potentials of the anterior chest were found to decrease when conductivity of the pericardial layer was either increased or decreased. These changes in body-surface potentials were caused solely by alterations in the conductivity and volume of the fluid effusate. It was demonstrated that these changes were not caused by any "stretching" or "compression" of the cardiac tissue caused by the altered fluid volumes in and around the heart. Findings were accurately predicted by the eccentric spheres model, thereby confirming the model's usefulness as a predictive instrument. The model provides an explanation for the nonlinear relationship that was exhibited by the data. PMID:6499134

  18. Method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil spill on the surface of a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a method of recovering a hydrophobic hydrocarbon oil from the surface of a body of water, the body of water having a water temperature, the oil having a specific gravity which is less than the specific gravity of the water in the body of water and a viscosity which is greater than approximately 80 centipoise at the water temperature. It comprises continuously withdrawing a feed oil-water mixture from the surface of the body of water; continuously adjusting the viscosity of the oil in the feed oil-water mixture to a level below approximately 80 centipoise to form an adjusted oil-water mixture; and continuously passing the adjusted oil-water mixture through an oil-water coalescer to separate the oil in the adjusted oil-water mixture from the water in the adjusted oil-water mixture

  19. Association Between Body Surface Area and Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Shetabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events, but some studies suggest higher body mass index (BMI is associated with better outcomes after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. We sought to determine the effect of body surface area (BSA on adverse events after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for STEMI and how this relates to the reported obesity paradox theory. Methods: We analyzed a prospective registry of patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI at a tertiary care hospital from 2003 to 2009. Post-PCI complications and 1-year all-cause mortality were compared across BSA quartiles. Relationship with 1-year mortality was compared between BSA and BMI using logistic regression. Results: Of 2,195 study patients (31.5% women, mean BSA and BMI were 2.0 ± 0.3 m2 and 29.2 ± 6.2 kg/m2, respectively. The 1-year all-cause mortality from the lowest to highest quartiles of BSA was 11.0%, 6.5%, 5.5% and 5.1%, Ptrend<0.0001. Over a mean 5-year follow-up, there was a 76% relative risk reduction in death for each 1 m2 increase in BSA. Higher BSA was associated with lower incidence of cardiogenic shock, acute renal failure, coronary dissection and vascular and bleeding complications post-PCI. In multivariate analysis, BSA remained strongly predictive of 1-year mortality (odds ratio 0.4 per m2 of BSA, 95% confidence interval 0.15–0.9, but BMI showed no independent association with mortality (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.95–1.04. Conclusions: In STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, high BSA is associated with lower mortality and complication rates. BMI is not independently associated with 1-year mortality after adjusting for BSA and sex.

  20. Surface analytical studies of maxillofacial implants: influence of the preoperational treatment and the human body on the surface properties of retrieved implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gábor; Sebők, Béla; Szabó, Péter J; Joób, Arpád F; Szabó, György

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, surface analytical investigation of unimplanted as well as retrieved pyrolytic carbon-covered carbon/carbon composite implants and Ti osteosynthesis plates is reported. The Ti plates were covered by a 200-nm-thick, anodically and thermally formed TiO2 layer. Our results suggest that although the oxide layer on the Ti miniplates remained stable during the time spent in the human body, there is still material transport between the implant and the human body. In case of the carbon/carbon composite implants, damage of the carbon fibers constituting the material was found on one side of the sterile implant and attributed to the manufacturing process. The NaCl crystals originally present on the surface of the sterile material disappeared during the time spent in the human body. As a result of the interaction with the human body, a new surface layer (mainly constituted of carbon) appeared on the implant. The results indicate that both the time spent in the human organism and the preparation of the implants before operation can have detectable effects on the investigated surface properties. Surface analytical investigations could therefore provide information not only about the biocompatibility of these materials but also about the effect of their treatment before operation.

  1. Retting of jute grown in arsenic contaminated area and consequent arsenic pollution in surface water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Aparajita; Bairagya, M D; Basu, B; Gupta, P C; Sarkar, S

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity of ground water in Bengal delta is a major environmental catastrophe. Cultivation of jute, a non edible crop after summer rice usually reduces arsenic load of the soil. However, during retting of jute As is present in the crop and thus increase its amount in surface water bodies. To test this hypothesis, a study was carried out in ten farmers' field located in As affected areas of West Bengal, India. As content of soil and variou the jute plant were recorded on 35 and 70 days after sowing (DAS) as well as on harvest date (110 DAS). During the study period, due to the influence of rainfall, As content of surface (0-150 mm) soil fluctuates in a narrow range. As content of jute root was in the range of 1.13 to 9.36 mg kg(-1). As content of both root and leaf attained highest concentration on 35 DAS and continuously decreased with the increase in crop age. However, in case of shoot, the As content initially decreased by 16 to 50% during 35 to 70 DAS and on 110 DAS the value slightly increased over 70 DAS. Retting of jute in pond water increased the water As content by 0.2 to 2.0 mg L(-1). The increment was 1.1 to 4 times higher over the WHO safe limit (0.05 mg L(-1)) for India and Bangladesh. Microbiological assessment in this study reveals the total bacterial population of pre and post retting pond water. Bacterial strains capable in transforming more toxic As-III to less toxic AS-V were screened and six of them were selected based on their As tolerance capacity. Importantly, identified bacterial strain Bacterium C-TJ19 (HQ834294) has As transforming ability as well as pectinolytic activity, which improves fibre quality of jute. PMID:23178784

  2. Surface Tension Supported Floating of Heavy Objects: Why Elongated Bodies Float Better?

    CERN Document Server

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Floating of bodies heavier than the supporting liquid is discussed. Floating of cylindrical, ellipsoidal bodies and rectangular plates possessing lateral dimensions smaller than the capillary length is treated. It is demonstrated that more elongated bodies of a fixed volume are better supported by capillary forces, due to the increase in the perimeter of the triple line. Thus, floating of metallic needles obtains reasonable explanation.

  3. Ensemble averaging stress-strain fields in polycrystalline aggregates with a constrained surface microstructure-Part 1: Computational tools and application to anisotropic elastic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    FOREST, Samuel; Zeghadi, Asmahana; Nguyen, Franck; Gourgues, Anne-Francoise; Bouaziz, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The effect of three-dimensional grain morphology on the deformation at a free surface in polycrystalline aggregates is investigated by means of a large scale finite element and statistical approach. For a given 2D surface at z=0 containing 39 grains with given lattice orientations, 17 random 3D polycrystalline aggregates are constructed having different 3D grain shapes and orientations except at z=0, based on an original 3D image analysis procedure. They are subjected to o...

  4. Prophylactic aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome : 10 years' experience with a protocol based on body surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, Jan J. J.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; Boonstra, Piet W.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Waterbolk, T

    2008-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines recommending prophylactic aortic root replacement in Marfan syndrome are based on absolute diameters of the aortic root. However, aortic root diameter is a function of body surface area (BSA). Here, we report our experience with a protocol for prophylactic aortic root

  5. Proteolysis on the body surface of pyrethroid-sensitive and resistant Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachecka, Aneta; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Paleolog, Jerzy; Lipiński, Zbigniew

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the activity of proteases and protease inhibitors sampled from the body surface of tau-fluvalinate-sensitive and resistant V. destructor. Proteins were isolated from the tau-fluvalinate-sensitive and resistant mites, while mites untreated with tau-fluvalinate constituted the control. Subsequently, the following methodology was applied: protein concentration assay by the Lowry method - as modified by Schacterle and Pollack; assay of proteolytic activity in relation to various substrates (gelatine, haemoglobin, ovoalbumin, albumin, cytochrome C, casein) by the modified Anson method; identification of proteolytic activity in relation to diagnostic inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes (pepstatin A, PMSF, iodoacetamide, o-phenantrolin), using the Lee and Lin method; identification of acidic, neutral and basic protease activities by means of the modified Anson method; electrophoretic analysis of proteins in a polyacrylamide gel for protease detection with the Laemmli method and for protease inhibitor detection with the Felicioli method. The highest value of protein concentration was found in the tau-fluvalinate-sensitive V. destructor, while the highest activity levels of acidic, neutral and alkaline proteases were observed in the tau-fluvalinate-resistant mites. Aspartic, serine, thiolic and metallic proteases were found in the drug-resistant and drug-sensitive Varroa mites. The control samples were found to contain aspartic and serine proteases. In an acidic and alkaline environment, the results revealed a complete loss of inhibitor activities in the in vitro analyses and electrophoresis. Serine protease inhibitor activities (at pH 7.0) were high, especially in the group of tau-fluvalinate-resistant mites.

  6. Too hot to sleep? Sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T Downs

    Full Text Available The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed. Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%, compared with summer (15.6%. In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.

  7. Neutron resonance averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs

  8. Non-Invasive Estimation of Left Atrial Dominant Frequency in Atrial Fibrillation from Different Electrode Sites: Insight from Body Surface Potential Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Bojarnejad; James R Blake; John Bourke; Ewan Shepherd; Alan Murray; Philip Langley

    2014-01-01

    The dominant driving sources of atrial fibrillation are often found in the left atrium, but the expression of left atrial activation on the body surface is poorly understood. Using body surface potential mapping and simultaneous invasive measurements of left atrial activation our aim was to describe the expression of the left atrial dominant fibrillation frequency across the body surface. 20 patients in atrial fibrillation were studied. The spatial distributions of the dominant atrial fib...

  9. Bone-like apatite formation on HA/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; CHEN Jian; ZOU Jian-peng; WAN Qian; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; RUAN Jian-ming

    2009-01-01

    HA/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process of dissolution-precipitation for the formation of apatite on the surface. With prolonging immersion time, Ca and P ion concentrations increase gradually, and then approach equilibrium. The bone-like apatite layer forms on the composites surface, which possesses benign bioactivity and favorable biocompatibility and achieves osseointegration, and can provide firm fixation between HA60/316L SS composite implants and human body bone.

  10. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of anisotropic pressure-free models. Adopting the Buchert scheme, we recast the averaged scalar equations in Bianchi-type form and close the standard system by introducing a propagation formula for the average shear magnitude. We then investigate the evolution of anisotropic average vacuum models and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. The presence of nonzero average shear in our equations also allows us to examine the constraints that a phase of backreaction-driven accelerated expansion might put on the anisotropy of the averaged domain. We close by assessing the status of these and other attempts to define and calculate 'average' spacetime behaviour in general relativity

  11. Secondary radiation yield from a surface of heavy targets, irradiated by protons of average energies (E sub p approx 1 GeV)

    CERN Document Server

    Krupnyj, G I; Yanovich, A A

    2001-01-01

    Experimental data on the nuclear reaction rates of threshold rhodium, indium, phosphorus, sulfur, aluminium, carbon, niobium and bismuth activated detectors are presented. The detectors were set up on the cylindrical surface of full absorption targets: tungsten, uranium and chloride with the molar ratios of the 70 % NaCl and 30 % PbCl sub 2 salts. The targets were irradiated by protons with the energies from 0.8 to 1.21 GeV. Growth of the reaction rate with increasing reaction of primary protons and raising atomic number of the targets, presence of the target profile, where the maximum reaction rate is observed, are noted

  12. Analysis on monthly-averaged distribution of sea surface wind and wave over the seas southeast of Asia using ERS-2 scatterometer data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The wind system over the seas southeast of Asia (SSEA) plays an important role in China's climate variation. In this paper, ERS scatterometer winds covering the period from January 2000 to December 2000 and the area of 2-41°N, 105-130°E were analyzed with a distance-weighting interpolation method and the monthly mean distribution of the sea surface wind speed were given. The seasonal characteristics of winds in the SSEA were analyzed. Based on WAVEWATCH Ⅲ model, distribution of significant wave height was calculated.

  13. XML-BSPM: an XML format for storing Body Surface Potential Map recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent Chris D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM is an electrocardiographic method, for recording and displaying the electrical activity of the heart, from a spatial perspective. The BSPM has been deemed more accurate for assessing certain cardiac pathologies when compared to the 12-lead ECG. Nevertheless, the 12-lead ECG remains the most popular ECG acquisition method for non-invasively assessing the electrical activity of the heart. Although data from the 12-lead ECG can be stored and shared using open formats such as SCP-ECG, no open formats currently exist for storing and sharing the BSPM. As a result, an innovative format for storing BSPM datasets has been developed within this study. Methods The XML vocabulary was chosen for implementation, as opposed to binary for the purpose of human readability. There are currently no standards to dictate the number of electrodes and electrode positions for recording a BSPM. In fact, there are at least 11 different BSPM electrode configurations in use today. Therefore, in order to support these BSPM variants, the XML-BSPM format was made versatile. Hence, the format supports the storage of custom torso diagrams using SVG graphics. This diagram can then be used in a 2D coordinate system for retaining electrode positions. Results This XML-BSPM format has been successfully used to store the Kornreich-117 BSPM dataset and the Lux-192 BSPM dataset. The resulting file sizes were in the region of 277 kilobytes for each BSPM recording and can be deemed suitable for example, for use with any telemonitoring application. Moreover, there is potential for file sizes to be further reduced using basic compression algorithms, i.e. the deflate algorithm. Finally, these BSPM files have been parsed and visualised within a convenient time period using a web based BSPM viewer. Conclusions This format, if widely adopted could promote BSPM interoperability, knowledge sharing and data mining. This work could also be

  14. A Web-based tool for processing and visualizing body surface potential maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Raymond R; Finlay, Dewar D; Nugent, Chris D; Moore, George

    2010-01-01

    The body surface potential map (BSPM) is potentially more accurate for diagnosing cardiac pathologies when compared to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). However, a contributing factor to the lack of widespread adoption of the BSPM is the shortage of standard methods for its storage and visualization. Based on these observations, a BSPM storage format based on the eXtensible Markup Language has been developed within this study, alongside a Web-based BSPM viewer. This viewer was created using a lossless vector graphics tool (Adobe Flash) to maintain the quality of the ECG waveforms when they are enlarged. The viewer also runs inside the Web browser to facilitate BSPM visualization independent of the clinician's geographical location. This online nature enabled the creation of a comments system that can be used to assist in a collaborative diagnosis. This is useful because BSPM diagnostic criteria are not well established. Moreover, using the viewer's innovative tools (ie, calipers, isopotential maps), the clinician can explore BSPM datasets. Algorithms have also been integrated within the system to extract and display the 12-lead ECG and the vectorcardiogram from the BSPM. This viewer has been available online for 10 months alongside a Weblog, which has been used to record the user's feedback. During this period, 12 experts from both the clinical and visualization domains evaluated the viewer and contributed to its design. It has been the general consensus of all experts that the application is an effective solution for visualizing BSPMs. This viewer has been tested to visualize 2 different BSPMs using a PC (3 GHz CPU, 3 GB RAM, 6 MB broadband). The Lux-192 BSPM and the Kornreich-117 BSPM where both uploaded and visualized within 3.8 seconds (mean time from 10 trials). This BSPM storage format and its associated viewer provide a framework for a BSPM management system. If this system is made widely available, it has the potential to provide BSPM

  15. On the Search for the Amino Acids on the Lunar Surface as it Relates to Other Extraterrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2009-01-01

    The early search for the amino acids on the lunar surface fines indicated such a low amount of the amino acids that it was deemed insignifi cant. While the later studies seemed to depart in some ways from the earlier results, they were not pursued. In this paper we critically ev aluate the results from the Apollo missions from the new perspective with considerations of the sensitivity of the instrumentation availabl e at the time. We discuss the possible relevance of the lunar results to the findings of the amino acids on the surfaces of other extraterrestrial bodies, such as Mars.

  16. Vortical and nonlinear effects in the roll motion of a 2-D body in the free surface investigated by SPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, O.; Ozbulut, M.; Yildiz, M.; Goren, O.

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the vortical and nonlinear effects in the roll motion of a 2-D body with square cross-sections by using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). A 2-D rigid body with square cross-section is taken into account for the benchmark study and subjected to the oscillatory roll motion with a given angular frequency. The governing equations are continuity equation and Euler's equation with artificial viscosity term. Weakly Compressible SPH (WCSPH) scheme is employed for the discretization of the governing equations. Velocities of the fluid particles are updated by means of XSPH+Artificial Particle Displacement (VXSPH+APD) algorithm. In this method only the free surface fluid particles are subjected to VXSPH algorithm while the APD algorithm is employed for the fully populated flow regions. The hybrid usage of numerical treatment keeps free surface particles together by creating an artificial surface tension on the free surface. VXSPH+APD is a proven numerical treatment to provide the most accurate results for this type of free surface flows (Ozbulut et al. 2014). The results of the present study are compared with those of the experimental studies as well as with those of the numerical methods obtained from the current literature.

  17. Thermomechanical analysis of an elastoplastic rough body in sliding contact with flat surface and the effect of adjacent contact asperity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmeng Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of the instantaneous frictional temperature, stress, and equivalent plastic strain generated when two surfaces are in frictional sliding process plays a significant role in understanding friction and wear mechanism. A thermomechanical coupling model between a rough body and a flat body is established. The model integrates the heat flux coupling between the sliding surfaces and considers the effects of the interaction among contact asperities and elastoplastic deformation of the rough body. The thermomechanical problem under this three-dimensional model is solved by the nonlinear finite element methods in ABAQUS software. The results show that the temperature, contact pressure, and stress are coupled. The results of the real contact area and the instantaneous frictional temperature, contact pressure, and VonMises equivalent stress on the local contact region fluctuate obviously due to the interaction among the adjacent contact asperities. The influence of asperity interaction is not constant but intermittent. Its time interval is related to the added interaction of a new adjacent contact asperity. The fluctuation of the VonMises equivalent stress makes the equivalent plastic strain of the frictional surface layer accumulate continually which might cause fatigue wear and plastic deformation wear of the material when the frictional rotating process was repeated.

  18. On the "force-free surface " of the magnetized celestial bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Epp, V

    2015-01-01

    The field of a uniformly magnetized rotating sphere is studied with special attention to the surface where the electric and magnetic fields are orthogonal to each other. The equation of this surface, valid at arbitrary distances from the rotating magnetized sphere, is obtained. Inside the light cylinder this surface can be considered as a force-free surface, i.e. as a place where the particles with strong radiation damping can be trapped due to their energy loss. Outside the light cylinder this surface makes just a geometric locus which moves with a superlight velocity around the axis of rotation. The 2- and 3-dimensional plots of the force-free surface are constructed. Estimation of influence of the centrifugal force on the particle dynamics is made. It is shown, that in case of strong magnetic field the centrifugal force is negligible small everywhere except a narrow neighbourhood of the light cylinder.

  19. Grey-body surface radiation coupled with conduction and convection for general geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michael; Jamnia, Mohammad-Ali

    1991-11-01

    This paper presents a numerical technique for the simulation of the effects of grey-diffuse surface radiation on the temperature field of fluid flows using FIDAP, a general purpose incompressible, viscous fluid code. The radiating surface relationships assume a non-participating medium, constant surface temperature and heat fluxes at the discretized elemental level. The technique involves the decoupling of energy and radiation exchange equations. A concept of macrosurfaces, each containing a number of radiating boundary surfaces, is introduced. These boundary macroelements then carry the information from the radiating boundary into the fluid regime. A number of simulations illustrating the algorithm are presented.

  20. Petrology of the Baszkowka L5 chondrite: A record of surface-forming processes on the parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylibski, T. A.; Pilski, A. S.; Zagożdżon, P. P.; Kryza, R.

    2003-06-01

    We review the petrology of Baszkowka, present new microprobe data on mineral constituents, and propose a model for surface properties of the parent body consistent with these data. The low shock index and high porosity of the Baszkowka L5 chondrite mean that considerable primary textural and petrographic detail is preserved, allowing insight into the structure and evolution of the parent body. This meteorite formed in a sedimentary environment resembling that in which pyroclastic rocks are deposited. The origin of the component chondrules, achondritic fragments (mostly olivine and pyroxene aggregates), chondritic-achondritic aggregates, and compound chondrules can be explained by invoking collision of 2 melted or partially melted planetesimals, each covered with a thin crust. This could have happened at an early stage in the evolution of the solar system, between 1 and 2 Myr after its origin. The collision resulted in the formation of a cloud containing products of earlier magmatic crystallization (chondrite and achondrite fragments) from which new chondrules were created. Particle collision in this cloud produced fragmented chondrules, chondritic-achondritic aggregates, and compound chondrules. Within this low-density medium, these particles were accreted on the surface of the larger of the planetesimals involved in the collision. The density of the medium was low enough to prevent grain-size sorting of the components but high enough to prevent the total loss of heat and to enable the welding of fragments on the surface of the body. The rock material was homogenized within the cloud and, in particular, within the zone close to the planetesimal surface. The hot material settled on the surface and became welded as molten or plastic metal, and sulfide components cemented the grains together. The process resembled the formation of welded ignimbrites. Once these processes on the planetesimal surface were completed, no subsequent recrystallization occurred. The high

  1. Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Kantanista, Adam; Zieliński, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of thermoregulatory adaptation to exercise cannot yet be fully explained, however, infrared thermography (IRT) seems to have potential for monitoring physiological changes during exercise and training. It is a non-contact and easy to use technology to measure heat radiation from the body surface. The objective of the study was to examine the temperature changes over time on lower limbs in sprinters during speed endurance training session. Eight sprinters, specialized in distances 100 m and 200 m, aged 21-29 years, members of the Polish national team, were evaluated during an outdoor speed endurance work-out. Their track session comprised of warm-up, specific drills for sprinting technique, and speed endurance exercise. The surface temperature of lower limbs was measured and thermal images were taken using infrared camera after each part of the session. The speed endurance training session brought about specific time course of body surface (legs) temperature. The warm-up induced a significant decline in surface temperature by ∼2.5 °C, measured both on the front and back of lower limbs (p < 0.001), followed by a temperature stabilization until the end of the session. No significant asymmetry between the front and back sides of legs was observed. Body surface temperature may help identify an individual optimal time to terminate warm up and start the main part of the training session. It may also be useful for the assessment of muscle activity symmetry in cyclical activities, such as sprint running. This is of particular relevance when a training session is performed outdoors in changeable weather conditions.

  2. Average-energy games

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyer, Patricia; Markey, Nicolas; Randour, Mickael; Larsen, Kim G.; Laursen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this ...

  3. The Use of CASES-97 Observations to Assess and Parameterize the Impact of Land-Surface Heterogeneity on Area-Average Surface Heat Fluxes for Large-Scale Coupled Atmosphere-Hydrology Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Yates, David; LeMone, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    To understand the effects of land-surface heterogeneity and the interactions between the land-surface and the planetary boundary layer at different scales, we develop a multiscale data set. This data set, based on the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES97) observations, includes atmospheric, surface, and sub-surface observations obtained from a dense observation network covering a large region on the order of 100 km. We use this data set to drive three land-surface models (LSMs) to generate multi-scale (with three resolutions of 1, 5, and 10 kilometers) gridded surface heat flux maps for the CASES area. Upon validating these flux maps with measurements from surface station and aircraft, we utilize them to investigate several approaches for estimating the area-integrated surface heat flux for the CASES97 domain of 71x74 square kilometers, which is crucial for land surface model development/validation and area water and energy budget studies. This research is aimed at understanding the relative contribution of random turbulence versus organized mesoscale circulations to the area-integrated surface flux at the scale of 100 kilometers, and identifying the most important effective parameters for characterizing the subgrid-scale variability for large-scale atmosphere-hydrology models.

  4. ENA imaging near Planetary Bodies: Interaction between Plasma, Exosphere and Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Futaana, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging has been noticed as a powerful tool for remote sensing the plasma-neutral interaction in space. Particularly, the technique is used for investigation of space plasma near planetary bodies. Hear we provide a short review of recent low-energy ENA observations (up to ~1 keV) near Mars, Venus and the Moon.

  5. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence: A new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...

  6. An iterative Rankine BEM for wave-making analysis of submerged and surface- piercing bodies in finite water depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guanghua

    2013-01-01

    A 3-D iterative Rankine Boundary Element Method (BEM) for seakeeping problem in time domain is developed in the framework of linear potential theory. Waves generated by both submerged and surface-piercing bodies moving at a constant forward speed in otherwise calm water, and the resultant steady wave pattern, wave profile and resistance are computed to validate this newly-developed code. A rectangular computational domain moving with the same forward speed as the body is introduced, in which an artificial damping beach is installed at an outer portion of the free surface except the downstream side for satisfying the radiation condition. The velocity potential on the ship hull and the normal velocity on the free surface are obtained directly by solving the boundary integral equation, with the Rankine source used as the kernel function. An iterative time-marching scheme is employed for updating both kinematic and dynamic free surface boundary conditions to stabilize the calculation. Extensive results including the wave patterns, wave profiles and wave resistances for a submerged spheroid and a Wigley hull with forward speed are presented to validate the efficiency of the proposed 3-D time-domain higher-order approach. Finally, the sensitivity of ship-generated waves to the water depth is investigated. Computed results show satisfactory agreement with the corresponding experimental data and other numerical solutions.

  7. Averaged extreme regression quantile

    OpenAIRE

    Jureckova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Various events in the nature, economics and in other areas force us to combine the study of extremes with regression and other methods. A useful tool for reducing the role of nuisance regression, while we are interested in the shape or tails of the basic distribution, is provided by the averaged regression quantile and namely by the average extreme regression quantile. Both are weighted means of regression quantile components, with weights depending on the regressors. Our primary interest is ...

  8. On the Averaging Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Fibich, Gadi; Gavious, Arieh; Solan, Eilon

    2012-01-01

    Typically, models with a heterogeneous property are considerably harder to analyze than the corresponding homogeneous models, in which the heterogeneous property is replaced with its average value. In this study we show that any outcome of a heterogeneous model that satisfies the two properties of differentiability and interchangibility is O(\\epsilon^2) equivalent to the outcome of the corresponding homogeneous model, where \\epsilon is the level of heterogeneity. We then use this averaging pr...

  9. Average Angular Velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Essen, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to th...

  10. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  11. THE MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER BODIES (RIVERS FROM TISA CATCHMENT AREA - MARAMUREŞ COUNTY IN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in the Tisa catchment area. The results have shown the actual ecological and chemical state of those water bodies, in relation with the standard values mentioned through the Water Framework Directive.

  12. Two-Body Abrasive Wear of the Surfaces of Pangolin Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Tong; Tie-biao Lü; Yun-hai Ma; Heng-kun Wang; Lu-quan Ren; R. D. Arnell

    2007-01-01

    The Pangolin, a soil-burrowing animal, is covered with scales. These scales are often abraded by soil and rock and their surface is corrugated. The abrasive wear of the surface of the scales was examined. The scales were taken from a pangolin that had died of natural causes. The tests were run on a rotary disc abrasive wear tester. The abrasive material was quartz sand (96.5 wt.%) and bentonite (3.5 wt.%). The morphology of the abraded surfaces and the abrasion were examined by stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The concepts are proposed of "Guiding-Effect" and "Rolling-Effect" on the textured surfaces under free abrasive wear conditions and the critical dimensions of the "Rolling-Effect" are discussed.

  13. Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zalizar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs with 3 replications of 45 DOC each. Infections were carried out every week respectively from week 2th until week 5th. Results showed that the infection of A. galli caused degeneration and necroses in villi ephitelial cells and crypts of small intestine and infiltration of leucocytes. In the heavy infection group some epithelial cells were replaced by fibrocytes. A. galli infection decreased daily body weight gain of starter lower (5.5% in light and 13.4% in heavy dosage infection compared to that of the non infected group. After six weeks of heavy infection the size of small intestine villi surface was decreasing to 20.0%, while the daily body weight gain was decreasing to 12.3% compared to that of the non infection group.

  14. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Syed Ashiqur; Adjeroh, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI) is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitati...

  15. On Minkowski decomposition of Okounkov bodies on a Del Pezzo surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Łuszcz-Świdecka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that on a blow up of $P^2$ in $3$ general points there exists a finite set of nef divisors $P_1,ldots,P_s$ such that the Okounkov body $Delta(D$ of an arbitrary effective $R$--divisor $D$ on $X$ is the Minkowski sum Delta(D=sum_{i=1}^s a_iDelta(P_i (1 with non-negative coefficients $a_i in R_{geq 0}$.

  16. Distribution of resistive body-force in curved free-surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, N. S.; Dressler, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    The customary procedure for including resistive effects in turbulent hydraulic and stratified atmospheric flows is to integrate the empirically-known boundary shears over the entire wetted boundary of a thin fluid slab. A resistive body-force is then assumed to exist everywhere in each slab to replace the boundary shearing force. For the classical Saint-Venant (1871) model, this body-force can be shown to have a constant distribution in the vertical direction, and therefore can be evaluated for use in the momentum differential equation. In the newer Dressler theory (1978), however, for unsteady flow over curved beds, it is proved here that a constant body-force distribution is not possible. Its variable distribution is determined as well as its magnitude for use in the curved-flow equations. This variable distribution acts to produce an equal resultant in every thin layer of fluid parallel to the bed in an angular wedge over the curved channel bed. The new curved-flow equations are therefore extended to include resistive effects.

  17. Fabric-Based Wearable Dry Electrodes for Body Surface Biopotential Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokus, Murat A; Jur, Jesse S

    2016-02-01

    A flexible and conformable dry electrode design on nonwoven fabrics is examined as a sensing platform for biopotential measurements. Due to limitations of commercial wet electrodes (e.g., shelf life, skin irritation), dry electrodes are investigated as the potential candidates for long-term monitoring of ECG signals. Multilayered dry electrodes are fabricated by screen printing of Ag/AgCl conductive inks on flexible nonwoven fabrics. This study focuses on the investigation of skin-electrode interface, form factor design, electrode body placement of printed dry electrodes for a wearable sensing platform. ECG signals obtained with dry and wet electrodes are comparatively studied as a function of body posture and movement. Experimental results show that skin-electrode impedance is influenced by printed electrode area, skin-electrode interface material, and applied pressure. The printed electrode yields comparable ECG signals to wet electrodes, and the QRS peak amplitude of ECG signal is dependent on printed electrode area and electrode on body spacing. Overall, fabric-based printed dry electrodes present an inexpensive health monitoring platform solution for mobile wearable electronics applications by fulfilling user comfort and wearability.

  18. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  19. Improving SNMR data sensitivity to infiltrating water in the presence of large bodies of surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, S.; Keating, K.; Grunewald, E. D.; Walsh, D. O.

    2014-12-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) is a geophysical method used to image water content with depth. Recently SNMR has been used to monitor infiltration events in the vadose zone; however, this application can be complicated by the presence of large signals associated with the ponded surface water. In this study, we develop algorithms to reduce this surface water signal for improved sensitivity to the infiltrated groundwater. Using synthetic models, we examine the accuracy of these algorithms. We then assess our approach using a field dataset collected from a five-week SNMR survey conducted during an infiltration event at the South Aura Valley Storage and Recovery Project (SAVSARP) site in Tucson, AZ. Three different algorithms were developed to remove the surface water from the SNMR data: (1) late time mono-exponential subtraction, in which signal from late in the measurement is used to model surface water signal; (2) model subtraction, in which the Earth's magnetic field subsurface conductive structure, and water layer thickness are used to model the surface water signal; and (3) late time inversion correction, in which model parameters in the relaxation time distributions corresponding to slower relaxation times are zeroed. We used two readily available SNMR inversion codes to verify the three approaches: the GMR Inversion software and the MRS Matlab toolkit. Synthetic models were recovered using both inversion codes by applying the late time mono-exponential subtraction and the model subtraction algorithms, while the late time inversion correction algorithm produced poorly resolved relaxation time distribution models. The corrected dataset from the start of the SAVSARP survey contained features in the relaxation time distribution and water content versus depth models that were consistent with observed features present in other datasets from the survey. We conclude that either the late time mono-exponential subtraction or the model subtraction algorithm are

  20. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Barrow, John D.; Tsagas, Christos G.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of pressure-free Bianchi-type models. Adopting the Buchert averaging scheme, we identify the kinematic backreaction effects by focussing on spacetimes with zero or isotropic spatial curvature. This allows us to close the system of the standard scalar formulae with a propagation equation for the shear magnitude. We find no change in the already known conditions for accelerated expansion. The backreaction terms are expressed as algebraic relations between the mean-square fluctuations of the models' irreducible kinematical variables. Based on these we investigate the early evolution of averaged vacuum Bianchi type $I$ universes and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. We also discuss the possibility of accelerated expansion due to ...

  1. Average Angular Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Essén, H

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.

  2. On sparsity averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in Carrillo et al. (2012) and Carrillo et al. (2013) introduced a novel regularization method for compressive imaging in the context of compressed sensing with coherent redundant dictionaries. The approach relies on the observation that natural images exhibit strong average sparsity over multiple coherent frames. The associated reconstruction algorithm, based on an analysis prior and a reweighted $\\ell_1$ scheme, is dubbed Sparsity Averaging Reweighted Analysis (SARA). We review these advances and extend associated simulations establishing the superiority of SARA to regularization methods based on sparsity in a single frame, for a generic spread spectrum acquisition and for a Fourier acquisition of particular interest in radio astronomy.

  3. Many-body effects on Cr(001) surfaces: An LDA+DMFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, M.; Barthel, S.; Karolak, M.; Poteryaev, A. I.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Sangiovanni, G.; Wehling, T. O.

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure of the Cr(001) surface with its sharp resonance at the Fermi level is a subject of controversial debate of many experimental and theoretical works. To date, it is unclear whether the origin of this resonance is an orbital Kondo or an electron-phonon coupling effect. We have combined ab initio density functional calculations with dynamical mean-field simulations to calculate the orbitally resolved spectral function of the Cr(001) surface. The calculated orbital character and shape of the spectrum is in agreement with data from (inverse) photoemission experiments. We find that dynamic electron correlations crucially influence the surface electronic structure and lead to a low energy resonance in the dz2 and dx z /y z orbitals. Our results help to reconvene controversial experimental results from (I)PES and STM measurements.

  4. THE MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER BODIES (RIVERS) FROM TISA CATCHMENT AREA - MARAMUREŞ COUNTY IN 2014

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU; S. NACU; BĂTINAŞ R

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in th...

  5. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...... charge population. The potential dating applications for (a) include dust accumulation, volcanic rocks and impact-related sediments, and for (b) fault scarps, rock-falls, landslides and ice-scoured bedrock. Using assumptions based on terrestrial observations we expect that this approach...

  6. Electrocortical Sources Related to Whole-Body Surface Translations during a Single- and Dual-Task Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogost, Mark D.; Burgos, Pablo I.; Little, C. Elaine; Woollacott, Marjorie H.; Dalton, Brian H.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate reactive motor responses are essential in maintaining upright balance. However, little is known regarding the potential location of cortical sources that are related to the onset of a perturbation during single- and dual-task paradigms. The purpose of this study was to estimate the location of cortical sources in response to a whole-body surface translation and whether diverted attention decreases the N1 event-related potential (ERP) amplitude related to a postural perturbation. This study utilized high-resolution electroencephalography in conjunction with measure projection analysis from ERPs time-locked to backwards surface translation onsets to determine which cortical sources were related to whole-body postural perturbations. Subjects (n = 15) either reacted to whole-body surface translations with (dual task) or without (single task) performing a visual working memory task. For the single task, four domains were identified that were mainly localized within the frontal and parietal lobes and included sources from the prefrontal, premotor, primary and supplementary motor, somatosensory and anterior cingulate cortex. Five domains were estimated for the dual task and also included sources within the frontal and parietal lobes, but the sources also shifted to other locations that included areas within the temporal and occipital lobes. Additionally, mean absolute N1 ERP amplitudes representing the activity from similar locations in both tasks were greater for the single than dual task. The present localization results highlight the importance of frontal, parietal and anterior cingulate cortical areas in reactive postural control and suggest a re-allocation or shift of cortical sources related to reactive balance control in the presence of a secondary task. Thus, this study provides novel insight into the underlying neurophysiology and contribution of cortical sources in relation to the neural control of reactive balance.

  7. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  8. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Surface reactivity in simulated body fluids solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioactive glasses are used in medical field as bone regenerative materials. They promote the growth of bone tissue surface, and establish interconnections in order to form a continuum with the tissue. The bioactivity of this class of materials, immersed in a real or simulated biological medium, is monitored by the ability to form at its surface a layer of Ca-phosphate, which ought to crystallize in the form of either hydroxy-apatite (H A) or hydroxy-carbonate-apatite (H C A). The present contribution deals with the activity/reactivity of some oxidic materials (to be possibly used as bio-active glasses) that: 1) have been produced through the conventional melt-quench-grin method; 2) belong to the family of Hench's Bio glass (H-glass); 3) have been modified, in respect of H-glass composition by the introduction of variable amounts of Ca-fluoride. In assessing the bioactivity of two families of F-modified glasses, it is herewith shown that the use of some physico-chemical methods, typical of surface chemistry (e.g., surface area determination, IR and Raman vibrational spectroscopic analysis), gives indeed access to what happens at the interface between a complex oxidic material and the surrounding biological medium.

  9. Hydrodynamic forces during the initial stage of body lifting from water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Martínez, Patricia; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Korobkin, A.; Khabakhpasheva, Tatyana

    2015-11-01

    We consider the flow induced by a rigid flat plate, initially touching a horizontal water surface, when it starts to move upwards with constant acceleration. Negative hydrodynamic pressures on the wetted surface of the plate are allowed, thus the water follows the plate due to the resulting suction force. The acceleration of the plate and the plate length are such that gravity, surface tension and viscous effects can be neglected. Under these assumptions, the potential flow caused by the plate lifting is obtained by using the small-time expansion of the velocity potential. This small-time solution fails close to the plate edges, as it predicts there singular velocities and unbounded displacements of the free surface. It is shown that close to the plate edges the flow is non-linear and self-similar in the leading order. This nonlinear flow is computed by the boundary element method combined with a time-marching scheme. We also present the results of an experimental investigation aimed at measuring the hydrodynamic force felt by the plate. This force seems to be very weak, what suggests that cavitation occurs during these initial stages. Supported by the NICOP research grant N62909-13-1-N274, and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, grant DPI2014-59292-C3-1-P.

  10. Raman Spectrometer for Surface Identification of Minerals and Organic Compounds on Silicate Planets and Small Solar-System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    This summary is the final report of work on two-year grant. Our objectives for this project were (1) to demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy is an excellent method for determining mineralogy on the surface of the Moon, Mars, and other planetary bodies; (2) to construct a prototype of a small Raman spectrometer of the kind we suggest could be used on a lander or rover; and (3) to test the ability of that spectrometer to identify minerals and quantify mineral proportions in lunar materials and complex Martian analog materials, and to identify organic matter in planetary surface materials, all under roughly simulated field conditions. These goals have been met. The principal accomplishments of this PIDDP project have been the following: selection for flight; construction of a breadboard Raman probe; throughput confirmation of the breadboard Raman probe; selection of a laser; a breadboard spectrograph based on our PIDDP design; and overall result.

  11. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David;

    2014-01-01

    evaporation measurements and key environmental controls were used to compare the results of the two techniques. Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements from eddy covariance and scintillometry, while scintillometer-derived estimates of latent heat flux were approximately 21...... and scintillometry were on the water surface Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements Scintillometer estimates of latent heat flux were greater than eddy covariance...... covariance and scintillometry measurements from a reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia. The work presented expands on a short study presented by McJannet et al. (2011) to include comparisons of eddy covariance measurements and scintillometer-derived predictions of surface energy fluxes under a wide...

  12. Preparation and studies on surface modifications of calcium-silico-phosphate ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and magnetic behaviour of 34SiO2-(45 - x) CaO-16P2O5-4.5 MgO-0.5 CaF2 - x Fe2O3 (where x = 5, 10, 15, 20 wt.%) glasses have been investigated. Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics are prepared by melt quench followed by controlled crystallization. The surface modification and dissolution behaviour of these glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) have also been studied. Phase formation and magnetic behaviour have been studied using XRD and SQUID magnetometer. The room temperature Moessbauer study has been done to monitor the local environment around Fe cations and valence state of Fe ions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface modification in glass-ceramics when immersed in simulated body fluid. Formation of bioactive layer in SBF has been ascertained using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SBF solutions were analyzed using an absorption spectrophotometer. The magnetic measurements indicated that all these glasses possess paramagnetic character and the [Fe2+/Fe3+] ions ratio depends on the composition of glass and varied with Fe2O3 concentration in glass matrix. In glass-ceramics saturation magnetization increases with increase in amount of Fe2O3. The nanostructure of hematite and magnetite is formed in the glass-ceramics with 15 and 20 wt.% Fe2O3, which is responsible for the magnetic property of these glass-ceramics. Introduction of Fe2O3 induces several modifications at the glass-ceramics surface when immersed in SBF solution and thereby affecting the surface dissolution and the formation of the bioactive layer.

  13. Accurate double many-body expansion potential energy surface of HS2A2A‧) by scaling the external correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu-Lu, Zhang; Yu-Zhi, Song; Shou-Bao, Gao; Yuan, Zhang; Qing-Tian, Meng

    2016-05-01

    A globally accurate single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the first excited state of HS2 by fitting the accurate ab initio energies, which are calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set. By using the double many-body expansion-scaled external correlation method, such calculated ab initio energies are then slightly corrected by scaling their dynamical correlation. A grid of 2767 ab initio energies is used in the least-square fitting procedure with the total root-mean square deviation being 1.406 kcal·mol‑1. The topographical features of the HS2(A2A‧) global potential energy surface are examined in detail. The attributes of the stationary points are presented and compared with the corresponding ab initio results as well as experimental and other theoretical data, showing good agreement. The resulting potential energy surface of HS2(A2A‧) can be used as a building block for constructing the global potential energy surfaces of larger S/H molecular systems and recommended for dynamic studies on the title molecular system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304185), the Taishan Scholar Project of Shandong Province, China, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. ZR2014AM022), the Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program, China (Grant No. J15LJ03), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561957), and the Post-doctoral Innovation Project of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. 201402013).

  14. On Collaborative Aerial and Surface Robots for Environmental Monitoring of Water Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Eduardo; Santana, Pedro; Barata, José

    2013-01-01

    Part 8: Robotics and Manufacturing International audience Remote monitoring is an essential task to help maintaining Earth ecosystems. A notorious example is the monitoring of riverine environments. The solution purposed in this paper is to use an electric boat (ASV - Autonomous Surface Vehicle) operating in symbiosis with a quadrotor (UAV – Unmanned Air Vehicle). We present the architecture and solutions adopted and at the same time compare it with other examples of collaborative robot...

  15. On Collaborative Aerial and Surface Robots for Environmental Monitoring of Water Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Eduardo; Santana, Pedro; Barata, José

    2013-01-01

    Part 8: Robotics and Manufacturing; International audience; Remote monitoring is an essential task to help maintaining Earth ecosystems. A notorious example is the monitoring of riverine environments. The solution purposed in this paper is to use an electric boat (ASV - Autonomous Surface Vehicle) operating in symbiosis with a quadrotor (UAV – Unmanned Air Vehicle). We present the architecture and solutions adopted and at the same time compare it with other examples of collaborative robotics ...

  16. The averaging principle

    OpenAIRE

    Fibich, Gadi; Gavious, Arieh; Solan, Eilon

    2012-01-01

    Typically, models with a heterogeneous property are considerably harder to analyze than the corresponding homogeneous models, in which the heterogeneous property is replaced with its average value. In this study we show that any outcome of a heterogeneous model that satisfies the two properties of \\emph{differentiability} and \\emph{interchangibility}, is $O(\\epsilon^2)$ equivalent to the outcome of the corresponding homogeneous model, where $\\epsilon$ is the level of heterogeneity. We then us...

  17. 恶性肿瘤患者体表面积计算方法的比较%Comparison of methods for calculating human body surface area in cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小优; 吴剑秋; 汤唯艳; 张琰; 刘宇飞; 冯继锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To extend the method for calculating human body surface area in cancer patients with different BMI ranges. Methods The actual body weight and the height of cancer patients were measured at admission, the second day and before chemotherapy to get the average value. The subjects were divided into magensuchl group, normal quality group, overweight group and obesity group according to BMI( ≤18. 6kg/m2, 18.6-23.9kg/m2, 24-27.9kg/m2 and ≥28kg/m2). Ideal body weight, ideal surface area and actual surface area were formulated and analyzed. Results The actual body surface area and ideal body surface area were 1.590m2 and 1. 584 m2 in normal quality group (P >0.05). The actual body surface area and ideal body surface area were 1.523m2 and 1.641m2,1.724m2 and 1. 590m2, 1. 813m2 and 1.570m2 in magersucht group, overweight group and obesity group( P < 0. 05). Conclusion There are significant differences between actual body surface area and ideal body surface area of patients according to BMI classification. The ideal body surface area based on ideal body weight could get more precise drug dose and avoid otiose therapeutic risk.%目的 探讨不同体重指数(BMI)的恶性肿瘤患者体表面积的计算方法.方法 对227例恶性肿瘤患者在住院当天、第2天和化疗前各测量1次空腹时的身高和实际体重,计算其平均值.按照不同BMI值(≤18.6kg/m2、18.6~23.9kg/m2、24~27.9kg/m2和≥28kg/m2)将患者分为消瘦组(17例)、正常体重组(107例)、超重组(82例)和肥胖组(21例);计算各组患者的实际和理想体表面积,比较两者间差异.结果 正常体重组患者的实际和理想体表面积分别为1.590m2和1.584m2,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);消瘦组患者的实际和理想体表面积分别为1.523m2和1.641m2(P<0.05);超重组患者的实际和理想体表面积分别为1.724m2和1.590m2(P<0.05);肥胖组患者的实际和理想体表面积分别为1.813m2和1.570m2(P<0.05).结论

  18. Stable isotope systematics of surface water bodies in the Himalayan and trans-Himalayan (Kashmir) region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanchan Pandey; J T Padia; R Ramesh; K K Sharma

    2000-03-01

    Stable hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios of the headwaters of the Indus and its tributaries, surface ice in glaciers, saline and fresh water lakes and thermal springs in the Himalayan and Trans- Himalayan (Kashmir) region are reported. The D-18O relationship for the river samples shows a slope of 9.12 ± 0.29 which agrees well with the estimate of 8.99 ± 0.33 based on a simple Rayleigh fractionation model. The unique signature of a higher deuterium excess (d) of the `Western Disturbance' is preserved in these samples. An altitude effect of -0.9 per mil/km is observed in the 18O of Indus waters. At a lower altitude (Beas) the altitude effect is almost double, indicating that the altitude effect decreases with elevation in this region.

  19. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  20. Study on global average colinear sea surface height based on Satelite Altimeter%基于卫星高度计的全球平均共线海表面高度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 苗洪利

    2015-01-01

    Satelite altimeter can measure global ocean dynamic environment around the clock.The important data product is the sea surface height (SSH). In this paper we compute the SSH of al the points based on the satelite altimeter data. Then we use the reference orbit to colinear processing with SSH and average the result. Finaly we get the mean sea surface height (MSSH). This method can get the sea surface height information of different time ranges in a short period of time. And it can provide the data support for the long term change of sea level.%卫星高度计可以实现全球范围的全天候海洋动力环境测量,其中重要的数据产品为海表面高度(SSH)。本文基于高度计测量数据,计算出每个测量点的海表面高度。利用参考轨道对数据采用共线处理得到全球的平均共线海表面高度。这一方法可以在短时间内获得全球范围的不同时间尺度下的海表面高度信息,能够为海平面长期变化研究提供数据支持。

  1. The Translucent Cadaver: An Evaluation of the Use of Full Body Digital X-Ray Images and Drawings in Surface Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Greyling, Linda Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    It has been noted by staff at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University that medical students neglect the study of surface anatomy during dissection. This study reports on the novel use of Lodox[R] Statscan[R] images in anatomical education, particularly the teaching of surface anatomy. Full body digital X-ray images (Lodox Statscan)…

  2. Total body-surface area as a new prognostic variable in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Silvana; García-Muret, Pilar; Mozos, Anna; Sierra, Jorge; Briones, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) are the most common forms of primary cutaneous T cell lymphomas. We analyzed the applicability of the cutaneous lymphoma international prognostic index (CLIPi) in MF/SS. We introduced the total body-surface area affected (TBSA) and the type of skin lesions at diagnosis as prognostic variables. The overall survival (OS) at median time of follow up (96 months) was 75.6% (CI 95%, 62.0-98.5%). In the univariate analysis, age>60 years, advanced disease, type of skin lesions and TBSA>50 showed poorer OS (p60 years, with advanced disease and TBSA>50% (p<0.05). TBSA identified a group of poor prognosis patients with advanced MF/SS that may benefit from novel systemic therapies.

  3. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  4. ArcNLET: A GIS-based software to simulate groundwater nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, J. Fernando; Ye, Ming; Wang, Liying; Lee, Paul Z.; Davis, Hal; Hicks, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, can be a significant source of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. The adverse effects that nitrates have on human and environmental health have given rise to the need to estimate the actual or potential level of nitrate contamination. With the goal of reducing data collection and preparation costs, and decreasing the time required to produce an estimate compared to complex nitrate modeling tools, we developed the ArcGIS-based Nitrate Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET) software. Leveraging the power of geographic information systems (GIS), ArcNLET is an easy-to-use software capable of simulating nitrate transport in groundwater and estimating long-term nitrate loads from groundwater to surface water bodies. Data requirements are reduced by using simplified models of groundwater flow and nitrate transport which consider nitrate attenuation mechanisms (subsurface dispersion and denitrification) as well as spatial variability in the hydraulic parameters and septic tank distribution. ArcNLET provides a spatial distribution of nitrate plumes from multiple septic systems and a load estimate to water bodies. ArcNLET's conceptual model is divided into three sub-models: a groundwater flow model, a nitrate transport and fate model, and a load estimation model which are implemented as an extension to ArcGIS. The groundwater flow model uses a map of topography in order to generate a steady-state approximation of the water table. In a validation study, this approximation was found to correlate well with a water table produced by a calibrated numerical model although it was found that the degree to which the water table resembles the topography can vary greatly across the modeling domain. The transport model uses a semi-analytical solution to estimate the distribution of nitrate within groundwater, which is then used to estimate a nitrate load using a mass balance argument. The estimates given by ArcNLET are

  5. Micro-topography and reactivity of implant surfaces: an in vitro study in simulated body fluid (SBF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, M G; Taddei, P; Siboni, F; Perrotti, V; Iezzi, G; Piattelli, A; Prati, C

    2015-02-01

    The creation of micro-textured dental implant surfaces possessing a stimulating activity represents a challenge in implant dentistry; particularly, the formation of a thin, biologically active, calcium-phosphate layer on their surface could help to strengthen the bond to the surrounding bone. The aim of the present study was to characterize in terms of macrostructure, micro-topography and reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), the surface of titanium (Ti) implants blasted with TiO2 particles, acid etched with hydrofluoric acid, and activated with Ca and Mg-containing nanoparticles. Sandblasted and acid-etched implants were analyzed by ESEM-EDX (environmental scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray system) to study the micromorphology of the surface and to perform elemental X-ray microanalysis (microchemical analyses) and element mapping. ESEM-EDX analyses were performed at time 0 and after a 28-day soaking period in SBF Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) following ISO 23317 (implants for surgery—in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of implant materials). Microchemical analyses (weight % and atomic %) and element mapping were carried out to evaluate the relative element content, element distribution, and calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) atomic ratio. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the possible presence of impurities due to manufacturing and to investigate the phases formed upon HBSS soaking. Micro-morphological analyses showed a micro-textured, highly rough surface with microgrooves. Microchemical analyses showed compositional differences among the apical, middle, and distal thirds. The micro-Raman analyses of the as-received implant showed the presence of amorphous Ti oxide and traces of anatase, calcite, and a carbonaceous material derived from the decomposition of an organic component of lipidic nature (presumably used as lubricant). A uniform layer of Ca-poor calcium phosphates (CaPs) (Ca/P ratio <1.47) was observed after

  6. Aerodynamic Interference between Oscillating Lifting Surfaces and Fuselage Part 5: A Panel Method for Non-Lifting Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Adrian Jean BUTOESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the fifth article of our series we will deal with the calculation of the unsteady aerodynamic forces on non-lifting bodies. We present here a contribution to the problem of the flow about non-lifting bodies. It is a panel method available for subsonic unsteady flow. The method will be used further to the unsteady body-body and wing-body interference problems.

  7. Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…

  8. High Resolution Anisotropic Structure of the North American Upper Mantle From Inversion of Body and Surface Waveform Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, F.; Gung, Y.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy provides insight into upper mantle structure as well as paleo and recent deformation processes. To date, our knowledge of the North American anisotropic structure arises mainly from global tomographic models or \\textit{SKS} splitting studies which lack horizontal and vertical resolution respectively, and are limited to either radial or azimuthal anisotropy. Our goal is a new high resolution model for the North American upper mantle incorporating both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. We hope to achieve unprecedented lateral and depth resolution by improving both methodology and data coverage. We invert seismic long period waveform data in the framework of normal mode asymptotic theory (NACT). The resulting broad band sensitivity kernels allow us to exploit the information contained in long period seismograms for fundamental mode surface waves, overtones and body waves simultaneously. Until now, this approach has only been applied at the global scale. We have adapted the NACT algorithm for the regional case by implementing a lateral parametrization in terms of spherical splines on an inhomogeneous triangular grid of nodes, with the finest mesh for North America. Moreover, accurate crustal corrections are essential for the quality of high resolution regional tomographic studies, because they prevent the mapping of unresolved shallow features into the mantle structure. Going beyond the linear perturbation approximation, we split the correction into a linear and non-linear part. In this way, we can deal with the large lateral variations over a short distance observed in Moho topography more accurately. The inverted dataset consists of more than 100,000 high quality 3 component body, fundamental and overtone surface waveforms, recorded at broad band seismic stations in North America from teleseismic events and provides a fairly homogeneous path and azimuthal coverage. We use information from \\textit{SKS} splitting measurements as additional

  9. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  10. Field study and numerical modeling of wind and surface waves at the middle-sized water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydakov, Georgy; Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Sergeev, Daniil; Papko, Vladislav; Kandaurov, Alexander; Vdovin, Maxim; Troitskaya, Yuliya

    2015-04-01

    different parameterizations of flux both provided in WAVEWATCH III and in the inserted suggested experimental parameterization. For the cases with default WAVEWATCH III flux parameterizations, wave amplitude characteristics were overestimated, and spectral maxima showed the downshifting comparing with the measured data. Insertion of the suggested parameterization of flux input improved the coincidence. The difference in the use of WAM3 and Tolman & Chalikov source packages is discussed. To conclude, we discuss the applicability of suggested flux parameterization: it increases the accuracy of the simulations and makes possible the application of this technique for getting the surface wind waves forecasts on the water bodies. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under Grant No. 15-45-02580,RFBR grant 14-05-31343, President Grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5, RSF 14-17-00667. References 1. Babanin and Makin Effects of wind trend and gustiness on the sea drag: Lake George study // Journal of Geophysical Research, 2008, 113, C02015, doi:10.1029/2007JC004233 2. Atakturk and Katsaros Wind Stress and Surface Waves Observed on Lake Washington // Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1999, 29, pp. 633-650

  11. Virtual Averaging Making Nonframe-Averaged Optical Coherence Tomography Images Comparable to Frame-Averaged Images

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Developing a novel image enhancement method so that nonframe-averaged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images become comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Methods Twenty-one eyes of 21 healthy volunteers were scanned with noneye-tracking nonframe-averaged OCT device and active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT device. Virtual averaging was applied to nonframe-averaged images with voxel resampling and adding amplitude deviation with 15-time repetitions. Signal-to...

  12. Is the Target of 1 Day of Stay per 1% Total Body Surface Area Burned Achieved in Chemical Burns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y

    2016-02-01

    The length of hospital stay (LOS) is a standard parameter used to reflect quality and evaluate outcomes in acute burn care. This study aims to assess whether the target of 1 day of stay per 1% total body surface area (TBSA) burned was achieved in acute chemical burns management and factors affecting the LOS. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients who suffered from chemical burn injuries admitted to a university burn center over a continuous 14-year period was performed.A total of 118 patients were admitted over the period for chemical burns. Only 14% of cases achieved the target stated. Factors associated with lengthening of the hospital stay included TBSA, ocular involvement, the cause of injury, and the need for surgery during the same admission.The LOS in chemical burns frequently exceeds 1 day of stay per 1% TBSA burned. Many factors can contribute to a patient's LOS and are worth exploring in order to see if the impact of these factors could be minimized. Early surgical intervention should help to reduce the LOS if reliable methods of burn wound depth assessment are available.

  13. Electroanalytical and surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in cells and body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Yi, Xinyao; Wang, Jianxiu; Zhou, Feimeng

    2014-04-21

    Cancer and neurological disorders are two leading causes of human death. Their early diagnoses will either greatly improve the survival rate or facilitate effective treatments or modalities. Detection of biomarkers in body fluids and some tissues (e.g., blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluids) is relatively non-invasive and provides useful chemical and biological information that is complementary to tomographic imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and X-ray computed tomography). Recent years have witnessed the contributions from and potential applications of bioanalytical methods for early detection of major diseases. In this review, we survey some recent developments of electroanalytical (as a representative label-based technique) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) (as a representative label-free technique) biosensors for detection of biomarkers relevant to etiologies of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While breast cancer is representative of cancers of complexity (multiple biomarkers, false positives from tomographic scans, and a need for more effective early diagnostic methods), AD is the most prevalent neurological disorder that is also linked to multiple biomarkers. Both electroanalytical and SPR-based sensors have attractive features of sensitivity, portability, obviation of large sample volumes, and capability of multiplexed detection. Various sensing protocols developed in the past five years are reviewed, demonstrating the feasibility of both techniques for diagnostic purposes. Problems inherent in these two techniques that must be overcome before being clinically viable are also discussed.

  14. Usefulness of body surface mapping to differentiate patients with Brugada syndrome from patients with asymptomatic Brugada syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisamatsu K

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We attempted to determine the usefulness of body surface mapping (BSM for differentiating patients with Brugada syndrome (BS from patients with asymptomatic Brugada syndrome (ABS. Electrocardiograms (ECG and BSM were recorded in 7 patients with BS and 35 patients with ABS. Following the administration of Ic antiarrhythmic drugs, BSM was recorded in 5 patients with BS and 16 patients with ABS. The maximum amplitudes at J0, J20, J40 and J60 were compared between the 2 groups, as were 3-dimensional maps. The maximum amplitudes at J0, J20 and J60 under control conditions were larger in patients with BS than in patients with ABS (P < 0.05. A three-dimensional map of the ST segments under control conditions in patients with BS showed a higher peak of ST elevation in the median precordium compared to that for patients with ABS. Increases in ST elevation at J20, J40 and J60 following drug administration were greater in patients with BS than in patients with ABS (P < 0.05. Evaluation of the change in amplitude of the ST segment at E5 caused by Ic drug administration was also useful for differentiating between the 2 groups. In conclusion, BSM was useful for differentiating patients with BS from those with ABS.

  15. Use of scaled external correlation, a double many-body expansion, and variational transition state theory to calibrate a potential energy surface for FH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gillian C.; Steckler, Rozeanne; Varandas, Antonio J. C.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1991-01-01

    New ab initio results and a double many-body expansion formalism have been used to parameterize a new FH2 potential energy surface with improved properties near the saddle point and in the region of long-range attraction. The functional form of the new surface includes dispersion forces by a double many-body expansion. Stationary point properties for the new surface are calculated along with the product-valley barrier maxima of vibrationally adiabatic potential curves for F + H2 - HF(nu-prime = 3) + H, F + HD - HF(nu-prime = 3) + D, and F + D2 - DF(nu-prime = 4) + D. The new surface should prove useful for studying the effect on dynamics of a low, early barrier with a wide, flat bend potential.

  16. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a f...

  17. Measuring glomerular filtration rate using 51Cr-EDTA: body surface area normalization before or after Bröchner-Mortensen correction?

    OpenAIRE

    Pottel, Hans; Hoste, Liesbeth; De Waele, Liesbeth; Braat, Elke; Baete, Kristof; Goffin, Karolien; Levtchenko, Elena; Gheysens, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using Cr-EDTA require normalizing of GFR for body surface area (BSA) before applying the Bröchner-Mortensen (BM) correction. The guideline explicitly mentions the importance of performing BSA normalization before BM correction and that this is particularly important in children in whom the effects of BSA normalization are largest.

  18. Effects of environmental factors on adolescent body surface area growth of urban Chinese%环境因素对中国城市青少年体表面积发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国柱

    2016-01-01

    用Stevenson和DuBois公式计算30个省市城市7~18岁男女青少年的体表面积均值,并对其进行因子分析求得发育分.采用发育分与自然因素和社会经济因素进行相关分析和多元逐步回归分析,研究环境因素对中国城市青少年体表面积发育的综合影响.结果显示,中国城市青少年体表面积发育存在地域差异,男女青少年体表面积发育分排在前5位的均位于环渤海地区;发育分与地球经度、地球纬度、年日照时数、气温年较差、人均GDP、人均可支配收入以及每千人中卫生技术人员数呈显著性正相关,与海拔、年降水量、年均相对湿度、恩格尔系数、人口出生率、人口增长率以及儿童负担率呈显著性负相关;影响中国城市青少年体表面积发育的关键因素为海拔、年均相对湿度、恩格尔系数和儿童负担率.青少年体表面积发育在环境因素方面是受自然环境因素与社会经济生活两者之间共同相互作用的结果.%This research used Stevenson and DuBois' formulae to calculate the average body surface area of 7-18 year-old adolescents in 30 cities throughout China,and then used factor analysis to obtain growth scores.Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the growth scores,natural environment and socio-economic environment to determine the comprehensive effects of the environmental factors on adolescents body surface area growth.The results show that the development of body surface area of urban Chinese adolescents has regional differences.Specifically,the body surface area in the top five samples were located in circum-Bohai Sea region.Growth scores had a conspicuousness positive correlation with longitude and latitude,sunshine duration,annual range of temperature,GDP per capita,disposable income per capita and number of medical technicians per 1000 people.Growth scores had a negative correlation with altitude

  19. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  20. Toward Chemical Accuracy in the Description of Ion-Water Interactions through Many-Body Representations. I. Halide-Water Dimer Potential Energy Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Pushp; Götz, Andreas W; Paesani, Francesco

    2016-06-14

    Despite recent progress, a unified understanding of how ions affect the structure and dynamics of water across different phases remains elusive. Here, we report the development of full-dimensional many-body potential energy functions, called MB-nrg (Many-Body-energy), for molecular simulations of halide ion-water systems from the gas phase to the condensed phase. The MB-nrg potentials are derived entirely from "first-principles" calculations carried out at the F12 explicitly correlated coupled-cluster level including single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T)-F12, in the complete basis set limit. Building upon the functional form of the MB-pol water potential, the MB-nrg potentials are expressed through the many-body expansion of the total energy in terms of explicit contributions representing one-body, two-body, and three-body interactions, with all higher-order contributions being described by classical induction. The specific focus of this study is on the MB-nrg two-body terms representing the full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the corresponding H2O-X(-) dimers, with X(-)= F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-). The accuracy of the MB-nrg PESs is systematically assessed through extensive comparisons with results obtained using both ab initio models and polarizable force fields for energies, structures, and harmonic frequencies of the H2O-X(-) dimers. PMID:27145081

  1. Imaging the lithosphere beneath NE Tibet: teleseismic P and S body wave tomography incorporating surface wave starting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Ceri; Roecker, Steven W.; Tilmann, Frederik J.; Priestley, Keith F.; Heyburn, Ross; Sandvol, Eric A.; Ni, James F.; Chen, Yongshun John; Zhao, Wenjin; Team, The Indepth

    2014-03-01

    The northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, which includes the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi terranes as well as the Kunlun Shan and the Qaidam Basin, continues to deform in response to the ongoing India-Eurasia collision. To test competing hypotheses concerning the mechanisms for this deformation, we assembled a high-quality data set of approximately 14 000 P- and 4000 S-wave arrival times from earthquakes at teleseismic distances from the International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya, Phase IV broad-band seismometer deployments. We analyse these arrival times to determine tomographic images of P- and S-wave velocities in the upper mantle beneath this part of the plateau. To account for the effects of major heterogeneity in crustal and uppermost mantle wave velocities in Tibet, we use recent surface wave models to construct a starting model for our teleseismic body wave inversion. We compare the results from our model with those from simpler starting models, and find that while the reduction in residuals and results for deep structure are similar between models, the results for shallow structure are different. Checkerboard tests indicate that features of ˜125 km length scale are reliably imaged throughout the study region. Using synthetic tests, we show that the best recovery is below ˜300 km, and that broad variations in shallow structure can also be recovered. We also find that significant smearing can occur, especially at the edges of the model. We observe a shallow dipping seismically fast structure at depths of ˜140-240 km, which dies out gradually between 33°N and 35°N. Based on the lateral continuity of this structure (from the surface waves) we interpret it as Indian lithosphere. Alternatively, the entire area could be thickened by pure shear, or the northern part could be an underthrust Lhasa Terrane lithospheric slab with only the southern part from India. We see a deep fast wave velocity anomaly (below 300 km), that is consistent with

  2. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  3. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  4. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization. PMID:25306088

  5. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the underlyin

  6. The difference between alternative averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaupel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

  7. A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, K; Dean, D

    2000-12-01

    Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.

  8. MODFLOW-2005 and MODPATH6 models used to delineate areas contributing groundwater to selected surface receiving waters for long-term average hydrologic stress conditions from 1968 to 1983, Long Island, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A regional groundwater-flow model and particle-tracking program were used to delineate areas contributing groundwater to coastal and freshwater bodies and to...

  9. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.

  10. "Pricing Average Options on Commodities"

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichiro Shiraya; Akihiko Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approximation formula for pricing average options on commodities under a stochastic volatility environment. In particular, it derives an option pricing formula under Heston and an extended lambda-SABR stochastic volatility models (which includes an extended SABR model as a special case). Moreover, numerical examples support the accuracy of the proposed average option pricing formula.

  11. Quantized average consensus with delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafarian, Matin; De Persis, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Average consensus problem is a special case of cooperative control in which the agents of the network asymptotically converge to the average state (i.e., position) of the network by transferring information via a communication topology. One of the issues of the large scale networks is the cost of co

  12. NUMERICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE GROUNDWATER LEVELS CHANGE DUE TO THE RE- AND DISCHARGE OF THE ADJACENT SURFACE WATER BODIES – PROBLEMS AND CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trendafilov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical description of the groundwater levels change due to the re- and discharge of the adjacent surface water bodies – problems and case studies. The water exchange between the surface water bodies (rivers, lakes, seas, dams, etc. and adjacent water-bearing beds is possible if a hydraulic connection between them exists. The change of the levels of the first ones causes corresponding changes of the levels of the aquifers in the surrounding territories and vice versa. In many cases this interaction is the primary mechanism determining the groundwater regime. The aim of the present study is to examine the applicability of the most general possible analytical approach for quantitative description of the phenomena in the case of short-term changes with a significant magnitude (high waves of the level of the river of Maritsa in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study is performed through numerical simulations/calculations, with especially composed by the authors for this work computational programs.

  13. Investigation of Figopitant and Its Metabolites in Rat Tissue by Combining Whole-Body Autoradiography with Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schadt, S.; Kallbach, S.; Almeida, R.;

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the combination of whole-body autoradiography with liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and mass spectrometry (MS) to study the distribution of the tachykinin neurokinin-1 antagonist figopitant and its metabolites in tissue sections of rats after intravenous administra......This article describes the combination of whole-body autoradiography with liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and mass spectrometry (MS) to study the distribution of the tachykinin neurokinin-1 antagonist figopitant and its metabolites in tissue sections of rats after intravenous...... tissue extraction, sample cleanup, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The parent drug and the N-dealkylated metabolite M474(1) (BIIF 1148) in varying ratios were the predominant compounds in all tissues investigated. In addition, several metabolites formed by oxygenation, dealkylation...

  14. Gradient evolution of body colouration in surface- and cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the role of phenotype-assortative female mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Penshorn, Marina; Hamfler, Sybille; Herbert, Denise B; Appel, Jessica; Meyer, Philipp; Slattery, Patrick; Charaf, Sarah; Wolf, Raoul; Völker, Johannes; Berger, Elisabeth A M; Dröge, Janis; Wolf, Konstantin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeanne R; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface) males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation.

  15. Gradient Evolution of Body Colouration in Surface- and Cave-Dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the Role of Phenotype-Assortative Female Mate Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation.

  16. Study on the parameters influencing the accuracy and reproducibility of dynamic pressure measurements at the surface of a rigid body during water impact

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nuffel, D.; Vepa, K.S.; De Baere, I.; Degrieck, J.; De Rouck, J.; Van Paepegem, W.

    2013-01-01

    Water wave slamming is known as one of the most important load which marine constructions encounter. Especially the large and spiky local pressures moving fast over the body surface during a slamming event can be harmful for the structure. Analytical and numerical research on these pressure loads has already been performed, but however, quantitative experimental information necessary for validation of these studies is restricted. This lack in experimental data may originate from the fact that...

  17. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we study moving averages (also known as stochastic convolutions) driven by a Wiener process and with a deterministic kernel. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel are provided for the moving average to be a semimartingale in its natural filtration. Our results...... are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  18. Power convergence of Abel averages

    OpenAIRE

    Kozitsky, Yuri; Shoikhet, David; Zemanek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are presented for the Abel averages of discrete and strongly continuous semigroups, $T^k$ and $T_t$, to be power convergent in the operator norm in a complex Banach space. These results cover also the case where $T$ is unbounded and the corresponding Abel average is defined by means of the resolvent of $T$. They complement the classical results by Michael Lin establishing sufficient conditions for the corresponding convergence for a bounded $T$.

  19. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  20. Inequalities Between Size, Mass, Angular Momentum, and Charge for Axisymmetric Bodies and the Formation of Trapped Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khuri, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    We establish inequalities relating the size of a material body to its mass, angular momentum, and charge, within the context of axisymmetric initial data sets for the Einstein equations. These inequalities hold in general without the assumption of the maximal condition, and use a notion of size which is easily computable. Moreover, these results give rise to black hole existence criteria which are meaningful even in the time-symmetric case, and also include certain boundary effects.

  1. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  2. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  3. Sparsity Averaging for Compressive Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Wiaux, Yves

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel regularization method for sparse image reconstruction from compressive measurements. The approach relies on the conjecture that natural images exhibit strong average sparsity over multiple coherent frames. The associated reconstruction algorithm, based on an analysis prior and a reweighted $\\ell_1$ scheme, is dubbed Sparsity Averaging Reweighted Analysis (SARA). We test our prior and the associated algorithm through extensive numerical simulations for spread spectrum and Gaussian acquisition schemes suggested by the recent theory of compressed sensing with coherent and redundant dictionaries. Our results show that average sparsity outperforms state-of-the-art priors that promote sparsity in a single orthonormal basis or redundant frame, or that promote gradient sparsity. We also illustrate the performance of SARA in the context of Fourier imaging, for particular applications in astronomy and medicine.

  4. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either a...

  5. Surface functionalization of tissue culture polystyrene plates with hydroxyapatite under body fluid conditions and its effect on differentiation behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Iizuka, Ayako; Ueno-Yokohata, Hitomi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Hashizume, Mineo

    2016-11-01

    The surfaces of polystyrene (PS) cell culture plates were functionalized with hydroxyapatite (HAp) under body fluid conditions utilizing protein adsorption layers and a pretreatment with an alternate soaking process (ASP) using solutions containing calcium and phosphate ions. Adsorption layers of human serum albumin (HSA) formed on the surface of each well of commercial 24-well PS plates by solution processes. CaCl2 and K2HPO4 solutions were alternately added to the wells, the plates were incubated to form the precursors, and this was followed by the addition of simulated body fluid (SBF) and a further incubation for 24h. These treatments resulted in the surfaces of the PS cell culture plates being completely covered with bone-like HAp. The coating of PS plates with HAp promoted the adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and maintained cell growth that was as fast as that on tissue culture-treated PS (TCPS) plates. Osteogenic differentiation was greater, whereas adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was less in the culture on HAp-coated PS plates than in that on TCPS plates. The present method is useful for preparing HAp-coated PS plates at clean benches without the need for any expensive apparatus. HAp coated on PS plates by this method was a bone-like apatite with high bioactivity; therefore, the present HAp-coated PS plates are promising materials for assays of bone-related cells in the bone remodeling process.

  6. A Novel Fiber Bragg Grating Based Sensing Methodology for Direct Measurement of Surface Strain on Body Muscles during Physical Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Arudi Subbarao, Guru; Subbaramajois Narasipur, Omkar; Kalegowda, Anand; Asokan, Sundarrajan

    2012-07-01

    The present work proposes a new sensing methodology, which uses Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) to measure in vivo the surface strain and strain rate on calf muscles while performing certain exercises. Two simple exercises, namely ankle dorsi-flexion and ankle plantar-flexion, have been considered and the strain induced on the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle while performing these exercises has been monitored. The real time strain generated has been recorded and the results are compared with those obtained using a commercial Color Doppler Ultrasound (CDU) system. It is found that the proposed sensing methodology is promising for surface strain measurements in biomechanical applications.

  7. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  8. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Fong, W; Meadows, V S; Snively, H; Velusamy, T; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Meadows, Victoria S.; Snively, Heather; Tinetti, Giovanna; Velusamy, Thangasamy

    2004-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-cur...

  9. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  10. Stochastic Approximation with Averaging Innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Laruelle, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish a convergence theorem for multi-dimensional stochastic approximation in a setting with innovations satisfying some averaging properties and to study some applications. The averaging assumptions allow us to unify the framework where the innovations are generated (to solve problems from Numerical Probability) and the one with exogenous innovations (market data, output of "device" $e.g.$ an Euler scheme) with stationary or ergodic properties. We propose several fields of applications with random innovations or quasi-random numbers. In particular we provide in both setting a rule to tune the step of the algorithm. At last we illustrate our results on five examples notably in Finance.

  11. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Travers

    2010-11-01

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.

  12. Three-Dimensional Vp and Vs Models of Continental China From Joint Inversion of Body Wave, Surface Wave, and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Zhang, H.; Maceira, M.; Chen, F.; Shen, W.; Fang, H.; Yao, H.

    2015-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the complex geological structure of continental China we need accurate depictions of the 3D structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle. Taking advantage of the increasingly dense seismograph coverage in continental China, several Vp and Vs models at various scales and resolutions have been obtained over the past decades. Tomographic models based either on body wave travel times or surface waves differ, however, in important aspects, especially for the structure beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Internally consistent Vp and Vs models are needed to resolve these differences. Body wave travel time tomography and surface wave tomography each have strengths and weaknesses. Travel time tomography can yield higher resolution in regions of dense path coverage, and it generally has excellent lateral resolution beneath regions of high seismic activity or dense station distribution. In many other regions, however, the shallow subsurface cannot be resolved adequately by direct P or S travel times. In contrast, surface wave data (from earthquakes or ambient noise) generally yields better radial resolution and has better potential for resolving shallow mantle structure beneath regions that are aseismic or which are void of seismograph stations. Gravity measurements can provide constraints on spatial variations in (mass) density, but like other potential field methods interpretation of gravity anomalies is plagued by substantial ambiguity. Indeed, weak and broad structures in the shallow subsurface can produce the same gravity signal (at the surface) as a small, strong density anomaly at a larger depth. To benefit from the complementary sampling of the different data, we have developed a joint inversion scheme that uses body wave travel times, surface wave dispersion, and satellite gravity data to invert for spatial variations in Vp, Vs, and mass density (with the seismic and gravity data linked through an empirical relationship between wavespeed

  13. Immunological network activation by low-dose rate irradiation. Analysis of cell populations and cell surface molecules in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate whole body irradiation on biodefense and immunological systems were investigated using female C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These B6 mice were exposed continuously to {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low-dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI for 0 - 12 weeks at a dose rate of 0.95 mGy/hr. In the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of the irradiated mice, changes in cell populations and cell surface molecules were examined. The cell surface functional molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD45R/B220, ICAM-1, Fas, NK-1.1, CXCR4, and CCR5), and activation molecules (THAM, CD28, CD40, CD44H, CD70, B7-1, B7-2, OX-40 antigen, CTLA-4, CD30 ligand, and CD40 ligand) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells and cell surface CD8 molecule expressions on the CD8{sup +} T cells increased significantly to 120-130% after 3 weeks of the irradiation, compared to non-irradiated control mice. On the other hand, the percentage of CD45R/B220{sup +} CD40{sup +} B cells, which is one of the immunological markers of inflammation, infection, tumor, and autoimmune disease, decreased significantly to 80-90% between the 3rd to 5th week of irradiation. There was no significant difference in other cell population rates and cell surface molecule expression. Furthermore, abnormal T cells bearing mutated T cell receptors induced by high-dose rate irradiation were not observed throughout this study. These results suggest that low-dose rate irradiation activates the immunological status of the whole body. (author)

  14. Elucidating the Role of Many-Body Forces in Liquid Water. I. Simulations of Water Clusters on the VRT (ASP-W) Potential Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, N; Saykally, R J

    2003-10-03

    We test the new VRT(ASP-W)II and VRT(ASP-W)III potentials by employing Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the vibrational ground-state properties of water clusters. These potentials are fits of the highly detailed ASP-W ab initio potential to (D{sub 2}O){sub 2} microwave and far-IR data, and along with the SAPT5s potentials, are the most accurate water dimer potential surfaces in the literature. The results from VRT(ASP-W)II and III are compare to those from the original ASP-W potential, the SAPT5s family of potentials, and several bulk water potentials. Only VRT(ASP-W)II and the spectroscopically ''tuned'' SAPT5st (with N-body induction included) accurately reproduce the vibrational ground-state structures of water clusters up to the hexamer. Finally, the importance of many-body induction and three-body dispension are examined, and it is shown that the latter can have significant effects on water cluster properties despite its small magnitude.

  15. Long duration measurements of whole-body vibration exposures associated with surface coal mining equipment compared to previous short-duration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Lynas, Danellie

    2016-01-01

    Previous measurements of whole-body vibration associated with earth-moving equipment at surface coal mines have highlighted the significance of the hazard. Considerable variability in measurement amplitudes, even within the same equipment type operated at the same site, has been noted. However, the measurements have previously been undertaken for relatively short durations. Fifty-nine measurements were collected from a range of earth-moving equipment in operation at a surface coal mine. Measurement durations ranged from 100-460 min (median = 340 min). The results indicate that the measurements previously observed are not an artifact of the relatively short durations and confirm that operators of dozers and off-road haul trucks, in particular, are frequently exposed to vertical whole-body vibration levels which lie within, or above, the Health Guidance Caution Zone defined by ISO2631.1. Further investigations are justified to identify opportunities for reducing operators' exposure to high amplitude vibrations. PMID:26771238

  16. Shape estimation of the buried body from the ground surface potential distributions generated by current injection; Tsuryu ni yoru chihyomen den`i bunpu wo riyoshita maizobutsu keijo no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Okamoto, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Akabane, H.; Agu, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Ground surface potential distribution generated by current injection was studied to estimate the shape of buried bodies. Since the uniform ground system including a homogeneous buried body is perfectly determined with the surface shape of a buried body and resistivities in/around a buried body, inversion is easy if the surface shape is described with some parameters. N electrodes are arranged in 2-D grid manner on the ground, and two electrodes among them are used for current injection, while the others for measurement of potentials. M times of measurements are repeated while changing combination of electrodes for current injection. The potential distribution measured by the mth electrode pair is represented by N-2 dimensional vectors. The square error between this distribution and calculated one is the function of k parameters on the surface shape and resistivities on a buried body. Both shape and resistivities can be estimated by solving an optimum value problem using the square error as evaluation function. Analysis is easy for a spherical body with 6 unknown parameters, however, it is difficult for more complex bodies than elliptical one or more than two bodies. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  17. 体表巨大神经纤维瘤病的整形治疗%Plastic treatment of giant neurofibromatosis on body surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪生; 肖斌; 刘毅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the treatment method of giant neurofibromatosis on body surface.Methods Replantation of the tumor skin,full-thickenss skin grafting and transferring of expanded flap were used to reconstruct the appearance and function after the excision of giant neurofibroma.Results Sixteen cases gained primary healing while other 2 cases with delayed healing after onestage or fractionated resection of giant neurofibroma on body surface.All the 18 patients resumed selfcare and working ability.Conclusions Giant neurofibromatosis has significant damage to the appearance and body shape and also greatly limits the patient's life and work.Patients can resume physical and psychological rehabilitation by surgical resection and plastic surgery treatment.%目的 探讨体表巨大神经纤维瘤病的整形治疗方法.方法 对18例患者手术切除巨大神经纤维瘤后,采用肿瘤皮肤反鼓切取回植术,自体全厚皮片移植或扩张后皮瓣转移修复术,或部分切除缝合术,使外观和功能得以重建.结果 Ⅰ期切除修复后,16例伤口均Ⅰ期愈合,2例伤口延期愈合.18例全部恢复生活自理及工作能力.结论 体表巨大神经纤维瘤病经过手术切除及重建整形治疗,可以使患者恢复身心康复和日常生活、工作能力.

  18. Michel Parameters averages and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new measurements of Michel parameters in τ decays are combined to world averages. From these measurements model independent limits on non-standard model couplings are derived and interpretations in the framework of specific models are given. A lower limit of 2.5 tan β GeV on the mass of a charged Higgs boson in models with two Higgs doublets can be set and a 229 GeV limit on a right-handed W-boson in left-right symmetric models (95 % c.l.)

  19. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail: doan.phamminh@mines-albi.fr; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO{sub 3} and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO{sub 3} dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution.

  20. Surface hopping with a manifold of electronic states. II. Application to the many-body Anderson-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Nitzan, Abraham [School of Chemistry, The Sackler Faculty of Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-02-28

    We investigate a simple surface hopping (SH) approach for modeling a single impurity level coupled to a single phonon and an electronic (metal) bath (i.e., the Anderson-Holstein model). The phonon degree of freedom is treated classically with motion along–and hops between–diabatic potential energy surfaces. The hopping rate is determined by the dynamics of the electronic bath (which are treated implicitly). For the case of one electronic bath, in the limit of small coupling to the bath, SH recovers phonon relaxation to thermal equilibrium and yields the correct impurity electron population (as compared with numerical renormalization group). For the case of out of equilibrium dynamics, SH current-voltage (I-V) curve is compared with the quantum master equation (QME) over a range of parameters, spanning the quantum region to the classical region. In the limit of large temperature, SH and QME agree. Furthermore, we can show that, in the limit of low temperature, the QME agrees with real-time path integral calculations. As such, the simple procedure described here should be useful in many other contexts.

  1. Surface hopping with a manifold of electronic states. II. Application to the many-body Anderson-Holstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a simple surface hopping (SH) approach for modeling a single impurity level coupled to a single phonon and an electronic (metal) bath (i.e., the Anderson-Holstein model). The phonon degree of freedom is treated classically with motion along–and hops between–diabatic potential energy surfaces. The hopping rate is determined by the dynamics of the electronic bath (which are treated implicitly). For the case of one electronic bath, in the limit of small coupling to the bath, SH recovers phonon relaxation to thermal equilibrium and yields the correct impurity electron population (as compared with numerical renormalization group). For the case of out of equilibrium dynamics, SH current-voltage (I-V) curve is compared with the quantum master equation (QME) over a range of parameters, spanning the quantum region to the classical region. In the limit of large temperature, SH and QME agree. Furthermore, we can show that, in the limit of low temperature, the QME agrees with real-time path integral calculations. As such, the simple procedure described here should be useful in many other contexts

  2. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  3. Antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut micro flora of two aquatic leech species (Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica) in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimannan Sivachandran; Kasi Marimuthu; Manickam Ravichandran; Jesu Arockiaraj

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut associated microflora of two local aquatic leech species Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica.Methods:Four commercially available antibiotics (doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin) were used in this study. A total of 13 isolated gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria manillensis and two gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria javanica were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Based on the susceptibility, it was observed that all the isolated bacteria were found to be susceptible to at least three of the antibiotics except Microbacterium resistens, Serratiamarcescens and Morganella morganii. This study also found that the bacterial species Bacillus fusiformis has displayed resistance against tetracycline and Tsukamurella inchonensis against chloramphenicol.Conclusions:Among all the antibiotics tested, ciprofloxacin was found to be the best bactericidal agent. The immersion of leeches in ciprofloxacin before the application to the patient may be beneficial to prevent invasive infection of the patient. Further study is needed to sterilize the live leech by immersion/oral mode of administration for the tested antibiotics.

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut micro flora of two aquatic leech species (Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimannan Sivachandran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut associated microflora of two local aquatic leech species Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica. Methods: Four commercially available antibiotics (doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were used in this study. A total of 13 isolated gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria manillensis and two gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria javanica were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Based on the susceptibility, it was observed that all the isolated bacteria were found to be susceptible to at least three of the antibiotics except Microbacterium resistens, Serratia marcescens and Morganella morganii. This study also found that the bacterial species Bacillus fusiformis has displayed resistance against tetracycline and Tsukamurella inchonensis against chloramphenicol. Conclusions: Among all the antibiotics tested, ciprofloxacin was found to be the best bactericidal agent. The immersion of leeches in ciprofloxacin before the application to the patient may be beneficial to prevent invasive infection of the patient. Further study is needed to sterilize the live leech by immersion/oral mode of administration for the tested antibiotics.

  5. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU HePing; YANG ZhiYong; TIAN FuQiang

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial heterogeneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overestimate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hydrological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  6. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial hetero- geneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overes- timate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hy- drological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  7. Elastic Wavespeed Images of Northern Chile Subduction Zone from the Joint Inversion of Body and Surface Waves: Structure of the Andean Forearc and the Double Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, D.; Carrizo, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Peyrat, S.; Arriaza, R.; Chi, R. K.; Baeza, S.

    2015-12-01

    Partly in anticipation of an imminent megathrust earthquake, a significant amount of seismic data has been collected over the past several years in northern Chile by local deployments of seismometers. In this study we generate elastic wavespeed images of the crust and upper mantle using a combination of body wave arrival times and surface wave dispersion curves. The body wave data set consists of 130000 P and 108000 S wave arrival times generated by 12000 earthquakes recorded locally over a period of 25 years by networks comprising about 360 stations. The surface wave data set consists of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves determined from ambient noise recorded by 60 broad band stations from three different networks over a period of three years. Transit time biases due to an uneven distribution of noise were estimated using a technique based on that of Yao and van der Hilst (2009) and found to be as high as 5% for some station pairs. We jointly invert the body and surface wave observations to both improve the overall resolution of the crustal images and reduce the trade-off between shallow and deep structures in the images of the subducted slab. Of particular interest in these images are three regions of anomalous Vp/Vs: (1) An extensive zone of low Vp/Vs (1.68) correlates with trench-parallel magmatic belts emplaced in the upper continental crust. In the region of the coast and continental slope, low Vp/Vs corresponds to batholithic structures in the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc. Between the central depression and Domeyko Cordillera, low Vp/Vs correlates with the distribution of magmatic arcs of Paleocene-Oligocene and Eocene-Oligocene age. Low Vp/Vs also correlates with the location of the Mejillones Peninsula. (2) A region of high Vp/Vs occurs in what is most likely the serpentinized wedge of the subduction zone. (3) An additional zone of low Vp/Vs is located in the middle of the double seismic zone at depths of 90-110 km. This region may exist all along the

  8. Electrochemical and surface analyses of nanostructured Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloys in simulated body solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Li, S J; Hao, Y L; Huang, H H; Bai, Y; Hao, Y Q; Guo, Z; Xue, J Q; Yang, R

    2014-06-01

    The use of nanostructuring to improve the stability of passive thin films on biomaterials can enhance their effectiveness in corrosion resistance and reduce the release of ions. The thickness of the ultrathin films that cover Ti and Ti alloys (only several nanometers) has prevented researchers from establishing systematic methods for their characterization. This study employed a multifunctional biomedical titanium alloy Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (wt.%) as a model material. Coarse-grained (CG) and nanostructured (NS) alloys were analyzed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C. To reveal the details of the passive film, a method of sample preparation producing a passive layer suitable for transmission electron microscope analysis was developed. Electrochemical corrosion behavior was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization tests and Mott-Schottky measurements. Surface depth chemical profile and morphology evolution were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ atomic force microscopy, respectively. A mechanism was proposed on the basis of the point defect model to compare the corrosion resistance of the passive film on NS and CG alloys. Results showed that the protective amorphous film on NS alloy is thicker, denser and more homogeneous with fewer defects than that on CG alloy. The film on NS alloy contains more oxygen and corrosion-resistant elements (Ti and Nb), as well as their suboxides, compared with the film on CG alloy. These characteristics can be attributed to the rapid, uniform growth of the passive film facilitated by nanostructuring.

  9. Intensity contrast of the average supergranule

    CERN Document Server

    Langfellner, J; Gizon, L

    2016-01-01

    While the velocity fluctuations of supergranulation dominate the spectrum of solar convection at the solar surface, very little is known about the fluctuations in other physical quantities like temperature or density at supergranulation scale. Using SDO/HMI observations, we characterize the intensity contrast of solar supergranulation at the solar surface. We identify the positions of ${\\sim}10^4$ outflow and inflow regions at supergranulation scales, from which we construct average flow maps and co-aligned intensity and magnetic field maps. In the average outflow center, the maximum intensity contrast is $(7.8\\pm0.6)\\times10^{-4}$ (there is no corresponding feature in the line-of-sight magnetic field). This corresponds to a temperature perturbation of about $1.1\\pm0.1$ K, in agreement with previous studies. We discover an east-west anisotropy, with a slightly deeper intensity minimum east of the outflow center. The evolution is asymmetric in time: the intensity excess is larger 8 hours before the reference t...

  10. Averaged EMG profiles in jogging and running at different speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, Marnix G. J.; Hof, At L.

    2007-01-01

    EMGs were collected from 14 muscles with surface electrodes in 10 subjects walking 1.25-2.25 m s(-1) and running 1.25-4.5 m s(-1). The EMGs were rectified, interpolated in 100% of the stride, and averaged over all subjects to give an average profile. In running, these profiles could be decomposed in

  11. Real-time 3D visualization of the thoraco-abdominal surface during breathing with body movement and deformation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povšič, K; Jezeršek, M; Možina, J

    2015-07-01

    Real-time 3D visualization of the breathing displacements can be a useful diagnostic tool in order to immediately observe the most active regions on the thoraco-abdominal surface. The developed method is capable of separating non-relevant torso movement and deformations from the deformations that are solely related to breathing. This makes it possible to visualize only the breathing displacements. The system is based on the structured laser triangulation principle, with simultaneous spatial and color data acquisition of the thoraco-abdominal region. Based on the tracking of the attached passive markers, the torso movement and deformation is compensated using rigid and non-rigid transformation models on the three-dimensional (3D) data. The total time of 3D data processing together with visualization equals 20 ms per cycle.In vitro verification of the rigid movement extraction was performed using the iterative closest point algorithm as a reference. Furthermore, a volumetric evaluation on a live subject was performed to establish the accuracy of the rigid and non-rigid model. The root mean square deviation between the measured and the reference volumes shows an error of  ±0.08 dm(3) for rigid movement extraction. Similarly, the error was calculated to be  ±0.02 dm(3) for torsional deformation extraction and  ±0.11 dm(3) for lateral bending deformation extraction. The results confirm that during the torso movement and deformation, the proposed method is sufficiently accurate to visualize only the displacements related to breathing. The method can be used, for example, during the breathing exercise on an indoor bicycle or a treadmill.

  12. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  13. Measurement of waist and hip circumference with a body surface scanner: feasibility, validity, reliability, and correlations with markers of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jaeschke

    Full Text Available Body surface scanners (BS, which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC. However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS compared to traditional manual measurements (MM.As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL. Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid.Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7 cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0 cm; r = 0.98. Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98. Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively.Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO guidelines, our data

  14. Automated Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling-HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling system utilizing a commercially available autosampler coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) detection is reported. Discrete spots selected for droplet-based sampling and automated sample queue generation for both the autosampler and MS were enabled by using in-house developed software. In addition, co-registration of spatially resolved sampling position and HPLC-MS information to generate heatmaps of compounds monitored for subsequent data analysis was also available in the software. The system was evaluated with whole-body thin tissue sections from propranolol dosed rat. The hands-free operation of the system was demonstrated by creating heatmaps of the parent drug and its hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites with 1 mm resolution in the areas of interest. The sample throughput was approximately 5 min/sample defined by the time needed for chromatographic separation. The spatial distributions of both the drug and its metabolites were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling methodologies.

  15. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  16. Ocorrência de corpos silicosos em horizontes superficiais de solos de diferentes ecossistemas Occurrence of silica bodies in surface horizons of soils in different ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liovando Marciano da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O entendimento dos processos que causam as diferentes distribuições de corpos silicosos no solo é essencial para a interpretação dos possíveis fatores ambientais responsáveis pela estabilidade deles, deposição de sedimentos, formação de paleossolos e para análise de sítios arqueológicos. Assim, a presente pesquisa objetivou identificar a ocorrência de corpos silicosos encontrados em horizontes superficiais de solos oriundos de diferentes ecossistemas terrestres. Amostras de horizonte superficial de 10 perfis de solo foram coletadas e queimadas em mufla, para remoção da matéria orgânica. Posteriormente, as amostras foram tratadas com HCl 10 cL L-1, para remoção das impurezas contidas na cinza. A fração silte foi obtida por sedimentação, usando o procedimento de análise granulométrica. A maior parte dos corpos silicosos em solos encontra-se na fração silte. Dessa fração, montaram-se lâminas, utilizando óleo de imersão tipo A para identificação dos corpos silicosos em microscópio óptico. A análise dos resultados permitiu observar a variedade de formas e abundância de corpos silicosos nos solos estudados, sendo mais abundantes e diversificados no solo desenvolvido de quartzito. Nos Latossolos, não houve diferença em abundância de fitólitos em relação aos solos dos biomas do Cerrado, Mata Atlântica e Caatinga.The understanding of the processes that cause the varied distribution of silica bodies in soils is essential for the interpretation of the possible environmental factors related to their stability, sediment deposition, paleosol formation and for the analysis of archaeological sites. Thus, this study had the objective of identifying and characterizing the silica bodies morphology from surface soil horizons collected at different terrestrial ecosystems. Samples of surface horizons were collected from 10 soil profiles and heated in a muffle furnace to remove organic matter. Thereafter the samples were

  17. Lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction beneath the western United States from the joint inversion of body-wave traveltimes and surface-wave phase velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrebski, M.; Allen, R.M.; Pollitz, F.; Hung, S.-H.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between the complex geological history of the western margin of the North American plate and the processes in the mantle is still not fully documented and understood. Several pre-USArray local seismic studies showed how the characteristics of key geological features such as the Colorado Plateau and the Yellowstone Snake River Plains are linked to their deep mantle structure. Recent body-wave models based on the deployment of the high density, large aperture USArray have provided far more details on the mantle structure while surface-wave tomography (ballistic waves and noise correlations) informs us on the shallow structure. Here we combine constraints from these two data sets to image and study the link between the geology of the western United States, the shallow structure of the Earth and the convective processes in mantle. Our multiphase DNA10-S model provides new constraints on the extent of the Archean lithosphere imaged as a large, deeply rooted fast body that encompasses the stable Great Plains and a large portion of the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains. Widespread slow anomalies are found in the lower crust and upper mantle, suggesting that low-density rocks isostatically sustain part of the high topography of the western United States. The Yellowstone anomaly is imaged as a large slow body rising from the lower mantle, intruding the overlying lithosphere and controlling locally the seismicity and the topography. The large E-W extent of the USArray used in this study allows imaging the 'slab graveyard', a sequence of Farallon fragments aligned with the currently subducting Juan de Fuca Slab, north of the Mendocino Triple Junction. The lithospheric root of the Colorado Plateau has apparently been weakened and partly removed through dripping. The distribution of the slower regions around the Colorado Plateau and other rigid blocks follows closely the trend of Cenozoic volcanic fields and ancient lithospheric sutures, suggesting that the

  18. 7 CFR 1209.12 - On average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....12 On average. On average means a rolling average of production or imports during the last two...

  19. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  20. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  1. 光辅助X射线体表定位在骨科植入物内固定中的应用★%Body surface localization using laser auxiliary X-ray in orthopaedic implant internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明鑫; 熊敏; 刘德昌

    2013-01-01

      背景:以往骨科内固定常使用 C 臂机进行体表定位,但固定中的反复透视会加大对人体的损伤及延长固定时间。  目的:探寻一种简便实用、更有利于骨科内固定的光辅助 X 射线体表定位技术。  方法:使用自制的简易装置将雷达状的红色激光投射在体表来辅助 C 臂机进行体表定位。使用 SD 大鼠和新西兰大白兔设计动物实验,模拟软组织内异物定位、骨折髓内钉远端锁钉置入、脊柱椎弓根螺钉进针点定位3种骨科内固定方法。分别使用传统 C 臂机和光辅助 X 射线体表定位技术各进行30次定位。分析2种方法对操作的影响,并分析深度和活体因素对光辅助 X 射线体表定位技术的影响。  结果与结论:与传统 C 臂机定位相比,光辅助 X 射线体表定位技术在实验过程中能够更快的进行体表定位(P OBJECTIVE: To explore a kind of simple practical technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray used in the orthopedic surgery. METHODS: The radar-shaped red laser was projected in the body surface by self-made simple device to assistant the C-arm machine to perform body surface localization. Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits were used to design animal experiment, three kinds of orthopedic surgeries were simulated. Traditional C-arm machine and the technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray was used separately to get position of foreign body in soft tissue, place the distal cross-bolting of fracture intramedul ary nail, and place the pedicle screw in spinal surgery. There were 30 cases in every test. The influence of two methods to the operation was analyzed, and the influence of depth and living body to the technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray was analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the traditional C-arm machine, the technology of body surface

  2. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D solar system.

  3. Inversion of the circular averages transform using the Funk transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integral of a function defined on the half-plane along the semi-circles centered on the boundary of the half-plane is known as the circular averages transform. Circular averages transform arises in many tomographic image reconstruction problems. In particular, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) when the transmitting and receiving antennas are colocated, the received signal is modeled as the integral of the ground reflectivity function of the illuminated scene over the intersection of spheres centered at the antenna location and the surface topography. When the surface topography is flat the received signal becomes the circular averages transform of the ground reflectivity function. Thus, SAR image formation requires inversion of the circular averages transform. Apart from SAR, circular averages transform also arises in thermo-acoustic tomography and sonar inverse problems. In this paper, we present a new inversion method for the circular averages transform using the Funk transform. For a function defined on the unit sphere, its Funk transform is given by the integrals of the function along the great circles. We used hyperbolic geometry to establish a diffeomorphism between the circular averages transform, hyperbolic x-ray and Funk transforms. The method is exact and numerically efficient when fast Fourier transforms over the sphere are used. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of the inversion method. Dedicated to Dennis Healy, a friend of Applied Mathematics and Engineering

  4. Body density differences between negro and caucasian professional football players

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J.; Bagnall, K. M.; McFadden, K. D.; Mottola, M.

    1981-01-01

    Other workers have shown that the bone density for the average negro is greater than for the average caucasian. This would lead to greater values of body density for the average negro but it is confused because the average negro has a different body form (and consequently different proportions of body components) compared with the average caucasian. This study of body density of a group of professional Canadian football players investigates whether or not to separate negroes from caucasians w...

  5. Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Averages of Values of L-Series

    OpenAIRE

    Alkan, Emre; Ono, Ken

    2013-01-01

    We obtain an exact formula for the average of values of L-series over two independent odd characters. The average of any positive moment of values at s = 1 is then expressed in terms of finite cotangent sums subject to congruence conditions. As consequences, bounds on such cotangent sums, limit points for the average of first moment of L-series at s = 1 and the average size of positive moments of character sums related to the class number are deduced.

  7. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices

    CERN Document Server

    del Rio, Rafael; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.

  8. 体表缺陷青少年心理弹性量表的编制%Development of Resilience Scale for Adolescents with Body Surface Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑慧; 姚萍; 陈悦; 陈怡廷; 甘怡群; 潘博; 蒋海越

    2013-01-01

    目的:编制适用于本土的体表缺陷青少年的心理弹性问卷.方法:根据访谈和文献回顾编制初测量表140题,对181名青少年小耳畸形患者进行初测,通过项目鉴别度分析和探索性因素分析,保留31个题目.234人参加复测,进行验证性因素分析和信效度分析.结果:通过探索性因素分析得到缺陷接受、情绪调控、适应能力、自我效能、外部支持、挫折应对6个因子,各个条目的因子负荷在0.38到0.78之间.验证性因素分析支持该量表的6因素结构.量表内部一致性信度系数为0.89,各分量表的信度系数均大于0.6.外部效度指标良好,与青少年韧性量表和意义应对量表的相关系数分别为0.64和0.39.结论:体表缺陷青少年心理弹性量表信效度良好.%Objective:To develop a resilience scale for adolescents with body surface defects and evaluate its psychometric properties.Methods:Study 1 focused on scale development.The content of the 140-item preliminary scale was drawn from a number of sources including reviewing literatures and interviewing patients.Then the primary inventory was conducted among a group of 181 adolescent patients with microtia,and the scale length was refined to 31 items via item discriminant analysis and exploratory factor analysis.Study 2 consisted of confirmatory factor analysis,reliability and validity analysis with a sample of 234 adolescent patients with microtia.Results:Study 1 provided exploratory evidence for the 6-factor structure:acceptance of defects,emotion regulation,adaptability,self-efficacy,external support and frustration coping.Item-factor loadings ranged from 0.38 to 0.78.Evidence for construct validity was supported by confirmatory factor analysis.Internal consistency coefficient of overall scale was 0.89 with all six subscales above 0.60.External validity indexes included correlation coefficients of 0.64 and 0.39 with Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents and Meaning

  9. A new approach for Bayesian model averaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN XiangJun; XIE ZhengHui; WANG AiHui; YANG XiaoChun

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a recently proposed statistical method for calibrating forecast ensembles from numerical weather models.However,successful implementation of BMA requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble.Two methods,namely the Expectation-Maximization (EM) and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms,are widely used for BMA model training.Both methods have their own respective strengths and weaknesses.In this paper,we first modify the BMA log-likelihood function with the aim of removing the additional limitation that requires that the BMA weights add to one,and then use a limited memory quasi-Newtonian algorithm for solving the nonlinear optimization problem,thereby formulating a new approach for BMA (referred to as BMA-BFGS).Several groups of multi-model soil moisture simulation experiments from three land surface models show that the performance of BMA-BFGS is similar to the MCMC method in terms of simulation accuracy,and that both are superior to the EM algorithm.On the other hand,the computational cost of the BMA-BFGS algorithm is substantially less than for MCMC and is almost equivalent to that for EM.

  10. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...

  11. Activated platelets release two types of membrane vesicles: microvesicles by surface shedding and exosomes derived from exocytosis of multivesicular bodies and alpha-granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, H F; Schiel, A E; Fijnheer, R; Geuze, H J; Sixma, J J

    1999-12-01

    Platelet activation leads to secretion of granule contents and to the formation of microvesicles by shedding of membranes from the cell surface. Recently, we have described small internal vesicles in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and alpha-granules, and suggested that these vesicles are secreted during platelet activation, analogous to the secretion of vesicles termed exosomes by other cell types. In the present study we report that two different types of membrane vesicles are released after stimulation of platelets with thrombin receptor agonist peptide SFLLRN (TRAP) or alpha-thrombin: microvesicles of 100 nm to 1 microm, and exosomes measuring 40 to 100 nm in diameter, similar in size as the internal vesicles in MVBs and alpha-granules. Microvesicles could be detected by flow cytometry but not the exosomes, probably because of the small size of the latter. Western blot analysis showed that isolated exosomes were selectively enriched in the tetraspan protein CD63. Whole-mount immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) confirmed this observation. Membrane proteins such as the integrin chains alpha(IIb)-beta(3) and beta(1), GPIbalpha, and P-selectin were predominantly present on the microvesicles. IEM of platelet aggregates showed CD63(+) internal vesicles in fusion profiles of MVBs, and in the extracellular space between platelet extensions. Annexin-V binding was mainly restricted to the microvesicles and to a low extent to exosomes. Binding of factor X and prothrombin was observed to the microvesicles but not to exosomes. These observations and the selective presence of CD63 suggest that released platelet exosomes may have an extracellular function other than the procoagulant activity, attributed to platelet microvesicles.

  12. Body surface localization using laser auxiliary X-ray in orthopaedic implant internal fixation%光辅助X射线体表定位在骨科植入物内固定中的应用★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明鑫; 熊敏; 刘德昌

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-arm X-ray machine is often used in orthopedic surgery to perform the body surface localization. But the repeatedly perspective during the fixation surgery wil increase the damage to the human body and prolong operation time. OBJECTIVE: To explore a kind of simple practical technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray used in the orthopedic surgery. METHODS: The radar-shaped red laser was projected in the body surface by self-made simple device to assistant the C-arm machine to perform body surface localization. Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits were used to design animal experiment, three kinds of orthopedic surgeries were simulated. Traditional C-arm machine and the technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray was used separately to get position of foreign body in soft tissue, place the distal cross-bolting of fracture intramedul ary nail, and place the pedicle screw in spinal surgery. There were 30 cases in every test. The influence of two methods to the operation was analyzed, and the influence of depth and living body to the technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray was analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the traditional C-arm machine, the technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray could obtain the body surface localization more faster (P   目的:探寻一种简便实用、更有利于骨科内固定的光辅助 X 射线体表定位技术。  方法:使用自制的简易装置将雷达状的红色激光投射在体表来辅助 C 臂机进行体表定位。使用 SD 大鼠和新西兰大白兔设计动物实验,模拟软组织内异物定位、骨折髓内钉远端锁钉置入、脊柱椎弓根螺钉进针点定位3种骨科内固定方法。分别使用传统 C 臂机和光辅助 X 射线体表定位技术各进行30次定位。分析2种方法对操作的影响,并分析深度和活体因素对光辅助 X 射线体

  13. 墙体传湿对内表面温度的影响关系研究%Influence of moisture transferring on inner surface temperature wall bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹莹; 刘艳峰; 王登甲; 刘加平

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model of coupled heat and moisture transfer through a wall body was proposed,choosing the relative humidity and temperature as the driving potentials.The model accuracy was verified by the experimental data.Taking pine wood and brick for examples,their heat transfer process under different hot wet environment were calculated using the mathematical model.The results show that in the steady-state condition,the inner surface temperatures of pine wood and brick are lower 1.4 ℃ and 0.7 ℃ or so than those without considering the moisture transfer process respectively.In the periodic boundary conditions,taking the moisture transfer process into account,the inner surface temperatures of pine wood and brick are lower than indoor air temperature in a period of time coincides with the working hours,which is beneficial to improve the indoor thermal environment.When the moisture transfer process is not taken into account,the wall inner surface temperature is always higher than indoor air temperature.The pine board is recommended as wall material in humid or dry areas with larger variation range of indoor air moisture content,and the brick is recommended as wall material in dry areas with smaller variation range of indoor air moisture content.%建立了以相对湿度和温度为驱动势的热湿耦合传递数学模型,并对模型准确性进行了验证.以松木板墙和砖墙为例,利用所建数学模型对其在不同热湿环境下进行计算分析,结果发现:在稳态条件下,松木板墙内表面温度比未考虑传湿情况最多低1.4℃,砖墙内表面温度比未考虑传湿情况最多低0.7℃;在周期性边界条件下且不考虑传湿时,松木板墙和砖墙内表面温度始终高于室内空气温度,考虑墙体传湿时,墙体在白天有部分时间段内表面温度低于室内空气温度,有利于室内热环境的改善;松木板适合在室内空气含湿量变化幅度较大的地区作墙体材料,而砖适合

  14. Why one-dimensional models fail in the diagnosis of average spectra from inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Uitenbroek, Han; Criscuoli, Serena

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of representing a structured multi-dimensional stellar atmosphere with a single one-dimensional average stratification for the purpose of spectral diagnosis of the atmosphere's average spectrum. In particular we construct four different one-dimensional stratifications from a single snapshot of a magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of solar convection: one by averaging its properties over surfaces of constant height, and three different ones by averaging over surface...

  15. Modelling spatial heteroskedasticity by volatility modulated moving averages

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Michele; Veraart, Almut E. D.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heteroskedasticity refers to stochastically changing variances and covariances in space. Such features have been observed in, for example, air pollution and vegetation data. We study how volatility modulated moving averages can model this by developing theory, simulation and statistical inference methods. For illustration, we also apply our procedure to sea surface temperature anomaly data from the International Research Institute for Climate and Society.

  16. Average-cost based robust structural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

  17. MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING AVERAGE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    ZS LÕKE

    2005-01-01

    The photosynthesis of fully developed maize was investigated in the Agrometeorological Research Station Keszthely, in 2000. We used LI-6400 type measurement equipment to locate measurement points where the intensity of photosynthesis mostly nears the average. So later we could obtain average photosynthetic activities featuring the crop, with only one measurement. To check average photosynthesis of maize we used Goudriaan’s simulation model (CMSM) as well to calculate values on cloudless sampl...

  18. WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 许贵桥

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.

  19. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  20. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  1. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  2. Multi-temporal image analysis of historical aerial photographs and recent satellite imagery reveals evolution of water body surface area and polygonal terrain morphology in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-temporal image analysis of very-high-resolution historical aerial and recent satellite imagery of the Ahnewetut Wetlands in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, revealed the nature of thaw lake and polygonal terrain evolution over a 54-year period of record comprising two 27-year intervals (1951–1978, 1978–2005). Using active-contouring-based change detection, high-precision orthorectification and co-registration and the normalized difference index, surface area expansion and contraction of 22 shallow water bodies, ranging in size from 0.09 to 179 ha, and the transition of ice-wedge polygons from a low- to a high-centered morphology were quantified. Total surface area decreased by only 0.4% during the first time interval, but decreased by 5.5% during the second time interval. Twelve water bodies (ten lakes and two ponds) were relatively stable with net surface area decreases of ≤10%, including four lakes that gained area during both time intervals, whereas ten water bodies (five lakes and five ponds) had surface area losses in excess of 10%, including two ponds that drained completely. Polygonal terrain remained relatively stable during the first time interval, but transformation of polygons from low- to high-centered was significant during the second time interval. (letter)

  3. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  4. Stochastic averaging of quasi-Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱位秋

    1996-01-01

    A stochastic averaging method is proposed for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (Hamiltonian systems with light dampings subject to weakly stochastic excitations). Various versions of the method, depending on whether the associated Hamiltonian systems are integrable or nonintegrable, resonant or nonresonant, are discussed. It is pointed out that the standard stochastic averaging method and the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope are special cases of the stochastic averaging method of quasi-Hamiltonian systems and that the results obtained by this method for several examples prove its effectiveness.

  5. Body embellishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Body Embellishment explores the most innovative artistic expression in the 21st-century international arenas of body extension, augmentation, and modification, focusing on jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. The areas of focus are jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. Avant-garde jewelry consciously engages the body by intersecting and expanding the planes of the human form. Tattoos are at once on and in the body. Nail art, from manicures to pedicures, has humble ...

  6. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  7. Disk-averaged Spectra & light-curves of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Crisp, D; Fong, W; Kiang, N; Fishbein, E; Velusamy, T; Bosc, E; Turnbull, M

    2005-01-01

    We are using computer models to explore the observational sensitivity to changes in atmospheric and surface properties, and the detectability of biosignatures, in the globally averaged spectra and light-curves of the Earth. Using AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) data, as input for atmospheric and surface properties, we have generated spatially resolved high-resolution synthetic spectra using the SMART radiative transfer model, for a variety of conditions, from the UV to the far-IR (beyond the range of current Earth-based satellite data). We have then averaged over the visible disk for a number of different viewing geometries to quantify the sensitivity to surface types and atmospheric features as a function of viewing geometry, and spatial and spectral resolution. These results have been processed with an instrument simulator to improve our understanding of the detectable characteristics of Earth-like planets as viewed by the first generation extrasolar terrestrial planet detection and characterization mis...

  8. 手术治疗体表皮肤软组织缺损的临床分析%The clinic analysis of surgery with soft tissue defects of body surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春华; 胡德林; 余又新; 方林森; 汪昌荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the efficacy of repairing the soft tissue injury of body surface. Methods 94 patients with soft tissue injury of body surface from November 1996 to October 2010 were selected, including 73 men and 21 women, and aged 1.5 to 88 years (32.03 years on average), the amongst of wounds was 103.13. Patients were operated with auto skin- wafting. 59 patients were repaired with axial skin flap, 10 patients were repaired with skin flap of blood vessel and aponeurosis, 19 patients were repaired with myocutaneous flap, and 2 patients were repaired with free skin flap. Results After operation, the auto skin - grafting of 9 patients were alive and the other auto skin - grafting of 5 patients were dead. All the skin flaps were alive, part of two flaps were dead, chronicity sinuses appeared under 8 flaps, and accreted after treatment. 2 groin flaps were dangerous because the fold of stem and the danger disappeared after demolish of the fold. A lower abdominal flap was dangerous with the tightness of suture line in stem, and were saved after dismantle parts of chord. All raw surfaces were healed. All the cases were followed up 2 months to 10 years, many patents had scar after skin -grafting and affected the joint function. The scar of flaps was light, and the shape and joint function were good. Conclusion The operation must be applied ss early as possible on soft tissue injury of body surface, and proper flap to repair the wounds is the basic method, and axial skin flap will be selected first, fascial flap and myocutaneous flap would be selected secondly and the last method will be free skin flap.%目的 通过植皮和皮瓣修复各种原因引起的体表皮肤软组织缺损创面并观察临床效果,探讨最佳的修复方法.方法 回顾1996年11月至2010年10月收治的各种原因致体表皮肤软组织缺损患者94例,共103个创面,手术方法:自体皮移植修复创面13例;轴型皮瓣修复创面59例;血管筋膜皮瓣修复创面10

  9. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  10. Average-passage simulation of counter-rotating propfan propulsion systems as applied to cruise missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Richard A.; Schneider, Jon C.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Counter-rotating propfan (CRP) propulsion technologies are currently being evaluated as cruise missile propulsion systems. The aerodynamic integration concerns associated with this application are being addressed through the computational modeling of the missile body-propfan flowfield interactions. The work described in this paper consists of a detailed analysis of the aerodynamic interactions between the control surfaces and the propfan blades through the solution of the average-passage equation system. Two baseline configurations were studied, the control fins mounted forward of the counter-rotating propeller and the control fins mounted aft of the counter-rotating propeller. In both cases, control fin-propfan separation distance and control fin deflection angle were varied.

  11. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  12. Average sampling theorems for shift invariant subspaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文昌; 周性伟

    2000-01-01

    The sampling theorem is one of the most powerful results in signal analysis. In this paper, we study the average sampling on shift invariant subspaces, e.g. wavelet subspaces. We show that if a subspace satisfies certain conditions, then every function in the subspace is uniquely determined and can be reconstructed by its local averages near certain sampling points. Examples are given.

  13. Average excitation potentials of air and aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.; Koudijs, B.

    1951-01-01

    By means of a graphical method the average excitation potential I may be derived from experimental data. Average values for Iair and IAl have been obtained. It is shown that in representing range/energy relations by means of Bethe's well known formula, I has to be taken as a continuously changing fu

  14. New results on averaging theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume

    2016-08-01

    The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.

  15. Construction of average adult Japanese voxel phantoms for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted the adult reference voxel phantoms based on the physiological and anatomical reference data of Caucasian on October, 2007. The organs and tissues of these phantoms were segmented on the basis of ICRP Publication 103. In future, the dose coefficients for internal dose and dose conversion coefficients for external dose calculated using the adult reference voxel phantoms will be widely used for the radiation protection fields. On the other hand, the body sizes and organ masses of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian. In addition, there are some cases that the anatomical characteristics such as body sizes, organ masses and postures of subjects influence the organ doses in dose assessment for medical treatments and radiation accident. Therefore, it was needed to use human phantoms with average anatomical characteristics of Japanese. The authors constructed the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms by modifying the previously developed high-resolution adult male (JM) and female (JF) voxel phantoms. It has been modified in the following three aspects: (1) The heights and weights were agreed with the Japanese averages; (2) The masses of organs and tissues were adjusted to the Japanese averages within 10%; (3) The organs and tissues, which were newly added for evaluation of the effective dose in ICRP Publication 103, were modeled. In this study, the organ masses, distances between organs, specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and dose conversion coefficients of these phantoms were compared with those evaluated using the ICRP adult reference voxel phantoms. This report provides valuable information on the anatomical and dosimetric characteristics of the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms developed as reference phantoms of adult Japanese. (author)

  16. Short-Term Auditory Memory of Above-Average and Below-Average Grade Three Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruk, Joan Marie

    To determine if performance on short term auditory memory tasks is influenced by reading ability or sex differences, 62 third grade reading students (16 above average boys, 16 above average girls, 16 below average boys, and 14 below average girls) were administered four memory tests--memory for consonant names, memory for words, memory for…

  17. Clarifying the Relationship between Average Excesses and Average Effects of Allele Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Castro, José M; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Fisher's concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance. PMID:22509178

  18. Clarifying the relationship between average excesses and average effects of allele substitutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M eÁlvarez-Castro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fisher’s concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one-locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance.

  19. Development and functional evaluation of biomimetic silicone surfaces with hierarchical micro/nano-topographical features demonstrates favourable in vitro foreign body response of breast-derived fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Daniel J T; Oikonomou, Antonios; Hill, Ernie; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-06-01

    Reproducing extracellular matrix topographical cues, such as those present within acellular dermal matrix (ADM), in synthetic implant surfaces, may augment cellular responses, independent of surface chemistry. This could lead to enhanced implant integration and performance while reducing complications. In this work, the hierarchical micro and nanoscale features of ADM were accurately and reproducibly replicated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), using an innovative maskless 3D grayscale fabrication process not previously reported. Human breast derived fibroblasts (n=5) were cultured on PDMS surfaces and compared to commercially available smooth and textured silicone implant surfaces, for up to one week. Cell attachment, proliferation and cytotoxicity, in addition to immunofluorescence staining, SEM imaging, qRT-PCR and cytokine array were performed. ADM PDMS surfaces promoted cell adhesion, proliferation and survival (p=<0.05), in addition to increased focal contact formation and spread fibroblast morphology when compared to commercially available implant surfaces. PCNA, vinculin and collagen 1 were up-regulated in fibroblasts on biomimetic surfaces while IL8, TNFα, TGFβ1 and HSP60 were down-regulated (p=<0.05). A reduced inflammatory cytokine response was also observed (p=<0.05). This study represents a novel approach to the development of functionalised biomimetic prosthetic implant surfaces which were demonstrated to significantly attenuate the acute in vitro foreign body reaction to silicone. PMID:25818416

  20. Small scale magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By relaxing exact magnetic flux conservation below a scale λ a system of flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived from Hamilton's principle with modified constraints. An energy principle can be derived from the linearized averaged system because the total system energy is conserved. This energy principle is employed to treat the resistive tearing instability and the exact growth rate is recovered when λ is identified with the resistive skin depth. A necessary and sufficient stability criteria of the tearing instability with line tying at the ends for solar coronal loops is also obtained. The method is extended to both spatial and temporal averaging in Hamilton's principle. The resulting system of equations not only allows flux reconnection but introduces irreversibility for appropriate choice of the averaging function. Except for boundary contributions which are modified by the time averaging process total energy and momentum are conserved over times much longer than the averaging time τ but not for less than τ. These modified boundary contributions correspond to the existence, also, of damped waves and shock waves in this theory. Time and space averaging is applied to electron magnetohydrodynamics and in one-dimensional geometry predicts solitons and shocks in different limits

  1. Averaged Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Isidro, Eddy G Chirinos; Piattella, Oliver F; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological backreaction effects in Buchert's averaging formalism on the basis of an explicit solution of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dynamics which is linear in the LTB curvature parameter and has an inhomogeneous bang time. The volume Hubble rate is found in terms of the volume scale factor which represents a derivation of the simplest phenomenological solution of Buchert's equations in which the fractional densities corresponding to average curvature and kinematic backreaction are explicitly determined by the parameters of the underlying LTB solution at the boundary of the averaging volume. This configuration represents an exactly solvable toy model but it does not adequately describe our "real" Universe.

  2. Average-passage flow model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  3. Average Shape of Transport-Limited Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2005-08-01

    We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry.

  4. Averaging of Backscatter Intensities in Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John J.; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Westphal, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Low uncertainty measurements on pure element stable isotope pairs demonstrate that mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds using elemental mass fractions is improperly grounded in mass and thus has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based of the number of electrons or protons, termed “electron fraction,” which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. PMID:27446752

  5. Experimental Demonstration of Squeezed State Quantum Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2010-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The harmonic mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of fragile squeezed light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean outperforms the standard arithmetic mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested both for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources with sub-Poissonian shot noise or super-Poissonian shot noise characteristics.

  6. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found f...

  7. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...

  8. Construction of 3-D body surface model based on partitioning%基于部位划分的三维人体曲面模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓志; 李晓久

    2013-01-01

    By the self-developed 3-D body measurement system,the 3-D body scan line point cloud data can be acquired.For the complexity of the human body surface,if a body surface model is directly constructed,the result may cause arms with torso,left leg with right legs together as one contour,or big errors in the head-shoulder with the arms and the torso and the torso with legs.So the paper first divides the human body surface into six parts based on the shape,then constructs a triangular mesh for each part and puts forward a new method that divides the single contour into multi-contour to establish the triangular mesh between single contour and multi contours of the head-shoulder with the arms and the torso and the torso with legs.Finally,the triangular mesh surface model of the entire human body is constructed.%应用自主开发的三维人体测量系统获取人体扫描线点云数据.由于人体表面比较复杂,如果直接对整个人体点云进行模型的重构,可能会使人体手臂与人体躯干、左腿与右腿连在一起,或者导致体头肩部与人体躯干、手臂以及躯干与两腿之间连接的部分出现较大误差,为此,首先根据人体形状,将人体表面分割为6个部分,并对每部分人体点云分别进行三角网格化处理,然后提出将单轮廓划分为多轮廓的方法,将人体头肩部与人体躯干、手臂以及躯干与两腿进行合成,最终生成完整的人体三角网格曲面模型.

  9. Average Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  10. Average Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  11. Average Vegetation Growth 1991 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1991 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  12. Average Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  13. Average Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  14. Average Vegetation Growth 1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1999 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  15. Average Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  16. Average Vegetation Growth 2003 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2003 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  17. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Polygon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  18. Average Vegetation Growth 2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2002 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  19. Average Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  20. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...

  1. Averaging procedure in variable-G cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Vincenzo F

    2008-01-01

    Previous work in the literature had built a formalism for spatially averaged equations for the scale factor, giving rise to an averaged Raychaudhuri equation and averaged Hamiltonian constraint, which involve a backreaction source term. The present paper extends these equations to include models with variable Newton parameter and variable cosmological term, motivated by the non-perturbative renormalization program for quantum gravity based upon the Einstein--Hilbert action. The coupling between backreaction and spatially averaged three-dimensional scalar curvature is found to survive, and all equations involving contributions of a variable Newton parameter are worked out in detail. Interestingly, under suitable assumptions, an approximate solution can be found where the universe tends to a FLRW model, while keeping track of the original inhomogeneities through two effective fluids.

  2. A practical guide to averaging functions

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakov, Gleb; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications ...

  3. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  4. Average Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  5. Monthly snow/ice averages (ISCCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11.5 percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. Data from NASA show that the land ice sheets...

  6. Modeling and Instability of Average Current Control

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chung-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics and stability of average current control of DC-DC converters are analyzed by sampled-data modeling. Orbital stability is studied and it is found unrelated to the ripple size of the orbit. Compared with the averaged modeling, the sampled-data modeling is more accurate and systematic. An unstable range of compensator pole is found by simulations, and is predicted by sampled-data modeling and harmonic balance modeling.

  7. Nonequilibrium statistical averages and thermo field dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extension of thermo field dynamics is proposed, which permits the computation of nonequilibrium statistical averages. The Brownian motion of a quantum oscillator is treated as an example. In conclusion it is pointed out that the procedure proposed to computation of time-dependent statistical average gives the correct two-point Green function for the damped oscillator. A simple extension can be used to compute two-point Green functions of free particles

  8. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Balogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

  9. Development of a texture averaged Reynolds equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, A. de; Ostayen, R.A.J. van; Rixen, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of textured bearing surfaces results in a more complex lubricant flow pattern compared to smooth bearing surfaces. In order to capture the more complex flow pattern and possible inertia effects in the vicinity of the surface pockets, the NavierStokes equations should be used to model

  10. Segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin: A method for correcting errors due to incomplete contact of the body with a surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Janieas, N.R.D.J.; Silva, M.C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin is often correlated with the local thermal sensation of people and is used for indoor environment assessment. It is also used to assess performance of heated/cooled/ventilated car seats, etc. However, the body...

  11. Synoptic observations of near surface processes of an insolated ice-dust body under space conditions: The case of KOSI 9 and 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, K.; Koelzer, G.; Lorenz, E.; Kochan, H.; Gebhard, J.; Gruen, E.

    1993-01-01

    The recent experiments of the Comet Simulation Project, KOSI 9 and KOSI 10, for the first time yielded synoptic results of physically correlated phenomena near the surface of insolated porous ice dust mixtures (90% H2O, 10% olivine, 0.1% fine dispersed carbon, sample mean density 0.40 +/- 0.001 g/cm(sup 3)) under space conditions. Correlations were observed e.g. between (1) grain size of emitted dust and dust mantle formation; (2) surface avalanches and local surface temperature; and (3) lateral variations of the surface temperature and the thickness of the dust mantle at the end of the experiment. The dynamic surface processes and the observed structural parameters of the dust mantle and the emitted mineral residues are discussed in view of real comets.

  12. Database of average-power damage thresholds at 1064 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have completed a database of average-power, laser-induced, damage thresholds at 1064 nm on a variety of materials. Measurements were made with a newly constructed laser to provide design input for moderate and high average-power laser projects. The measurements were conducted with 16-ns pulses at pulse-repetition frequencies ranging from 6 to 120 Hz. Samples were typically irradiated for time ranging from a fraction of a second up to 5 minutes (36,000 shots). We tested seven categories of samples which included antireflective coatings, high reflectors, polarizers, single and multiple layers of the same material, bare and overcoated metal surfaces, bare polished surfaces, and bulk materials. The measured damage threshold ranged from 2 for some metals to > 46 J/cm2 for a bare polished glass substrate. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  13. Discrete Averaging Relations for Micro to Macro Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The well-known Hill's averaging theorems for stresses and strains as well as the so-called Hill-Mandel principle of macrohomogeneity are essential ingredients for the coupling and the consistency between the micro and macro scales in multiscale finite element procedures (FE$^2$). We show in this paper that these averaging relations hold exactly under standard finite element discretizations, even if the stress field is discontinuous across elements and the standard proofs based on the divergence theorem are no longer suitable. The discrete averaging results are derived for the three classical types of boundary conditions (affine displacement, periodic and uniform traction boundary conditions) using the properties of the shape functions and the weak form of the microscopic equilibrium equations. The analytical proofs are further verified numerically through a simple finite element simulation of an irregular representative volume element undergoing large deformations. Furthermore, the proofs are extended to include the effects of body forces and inertia, and the results are consistent with those in the smooth continuum setting. This work provides a solid foundation to apply Hill's averaging relations in multiscale finite element methods without introducing an additional error in the scale transition due to the discretization.

  14. Fuel optimum low-thrust elliptic transfer using numerical averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzi, Zahi; Speyer, Jason; Wirz, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Low-thrust electric propulsion is increasingly being used for spacecraft missions primarily due to its high propellant efficiency. As a result, a simple and fast method for low-thrust trajectory optimization is of great value for preliminary mission planning. However, few low-thrust trajectory tools are appropriate for preliminary mission design studies. The method presented in this paper provides quick and accurate solutions for a wide range of transfers by using numerical orbital averaging to improve solution convergence and include orbital perturbations. Thus, preliminary trajectories can be obtained for transfers which involve many revolutions about the primary body. This method considers minimum fuel transfers using first-order averaging to obtain the fuel optimum rates of change of the equinoctial orbital elements in terms of each other and the Lagrange multipliers. Constraints on thrust and power, as well as minimum periapsis, are implemented and the equations are averaged numerically using a Gausian quadrature. The use of numerical averaging allows for more complex orbital perturbations to be added in the future without great difficulty. The effects of zonal gravity harmonics, solar radiation pressure, and thrust limitations due to shadowing are included in this study. The solution to a transfer which minimizes the square of the thrust magnitude is used as a preliminary guess for the minimum fuel problem, thus allowing for faster convergence to a wider range of problems. Results from this model are shown to provide a reduction in propellant mass required over previous minimum fuel solutions.

  15. Comparison of Mouse Brain DTI Maps Using K-space Average, Image-space Average, or No Average Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Shu-Wei; Mei, Jennifer; Tuel, Keelan

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is achieved by collecting a series of diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). Signal averaging of multiple repetitions can be performed in the k-space (k-avg) or in the image space (m-avg) to improve the image quality. Alternatively, one can treat each acquisition as an independent image and use all of the data to reconstruct the DTI without doing any signal averaging (no-avg). To compare these three approaches, in this study, in vivo DTI data was collected from five ...

  16. The role of the harmonic vector average in motion integration

    OpenAIRE

    Alan eJohnston; Peter eScarfe

    2013-01-01

    The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition t...

  17. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...... with an analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  18. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  19. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  20. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  1. Basics of averaging of the Maxwell equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chipouline, A; Tretyakov, S

    2011-01-01

    Volume or statistical averaging of the microscopic Maxwell equations (MEs), i.e. transition from microscopic MEs to their macroscopic counterparts, is one of the main steps in electrodynamics of materials. In spite of the fundamental importance of the averaging procedure, it is quite rarely properly discussed in university courses and respective books; up to now there is no established consensus about how the averaging procedure has to be performed. In this paper we show that there are some basic principles for the averaging procedure (irrespective to what type of material is studied) which have to be satisfied. Any homogenization model has to be consistent with the basic principles. In case of absence of this correlation of a particular model with the basic principles the model could not be accepted as a credible one. Another goal of this paper is to establish the averaging procedure for metamaterials, which is rather close to the case of compound materials but should include magnetic response of the inclusi...

  2. Ensemble-average versus suspension-scale Cauchy continuum-mechanical definitions of stress in polarized suspensions: Global homogenization of a dilute suspension of dipolar spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The macroscale rheological properties of a dilute suspension exposed to a uniform external field and composed of identical, rigid, inhomogeneous, dipolar, spherical particles dispersed in an incompressible Newtonian fluid and possessing the same mean density as the latter fluid are derived from knowledge of its microscale properties by applying a global ensemble-averaging technique. Each dipole, which is permanently embedded in the particle, is assumed to be generated by the presence of an inhomogeneous external body-force field in the particle interior resulting from the action of the uniform external field on an inhomogeneous distribution of interior matter. It is shown that although the ensemble-average stress tensor is symmetric, the suspension nevertheless behaves macroscopically as if it possessed an asymmetric stress tensor. This seeming contradiction can be traced to the fact that the average body force acting on the contents of any arbitrarily drawn volume lying in the interior of the suspension does not vanish despite the fact that each particle is 'neutrally buoyant'. That this force is not zero stems from the fact that some particles necessarily straddle the closed surface bounding that volume, and that the distribution of external body forces over the interiors of these particles is nonuniform. As such, that portion of the spherical particle lying outside of the surface enclosing the domain exerts a force on the remaining portion of the sphere lying within that domain. We then demonstrate that the natural macroscopic model, which is derived by equating the divergence of the suspension-scale stress appearing in that model to the ensemble-average external body-force field, and which predicts a symmetric stress tensor, is macroscopically deficient with respect to the more intuitive asymmetric stress model usually proposed by continuum mechanicians for such a suspension. It is shown that the latter, continuum-mechanical model recovers all the physically

  3. 基于多属性的地质目标体表面重建方法研究%Research on Surface Reconstruction Method of 3D Geological Target Body Based on Multi-Attribute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓博文; 赵正果; 姚兴苗

    2015-01-01

    地震资料解释几乎覆盖整个基础地质的研究过程,而其中三维地质目标体的表面重建及可视化又是极其重要的一部分。在实际的地震解释过程中,不同的地震属性从不同的方面反映出地震数据的特点,为了结合不同的地震属性更加全面的反映地质目标体的特点并且消除单一地震属性数据带来的多解性问题,提出一种新的三维地质目标体表面重建及数据填充和表面平滑的方法流程。介绍基于模糊逻辑的多属性数据特征融合的地质目标体提取方法;介绍基于形态学方法的地质目标体数据填充方法和基于高斯平滑算法的地质目标体表面平滑。通过对实际地震工区进行仿真实验,得到理想的实验结果,为三维地质目标体表面重建提供一种新的研究思路。%Almost all of the basic geological study and petroleum geology study will involve the seismic data interpretation, and 3D surface recon-struction and visualization of anomaly bodies is an important part of seismic data interpretation. In the practical seismic data, different seismic attributes often reflect different aspects of underground situation. In order to combine different seismic attributes to reflect the characteristics of target body more fully and eliminate the uncertainty of a single seismic data, proposes a new surface reconstruction method work flow of 3D target body. This workflow includes surface reconstruction method, data filling and surface smoothing. Introduces the method of 3D geological target body extraction based on data fusion of different seismic attributes, and this method adapts the method of fuzzy logic. Introduces data filling of 3D geological target body method based on morphology and surface smoothing of 3D geological target body based on Gaussian smoothing. This new workflow is used in practical project of geological interpretation, and has some nice results. It gives surface

  4. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  5. Cosmic structure, averaging and dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wiltshire, David L

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes review the theoretical problems associated with coarse-graining the observed inhomogeneous structure of the universe at late epochs, of describing average cosmic evolution in the presence of growing inhomogeneity, and of relating average quantities to physical observables. In particular, a detailed discussion of the timescape scenario is presented. In this scenario, dark energy is realized as a misidentification of gravitational energy gradients which result from gradients in the kinetic energy of expansion of space, in the presence of density and spatial curvature gradients that grow large with the growth of structure. The phenomenology and observational tests of the timescape model are discussed in detail, with updated constraints from Planck satellite data. In addition, recent results on the variation of the Hubble expansion on < 100/h Mpc scales are discussed. The spherically averaged Hubble law is significantly more uniform in the rest frame of the Local Group of galaxies than in t...

  6. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  7. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  8. Matrix averages relating to Ginibre ensembles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, Peter J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rains, Eric M [Department of Mathematics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: p.forrester@ms.unimelb.edu.au

    2009-09-25

    The theory of zonal polynomials is used to compute the average of a Schur polynomial of argument AX, where A is a fixed matrix and X is from the real Ginibre ensemble. This generalizes a recent result of Sommers and Khoruzhenko (2009 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 222002), and furthermore allows analogous results to be obtained for the complex and real quaternion Ginibre ensembles. As applications, the positive integer moments of the general variance Ginibre ensembles are computed in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions; these are written in terms of averages over matrices of the same size as the moment to give duality formulas, and the averages of the power sums of the eigenvalues are expressed as finite sums of zonal polynomials.

  9. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  10. Average Cycle Period in Asymmetrical Flashing Ratchet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-Yan; HE Hou-Sheng; BAO Jing-Dong

    2005-01-01

    The directed motion of a Brownian particle in a flashing potential with various transition probabilities and waiting times in one of two states is studied. An expression for the average cycle period is proposed and the steady current J of the particle is calculated via Langevin simulation. The results show that the optimal cycle period rm,which takes the maximum of J, is shifted to a small value when the transition probability λ from the potential on to the potential off decreases, the maximalcurrent appears in the case of the average waiting time in the potential on being longer than in the potential off, and the direction of current depends on the ratio of the average times waiting in two states.

  11. Average Cross Section Evaluation - Room for Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohner, G.H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Institut fur Kern- und Energietechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Techniques for evaluation of average nuclear cross sections are well established. Nevertheless there seems room for improvement. Heuristic expressions for average partial cross sections of the Hauser-Feshbach type with width fluctuation corrections could be replaced by the correct GOE triple integral. Transmission coefficients derived from macroscopic models (optical, single and double hump fission barrier, etc) lead to better descriptions of cross section behaviour over wide energy ranges. At higher energies (n,{gamma}n') reactions compete with radiative capture (Moldauer effect). In all cross section modeling one must distinguish properly between average S- and R-matrix parameters. The exact relationship between them is given, as well as the connection to Endf format rules. Fitting codes (e.g. FITACS) should be able to digest observed data directly, instead of only reduced data corrected already for self shielding and multiple scattering (e.g. with SESH). (author)

  12. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t

  13. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    OpenAIRE

    R Alexander Bentley; Alberto Acerbi; Paul Ormerod; Vasileios Lampos

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is signific...

  14. An improved moving average technical trading rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailias, Fotis; Thomakos, Dimitrios D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a modified version of the widely used price and moving average cross-over trading strategies. The suggested approach (presented in its 'long only' version) is a combination of cross-over 'buy' signals and a dynamic threshold value which acts as a dynamic trailing stop. The trading behaviour and performance from this modified strategy are different from the standard approach with results showing that, on average, the proposed modification increases the cumulative return and the Sharpe ratio of the investor while exhibiting smaller maximum drawdown and smaller drawdown duration than the standard strategy.

  15. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J M M Senovilla

    2007-07-01

    Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.

  16. Average-case analysis of numerical problems

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The average-case analysis of numerical problems is the counterpart of the more traditional worst-case approach. The analysis of average error and cost leads to new insight on numerical problems as well as to new algorithms. The book provides a survey of results that were mainly obtained during the last 10 years and also contains new results. The problems under consideration include approximation/optimal recovery and numerical integration of univariate and multivariate functions as well as zero-finding and global optimization. Background material, e.g. on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and random fields, is provided.

  17. A Respiration Rate Body Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Avbelj; Aleksandra Rashkovska; Roman Trobec

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new body sensor for extracting the respiration rate based on the amplitude changes in the body surface potential differences between two proximal body electrodes. The sensor could be designed as a plaster-like reusable unit that can be easily fixed onto the surface of the body. It could be equipped either with a sufficiently large memory for storing the measured data or with a low-power radio system that can transmit the measured data to a gateway for further processing. We explo...

  18. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...... and shrink, leading to potential pitfalls in paleopathological diagnostics. Bog bodies have in several instances been crucial in determining the last meal, as gut contents may be preserved, and thus augment our knowledge on pre-historic diet by adding to, for example, stable isotope analyses. This article...

  19. Impact of body habitus on quantitative and qualitative image quality in whole-body FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Clark, Paul A.; Nakamoto, Yuji; Wahl, Richard L. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 601 N. Caroline St., Rm 3223, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining consistent high image quality is desirable for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Body morphology may impact image quality. The purpose of this study was to define the average and the range of body sizes in patients undergoing tumor PET studies in our center and to determine how the body habitus affects the statistical and visual quality of PET images. Height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI) were determined in 101 male and 101 female patients (group 1) referred for clinical PET. The summed total counts from three consecutive transaxial slices on non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) 2D fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images, which included the largest liver section and no lesions, were determined and compared with body morphology and injected doses (ID) in a representative group of 30 male and 30 female patients (group 2) spanning a range of body morphologies. The visual quality of images was also evaluated using a scoring system by three readers. The average height, weight, and BSA were greater in male than in female patients, but the average BMI was not different between them in group 1. The largest value of weight or BMI was more than four times the smallest value in female patients. The total true counts were best correlated with ID/weight (mCi/kg) in group 2 (r=0.929, P<0.0001). Intermediate to high total counts (930,000 or more) corresponded to ID/weight of 0.22 or higher. The average visual score was positively correlated with the total counts ({rho}=0.63, P<0.0001) and with ID/weight ({rho}=0.68, P<0.0001) on NAC images. The image quality in 22 (84.6%) of 26 patients with intermediate to high total counts was adequate to good, whereas that in 21 (61.8%) of 34 patients with lower total counts was suboptimal. A wide variety of body morphologies was observed in patients referred for clinical FDG-PET tumor studies in our center. The total counts and average image visual score were negatively correlated with

  20. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department

  1. Average beta measurement in EXTRAP T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning with the ideal MHD pressure balance equation, an expression for the average poloidal beta, ΒΘ, is derived. A method for unobtrusively measuring the quantities used to evaluate ΒΘ in Extrap T1 is described. The results if a series of measurements yielding ΒΘ as a function of externally applied toroidal field are presented. (author)

  2. Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single qu...

  3. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr...

  4. Discontinuities and hysteresis in quantized average consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceragioli, Francesca; Persis, Claudio De; Frasca, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We consider continuous-time average consensus dynamics in which the agents’ states are communicated through uniform quantizers. Solutions to the resulting system are defined in the Krasowskii sense and are proven to converge to conditions of ‘‘practical consensus’’. To cope with undesired chattering

  5. Error estimates on averages of correlated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe how the true statistical error on an average of correlated data can be obtained with ease and efficiency by a renormalization group method. The method is illustrated with numerical and analytical examples, having finite as well as infinite range correlations. (orig.)

  6. Average utility maximization: A preference foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen

  7. High average-power induction linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.

    1989-03-15

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs.

  8. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  9. Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a simple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generalization optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation...

  10. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...

  11. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter;

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...

  12. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...

  13. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use

  14. Contamination of environmental surfaces by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rooms of inpatients with MRSA-positive body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, E Jessica Ohashi; Oie, Shigeharu; Furukawa, H

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can contaminate environmental surfaces that are frequently touched by the hands of patients with MRSA colonization/infection. There have been many studies in which the presence or absence of MRSA contamination was determined but no studies in which MRSA contamination levels were also evaluated in detail. We evaluated MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces (overbed tables, bed side rails, and curtains) in the rooms of inpatients from whom MRSA was isolated via clinical specimens. We examined the curtains within 7-14 days after they had been newly hung. The environmental surfaces were wiped using gauze (molded gauze for wiping of surface bacteria; 100% cotton, 4cm×8cm) moistened with sterile physiological saline. The MRSA contamination rate and mean counts (range) were 25.0% (6/24 samples) and 30.6 (0-255)colony-forming units (cfu)/100cm(2), respectively, for the overbed tables and 31.6% (6/19 samples) and 159.5 (0-1620)cfu/100cm(2), respectively, for the bed side rails. No MRSA was detected in 24 curtain samples. The rate of MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces was high for the overbed tables and bed side rails but low for the curtains. Therefore, at least until the 14th day of use, frequent disinfection of curtains may be not necessary.

  15. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  16. Third-body Wear Damage Produced in CoCr Surfaces by Hydroxyapatite and Alumina Ceramic Debris: A 10-cycle Metal-on-Metal Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Halim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic particles are believed to be particularly abrasive due to their extreme hardness. Ceramic debris has been reported in retrieved total hip arthroplasty (THA due to chipping and fracture of alumina components or by flaking of hydroxyapatite from implant coatings. However there appears to be no abrasion ranking of such particle behavior. The hypotheses in this study were, i alumina particles would create large scratches in CoCr surfaces and ii hydroxyapatite would produce very mild scratching comparable to bone-cement particles. Hydroxyapatite beads came in two types of commercial powders while the flakes were scraped from retrieved femoral stems. Alumina beads came in two commercial powders and flakes were retrieved from a fractured ceramic head. Particle morphologies were determined by SEM and CoCr surface damage by interferometry and SEM. Six 38-mm MOM were mounted inverted in a hip simulator and run with ceramic particles inserted for a 10-second test. Surface-roughness ranking after 10-second abrasion test revealed that bone cement and hydroxyapatite produced least damage to CoCr surfaces while alumina produced the most. Alumina increased surface roughness 19-fold greater than either hydroxyapatite or bone-cement particles. The alumina debris produced numerous scratches typically 20-80 µm wide with some up to 140µm wide. Surprisingly the alumina beads and flakes were pulverized within the 10-second test interval and remained adherent to the CoCr surfaces. Additionally, the hydroxyapatite although also a ceramic had no more effect on CoCr than the bone-cement debris. Use of well-characterized and commercially available alumina and hydroxyapatite powders appeared advantageous for abrasion tests. These new data indicated that such ceramic powders have merit.

  17. Experiment of surface thermal features of wake behind a going body underwater in a temperature stratification water tank%温度分层水槽中水下航行体尾流水面热特征实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴猛猛; 陈伯义; 张修峰; 杨立; 袁宝吉

    2011-01-01

    The surface thermal features caused by the wake behind a going body underwater in the temperature stratification ocean are the key topic to the development of infrared anti-submarine technology. The buoyant process of the thermal wake and its interaction with the surface were displayed and measured in a water tank with the vertical negative temperature gradient. The variation laws of the surface temperature caused by the wake behind a going body underwater, as well as the buoyancy image and surface infrared image of the thermal wake were obtained. Based on these research, the effects of sail depths, temperature gradients, surface wave and sun radiation on the surface thermal features were discussed. The present results may provide a certain theoretical basis and important reference value for the infrared detection of a going body underwater.%温度分层海洋中水下航行体尾流引起的水面热特征是发展红外反潜技术的关键课题.在具有垂直负温度梯度的水槽中,对水下航行体热尾流的浮升过程及其与自由表面的相互作用进行了显示和测量,得到了水下航行体尾流引起的自由表面温度变化规律以及热尾流的浮升图像和其自由表面的红外图像,并在此基础上讨论了航行深度、温度梯度、水面波浪和太阳辐射等对自由表面热特征的影响.研究结果可为水下航行体的红外探测提供一定的理论基础和重要参考价值.

  18. The Role of the Harmonic Vector Average in Motion Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eJohnston

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition to the geometrically correct global velocity as indicated by the intersection of constraints (IOC solution. Here a new combination rule, the harmonic vector average (HVA, is introduced, as well as a new algorithm for computing the IOC solution. The vector sum can be discounted as an integration strategy as it increases with the number of elements. The vector average over local vectors that vary in direction always provides an underestimate of the true global speed. The harmonic vector average however provides the correct global speed and direction for an unbiased sample of local velocities with respect to the global motion direction, as is the case for a simple closed contour. The HVA over biased samples provides an aggregate velocity estimate that can still be combined through an IOC computation to give an accurate estimate of the global velocity, which is not true of the vector average. Psychophysical results for type II Gabor arrays show perceived direction and speed falls close to the intersection of constraints direction for Gabor arrays having a wide range of orientations but the IOC prediction fails as the mean orientation shifts away from the global motion direction and the orientation range narrows. In this case perceived velocity generally defaults to the harmonic vector average.

  19. Cortical evoked potentials recorded from the guinea pig without averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walloch, R A

    1975-01-01

    Potentials evoked by tonal pulses and recorded with a monopolar electrode on the pial surface over the auditory cortex of the guinea pig are presented. These potentials are compared with average potentials recorded in previous studies with an electrode on the dura. The potentials recorded by these two techniques have similar waveforms, peak latencies and thresholds. They appear to be generated within the same region of the cerebral cortex. As can be expected, the amplitude of the evoked potentials recorded from the pial surface is larger than that recorded from the dura. Consequently, averaging is not needed to extract the evoked potential once the dura is removed. The thresholds for the evoked cortical potential are similar to behavioral thresholds for the guinea pig at high frequencies; however, evoked potential thresholds are eleveate over behavioral thresholds at low frequencies. The removal of the dura and the direct recording of the evoked potential appears most appropriate for acute experiments. The recording of an evoked potential with dura electrodes empploying averaging procedures appears most appropriate for chronic studies.

  20. The -Curvature Images of Convex Bodies and -Projection Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Songjun Lv; Gangsong Leng

    2008-08-01

    Associated with the -curvature image defined by Lutwak, some inequalities for extended mixed -affine surface areas of convex bodies and the support functions of -projection bodies are established. As a natural extension of a result due to Lutwak, an -type affine isoperimetric inequality, whose special cases are -Busemann–Petty centroid inequality and -affine projection inequality, respectively, is established. Some -mixed volume inequalities involving -projection bodies are also established.

  1. Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meehan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.

  2. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can...... can be efficiently computed, we immediately gain scalability. GA is inherently more robust than PCA, but we show that they coincide for Gaussian data. We exploit that averages can be made robust to formulate the Robust Grassmann Average (RGA) as a form of robust PCA. Robustness can be with respect......, making it scalable to “big noisy data.” We demonstrate TGA for background modeling, video restoration, and shadow removal. We show scalability by performing robust PCA on the entire Star Wars IV movie....

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  4. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Faming

    2010-01-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400--407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305--320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE al...

  5. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    ­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...... on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  6. Average Regression-Adjusted Controlled Regenerative Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Peter A.W.; Ressler, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings of the 1991 Winter Simulation Conference Barry L. Nelson, W. David Kelton, Gordon M. Clark (eds.) One often uses computer simulations of queueing systems to generate estimates of system characteristics along with estimates of their precision. Obtaining precise estimates, espescially for high traffic intensities, can require large amounts of computer time. Average regression-adjusted controlled regenerative estimates result from combining the two techniques ...

  7. Endogenous average cost based access pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis

    2006-01-01

    We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to be exogenously fixed ex-ante. We analyze an endogenous average cost based access pricing rule, where both firms realize the interdependence among their quantities and the regulated access price. Endogenous access pricing neutralizes the artificial cost advantag...

  8. Average Drift Analysis and Population Scalability

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jun; Yao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to study how the population size affects the computation time of evolutionary algorithms in a rigorous way. The computation time of an evolutionary algorithm can be measured by either the expected number of generations (hitting time) or the expected number of fitness evaluations (running time) to find an optimal solution. Population scalability is the ratio of the expected hitting time between a benchmark algorithm and an algorithm using a larger population size. Average drift...

  9. On Heroes and Average Moral Human Beings

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Gebhard

    2001-01-01

    After discussing various approaches about heroic behaviour in the literature, we first give a definition and classification of moral behaviour, in distinction to intrinsically motivated and ‘prudent' behaviour. Then, we present some arguments on the function of moral behaviour according to ‘minimal' standards of the average individual in a modern democratic society, before we turn to heroic behaviour. We conclude with some remarks on methodological as well as social problems which arise or ma...

  10. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured al...

  11. A Visibility Graph Averaging Aggregation Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shiyu; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The problem of aggregation is considerable importance in many disciplines. In this paper, a new type of operator called visibility graph averaging (VGA) aggregation operator is proposed. This proposed operator is based on the visibility graph which can convert a time series into a graph. The weights are obtained according to the importance of the data in the visibility graph. Finally, the VGA operator is used in the analysis of the TAIEX database to illustrate that it is practical and compare...

  12. Dollar-Cost Averaging: An Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Dollar-cost Averaging (DCA) is a common and useful systematic investment strategy for mutual fund managers, private investors, financial analysts and retirement planners. The issue of performance effectiveness of DCA is greatly controversial among academics and professionals. As a popularly recommended investment strategy, DCA is recognized as a risk reduction strategy; however, the advantage was claimed as the expense of generating higher returns. The dissertation is to intensively inves...

  13. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  14. On Backus average for generally anisotropic layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, Len; Slawinski, Michael A; Stanoev, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, following the Backus (1962) approach, we examine expressions for elasticity parameters of a homogeneous generally anisotropic medium that is long-wave-equivalent to a stack of thin generally anisotropic layers. These expressions reduce to the results of Backus (1962) for the case of isotropic and transversely isotropic layers. In over half-a-century since the publications of Backus (1962) there have been numerous publications applying and extending that formulation. However, neither George Backus nor the authors of the present paper are aware of further examinations of mathematical underpinnings of the original formulation; hence, this paper. We prove that---within the long-wave approximation---if the thin layers obey stability conditions then so does the equivalent medium. We examine---within the Backus-average context---the approximation of the average of a product as the product of averages, and express it as a proposition in terms of an upper bound. In the presented examination we use the e...

  15. Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.

  16. Effect of surface roughness on grain growth and sintering of alumina

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Padmaja Parameswaran Nampi; Shoichi Kume; Yuji Hotta; Koji Watari

    2011-07-01

    The production of ceramic bodies with less surface roughness is industrially important when one considers the aspect of final machining processes. Hence an attempt have been made to study the variation in surface roughness parameters (a, y, z) of alumina having three different kinds of roughness features at different sintering temperatures. Variation in surface roughness properties are also correlated with grain size. z shows significant difference between fine and intermediate surfaces, hence predicts small difference in their microstructural features. As a general trend, average grain size increases with increase in sintering temperature, but wide distribution of grains with enhanced non-uniform grain growth is observed when the surface is coarse. Hence, creation of fine surface in the green body is necessary for homogeneously distributed grains with controlled uniform grain growth. The final roughness and grain size of the sintered alumina depend on the initial surface roughness of the green body.

  17. Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Badea, Cristian T.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-11-01

    We present a 3-D image reconstruction method for free-space fluorescence tomography of mice using hybrid anatomical prior information. Specifically, we use an optically reconstructed surface of the experimental animal and a digital mouse atlas to approximate the anatomy of the animal as structural priors to assist image reconstruction. Experiments are carried out on a cadaver of a nude mouse with a fluorescent inclusion (2.4-mm-diam cylinder) implanted in the chest cavity. Tomographic fluorescence images are reconstructed using an iterative algorithm based on a finite element method. Coregistration of the fluorescence reconstruction and micro-CT (computed tomography) data acquired afterward show good localization accuracy (localization error 1.2+/-0.6 mm). Using the optically reconstructed surface, but without the atlas anatomy, image reconstruction fails to show the fluorescent inclusion correctly. The method demonstrates the utility of anatomical priors in support of free-space fluorescence tomography.

  18. Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2010-12-01

    Present work highlights the involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced biochemical regulation of seedling growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Morden). The growth response is dependent on NaCl concentration to which seedlings are exposed, they being tolerant to 40 mM NaCl and showing a reduction in extension growth at 120 mM NaCl. NaCl sensitivity of sunflower seedlings accompanies a fourfold increase in Na(+) /K(+) ratio in roots (as compared to that in cotyledons) and rapid transport of Na(+) to the cotyledons, thereby enhancing Na(+) /K(+) ratio in cotyledons as well. A transient increase in endogenous NO content, primarily contributed by putative NOS activity in roots of 4-day-old seedlings subjected to NaCl stress and the relative reduction in Na(+) /K(+) ratio after 4 days, indicates that NO regulates Na(+) accumulation, probably by affecting the associated transporter proteins. Root tips exhibit an early and transient enhanced expression of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) positive NO signal in the presence of 120 mM NaCl. Oil bodies from 2-day-old seedling cotyledons exhibit enhanced localization of NO signal in response to 120 mM NaCl treatment, coinciding with a greater retention of the principal oil body membrane proteins, i.e. oleosins. Abolition of DAF positive fluorescence by the application of specific NO scavenger [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyllimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)] authenticates the presence of endogenous NO. These novel findings provide evidence for a possible protective role of NO during proteolytic degradation of oleosins prior to/accompanying lipolysis.

  19. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  20. Average saturated fatty acids daily intake in Sarajevo University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Catovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are wide variations in diet patterns among population subgroups. Macronutrients content analyses have become necessary in dietary assessment. The purpose of this study is to analyze dietary saturated fatty acids intake in students, detect differences between men and women, and compare with nourish status and nutrition recommendations.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 60 graduate students was performed during the spring 2013, at the Sarajevo University. Food-frequency questionnaire was conducted during seven days. Body mass index was used to assess students' nourish status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0.Results: Mean age of males was 26.00±2.72, and of females was 27.01±3.93 years. The prevalence of overweight was more common among males compared to females (55.56% vs. 6.06%. Median of total fat average intake for men and women was 76.32(70.15;114.41 and 69.41(63.23;86.94 g/d, respectively. Median of saturated fatty acids average intake for men and women was 28.86(22.41;36.42 and 24.29(20.53;31.60 g/d, respectively. There was significant difference in average intake of total fat between genders (Mann-Whitney U test: p=0.04. Macronutrient data were related to requirement of reference person. Total fat intake was beyond recommended limits in 37.04% of males and 54.55% of females. Saturated fatty acids intake was beyond the upper limit in 55.56% of males and 51.52% of females.Conclusion: Diet pattern of the average student is not in accordance with the recommendations of saturated fatty acids contribution as a percentage of energy.