WorldWideScience

Sample records for average body surface

  1. The average body surface area of adult cancer patients in the UK: a multicentre retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Sacco

    Full Text Available The majority of chemotherapy drugs are dosed based on body surface area (BSA. No standard BSA values for patients being treated in the United Kingdom are available on which to base dose and cost calculations. We therefore retrospectively assessed the BSA of patients receiving chemotherapy treatment at three oncology centres in the UK between 1(st January 2005 and 31(st December 2005.A total of 3613 patients receiving chemotherapy for head and neck, ovarian, lung, upper GI/pancreas, breast or colorectal cancers were included. The overall mean BSA was 1.79 m(2 (95% CI 1.78-1.80 with a mean BSA for men of 1.91 m(2 (1.90-1.92 and 1.71 m(2 (1.70-1.72 for women. Results were consistent across the three centres. No significant differences were noted between treatment in the adjuvant or palliative setting in patients with breast or colorectal cancer. However, statistically significant, albeit small, differences were detected between some tumour groups.In view of the consistency of results between three geographically distinct UK cancer centres, we believe the results of this study may be generalised and used in future costings and budgeting for new chemotherapy agents in the UK.

  2. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  3. Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, P.

    Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.

  4. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to selected receiving surface water bodies for long-term average hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 for Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misut, Paul E.; Monti,, Jack

    2016-10-05

    To assist resource managers and planners in developing informed strategies to address nitrogen loading to coastal water bodies of Long Island, New York, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation initiated a program to delineate a comprehensive dataset of groundwater recharge areas (or areas contributing groundwater), travel times, and outflows to streams and saline embayments on Long Island. A four-layer regional three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model of hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 was used to provide delineations of 48 groundwater watersheds on Long Island. Sixteen particle starting points were evenly spaced within each of the 4,000- by 4,000-foot model cells that receive water-table recharge and tracked using forward particle-tracking analysis modeling software to outflow zones. For each particle, simulated travel times were grouped by age as follows: less than or equal to 10 years, greater than 10 years and less than or equal to 100 years, greater than 100 years and less than or equal to 1,000 years, and greater than 1,000 years; and simulated ending zones were grouped into 48 receiving water bodies, based on the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Waterbody Inventory/Priority Waterbodies List. Areal delineation of travel time zones and groundwater contributing areas were generated and a table was prepared presenting the sum of groundwater outflow for each area.

  5. Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global surface temperatures in 2010 tied 2005 as the warmest on record. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) was established in 1982 as part...

  6. Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Averages, 1985-2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of four images showing seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) averages for the entire earth. Data for the years 1985-2001 are averaged to...

  7. Precalculating the average luminance of road surface in public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1967-01-01

    The influence of the reflection properties of the road surface on the aspect of the street lighting and the importance of the use of luminance has been shown. A method is described with which the value to be expected of the average road surface luminance can be easily found.

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN J-INTEGRAL AND FRACTURE SURFACE AVERAGE PROFILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.G. Cao; S.F. Xue; K.Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the causes that led to the formation of cracks in materials, a novel method that only considered the fracture surfaces for determining the fracture toughness parameters of J-integral for plain strain was proposed. The principle of the fracture-surface topography analysis (FRASTA) was used. In FRASTA, the fracture surfaces were scanned by laser microscope and the elevation data was recorded for analysis. The relationship between J-integral and fracture surface average profile for plain strain was deduced. It was also verified that the J-integral determined by the novel method and by the compliance method matches each other well.

  9. Yearly-averaged daily usefulness efficiency of heliostat surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.M.; Habeebuallah, M.B.; Al-Rabghi, O.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

    1992-08-01

    An analytical expression for estimating the instantaneous usefulness efficiency of a heliostat surface is obtained. A systematic procedure is then introduced to calculate the usefulness efficiency even when overlapping of blocking and shadowing on a heliostat surface exist. For possible estimation of the reflected energy from a given field, the local yearly-averaged daily usefulness efficiency is calculated. This efficiency is found to depend on site latitude angle, radial distance from the tower measured in tower heights, heliostat position azimuth angle and the radial spacing between heliostats. Charts for the local yearly-averaged daily usefulness efficiency are presented for {phi} = 0, 15, 30, and 45 N. These charts can be used in calculating the reflected radiation from a given cell. Utilization of these charts is demonstrated.

  10. Measuring skew in average surface roughness as a function of surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.

    2015-08-01

    Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces polishing time, saves money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. This study characterized statistics of average surface roughness as a function of polishing time. Average surface roughness was measured at 81 locations using a Zygo® white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set was fit to a normal and Largest Extreme Value (LEV) distribution; then tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the average data changes as a function of polishing time.

  11. GI Joe or Average Joe? The impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and advertisement effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Increasing body size and shape diversity in media imagery may promote positive body image. While research has largely focused on female models and women's body image, men may also be affected by unrealistic images. We examined the impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and perceived advertisement effectiveness. A sample of 330 men and 289 women viewed one of four advertisement conditions: no models, muscular, average-slim or average-large models. Men and women rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as muscular models. For men, exposure to average-size models was associated with more positive body image in comparison to viewing no models, but no difference was found in comparison to muscular models. Similar results were found for women. Internalisation of beauty ideals did not moderate these effects. These findings suggest that average-size male models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  12. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  13. Body Surface Area Prediction in Odorrana grahami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying CHEN; Jiongyu LIU; Qiang DAI; Jianping JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) was regarded as a more readily quantiifable parameter relative to body mass in the normalization of comparative biochemistry and physiology. The BSA prediction has attracted unceasing research back more than a century on animals, especially on humans and rats. Few studies in this area for anurans were reported, and the equation for body surface area (S) and body mass (W):S=9.9 W 0.56, which was concluded from toads of four species in 1969, was generally adopted to estimate the body surface areas for anurans until recent years. However, this equation was not applicable to Odorrana grahami. The relationship between body surface area and body mass for this species was established as:S=15.4 W 0.579. Our current results suggest estimation equations should be used cautiously across different species and body surface area predictions on more species need to be conducted.

  14. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    The set of all surface tensors of a convex body K (Minkowski tensors derived from the surface area measure of K) determine K up to translation, and hereby, the surface tensors of K contain all information on the shape of K. Here, shape means the equivalence class of all convex bodies...... that are translates of each other. An algorithm for reconstructing an unknown convex body in R 2 from its surface tensors up to a certain rank is presented. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the shape of an unknown convex body can be approximated when only a finite number s of surface tensors are available....... The output of the reconstruction algorithm is a polytope P, where the surface tensors of P and K are identical up to rank s. We establish a stability result based on a generalization of Wirtinger’s inequality that shows that for large s, two convex bodies are close in shape when they have identical surface...

  15. 1996 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  16. Partial Averaging and Resonance Trapping in a Restricted Three-Body System

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, N

    2002-01-01

    Based on the value of the orbital eccentricity of a particle and also its proximity to the exact resonant orbit in a three-body system, the Pendulum Approximation (Dermott & Murray 1983) or the Second Fundamental Model of Resonance (Andoyer 1903; Henrard & Lemaitre 1983) are commonly used to study the motion of that particle near its resonance state. In this paper, we present the method of partial averaging as an analytical approach to study the dynamical evolution of a body near a resonance. To focus attention on the capabilities of this technique, a restricted, circular and planar three-body system is considered and the dynamics of its outer planet while captured in a resonance with the inner body is studied. It is shown that the first-order partially averaged system resembles a mathematical pendulum whose librational motion can be viewed as a geometrical interpretation of the resonance capture phenomenon. The driving force of this pendulum corresponds to the gravitational attraction of the inner bo...

  17. Sampling the Uppermost Surface of Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.

    2011-01-01

    The uppermost surface of an airless body is a critical source of ground-truth information for the various remote sensing techniques that only penetrate nanometers to micrometers into the surface. Such samples will also be vital for understanding conditions at the surface and acquiring information about how the body interacts with its environment, including solar wind interaction, grain charging and levitation [1]. Sampling the uppermost surface while preserving its structure (e.g. porosity, grain-to-grain contacts) however, is a daunting task that has not been achieved on any sample return mission to date.

  18. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We present two algorithms for reconstruction of the shape of convex bodies in the two-dimensional Euclidean space. The first reconstruction algorithm requires knowledge of the exact surface tensors of a convex body up to rank s for some natural number s. When only measurements subject to noise...... of surface tensors are available for reconstruction, we recommend to use certain values of the surface tensors, namely harmonic intrinsic volumes instead of the surface tensors evaluated at the standard basis. The second algorithm we present is based on harmonic intrinsic volumes and allows for noisy...

  19. Retention of features on a mapped Drosophila brain surface using a Bézier-tube-based surface model averaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Yu; Wu, Cheng-Chi; Shao, Hao-Chiang; Chang, Hsiu-Ming; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2012-12-01

    Model averaging is a widely used technique in biomedical applications. Two established model averaging methods, iterative shape averaging (ISA) method and virtual insect brain (VIB) method, have been applied to several organisms to generate average representations of their brain surfaces. However, without sufficient samples, some features of the average Drosophila brain surface obtained using the above methods may disappear or become distorted. To overcome this problem, we propose a Bézier-tube-based surface model averaging strategy. The proposed method first compensates for disparities in position, orientation, and dimension of input surfaces, and then evaluates the average surface by performing shape-based interpolation. Structural features with larger individual disparities are simplified with half-ellipse-shaped Bézier tubes, and are unified according to these tubes to avoid distortion during the averaging process. Experimental results show that the average model yielded by our method could preserve fine features and avoid structural distortions even if only a limit amount of input samples are used. Finally, we qualitatively compare our results with those obtained by ISA and VIB methods by measuring the surface-to-surface distances between input surfaces and the averaged ones. The comparisons show that the proposed method could generate a more representative average surface than both ISA and VIB methods.

  20. Many-body Systems Interacting via a Two-body Random Ensemble average energy of each angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Yoshinaga, N

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the regularities of energy of each angular momentum $I$ averaged over all the states for a fixed angular momentum (denoted as $\\bar{E}_I$'s) in many-body systems interacting via a two-body random ensemble. It is found that $\\bar{E}_I$'s with $I \\sim I_{min}$ (minimum of $I$) or $I_{max}$ have large probabilities (denoted as ${\\cal P}(I)$) to be the lowest, and that ${\\cal P}(I)$ is close to zero elsewhere. A simple argument based on the randomness of the two-particle cfp's is given. A compact trajectory of the energy $\\bar{E}_I$ vs. $I(I+1)$ is found to be robust. Regular fluctuations of the $P(I)$ (the probability of finding $I$ to be the ground state) and ${\\cal P}(I)$ of even fermions in a single-$j$ shell and boson systems are found to be reverse, and argued by the dimension fluctuation of the model space. Other regularities, such as why there are 2 or 3 sizable ${\\cal P}(I)$'s with $I\\sim I_{min}$ and ${\\cal P}(I) \\ll {\\cal P}(I_{max})$'s with $I\\sim I_{max}$, why the coefficien...

  1. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    We present two algorithms for reconstruction of the shape of convex bodies in the two-dimensional Euclidean space. The first reconstruction algorithm requires knowledge of the exact surface tensors of a convex body up to rank s for some natural number s. The second algorithm uses harmonic intrinsic...... volumes which are certain values of the surface tensors and allows for noisy measurements. From a generalized version of Wirtinger's inequality, we derive stability results that are utilized to ensure consistency of both reconstruction procedures. Consistency of the reconstruction procedure based...

  2. `Optimal' triangulation of surfaces and bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traas, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    A new criterion is given for constructing an optimal triangulation of surfaces and bodies. The triangulation, called the {\\em tight} triangulation, is convexity preserving and accepts long, thin triangles whenever they are useful. Both properties are not shared by the maxmin triangulation, which in

  3. Ra and the average effective strain of surface asperities deformed in metal-working processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Petersen, A. S

    1975-01-01

    Based upon a slip-line analysis of the plastic deformation of surface asperities, a theory is developed determining the Ra-value (c.l.a.) and the average effective strain in the surface layer when deforming asperities in metal-working processes. The ratio between Ra and Ra0, the Ra-value after...... and before deformation, is a function of the nominal normal pressure and the initial slope γ0 of the surface asperities. The last parameter does not influence Ra significantly. The average effective strain View the MathML sourcege in the deformed surface layer is a function of the nominal normal pressure...

  4. On the Correlation of Effective Terahertz Refractive Index and Average Surface Roughness of Pharmaceutical Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Ervasti, Tuomas; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have studied terahertz (THz) pulse time delay of porous pharmaceutical microcrystalline compacts and also pharmaceutical tablets that contain indomethacin (painkiller) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the matrix of the tablet. The porosity of a pharmaceutical tablet is important because it affects the release of drug substance. In addition, surface roughness of the tablet has much importance regarding dissolution of the tablet and hence the rate of drug release. Here, we show, using a training set of tablets containing API and with a priori known tablet's quality parameters, that the effective refractive index (obtained from THz time delay data) of such porous tablets correlates with the average surface roughness of a tablet. Hence, THz pulse time delay measurement in the transmission mode provides information on both porosity and the average surface roughness of a compact. This is demonstrated for two different sets of pharmaceutical tablets having different porosity and average surface roughness values.

  5. Dispersive Media Subcell Averaging in the FDTD Method using Corrective Surface Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Hamm, Joachim; Hess, Ortwin

    2013-01-01

    We present a corrective subcell averaging technique that improves on the accuracy of the volume-averaged finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in the presence of dispersive material interfaces. The method is based on an alternative effective-medium formulation that captures field discontinuities at interfaces as electric and magnetic surface currents. In calculating the spectra of strongly dispersive Mie scatterers we demonstrate that the derived FDTD algorithm is both highly efficient and able to approximately restore second order accuracy.

  6. Many-body nodal hypersurface and domain averages for correlated wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2013-01-01

    We outline the basic notions of nodal hypersurface and domain averages for antisymmetric wave functions. We illustrate their properties and analyze the results for a few electron explicitly solvable cases and discuss possible further developments.

  7. Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek

    2016-06-21

    Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m(2) for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients' mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children.

  8. Near surface spatially averaged air temperature and wind speed determined by acoustic travel time tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Raabe

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic travel time tomography is presented as a possibility for remote monitoring of near surface airtemperature and wind fields. This technique provides line-averaged effective sound speeds changing with temporally and spatially variable air temperature and wind vector. The effective sound speed is derived from the travel times of sound signals which propagate at defined paths between different acoustic sources and receivers. Starting with the travel time data a tomographic algorithm (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique, SIRT is used to calculate area-averaged air temperature and wind speed. The accuracy of the experimental method and the tomographic inversion algorithm is exemplarily demonstrated for one day without remarkable differences in the horizontal temperature field, determined by independent in situ measurements at different points within the measuring field. The differences between the conventionally determined air temperature (point measurement and the air temperature determined by tomography (area-averaged measurement representative for the area of the measuring field 200m x 260m were below 0.5 K for an average of 10 minutes. The differences obtained between the wind speed measured at a meteorological mast and calculated from acoustic measurements are not higher than 0.5 ms-1 for the same averaging time. The tomographically determined area-averaged distribution of air temperature (resolution 50 m x 50 m can be used to estimate the horizontal gradient of air temperature as a pre-condition to detect horizontal turbulent fluxes of sensible heat.

  9. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintoft, I. D.; Robinson, M. P.; Melia, G. C. R.; Marvin, A. C.; Dawson, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m2 for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human exposure

  10. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintoft, I D; Robinson, M P; Melia, G C R; Marvin, A C; Dawson, J F

    2014-07-07

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m(2); for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human

  11. Surface roughness measurement using spatial-average analysis of objective speckle pattern in specular direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuezeng; Gao, Zhao

    2009-11-01

    The speckle contrast method (SCM) and the light scattering method (LSM) are two of the most promising optical techniques for on-line surface roughness measurement of slightly-rough surface. However, due to the lack of capability in eliminating the influence from the diffuse component of scattered light, SCM and LSM are both sensitive to the variations of surface correlation length. Additionally, for LSM, the presence of speckle noise leads to fluctuations in the measuring results. To solve these problems, an approach based on the spatial-average analysis of the objective speckle pattern in the specular direction, simply called spatial-average method (SAM), is proposed. The SAM establishes the quantitative relationship between a new characteristic parameter extracted from the recorded speckle image and the rms surface roughness, eliminates to a large extent the influence of diffuse light component on the measuring results, and immunizes itself from the speckle noise. The theoretical foundation of SAM is given in details. A computer simulation is then performed to make comparisons among these three methods. Finally an experiment is presented.

  12. Position error correction in absolute surface measurement based on a multi-angle averaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibo; Wu, Biwei; Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin

    2017-04-01

    We present a method for position error correction in absolute surface measurement based on a multi-angle averaging method. Differences in shear rotation measurements at overlapping areas can be used to estimate the unknown relative position errors of the measurements. The model and the solving of the estimation algorithm have been discussed in detail. The estimation algorithm adopts a least-squares technique to eliminate azimuthal errors caused by rotation inaccuracy. The cost functions can be minimized to determine the true values of the unknowns of Zernike polynomial coefficients and rotation angle. Experimental results show the validity of the method proposed.

  13. Correlation of average hydrophobicity, water/air interface surface rheological properties and foaming properties of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, A; Abirached, C; Araujo, A C; Panizzolo, L A; Moyna, P; Añón, M C

    2012-04-01

    A comparative study on the behavior in the air-water interface of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactoalbumin, glycinin and β-conglycinin was performed. The behavior at the interface was evaluated by equilibrium surface tension and surface rheological properties of adsorbed films. There were significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) in the values of the constants of adsorption to the interface of the four proteins. The glycinin had the slowest rate of adsorption, due to its low average hydrophobicity, low molecular flexibility and large molecular size. Smaller proteins like β-lactoglobulin and α-lactoalbumin tended to greater equilibrium pressure values than the larger proteins because of its higher rate of adsorption to the interface. The foam capacity of proteins showed a positive correlation with the average hydrophobicity; the maximal retained liquid volume or the initial rate of passage of liquid to foam were significantly lower (α ≤ 0.05) when protein was glycinin. The dilatational modulus of glycinin was the lowest, which implies lowest resistance to disruption of the film. Glycinin protein has lower proportion of gravitational drainage and higher disproportionation having perhaps a less resistant film. In conclusion, β-conglycinin and whey proteins showed a similar behavior, so β-conglycinin might be the best soybean protein to replace milk proteins in food formulations.

  14. Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Juan

    2010-03-01

    The thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body are studied here, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs. It is first shown that the 'local' thermodynamic variables of the state of the surface are only the temperature, the chemical potentials and the surface strain tensor (true thermodynamic variables, for a viscoelastic solid or a viscous fluid). A new definition of the surface stress is given and the corresponding surface thermodynamics equations are presented. The mechanical equilibrium equation at the surface is then obtained. It involves the surface stress and is similar to the Cauchy equation for the volume. Its normal component is a generalization of the Laplace equation. At a (body-fluid-fluid) triple contact line, two equations are obtained, which represent: (i) the equilibrium of the forces (surface stresses) for a triple line fixed on the body; (ii) the equilibrium relative to the motion of the line with respect to the body. This last equation leads to a strong modification of Young's classical capillary equation.

  15. Surface Packages for Geophysical Exploration of Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geophysical exploration of small rubble pile bodies is fundamentally important for understanding the mechanics of gravitationally bound aggregates. The mechanical and geotechnical properties of these bodies are not understood from an experimental perspective, and have only been studied theoretically and using numerical simulations. To carry out experiments in this environment requires the development and deployment of surface packages to the body surface to enable physical interactions and measurements. This talk will discuss how such experiments can be developed and used in the small body environment. It will particularly focuse on one approach that uses a combination of surface seismic sources and probes to measure the seismic properties of a rubble pile. The small body dynamical environment is particularly well suited for the deployment of such surface packages for exploration and scientific measurement purposes. This is mainly due to their meager gravity fields, which allow the delivery of complex instruments to the surface with impact speeds that are at most a meter per second — equivalent to dropping an object from less than a 5 cm height on Earth. Despite this seeming advantage, the delivery and mobility of such packages on the surface of a small body remains a challenging endeavor, and to date the delivery of surface packages to small bodies has had a mixed success rate. Issues that must be accounted for include the delivery trajectories for probes to the surface, motion on the surface of a small body, and interactions between a probe and a small body surface. Studies of all of these issues both theoretically and experimentally will be presented, along with proposed applications to achieve scientific goals on the surfaces of small bodies.

  16. Cell Surface Receptor Theory of Disease Infectivity; Body's Defence and Normal Body Functioning in Living Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study of the pattern of Candida spp. infection of the human body and the mode and pattern of reaction of the human body to this infection showed that disease infectivity and self healing by plants followed the same procedures and patterns. Approach: A comparism of these procedures and patterns of natural self- healing of disease infection by the human body and plants/plant parts with the cutaneous Candida spp. killing and elimination procedures and patterns of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract, showed that cell surface receptors are the sites through which disease infects the body and also the sites at which the body is defended. They are also the sites where activities which result in normal body functioning are carried out. The mode and patterns of Cutaneous Candida infection in a human subject and its containment by the body was examined and photographed. The disease infection and self healing procedures and patterns of plants were also examined in comparism with those of their healthy counterparts and photographed. The findings from the observations on disease infectivity and natural body’s defence patterns and procedures of the plant parts studied and those of the human body in reaction to Candida spp. infection were compared with those of the Candida spp. killing procedures and patterns of aqueous and Arachis hypogeal oil extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf. Results: The findings of this study also showed that disease-infective organisms gain access to the body of a host through attachment to the cell surface receptors of that host which are placed linearly and are interconnected by channels. The results of the study also indicated that living organisms have a main endogenous substance that mediates both their body’s defence and their normal physiological functioning which is therefore the owner of the cell surface receptor. Other endogenous substances which participate in normal body functioning/body’s defence or in

  17. The applicability of the dubois height weight formula for measurement of body surface of Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ramaswami

    1953-07-01

    Full Text Available The body surface area of 18 healthy adult Indian subjects was measured by taking part by part linear measurements for the whole body with the help of Anthropometry Beam Calipers and applying Du Bois linear formula method. The surface area values computed from Du Bois Height-weight formula were compared with the measured values. The average error in the eighteen cases is 1.5 percent. The standard deviation of the errors is 1.8 percent about the mean error of -0.5 percent. The errors are not statistically significant. As the original Du Bois formula itself is stated to have an average error of 1.5 percent, the present work confirms that the accuracy, with which Du Bois formula predicts body surface, is not sensibly different for Indians as against Europeans

  18. Averaged subtracted polarization imaging for endoscopic diagnostics of surface microstructures on translucent mucosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Katsuhiro

    2016-07-01

    An endoscopic image processing technique for enhancing the appearance of microstructures on translucent mucosae is described. This technique employs two pairs of co- and cross-polarization images under two different linearly polarized lights, from which the averaged subtracted polarization image (AVSPI) is calculated. Experiments were then conducted using an acrylic phantom and excised porcine stomach tissue using a manual experimental setup with ring-type lighting, two rotating polarizers, and a color camera; better results were achieved with the proposed method than with conventional color intensity image processing. An objective evaluation method that uses texture analysis was developed and used to evaluate the enhanced microstructure images. This paper introduces two types of online, rigid-type, polarimetric endoscopic implementations using a polarized ring-shaped LED and a polarimetric camera. The first type uses a beam-splitter-type color polarimetric camera, and the second uses a single-chip monochrome polarimetric camera. Microstructures on the mucosa surface were enhanced robustly with these online endoscopes regardless of the difference in the extinction ratio of each device. These results show that polarimetric endoscopy using AVSPI is both effective and practical for hardware implementation.

  19. Comment on 'Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, E M

    2010-10-27

    In a recent publication by Olives (2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 085005) he studied 'the thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs' and believed that 'a new definition of the surface stress is given'. However, using the usual way of deriving the equations of Gibbs-Duhem type the author, nevertheless, has fallen into a mathematical discrepancy because he has tried to unite in one equation different thermodynamic systems and 'a new definition of the surface stress' has appeared known in the usual theory of elasticity.

  20. AVERAGE BIOLOGICAL INDICES OF THE MAJOR FISH SPECIES OF THE ZAPORIZHZHIA RESERVOIR AND OTHER FISHERY WATER BODIES OF DNEPROPETROVSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fedonenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate, analyze and summarize the biological indices of commercial fish species in the main fishery water bodies of Dnіpropetrovsk region for the last 10 years. Methodology. Field data were collected in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir during 2003 – 2013 using a standard set of monitoring fishing gears (gill nets with mesh size a=30–120 mm. Juvenile fish were caught in third decade of June - first decade of August using the juvenile fish beach seine with a length of 10 m. Processing of ichthyological materials was conducted according to generally accepted methods. Findings. When comparing the biological indices of fish in the Zaporіzhzhia reservoir with the data for the past decade reflected in the normative documents, we found significant changes in the population of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca and gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, which concern the average fish weight, fertility and the relative proportion of females in the spawning stock. Roach (Rutilus rutilus, perch (Perca fluviatilis, and gibel carp are characterized a reduced number of spawning events. The biological indices of bream (Abramis brama, common carp (Cyprinus, pike (Esox lucius and catfish (Silurus glanis populations remain virtually unchanged during the study period. As for biological indices of Black and Caspian Sea sprat, rudd, gobies and crayfish, the information on these species in the relevant regulatory documents is missing, so it is not possible to assess the dynamics of their changes. Due to an inventory of small fishery water bodies we received the information on the biological indicators of major species, which can also be used for updating the normative database. Originality. For the first time we summarized the characteristic of fish fauna in major fishery water bodies of Dnepropetrovsk region and analyzed main indices, which define the conditions of fish stock development and exploitation of aquatic living aquatic resources in fishery water bodies

  1. The acute effect of lower-body training on average power output measured by loaded half-squat jump exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Krčmár

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High muscular power output is required in many athletic endeavors in order for success to be achieved. In the scientific community postactivation potentiation and its effect on performance are often discussed. There are many studies where the effect of resistance exercise on motor performance (such as vertical jump performance and running speed has been investigated but only a few of them studied power output. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute responses to a 2 set loaded half-squat jumps and 2 set loaded back half-squat protocols designed to induce the acute maximum average power output during loaded half-squat jumps. Methods: A randomized cross-over design was used. 11 participants of this study performed 3 trials in randomized order separated by at least 48 hours where maximum average power output was measured. The specific conditioning activities were comprised of 2 sets and 4 repetitions of half-squat jumps, 2 sets and 4 repetitions of back half-squat exercises and a control protocol without an intervention by specific a conditioning activity. Participants were strength trained athletes with different sport specializations (e.g. ice-hockey, volleyball. Mean age of the athletes was 22 ± 1.8 years, body mass 80 ± 7.1 kg and body height 185 ± 6.5 cm. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to determine differences between pre- and post-condition in each protocol, as well as between conditioning protocols, and also effect size was used to evaluate practical significance. Results: Maximum average power was significantly enhanced after application of the half-squat jump condition protocol (1496.2 ± 194.5 to 1552 ± 196.1 W, Δ ~ 3.72%, p < .001 and after application of the back half-squat protocol (1500.7 ± 193.2 to 1556 ± 191.2 W, Δ ~ 3.68%, p < .001 after 10 min of rest. Power output after control protocol was

  2. Perceptual learning: tactile letter recognition transfers across body surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Gabriel; Auvray, Malika

    2014-01-01

    Visual-to-tactile sensory substitution devices are designed to assist visually impaired people by converting visual stimuli into tactile stimuli. The important claim has been made that, after training with these devices, the tactile stimuli can be moved from one body surface to another without any decrease in performance. This claim, although recurrent, has never been empirically investigated. Moreover, studies in the field of tactile perceptual learning suggest that performance improvement transfers only to body surfaces that are closely represented in the somatosensory cortex, i.e. adjacent or homologous contralateral body surfaces. These studies have however mainly used discrimination tasks of stimuli varying along only one feature (e.g., orientation of gratings) whereas, in sensory substitution, tactile information consists of more complex stimuli. The present study investigated the extent to which there is a transfer of tactile letter learning. Participants first underwent a baseline session in which the letters were presented on their belly, thigh, and shin. They were subsequently trained on only one of these body surfaces, and then re-tested on all of them, as a post-training session. The results revealed that performance improvement was the same for both the trained and the untrained surfaces. Moreover, this transfer of perceptual learning was equivalent for adjacent and non-adjacent body surfaces, suggesting that tactile learning transfer occurs independently of the distance on the body. A control study consisting of the same baseline and post-training sessions, without training in between, revealed weaker improvement between the two sessions. The obtained results support the claim that training with sensory substitution devices results in a relative independence from the stimulated body surface.

  3. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning: need for new formulae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik;

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  4. Mapping the body surface temperature of cattle by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Marcia Saladini Vieira; da Silva, Suelen Corrêa; Salles, Fernando André; Roma, Luiz Carlos; El Faro, Lenira; Bustos Mac Lean, Priscilla Ayleen; Lins de Oliveira, Celso Eduardo; Martello, Luciane Silva

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is an alternative non-invasive method that has been studied as a tool for identifying many physiological and pathological processes related to changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the body surface temperature of Jersey dairy cattle in a thermoneutral environment in order to contribute to the determination of a body surface temperature pattern for animals of this breed in a situation of thermal comfort. Twenty-four Jersey heifers were used over a period of 35 days at APTA Brazil. Measurements were performed on all animals, starting with the physiological parameters. Body surface temperature was measured by IRT collecting images in different body regions: left and right eye area, right and left eye, caudal left foreleg, cranial left foreleg, right and left flank, and forehead. High correlations were observed between temperature and humidity index (THI) and right flank, left flank and forehead temperatures (0.85, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively). The IRT variables that exhibited the five highest correlation coefficients in principal component 1 were, in decreasing order: forehead (0.90), right flank (0.87), left flank (0.84), marker 1 caudal left foreleg (0.83), marker 2 caudal left foreleg (0.74). The THI showed a high correlation coefficient (0.88) and moderate to low correlations were observed for the physiological variables rectal temperature (0.43), and respiratory frequency (0.42). The thermal profile obtained indicates a surface temperature pattern for each region studied in a situation of thermal comfort and may contribute to studies investigating body surface temperature. Among the body regions studied, IRT forehead temperature showed the highest association with rectal temperature, and forehead and right and left flank temperatures are strongly associated with THI and may be adopted in future studies on thermoregulation and body heat production.

  5. Optics of the average normal cornea from general and canonical representations of its surface topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; González, Luis; Hernández, José L

    2006-02-01

    Generally, the analysis of corneal topography involves fitting the raw data to a parametric geometric model that includes a regular basis surface, plus some sort of polynomial expansion to adjust the more irregular residual component. So far, these parametric models have been used in their canonical form, ignoring that the observation (keratometric) coordinate system is different from corneal axes of symmetry. Here we propose, instead, to use the canonical form when the topography is referenced to the intrinsic corneal system of coordinates, defined by its principal axes of symmetry. This idea is implemented using the general expression of an ellipsoid to fit the raw data given by the instrument. Then, the position and orientation of the three orthogonal semiaxes of the ellipsoid, which define the intrinsic Cartesian system of coordinates for normal corneas, can be identified by passing to the canonical form, by standard linear algebra. This model has been first validated experimentally obtaining significantly lower values for rms fitting error as compared with previous standard models: spherical, conical, and biconical. The fitting residual was then adjusted by a Zernike polynomial expansion. The topographies of 123 corneas were analyzed obtaining their radii of curvature, conic constants, Zernike coefficients, and the direction and position of the optical axis of the ellipsoid. The results were compared with those obtained using the standard models. The general ellipsoid model provides more negative values for the conic constants and lower apex radii (more prolate shapes) than the standard models applied to the same data. If the data are analyzed using standard models, the resulting mean shape of the cornea is consistent with previous studies, but when using the ellipsoid model we find new interesting features: The mean cornea is a more prolate ellipsoid (apical power 50 D), the direction of the optical axis is about 2.3 degrees nasal, and the residual term shows

  6. Optics of the average normal cornea from general and canonical representations of its surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; González, Luis; Hernández, José L.

    2006-02-01

    Generally, the analysis of corneal topography involves fitting the raw data to a parametric geometric model that includes a regular basis surface, plus some sort of polynomial expansion to adjust the more irregular residual component. So far, these parametric models have been used in their canonical form, ignoring that the observation (keratometric) coordinate system is different from corneal axes of symmetry. Here we propose, instead, to use the canonical form when the topography is referenced to the intrinsic corneal system of coordinates, defined by its principal axes of symmetry. This idea is implemented using the general expression of an ellipsoid to fit the raw data given by the instrument. Then, the position and orientation of the three orthogonal semiaxes of the ellipsoid, which define the intrinsic Cartesian system of coordinates for normal corneas, can be identified by passing to the canonical form, by standard linear algebra. This model has been first validated experimentally obtaining significantly lower values for rms fitting error as compared with previous standard models: spherical, conical, and biconical. The fitting residual was then adjusted by a Zernike polynomial expansion. The topographies of 123 corneas were analyzed obtaining their radii of curvature, conic constants, Zernike coefficients, and the direction and position of the optical axis of the ellipsoid. The results were compared with those obtained using the standard models. The general ellipsoid model provides more negative values for the conic constants and lower apex radii (more prolate shapes) than the standard models applied to the same data. If the data are analyzed using standard models, the resulting mean shape of the cornea is consistent with previous studies, but when using the ellipsoid model we find new interesting features: The mean cornea is a more prolate ellipsoid (apical power 50 D), the direction of the optical axis is about 2.3° nasal, and the residual term shows three

  7. Identification of rheological properties of human body surface tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevicius, Vincas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Marozas, Vaidotas

    2014-04-11

    According to World Health Organization obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. It has tripled since the 1980s and the numbers of those affected continue to rise at an alarming rate, especially among children. There are number of devices that act as a prevention measure to boost person's motivation for physical activity and its levels. The placement of these devices is not restricted thus the measurement errors that appear because of the body rheology, clothes, etc. cannot be eliminated. The main objective of this work is to introduce a tool that can be applied directly to process measured accelerations so human body surface tissue induced errors can be reduced. Both the modeling and experimental techniques are proposed to identify body tissue rheological properties and prelate them to body mass index. Multi-level computational model composed from measurement device model and human body surface tissue rheological model is developed. Human body surface tissue induced inaccuracies can increase the magnitude of measured accelerations up to 34% when accelerations of the magnitude of up to 27 m/s(2) are measured. Although the timeframe of those disruptions are short - up to 0.2 s - they still result in increased overall measurement error.

  8. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Kassianov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged spectral surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation. The feasibility of our retrieval for routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements: (1 spectral atmospheric transmission from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm; (2 tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths; and (3 areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS observations. These integrated datasets cover both temporally long (2008–2013 and short (April–May 2010 periods at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Southern Great Plains site and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE, defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved areal-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE ≤ 0.015 and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between tower-based measurements of daily-averaged surface albedo for completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated.

  9. Spatial variations in daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface of Xianghai National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-hong; OUYANG Hua; WANG Qing-gai; ZHOU Cai-ping; XU Xiao-feng

    2005-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical variations of daily average CO2 concentration above the wetland surface were studied in Xianghai National Nature Reserve of China in August, 2000. The primary purpose was to study spatial distribution characteristics of CO2 concentration on the four levels of height(0. 1 m, 0.6 m, 1.2 m and 2 m) and compare the differences of CO2 concentration under different land covers. Results showed that daily average CO2 concentration above wetland surface in Xianghai National Natural Reserve was lower than that above other wetlands in northeast China as well as the worldwide average, suggesting that Xianghai wetland absorbed CO2 in August and acted as"sink" of CO2. The horizontal variations on the four levels of height along the latitude were distinct, and had the changing tendency of"decreasing after increasing" with the increase of height. The areas with obvious variations were consistent on different levels of height,and those with the highest variations appeared above surface of shore, sloping field, Typha wetland and Phragmites wetland; the vertical variations were greatly different, with the higher variations in Phragmites wetland and Typha wetland, and the lands near the shore and the sloping field with the lower variations. Spatial variations of daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface were affected by surface qualities and land covers.

  10. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins, sca

  11. Gaps to "Working" on the Surface of Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellerose, J.

    2012-12-01

    Upcoming goals for human spaceflight include sending a crewed mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) by 2025. As an alternative to this, a spacecraft could be sent to capture a small NEA, and return it to cislunar orbit where astronauts could take it apart (Brophy, 2012). In parallel, plans are also to take the next big step in resources utilization, and mine those NEAs (Lewicki, 2012). Although these exciting concepts are very different in scope, they share the same environment they will need to interact with. In this work, we discuss the required techniques for exploring and exploiting small bodies, and compare with the available tools and the current knowledge of small bodies. To support these types of missions, a number of in-situ data are required prior to start surface operations: the body shape and mass, the presence of volatiles and metals, the asteroid morphology, the internal structural properties, the surface and near-surface environments, the existence of hazards, and the time-evolution dynamics. Products obtained from remote sensing - maps, mosaics, shape models - are critical in selecting the locations to be investigated in more details, or the locations to be excavated. Composition measurements become especially important for mining, as it requires appropriate tools and techniques. Although spectrometers can be used in orbit and on the surface to determine elemental composition, the fine scale structure and mineralogical composition can only be done using surface probes or through a close-up camera. Those remote sensing images are also critical in planning the very close approaches by the spacecraft, as the small body environment is one of the most perturbed environments (Scheeres, 2000). Being able to recreate the small body dynamics is necessary to mitigate risks and to enable spacecraft docking. The navigation system, vision tools, and planning software become critical as the spacecraft will need to track features on the surface under different

  12. Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA to calibrate probabilistic surface temperature forecasts over Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Soltanzadeh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA, an attempt was made to obtain calibrated probabilistic numerical forecasts of 2-m temperature over Iran. The ensemble employs three limited area models (WRF, MM5 and HRM, with WRF used with five different configurations. Initial and boundary conditions for MM5 and WRF are obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS and for HRM the initial and boundary conditions come from analysis of Global Model Europe (GME of the German Weather Service. The resulting ensemble of seven members was run for a period of 6 months (from December 2008 to May 2009 over Iran. The 48-h raw ensemble outputs were calibrated using BMA technique for 120 days using a 40 days training sample of forecasts and relative verification data.

    The calibrated probabilistic forecasts were assessed using rank histogram and attribute diagrams. Results showed that application of BMA improved the reliability of the raw ensemble. Using the weighted ensemble mean forecast as a deterministic forecast it was found that the deterministic-style BMA forecasts performed usually better than the best member's deterministic forecast.

  13. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  14. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  15. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, D J; Gilbert, C; Thierry, A-M; Currie, J; Le Maho, Y; Ancel, A

    2013-06-23

    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40' S 140° 01' E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate.

  16. Body surface mounted biomedical monitoring system using Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Continuous monitoring in daily life is important for the health condition control of the elderly. However, portable or wearable devices need to carry by user on their own will. On the other hand, implantation sensors are not adoptable, because of generic users dislike to insert the any object in the body for monitoring. Therefore, another monitoring system of the health condition to carry it easily is necessary. In addition, ID system is necessary even if the subject live with few families. Furthermore, every measurement system should be wireless system, because not to obstruct the daily life of the user. In this paper, we propose the monitoring system, which is mounted on the body surface. This system will not obstruct the action or behavior of user in daily life, because this system attached the body surface on the back of the user. In addition, this system has wireless communication system, using Bluetooth, and acquired data transfer to the outside of the house via the Internet.

  17. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney function is mostly expressed in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common feature is the expression as ml/min per 1.73 m(2) , which represents the adjustment of the individual kidney function to a standard body surface area (BSA) to allow comparison between individuals....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA...

  18. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (≤0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for “nearby” overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  19. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  20. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  1. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z. Z.; Causon, D. M.; Mingham, C. G.; Qian, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT) to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC) device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water). The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  2. Facile in situ characterization of gold nanoparticles on electrode surfaces by electrochemical techniques: average size, number density and morphology determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Laborda, Eduardo; Salter, Chris; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

    2012-10-21

    A fast and cheap in situ approach is presented for the characterization of gold nanoparticles from electrochemical experiments. The average size and number of nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon electrode are determined from the values of the total surface area and amount of gold obtained by lead underpotential deposition and by stripping of gold in hydrochloric acid solution, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticle surface can also be analyzed from the "fingerprint" in lead deposition/stripping experiments. The method is tested through the study of gold nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon substrate by seed-mediated growth method which enables an easy control of the nanoparticle size. The procedure is also applied to the characterization of supplied gold nanoparticles. The results are in satisfactory agreement with those obtained via scanning electron microscopy.

  3. BODY SURFACE EXPOSURE SIDTRIBUTION OF EXAMINEES RECEIVED UPPER G.T.T.X—RAY EXAMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯定华; 程祺钧

    1995-01-01

    A special cloth for keeping LiF(Mg,Cu,P) TL dosimetry elements is worn by examinees.The exposures of 128 examinees received upper G.I.T(gastro-intestinal tract)X-ray examination are measured.The reference point of the maximum body surface exposure given is at the middle of stomach.The average of this point is (4.97±1.94)×10-4C.kg-1 person-1 examination-1 and (1.33±0.28)×10-4C.kg-1.min-1.

  4. Image method for induced surface charge from many-body system of dielectric spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan J.; Freed, Karl F.

    2016-09-01

    Charged dielectric spheres embedded in a dielectric medium provide the simplest model for many-body systems of polarizable ions and charged colloidal particles. We provide a multiple scattering formulation for the total electrostatic energy for such systems and demonstrate that the polarization energy can be rapidly evaluated by an image method that generalizes the image methods for conducting spheres. Individual contributions to the total electrostatic energy are ordered according to the number of polarized surfaces involved, and each additional surface polarization reduces the energy by a factor of (a/R)3ɛ, where a is the sphere radius, R the average inter-sphere separation, and ɛ the relevant dielectric mismatch at the interface. Explicit expressions are provided for both the energy and the forces acting on individual spheres, which can be readily implemented in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations of polarizable charged spheres, thereby avoiding costly computational techniques that introduce a surface charge distribution that requires numerical solution.

  5. 4 km AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Global Day-Night Sea Surface Temperature Monthly and Yearly Averages, 1985-2009 (NODC Accession 0077816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a set of monthly and yearly global day-night sea surface temperature averages, derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 sea surface...

  6. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning: need for new formulae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hougen, Hans Petter; Lynnerup, Niels; Hesse, Birger

    2017-03-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using Mimics software, and BSA values were automatically extracted from the program. They were compared with nine predictive equations from the literature. Remarkably, close correlations (r > 0·90) were found between BSA values from CT scans and those from the predictive formulae. A mean BSA of the 54 cadavers of 1·84-1·87 m(2) was calculated by all formulae except one, SD values varying between 0·171 and 0·223 m(2) . T-tests revealed significant differences between mean BSA values calculated with CT and three of the formulae. Regression analyses showed intercepts >(0;0) and slopes <1·0 using all predictive equations, with the CT scan determination as gold standard. It is concluded that DuBois and DuBois' equation can be safely used in normal-weight male subjects with high accuracy, but it seems likely that BSA is underestimated in underweight subjects and overestimated in overweight individuals. Creation of new formulae specific for overweight subjects and children may be needed.

  7. Prognostic impact of average iodine density assessed by dual-energy spectral imaging for predicting lung tumor recurrence after stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Fujioka, Ichitaro; Tanaka, Mitsuki; Ono, Shuichi; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of average iodine density as assessed by dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) for lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). From March 2011 to August 2014, 93 medically inoperable patients with 74 primary lung cancers and 19 lung metastases underwent DE-CT prior to SBRT of a total dose of 45-60 Gy in 5-10 fractions. Of these 93 patients, nine patients had two lung tumors. Thus, 102 lung tumors were included in this study. DE-CT was performed for pretreatment evaluation. Regions of interest were set for the entire tumor, and average iodine density was obtained using a dedicated imaging software and evaluated with regard to local control. The median follow-up period was 23.4 months (range, 1.5-54.5 months). The median value of the average iodine density was 1.86 mg/cm(3) (range, 0.40-9.27 mg/cm(3)). Two-year local control rates for the high and low average iodine density groups divided by the median value of the average iodine density were 96.9% and 75.7% (P = 0.006), respectively. Tumors with lower average iodine density showed a worse prognosis, possibly reflecting a hypoxic cell population in the tumor. The average iodine density exhibited a significant impact on local control. Our preliminary results indicate that iodine density evaluated using dual-energy spectral CT may be a useful, noninvasive and quantitative assessment of radio-resistance caused by presumably hypoxic cell populations in tumors.

  8. Remote comets and related bodies - VJHK colorimetry and surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Degewij, J.

    1982-01-01

    VJHK colors for a number of asteroids and eight comets at various solar distances and levels of activity were obtained, and the observations are interpreted in terms of a two-component mixing model in which outer solar system interplanetary bodies are viewed as mixtures of ice and dark carbonaceous-type (RD and C) dirt. It is inferred that the observed comets have comae, and perhaps surfaces, of dirty ice or ice dirt grains colored by an RD-dirt component. This inference is supported by systematics of an 'alpha index' based on VJHK colors and empirically correlated with albedo and ice/dirt ratio. Among comets the alpha index correlates with solar distance in a way that suggests comets emit dirty ice grains which are stable at large solar distance but from which the ice component sublimes and leaves dirt grains at small solar distance.

  9. Bound state potential energy surface construction: ab initio zero-point energies and vibrationally averaged rotational constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettens, Ryan P A

    2003-01-15

    Collins' method of interpolating a potential energy surface (PES) from quantum chemical calculations for reactive systems (Jordan, M. J. T.; Thompson, K. C.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1995, 102, 5647. Thompson, K. C.; Jordan, M. J. T.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 108, 8302. Bettens, R. P. A.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 111, 816) has been applied to a bound state problem. The interpolation method has been combined for the first time with quantum diffusion Monte Carlo calculations to obtain an accurate ground state zero-point energy, the vibrationally average rotational constants, and the vibrationally averaged internal coordinates. In particular, the system studied was fluoromethane using a composite method approximating the QCISD(T)/6-311++G(2df,2p) level of theory. The approach adopted in this work (a) is fully automated, (b) is fully ab initio, (c) includes all nine nuclear degrees of freedom, (d) requires no assumption of the functional form of the PES, (e) possesses the full symmetry of the system, (f) does not involve fitting any parameters of any kind, and (g) is generally applicable to any system amenable to quantum chemical calculations and Collins' interpolation method. The calculated zero-point energy agrees to within 0.2% of its current best estimate. A0 and B0 are within 0.9 and 0.3%, respectively, of experiment.

  10. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

    1992-04-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  11. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  12. Parameterizing radiative transfer to convert MAX-DOAS dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged mixing ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinreich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel parameterization method to convert multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS differential slant column densities (dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude. It parameterizes radiative transfer model calculations and significantly reduces the computational effort, while retrieving ~ 1 degree of freedom. The biggest benefit of this method is that the retrieval of an aerosol profile, which usually is necessary for deriving a trace gas concentration from MAX-DOAS dSCDs, is not needed. The method is applied to NO2 MAX-DOAS dSCDs recorded during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006 measurement campaign. The retrieved volume mixing ratios of two elevation angles (1° and 3° are compared to volume mixing ratios measured by two long-path (LP-DOAS instruments located at the same site. Measurements are found to agree well during times when vertical mixing is expected to be strong. However, inhomogeneities in the air mass above Mexico City can be detected by exploiting the different horizontal and vertical dimensions probed by the MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS instruments. In particular, a vertical gradient in NO2 close to the ground can be observed in the afternoon, and is attributed to reduced mixing coupled with near-surface emission inside street canyons. The existence of a vertical gradient in the lower 250 m during parts of the day shows the general challenge of sampling the boundary layer in a representative way, and emphasizes the need of vertically resolved measurements.

  13. Novel surface associated polyphosphate bodies sequester uranium in the filamentous, marine cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Celin; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2013-12-01

    A filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa, has been shown to harbour surface associated, acid soluble polyphosphate bodies. Uranium immobilization by such polyphosphate bodies, reported in cyanobacteria for the first time, demonstrates a novel uranium sequestration phenomenon.

  14. Human Body Modeling and Posture Simulating Based on 3D Surface Scan Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永有; 张辉; 任少云; 蒋寿伟

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for modeling the human body by considering the motion state and the shape of whole body. The body model consists of a skeleton kinematic model and a surface model. The former is used to determine the posture of the body,and the latter is used to generate the body shape according to the given posture. The body surface is reconstructed with multi-segment B-spline surfaces based on the 3D scan data from a real human body.Using only a few joints parameters and the original surface scan data, the various body postures and the shape can be generated easily. The model has a strong potential of being used for ergonomic design,garment design, virtual reality environment, as well as creating human animation, etc.

  15. Ontogenetic body-mass scaling of nitrogen excretion relates to body surface area in diverse pelagic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Lilley, M.K.S.; Glazier, D.S.;

    2016-01-01

    Many physiological and ecological processes depend on body size and the supply of limiting nutrients. Hence, it is important to derive quantitative predictions based on a mechanistic understanding of the influence of body size on metabolic rate and on the ratios of consumed to excreted elements. ....... Diverse pelagic invertebrates that dominate vast open water ecosystems falsify the predictions of general metabolic scaling theories built upon resource-transport networks, but support predictions of surface-area dependent theory........ Among diverse pelagic invertebrates that change shape during ontogeny, recent analysis has demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the body-mass allometry of respiration rates (measured as the ontogenetic body mass-scaling exponent bR) and the allometry of body surface area (b...

  16. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  17. Methods of building standard intermediate people model based on average body model%基于平均体模型的标准中间体人台建模方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子田; 杨阳; 水翠翠

    2015-01-01

    In order to get the standard intermediate people model, firstly, the body point cloud data are obtained by measurement of human body. Based on the average body model data which has been established after processing point cloud data of the human body and adjusting human body model, through the research about the relation between standard intermediate characteristic parts, the regression equation of the characteristic position and human body height and chest circumference is established, and the standard size of characteristic parts is gotten. The shape factor method is adopted to adjust the point cloud model and the standard intermediate point cloud model is obtained. Finally in MATLAB environment, by using NURBS tool box, the surface modeling is accurately realized, and the standard intermediate model is obtained.%为得到标准中间体人台模型,首先通过测体获得人体躯干点云数据;在对人体点云数据处理和人体模型调整后获得平均体模型数据的基础上,通过对标准中间体特征部位关系的研究,建立特征部位与人体身高和胸围的回归方程,求得特征部位的标准尺寸;采用形状因子方法对点云模型进行调整,得到标准中间体点云模型;并在MATLAB环境下,通过NURBS工具箱准确地实现了曲面建模,最终得到标准中间体模型。

  18. Survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surface of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-11-01

    granulometrically fine material on the surface of small asteroids does not prove the predominance of thermal stresses over rupture by meteorite impacts as a factor in the comminution of the surface material. We then analyzed images of lunar rocks of decimeters- to meters-size whose lunar surface exposure ages were radiometrically dated. This analysis shows that the presence of the fragment on the lunar surface for a time period 26-400 Ma (that is, ~3×108 to 5×109 day-night thermal cycles) did not lead to the formation of any features conclusively supporting rock destruction by thermal cycles. In turn, this means that on the lunar surface as well as on the surface of other bodies at 1 AU and further from the Sun, the destruction of rocks by thermal fatigue is secondary compared to rock rupture by the meteorite impacts. The possible implications of the difference in environments on fast spinning asteroids and on the Moon require additional analysis Then utilizing the entire catalog of inner solar system minor planet orbits out to Jupiter as a proxy for the distribution of potential impactors throughout the inner solar system, we calculated the meteorite flux and impact velocities for a number of airless bodies to use them for estimates of survival times of rock boulders on their surfaces (normalized to those for lunar boulders). We found that if the average survival time for meter-size rock boulders on the surface of the Moon is 1, then considering rupture by the meteorite impacts as the major process of rock destruction, for Phobos it is ~0.8, for Deimos ~0.7, for asteroid Itokawa ~1, for Eros ~0.3, for Vesta and Ceres ~0.03 and for the average of the first 150 Trojans discovered is ~12.5. Implications of these findings are that on the surfaces of Vesta and Ceres, compared to the Moon, the regolith layer should generally have a larger thickness and higher maturity, while small craters with rocky ejecta are rare. On the typical Trojans, where impact flux is closer to that on the

  19. Body-Surface Compounds in Buckfast and Caucasian Honey Bee Workers (Apis Mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Strachecka Aneta; Borsuk Grzegorz; Paleolog Jerzy; Olszewski Krzysztof; Bajda Milena; Chobotow Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Body-surface chemical compounds were studied in 1-day-old nest workers and foragers both in Buckfast and Caucasian bees. The workers of these two age-castes were sampled twice in each of two consecutive years. Body-surface lipids were determined by means of gas chromatography, with a GCQ mass spectrometer. Protein concentrations and activities on the body surface were examined in bee cuticle rinsings obtained from worker bees according to the methods of Lowry, of Anson, and of Lee and Lin. Pr...

  20. Breaking the black-body limit with resonant surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valagiannopoulos Constantinos A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The speed with which electromagnetic energy can be wirelessly transferred from a source to the user is a crucial indicator for the performance of a large number of electronic and photonic devices. We expect that energy transfer can be enhanced using special materials. In this paper, we determine the constituent parameters of a medium which can support theoretically infinite energy concentration close to its boundary; such a material combines properties of Perfectly Matched Layers (PML and Double-Negative (DNG media. It realizes conjugate matching with free space for every possible mode including, most importantly, all evanescent modes; we call this medium Conjugate Matched Layer (CML. Sources located outside such layer deliver power to the conjugate-matched body exceptionally effectively, impressively overcoming the black-body absorption limit which takes into account only propagating waves. We also expand this near-field concept related to the infinitely fast absorption of energy along the air-medium interface to enhance the far-field radiation. This becomes possible with the use of small particles randomly placed along the boundary; the induced currents due to the extremely high-amplitude resonating fields can play the role of emission “vessels”, by sending part of the theoretically unlimited near-field energy far away from the CML structure.

  1. Surface layer structure and average contact temperature of copper-containing materials under dry sliding with high electric current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinov, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry sliding of copper and powder composites of Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-graphite compositions against 1045 steel under electric current of contact density higher than 250 A/cm2 has been studied, which demonstrated the change in surface layer structure and formation of tribolayer consisting of iron, copper and FeO oxide. Signs of quasi-viscous flow of worn surface were observed. It was noted that the thin contact layer containing about 40 at % of oxygen and 40% of Fe was the main factor decreasing the adhesion interaction. It was affirmed that the introduction of graphite into the primary structure of the composite leads to rather low content of FeO oxide and to the increased tendency of surface layer to catastrophic deterioration under sliding with contact current density of about 300 A/cm2. The temperature of contact did not exceed 400°C.

  2. Tomo-PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body with surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Jeon, Young Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-02-01

    A three-dimensional surface of an arbitrarily moving body in a flow field was reconstructed using the DAISY descriptor and epipolar geometry constraints. The surface shape of a moving body was reconstructed with tomographic PIV flow measurement. Experimental images were captured using the tomographic PIV system, which consisted of four high-speed cameras and a laser. The originally captured images, which contained the shape of the arbitrary moving body and the tracer particles, were separated into the particle and surface images using a Gaussian smoothing filter. The weak contrast of the surface images was enhanced using a local histogram equalization method. The histogram-equalized surface images were used to reconstruct the surface shape of the moving body. The surface reconstruction method required a sufficiently detailed surface pattern to obtain the intensity gradient profile of the local descriptor. The separated particle images were used to reconstruct the particle volume intensity via tomographic reconstruction approaches. Voxels behind the reconstructed body surface were neglected during the tomographic reconstruction and velocity calculation. The three-dimensional three-component flow vectors were calculated based on the cross-correlation functions between the reconstructed particle volumes. Three-dimensional experiments that modeled the flows around a flapping flag, a rotating cylinder, and a flapping robot fish tail were conducted to validate the present technique.

  3. Influences of combined therapies with traditional Chinese medicine on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ping SHEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the influences of traditional Chinese medicinal combined therapies on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram (AEMG ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods  One hundred and twenty outpatients with mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM group and a brace group. TCM group patients underwent i Navigation of the spinal balance (twice a day, 40min/ time, until to skeletal maturity; ii Balance manipulation (twice a week, 25min/time, lasted 12 months; iii Small needle-knife therapy (once a week, 10 times. The brace group patients were treated with a Milwaukee brace. The Cobb angle was measured after 12 and 24 months of treatment, pulmonary function was determined after 12 months of treatment, and AEMG ratio of the surface electromyogram was measured 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, and intergroup comparison was performed. Results  The Cobb angle significantly decreased in both groups 12 months after treatment (P0.05 in the TCM group and brace group, respectively, 12 months after treatment and 62.5% and 34.7% (P<0.05, respectively, 24 months aftertreatment. Pulmonary function was significantly improved 12 months after treatment in TCM group (P<0.05 but significantly decreased in brace group (P<0.05. The AEMG ratio was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and tended to remain at 1 after stopping treatment in TCM group, showed that the muscle imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, but was adverse in brace group (P<0.05, showed that the muscle imbalance aggravated. No side effect of the therapeutic method was found. Conclusions  The spinal balance therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine theory has excellent therapeutic efficacy and safety, and can significantly ameliorate the imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, improve lung function index, and have better compliance. The AEMG ratio is a

  4. Restudies on Body Surface of Dung Beetle and Application of Its Bionics Flexible Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiurong Sun; Jianqiao Li; Hong Cheng; Zhendong Dai; Luquan Ren

    2004-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the structures of the setae on the surface of a dung beetle Copris ochus, Motschulsky. There are lots of setae on the body surface, especially on the ventral part surface and lateral to the legs which are different in size, arrangement and shape. These setae have different lengths and many thorns on the whole seta. The top ends of these setae stand up without furcations which direct uprightly towards the surface of the touched soil. By the method of removing these setae, getting the insect weight before and after digging into the dung we affirm farther that the setae on the beetle body surface form the anti-stick and non-adherent gentle interface. The soil machines and components made by imitating the gentle body surface of beetles have favorable non-adherent results.

  5. Many-body effects in simple metal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Natschläger, S

    2001-01-01

    equations are used to describe the electromagnetic field of the photon, wherein the electron system enters via the material equations. Using Green's functions, the Schroedinger equation with the perturbing Hamiltonian describing the photon field is solved for the scattering amplitude for various angles of photon penetration and electron emission, yielding the probability that an electron leaves the system. The procedure is self consistent. Since most photoemission experiments use relatively thick films, the infinite half space is used here. weakest. As a surface-mode is strongly localized in the surface, whereas the bulk-mode is extended throughout the film, the type of plasmon can be determined from the shape of the induced density. This determination may become ambiguous in the vicinity of level crossing, and additional information can be obtained from the asymptotic current, the shape of which does not change, when one follows a particular dispersion. In the second part we use a simple classical approach i...

  6. Using remotely sensed data to estimate area-averaged daily surface fluxes over a semi-arid mixed agricultural land

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Optical remote sensing has been widely used for diagnostics of land surface atmosphere exchanges, including evapotranspiration (ET). Estimating ET now benefits from modeling maturity at local scale, while ongoing challenges include both spatial and temporal issues: influences of spatial heterogeneities on non-linear behavior when upscaling and extrapolation of instantaneous estimates at satellite overpass to the daily scale. Both issues are very important when using remote sensing for managin...

  7. Interdependence between body surface area and ultraviolet B dose in vitamin D production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, M K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, P A;

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation.......Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation....

  8. Is the Surface Potential Integral of a Dipole in a Volume Conductor Always Zero? A Cloud Over the Average Reference of EEG and ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dezhong

    2017-02-14

    Currently, average reference is one of the most widely adopted references in EEG and ERP studies. The theoretical assumption is the surface potential integral of a volume conductor being zero, thus the average of scalp potential recordings might be an approximation of the theoretically desired zero reference. However, such a zero integral assumption has been proved only for a spherical surface. In this short communication, three counter-examples are given to show that the potential integral over the surface of a dipole in a volume conductor may not be zero. It depends on the shape of the conductor and the orientation of the dipole. This fact on one side means that average reference is not a theoretical 'gold standard' reference, and on the other side reminds us that the practical accuracy of average reference is not only determined by the well-known electrode array density and its coverage but also intrinsically by the head shape. It means that reference selection still is a fundamental problem to be fixed in various EEG and ERP studies.

  9. Comparison of Two Mercury Contaminated Surface Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. C.; Southworth, G. R.; Turner, R. R.; Jensen, R.

    2008-12-01

    Due to the methyl mercury (MeHg) burden in fish tissues, the Virginia Department of Health and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have posted fish advisories for the South River, VA and the East Fork Poplar Creek, TN (EFPC), respectively. This presentation will compare and contrast the hydrogeochemical characteristics of these two industrially contaminated water bodies. Both streams share broad similarities in terms of their general chemistry and underlying geology. Nevertheless, patterns of waterborne mercury (Hg) and, importantly, MeHg concentration are different. For example, in the South River both Hg and MeHg concentrations increase with increasing distance downstream from the industrial site of mercury origin whereas in EFPC Hg decreases while MeHg increases with increasing distance downstream. Although both sites are the focus of concerted research efforts to identify effective remediation, the underlying mechanisms that drive the patterns within each system and therefore account for the differences between them are poorly understood. We intend for this presentation to provide a context within which attendees can frame their discussion of the challenges inherent to studying the biogeochemical cycling of Hg in general and at contaminated sites in particular where effective remedies can be elusive.

  10. Background phosphorus concentrations in Danish groundwater and surface water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvang, Brian; Bøgestrand, Jens; Windolf, Jørgen; Ovesen, Niels; Troldborg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative information on the background concentration and loading of phosphorus is important when establishing the pressure-impact pathway for Danish streams, lakes and estuaries The background phosphorus loading thus determines present day lowest phosphorus loadings without influence from point sources and agriculture. We have mapped the background concentration of phosphorus in Danish groundwater and streams based on monitoring in 3000 groundwater wells, 7 small streams draining undisturbed catchments (1990-2010) and 19 streams draining small undisturbed catchments being monitored during 2004-2005. The concentration particulate P (PP) was found to be nearly constant within eight major georegions of Denmark (0.018 mg ± 0.010 mg P L-1. On contrary, the concentration of total dissolved P (TDP) was found to vary between 0.011-0.071 mg P L-1 within the eight georegions. We have also time series of background total P concentrations from 7 small undisturbed catchments covering the period 1990-2010. No significant trends have been observed in total P concentrations from these streams during the period 1990-2010. The average annual background loss of total phosphorus amounts to 730 tonnes P or 29% of the total loading of phosphorus from the Danish land to sea during the period 2007-2011. The measured TDP concentration in groundwater was much higher under reduced conditions (median: 0.10-0.15 mg P L-1) than in oxidized groundwater (Journal of Hydrology (280) 52-71.

  11. Does the kinorhynch have a hydrophobic body surface? Measurement of the wettability of a meiobenthic metazoan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Uozumi, Ryosuke; Hirose, Euichi

    2016-10-01

    The body surface of aquatic invertebrates is generally thought to be hydrophilic to prevent the attachment of air bubbles. In contrast, some interstitial invertebrates, such as kinorhynchs and some crustaceans, have a hydrophobic body surface: they are often trapped at the water surface when the sediment in which they reside is mixed with air and water. Here, we directly measured the wettability of the body surface of the kinorhynch Echinoderes komatsui, using a microscopic contact angle meter. The intact body surface of live specimens was not hydrophobic, but the anterior part was less hydrophilic. Furthermore, washing with seawater significantly decreased the wettability of the body surface, but a hydrophilic surface was recovered after a 1 h incubation in seawater. We believe that the hydrophobic cuticle of the kinorhynch has a hydrophilic coat that is readily exfoliated by disturbance. Ultrastructural observations supported the presence of a mucus-like coating on the cuticle. Regulation of wettability is crucial to survival in shallow, fluctuating habitats for microscopic organisms and may also contribute to expansion of the dispersal range of these animals.

  12. Core Temperature and Surface Heat Flux During Exercise in Heat While Wearing Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Potter AW, Santee WR, Clements CM, Brooks KA, & Hoyt RW. Comparative analysis of metabolic cost equations: A review. Journal of Sport and Human...TECHNICAL REPORT NO. T16-1 DATE October 2015 ADA CORE TEMPERATURE AND SURFACE HEAT FLUX ...DURING EXERCISE IN HEAT WHILE WEARING BODY ARMOR USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T16-1 CORE TEMPERATURE AND SURFACE HEAT FLUX DURING EXERCISE

  13. Surface-wave mode coupling : modelling and inverting waveforms including body-wave phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquering, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a similar problem as addressed by Li & Tanimoto (1993) in the surfacewave mode approach. In this thesis it is shown that surface-wave mode coupling is required when body-wave phases in laterally heterogeneous media are modelled by surface-wave mode summation. An efficie

  14. Surface temperature evolution and the location of maximum and average surface temperature of a lithium-ion pouch cell under variable load profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutam, Shovon; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Omar, Noshin;

    2014-01-01

    , manganese and cobalt (NMC) based and the anode is graphite based. In order to measure the surface temperature, thermal infrared (IR) camera and contact thermocouples were used. A fairly uniform temperature distribution was observed over the cell surface in case of continuous charge and discharge up to 100A...

  15. Surface morphology of chitin highly related with the isolated body part of butterfly (Argynnis pandora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bitim, Betül; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Koyuncu, Turgay

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to understand the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin samples isolated from the wings and the other body parts except the wings (OBP) of a butterfly species (Argynnis pandora). The same isolation method was used for obtaining chitin specimens from both types of body parts. The chitin content of the wings (22%) was recorded as being much higher than the OBP (8%). The extracted chitin samples were characterized via FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM, and elemental analysis techniques. Results of these characterizations revealed that the chitins from both structures (wings and OBP) were very similar, except for their surface morphologies. SEM results demonstrated one type of surface morphology for the wings and four different surface morphologies for the OBP. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the surface morphology of the chitin is highly related with the body part.

  16. Rapid three-dimensional chromoscan system of body surface based on digital fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bin; Liang, Jin; Li, Jie; Ren, Maodong

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a rapid body scanning system that uses optical digital fringe projection method. Twelve cameras and four digital projectors are placed around the human body from four different directions, so that the body surface threedimensional( 3D) point cloud data can be scanned in 5~8 seconds. It can overcome many difficulties in a traditional measurement method, such as laser scanning causes damage to human eye and low splicing accuracy using structured white light scanning system. First, an accurate calibration method based on close-range photogrammetry, is proposed and verified for calibrating the twelve cameras and the four digital projectors simultaneously, where a 1m×2m plate as calibration target with feature points pasted on its two-sides is used. An experiment indicates that the proposed calibration method, with a re-projection error less than 0.05pixels, has a considerable accuracy. The whole 3D body surface color point cloud data can be measured without splice different views of point cloud, because of the high accuracy calibration results. Then, in order to measure the whole body point cloud data with high accuracy, a combination of single and stereo camera measuring method, based on digital fringe projection, has presented to calculating 3D point cloud data. At last, a novel body chromoscan system is developed and a human body 3D digital model was scanned, by which a physical body model was manufactured using 3D printing technology.

  17. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chen Ming-Hsu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations and no rotation, in association with averaging periods of 15 - 480 min, were applied to compute surface heat and water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance approach. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC watershed, located in central Taiwan. For no rotation and double rotation approaches, an adequate averaging period of 15 or 30 min was suggested for better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. For the planar-fit rotation approach, an adequate averaging period of 60 or 120 min was recommended, and a typical averaging period of 30 min is not superior to that of 60 or 120 min in terms of better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. The Ogive function analysis revealed that the energy closure was improved with the increase of averaging time by capturing sensible heat fluxes at low-frequency ranges during certain midday hours at LHC site. Seasonal variations of daily energy closure fractions, high in dry season and low in wet season, were found to be associated with the surface dryness and strength of turbulent development. The mismatching of flux footprint areas among flux sensors was suggested as the cause of larger CF variations during the dry seasons as that indicated by the footprint analysis showing scattered source areas. During the wet season, the underestimation of turbulent fluxes by EC observations at the LHC site was attributed to weak turbulence developments as the source area identified by the footprint analysis was closer to the flux tower than those scattered in dry season.

  18. Numerical simulation of motion and deformation of ring bubble along body surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宝玉; 张阿漫

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulation for fluid flow over an attached rigid body with a deformable ring bubble is analyzed based on the velocity potential theory together with the boundary element method (BEM). The analysis is focused on the axisymmetric case. The bubble surface is treated as a well defined air-liquid interface and is tracked by a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The points of intersection between the bubble and body are treated, specially in the numerical procedure. The auxiliary function method is adopted to calculate the pressure on the body surface and in the flow field. The convergence study is undertaken to assess the developed numerical method and the computation code. Some case studies are undertaken in which the interactions between the bubble/body and the incoming flow field are simulated. The effects of various physical parameters on the interactions are investigated.

  19. Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

    2015-11-01

    Bluff-body obstacles interacting with turbulent airflows are common in many natural and engineering applications (from desert pavement and shrubs over natural surfaces to cylindrical elements in compact heat exchangers). Even with obstacles of simple geometry, their interactions within turbulent airflows result in a complex and unsteady flow field that affects surface drag partitioning and transport of scalars from adjacent evaporating surfaces. Observations of spatio-temporal thermal patterns on evaporating porous surfaces adjacent to bluff-body obstacles depict well-defined and persistent zonation of evaporation rates that were used to construct a simple mechanistic model for surface-turbulence interactions. Results from evaporative drying of sand surfaces with isolated cylindrical elements (bluff bodies) subjected to constant turbulent airflows were in good agreement with model predictions for localized exchange rates. Experimental and theoretical results show persistent enhancement of evaporative fluxes from bluff-rough surfaces relative to smooth flat surfaces under similar conditions. The enhancement is attributed to formation of vortices that induce a thinner boundary layer over part of the interacting surface footprint. For a practical range of air velocities (0.5-4.0 m/s), low-aspect ratio cylindrical bluff elements placed on evaporating sand surfaces enhanced evaporative mass losses (relative to a flat surface) by up to 300% for high density of elements and high wind velocity, similar to observations reported in the literature. Concepts from drag partitioning were used to generalize the model and upscale predictions to evaporation from surfaces with multiple obstacles for potential applications to natural bluff-rough surfaces.

  20. Distribution, Arrangement and Interconnectedness of Cell Surface Receptor sites in the body of an Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors have been identified as the sites of disease infectivity in living organisms in a previous study. Drugs used for the treatment or cure of infections have to eliminate infections through attacking infective organisms at the cell surface receptors to which the infective organisms are attached. Problem statement: The present study examines a wide sample of living things to get more information on the relationship of one cell surface receptor to other cell surface receptors in the body of an organism. Approach: The arrangement of cell surface receptors on the external covering of a few samples of fruits, leaves, stems, dry wood of a plant; wall gecko and some parts of the human body, were examined and photographed. Transverse and/or Longitudinal sections of soursop fruit and sycamore fruit were also examined and photographed. The five different coverings of the fleshy part of a coconut were also photographed. The photographs were studied to note the relationship of disease infection attached to cell surface receptors on the external surface of an organ to disease infection on the innermost covering of the same organ. Results: The results of the study showed that all living things had ubiquitous distribution of cell surface receptors which are usually observable with the unaided eye as dots or spots on the external covering of an organ, tissue or cell. The dots or receptor sites of cell surface receptors in the study are arranged in lines which were perpendicular, oblique, transverse or arranged in any other lineal geometrical form. The lineally arranged cell surface receptors were noted to be connected by grooves, channels or pipes which joined other receptor channels or intersected with them. Smaller cell surface receptor channels emptied into bigger channels or continued as small sized channels that ran side by side in a connective tissue bundle. These connective tissue bundles that carried many independent small-sized cell

  1. Global surfaces of section in the planar restricted 3-body problem

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, Peter; Frauenfelder, Urs; Hofer, Helmut; van Koert, Otto

    2011-01-01

    The restricted planar three-body problem has a rich history, yet many unanswered questions still remain. In the present paper we prove the existence of a global surface of section near the smaller body in a new range of energies and mass ratios for which the Hill's region still has three connected components. The approach relies on recent global methods in symplectic geometry and contrasts sharply with the perturbative methods used until now.

  2. Activity of processes on the visible surfaces of Solar System bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the physical processes on the surfaces of Solar System bodies, which lead to visible changes in their reflective characteristics. It is shown that each body in the Solar system has a set of chemical elements and their compounds, converting of which indicates significant activity in such a significant temperature change range from 700 K (for Mercury) to 30 K for Pluto. That is, all objects in the Solar system show a significant activity. However, they are very individual for the list and the type of the processes that take place on each body in the Solar system.

  3. Surface and body waves in magnetic flux tubes. [in solar convection zone, photosphere, and corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelatif, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    The dispersion relation of surface and body waves in a magnetic flux tube is studied in detail. The properties of the fast and slow bodywaves are described in terms of the filtering characteristics of the flux tube. In addition to the axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric distinction between the modes, an additional distinction is made between the fundamental mode and the rest of the modes. New results concerning the thin and large flux tube approximation are derived. The behavior of surface and body waves in the solar convection zone, photosphere, and corona is discussed.

  4. Sampling Errors of SSM/I and TRMM Rainfall Averages: Comparison with Error Estimates from Surface Data and a Sample Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative use of satellite-derived maps of monthly rainfall requires some measure of the accuracy of the satellite estimates. The rainfall estimate for a given map grid box is subject to both remote-sensing error and, in the case of low-orbiting satellites, sampling error due to the limited number of observations of the grid box provided by the satellite. A simple model of rain behavior predicts that Root-mean-square (RMS) random error in grid-box averages should depend in a simple way on the local average rain rate, and the predicted behavior has been seen in simulations using surface rain-gauge and radar data. This relationship was examined using satellite SSM/I data obtained over the western equatorial Pacific during TOGA COARE. RMS error inferred directly from SSM/I rainfall estimates was found to be larger than predicted from surface data, and to depend less on local rain rate than was predicted. Preliminary examination of TRMM microwave estimates shows better agreement with surface data. A simple method of estimating rms error in satellite rainfall estimates is suggested, based on quantities that can be directly computed from the satellite data.

  5. FREE-SURFACE WAVES AND FAR WAKES GENERATED BY A FLOATING BODY IN A VISCOUS FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dong-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The free-surface waves and the flow field due to a body moving on the surface of an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth were studied analytically. The floating body was modeled as a normal point pressure on the free surface. Based on the Oseen approximation for governing equations and the linearity assumption for boundary conditions, the exact solutions in integral form for the free-surface elevation, the velocities and the pressure were given. By employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme, the asymptotic representations in far field for large Reynolds numbers were derived explicitly. The effect of viscosity on the wave profiles was expressed by an exponential decay factor, which removes the singular behavior predicted by the potential theory.

  6. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, Premkumar B.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2002-01-01

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO2 atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm2 of water in steps of 5 g/cm2) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the HZETRN, QMSFRG, and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions.

  7. Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, G; Nazarov, S A

    2009-01-01

    The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

  8. UNSTEADY FREE-SURFACE WAVES GENERATED BY BODIES IN A VISCOUS FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Dong-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of laminar flows with free sur face waves generated by submerged bodies in an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth is investigated analytically.The analysis is based on the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for disturbed flows. The kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions are linearized for the small amplitude free-surface waves, and the initial values of the flow are taken to be those of the steady state cases. The submerged bodies are mathematically represented by fundamental singularities of viscous flows. The asymptotic representations for unsteady free-surface waves produced by the Stokeslets and Oseenlets are derived analytically. It is found that the unsteady waves generated by a body consist of steady-state and transient responses.As time tends to infinity, the transient waves vanish due to the presence of a viscous decay factor. Thus. an ultimate steady state can be attained.

  9. Instabilities on crystal surfaces: The two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlon, E.; van Beijeren, H.; Mazzeo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The free energy of crystal surfaces that can be described by the two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model has been calculated in a mean-field approximation. The system may model ionic crystals with a bcc lattice structure (for instance CsCl). Crossings between steps are energetically favored

  10. Dose banding as an alternative to body surface area-based dosing of chemotherapeutic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Chatelut (Etienne); M.L. White-Koning (M.); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); F. Puisset (F.); S.D. Baker (Sharyn); A. Sparreboom (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Dose banding is a recently suggested dosing method that uses predefined ranges (bands) of body surface area (BSA) to calculate each patients dose by using a single BSA-value per band. Thus, drugs with sufficient long-term stability can be prepared in advance. The main advanta

  11. Should blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass be individualized more than to body surface area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Larsson, A; Andreasen, Jan Jesper;

    Blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is calculated on body surface area (BSA). Increasing comorbidity, age and weight of today's cardiac patients question this calculation as it may not reflect individual metabolic requirement. The hypothesis was that a measured cardiac index (CI) prior...... not improve cerebral and systemic oxygenation compared to a blood flow based on BSA....

  12. Body-Surface Compounds in Buckfast and Caucasian Honey Bee Workers (Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachecka Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Body-surface chemical compounds were studied in 1-day-old nest workers and foragers both in Buckfast and Caucasian bees. The workers of these two age-castes were sampled twice in each of two consecutive years. Body-surface lipids were determined by means of gas chromatography, with a GCQ mass spectrometer. Protein concentrations and activities on the body surface were examined in bee cuticle rinsings obtained from worker bees according to the methods of Lowry, of Anson, and of Lee and Lin. Protease and protease inhibitor activities were determined. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed. Caucasian bees, particularly foragers, had more lipids, but Buckfast bees (two age-castes had more proteins on their body surfaces. A total of 17 alkane types (C17 - C33, 13 alkene types (C21 - C33, 21 esters (C12 - C32, and a phenol (C14 were detected in both races. Alkene C33 was detected only in Caucasian bees. More alkanes, esters, and phenols were found in Caucasian 1-day-old nest workers and foragers than in these age-castes of Buckfast bees. The protein concentration and protease inhibitor activities were lower in Caucasian bees that had higher protease activities. These values corresponded with specific numbers and widths of the electrophoretic bands.

  13. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  14. Automatic generation of force fields and property surfaces for use in variational vibrational calculations of anharmonic vibrational energies and zero-point vibrational averaged properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsted, Jacob; Christiansen, Ove

    2006-09-28

    An automatic and general procedure for the calculation of geometrical derivatives of the energy and general property surfaces for molecular systems is developed and implemented. General expressions for an n-mode representation are derived, where the n-mode representation includes only the couplings between n or less degrees of freedom. The general expressions are specialized to derivative force fields and property surfaces, and a scheme for calculation of the numerical derivatives is implemented. The implementation is interfaced to electronic structure programs and may be used for both ground and excited electronic states. The implementation is done in the context of a vibrational structure program and can be used in combination with vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF), vibrational configuration interaction (VCI), vibrational Moller-Plesset, and vibrational coupled cluster calculations of anharmonic wave functions and calculation of vibrational averaged properties at the VSCF and VCI levels. Sample calculations are presented for fundamental vibrational energies and vibrationally averaged dipole moments and frequency dependent polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of water and formaldehyde.

  15. Modeling the time-varying interaction between surface water and groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliege, Steffen; Steidl, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar; Merz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The countless kettle holes (small lakes) in the Late Pleistocene landscapes of Northern Europe have important ecological and hydrological functions. On the one hand they act as depressions in which water and solutes of mainly agriculturally used catchments accumulate. On the other hand they operate as biochemical reactors with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, and as major sinks for nutrients and contaminants. Even small kettle holes often are hydraulically connected to the uppermost groundwater system: Groundwater discharges into the kettle hole on one side, and the aquifer is recharged from the kettle hole water body on the other side. Thus kettle hole biogeochemical processes are both affected by groundwater and vice versa. Groundwater flow direction and velocity into and out of the kettle hole often is not stable over time. Groundwater flow direction might reverse at the downstream part, resulting in repeated recycling of groundwater and corresponding solute turnover within the kettle holes. A sound understanding of this intricate interplay is a necessary prerequisite for better understanding of the biogeochemistry of this terrestrial-aquatic interface. A numerical experiment was used to quantify the lateral solute exchange between a kettle hole and the surrounding groundwater. A vertical cross section through the real existing catchment of a kettle hole was chosen. Glacial till represents the lower boundary. The heterogeneity of the subsurface was reproduced by various parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties as well as varying the thickness of the unconfined aquifer or the lateral boundary conditions. In total 24 different parameterizations were implemented in the modeling software HydroGeoSphere (HGS). HGS is suitable to calculate the fluid exchange between surface and subsurface simultaneously and in a physically based way. The simulation runs were done for the period from November 1994 to October 2014. All results were

  16. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤ 3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th rib fat thickness, yield grade, and marbling score, respectively

  17. Numerical simulation on drag reduction of revolution body through bionic riblet surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations of flow fields on the bionic riblet and the smooth revolution bodies were performed based on the SST k-ω turbulence model in order to explain the mechanisms of the skin friction drag reduction, base drag reduction on the riblet surface, and flow control behaviors of riblet surface near the wall. The simulation results show that the riblet surface arranged on the rearward of the revolution body can reduce the skin friction drag by 8.27%, the base drag by 9.91% and the total drag by 8.59% at Ma number 0.8. The riblet surface reduces the skin friction drag by reducing the velocity gradient and turbulent intensity, and reduces the base drag by weakening the pumping action on the dead water region which behind the body of revolution caused by the external flow. The flow control behavior on boundary layer shows that the riblet surface can cut the low-speed flow near the wall effectively, and restrain the low-speed flow concentrating in span direction, thus weaken the instability of the low speed steaks produced by turbulent flow bursting.

  18. Modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kirillov, V. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Tural'chuk, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The results of modeling and an experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave range propagating along the surface of the human body have been presented. The parameters of wave propagation, such as the attenuation and phase velocity, have also been investigated. The calculation of the propagation of EM waves by the numerical method FDTD (finite difference time domain), as well as the use of the analytical model of the propagation of the EM wave along flat and curved surfaces has been fulfilled. An experimental study on a human body has been conducted. It has been shown that creeping waves are slow and exhibit a noticeable dispersion, while the surface waves are dispersionless and propagate at the speed of light in free space. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation, analytical calculation, and experimental investigations at a frequency of 2.55 GHz has been carried out.

  19. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA) Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Colin; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S; Potvin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recent miniaturizations of gyroscopes offer the possibility of resolving this shortcoming and obtaining better estimates of body accelerations of swimming animals. We derived accelerations using gyroscope data for swimming Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and determined how well the measured accelerations correlated with actual swimming speeds and with theoretical drag. We also compared dive averaged dynamic body acceleration estimates that incorporate gyroscope data, with the widely used Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) metric, which does not use gyroscope data. Four Steller sea lions equipped with biologging tags were trained to swim alongside a boat cruising at steady speeds in the range of 4 to 10 kph. At each speed, and for each dive, we computed a measure called Gyro-Informed Dynamic Acceleration (GIDA) using a method incorporating gyroscope data with accelerometer data. We derived a new metric-Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA), which is the average gain in speed per flipper stroke divided by mean stroke cycle duration. Our results show that the gyro-based measure (APBA) is a better predictor of speed than ODBA. We also found that APBA can estimate average thrust production during a single stroke-glide cycle, and can be used to estimate energy expended during swimming. The gyroscope-derived methods we describe should be generally applicable in swimming animals where propulsive accelerations can be clearly identified in the signal-and they should also

  20. A Framework for Analyzing the Whole Body Surface Area from a Single View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doretto, Gianfranco; Adjeroh, Donald

    2017-01-01

    We present a virtual reality (VR) framework for the analysis of whole human body surface area. Usual methods for determining the whole body surface area (WBSA) are based on well known formulae, characterized by large errors when the subject is obese, or belongs to certain subgroups. For these situations, we believe that a computer vision approach can overcome these problems and provide a better estimate of this important body indicator. Unfortunately, using machine learning techniques to design a computer vision system able to provide a new body indicator that goes beyond the use of only body weight and height, entails a long and expensive data acquisition process. A more viable solution is to use a dataset composed of virtual subjects. Generating a virtual dataset allowed us to build a population with different characteristics (obese, underweight, age, gender). However, synthetic data might differ from a real scenario, typical of the physician’s clinic. For this reason we develop a new virtual environment to facilitate the analysis of human subjects in 3D. This framework can simulate the acquisition process of a real camera, making it easy to analyze and to create training data for machine learning algorithms. With this virtual environment, we can easily simulate the real setup of a clinic, where a subject is standing in front of a camera, or may assume a different pose with respect to the camera. We use this newly designated environment to analyze the whole body surface area (WBSA). In particular, we show that we can obtain accurate WBSA estimations with just one view, virtually enabling the possibility to use inexpensive depth sensors (e.g., the Kinect) for large scale quantification of the WBSA from a single view 3D map. PMID:28045895

  1. Indexing of renal function parameters by body surface area: intelligence or folly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Indexation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by body surface area (BSA) is often done without raising any questions. In this article, we will shortly review the limitations of such indexation and illustrate potential errors in clinical practice due to this indexation. Adjusting the GFR by BSA is particularly misleading in patients with abnormal body size (obese and anorectic). We will also insist on the fact that indexation by BSA is not required for the GFR longitudinal follow-up. Additionally, we will discuss the implications and consequences of BSA indexation on the creatinine-based equations, such as the Cockcroft-Gault and the MDRD study equations.

  2. Nonlinear mechanics of surface growth for cylindrical and spherical elastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Fabio; Yavari, Arash

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the initial-boundary value problems of accreting cylindrical and spherical nonlinear elastic solids in a geometric framework. It is assumed that the body grows as a result of addition of new (stress-free or pre-stressed) material on part of its boundary. We construct Riemannian material manifolds for a growing body with metrics explicitly depending on the history of applied external loads and deformation during accretion and the growth velocity. We numerically solve the governing equilibrium equations in the case of neo-Hookean solids and compare the accretion and residual stresses with those calculated using the linear mechanics of surface growth.

  3. Aromatic molecules on low-index coinage metal surfaces: Many-body dispersion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingda; Yang, Sha; Li, Shuang; Liu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the binding mechanism for aromatic molecules on transition-metal surfaces in atomic scale is a major challenge in designing functional interfaces for to (opto)electronic devices. Here, we employ the state-of-the-art many-body dispersion (MBD) approach, coupled with density functional theory methods, to study the interactions of benzene with low-index coinage metal surfaces. The many-body effects contribute mostly to the (111) surface, and leastly to the (110) surface. This corresponds to the same sequence of planar atomic density of face-centered-cubic lattices, i.e., (111) > (100) > (110). The binding energy for benzene/Au(110) is even stronger than that for benzene/Ag(110), due to a larger broadening of molecular orbitals in the former case. On the other hand, our calculations show almost identical binding energies for benzene on Ag(111) and Au(111), which contradicts the classic d-band center theory that could well predict the trend in chemisorption energies for various small molecules on a number of metal surfaces. Our results provide important insight into the benchmark adsorption systems with opener surfaces, which could help in designing more complex functional interfaces.

  4. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%.

  5. Multi-Axis Identifiability Using Single-Surface Parameter Estimation Maneuvers on the X-48B Blended Wing Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Nalin A.; Koshimoto, Ed T.; Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of parameter estimation on hybrid-wing-body type aircraft is complicated by the fact that many design candidates for such aircraft involve a large number of aero- dynamic control effectors that act in coplanar motion. This fact adds to the complexity already present in the parameter estimation problem for any aircraft with a closed-loop control system. Decorrelation of system inputs must be performed in order to ascertain individual surface derivatives with any sort of mathematical confidence. Non-standard control surface configurations, such as clamshell surfaces and drag-rudder modes, further complicate the modeling task. In this paper, asymmetric, single-surface maneuvers are used to excite multiple axes of aircraft motion simultaneously. Time history reconstructions of the moment coefficients computed by the solved regression models are then compared to each other in order to assess relative model accuracy. The reduced flight-test time required for inner surface parameter estimation using multi-axis methods was found to come at the cost of slightly reduced accuracy and statistical confidence for linear regression methods. Since the multi-axis maneuvers captured parameter estimates similar to both longitudinal and lateral-directional maneuvers combined, the number of test points required for the inner, aileron-like surfaces could in theory have been reduced by 50%. While trends were similar, however, individual parameters as estimated by a multi-axis model were typically different by an average absolute difference of roughly 15-20%, with decreased statistical significance, than those estimated by a single-axis model. The multi-axis model exhibited an increase in overall fit error of roughly 1-5% for the linear regression estimates with respect to the single-axis model, when applied to flight data designed for each, respectively.

  6. Comparison of Body Surface Area versus Weight-Based Growth Hormone Dosing for Girls with Turner Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, L.; Kam, M.L. de; McKinnon, R.; Bakri, A. Che; Oostdijk, W.; Sas, T.C.J.; Menke, L.A.; Otten, B.J.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Kristrom, B.; Ankarberg-Lindgren, C.; Burggraaf, J.; Albertsson-Wikland, K.; Wit, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Growth Hormone (GH) dosage in childhood is adjusted for body size, but there is no consensus whether body weight (BW) or body surface area (BSA) should be used. We aimed at comparing the biological effect and cost-effectiveness of GH treatment dosed per m(2) BSA in comparison with d

  7. Infrared thermoimages display of body surface temperature reaction in experimental cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zhang; Yuan-Gen Zhu; Shu-You Wang; Hui-Min Ma; Yan-Yan Ye; Wei-Xing Fu; Wei-Guo Hu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To display the thermoirnages of the body surface inexperimental cholecystitis, to observe the body surfacetemperature reaction in visceral disorders, and to study if the theory of body surface-viscera correlation is true and the mechanism of temperature changes along the meridians. METHODS: By injecting bacteria ssuspension into the stricturebile duct and gallbladder, 21 rabbits were prepared as acutepyogenic cholangiocholecystitis models, with another 8rabbits prepared by the same process except withoutinjection of bacteria suspension as control. The body surfaceinfrared thermoimages were continuously observed on thehair shaven rabbit skin with AGA-782 thermovision 24 hbefore, 1-11 d after and (2,3 wk) 4 wk after the operation witha total of over 10 records of thermoimages.RESULTS: Twelve cases out of 21 rabbits with cholecystitisrevealed bi-lsteral longitudinal high temperature lines in itstrunk; with negative findings in the control group. The high-temperature line appeared on d l-d2, first in the right trunk,after the preparation of the model, about 7 d after the modelpreparation, the lines appeared at the left side too,persisting for 4 wk. The hyper-temperature line revealed 1.1-2.7 ℃ higher than before the model preparation, 0.7-2.5 ℃higher than the surrounding skin. The length of the hightemperature line might reach a half length of the body trunk,or as long as the whole body itself.CONCLUSION: The appearance of the longitudinal hightemperature lines st the lateral aspects of the trunk in theexperimental group is directly bound up with theexperimental animals pyogenic cholecystitis, with itsrunning course quite similar to that of the GallbladderChannel of Foot Shaoyang, but different to the zones ofhyperalgesia and site of referred pain in cholecystitis.

  8. N-body dynamics on closed surfaces: the axioms of mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatto, Stefanella; Dritschel, David G.; Schaefer, Rodrigo G.

    2016-08-01

    A major challenge for our understanding of the mathematical basis of particle dynamics is the formulation of N-body and N-vortex dynamics on Riemann surfaces. In this paper, we show how the two problems are, in fact, closely related when considering the role played by the intrinsic geometry of the surface. This enables a straightforward deduction of the dynamics of point masses, using recently derived results for point vortices on general closed differentiable surfaces M endowed with a metric g. We find, generally, that Kepler's Laws do not hold. What is more, even Newton's First Law (the law of inertia) fails on closed surfaces with variable curvature (e.g. the ellipsoid).

  9. Identification of surface cracks in magnetic bodies using wavelets on a bounded interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Hafiz, S.K., E-mail: sabdelhafiz@gmail.co [Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12211 (Egypt); Adly, A.A., E-mail: adlyamr@gmail.co [Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12211 (Egypt)

    2011-01-15

    Non-destructive identification of cracks in steel bodies has always been an issue of great interest to numerous industrial sectors. Examples in which such non-destructive testing is of considerable importance include railways, pipelines and structural supports. This paper proposes a technique that employs the application of static magnetic field parallel to the surface under consideration while monitoring emanating fields using an orthogonally oriented hall sensor. In this approach, wavelets on a bounded interval are utilized to identify the precise location of surface cracks, which are considerably smaller than the active sensing element dimensions. Simulation results demonstrating the advantages of the proposed approach are given in the paper.

  10. Survival Times of Meter-Sized Rock Boulders on the Surface of Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surfaces of several airless bodies. As the starting point, we employ estimates of the survival times of such boulders on the surface of the Moon by[1], then discuss the role of destruction due to day-night temperature cycling, consider the meteorite bombardment environment on the considered bodies in terms of projectile flux and velocities and finally estimate the survival times. Survival times of meter-sized rocks on lunar surface: The survival times of hand specimen-sized rocks exposed to the lunar surface environment were estimated based on experiments modeling the destruction of rocks by meteorite impacts, combined with measurements of the lunar surface meteorite flux, (e.g.,[2]). For estimations of the survival times of meter-sized lunar boulders, [1] suggested a different approach based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age. It was found that for a few million years, only a small fraction of the boulders ejected by cratering process are destroyed, for several tens of million years approx.50% are destroyed, and for 200-300 Ma, 90 to 99% are destroyed. Following [2] and other works, [1] considered that the rocks are mostly destroyed by meteorite impacts. Destruction of rocks by thermal-stress. However, high diurnal temperature variations on the surface of the Moon and other airless bodies imply that thermal stresses may also be a cause of surface rock destruction. Delbo et al. [3] interpreted the observed presence of fine debris on the surface of small asteroids as due to thermal surface cycling. They stated that because of the very low gravity on the surface of these bodies, ejecta from meteorite impacts should leave the body, so formation there of fine debris has to be due to thermal cycling. Based on experiments on heating-cooling of cm-scale pieces of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and theoretical modeling of

  11. Energy absorption during impact on the proximal femur is affected by body mass index and flooring surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris C; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-07-18

    Impact mechanics theory suggests that peak loads should decrease with increase in system energy absorption. In light of the reduced hip fracture risk for persons with high body mass index (BMI) and for falls on soft surfaces, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of participant BMI, gender, and flooring surface on system energy absorption during lateral falls on the hip with human volunteers. Twenty university-aged participants completed the study with five men and five women in both low BMI (27.5 kg/m(2)) groups. Participants underwent lateral pelvis release experiments from a height of 5 cm onto two common floors and four safety floors mounted on a force plate. A motion-capture system measured pelvic deflection. The energy absorbed during the initial compressive phase of impact was calculated as the area under the force-deflection curve. System energy absorption was (on average) 3-fold greater for high compared to low BMI participants, but no effects of gender were observed. Even after normalizing for body mass, high BMI participants absorbed 1.8-fold more energy per unit mass. Additionally, three of four safety floors demonstrated significantly increased energy absorption compared to a baseline resilient-rolled-sheeting system (% increases ranging from 20.7 to 28.3). Peak system deflection was larger for high BMI persons and for impacts on several safety floors. This study indicates that energy absorption may be a common mechanism underlying the reduced risk of hip fracture for persons with high BMI and for those who fall on soft surfaces.

  12. New model for estimating the relationship between surface area and volume in the human body using skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasabova, Boryana E; Holliday, Trenton W

    2015-04-01

    A new model for estimating human body surface area and body volume/mass from standard skeletal metrics is presented. This model is then tested against both 1) "independently estimated" body surface areas and "independently estimated" body volume/mass (both derived from anthropometric data) and 2) the cylindrical model of Ruff. The model is found to be more accurate in estimating both body surface area and body volume/mass than the cylindrical model, but it is more accurate in estimating body surface area than it is for estimating body volume/mass (as reflected by the standard error of the estimate when "independently estimated" surface area or volume/mass is regressed on estimates derived from the present model). Two practical applications of the model are tested. In the first test, the relative contribution of the limbs versus the trunk to the body's volume and surface area is compared between "heat-adapted" and "cold-adapted" populations. As expected, the "cold-adapted" group has significantly more of its body surface area and volume in its trunk than does the "heat-adapted" group. In the second test, we evaluate the effect of variation in bi-iliac breadth, elongated or foreshortened limbs, and differences in crural index on the body's surface area to volume ratio (SA:V). Results indicate that the effects of bi-iliac breadth on SA:V are substantial, while those of limb lengths and (especially) the crural index are minor, which suggests that factors other than surface area relative to volume are driving morphological variation and ecogeographical patterning in limb prorportions.

  13. Polymer surface functionalities that control human embryoid body cell adhesion revealed by high throughput surface characterization of combinatorial material microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Mei, Ying; Hook, Andrew L; Taylor, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew J; Bogatyrev, Said R; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R

    2010-12-01

    High throughput materials discovery using combinatorial polymer microarrays to screen for new biomaterials with new and improved function is established as a powerful strategy. Here we combine this screening approach with high throughput surface characterization (HT-SC) to identify surface structure-function relationships. We explore how this combination can help to identify surface chemical moieties that control protein adsorption and subsequent cellular response. The adhesion of human embryoid body (hEB) cells to a large number (496) of different acrylate polymers synthesized in a microarray format is screened using a high throughput procedure. To determine the role of the polymer surface properties on hEB cell adhesion, detailed HT-SC of these acrylate polymers is carried out using time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), pico litre drop sessile water contact angle (WCA) measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A structure-function relationship is identified between the ToF SIMS analysis of the surface chemistry after a fibronectin (Fn) pre-conditioning step and the cell adhesion to each spot using the multivariate analysis technique partial least squares (PLS) regression. Secondary ions indicative of the adsorbed Fn correlate with increased cell adhesion whereas glycol and other functionalities from the polymers are identified that reduce cell adhesion. Furthermore, a strong relationship between the ToF SIMS spectra of bare polymers and the cell adhesion to each spot is identified using PLS regression. This identifies a role for both the surface chemistry of the bare polymer and the pre-adsorbed Fn, as-represented in the ToF SIMS spectra, in controlling cellular adhesion. In contrast, no relationship is found between cell adhesion and wettability, surface roughness, elemental or functional surface composition. The correlation between ToF SIMS data of the surfaces and the cell adhesion demonstrates

  14. Africa-Wide Monitoring of Small Surface Water Bodies Using Multisource Satellite Data: A Monitoring System for FEWS NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Continental Africa has the largest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs and rivers, yet it suffers with problems such as water availability and access. Furthermore, African countries are amongst the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards such as droughts and floods. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access is bound to increase. The U.S Geological Survey Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water bodies in Africa. Under this project, multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor these water bodies in Africa. First, small water bodies are mapped using satellite data such as Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat, and high resolution Google Earth imagery. Stream networks and watersheds for each water body are identified using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data. Finally, a hydrologic modeling approach that uses satellite-derived precipitation estimates and evapotranspiration data calculated from global data assimilation system climate parameters is applied to model water levels. This approach has been implemented to monitor nearly 300 small water bodies located in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data in East Africa demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60% of the observed gauge variability with an average RMSE of 22%. Current and historic data (since 2001) on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration for each water body is made available in near real time. The water point monitoring network

  15. Averaging kernel prediction from atmospheric and surface state parameters based on multiple regression for nadir-viewing satellite measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Worden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A current obstacle to the observation system simulation experiments (OSSEs used to quantify the potential performance of future atmospheric composition remote sensing systems is a computationally efficient method to define the scene-dependent vertical sensitivity of measurements as expressed by the retrieval averaging kernels (AKs. We present a method for the efficient prediction of AKs for multispectral retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 based on actual retrievals from MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere on the Earth Observing System (EOS-Terra satellite and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument on EOS-Aura, respectively. This employs a multiple regression approach for deriving scene-dependent AKs using predictors based on state parameters such as the thermal contrast between the surface and lower atmospheric layers, trace gas volume mixing ratios (VMRs, solar zenith angle, water vapor amount, etc. We first compute the singular value decomposition (SVD for individual cloud-free AKs and retain the first three ranked singular vectors in order to fit the most significant orthogonal components of the AK in the subsequent multiple regression on a training set of retrieval cases. The resulting fit coefficients are applied to the predictors from a different test set of test retrievals cased to reconstruct predicted AKs, which can then be evaluated against the true retrieval AKs from the test set. By comparing the VMR profile adjustment resulting from the use of the predicted vs. true AKs, we quantify the CO and O3 VMR profile errors associated with the use of the predicted AKs compared to the true AKs that might be obtained from a computationally expensive full retrieval calculation as part of an OSSE. Similarly, we estimate the errors in CO and O3 VMRs from using a single regional average AK to represent all retrievals, which has been a common approximation in chemical OSSEs

  16. Experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the phase averaged performance characteristics of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.

  17. Surface uplift in the Central Andes driven by growth of the Altiplano Puna Magma Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan P.; Ward, Kevin M.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan L.; Finnegan, Noah J.

    2016-10-01

    The Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) in the Central Andes is the largest imaged magma reservoir on Earth, and is located within the second highest orogenic plateau on Earth, the Altiplano-Puna. Although the APMB is a first-order geologic feature similar to the Sierra Nevada batholith, its role in the surface uplift history of the Central Andes remains uncertain. Here we show that a long-wavelength topographic dome overlies the seismically measured extent of the APMB, and gravity data suggest that the uplift is isostatically compensated. Isostatic modelling of the magmatic contribution to dome growth yields melt volumes comparable to those estimated from tomography, and suggests that the APMB growth rate exceeds the peak Cretaceous magmatic flare-up in the Sierran batholith. Our analysis reveals that magmatic addition may provide a contribution to surface uplift on par with lithospheric removal, and illustrates that surface topography may help constrain the magnitude of pluton-scale melt production.

  18. Sub-discretized surface model with application to contact mechanics in multi-body simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S; Williams, J

    2008-02-28

    The mechanics of contact between rough and imperfectly spherical adhesive powder grains are often complicated by a variety of factors, including several which vary over sub-grain length scales. These include several traction factors that vary spatially over the surface of the individual grains, including high energy electron and acceptor sites (electrostatic), hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites (electrostatic and capillary), surface energy (general adhesion), geometry (van der Waals and mechanical), and elasto-plastic deformation (mechanical). For mechanical deformation and reaction, coupled motions, such as twisting with bending and sliding, as well as surface roughness add an asymmetry to the contact force which invalidates assumptions for popular models of contact, such as the Hertzian and its derivatives, for the non-adhesive case, and the JKR and DMT models for adhesive contacts. Though several contact laws have been offered to ameliorate these drawbacks, they are often constrained to particular loading paths (most often normal loading) and are relatively complicated for computational implementation. This paper offers a simple and general computational method for augmenting contact law predictions in multi-body simulations through characterization of the contact surfaces using a hierarchically-defined surface sub-discretization. For the case of adhesive contact between powder grains in low stress regimes, this technique can allow a variety of existing contact laws to be resolved across scales, allowing for moments and torques about the contact area as well as normal and tangential tractions to be resolved. This is especially useful for multi-body simulation applications where the modeler desires statistical distributions and calibration for parameters in contact laws commonly used for resolving near-surface contact mechanics. The approach is verified against analytical results for the case of rough, elastic spheres.

  19. Macroscopic third-body wear caused by porous metal surface fragments in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Jennifer A; Jakubowitz, Eike; Seeger, Joern B; Heisel, Christian; Kretzer, J Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Implants with surfaces of various porosities and pore sizes are in clinical use. This article demonstrates how macroscopic porous metal fragments can detach from the implant surface in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and cause significant third-body damage such as deep scratches and indentations in implants' bearing surfaces. Radiographs prior to revision surgery due to aseptic loosening of the acetabular component revealed the presence of numerous small metal fragments approximately 1 to 2 mm in size in the periarticular area. The size, shape, and material of the metal fragments (cobalt-chromium-molybdenum [CoCrMo]) indicated that they originated from the porous metal surface. In this case, the acetabular liner composite material consisted of two-thirds polyurethane and one-third aluminium oxide ceramic. The femoral head was made of aluminium oxide ceramic. The aluminium oxide femoral head, which had been in situ for 21 years, showed no signs of macroscopic indentations or scratches, suggesting that an aluminium oxide bearing surface, which is significantly harder than the CoCrMo debris, is not significantly affected by metal debris embedment in the counterface material. The polyurethane-aluminium oxide composite material used for the acetabular liner is not comparable to a traditional ceramic bearing surface material. Debris damaged the surface of and became embedded in the liner, causing accelerated wear of the femoral head. In porous metal surface THA, ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couples should, due to their superior hardness, be considered to prevent excessive wear, including debris embedment and scratching of the bearing surfaces, especially in revision cases.

  20. A study of body-to-surface wave conversion associated with deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z.; Ni, S.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding converted surface waves is helpful because they could improve the accuracy of earthquake location if the exacted scattered point is known as well as serve to image shallow structures with dispersion features. Previous studies have reported a few observations of body-to-surface-wave conversion associated with deep earthquakes. For example, Wagner and Langston used coda intensity analysis and f-k analysis to confirm a P-to-Rg wave and performed forward modeling with T-matrix method demonstrating that a 1km relief was responsible for the observed body-to-surface wave scattering. Moreover, Furumura et al. observed unusual Rayleigh waves converted from S wave observed at Australia with deep earthquakes occurred along Kermadec-Tonga trench and a 2D Pseudospetral method is adopted to illustrate that the Rayleigh waves could be explained by ridge structures. Both T-matrix and pseudospetral algorithms are based on numerical methods. However, we lack a theory to study the mechanism of those surface waves quantitatively. For instance, the relationship between the topography with the dominate frequency of converted surface waves could be resolved thoroughly with a theoretical approach. From this perspective, we carried out a theoretical method to calculate the converted Rayleigh wave with surface topography. During the calculation, a homogeneous half space medium is assumed and the path of the converted phase is divided into two segments. Firstly, we will introduce our theoretical method in detail and a comparison of our results and SEM results will be presented to verify our methods. Secondly, the topography effect and the transfer efficiency of P and S wave will be examined quantitatively with different source mechanisms. Then, we will report an observation of unusual large amplitude surface waves transferred from body waves at local stations. Our preliminary result shows that those anomalous waves are identified as Rayleigh wave and are probably generated by

  1. Using CFD Surface Solutions to Shape Sonic Boom Signatures Propagated from Off-Body Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual design of a low-boom and low-drag supersonic aircraft remains a challenge despite significant progress in recent years. Inverse design using reversed equivalent area and adjoint methods have been demonstrated to be effective in shaping the ground signature propagated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) off-body pressure distributions. However, there is still a need to reduce the computational cost in the early stages of design to obtain a baseline that is feasible for low-boom shaping, and in the search for a robust low-boom design over the entire sonic boom footprint. The proposed design method addresses the need to reduce the computational cost for robust low-boom design by using surface pressure distributions from CFD solutions to shape sonic boom ground signatures propagated from CFD off-body pressure.

  2. Clinical usefulness of a newly developed body surface navigation and monitoring system in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hitoshi; Obata, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Takenaka, Kazuyuki; Hirose, Yasujirou; Goto, Hajime; Hattori, Tomohiko

    2011-02-02

    In radiotherapy, setup precision has great influence on the therapeutic effect. In addition, body movements during the irradiation and physical alternations during the treatment period might cause deviation from the planned irradiation dosage distribution. Both of these factors could undesirably influence the dose absorbed by the target. In order to solve these problems, we developed the "body surface navigation and monitoring system" (hereafter referred to as "Navi-system"). The purpose of this study is to review the precision of the Navi-system as well as its usefulness in clinical radiotherapy. The Navi-system consists of a LED projector, a CCD camera, and a personal computer (PC). The LED projector projects 19 stripes on the patient's body and the CCD camera captures these stripes. The processed image of these stripes in color can be displayed on the PC monitor along with the patient's body surface image, and the digitalized results can be also displayed on the same monitor. The Navi-system calculates the height of the body contour and the transverse height centroid for the 19 levels and compares them with the reference data to display the results on the monitor on a real-time basis. These results are always replaced with new data after they are used for display; so, if the results need to be recorded, such recording commands should be given to the computer. 1) Evaluating the accuracy of the body surface height measurement: from the relationship between actual height changes and calculated height changes with torso surface by the Navi-system, for the height changes from 0.0 mm to ± 10.0mm, the changes show the underestimation of 1.0-1.5 mm and for ± 11.0mm to ± 20.0 mm, the underestimation of 1.5-3.0 mm. 2) Evaluating the accuracy of the transverse height centroid measurement: displacement of the inclined flat panel to the right by 5.0 mm, 10.0 mm, 15.0 mm and 20.0 mm showed the transverse height centroid calculated by the Navi-system for 0.024 ± 0.007 line

  3. Microskin autografting in the treatment of burns over 70% of total body surface area: 14 years of clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Liang, Xun; Sun, Li; Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Wang, Yong-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Despite the fact that early excision and grafting have significantly improved burn outcomes, the management of severely burned patients whose burn size exceeds 70% total body surface area (TBSA) still represents a big challenge for burn surgeons all over the world. During the period of 1997-2010 at our centre, aggressive excision and microskin autografting were performed in 63 severely burned patients. Their burn sizes ranged from 70% to 98% TBSA with a mean of 84.9%. The average full-thickness burn was 66.3% (range, 29-94%). Thirty patients had concomitant inhalation injury. Two to 7 days after burn, these patients underwent aggressive excisions ranging from 25% to 60% TBSA and transplantation of microskin autograft overlaid with allograft. The ratios of donor-site to recipient-site surface area were between 1:6 and 1:18. Signs of epithelialization were shown within 35-55 days. The wound healing rate was 74.9% (176/235), with 51.1% of cases (120/235) healing completely and 23.8% (56/235) improving. Microskin autografting yielded an overall survival rate of 63.5%; only 23 patients died. Our clinical experience in using the microskin autografting for burn coverage suggests that the technique is very effective in covering extensive burns, and that it is particularly useful when graft donor sites are very limited due to its high utilization rate of donor site. The factors affecting the outcome of microskin autografting are discussed herein.

  4. The localization of focal heart activity via body surface potential measurements: tests in a heterogeneous torso phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterling, F; Liehr, M; Haueisen, J [Biomagnetic Center, Department of Neurology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena (Germany); Schimpf, P [Department of Computer Science, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, WA (United States); Liu, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: wetterlf@tcd.ie

    2009-09-21

    The non-invasive localization of focal heart activity via body surface potential measurements (BSPM) could greatly benefit the understanding and treatment of arrhythmic heart diseases. However, the in vivo validation of source localization algorithms is rather difficult with currently available measurement techniques. In this study, we used a physical torso phantom composed of different conductive compartments and seven dipoles, which were placed in the anatomical position of the human heart in order to assess the performance of the Recursively Applied and Projected Multiple Signal Classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm. Electric potentials were measured on the torso surface for single dipoles with and without further uncorrelated or correlated dipole activity. The localization error averaged 11 {+-} 5 mm over 22 dipoles, which shows the ability of RAP-MUSIC to distinguish an uncorrelated dipole from surrounding sources activity. For the first time, real computational modelling errors could be included within the validation procedure due to the physically modelled heterogeneities. In conclusion, the introduced heterogeneous torso phantom can be used to validate state-of-the-art algorithms under nearly realistic measurement conditions.

  5. The localization of focal heart activity via body surface potential measurements: tests in a heterogeneous torso phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, F.; Liehr, M.; Schimpf, P.; Liu, H.; Haueisen, J.

    2009-09-01

    The non-invasive localization of focal heart activity via body surface potential measurements (BSPM) could greatly benefit the understanding and treatment of arrhythmic heart diseases. However, the in vivo validation of source localization algorithms is rather difficult with currently available measurement techniques. In this study, we used a physical torso phantom composed of different conductive compartments and seven dipoles, which were placed in the anatomical position of the human heart in order to assess the performance of the Recursively Applied and Projected Multiple Signal Classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm. Electric potentials were measured on the torso surface for single dipoles with and without further uncorrelated or correlated dipole activity. The localization error averaged 11 ± 5 mm over 22 dipoles, which shows the ability of RAP-MUSIC to distinguish an uncorrelated dipole from surrounding sources activity. For the first time, real computational modelling errors could be included within the validation procedure due to the physically modelled heterogeneities. In conclusion, the introduced heterogeneous torso phantom can be used to validate state-of-the-art algorithms under nearly realistic measurement conditions.

  6. The Mechanism of Drag Reduction around Bodies of Revolution Using Bionic Non-Smooth Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-mei Tian; Lu-quan Ren; Qing-ping Liu; Zhi-wu Han; Xiao Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Bionic non-smooth surfaces (BNSS) can reduce drag. Much attention has been paid to the mechanism of shear stress reduction by riblets. The mechanism of pressure force reduction by bionic non-smooth surfaces on bodies of revolution has not been, well investigated. In this work CFD simulation has revealed the mechanism of drag reduction by BNSS, which may work in three ways. First, BNSS on bodies of revolution may lower the surface velocity of the medium, which prevents the sudden speed up of air on the cross section. So the bottom pressure of the model would not be disturbed sharply, resulting in less energy loss and drag reduction. Second, the magnitude of vorticity induced by the bionic model becomes smaller because, due to the sculpturing, the growth of tiny air bubbles is avoided. Thus the large moment of inertia induced by large air bubble is reduced. The reduction of the vorticity could reduce the dissipation of the eddy. So the pressure force could also be reduced. Third, the thickness of the momentum layer on the model becomes less which, according to the relationship between the drag coefficient and the momentum thickness, reduces drag.

  7. Unsteady Free-surface Waves Due to a Submerged Body in Two-dimensional Oseen Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUDong-qiang; AllenT.CHWANG

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional unsteady free-surface waves due to a submerged body moving in an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth is considered.The disturbed flow is governed by the unsteadyOseen equations with the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions linearized for the free-surface waves.Accordingly, the body is mathematically simulated by an Oseenlet with a periodically oscillating strength.By means of Fourier transforms,the exact solution for the free-surface waves is expressed by an integral with a complex dispersion function, which explicitly shows that the wave dynamics is characterized by a Reynolds number and a Strouhal number.By applying Lighthill's theorem, asymptotic representations are derived for the far-field waves with a sub-critical and a super-critical Strouhal number. It is found that the generated waves due to the oscillating Oseenlet consist of the steady-state and transient responses. For the viscous flow with a sub-critical Strouhal number, there exist four waves: three propagate downstream while one propagates upstream.However, for the viscous flow with a super-critical Strouhal number, there exist two waves only,which propagate downstream.

  8. Body conformable 915 MHz microstrip array applicators for large surface area hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.R.; Tarczy-Hornoch, P.; Kapp, S.; Fessenden, P.; Lohrbach, A.W.; Prionas, S.D. (Stanford University Medical Center, CA (United States)); Wilsey, T. (Carian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The optimal treatment with hyperthermia of superficially located tumors which involve large surface areas requires applicators which can physically conform to body contours, and locally alter their power deposition patterns to adjust for nonuniform temperature caused by tissue inhomogeneities and blood flow variations. A series of 915 MHz microstrip array applicators satisfying these criteria have been developed and clinically tested. Clinical and engineering design tradeoffs for practical devices are discussed. Measurements taken in tissue equivalent phantoms and a summary of clinical experiences with these microstrip arrays are presented.

  9. Whole body surface electron irradiation in the treatment of mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, T.C.M.; Salzman, F.A.; Moschella, S.L.; Tolman, E.L.; Wright, K.A.

    1979-02-01

    The records of 200 patients with generalized cutaneous mycosis fungoides treated with whole body surface electron irradiation were reviewed. Type of skin lesion appeared to be the most important factor with respect to both survival and generalized skin disease-free interval. High-dose irradiation did not seem to influence prognosis significantly compared with a relatively conservative dose. The cure rate for the entire group was 7%. For a more homogeneous dose distribution, the eight-field technique is now used instead of the original four-field method. A new formula is proposed to standardize the reporting of doses.

  10. Mortality according to age and burned body surface in the Virgen del Rocio University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cía, T; Mallén, J; Márquez, T; Portela, C; Lopez, I

    1999-06-01

    The application of updated clinical protocols for the treatment of burned patients is showing very good results. The mortality curves according to age and the percentage of burned body surface could be of great use for the comparison of clinical results between different burns units. The probability of survival in 1000 consecutive patients admitted to the Burns Unit of the Virgen del Rocio University Hospital between July, 1993 and August, 1997, is compared, by graphic analysis, with the mortality curves of other centers, obtaining similar results. We conclude that the results of medical attendance in our unit are in line with those considered as a reference.

  11. Atmospheres and surfaces of small bodies and dwarf planets in the Kuiper Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller E.L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs are icy relics orbiting the sun beyond Neptune left over from the planetary accretion disk. These bodies act as unique tracers of the chemical, thermal, and dynamical history of our solar system. Over 1000 Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs and centaurs (objects with perihelia between the giant planets have been discovered over the past two decades. While the vast majority of these objects are small ( 6-meter telescopes, have allowed for the first detailed studies of their surfaces and atmospheres. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy of KBOs and centaurs has revealed a great diversity of surface compositions. Only the largest and coldest objects are capable of retaining volatile ices and atmospheres. Knowledge of the dynamics, physical properties, and collisional history of objects in the Kuiper belt is important for understanding solar system formation and evolution.

  12. Joint body and surface wave tomography applied to the Toba caldera complex (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan; Shapiro, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    We developed a new algorithm for a joint body and surface wave tomography. The algorithm is a modification of the existing LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009) developed for local earthquake tomography. The input data for the new method are travel times of P and S waves and dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. The main idea is that the two data types have complementary sensitivities. The body-wave data have good resolution at depth, where we have enough crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution. The surface wave dispersion curves can be retrieved from the correlations of the ambient seismic noise and in this case the sampled path distribution does not depend on the earthquake sources. The contributions of the two data types to the inversion are controlled by the weighting of the respective equations. One of the clearest cases where such approach may be useful are volcanic systems in subduction zones with their complex magmatic feeding systems that have deep roots in the mantle and intermediate magma chambers in the crust. In these areas, the joint inversion of different types of data helps us to build a comprehensive understanding of the entire system. We apply our algorithm to data collected in the region surrounding the Toba caldera complex (north Sumatra, Indonesia) during two temporary seismic experiments (IRIS, PASSCAL, 1995, GFZ, LAKE TOBA, 2008). We invert 6644 P and 5240 S wave arrivals and ~500 group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. We present a series of synthetic tests and real data inversions which show that joint inversion approach gives more reliable results than the separate inversion of two data types. Koulakov, I., LOTOS code for local earthquake tomographic inversion. Benchmarks for testing tomographic algorithms, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 99(1), 194-214, 2009, doi:10.1785/0120080013

  13. Pressure variation by a magnetohydrodynamic method at the surface of a body placed in a supersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapushkina, T. A.; Erofeev, A. V.; Ponyaev, S. A.

    2014-07-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the possibility of pressure variation near the surface of a body placed in a supersonic flow as a model of an aerofoil or the nose of an aircraft by organizing a surface gas discharge in a magnetic field transverse to the flow. The flow parameters and pressure are mainly affected by the ponderomotive Lorentz force acting on the gas in the direction orthogonal to the direction of the organized discharge current and leading to the removal or compression of the gas at the surface of the body and, hence, a variation of pressure. Experimental data on the visualization of the flow and on the pressure at the surface of the body are considered for various configurations of the current and intensities of the gas discharge and magnetic field; it is demonstrated that such configurations of the current and magnetic field near the surface of the body under investigation can be organized in such a way that the pressure at the front part as well as the upper and lower surfaces of the body under investigation can be increased or decreased, thus changing the aerodynamic drag and the aerofoil lift. Such a magnetohydrodynamic control over aerodynamic parameters of the aircraft can be used during takeoff and landing as well as during steady-state flight and also during the entrance into dense atmospheric layers. This will considerably reduce the thermal load on the surface of the body in the flow.

  14. Novel algorithm for identifying T-wave current density alternans using synthesized 187-channel vector-projected body surface mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Kenji; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Futagawa, Keisuke; Shoda, Morio; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Ken; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Itoh, Manabu; Kasanuki, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    The noninvasive evaluation of ventricular T-wave alternans (TWA) in patients with lethal ventricular arrhythmias is an important issue. In this study, we propose a novel algorithm to identify T-wave current density alternans (TWCA) using synthesized 187-channel vector-projected body surface mapping (187-ch SAVP-ECG). We recorded 10 min of 187-ch SAVP-ECG using a Mason-Likar lead system in the supine position. A recovery time (RT) dispersion map was obtained by averaging the 187-ch SAVP-ECG. The TWCA value was determined from the relative changes in the averaged current density in the T-wave zone (Tpeak ± 50 ms) for two T-wave types. We registered 20 ECG recordings from normal controls and 11 ECG recordings from nine subjects with long QT syndrome (LQT). We divided LQT syndrome subjects into two groups: group 1 provided 9 ECG recordings without visually apparent TWAs, and group 2 provided 2 ECG recordings with visually apparent TWAs. The QTc interval values in the LQT groups were higher than those in the control (515 ± 60 ms in LQT G-1, 600 ± 27 ms in LQT G-2 vs. 415 ± 19 ms in control, P < 0.001). The RTendc dispersion values among the LQT subjects were higher than those of the control subjects (48 ± 19 ms in LQT G-1, 65 ± 30 ms in LQT G-2 vs. 24 ± 10 ms in control, P < 0.01). The mean TWCA value was significantly higher in the LQT G-2 group with visually apparent TWCAs (0.5 ± 0.2% in control, 2.1 ± 1.2% in LQT G-1, and 32.3 ± 6.9% in LQT G-2). Interestingly, the two-dimensional distribution of TWCA in LQT was inhomogeneous and correlated with the distribution of increased RT dispersion. We conclude that a novel algorithm using 187-ch SAVP-ECG might provide new insights into body surface TWCA.

  15. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  16. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David; Cook, Freeman; Sogachev, Andrey; Burn, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy covariance and scintillometry measurements from a reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia. The work presented expands on a short study presented by McJannet et al. (2011) to include comparisons of eddy covariance measurements and scintillometer-derived predictions of surface energy fluxes under a wide range of seasonal weather conditions. In this study, analysis was undertaken to ascertain whether important theoretical assumptions required for both techniques are valid in the complex environment of a small reservoir. Statistical comparison, energy balance closure, and the relationship between evaporation measurements and key environmental controls were used to compare the results of the two techniques. Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements from eddy covariance and scintillometry, while scintillometer-derived estimates of latent heat flux were approximately 21% greater than eddy covariance measurements. We suggest possible reasons for this difference and provide recommendations for further research for improving measurements of surface energy fluxes over small water bodies using eddy covariance and scintillometry.

  17. Determination of hand and palm area as a ratio of body surface area in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pawan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate estimation of body surface area (BSA burn is important. In small and patchy burns, the patient′s hand is used to estimate percentage of burn which is traditionally considered as 1%. There is discrepancy about what percentage of TBSA is constituted by the palm and hand. Therefore, this study was designed to determine correctly the TBSA represented by the palmar surface of the entire hand and palm in the Indian population. Material and Methods: 300 healthy adult (male and female and 300 healthy children (male and female were included in the study. TBSA was calculated using DuBois formula and hand and palm surface area was calculated using hand tracing on plain paper. The hand/palm percentage of BSA (ratio was determined by dividing hand/palm surface area by total BSA. Results: The mean hand and palm ratio for adults was 0.92% and 0.50%, respectively. The mean hand and palm ratio in children was 1.06% and 0.632%, respectively. Conclusion: The hand area (palm plus digits is more closely represented to 1% of TBSA in Indian population.

  18. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  19. Joint Geophysical Imaging of the Utah Area Using Seismic Body Waves, Surface Waves and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Maceira, M.; Toksoz, M. N.; Burlacu, R.; Yang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We present a joint geophysical imaging method that makes use of seismic body wave arrival times, surface wave dispersion measurements, and gravity data to determine three-dimensional (3D) Vp and Vs models. An empirical relationship mapping densities to Vp and Vs for earth materials is used to link them together. The joint inversion method takes advantage of strengths of individual data sets and is able to better constrain the velocity models from shallower to greater depths. Combining three different data sets to jointly invert for the velocity structure is equivalent to a multiple-objective optimization problem. Because it is unlikely that the different “objectives” (data types) would be optimized by the same parameter choices, some trade-off between the objectives is needed. The optimum weighting scheme for different data types is based on relative uncertainties of individual observations and their sensitivities to model parameters. We will apply this joint inversion method to determine 3D Vp and Vs models of the Utah area. The seismic body wave arrival times are assembled from waveform data recorded by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional network for the past 7 years. The surface wave dispersion measurements are obtained from the ambient noise tomography study by the University of Colorado group using EarthScope/USArray stations. The gravity data for the Utah area is extracted from the North American Gravity Database managed by the University of Texas at El Paso. The preliminary study using the seismic body wave arrival times indicates strong low velocity anomalies in middle crust beneath some known geothermal sites in Utah. The joint inversion is expected to produce a reasonably well-constrained velocity structure of the Utah area, which is helpful for characterizing and exploring existing and potential geothermal reservoirs.

  20. The dimensionality reduction at surfaces as a playground for many-body and correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, A.; Michel, E. G.; Mascaraque, A.

    2013-03-01

    Low-dimensional systems have always deserved attention due to the peculiarity of their physics, which is different from or even at odds with three-dimensional expectations. This is precisely the case for many-body effects, as electron-electron correlation or electron-phonon coupling are behind many intriguing problems in condensed matter physics. These interesting phenomena at low dimensions can be studied in one of the paradigms of two dimensionality—the surface of crystals. The maturity of today's surface science techniques allows us to perform thorough experimental studies that can be complemented by the current strength of state-of-the-art calculations. Surfaces are thus a natural two-dimensional playground for studying correlation and many-body effects, which is precisely the object of this special section. This special section presents a collection of eight invited articles, giving an overview of the current status of selected systems, promising techniques and theoretical approaches for studying many-body effects at surfaces and low-dimensional systems. The first article by Hofmann investigates electron-phonon coupling in quasi-free-standing graphene by decoupling graphene from two different substrates with different intercalating materials. The following article by Kirschner deals with the study of NiO films by electron pair emission, a technique particularly well-adapted for studying high electron correlation. Bovensiepen investigates electron-phonon coupling via the femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy technique. The next article by Malterre analyses the phase diagram of alkalis on Si(111):B and studies the role of many-body physics. Biermann proposes an extended Hubbard model for the series of C, Si, Sn and Pb adatoms on Si(111) and obtains the inter-electronic interaction parameters by first principles. Continuing with the theoretical studies, Bechstedt analyses the influence of on-site electron correlation in insulating

  1. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon

    2016-04-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  2. [Characteristics of bacteria isolated from body surface of German cockroaches caught in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Ewa; Pancer, Katarzyna; Kochman, Maria; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Sawicka, Bozena; Rabczenko, Daniel; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify bacterial flora from external parts of German cockroaches caught in hospitals. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the most important groups of antimicrobial agents was also examined. 80 strains of bacteria were isolated, among them 34 strains of Gram-positive cocci and 31 strains of Gram-negative rods. One of isolated strains of Citrobacter freundii and two strains of Serratia liquefaciens showed ESBL mechanism of resistance and extended level of AmpC--type beta-lactamases. Two Staphylococcus strains (S. epidermidis and S. equorum) were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (MLSB mechanism of resistance). Such strains, resistant to antibiotics and chemiotherapeutics may be reservoirs of resistance genes which can be transmitted into other bacteria. Presence of such pathogens on the body surface of German cockroaches, very mobile insects, might create conditions for easy dissemination of them in hospital environment.

  3. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétan Chevalier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  4. Formula and scale for body surface area estimation in high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmee

    2010-12-01

    Advances in medical technology and the health sciences have lead to a rapid increase in the prevalence and morbidity of high-risk infants with chronic or permanent sequels such as the birth of early preterm infants. A suitable formula is therefore needed for body surface area (BSA) estimation for high-risk infants to more accurately devise therapeutic regimes in clinical practice. A cohort study involving 5014 high-risk infants was conducted to develop a suitable formula for estimating BSA using four of the existing formulas in the literature. BSA of high-risk infants was calculated using the four BSA equations (Boyd-BSA, Dubois-BSA, Meban-BSA, Mosteller-BSA), from which a new calculation, Mean-BSA, was arithmetically derived as a reference BSA measure. Multiple-regression was performed using nonlinear least squares curve fitting corresponding to the trend line and the new equation, Neo-BSA, developed using Excel and SPSS 17.0. The Neo-BSA equation was constructed as follows: Neo-BSA = 5.520 x W(0.5526) x L(0.300). With the assumption of the least square root relation between weight and length, a BSA scale using only weight was fabricated specifically for clinical applications where weight is more available in high-risk infant populations than is length. The validity of Neo-BSA was evaluated against Meban-BSA, the best of the four equations for high-risk infants, as there is a similarity of subjects in the two studies. The other formulas revealed substantial variances in BSA compared to Neo-BSA. This study developed a new surface area equation, Neo-BSA, as the most suitable formula for BSA measurement of high-risk infants in modern-day societies, where an emerging population of newborns with shorten gestational ages are becoming more prevalent as a result of new advances in the health sciences and new development of reproductive technologies. In particular, a scale for 400-7000 g body weight babies derived from the Neo-BSA equation has the clinical advantage of

  5. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  6. Surface Behavior of Bioactive Glass of Si-Na-Ca-P System in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Dang, Xing; Bao, Ruiliang; Yao, Liang

    Glass of the Si-Na-Ca-P system has been synthesized by normal melting and annealing technique. The obtained glass powders and annealed blocks were showed to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of glasses were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), it showed that the glass transformation temperature (Tg) was 556.3°C. The behavior of annealed glass discs in simulated body fluid solution (SBF) was studied in polyethylene containers at a constant temperature of 37°C for different time up to 14 days. The changes in the surface morphology and composition were observed by electronic probe microanalyzer (EPMA) associated with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Glass surface changed quickly as soon as immersion took place, and after longer soaking time, it showed different superimposed internal and external layers, which were identified as SiO2-rich and CaO-P2O5-rich layers, and on the external layer, spherical particles were also discovered.

  7. Analysis of bacterial-surface-specific antibodies in body fluids using bacterial flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Kathrin; Fadlallah, Jehane; Toska, Albulena; Sterlin, Delphine; Balmer, Maria L; Macpherson, Andrew J; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin; Slack, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Antibacterial antibody responses that target surfaces of live bacteria or secreted toxins are likely to be relevant in controlling bacterial pathogenesis. The ability to specifically quantify bacterial-surface-binding antibodies is therefore highly attractive as a quantitative correlate of immune protection. Here, binding of antibodies from various body fluids to pure-cultured live bacteria is made visible with fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibodies and measured by flow cytometry. We indicate the necessary controls for excluding nonspecific binding and also demonstrate a cross-adsorption technique for determining the extent of cross-reactivity. This technique has numerous advantages over standard ELISA and western blotting techniques because of its independence from scaffold binding, exclusion of cross-reactive elements from lysed bacteria and ability to visualize bacterial subpopulations. In addition, less than 10(5) bacteria and less than 10 μg of antibody are required per sample. The technique requires 3-4 h of hands-on experimentation and analysis. Moreover, it can be combined with automation and mutliplexing for high-throughput applications.

  8. A topological study of gravity free-surface waves generated by bluff bodies using the method of steepest descents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Philippe H.

    2016-07-01

    The standard analytical approach for studying steady gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of steady-state flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between different bluff-bodied free-surface flow configurations, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship and over an angled step in a channel.

  9. Excluded volume effect of counterions and water dipoles near a highly charged surface due to a rotationally averaged Boltzmann factor for water dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, Ekaterina; Iglič, Aleš

    2013-03-01

    Water ordering near a negatively charged electrode is one of the decisive factors determining the interactions of an electrode with the surrounding electrolyte solution or tissue. In this work, the generalized Langevin-Bikerman model (Gongadze-Iglič model) taking into account the cavity field and the excluded volume principle is used to calculate the space dependency of ions and water number densities in the vicinity of a highly charged surface. It is shown that for high enough surface charged densities the usual trend of increasing counterion number density towards the charged surface may be completely reversed, i.e. the drop in the counterions number density near the charged surface is predicted.

  10. Association Between Body Surface Area and Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Shetabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events, but some studies suggest higher body mass index (BMI is associated with better outcomes after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. We sought to determine the effect of body surface area (BSA on adverse events after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for STEMI and how this relates to the reported obesity paradox theory. Methods: We analyzed a prospective registry of patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI at a tertiary care hospital from 2003 to 2009. Post-PCI complications and 1-year all-cause mortality were compared across BSA quartiles. Relationship with 1-year mortality was compared between BSA and BMI using logistic regression. Results: Of 2,195 study patients (31.5% women, mean BSA and BMI were 2.0 ± 0.3 m2 and 29.2 ± 6.2 kg/m2, respectively. The 1-year all-cause mortality from the lowest to highest quartiles of BSA was 11.0%, 6.5%, 5.5% and 5.1%, Ptrend<0.0001. Over a mean 5-year follow-up, there was a 76% relative risk reduction in death for each 1 m2 increase in BSA. Higher BSA was associated with lower incidence of cardiogenic shock, acute renal failure, coronary dissection and vascular and bleeding complications post-PCI. In multivariate analysis, BSA remained strongly predictive of 1-year mortality (odds ratio 0.4 per m2 of BSA, 95% confidence interval 0.15–0.9, but BMI showed no independent association with mortality (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.95–1.04. Conclusions: In STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, high BSA is associated with lower mortality and complication rates. BMI is not independently associated with 1-year mortality after adjusting for BSA and sex.

  11. Surface analytical studies of maxillofacial implants: influence of the preoperational treatment and the human body on the surface properties of retrieved implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gábor; Sebők, Béla; Szabó, Péter J; Joób, Arpád F; Szabó, György

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, surface analytical investigation of unimplanted as well as retrieved pyrolytic carbon-covered carbon/carbon composite implants and Ti osteosynthesis plates is reported. The Ti plates were covered by a 200-nm-thick, anodically and thermally formed TiO2 layer. Our results suggest that although the oxide layer on the Ti miniplates remained stable during the time spent in the human body, there is still material transport between the implant and the human body. In case of the carbon/carbon composite implants, damage of the carbon fibers constituting the material was found on one side of the sterile implant and attributed to the manufacturing process. The NaCl crystals originally present on the surface of the sterile material disappeared during the time spent in the human body. As a result of the interaction with the human body, a new surface layer (mainly constituted of carbon) appeared on the implant. The results indicate that both the time spent in the human organism and the preparation of the implants before operation can have detectable effects on the investigated surface properties. Surface analytical investigations could therefore provide information not only about the biocompatibility of these materials but also about the effect of their treatment before operation.

  12. Is large-scale inverse modelling of unsaturated flow with areal average evaporation and surface soil moisture as estimated from remote sensing feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddes, R. A.; Menenti, M.; Kabat, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.

    1993-03-01

    The potentiality of combining large-scale inverse modelling of unsaturated flow with remote sensing determination of areal evaporation and areal surface moisture is assessed. Regional latent and sensible heat fluxes are estimated indirectly using remotely sensed measurements by parameterizing the surface energy balance equation. An example of evapotranspiration mapping from northern and central Egypt is presented. The inverse problem is formulated with respect to the type of information available. Two examples of estimation of soil hydraulic properties by the dynamic one-dimensional soil-water-vegetation model SWATRE are given: one refers to a classical lysimeter scale and another one to a catchment scale. It is concluded that small-scale soil physics may describe large-scale hydrological behaviour adequately, and that the effective hydraulic parameters concerned may be derived by an inverse modelling approach. Remotely sensed data on surface reflectance, surface temperature and soil moisture content derived from multifrequency microwave techniques provide a useful data set on the mesoscale. The inverse modelling approach presented combined with a meso-scale data set on evaporation and surface soil moisture, considerable potentialities arise to determine effective meso-scale hydraulic properties.

  13. Surface Tension Supported Floating of Heavy Objects: Why Elongated Bodies Float Better?

    CERN Document Server

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Floating of bodies heavier than the supporting liquid is discussed. Floating of cylindrical, ellipsoidal bodies and rectangular plates possessing lateral dimensions smaller than the capillary length is treated. It is demonstrated that more elongated bodies of a fixed volume are better supported by capillary forces, due to the increase in the perimeter of the triple line. Thus, floating of metallic needles obtains reasonable explanation.

  14. Translating dosages from animal models to human clinical trials--revisiting body surface area scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Otis L; Smoliga, James M

    2015-05-01

    Body surface area (BSA) scaling has been used for prescribing individualized dosages of various drugs and has also been recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as one method for using data from animal model species to establish safe starting dosages for first-in-human clinical trials. Although BSA conversion equations have been used in certain clinical applications for decades, recent recommendations to use BSA to derive interspecies equivalents for therapeutic dosages of drug and natural products are inappropriate. A thorough review of the literature reveals that BSA conversions are based on antiquated science and have little justification in current translational medicine compared to more advanced allometric and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. Misunderstood and misinterpreted use of BSA conversions may have disastrous consequences, including underdosing leading to abandonment of potentially efficacious investigational drugs, and unexpected deadly adverse events. We aim to demonstrate that recent recommendations for BSA are not appropriate for animal-to-human dosage conversions and use pharmacokinetic data from resveratrol studies to demonstrate how confusion between the "human equivalent dose" and "pharmacologically active dose" can lead to inappropriate dose recommendations. To optimize drug development, future recommendations for interspecies scaling must be scientifically justified using physiologic, pharmacokinetic, and toxicology data rather than simple BSA conversion.

  15. Periodic contact between piezoelectric materials and a rigid body with a wavy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue-Ting; Kim, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    An exact analysis is conducted for periodic, two-dimensional (2D) contact of piezoelectric materials in contact with a rigid body with a wavy surface pressed by uniform stresses at infinity. For three cases of eigenvalue distribution, three harmonic functions automatically satisfying the periodicity conditions are carefully constructed to facilitate the derivation of the solution of the considered problem. The stresses and electric displacements are obtained as infinite series. It is found that for the full contact case, the disturbance stress and electric displacement fields remain only the first harmonic which has the slowest decay in the y-direction. The convergence behaviours of the infinite series are checked, which shows that the external loading p and different positions have a great effect on the convergence behaviours of the infinite series and 400 terms are enough to get accurate solution at each position. Numerical results are presented to justify the validity of the present derivation and show the effect of the external loading on the contact behaviours.

  16. Capacitive ECG system with direct access to standard leads and body surface potential mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Martin; Schilling, Meinhard; Esperer, Hans Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Capacitive electrodes provide the same access to the human electrocardiogram (ECG) as galvanic electrodes, but without the need of direct electrical skin contact and even through layers of clothing. Thus, potential artifacts as a result of poor electrode contact to the skin are avoided and preparation time is significantly reduced. Our system integrates such capacitive electrodes in a 15 sensor array, which is combined with a Tablet PC. This integrated lightweight ECG system (cECG) is easy to place on the chest wall and allows for simultaneous recordings of 14 ECG channels, even if the patient is slightly dressed, e.g., with a t-shirt. In this paper, we present preliminary results on the performance of the cECG regarding the capability of recording body surface potential maps (BSPMs) and obtaining reconstructed standard ECG leads including Einthoven, Goldberger and, with some limitations, Wilson leads. All signals were measured having the subject lie in a supine position and wear a cotton shirt. Signal quality and diagnostic ECG information of the extracted leads are compared with standard ECG measurements. The results show a very close correlation between both types of ECG measurements. It is concluded that the cECG lends itself to rapid screening in clinically unstable patients.

  17. Regional Body-Wave Corrections and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Rodgers, A J; Meyeda, K M; Sicherman, A

    2003-07-18

    Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves, body waves, and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, and coda that can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. It is now well established that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6- to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we developed a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure (Walter and Taylor, 2002). This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. It allows for the possibility of variable apparent stress scaling in earthquakes, an unresolved issue that is the subject of investigation under separate funding. The MDACZ procedure makes use of the extremely stable coda estimates of Mw for source magnitude and can also use independent Q tomography to help reduce trade-offs in fitting spectra. We can then apply the kriging operation to the MDAC2 residuals to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. These corrections allow the exploration of all possible ratios and

  18. Prophylactic aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome : 10 years' experience with a protocol based on body surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, Jan J. J.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; Boonstra, Piet W.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Waterbolk, T

    2008-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines recommending prophylactic aortic root replacement in Marfan syndrome are based on absolute diameters of the aortic root. However, aortic root diameter is a function of body surface area (BSA). Here, we report our experience with a protocol for prophylactic aortic root

  19. Proteolysis on the body surface of pyrethroid-sensitive and resistant Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachecka, Aneta; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Paleolog, Jerzy; Lipiński, Zbigniew

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the activity of proteases and protease inhibitors sampled from the body surface of tau-fluvalinate-sensitive and resistant V. destructor. Proteins were isolated from the tau-fluvalinate-sensitive and resistant mites, while mites untreated with tau-fluvalinate constituted the control. Subsequently, the following methodology was applied: protein concentration assay by the Lowry method - as modified by Schacterle and Pollack; assay of proteolytic activity in relation to various substrates (gelatine, haemoglobin, ovoalbumin, albumin, cytochrome C, casein) by the modified Anson method; identification of proteolytic activity in relation to diagnostic inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes (pepstatin A, PMSF, iodoacetamide, o-phenantrolin), using the Lee and Lin method; identification of acidic, neutral and basic protease activities by means of the modified Anson method; electrophoretic analysis of proteins in a polyacrylamide gel for protease detection with the Laemmli method and for protease inhibitor detection with the Felicioli method. The highest value of protein concentration was found in the tau-fluvalinate-sensitive V. destructor, while the highest activity levels of acidic, neutral and alkaline proteases were observed in the tau-fluvalinate-resistant mites. Aspartic, serine, thiolic and metallic proteases were found in the drug-resistant and drug-sensitive Varroa mites. The control samples were found to contain aspartic and serine proteases. In an acidic and alkaline environment, the results revealed a complete loss of inhibitor activities in the in vitro analyses and electrophoresis. Serine protease inhibitor activities (at pH 7.0) were high, especially in the group of tau-fluvalinate-resistant mites.

  20. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  1. Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Kantanista, Adam; Zieliński, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of thermoregulatory adaptation to exercise cannot yet be fully explained, however, infrared thermography (IRT) seems to have potential for monitoring physiological changes during exercise and training. It is a non-contact and easy to use technology to measure heat radiation from the body surface. The objective of the study was to examine the temperature changes over time on lower limbs in sprinters during speed endurance training session. Eight sprinters, specialized in distances 100 m and 200 m, aged 21-29 years, members of the Polish national team, were evaluated during an outdoor speed endurance work-out. Their track session comprised of warm-up, specific drills for sprinting technique, and speed endurance exercise. The surface temperature of lower limbs was measured and thermal images were taken using infrared camera after each part of the session. The speed endurance training session brought about specific time course of body surface (legs) temperature. The warm-up induced a significant decline in surface temperature by ∼2.5 °C, measured both on the front and back of lower limbs (p Body surface temperature may help identify an individual optimal time to terminate warm up and start the main part of the training session. It may also be useful for the assessment of muscle activity symmetry in cyclical activities, such as sprint running. This is of particular relevance when a training session is performed outdoors in changeable weather conditions.

  2. Bone-like apatite formation on HA/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; CHEN Jian; ZOU Jian-peng; WAN Qian; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; RUAN Jian-ming

    2009-01-01

    HA/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process of dissolution-precipitation for the formation of apatite on the surface. With prolonging immersion time, Ca and P ion concentrations increase gradually, and then approach equilibrium. The bone-like apatite layer forms on the composites surface, which possesses benign bioactivity and favorable biocompatibility and achieves osseointegration, and can provide firm fixation between HA60/316L SS composite implants and human body bone.

  3. Kriging of Eocene sand channels from depth-averaged overburden pH, Jewett lignite surface mine, east-central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altis, S.; Tilford, N.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Ordinary point kriging was used to map twenty-six vertically-averaged soil and oxidized overburden acidity values for a future mine block at the Jewett lignite mine, east-central Texas. The pH data were collected as part of a geochemical overburden characterization study to be used in post-mining reclamation decision-making. The authors used kriging, and its estimation standard error, to test the completeness of their data set and to indicate areas of need for additional closely spaced sampling. Because pH can be readily measured in the field, they chose it as the parameter of interest in the kriging. In general pH increased with depth; however, a more exciting result was that the trend and geometry of a major paleo-channel could be mapped from pH values because of the relatively higher acidity of the sand in the channel. Kriged maps were compared with manually-contoured and inverse-distance weighting interpolated maps, and found to be more easily interpretable. The kriging performed better because it allows of anisotropies in the data to be naturally included in the interpolation. Prior to the kriging, the data were studied to validate the assumptions involved in the modeling. The data are clean, well-behaved and statistically homogeneous, and the interpolation was successful even with sparse data. The knowledge of the location and morphology of the paleochannels is essential for the engineering aspects of the mining, and is useful in reclamation decision-making.

  4. Antennas for over-body-surface communication at 2.45 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conway, G.A.; Scanlon, W.G.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of on-body propagation channels is of paramount importance to those wishing to evaluate radio channel performance for wearable devices in body area networks (BANs). Difficulties in modeling arise due to the highly variable channel conditions related to changes in the user's state and local

  5. A Web-based tool for processing and visualizing body surface potential maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Raymond R; Finlay, Dewar D; Nugent, Chris D; Moore, George

    2010-01-01

    The body surface potential map (BSPM) is potentially more accurate for diagnosing cardiac pathologies when compared to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). However, a contributing factor to the lack of widespread adoption of the BSPM is the shortage of standard methods for its storage and visualization. Based on these observations, a BSPM storage format based on the eXtensible Markup Language has been developed within this study, alongside a Web-based BSPM viewer. This viewer was created using a lossless vector graphics tool (Adobe Flash) to maintain the quality of the ECG waveforms when they are enlarged. The viewer also runs inside the Web browser to facilitate BSPM visualization independent of the clinician's geographical location. This online nature enabled the creation of a comments system that can be used to assist in a collaborative diagnosis. This is useful because BSPM diagnostic criteria are not well established. Moreover, using the viewer's innovative tools (ie, calipers, isopotential maps), the clinician can explore BSPM datasets. Algorithms have also been integrated within the system to extract and display the 12-lead ECG and the vectorcardiogram from the BSPM. This viewer has been available online for 10 months alongside a Weblog, which has been used to record the user's feedback. During this period, 12 experts from both the clinical and visualization domains evaluated the viewer and contributed to its design. It has been the general consensus of all experts that the application is an effective solution for visualizing BSPMs. This viewer has been tested to visualize 2 different BSPMs using a PC (3 GHz CPU, 3 GB RAM, 6 MB broadband). The Lux-192 BSPM and the Kornreich-117 BSPM where both uploaded and visualized within 3.8 seconds (mean time from 10 trials). This BSPM storage format and its associated viewer provide a framework for a BSPM management system. If this system is made widely available, it has the potential to provide BSPM

  6. Deformation and relaxation of an incompressible viscoelastic body with surface viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Yu, Miao; Lin, Hao; Foty, Ramsey

    2017-01-01

    Measuring mechanical properties of cells or cell aggregates has proven to be an involved process due to their geometrical and structural complexity. Past measurements are based on material models that completely neglect the elasticity of either the surface membrane or the interior bulk. In this work, we consider general material models to account for both surface and bulk viscoelasticity. The boundary value problems are formulated for deformations and relaxations of a closed viscoelastic surface coupled with viscoelastic media inside and outside of the surface. The linearized surface elasticity models are derived for the constant surface tension model and the Helfrich-Canham bending model for coupling with the bulk viscoelasticity. For quasi-spherical surfaces, explicit solutions are obtained for the deformation, stress-strain and relaxation behaviors under a variety of loading conditions. These solutions can be applied to extract the intrinsic surface and bulk viscoelastic properties of biological cells or cell aggregates in the indentation, electro-deformation and relaxation experiments.

  7. Aggregation and Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  8. A new formulation for surface roughness limited mobility in bulk and ultra-thin-body metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzit, Daniel; Esseni, David; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Selmi, Luca

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new model for the surface roughness (SR) limited mobility in MOS transistors. The model is suitable for bulk and thin body devices and explicitly takes into account the non linear relation between the displacement Δ of the interface position and the SR scattering matrix elements, which is found to significantly influence the r.m.s value (Δrms) of the interface roughness that is necessary to reproduce SR-limited mobility measurements. In particular, comparison with experimental mobility for bulk Si MOSFETs shows that with the new SR scattering model a good agreement with measured mobility can be obtained with Δrms values of about 0.2 nm, which is in good agreement with several AFM and TEM measurements. For thin body III-V MOSFETs, the proposed model predicts a weaker mobility degradation at small well thicknesses (Tw), compared to the Tw 6 behavior observed in Si extremely thin body devices.

  9. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  10. On the Search for the Amino Acids on the Lunar Surface as it Relates to Other Extraterrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2009-01-01

    The early search for the amino acids on the lunar surface fines indicated such a low amount of the amino acids that it was deemed insignifi cant. While the later studies seemed to depart in some ways from the earlier results, they were not pursued. In this paper we critically ev aluate the results from the Apollo missions from the new perspective with considerations of the sensitivity of the instrumentation availabl e at the time. We discuss the possible relevance of the lunar results to the findings of the amino acids on the surfaces of other extraterrestrial bodies, such as Mars.

  11. Survival following a vertical free fall from 300 feet: The crucial role of body position to impact surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Ernest E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a 28-year old rock climber who survived an "unsurvivable" injury consisting of a vertical free fall from 300 feet onto a solid rock surface. The trauma mechanism and injury kinetics are analyzed, with a particular focus on the relevance of body positioning to ground surface at the time of impact. The role of early patient transfer to a level 1 trauma center, and "damage control" management protocols for avoiding delayed morbidity and mortality in this critically injured patient are discussed.

  12. Vortical and nonlinear effects in the roll motion of a 2-D body in the free surface investigated by SPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, O.; Ozbulut, M.; Yildiz, M.; Goren, O.

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the vortical and nonlinear effects in the roll motion of a 2-D body with square cross-sections by using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). A 2-D rigid body with square cross-section is taken into account for the benchmark study and subjected to the oscillatory roll motion with a given angular frequency. The governing equations are continuity equation and Euler's equation with artificial viscosity term. Weakly Compressible SPH (WCSPH) scheme is employed for the discretization of the governing equations. Velocities of the fluid particles are updated by means of XSPH+Artificial Particle Displacement (VXSPH+APD) algorithm. In this method only the free surface fluid particles are subjected to VXSPH algorithm while the APD algorithm is employed for the fully populated flow regions. The hybrid usage of numerical treatment keeps free surface particles together by creating an artificial surface tension on the free surface. VXSPH+APD is a proven numerical treatment to provide the most accurate results for this type of free surface flows (Ozbulut et al. 2014). The results of the present study are compared with those of the experimental studies as well as with those of the numerical methods obtained from the current literature.

  13. Operating device for laparoscopic surgery training instrument, comprises body movable over flat surface and used to supply movement signals to instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentink, M.

    2002-01-01

    The operating device (1) comprises a body (2) which can be moved over the surface of a flat panel or tabletop (3) and is provided with a displacement sensor for converting a displacement of the body over this surface into electric signals, which are supplied to the instrument via a connecting cable

  14. Thermomechanical analysis of an elastoplastic rough body in sliding contact with flat surface and the effect of adjacent contact asperity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmeng Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of the instantaneous frictional temperature, stress, and equivalent plastic strain generated when two surfaces are in frictional sliding process plays a significant role in understanding friction and wear mechanism. A thermomechanical coupling model between a rough body and a flat body is established. The model integrates the heat flux coupling between the sliding surfaces and considers the effects of the interaction among contact asperities and elastoplastic deformation of the rough body. The thermomechanical problem under this three-dimensional model is solved by the nonlinear finite element methods in ABAQUS software. The results show that the temperature, contact pressure, and stress are coupled. The results of the real contact area and the instantaneous frictional temperature, contact pressure, and VonMises equivalent stress on the local contact region fluctuate obviously due to the interaction among the adjacent contact asperities. The influence of asperity interaction is not constant but intermittent. Its time interval is related to the added interaction of a new adjacent contact asperity. The fluctuation of the VonMises equivalent stress makes the equivalent plastic strain of the frictional surface layer accumulate continually which might cause fatigue wear and plastic deformation wear of the material when the frictional rotating process was repeated.

  15. On the "force-free surface " of the magnetized celestial bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Epp, V

    2015-01-01

    The field of a uniformly magnetized rotating sphere is studied with special attention to the surface where the electric and magnetic fields are orthogonal to each other. The equation of this surface, valid at arbitrary distances from the rotating magnetized sphere, is obtained. Inside the light cylinder this surface can be considered as a force-free surface, i.e. as a place where the particles with strong radiation damping can be trapped due to their energy loss. Outside the light cylinder this surface makes just a geometric locus which moves with a superlight velocity around the axis of rotation. The 2- and 3-dimensional plots of the force-free surface are constructed. Estimation of influence of the centrifugal force on the particle dynamics is made. It is shown, that in case of strong magnetic field the centrifugal force is negligible small everywhere except a narrow neighbourhood of the light cylinder.

  16. Grey-body surface radiation coupled with conduction and convection for general geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michael; Jamnia, Mohammad-Ali

    1991-11-01

    This paper presents a numerical technique for the simulation of the effects of grey-diffuse surface radiation on the temperature field of fluid flows using FIDAP, a general purpose incompressible, viscous fluid code. The radiating surface relationships assume a non-participating medium, constant surface temperature and heat fluxes at the discretized elemental level. The technique involves the decoupling of energy and radiation exchange equations. A concept of macrosurfaces, each containing a number of radiating boundary surfaces, is introduced. These boundary macroelements then carry the information from the radiating boundary into the fluid regime. A number of simulations illustrating the algorithm are presented.

  17. ENA imaging near Planetary Bodies: Interaction between Plasma, Exosphere and Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Futaana, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging has been noticed as a powerful tool for remote sensing the plasma-neutral interaction in space. Particularly, the technique is used for investigation of space plasma near planetary bodies. Hear we provide a short review of recent low-energy ENA observations (up to ~1 keV) near Mars, Venus and the Moon.

  18. An iterative Rankine BEM for wave-making analysis of submerged and surface- piercing bodies in finite water depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guanghua

    2013-01-01

    A 3-D iterative Rankine Boundary Element Method (BEM) for seakeeping problem in time domain is developed in the framework of linear potential theory. Waves generated by both submerged and surface-piercing bodies moving at a constant forward speed in otherwise calm water, and the resultant steady wave pattern, wave profile and resistance are computed to validate this newly-developed code. A rectangular computational domain moving with the same forward speed as the body is introduced, in which an artificial damping beach is installed at an outer portion of the free surface except the downstream side for satisfying the radiation condition. The velocity potential on the ship hull and the normal velocity on the free surface are obtained directly by solving the boundary integral equation, with the Rankine source used as the kernel function. An iterative time-marching scheme is employed for updating both kinematic and dynamic free surface boundary conditions to stabilize the calculation. Extensive results including the wave patterns, wave profiles and wave resistances for a submerged spheroid and a Wigley hull with forward speed are presented to validate the efficiency of the proposed 3-D time-domain higher-order approach. Finally, the sensitivity of ship-generated waves to the water depth is investigated. Computed results show satisfactory agreement with the corresponding experimental data and other numerical solutions.

  19. Your Average Nigga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vershawn Ashanti

    2004-01-01

    "Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…

  20. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  1. Evaluation of an URANS-LES Hybrid Approach for Turbulent Free Surface Flows Around Surface-Piercing Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    fraction is obtained from its transport of-fluid (VOF) method. The same surface-piercing equation hydrofoil is considered with a rectangular plan-form...time-scale to be Hydrofoil resolved was computed from r = / u’, where £ was The computational domain is bounded by an taken as 0.02 c, and u’as 0.5U0...chord-lengths forward and aft state, we took steady RANS solution as the initial from the leading-edge of the hydrofoil , respectively, condition. The

  2. Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zalizar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs with 3 replications of 45 DOC each. Infections were carried out every week respectively from week 2th until week 5th. Results showed that the infection of A. galli caused degeneration and necroses in villi ephitelial cells and crypts of small intestine and infiltration of leucocytes. In the heavy infection group some epithelial cells were replaced by fibrocytes. A. galli infection decreased daily body weight gain of starter lower (5.5% in light and 13.4% in heavy dosage infection compared to that of the non infected group. After six weeks of heavy infection the size of small intestine villi surface was decreasing to 20.0%, while the daily body weight gain was decreasing to 12.3% compared to that of the non infection group.

  3. Spatial use of rodents (Rodentia: Mammalia host body surface by ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. BITTENCOURT

    Full Text Available We studied the ectoparasite and the Amblyopinini beetle fauna associated with four small mammal species of the Atlantic Rainforest of Ilha Grande, an island located off the southern Rio de Janeiro State Coast, Southeastern Brazil, analyzing to what extent the parasites were specific to each region of the host body. During the study, a total of 90 individual rodents were captured: 61 Proechimys iheringi Thomas, 1911 (Echymyidae, 22 Sciurus aestuans (Thomas, 1901 (Sciuridae, 4 Oxymycterus sp. (Waterhouse, 1837, and 2 Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827 (Sigmodontinae. The data showed that the ectoparasites and Amblyopinini on some rodent hosts in Ilha Grande tend to prefer particular host body sites, and that some ectoparasite species sites may overlap owing to their inaccessibility to the host.

  4. Two-Body Abrasive Wear of the Surfaces of Pangolin Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Tong; Tie-biao Lü; Yun-hai Ma; Heng-kun Wang; Lu-quan Ren; R. D. Arnell

    2007-01-01

    The Pangolin, a soil-burrowing animal, is covered with scales. These scales are often abraded by soil and rock and their surface is corrugated. The abrasive wear of the surface of the scales was examined. The scales were taken from a pangolin that had died of natural causes. The tests were run on a rotary disc abrasive wear tester. The abrasive material was quartz sand (96.5 wt.%) and bentonite (3.5 wt.%). The morphology of the abraded surfaces and the abrasion were examined by stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The concepts are proposed of "Guiding-Effect" and "Rolling-Effect" on the textured surfaces under free abrasive wear conditions and the critical dimensions of the "Rolling-Effect" are discussed.

  5. On Minkowski decomposition of Okounkov bodies on a Del Pezzo surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Łuszcz-Świdecka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that on a blow up of $P^2$ in $3$ general points there exists a finite set of nef divisors $P_1,ldots,P_s$ such that the Okounkov body $Delta(D$ of an arbitrary effective $R$--divisor $D$ on $X$ is the Minkowski sum Delta(D=sum_{i=1}^s a_iDelta(P_i (1 with non-negative coefficients $a_i in R_{geq 0}$.

  6. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David;

    2014-01-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy...... range of seasonal weather conditions. In this study, analysis was undertaken to ascertain whether important theoretical assumptions required for both techniques are valid in the complex environment of a small reservoir. Statistical comparison, energy balance closure, and the relationship between...

  7. Fabric-Based Wearable Dry Electrodes for Body Surface Biopotential Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokus, Murat A; Jur, Jesse S

    2016-02-01

    A flexible and conformable dry electrode design on nonwoven fabrics is examined as a sensing platform for biopotential measurements. Due to limitations of commercial wet electrodes (e.g., shelf life, skin irritation), dry electrodes are investigated as the potential candidates for long-term monitoring of ECG signals. Multilayered dry electrodes are fabricated by screen printing of Ag/AgCl conductive inks on flexible nonwoven fabrics. This study focuses on the investigation of skin-electrode interface, form factor design, electrode body placement of printed dry electrodes for a wearable sensing platform. ECG signals obtained with dry and wet electrodes are comparatively studied as a function of body posture and movement. Experimental results show that skin-electrode impedance is influenced by printed electrode area, skin-electrode interface material, and applied pressure. The printed electrode yields comparable ECG signals to wet electrodes, and the QRS peak amplitude of ECG signal is dependent on printed electrode area and electrode on body spacing. Overall, fabric-based printed dry electrodes present an inexpensive health monitoring platform solution for mobile wearable electronics applications by fulfilling user comfort and wearability.

  8. Many-body effects on Cr(001) surfaces: An LDA+DMFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, M.; Barthel, S.; Karolak, M.; Poteryaev, A. I.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Sangiovanni, G.; Wehling, T. O.

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure of the Cr(001) surface with its sharp resonance at the Fermi level is a subject of controversial debate of many experimental and theoretical works. To date, it is unclear whether the origin of this resonance is an orbital Kondo or an electron-phonon coupling effect. We have combined ab initio density functional calculations with dynamical mean-field simulations to calculate the orbitally resolved spectral function of the Cr(001) surface. The calculated orbital character and shape of the spectrum is in agreement with data from (inverse) photoemission experiments. We find that dynamic electron correlations crucially influence the surface electronic structure and lead to a low energy resonance in the dz2 and dx z /y z orbitals. Our results help to reconvene controversial experimental results from (I)PES and STM measurements.

  9. Navier-Stokes computations on full-span wing-body configuration with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Shigeru; Chiu, Ing-Tsau; Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1993-01-01

    Unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations have been performed for vortical flows over an 'arrow-wing' configuration of a supersonic transport in the transonic regime. Computed steady pressures and integrated force coefficients with and without control surface deflection at a moderate angle of attack are compared with experiment. For unsteady cases, oscillating trailing-edge control surfaces are modeled by using moving grids. Response characteristics between symmetric and anti-symmetric oscillatory motions of the control surfaces on the left and right wings are studied. The anti-symmetric case produces higher lift than the steady case with no deflection, and the unsteady symmetric case produces higher lift than the anti-symmetric case. The detailed analysis of the wake structure revealed a strong interaction between the primary vortex and the wake vortex sheet from the flap region when the flap is deflected up.

  10. Electrocortical sources related to whole-body surface translations during a single- and dual-task paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Bogost

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate reactive motor responses are essential in maintaining upright balance. However, little is known regarding the potential location of cortical sources that are related to the onset of a perturbation during single- and dual-task paradigms. The purpose of this study was to estimate the location of cortical sources in response to a whole-body surface translation and whether diverted attention decreases the N1 event-related potential (ERP amplitude related to a postural perturbation. This study utilized high-resolution electroencephalography in conjunction with measure projection analysis from ERPs time-locked to backwards surface translation onsets to determine which cortical sources were related to whole-body postural perturbations. Subjects (n = 15 either reacted to whole-body surface translations with (dual task or without (single task performing a visual working memory task. For the single task, four domains were identified that were mainly localized within the frontal and parietal lobes and included sources from the prefrontal, premotor, primary and supplementary motor, somatosensory, and anterior cingulate cortex. Five domains were estimated for the dual task and also included sources within the frontal and parietal lobes, but the sources also shifted to other locations that included areas within the temporal and occipital lobes. Additionally, mean absolute N1 ERP amplitudes representing the activity from similar locations in both tasks were greater for the single than dual task. The present localization results highlight the importance of frontal, parietal and anterior cingulate cortical areas in reactive postural control and suggest a re-allocation or shift of cortical sources related to reactive balance control in the presence of a secondary task. Thus, this study provides novel insight into the underlying neurophysiology and contribution of cortical sources in relation to the neural control of reactive balance.

  11. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-15

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified

  12. Electrocortical Sources Related to Whole-Body Surface Translations during a Single- and Dual-Task Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogost, Mark D.; Burgos, Pablo I.; Little, C. Elaine; Woollacott, Marjorie H.; Dalton, Brian H.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate reactive motor responses are essential in maintaining upright balance. However, little is known regarding the potential location of cortical sources that are related to the onset of a perturbation during single- and dual-task paradigms. The purpose of this study was to estimate the location of cortical sources in response to a whole-body surface translation and whether diverted attention decreases the N1 event-related potential (ERP) amplitude related to a postural perturbation. This study utilized high-resolution electroencephalography in conjunction with measure projection analysis from ERPs time-locked to backwards surface translation onsets to determine which cortical sources were related to whole-body postural perturbations. Subjects (n = 15) either reacted to whole-body surface translations with (dual task) or without (single task) performing a visual working memory task. For the single task, four domains were identified that were mainly localized within the frontal and parietal lobes and included sources from the prefrontal, premotor, primary and supplementary motor, somatosensory and anterior cingulate cortex. Five domains were estimated for the dual task and also included sources within the frontal and parietal lobes, but the sources also shifted to other locations that included areas within the temporal and occipital lobes. Additionally, mean absolute N1 ERP amplitudes representing the activity from similar locations in both tasks were greater for the single than dual task. The present localization results highlight the importance of frontal, parietal and anterior cingulate cortical areas in reactive postural control and suggest a re-allocation or shift of cortical sources related to reactive balance control in the presence of a secondary task. Thus, this study provides novel insight into the underlying neurophysiology and contribution of cortical sources in relation to the neural control of reactive balance.

  13. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  14. Surface analysis of localized corrosion of austenitic 316L and duplex 2205 stainless steels in simulated body solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conradi, Marjetka, E-mail: marjetka.conradi@imt.si [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schoen, Peter M. [Materials Science and Technology of Polymers and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands); Kocijan, Aleksandra; Jenko, M. [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vancso, G. Julius [Materials Science and Technology of Polymers and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} In situ steel surface morphology observations in simulated body solutions. {yields} Pitting, square-like and elliptic-like corrosion products. {yields} Corrosion products' shapes related to the growth of Cr and Fe oxides. {yields} Direct relation of the size of the deposition products to surface roughness. - Abstract: We report on cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) studies of localized corrosion of duplex 2205 stainless steel (DSS 2205) and austenitic stainless steel of the type AISI 316L in two model solutions, including artificial saliva (AS) and a simulated physiological solution known as - Hank's solution (PS). The AFM topography analysis illustrated the higher corrosion resistance of DSS 2205 steel for the chosen range of electrochemical potentials that were applied to the steel surface in both solutions. In contrast, pitting corrosion was observed at the surface of AISI 316L steel, with the pits becoming more evident, larger and deeper, when the sample was electrochemically treated in the PS. On both surfaces the growth of corrosion products formed during the oxidation process was observed. As a result, depending on the sample's metallurgical structure, different types of oxides covered the surface close to the breakdown potential. We distinguished between the square-like type of oxides on the surface of the DSS 2205, and the AISI 316L with its ellipse-like oxide deposits. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed the chemical composition of the deposition products, which consisted of two main elements, Fe and Cr. However, the oxides of the alloying elements Ni and Mo were negligible compared to the bulk.

  15. Accurate double many-body expansion potential energy surface of HS2A2A‧) by scaling the external correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu-Lu, Zhang; Yu-Zhi, Song; Shou-Bao, Gao; Yuan, Zhang; Qing-Tian, Meng

    2016-05-01

    A globally accurate single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the first excited state of HS2 by fitting the accurate ab initio energies, which are calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set. By using the double many-body expansion-scaled external correlation method, such calculated ab initio energies are then slightly corrected by scaling their dynamical correlation. A grid of 2767 ab initio energies is used in the least-square fitting procedure with the total root-mean square deviation being 1.406 kcal·mol-1. The topographical features of the HS2(A2A‧) global potential energy surface are examined in detail. The attributes of the stationary points are presented and compared with the corresponding ab initio results as well as experimental and other theoretical data, showing good agreement. The resulting potential energy surface of HS2(A2A‧) can be used as a building block for constructing the global potential energy surfaces of larger S/H molecular systems and recommended for dynamic studies on the title molecular system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304185), the Taishan Scholar Project of Shandong Province, China, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. ZR2014AM022), the Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program, China (Grant No. J15LJ03), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561957), and the Post-doctoral Innovation Project of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. 201402013).

  16. The Associations between Various Ectopic Visceral Adiposity and Body Surface Electrocardiographic Alterations: Potential Differences between Local and Remote Systemic Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ching Chi

    Full Text Available The associations between pericardial adiposity and altered atrial conduction had been demonstrated. However, data comparing differential effects of various body sites visceral adiposity on atrial and ventricular electrocardiographic alterations remains largely unknown.We assessed both peri-cardial fat (PCF and peri-aortic visceral adiposity (TAT using dedicated computed tomography (CT software (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA, with anthropometrics including body mass index (BMI and biochemical data obtained. We further related PCF and TAT data to standardized 12-leads electrocardiogram (ECG, including P and QRS wave morphologies. Among 3,087 study subjects (mean age, 49.6 years; 28% women, we observed a linear association among greater visceral adiposity burden, leftward deviation of P and QRS axes, longer PR interval and widened QRS duration (all p200ms, likelihood-ratio: 33.17 to 41.4 & 39.03 for PCF and TAT and widened QRS duration (>100ms, likelihood-ratio: 55.67 to 65.4 & 61.94 for PCF and TAT, all X2 p<0.05 when superimposed on age and BMI.We show in our data greater visceral fat burden may have differential associations on several body surface electrocardiographic parameters. Compared to remote adiposity, those surrounding the heart tissue demonstrated greater influences on altered cardiac activation or conduction, indicating a possible local biological effect.

  17. Study on global average colinear sea surface height based on Satelite Altimeter%基于卫星高度计的全球平均共线海表面高度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 苗洪利

    2015-01-01

    Satelite altimeter can measure global ocean dynamic environment around the clock.The important data product is the sea surface height (SSH). In this paper we compute the SSH of al the points based on the satelite altimeter data. Then we use the reference orbit to colinear processing with SSH and average the result. Finaly we get the mean sea surface height (MSSH). This method can get the sea surface height information of different time ranges in a short period of time. And it can provide the data support for the long term change of sea level.%卫星高度计可以实现全球范围的全天候海洋动力环境测量,其中重要的数据产品为海表面高度(SSH)。本文基于高度计测量数据,计算出每个测量点的海表面高度。利用参考轨道对数据采用共线处理得到全球的平均共线海表面高度。这一方法可以在短时间内获得全球范围的不同时间尺度下的海表面高度信息,能够为海平面长期变化研究提供数据支持。

  18. Underexpanded Supersonic Plume Surface Interactions: Applications for Spacecraft Landings on Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, M.; Sengupta, A.; Renno, N. O.; Norman, J. W.; Gulick, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical and experimental investigations of both far-field and near-field supersonic steady jet interactions with a flat surface at various atmospheric pressures are presented in this paper. These studies were done in assessing the landing hazards of both the NASA Mars Science Laboratory and Phoenix Mars spacecrafts. Temporal and spatial ground pressure measurements in conjunction with numerical solutions at altitudes of approx.35 nozzle exit diameters and jet expansion ratios (e) between 0.02 and 100 are used. Data from steady nitrogen jets are compared to both pulsed jets and rocket exhaust plumes at Mach approx.5. Due to engine cycling, overpressures and the plate shock dynamics are different between pulsed and steady supersonic impinging jets. In contrast to highly over-expanded (e plumes, results show that there is a relative ground pressure load maximum for moderately underexpanded (e approx.2-5) jets which demonstrate a long collimated plume shock structure. For plumes with e much >5 (lunar atmospheric regime), the ground pressure is minimal due to the development of a highly expansive shock structure. We show this is dependent on the stability of the plate shock, the length of the supersonic core and plume decay due to shear layer instability which are all a function of the jet expansion ratio. Asymmetry and large gradients in the spatial ground pressure profile and large transient overpressures are predominantly linked to the dynamics of the plate shock. More importantly, this study shows that thruster plumes exhausting into martian environments possess the largest surface pressure loads and can occur at high spacecraft altitudes in contrast to the jet interactions at terrestrial and lunar atmospheres. Theoretical and analytical results also show that subscale supersonic cold gas jets adequately simulate the flow field and loads due to rocket plume impingement provided important scaling parameters are in agreement. These studies indicate the critical

  19. Technical note: Criterion validity of whole body surface area equations: a comparison using 3D laser scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Nathan; Olds, Timothy; Tomkinson, Grant

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of whole body surface area (WBSA) have important applications in numerous fields including biological anthropology, clinical medicine, biomechanics, and sports science. Currently, WBSA is most often estimated using predictive equations due to the complex and time consuming methods required for direct measurement. The main aim of this study was to identify whether there were significant and meaningful differences between WBSA measurements taken using a whole body three-dimensional (3D) scanner (criterion measure) and the estimates derived from each WBSA equation identified from a systematic review. The study also aimed to determine whether differences varied according to body mass index (BMI), sex, or athletic status. Fifteen WBSA equations were compared with direct measurements taken on 1,714 young adult subjects, aged 18-30 years, using the Vitus Smart 3D whole body scanner, including 1,452 subjects (753 males, 699 females) from the general Australian population and 262 rowers (148 males, 114 females). Mixed-design analysis of variances determined significant differences and accuracy was quantified using Bland-Altman analysis and effect sizes. Thirteen of the 15 equations overestimated WBSA. With a few exceptions, equations were accurate with a low-systematic error (bias ≤2%) and low-random error (standard deviation of the differences 1.5-3.0%). However, BMI did have a substantial impact with the accuracy of some WBSA equations varying between the four BMI categories. The Shuter and Aslani: Eur J Appl Physiol 82 (2000) 250-254 equation was identified as the most accurate equation and should be used for Western populations 18-30 years of age. Care must be taken when deciding which equation to use when estimating WBSA.

  20. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  1. Stable isotope systematics of surface water bodies in the Himalayan and trans-Himalayan (Kashmir) region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanchan Pandey; J T Padia; R Ramesh; K K Sharma

    2000-03-01

    Stable hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios of the headwaters of the Indus and its tributaries, surface ice in glaciers, saline and fresh water lakes and thermal springs in the Himalayan and Trans- Himalayan (Kashmir) region are reported. The D-18O relationship for the river samples shows a slope of 9.12 ± 0.29 which agrees well with the estimate of 8.99 ± 0.33 based on a simple Rayleigh fractionation model. The unique signature of a higher deuterium excess (d) of the `Western Disturbance' is preserved in these samples. An altitude effect of -0.9 per mil/km is observed in the 18O of Indus waters. At a lower altitude (Beas) the altitude effect is almost double, indicating that the altitude effect decreases with elevation in this region.

  2. DOTS: A High Resolution Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer for In Situ Analysis of the surface samples of Airless Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briois, Christelle; Thissen, Roland; Engrand, Cécile; Altwegg, Kathrin; Bouabdellah, Abdel; Boukrara, Amirouche; Carrasco, Nathalie; Chapuis, Claude; Cottin, Hervé; Grün, Eberhard; Grand, Noel; Henkel, Hartmut; Kempf, Sascha; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Makarov, Alexander A.; Postber, Frank; Srama, Ralf; Schmidt, Jürgen; Szopa, Cyril; Thirkell, Laurent; Tobie, Gabriel; Wurz, Peter; Zolotov, Mikhail Yu

    2013-04-01

    The dust detectors on board the Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have shown that the Galilean satellites are surrounded by clouds of sub-micrometer size grains generated by impacts of interplanetary (micro-) meteoroids [1, 2]. In situ chemical analysis from orbit of these ballistic grains ejected from the surface of airless bodies provides a unique opportunity to remotely access the chemical composition of the Jovian moons' surface and subsurface. For Saturn, in situ identification by the Cassini Dust Analyzer (CDA) of sodium in icy grains in the E-Ring and in Enceladus plumes have proven a subsurface liquid water reservoir inside Enceladus [3, 4]. Noticeably, this was not accessible to other in situ or traditional remote sensing techniques. In situ measurements, either during a flyby or from orbit, of grains ejected from the surface, or emerging from the subsurface, of an airless body is a powerful tool to remotely study its surface composition and the nature of its geological activity. Crucial constraints on habitability can thus be determined. Our consortium of laboratories, in collaboration with Thermo Fischer Scientific [5, 6], is currently developing a high mass resolution Fourier Transform (FT) Orbitrap-based mass spectrometer optimized for in situ analysis of dust and icy grains in the environment of Solar System airless bodies. This new generation of dust mass spectrometer was studied in the framework of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) instrument study in 2010-2012 and proposed in response to ESA's AO for the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission [7]. This mass analyser can provide very high mass resolution analysis (M/ΔM reaching 50 000 at m/z 50 Da). DOTS would allow identification of elemental and molecular species with excellent accuracy, in the 20-1000 Da mass range. In the context of the JUICE mission, DOTS would provide decisive information on the surface composition and on the putative liquid oceans in the subsurface of Ganymede

  3. The Translucent Cadaver: An Evaluation of the Use of Full Body Digital X-Ray Images and Drawings in Surface Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Greyling, Linda Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    It has been noted by staff at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University that medical students neglect the study of surface anatomy during dissection. This study reports on the novel use of Lodox[R] Statscan[R] images in anatomical education, particularly the teaching of surface anatomy. Full body digital X-ray images (Lodox Statscan)…

  4. Total body-surface area as a new prognostic variable in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Silvana; García-Muret, Pilar; Mozos, Anna; Sierra, Jorge; Briones, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) are the most common forms of primary cutaneous T cell lymphomas. We analyzed the applicability of the cutaneous lymphoma international prognostic index (CLIPi) in MF/SS. We introduced the total body-surface area affected (TBSA) and the type of skin lesions at diagnosis as prognostic variables. The overall survival (OS) at median time of follow up (96 months) was 75.6% (CI 95%, 62.0-98.5%). In the univariate analysis, age>60 years, advanced disease, type of skin lesions and TBSA>50 showed poorer OS (p60 years, with advanced disease and TBSA>50% (p<0.05). TBSA identified a group of poor prognosis patients with advanced MF/SS that may benefit from novel systemic therapies.

  5. Micro-topography and reactivity of implant surfaces: an in vitro study in simulated body fluid (SBF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, M G; Taddei, P; Siboni, F; Perrotti, V; Iezzi, G; Piattelli, A; Prati, C

    2015-02-01

    The creation of micro-textured dental implant surfaces possessing a stimulating activity represents a challenge in implant dentistry; particularly, the formation of a thin, biologically active, calcium-phosphate layer on their surface could help to strengthen the bond to the surrounding bone. The aim of the present study was to characterize in terms of macrostructure, micro-topography and reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), the surface of titanium (Ti) implants blasted with TiO2 particles, acid etched with hydrofluoric acid, and activated with Ca and Mg-containing nanoparticles. Sandblasted and acid-etched implants were analyzed by ESEM-EDX (environmental scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray system) to study the micromorphology of the surface and to perform elemental X-ray microanalysis (microchemical analyses) and element mapping. ESEM-EDX analyses were performed at time 0 and after a 28-day soaking period in SBF Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) following ISO 23317 (implants for surgery—in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of implant materials). Microchemical analyses (weight % and atomic %) and element mapping were carried out to evaluate the relative element content, element distribution, and calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) atomic ratio. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the possible presence of impurities due to manufacturing and to investigate the phases formed upon HBSS soaking. Micro-morphological analyses showed a micro-textured, highly rough surface with microgrooves. Microchemical analyses showed compositional differences among the apical, middle, and distal thirds. The micro-Raman analyses of the as-received implant showed the presence of amorphous Ti oxide and traces of anatase, calcite, and a carbonaceous material derived from the decomposition of an organic component of lipidic nature (presumably used as lubricant). A uniform layer of Ca-poor calcium phosphates (CaPs) (Ca/P ratio <1.47) was observed after

  6. Effect on Groundwater Quality from Proximal Surface Water Bodies and Effect on Arsenic Distribution in Bangladesh: Geochemical Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, S.; Kulkarni, H.; Mladenov, N.; Khan, M. A.; Mahfuz, M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Matlab is one of the areas in SE Bangladesh highly affected with elevated concentrations of dissolved As in drinking waters. Matlab is stratigraphically composed of thick floodplain deposits of Holocene age overlying Plio-Pleistocene grey fine to coarse sands with considerable clay (Dupi Tila). The dissolved As concentrations in the studied area ranged from detection in shallow well waters (MPN= 3.6-74.1) was high as well as in ponds and canals (MPN= 8.5-433.4). Microbial activity in groundwater was lower than in unprotected surface waters. Freshness index (β:α), humification index (HIX), fluorescence source index (FI) values showed that DOM in shallow and surface water bodies was distinct from deep groundwater. Concurrent with the lower DOC in deeper wells, the overall fluorescence intensities decreased with depth. The results thus far point to more humic DOM in shallow groundwaters, which is not expected to be a labile carbon source for microorganisms, but which may be involved in complexation or other biogeochemical reactions that mobilize arsenic.

  7. Measurement of Acupoint's Area on Body Surface:Present Situation and Thinking%经穴体表范围测定的现状与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云凌; 赖新生

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study acupointfc area on body surface and discuss methods of study. Methods: Collecting amount of methods and data on acupoints area on body surface of study from scholars both at home and o-verseas. Results:Most of methods of measurement of acupoints area on body surface were based on specificity of acuponts, including specificity of acupoint's structure,specificity of acupoints biology and physical and chemistry, specificity of pathological reaction and so on. Conclusion:Acupoints area on body surface is eager for solution , but present methods are pretty limited, and still there are many problems. At last, the paper puts forward the measurement of acupoint's area on body surface according to specificty of acupoints needling reaction,and establishes the model for measurement of acupoint's area on body surface so as to promote clinical work and study on acupuncture.%目的:研究经穴的体表范围及探讨研究的方法.方法:整理了国内外学者研究经穴体表范围的方法和数据.结果:测定穴体表范围的方法大多是根据经穴特异性,有经穴形态结构特异性、生物理化特异性、病理反映特异性等.结论:经穴的体表范围是一个亟待解决的问题,但目前的方法仍然十分局限且存在很多问题.提出利用经穴针刺效应特异性测定范围,建立测定经穴体表范围的模式,促进针灸的临床和科研.

  8. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  9. Field study and numerical modeling of wind and surface waves at the middle-sized water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydakov, Georgy; Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Sergeev, Daniil; Papko, Vladislav; Kandaurov, Alexander; Vdovin, Maxim; Troitskaya, Yuliya

    2015-04-01

    different parameterizations of flux both provided in WAVEWATCH III and in the inserted suggested experimental parameterization. For the cases with default WAVEWATCH III flux parameterizations, wave amplitude characteristics were overestimated, and spectral maxima showed the downshifting comparing with the measured data. Insertion of the suggested parameterization of flux input improved the coincidence. The difference in the use of WAM3 and Tolman & Chalikov source packages is discussed. To conclude, we discuss the applicability of suggested flux parameterization: it increases the accuracy of the simulations and makes possible the application of this technique for getting the surface wind waves forecasts on the water bodies. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under Grant No. 15-45-02580,RFBR grant 14-05-31343, President Grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5, RSF 14-17-00667. References 1. Babanin and Makin Effects of wind trend and gustiness on the sea drag: Lake George study // Journal of Geophysical Research, 2008, 113, C02015, doi:10.1029/2007JC004233 2. Atakturk and Katsaros Wind Stress and Surface Waves Observed on Lake Washington // Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1999, 29, pp. 633-650

  10. The contribution of ventricular apicobasal and transmural repolarization patterns to the development of the T wave body surface potentials in frogs (Rana temporaria) and pike (Esox lucius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaykshnorayte, Marina A; Azarov, Jan E; Tsvetkova, Alena S; Vityazev, Vladimir A; Ovechkin, Alexey O; Shmakov, Dmitry N

    2011-05-01

    The study aimed at the simultaneous determination of the transmural and apicobasal differences in the repolarization timing and the comparison of the contributions of these two repolarization gradients to the development of the body surface T wave potentials in animals with the single heart ventricle (fishes and amphibians). Unipolar potentials were measured on the body surface, epicardium and in the intramural (subepicardial, Epi; midmyocardial; and subendocardial, Endo) ventricular layers of 9 pike and 8 frogs. Activation times, repolarization times and activation-recovery intervals were determined. A transmural gradient in repolarization durations in frogs (Endo>Epi, Ppike that produces a repolarization sequence from Endo to Epi (Endopike and frogs.

  11. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violat...

  12. Is the Target of 1 Day of Stay per 1% Total Body Surface Area Burned Achieved in Chemical Burns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y

    2016-02-01

    The length of hospital stay (LOS) is a standard parameter used to reflect quality and evaluate outcomes in acute burn care. This study aims to assess whether the target of 1 day of stay per 1% total body surface area (TBSA) burned was achieved in acute chemical burns management and factors affecting the LOS. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients who suffered from chemical burn injuries admitted to a university burn center over a continuous 14-year period was performed.A total of 118 patients were admitted over the period for chemical burns. Only 14% of cases achieved the target stated. Factors associated with lengthening of the hospital stay included TBSA, ocular involvement, the cause of injury, and the need for surgery during the same admission.The LOS in chemical burns frequently exceeds 1 day of stay per 1% TBSA burned. Many factors can contribute to a patient's LOS and are worth exploring in order to see if the impact of these factors could be minimized. Early surgical intervention should help to reduce the LOS if reliable methods of burn wound depth assessment are available.

  13. Electroanalytical and surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in cells and body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Yi, Xinyao; Wang, Jianxiu; Zhou, Feimeng

    2014-04-21

    Cancer and neurological disorders are two leading causes of human death. Their early diagnoses will either greatly improve the survival rate or facilitate effective treatments or modalities. Detection of biomarkers in body fluids and some tissues (e.g., blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluids) is relatively non-invasive and provides useful chemical and biological information that is complementary to tomographic imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and X-ray computed tomography). Recent years have witnessed the contributions from and potential applications of bioanalytical methods for early detection of major diseases. In this review, we survey some recent developments of electroanalytical (as a representative label-based technique) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) (as a representative label-free technique) biosensors for detection of biomarkers relevant to etiologies of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While breast cancer is representative of cancers of complexity (multiple biomarkers, false positives from tomographic scans, and a need for more effective early diagnostic methods), AD is the most prevalent neurological disorder that is also linked to multiple biomarkers. Both electroanalytical and SPR-based sensors have attractive features of sensitivity, portability, obviation of large sample volumes, and capability of multiplexed detection. Various sensing protocols developed in the past five years are reviewed, demonstrating the feasibility of both techniques for diagnostic purposes. Problems inherent in these two techniques that must be overcome before being clinically viable are also discussed.

  14. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the underlyin

  15. Use of scaled external correlation, a double many-body expansion, and variational transition state theory to calibrate a potential energy surface for FH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gillian C.; Steckler, Rozeanne; Varandas, Antonio J. C.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1991-01-01

    New ab initio results and a double many-body expansion formalism have been used to parameterize a new FH2 potential energy surface with improved properties near the saddle point and in the region of long-range attraction. The functional form of the new surface includes dispersion forces by a double many-body expansion. Stationary point properties for the new surface are calculated along with the product-valley barrier maxima of vibrationally adiabatic potential curves for F + H2 - HF(nu-prime = 3) + H, F + HD - HF(nu-prime = 3) + D, and F + D2 - DF(nu-prime = 4) + D. The new surface should prove useful for studying the effect on dynamics of a low, early barrier with a wide, flat bend potential.

  16. Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  17. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...

  18. Zooplankton body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinousforms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals becomeincreasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body compo...

  19. A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, K; Dean, D

    2000-12-01

    Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.

  20. Effects of environmental factors on adolescent body surface area growth of urban Chinese%环境因素对中国城市青少年体表面积发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国柱

    2016-01-01

    用Stevenson和DuBois公式计算30个省市城市7~18岁男女青少年的体表面积均值,并对其进行因子分析求得发育分.采用发育分与自然因素和社会经济因素进行相关分析和多元逐步回归分析,研究环境因素对中国城市青少年体表面积发育的综合影响.结果显示,中国城市青少年体表面积发育存在地域差异,男女青少年体表面积发育分排在前5位的均位于环渤海地区;发育分与地球经度、地球纬度、年日照时数、气温年较差、人均GDP、人均可支配收入以及每千人中卫生技术人员数呈显著性正相关,与海拔、年降水量、年均相对湿度、恩格尔系数、人口出生率、人口增长率以及儿童负担率呈显著性负相关;影响中国城市青少年体表面积发育的关键因素为海拔、年均相对湿度、恩格尔系数和儿童负担率.青少年体表面积发育在环境因素方面是受自然环境因素与社会经济生活两者之间共同相互作用的结果.%This research used Stevenson and DuBois' formulae to calculate the average body surface area of 7-18 year-old adolescents in 30 cities throughout China,and then used factor analysis to obtain growth scores.Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the growth scores,natural environment and socio-economic environment to determine the comprehensive effects of the environmental factors on adolescents body surface area growth.The results show that the development of body surface area of urban Chinese adolescents has regional differences.Specifically,the body surface area in the top five samples were located in circum-Bohai Sea region.Growth scores had a conspicuousness positive correlation with longitude and latitude,sunshine duration,annual range of temperature,GDP per capita,disposable income per capita and number of medical technicians per 1000 people.Growth scores had a negative correlation with altitude

  1. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  2. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization.

  3. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  4. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.

  5. MODFLOW-2005 and MODPATH6 models used to delineate areas contributing groundwater to selected surface receiving waters for long-term average hydrologic stress conditions from 1968 to 1983, Long Island, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A regional groundwater-flow model and particle-tracking program were used to delineate areas contributing groundwater to coastal and freshwater bodies and to...

  6. Quantized average consensus with delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafarian, Matin; De Persis, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Average consensus problem is a special case of cooperative control in which the agents of the network asymptotically converge to the average state (i.e., position) of the network by transferring information via a communication topology. One of the issues of the large scale networks is the cost of co

  7. Temperature-dependence of Weibel-Palade body exocytosis and cell surface dispersal of von Willebrand factor and its propolypeptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Hewlett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB are endothelial cell (EC specific secretory organelles containing Von Willebrand factor (VWF. The temperature-dependence of Ca(2+-driven WPB exocytosis is not known, although indirect evidence suggests that WPB exocytosis may occur at very low temperatures. Here we quantitatively analyse the temperature-dependence of Ca(2+-driven WPB exocytosis and release of secreted VWF from the cell surface of ECs using fluorescence microscopy of cultured human ECs containing fluorescent WPBs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ca(2+-driven WPB exocytosis occurred at all temperatures studied (7-37°C. The kinetics and extent of WPB exocytosis were strongly temperature-dependent: Delays in exocytosis increased from 0.92 s at 37°C to 134.2 s at 7°C, the maximum rate of WPB fusion decreased from 10.0±2.2 s(-1 (37°C to 0.80±0.14 s(-1 (7°C and the fractional extent of degranulation of WPBs in each cell from 67±3% (37°C to 3.6±1.3% (7°C. A discrepancy was found between the reduction in Ca(2+-driven VWF secretion and WPB exocytosis at reduced temperature; at 17°C VWF secretion was reduced by 95% but WPB exocytosis by 75-80%. This discrepancy arises because VWF dispersal from sites of WPB exocytosis is largely prevented at low temperature. In contrast VWF-propolypeptide (proregion dispersal from WPBs, although slowed, was complete within 60-120 s. Novel antibodies to the cleaved and processed proregion were characterised and used to show that secreted proregion more accurately reports the secretion of WPBs at sub-physiological temperatures than assay of VWF itself. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first quantitative analysis of the temperature-dependence of WPB exocytosis. We provide evidence; by comparison of biochemical data for VWF or proregion secretion with direct analysis of WPB exocytosis at reduced temperature, that proregion is a more reliable marker for WPB exocytosis at reduced temperature, where VWF-EC adhesion is increased.

  8. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we study moving averages (also known as stochastic convolutions) driven by a Wiener process and with a deterministic kernel. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel are provided for the moving average to be a semimartingale in its natural filtration. Our results...... are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  9. Gradient Evolution of Body Colouration in Surface- and Cave-Dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the Role of Phenotype-Assortative Female Mate Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation.

  10. Gradient evolution of body colouration in surface- and cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the role of phenotype-assortative female mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Penshorn, Marina; Hamfler, Sybille; Herbert, Denise B; Appel, Jessica; Meyer, Philipp; Slattery, Patrick; Charaf, Sarah; Wolf, Raoul; Völker, Johannes; Berger, Elisabeth A M; Dröge, Janis; Wolf, Konstantin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeanne R; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface) males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation.

  11. Effect of surface radiation on the breakdown of steady natural convection flows in a square, air-filled cavity containing a centered inner body

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, H; Chénier, Eric; Lauriat, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The physical model considered in the present numerical work is a square air-filled cavity cooled from below and above, with a heated square body located at the cavity center. The aim is to establish the effects of radiation interchanges amongst surfaces on the transition from steady, symmetric flows about the cavity centerline to complex periodic flows. Owing to the low temperature differences involved (1 K ? ?T ? 5 K), the two-dimensional model is based on the Boussinesq ...

  12. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  13. Self-propulsion of a body with rigid surface and variable coefficient of lift in a perfect fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramodanov, Sergey M.; Tenenev, Valentin A.; Treschev, Dmitry V.

    2012-11-01

    We study the system of a 2D rigid body moving in an unbounded volume of incompressible, vortex-free perfect fluid which is at rest at infinity. The body is equipped with a gyrostat and a so-called Flettner rotor. Due to the latter the body is subject to a lifting force (Magnus effect). The rotational velocities of the gyrostat and the rotor are assumed to be known functions of time (control inputs). The equations of motion are presented in the form of the Kirchhoff equations. The integrals of motion are given in the case of piecewise continuous control. Using these integrals we obtain a (reduced) system of first-order differential equations on the configuration space. Then an optimal control problem for several types of the inputs is solved using genetic algorithms.

  14. Method based on artificial excitation of characteristic radiation by an electron beam for remote X-ray spectral elemental analysis of surface rocks on atmosphereless celestial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.

    2016-11-01

    This article, like our previous one [1], is devoted to advanced space technology concepts. It evaluates the potential for developing active systems to conduct a remote elemental analysis of surface rocks on an atmosphereless celestial body. The analysis is based on the spectrometry of characteristic X-rays (CXR) artificially excited in the surface soil layer. It has been proposed to use an electron beam injected from aboard a spacecraft orbiting the celestial body (or moving in a flyby trajectory) to excite the CXR elements contained in surface rocks. The focus is on specifying technical requirements to the parameters of payloads for a global mapping of the composition of lunar rocks from aboard of a low-orbiting lunar satellite. This article uses the results obtained in [2], our first study that shows the potential to develop an active system for a remote elemental analysis of lunar surface rocks using the above method. Although there has been interest in our research on the part of leading national academic institutions and space technology developers in the Soviet Union, the studies were discontinued because of the termination of the Soviet lunar program and the completion of the American Apollo program.

  15. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  16. Ergodic averages via dominating processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...

  17. Towards an in vitro model mimicking the foreign body response: tailoring the surface properties of biomaterials to modulate extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Febriyani F. R.; Rothuizen, Tonia C.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Rotmans, Joris I.; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Despite various studies to minimize host reaction following a biomaterial implantation, an appealing strategy in regenerative medicine is to actively use such an immune response to trigger and control tissue regeneration. We have developed an in vitro model to modulate the host response by tuning biomaterials' surface properties through surface modifications techniques as a new strategy for tissue regeneration applications. Results showed tunable surface topography, roughness, wettability, and chemistry by varying treatment type and exposure, allowing for the first time to correlate the effect of these surface properties on cell attachment, morphology, strength and proliferation, as well as proinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6) and antiflammatory cytokines (TGF-β1, IL-10) secreted in medium, and protein expression of collagen and elastin. Surface microstructuring, derived from chloroform partial etching, increased surface roughness and oxygen content. This resulted in enhanced cell adhesion, strength and proliferation as well as a balance of soluble factors for optimum collagen and elastin synthesis for tissue regeneration. By linking surface parameters to cell activity, we could determine the fate of the regenerated tissue to create successful soft tissue-engineered replacement.

  18. Inequalities Between Size, Mass, Angular Momentum, and Charge for Axisymmetric Bodies and the Formation of Trapped Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khuri, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    We establish inequalities relating the size of a material body to its mass, angular momentum, and charge, within the context of axisymmetric initial data sets for the Einstein equations. These inequalities hold in general without the assumption of the maximal condition, and use a notion of size which is easily computable. Moreover, these results give rise to black hole existence criteria which are meaningful even in the time-symmetric case, and also include certain boundary effects.

  19. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M.; Jeyakumar, S.; Manimaran, A.; Pushpadass, Heartwin A.; Sivaram, M.; Ramesha, K. P.; Das, D. N.; Kataktalware, Mukund A.; Jayaprakash, G.; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows. PMID:28096610

  20. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  1. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  2. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Travers

    2010-11-01

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.

  3. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Fong, W; Meadows, V S; Snively, H; Velusamy, T; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Meadows, Victoria S.; Snively, Heather; Tinetti, Giovanna; Velusamy, Thangasamy

    2004-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-cur...

  4. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  5. Measuring Complexity through Average Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle - measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalised, including to continuous cases an...

  6. Surface functionalization of tissue culture polystyrene plates with hydroxyapatite under body fluid conditions and its effect on differentiation behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Iizuka, Ayako; Ueno-Yokohata, Hitomi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Hashizume, Mineo

    2016-11-01

    The surfaces of polystyrene (PS) cell culture plates were functionalized with hydroxyapatite (HAp) under body fluid conditions utilizing protein adsorption layers and a pretreatment with an alternate soaking process (ASP) using solutions containing calcium and phosphate ions. Adsorption layers of human serum albumin (HSA) formed on the surface of each well of commercial 24-well PS plates by solution processes. CaCl2 and K2HPO4 solutions were alternately added to the wells, the plates were incubated to form the precursors, and this was followed by the addition of simulated body fluid (SBF) and a further incubation for 24h. These treatments resulted in the surfaces of the PS cell culture plates being completely covered with bone-like HAp. The coating of PS plates with HAp promoted the adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and maintained cell growth that was as fast as that on tissue culture-treated PS (TCPS) plates. Osteogenic differentiation was greater, whereas adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was less in the culture on HAp-coated PS plates than in that on TCPS plates. The present method is useful for preparing HAp-coated PS plates at clean benches without the need for any expensive apparatus. HAp coated on PS plates by this method was a bone-like apatite with high bioactivity; therefore, the present HAp-coated PS plates are promising materials for assays of bone-related cells in the bone remodeling process.

  7. Evidence for occurrence of mounting sex pheromone on body surface of femaleDermacentor variabilis (Say) AndDermacentor andersoni (Stiles) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J; Hamilton, C; Sonenshine, D E

    1988-01-01

    MaleDermacentor variabilis andD. andersoni respond to an unknown chemical or chemicals present on the body surfaces of partially engorged conspecific female ticks. Following contact, the males mount the females and apply their mouthparts and legs against the female dorsal body surface. Then, the males turn with these appendages still in close contact and crawl to the female's venter, whereupon they locate the gonopore, probe the vulva, and copulate. Similar responses are elicited by heterospecific as well as conspecific females. However, the response is lost when the female cuticle is cleaned (delipidized) with organic solvents. It can be restored by applying hexane extracts prepared from female cuticle to the previously cleaned females. Males do not use surface texture as the primary stimulus for mate recognition. Male ticks also respond to hexane extracts applied to spherical inanimate objects, ("dummy" female), suggesting that a chemical or chemicals soluble in organic solvents has been transferred to these objects. These findings suggest the existence of a previously undescribed pheromone, the mounting sex pheromone (MSP). This contact sex pheromone enables males excited and attracted by 2,6-dichlorophenol to identify the female as a potential mating partner. The MSP is the second in the series of three sex pheromones guiding the hierarchy of behavioral responses which constitute tick courtship behavior.

  8. SIMULATION OF SURFACE HEATING FOR ARBITRARY SHAPE’S MOVING BODIES/SOURCES BY USING R-FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Plankovskyy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to propose an efficient algorithm for determining the place of an action of a heat source with a given motion law for a body of an arbitrary shape using methods of analytical geometry. The solution to this problem is an important part of a modeling of a laser, plasma, ion beam treatment. In addition, it can also be used for mass transfer problems, such as simulation of coating, sputtering, painting etc. The problem is solved by the method of R-functions to define the shape of the test body and the heat source and the analytical determination zone shadowing. As an example, we consider the problem of using the method of ion cleaning parameters optimization considering temperature limitations. Application of the R-functions can significantly reduce the amount of computation with usage of the ray tracing algorithm. The numerical realization of the proposed method requires an accurate creation of a numerical mesh. The best results in terms of accuracy of determination the scope of the source can be expected when applying adaptive tunable meshes. In case of integration of the R-functions into the CAD system, the use of the proposed method would be simple enough. The proposed method allows to determine the range of the source by the expression, which is constructed only once for the body and the source of arbitrary geometric shapes moving in any law. This distinguishes the proposed approach against all known algorithms for ray tracing. The proposed method can also be used for time-dependent multisource with arbitrary shapes, which move in different directions.

  9. MORPHOMETRY OF THE ARTICULAR FACETS ON THE SUPERIOR, MEDIAL AND LATERAL SURFACES OF THE BODY OF TALUS AND ITS CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goda Jatin B, Patel Shailesh M, Parmar Ajay M, Agarwal GC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the formation of Ankle joint, tibio-fibular mortice receives superior, medial and lateral articular surfaces of body of Talus. Because of very limited availability of the data on the Morphometry of the articular facets on the Body of the dry human tali, this study was undertaken. Aims: To prepare the database on the articular facets on the superior, medial and lateral surfaces of body of talus, to find if there is statistically significant difference between both the sides of measurements and to compare the results with the previous studies. Methods and Material: 40 Dry Human Tali (20 Right and 20 Left were measured with Digital vernier caliper for the following Measurements: On the Trochlear surface: Medial length, Central length, Lateral length, Anterior width, Central width, Posterior width. On the lateral triangular articular facet: Central height, Central width. On the coma shaped medial articular facet: Central height, Central width. Results: Mean values of Medial, Central and Lateral lengths were 31.02, 30.39 and 29.63mm on Right side and 31.79, 30.65 and 29.45mm on Left side. Mean Anterior, Central and Posterior widths were 28.87, 28.16 and 21.59mm on right side and 29.08, 27.54 and 21.78mm on left side. On the medial articular surface, mean central height was 11.93mm on the right side and 11.29mm on the left side, Mean central width was 27.94mm on the right side and 28.29mm on the left side. On the lateral articular surface, mean central height was 22.14mm on the right side and 22.63mm on the left side. Mean central width was 18.93mm on the right side and 18.99mm on the left side. There is no significant difference between right and left sides of measurements. Conclusion: The trochlear articular surface is wider in front, measurements of opposite talus bone can be used as a control during talus bone replacement surgery, it may help surgeons to plan pre-operatively the complex talar fracture surgeries, to design accurate

  10. Steady accretion of an elastic body on a hard spherical surface and the notion of a four-dimensional reference space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Giuseppe; Cohen, Tal; Abeyaratne, Rohan

    2016-11-01

    Taking the cue from experiments on actin growth on spherical beads, we formulate and solve a model problem describing the accretion of an incompressible elastic solid on a rigid sphere due to attachment of diffusing free particles. One of the peculiar characteristics of this problem is that accretion takes place on the interior surface that separates the body from its support rather than on its exterior surface, and hence is responsible for stress accumulation. Simultaneously, ablation takes place at the outer surface where material is removed from the body. As the body grows, mechanical effects associated with the build-up of stress and strain energy slow down accretion and promote ablation. Eventually, the system reaches a point where internal accretion is balanced by external ablation. The present study is concerned with this stationary regime called "treadmilling". The principal ingredients of our model are: a nonstandard choice of the reference configuration, which allows us to cope with the continually evolving material structure; and a driving force and a kinetic law for accretion/ablation that involves the difference in chemical potential, strain energy and the radial stress. By combining these ingredients we arrive at an algebraic system which governs the stationary treadmilling state. We establish the conditions under which this system has a solution and we show that this solution is unique. Moreover, by an asymptotic analysis we show that for small beads the thickness of the solid is proportional to the radius of the support and is strongly affected by the stiffness of the solid, whereas for large beads the stiffness of the solid is essentially irrelevant, the thickness being proportional to a characteristic length that depends on the parameters that govern diffusion and accretion kinetics.

  11. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  12. Investigation of Figopitant and Its Metabolites in Rat Tissue by Combining Whole-Body Autoradiography with Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schadt, S.; Kallbach, S.; Almeida, R.;

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the combination of whole-body autoradiography with liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and mass spectrometry (MS) to study the distribution of the tachykinin neurokinin-1 antagonist figopitant and its metabolites in tissue sections of rats after intravenous...... tissue extraction, sample cleanup, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The parent drug and the N-dealkylated metabolite M474(1) (BIIF 1148) in varying ratios were the predominant compounds in all tissues investigated. In addition, several metabolites formed by oxygenation, dealkylation...

  13. Towards a noninvasive approach to malaria diagnosis: detection of parasite DNA in body secretions and surface mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A-Elgayoum, Salwa M E; El-Rayah, El-Amin; Giha, Hayder A

    2010-01-01

    Invasive procedures for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes bear a relative risk of transmission of serious blood-borne infectious disease. In this study, a noninvasive approach to malaria diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of parasite DNA in saliva, buccal mucosa and urine (alternative samples) was examined. Saliva, buccal mucosa and urine samples were collected simultaneously with blood samples from 93 patients with microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum infection. Species-specific primers detected the parasite DNA only in blood samples. However, when the PCR analysis was repeated using MSP1 and MSP2 primers in a subgroup of 21 complete sets of samples, the parasite DNA was detected in all except 3 samples, which were found to be negative with the MSP2 primers. Parasite density, body temperature or patient age did not influence the PCR results. In conclusion, P. falciparum parasite DNA was detected equally in saliva, buccal mucosa and urine of malaria patients, regardless of their ages, body temperatures or parasite density. Surprisingly, the parasite DNA was not amplified by species-specific primers in the alternative samples whereas it was in the blood samples.

  14. [Biological process of phosphorus turnover in surface water body of Xiamen Harbor. II: Grazing pressure of copepod on phytoplankton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-di; Yang, Qing; Lin, Yuan-shao; Cao, Wen-qing

    2008-12-01

    To understand the roles of copepod in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus, gut fluorescence method was applied to examine in situ the grazing rate of copepod on the phytoplankton in Xiamen Time Station (XMTS) in May, August and November 2005 and March 2006. In the meanwhile, the abundance and species composition of copepod were investigated, and the grazing pressure of copepod on the phytoplankton was estimated. The results showed that the annual average grazing rate of copepod was 55.53 microg x m(-3) x d(-1), being the highest (108.98 microg x m(-3) x d(-1)) in autumn and the lowest (7.18 microg x m(-3) x d(-1)) in summer. Based on the estimation from our experimental data, the daily grazing rate of copepod populations on the phytoplankton in Xiamen Harbor was, on annual average, about 1.81% of the phytoplankton's standing stock, with the values in spring, summer, autumn, and winter being 3.22%, 0.06%, 3.52% and 0.46%, respectively.

  15. Surface roughness average and scanning electron microscopic observations of resin luting agents Alteração de rugosidade superficial e observações em microscopia eletrônica de varredura de cimentos resinosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the surface roughness changes of three current resin cements after tooth brushing simulation, as well as discuss its relation with scanning electron microscopic observations. The materials employed were Enforce Sure Cure (Dentsply, Rely X (3M-ESPE and Variolink II (Vivadent. They were subjected to brushing abrasion (100,000 strokes for each specimen and the surface roughness alterations (before and after strokes were detected. For each roughness test condition, specimens were coated with gold-palladium and observed on a DSM 900 Zeiss scanning electron microscope. Roughness changes values (Ra were statistically increased after brushing strokes. Based on the microscopic observations and roughness changes analysis, all cements studied became rougher after brushing strokes.O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a alteração de rugosidade superficial de três cimentos resinosos após submetê-los a ciclos de escovação simulada e analisar qualitativamente a sua superfície através de observações microscópicas. Os materiais empregados neste estudo foram Enforce Sure Cure (Dentsply, Rely X (3M-ESPE e Variolink II (Vivadent. Estes foram submetidos à ciclos de escovação simulada (100.000 ciclos para cada espécime e a alteração de sua rugosidade superficial (antes e após escovação foi avaliada. Para cada material e condição de rugosidade, espécimes foram selecionados, metalizados e observados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (DSM 900 Zeiss. Baseado nas observações microscópicas e nos valores de alteração de rugosidade, todos os materiais apresentaram aumento de rugosidade aritmética (Ra após ciclos de escovação simulada.

  16. Immunological network activation by low-dose rate irradiation. Analysis of cell populations and cell surface molecules in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate whole body irradiation on biodefense and immunological systems were investigated using female C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These B6 mice were exposed continuously to {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low-dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI for 0 - 12 weeks at a dose rate of 0.95 mGy/hr. In the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of the irradiated mice, changes in cell populations and cell surface molecules were examined. The cell surface functional molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD45R/B220, ICAM-1, Fas, NK-1.1, CXCR4, and CCR5), and activation molecules (THAM, CD28, CD40, CD44H, CD70, B7-1, B7-2, OX-40 antigen, CTLA-4, CD30 ligand, and CD40 ligand) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells and cell surface CD8 molecule expressions on the CD8{sup +} T cells increased significantly to 120-130% after 3 weeks of the irradiation, compared to non-irradiated control mice. On the other hand, the percentage of CD45R/B220{sup +} CD40{sup +} B cells, which is one of the immunological markers of inflammation, infection, tumor, and autoimmune disease, decreased significantly to 80-90% between the 3rd to 5th week of irradiation. There was no significant difference in other cell population rates and cell surface molecule expression. Furthermore, abnormal T cells bearing mutated T cell receptors induced by high-dose rate irradiation were not observed throughout this study. These results suggest that low-dose rate irradiation activates the immunological status of the whole body. (author)

  17. Effect of the In Vitro Boundary Conditions on the Surface Strain Experienced by the Vertebral Body in the Elastic Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Valentina; Erani, Paolo; Brandolini, Nicola; Juszczyk, Mateusz M; Cristofolini, Luca

    2016-10-01

    The vertebral strength and strain can be assessed in vitro by both using isolated vertebrae and sets of three adjacent vertebrae (the central one is loaded through the disks). Our goal was to elucidate if testing single-vertebra-specimens in the elastic regime provides different surface strains to three-vertebrae-segments. Twelve three-vertebrae sets were extracted from thoracolumbar human spines. To measure the principal strains, the central vertebra of each segment was prepared with eight strain-gauges. The sets were tested mechanically, allowing comparison of the surface strains between the two boundary conditions: first when the same vertebra was loaded through the disks (three-vertebrae-segment) and then with the endplates embedded in cement (single-vertebra). They were all subjected to four nondestructive tests (compression, traction, torsion clockwise, and counterclockwise). The magnitude of principal strains differed significantly between the two boundary conditions. For axial loading, the largest principal strains (along vertebral axis) were significantly higher when the same vertebra was tested isolated compared to the three-vertebrae-segment. Conversely, circumferential strains decreased significantly in the single vertebrae compared to the three-vertebrae-segment, with some variations exceeding 100% of the strain magnitude, including changes from tension to compression. For torsion, the differences between boundary conditions were smaller. This study shows that, in the elastic regime, when the vertebra is loaded through a cement pot, the surface strains differ from when it is loaded through the disks. Therefore, when single vertebrae are tested, surface strain should be taken with caution.

  18. Elucidating the Role of Many-Body Forces in Liquid Water. I. Simulations of Water Clusters on the VRT (ASP-W) Potential Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, N; Saykally, R J

    2003-10-03

    We test the new VRT(ASP-W)II and VRT(ASP-W)III potentials by employing Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the vibrational ground-state properties of water clusters. These potentials are fits of the highly detailed ASP-W ab initio potential to (D{sub 2}O){sub 2} microwave and far-IR data, and along with the SAPT5s potentials, are the most accurate water dimer potential surfaces in the literature. The results from VRT(ASP-W)II and III are compare to those from the original ASP-W potential, the SAPT5s family of potentials, and several bulk water potentials. Only VRT(ASP-W)II and the spectroscopically ''tuned'' SAPT5st (with N-body induction included) accurately reproduce the vibrational ground-state structures of water clusters up to the hexamer. Finally, the importance of many-body induction and three-body dispension are examined, and it is shown that the latter can have significant effects on water cluster properties despite its small magnitude.

  19. Averaging VMAT treatment plans for multi-criteria navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Craft, David; Unkelbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The main approach to smooth Pareto surface navigation for radiation therapy multi-criteria treatment planning involves taking real-time averages of pre-computed treatment plans. In fluence-based treatment planning, fluence maps themselves can be averaged, which leads to the dose distributions being averaged due to the linear relationship between fluence and dose. This works for fluence-based photon plans and proton spot scanning plans. In this technical note, we show that two or more sliding window volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans can be combined by averaging leaf positions in a certain way, and we demonstrate that the resulting dose distribution for the averaged plan is approximately the average of the dose distributions of the original plans. This leads to the ability to do Pareto surface navigation, i.e. interactive multi-criteria exploration of VMAT plan dosimetric tradeoffs.

  20. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU HePing; YANG ZhiYong; TIAN FuQiang

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial heterogeneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overestimate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hydrological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  1. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial hetero- geneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overes- timate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hy- drological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  2. Shape estimation of the buried body from the ground surface potential distributions generated by current injection; Tsuryu ni yoru chihyomen den`i bunpu wo riyoshita maizobutsu keijo no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Okamoto, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Akabane, H.; Agu, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Ground surface potential distribution generated by current injection was studied to estimate the shape of buried bodies. Since the uniform ground system including a homogeneous buried body is perfectly determined with the surface shape of a buried body and resistivities in/around a buried body, inversion is easy if the surface shape is described with some parameters. N electrodes are arranged in 2-D grid manner on the ground, and two electrodes among them are used for current injection, while the others for measurement of potentials. M times of measurements are repeated while changing combination of electrodes for current injection. The potential distribution measured by the mth electrode pair is represented by N-2 dimensional vectors. The square error between this distribution and calculated one is the function of k parameters on the surface shape and resistivities on a buried body. Both shape and resistivities can be estimated by solving an optimum value problem using the square error as evaluation function. Analysis is easy for a spherical body with 6 unknown parameters, however, it is difficult for more complex bodies than elliptical one or more than two bodies. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  3. 体表巨大神经纤维瘤病的整形治疗%Plastic treatment of giant neurofibromatosis on body surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪生; 肖斌; 刘毅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the treatment method of giant neurofibromatosis on body surface.Methods Replantation of the tumor skin,full-thickenss skin grafting and transferring of expanded flap were used to reconstruct the appearance and function after the excision of giant neurofibroma.Results Sixteen cases gained primary healing while other 2 cases with delayed healing after onestage or fractionated resection of giant neurofibroma on body surface.All the 18 patients resumed selfcare and working ability.Conclusions Giant neurofibromatosis has significant damage to the appearance and body shape and also greatly limits the patient's life and work.Patients can resume physical and psychological rehabilitation by surgical resection and plastic surgery treatment.%目的 探讨体表巨大神经纤维瘤病的整形治疗方法.方法 对18例患者手术切除巨大神经纤维瘤后,采用肿瘤皮肤反鼓切取回植术,自体全厚皮片移植或扩张后皮瓣转移修复术,或部分切除缝合术,使外观和功能得以重建.结果 Ⅰ期切除修复后,16例伤口均Ⅰ期愈合,2例伤口延期愈合.18例全部恢复生活自理及工作能力.结论 体表巨大神经纤维瘤病经过手术切除及重建整形治疗,可以使患者恢复身心康复和日常生活、工作能力.

  4. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.

  5. Intensity contrast of the average supergranule

    CERN Document Server

    Langfellner, J; Gizon, L

    2016-01-01

    While the velocity fluctuations of supergranulation dominate the spectrum of solar convection at the solar surface, very little is known about the fluctuations in other physical quantities like temperature or density at supergranulation scale. Using SDO/HMI observations, we characterize the intensity contrast of solar supergranulation at the solar surface. We identify the positions of ${\\sim}10^4$ outflow and inflow regions at supergranulation scales, from which we construct average flow maps and co-aligned intensity and magnetic field maps. In the average outflow center, the maximum intensity contrast is $(7.8\\pm0.6)\\times10^{-4}$ (there is no corresponding feature in the line-of-sight magnetic field). This corresponds to a temperature perturbation of about $1.1\\pm0.1$ K, in agreement with previous studies. We discover an east-west anisotropy, with a slightly deeper intensity minimum east of the outflow center. The evolution is asymmetric in time: the intensity excess is larger 8 hours before the reference t...

  6. Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Arrival Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Data in the Wavelet Domain Constrained by Sparsity Regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Fang, H.; Yao, H.; Maceira, M.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, Zhang et al. (2014, Pure and Appiled Geophysics) have developed a joint inversion code incorporating body-wave arrival times and surface-wave dispersion data. The joint inversion code was based on the regional-scale version of the double-difference tomography algorithm tomoDD. The surface-wave inversion part uses the propagator matrix solver in the algorithm DISPER80 (Saito, 1988) for forward calculation of dispersion curves from layered velocity models and the related sensitivities. The application of the joint inversion code to the SAFOD site in central California shows that the fault structure is better imaged in the new model, which is able to fit both the body-wave and surface-wave observations adequately. Here we present a new joint inversion method that solves the model in the wavelet domain constrained by sparsity regularization. Compared to the previous method, it has the following advantages: (1) The method is both data- and model-adaptive. For the velocity model, it can be represented by different wavelet coefficients at different scales, which are generally sparse. By constraining the model wavelet coefficients to be sparse, the inversion in the wavelet domain can inherently adapt to the data distribution so that the model has higher spatial resolution in the good data coverage zone. Fang and Zhang (2014, Geophysical Journal International) have showed the superior performance of the wavelet-based double-difference seismic tomography method compared to the conventional method. (2) For the surface wave inversion, the joint inversion code takes advantage of the recent development of direct inversion of surface wave dispersion data for 3-D variations of shear wave velocity without the intermediate step of phase or group velocity maps (Fang et al., 2014, Geophysical Journal International). A fast marching method is used to compute, at each period, surface wave traveltimes and ray paths between sources and receivers. We will test the new joint

  7. Averaged EMG profiles in jogging and running at different speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, Marnix G. J.; Hof, At L.

    2007-01-01

    EMGs were collected from 14 muscles with surface electrodes in 10 subjects walking 1.25-2.25 m s(-1) and running 1.25-4.5 m s(-1). The EMGs were rectified, interpolated in 100% of the stride, and averaged over all subjects to give an average profile. In running, these profiles could be decomposed in

  8. Application of a Liquid Extraction Based Sealing Surface Sampling Probe for Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Dried Blood Spots and Mouse Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The utility of a liquid extraction based sealing surface sampling probe (SSSP) for the direct mass spectrometric analysis of targeted drugs and metabolites in dried blood spots (DBSs) and whole mouse thin tissue sections was demonstrated. The accuracy and precision for the quantitative analysis of a minimum of 50 ng/mL sitamaquine or acetaminophen in DBSs on paper were well within the required 15% dictated by internationally recognized acceptance criteria for assay validations. Analysis of whole-body mouse thin tissue sections from animals dosed with propranolol, adhered to an adhesive tape substrate, provided semi-quantitative information for propranolol and its hydroxyproranolol glucuronide metabolite within specific organs of the tissue. The relative abundances recorded for the two compounds in the brain, lung, kidney and liver were in nominal agreement with previously reported amounts based on analysis using a liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP), and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) and HPLC-MS analysis. The ability to sample and analyze from tape-adhered tissue samples, which are generally employed in WBA analysis, presents the possibility of consecutive WBA and SSSP-MS analysis of the same tissue section. This would facilitate assignment, and possibly quantitation, of the different molecular forms of total drug related material detected in the WBA analysis. The flexibility to sample larger or smaller spot sizes, alternative probe sealing mechanisms, and a reduction in internal volumes and associated sample carryover issues will be among the first simple improvements necessary to make the SSSP-MS method a practical DBS and/or thin tissue section analysis tool or to expand its use to other surface sampling applications.

  9. Effects of Surface Recombination on Heat Transfer to Bodies in a High Enthalpy Stream of Partially Dissociated Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ernest L..; Griffin, Roy N., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Heat-transfer rates to two surfaces having widely different catalytic effectiveness are compared at a Mach number of 6 in a low-density stream of partially dissociated nitrogen. The heat-transfer rate to a polished copper cylinder is twice as great as the heat-transfer rate to a silicon-monoxide-coated cylinder when the stream total energy content is 9000 Btu/lb. Various methods for determining the stream energy content, the stream velocity, and the stream Mach number have been developed and compared. It is shown that methods for estimating the stream energy content by means of purely aerodynamic concepts may neglect the sizable fraction of the stream energy contained in molecular dissociation.

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut micro flora of two aquatic leech species (Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica) in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimannan Sivachandran; Kasi Marimuthu; Manickam Ravichandran; Jesu Arockiaraj

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut associated microflora of two local aquatic leech species Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica.Methods:Four commercially available antibiotics (doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin) were used in this study. A total of 13 isolated gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria manillensis and two gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria javanica were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Based on the susceptibility, it was observed that all the isolated bacteria were found to be susceptible to at least three of the antibiotics except Microbacterium resistens, Serratiamarcescens and Morganella morganii. This study also found that the bacterial species Bacillus fusiformis has displayed resistance against tetracycline and Tsukamurella inchonensis against chloramphenicol.Conclusions:Among all the antibiotics tested, ciprofloxacin was found to be the best bactericidal agent. The immersion of leeches in ciprofloxacin before the application to the patient may be beneficial to prevent invasive infection of the patient. Further study is needed to sterilize the live leech by immersion/oral mode of administration for the tested antibiotics.

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut micro flora of two aquatic leech species (Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimannan Sivachandran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut associated microflora of two local aquatic leech species Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica. Methods: Four commercially available antibiotics (doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were used in this study. A total of 13 isolated gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria manillensis and two gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria javanica were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Based on the susceptibility, it was observed that all the isolated bacteria were found to be susceptible to at least three of the antibiotics except Microbacterium resistens, Serratia marcescens and Morganella morganii. This study also found that the bacterial species Bacillus fusiformis has displayed resistance against tetracycline and Tsukamurella inchonensis against chloramphenicol. Conclusions: Among all the antibiotics tested, ciprofloxacin was found to be the best bactericidal agent. The immersion of leeches in ciprofloxacin before the application to the patient may be beneficial to prevent invasive infection of the patient. Further study is needed to sterilize the live leech by immersion/oral mode of administration for the tested antibiotics.

  12. Electrochemical and surface analyses of nanostructured Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloys in simulated body solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Li, S J; Hao, Y L; Huang, H H; Bai, Y; Hao, Y Q; Guo, Z; Xue, J Q; Yang, R

    2014-06-01

    The use of nanostructuring to improve the stability of passive thin films on biomaterials can enhance their effectiveness in corrosion resistance and reduce the release of ions. The thickness of the ultrathin films that cover Ti and Ti alloys (only several nanometers) has prevented researchers from establishing systematic methods for their characterization. This study employed a multifunctional biomedical titanium alloy Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (wt.%) as a model material. Coarse-grained (CG) and nanostructured (NS) alloys were analyzed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C. To reveal the details of the passive film, a method of sample preparation producing a passive layer suitable for transmission electron microscope analysis was developed. Electrochemical corrosion behavior was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization tests and Mott-Schottky measurements. Surface depth chemical profile and morphology evolution were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ atomic force microscopy, respectively. A mechanism was proposed on the basis of the point defect model to compare the corrosion resistance of the passive film on NS and CG alloys. Results showed that the protective amorphous film on NS alloy is thicker, denser and more homogeneous with fewer defects than that on CG alloy. The film on NS alloy contains more oxygen and corrosion-resistant elements (Ti and Nb), as well as their suboxides, compared with the film on CG alloy. These characteristics can be attributed to the rapid, uniform growth of the passive film facilitated by nanostructuring.

  13. Real-time 3D visualization of the thoraco-abdominal surface during breathing with body movement and deformation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povšič, K; Jezeršek, M; Možina, J

    2015-07-01

    Real-time 3D visualization of the breathing displacements can be a useful diagnostic tool in order to immediately observe the most active regions on the thoraco-abdominal surface. The developed method is capable of separating non-relevant torso movement and deformations from the deformations that are solely related to breathing. This makes it possible to visualize only the breathing displacements. The system is based on the structured laser triangulation principle, with simultaneous spatial and color data acquisition of the thoraco-abdominal region. Based on the tracking of the attached passive markers, the torso movement and deformation is compensated using rigid and non-rigid transformation models on the three-dimensional (3D) data. The total time of 3D data processing together with visualization equals 20 ms per cycle.In vitro verification of the rigid movement extraction was performed using the iterative closest point algorithm as a reference. Furthermore, a volumetric evaluation on a live subject was performed to establish the accuracy of the rigid and non-rigid model. The root mean square deviation between the measured and the reference volumes shows an error of  ±0.08 dm(3) for rigid movement extraction. Similarly, the error was calculated to be  ±0.02 dm(3) for torsional deformation extraction and  ±0.11 dm(3) for lateral bending deformation extraction. The results confirm that during the torso movement and deformation, the proposed method is sufficiently accurate to visualize only the displacements related to breathing. The method can be used, for example, during the breathing exercise on an indoor bicycle or a treadmill.

  14. 复杂形状海洋浮体水动力系数计算%Calculation of Hydrodynamic Coefficients of Floating Body with Complex Wetted Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧龙; 刘文玺

    2008-01-01

    Mesh generation is the key step of hydrodynamic calculation.A method of mesh generation is presented for floating bodies with complex wetted surface.For the floating body with complex bow and stem,the molded line reconstruction method is adopted to generate the section lines on the bow and on the stern which are necessary to construct the wetted surface,and it Can raise efficiency greatly that the intersection lines of intersection structures are obtained by the way of combining modelingtool and NURBS technology;then the patch representation method is adopted in generating the mesh of wetted surface and interior free surface,and the velocity potentials on them aye expressed separately,on basis of which the irregular frequency effect is dealt with in the calculation of hydrodynamic coefficients.The results show that the above methods are fit for the calculation of hydrodynamic coefficients.%网格划分是水动力计算的关键环节,文中针对复杂形状海洋浮体提出了一种湿表面网格划分方法.对于有复杂首尾结构的浮体,用型线重构的方式在首尾生成曲面构成所需要的截面线,将通用建模工具和NURBS曲线拟合相结合,生成相贯结构的相交线;然后,用分片法生成浮体湿表面及内自由面网格,并独立表达各自的速度势以处理不规则频率现象,进而进行水动力系数计算.计算结果表明,上述处理方式很适合复杂形状海洋浮体水动力系数的计算.

  15. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  16. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  17. Measurement of waist and hip circumference with a body surface scanner: feasibility, validity, reliability, and correlations with markers of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jaeschke

    Full Text Available Body surface scanners (BS, which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC. However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS compared to traditional manual measurements (MM.As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL. Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid.Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7 cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0 cm; r = 0.98. Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98. Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively.Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO guidelines, our data

  18. Microstructure and Characteristics of Calcium Phosphate Layers on Bioactive Oxide Surfaces of Air-Sintered Titanium Foams after Immersion in Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Bin Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple and low-cost process for the preparation of porous Ti foams through a sponge replication method using single-step air sintering at various temperatures. In this study, the apatite-forming ability of air-sintered Ti samples after 21 days of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF was investigated. The microstructures of the prepared Ca–P deposits were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In contrast to the control sample sintered in vacuum, which was found to have the simple hexagonal α-Ti phase, the air-sintered samples contained only the rutile phase. High intensities of XRD peaks for rutile TiO2 were obtained with samples sintered at 1000 °C. Moreover, the air-sintered Ti samples had a greater apatite-forming ability than that of the Ti sample sintered in vacuum. Ti samples sintered at 900 and 1000 °C had large aggregated spheroidal particles on their surfaces after immersion in SBF for 21 days. Combined XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and TEM results suggest that the calcium phosphate deposited on the rutile TiO2 surfaces consist of carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite instead of octacalcium phosphate.

  19. Automated Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling-HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling system utilizing a commercially available autosampler coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) detection is reported. Discrete spots selected for droplet-based sampling and automated sample queue generation for both the autosampler and MS were enabled by using in-house developed software. In addition, co-registration of spatially resolved sampling position and HPLC-MS information to generate heatmaps of compounds monitored for subsequent data analysis was also available in the software. The system was evaluated with whole-body thin tissue sections from propranolol dosed rat. The hands-free operation of the system was demonstrated by creating heatmaps of the parent drug and its hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites with 1 mm resolution in the areas of interest. The sample throughput was approximately 5 min/sample defined by the time needed for chromatographic separation. The spatial distributions of both the drug and its metabolites were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling methodologies.

  20. Tectonic tremor on Vancouver Island, Cascadia, modulated by the body and surface waves of the Mw 8.6 and 8.2, 2012 East Indian Ocean earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bhaskar; Ghosh, Abhijit; Mendoza, Manuel; Bürgmann, Roland; Gahalaut, V. K.; Saikia, Dipankar

    2016-09-01

    The 2012 East Indian Ocean earthquake (Mw 8.6), so far the largest intraoceanic plate strike-slip event ever recorded, modulated tectonic tremors in the Cascadia subduction zone. The rate of tremor activity near Vancouver Island increased by about 1.5 times from its background level during the passage of seismic waves of this earthquake. In most cases of dynamic modulation, large-amplitude and long-period surface waves stimulate tremors. However, in this case even the small stress change caused by body waves generated by the 2012 earthquake modulated tremor activity. The tremor modulation continued during the passage of the surface waves, subsequent to which the tremor activity returned to background rates. Similar tremor modulation is observed during the passage of the teleseismic waves from the Mw 8.2 event, which occurs about 2 h later near the Mw 8.6 event. We show that dynamic stresses from back-to-back large teleseismic events can strongly influence tremor sources.

  1. 7 CFR 1209.12 - On average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....12 On average. On average means a rolling average of production or imports during the last two...

  2. Ocorrência de corpos silicosos em horizontes superficiais de solos de diferentes ecossistemas Occurrence of silica bodies in surface horizons of soils in different ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liovando Marciano da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O entendimento dos processos que causam as diferentes distribuições de corpos silicosos no solo é essencial para a interpretação dos possíveis fatores ambientais responsáveis pela estabilidade deles, deposição de sedimentos, formação de paleossolos e para análise de sítios arqueológicos. Assim, a presente pesquisa objetivou identificar a ocorrência de corpos silicosos encontrados em horizontes superficiais de solos oriundos de diferentes ecossistemas terrestres. Amostras de horizonte superficial de 10 perfis de solo foram coletadas e queimadas em mufla, para remoção da matéria orgânica. Posteriormente, as amostras foram tratadas com HCl 10 cL L-1, para remoção das impurezas contidas na cinza. A fração silte foi obtida por sedimentação, usando o procedimento de análise granulométrica. A maior parte dos corpos silicosos em solos encontra-se na fração silte. Dessa fração, montaram-se lâminas, utilizando óleo de imersão tipo A para identificação dos corpos silicosos em microscópio óptico. A análise dos resultados permitiu observar a variedade de formas e abundância de corpos silicosos nos solos estudados, sendo mais abundantes e diversificados no solo desenvolvido de quartzito. Nos Latossolos, não houve diferença em abundância de fitólitos em relação aos solos dos biomas do Cerrado, Mata Atlântica e Caatinga.The understanding of the processes that cause the varied distribution of silica bodies in soils is essential for the interpretation of the possible environmental factors related to their stability, sediment deposition, paleosol formation and for the analysis of archaeological sites. Thus, this study had the objective of identifying and characterizing the silica bodies morphology from surface soil horizons collected at different terrestrial ecosystems. Samples of surface horizons were collected from 10 soil profiles and heated in a muffle furnace to remove organic matter. Thereafter the samples were

  3. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...... and surrounds an internal volume of the body, a distance member that is connected to the facing inside the body and extends from the facing and into the internal volume of the body, and at least one reinforcing member that operates in tension for reinforcing the facing against inward deflections...... and that is connected to the facing inside the internal volume of the body at the same side of the profile chord as the connection of the distance member to the facing and to the distance member at a distance from the facing....

  4. Lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction beneath the western United States from the joint inversion of body-wave traveltimes and surface-wave phase velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrebski, M.; Allen, R.M.; Pollitz, F.; Hung, S.-H.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between the complex geological history of the western margin of the North American plate and the processes in the mantle is still not fully documented and understood. Several pre-USArray local seismic studies showed how the characteristics of key geological features such as the Colorado Plateau and the Yellowstone Snake River Plains are linked to their deep mantle structure. Recent body-wave models based on the deployment of the high density, large aperture USArray have provided far more details on the mantle structure while surface-wave tomography (ballistic waves and noise correlations) informs us on the shallow structure. Here we combine constraints from these two data sets to image and study the link between the geology of the western United States, the shallow structure of the Earth and the convective processes in mantle. Our multiphase DNA10-S model provides new constraints on the extent of the Archean lithosphere imaged as a large, deeply rooted fast body that encompasses the stable Great Plains and a large portion of the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains. Widespread slow anomalies are found in the lower crust and upper mantle, suggesting that low-density rocks isostatically sustain part of the high topography of the western United States. The Yellowstone anomaly is imaged as a large slow body rising from the lower mantle, intruding the overlying lithosphere and controlling locally the seismicity and the topography. The large E-W extent of the USArray used in this study allows imaging the 'slab graveyard', a sequence of Farallon fragments aligned with the currently subducting Juan de Fuca Slab, north of the Mendocino Triple Junction. The lithospheric root of the Colorado Plateau has apparently been weakened and partly removed through dripping. The distribution of the slower regions around the Colorado Plateau and other rigid blocks follows closely the trend of Cenozoic volcanic fields and ancient lithospheric sutures, suggesting that the

  5. An Investigation of the Effects of Body Design on Measurement Accuracy and Optimal Deployment Duration of a Passive Surface Water Flux Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, J. C.; Jawitz, J. W.; Klammler, H.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M. D.

    2007-05-01

    Water quality monitoring is essential for evaluating and complying with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). Conventional methods for gathering water and solute flux data from surface waters involves collecting, compiling and analyzing discrete point measurements to obtain cumulative flux data. The Passive Surface Water Flux Meter (PSFM) is designed to measure water and solute fluxes by automatically integrating instantaneous data in situ; therefore replacing the need for individual sample collections and data processing. A small cartridge within the device contains two types of porous media which simultaneously sorb solutes and release a resident tracer so that solute and water flux may be quantified. The PSFM utilizes the natural pressure gradient created by water flowing around the device. This gradient is used to induce flow through a small cartridge containing sorptive porous media pre-equilibrated with a resident tracer. In general, higher velocities correlate to larger pressure gradients across the cartridge and therefore reduce the amount of time a device can be deployed. However, the magnitude of the pressure gradient depends not only on the velocity of the water but the body design of the device. Body design can be modified to adjust the range of pressure gradients produced. Devices that are more blunt (cylindrical) in nature create higher gradients than more streamlined devices. Therefore, optimal shape and water velocity play an important role in the length of time a PSFM can be deployed and the accuracy of the measurements. Two designs, a blunt (cylindrical) and a streamlined (Joukowsky profile) device, were tested in this study. Laboratory experiments were performed in a large tilting flume to determine maximum deployment times for both devices across velocities ranging from 25-65 cm/s. Optimal deployment time was determined from the amount of resident tracers remaining within the cartridge and accuracy was determined by comparing measurement performance

  6. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  7. Detection of T-Wave Alternans in Body Surface ECG%体表心电图中T波交替现象的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许菲; 滕炯华; 张泾周

    2011-01-01

    Detection of T-wave alternans( TWA) is of great significance for prediction of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Firstly, empirical mode decomposition ( EMD) -based denoising method was used to reduce noises and interference from body surface ECG. Then recognition of ECG characteristic points was achieved using wavelet transform ,and finally a method of extracting T-wave windows around the T-wave peaks was advanced. By analyzing the power spectrums of 128 consequent T-wave windows, it is indicated that the proposed method achieved the detection of microvolt TWA ,and it can be applied to clinical diagnosis of TWA.%T波交替(T-wave alternans,TWA)的检测对于预测室性心律失常有重要意义.本文首先利用基于经验模态分解(empirical mode decomposition,EMD)的降噪方法进行心电信号的降噪,然后采用小波变换进行心电信号特征点的识别,最后给出以T波峰值点为参考点提取T波窗口的方法.通过对连续的128个T波窗口进行功率谱分析证实,上述方法实现了微伏级TWA的检测,可用于TWA的临床诊断.

  8. Comparison between indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Anaplasma marginale antibodies with recombinant major surface protein 5 and initial body antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia MG Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs based on recombinant major surface protein 5 (rMSP5 and initial body (IB antigens from a Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale were developed to detect antibodies against this rickettsia in cattle. Both tests showed the same sensitivity (98.2% and specificities (100% for rMSP5 and 93.8% for IB ELISA which did not differ statistically. No cross-reactions were detected with Babesia bigemina antibodies, but 5 (rMSP5 ELISA to 15% (IB ELISA of cross-reactions were detected with B. bovis antibodies. However, such difference was not statistically significant. Prevalences of seropositive crossbred beef cattle raised extensively in Miranda county, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were 78.1% by rMSP5 ELISA and 79.7% by IB ELISA. In the analysis of sera from dairy calves naturally-infected with A. marginale, the dynamics of antibody production was very similar between both tests, with maternal antibodies reaching the lowest levels at 15-30 days, followed by an increase in the mean optical densities in both ELISAs, suggesting the development of active immunity against A. marginale. Results showed that all calves were seropositive by one-year old, characterizing a situation of enzootic stability. The similar performances of the ELISAs suggest that both tests can be used in epidemiological surveys for detection of antibodies to A. marginale in cattle.

  9. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  10. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  11. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices

    CERN Document Server

    del Rio, Rafael; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.

  12. A new approach for Bayesian model averaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN XiangJun; XIE ZhengHui; WANG AiHui; YANG XiaoChun

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a recently proposed statistical method for calibrating forecast ensembles from numerical weather models.However,successful implementation of BMA requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble.Two methods,namely the Expectation-Maximization (EM) and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms,are widely used for BMA model training.Both methods have their own respective strengths and weaknesses.In this paper,we first modify the BMA log-likelihood function with the aim of removing the additional limitation that requires that the BMA weights add to one,and then use a limited memory quasi-Newtonian algorithm for solving the nonlinear optimization problem,thereby formulating a new approach for BMA (referred to as BMA-BFGS).Several groups of multi-model soil moisture simulation experiments from three land surface models show that the performance of BMA-BFGS is similar to the MCMC method in terms of simulation accuracy,and that both are superior to the EM algorithm.On the other hand,the computational cost of the BMA-BFGS algorithm is substantially less than for MCMC and is almost equivalent to that for EM.

  13. Average-Time Games on Timed Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Trivedi, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    An average-time game is played on the infinite graph of configurations of a finite timed automaton. The two players, Min and Max, construct an infinite run of the automaton by taking turns to perform a timed transition. Player Min wants to minimise the average time per transition and player Max wants to maximise it. A solution of average-time games is presented using a reduction to average-price game on a finite graph. A direct consequence is an elementary proof of determinacy for average-tim...

  14. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches for robust PCA do not scale beyond small-to-medium sized datasets. To address this, we introduce the Grassmann Average (GA), which expresses dimensionality reduction as an average of the subspaces spanned by the data. Because averages...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

  15. The Conservation of Area Integrals in Averaging Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, E. D.

    2010-06-01

    It is shown for the two-planetary version of the weakly perturbed two-body problem that, in a system defined by a finite part of a Poisson expansion of the averaged Hamiltonian, only one of the three components of the area vector is conserved, corresponding to the longitudes measuring plane. The variability of the other two components is demonstrated in two ways. The first is based on calculating the Poisson bracket of the averaged Hamiltonian and the components of the area vector written in closed form. In the second, an echeloned Poisson series processor (EPSP) is used when calculating the Poisson bracket. The averaged Hamiltonian is taken with accuracy to second order in the small parameter of the problem, and the components of the area vector are expanded in a Poisson series.

  16. 体表缺陷青少年心理弹性量表的编制%Development of Resilience Scale for Adolescents with Body Surface Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑慧; 姚萍; 陈悦; 陈怡廷; 甘怡群; 潘博; 蒋海越

    2013-01-01

    目的:编制适用于本土的体表缺陷青少年的心理弹性问卷.方法:根据访谈和文献回顾编制初测量表140题,对181名青少年小耳畸形患者进行初测,通过项目鉴别度分析和探索性因素分析,保留31个题目.234人参加复测,进行验证性因素分析和信效度分析.结果:通过探索性因素分析得到缺陷接受、情绪调控、适应能力、自我效能、外部支持、挫折应对6个因子,各个条目的因子负荷在0.38到0.78之间.验证性因素分析支持该量表的6因素结构.量表内部一致性信度系数为0.89,各分量表的信度系数均大于0.6.外部效度指标良好,与青少年韧性量表和意义应对量表的相关系数分别为0.64和0.39.结论:体表缺陷青少年心理弹性量表信效度良好.%Objective:To develop a resilience scale for adolescents with body surface defects and evaluate its psychometric properties.Methods:Study 1 focused on scale development.The content of the 140-item preliminary scale was drawn from a number of sources including reviewing literatures and interviewing patients.Then the primary inventory was conducted among a group of 181 adolescent patients with microtia,and the scale length was refined to 31 items via item discriminant analysis and exploratory factor analysis.Study 2 consisted of confirmatory factor analysis,reliability and validity analysis with a sample of 234 adolescent patients with microtia.Results:Study 1 provided exploratory evidence for the 6-factor structure:acceptance of defects,emotion regulation,adaptability,self-efficacy,external support and frustration coping.Item-factor loadings ranged from 0.38 to 0.78.Evidence for construct validity was supported by confirmatory factor analysis.Internal consistency coefficient of overall scale was 0.89 with all six subscales above 0.60.External validity indexes included correlation coefficients of 0.64 and 0.39 with Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents and Meaning

  17. The risk of thrombo-embolic events is increased in patients with germ-cell tumours and can be predicted by serum lactate dehydrogenase and body surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, A-C; Fléchon, A; Laplanche, A; Nouyrigat, E; Droz, J-P; Théodore, C; Fizazi, K

    2005-10-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of thrombo-embolic events (TEE) in patients with germ-cell tumours (GCT) who receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy, to compare this risk to that of a matched control group of non-GCT cancer patients, and to identify risk factors of TEE. The rate of TEE during the 6 months following the initiation of chemotherapy was assessed in 100 consecutive patients with GCT and in 100 controls with various neoplasms who were matched on sex and age, and who received first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy during the same period of time at Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. Data were subsequently tested on a validation group of 77 GCT patients treated in Lyon, France. A total of 19 patients (19%) (95% confidence interval (CI): 13-28) and six patients (6%) (95% CI: 3-13) had a TEE in the GCT group and the non-GCT control group, respectively (relative risk (RR): 3.4; P1.9 m2) (RR: 5 (1.8-13.9)) and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (RR: 6.4 (2.3-18.2)). Patients with no risk factor (n=26) and those with at least one risk factor (n=71) had a probability of having a TEE of 4% (95% CI: 1-19) and 26% (95% CI: 17-37), respectively. In the GCT validation set, 10 (13%) patients had a TEE; patients with no risk factor and those with at least one risk factor had a probability of having a TEE of 0 and 17% (95% CI: 10-29), respectively. Patients with GCT are at a higher risk for TEE than patients with non-GCT cancer while on cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This risk can be accurately predicted by serum LDH and body surface area. This predictive index may help to study prospectively the impact of thromboprophylaxis in GCT patients.

  18. Activated platelets release two types of membrane vesicles: microvesicles by surface shedding and exosomes derived from exocytosis of multivesicular bodies and alpha-granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, H F; Schiel, A E; Fijnheer, R; Geuze, H J; Sixma, J J

    1999-12-01

    Platelet activation leads to secretion of granule contents and to the formation of microvesicles by shedding of membranes from the cell surface. Recently, we have described small internal vesicles in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and alpha-granules, and suggested that these vesicles are secreted during platelet activation, analogous to the secretion of vesicles termed exosomes by other cell types. In the present study we report that two different types of membrane vesicles are released after stimulation of platelets with thrombin receptor agonist peptide SFLLRN (TRAP) or alpha-thrombin: microvesicles of 100 nm to 1 microm, and exosomes measuring 40 to 100 nm in diameter, similar in size as the internal vesicles in MVBs and alpha-granules. Microvesicles could be detected by flow cytometry but not the exosomes, probably because of the small size of the latter. Western blot analysis showed that isolated exosomes were selectively enriched in the tetraspan protein CD63. Whole-mount immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) confirmed this observation. Membrane proteins such as the integrin chains alpha(IIb)-beta(3) and beta(1), GPIbalpha, and P-selectin were predominantly present on the microvesicles. IEM of platelet aggregates showed CD63(+) internal vesicles in fusion profiles of MVBs, and in the extracellular space between platelet extensions. Annexin-V binding was mainly restricted to the microvesicles and to a low extent to exosomes. Binding of factor X and prothrombin was observed to the microvesicles but not to exosomes. These observations and the selective presence of CD63 suggest that released platelet exosomes may have an extracellular function other than the procoagulant activity, attributed to platelet microvesicles.

  19. WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 许贵桥

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.

  20. Body surface localization using laser auxiliary X-ray in orthopaedic implant internal fixation%光辅助X射线体表定位在骨科植入物内固定中的应用★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明鑫; 熊敏; 刘德昌

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-arm X-ray machine is often used in orthopedic surgery to perform the body surface localization. But the repeatedly perspective during the fixation surgery wil increase the damage to the human body and prolong operation time. OBJECTIVE: To explore a kind of simple practical technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray used in the orthopedic surgery. METHODS: The radar-shaped red laser was projected in the body surface by self-made simple device to assistant the C-arm machine to perform body surface localization. Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits were used to design animal experiment, three kinds of orthopedic surgeries were simulated. Traditional C-arm machine and the technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray was used separately to get position of foreign body in soft tissue, place the distal cross-bolting of fracture intramedul ary nail, and place the pedicle screw in spinal surgery. There were 30 cases in every test. The influence of two methods to the operation was analyzed, and the influence of depth and living body to the technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray was analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the traditional C-arm machine, the technology of body surface localization by laser auxiliary X-ray could obtain the body surface localization more faster (P   目的:探寻一种简便实用、更有利于骨科内固定的光辅助 X 射线体表定位技术。  方法:使用自制的简易装置将雷达状的红色激光投射在体表来辅助 C 臂机进行体表定位。使用 SD 大鼠和新西兰大白兔设计动物实验,模拟软组织内异物定位、骨折髓内钉远端锁钉置入、脊柱椎弓根螺钉进针点定位3种骨科内固定方法。分别使用传统 C 臂机和光辅助 X 射线体表定位技术各进行30次定位。分析2种方法对操作的影响,并分析深度和活体因素对光辅助 X 射线体

  1. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  2. Stochastic averaging of quasi-Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱位秋

    1996-01-01

    A stochastic averaging method is proposed for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (Hamiltonian systems with light dampings subject to weakly stochastic excitations). Various versions of the method, depending on whether the associated Hamiltonian systems are integrable or nonintegrable, resonant or nonresonant, are discussed. It is pointed out that the standard stochastic averaging method and the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope are special cases of the stochastic averaging method of quasi-Hamiltonian systems and that the results obtained by this method for several examples prove its effectiveness.

  3. 基于NX的汽车车身A级曲面设计与质量分析%Design and Quality Analysis of Car Body Class-A Surface Based on NX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锋

    2015-01-01

    The car body class A surface design workflow is introduced in the paper. A car front bumper surface design is taken for ex-ample , the key techniques and methods of car body class A surface design and analysis are presented after discussion on these crit-ical procedures of class A surface design and according to the surface geometry characteristics division, main and auxiliary surface creation and surface quality analysis.%介绍了车身A级曲面设计的一般流程。以某汽车前保险杠盖板A级曲面实现为例,通过车身曲面几何特征划分,主、辅曲面构建及曲面品质检测等设计过程,探讨了实现汽车A级曲面建模和曲面质量检测的关键技术和方法。

  4. Disk-averaged Spectra & light-curves of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Crisp, D; Fong, W; Kiang, N; Fishbein, E; Velusamy, T; Bosc, E; Turnbull, M

    2005-01-01

    We are using computer models to explore the observational sensitivity to changes in atmospheric and surface properties, and the detectability of biosignatures, in the globally averaged spectra and light-curves of the Earth. Using AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) data, as input for atmospheric and surface properties, we have generated spatially resolved high-resolution synthetic spectra using the SMART radiative transfer model, for a variety of conditions, from the UV to the far-IR (beyond the range of current Earth-based satellite data). We have then averaged over the visible disk for a number of different viewing geometries to quantify the sensitivity to surface types and atmospheric features as a function of viewing geometry, and spatial and spectral resolution. These results have been processed with an instrument simulator to improve our understanding of the detectable characteristics of Earth-like planets as viewed by the first generation extrasolar terrestrial planet detection and characterization mis...

  5. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  6. 墙体传湿对内表面温度的影响关系研究%Influence of moisture transferring on inner surface temperature wall bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹莹; 刘艳峰; 王登甲; 刘加平

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model of coupled heat and moisture transfer through a wall body was proposed,choosing the relative humidity and temperature as the driving potentials.The model accuracy was verified by the experimental data.Taking pine wood and brick for examples,their heat transfer process under different hot wet environment were calculated using the mathematical model.The results show that in the steady-state condition,the inner surface temperatures of pine wood and brick are lower 1.4 ℃ and 0.7 ℃ or so than those without considering the moisture transfer process respectively.In the periodic boundary conditions,taking the moisture transfer process into account,the inner surface temperatures of pine wood and brick are lower than indoor air temperature in a period of time coincides with the working hours,which is beneficial to improve the indoor thermal environment.When the moisture transfer process is not taken into account,the wall inner surface temperature is always higher than indoor air temperature.The pine board is recommended as wall material in humid or dry areas with larger variation range of indoor air moisture content,and the brick is recommended as wall material in dry areas with smaller variation range of indoor air moisture content.%建立了以相对湿度和温度为驱动势的热湿耦合传递数学模型,并对模型准确性进行了验证.以松木板墙和砖墙为例,利用所建数学模型对其在不同热湿环境下进行计算分析,结果发现:在稳态条件下,松木板墙内表面温度比未考虑传湿情况最多低1.4℃,砖墙内表面温度比未考虑传湿情况最多低0.7℃;在周期性边界条件下且不考虑传湿时,松木板墙和砖墙内表面温度始终高于室内空气温度,考虑墙体传湿时,墙体在白天有部分时间段内表面温度低于室内空气温度,有利于室内热环境的改善;松木板适合在室内空气含湿量变化幅度较大的地区作墙体材料,而砖适合

  7. Average sampling theorems for shift invariant subspaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The sampling theorem is one of the most powerful results in signal analysis. In this paper, we study the average sampling on shift invariant subspaces, e.g. wavelet subspaces. We show that if a subspace satisfies certain conditions, then every function in the subspace is uniquely determined and can be reconstructed by its local averages near certain sampling points. Examples are given.

  8. Testing linearity against nonlinear moving average models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Brännäs, K.; Teräsvirta, T.

    1998-01-01

    Lagrange multiplier (LM) test statistics are derived for testing a linear moving average model against an additive smooth transition moving average model. The latter model is introduced in the paper. The small sample performance of the proposed tests are evaluated in a Monte Carlo study and compared

  9. Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW situ

  10. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  11. Average excitation potentials of air and aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.; Koudijs, B.

    1951-01-01

    By means of a graphical method the average excitation potential I may be derived from experimental data. Average values for Iair and IAl have been obtained. It is shown that in representing range/energy relations by means of Bethe's well known formula, I has to be taken as a continuously changing fu

  12. New results on averaging theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume

    2016-08-01

    The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.

  13. Average-passage simulation of counter-rotating propfan propulsion systems as applied to cruise missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Richard A.; Schneider, Jon C.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Counter-rotating propfan (CRP) propulsion technologies are currently being evaluated as cruise missile propulsion systems. The aerodynamic integration concerns associated with this application are being addressed through the computational modeling of the missile body-propfan flowfield interactions. The work described in this paper consists of a detailed analysis of the aerodynamic interactions between the control surfaces and the propfan blades through the solution of the average-passage equation system. Two baseline configurations were studied, the control fins mounted forward of the counter-rotating propeller and the control fins mounted aft of the counter-rotating propeller. In both cases, control fin-propfan separation distance and control fin deflection angle were varied.

  14. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  15. Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C González

    Full Text Available Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Squeezed State Quantum Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2010-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The harmonic mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of fragile squeezed light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean outperforms the standard arithmetic mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested both for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources with sub-Poissonian shot noise or super-Poissonian shot noise characteristics.

  17. Averaged Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Isidro, Eddy G Chirinos; Piattella, Oliver F; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological backreaction effects in Buchert's averaging formalism on the basis of an explicit solution of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dynamics which is linear in the LTB curvature parameter and has an inhomogeneous bang time. The volume Hubble rate is found in terms of the volume scale factor which represents a derivation of the simplest phenomenological solution of Buchert's equations in which the fractional densities corresponding to average curvature and kinematic backreaction are explicitly determined by the parameters of the underlying LTB solution at the boundary of the averaging volume. This configuration represents an exactly solvable toy model but it does not adequately describe our "real" Universe.

  18. FREQUENTIST MODEL AVERAGING ESTIMATION: A REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiying WANG; Xinyu ZHANG; Guohua ZOU

    2009-01-01

    In applications, the traditional estimation procedure generally begins with model selection.Once a specific model is selected, subsequent estimation is conducted under the selected model without consideration of the uncertainty from the selection process. This often leads to the underreporting of variability and too optimistic confidence sets. Model averaging estimation is an alternative to this procedure, which incorporates model uncertainty into the estimation process. In recent years, there has been a rising interest in model averaging from the frequentist perspective, and some important progresses have been made. In this paper, the theory and methods on frequentist model averaging estimation are surveyed. Some future research topics are also discussed.

  19. Averaging of Backscatter Intensities in Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John J.; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Westphal, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Low uncertainty measurements on pure element stable isotope pairs demonstrate that mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds using elemental mass fractions is improperly grounded in mass and thus has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based of the number of electrons or protons, termed “electron fraction,” which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. PMID:27446752

  20. Average-passage flow model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  1. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...

  2. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  3. [Analysis of Scattered Radiation in an Irradiated Body by Means of the Monte Carlo Simulation: Back-scatter Factors of Diagnostic X-rays in the Incident Surface Which is Not Flat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideki; Minami, Kazuyuki; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi

    2016-05-01

    To obtain patient entrance surface dose in X-ray photography, a calculation method based on measured exposure or air kerma radiated from X-ray tube is generally used. Two factors are necessary for this calculation: (1) exposure/air kerma to absorb dose conversion factor and (2) back-scatter factor (BSF) based on X-ray quality and on field size. These BSFs are commonly obtained by interpolation from existent data which were given for a water phantom whose entrance surface is flat. Since patient's surface in X-ray photograph is not flat, some error may occur when existent BSF is used in this calculation. In this article, BSF for water phantom with cylindrical surface and elliptic cylinder surface were calculated by means of the Monte Carlo simulation. And these BSFs were compared with BSF for flat surface phantom. As a result (1) radius of curvature of cylindrical phantom or horizontal axis of elliptic cylinder phantom is smaller, (2) half value layer of X-ray is larger, (3) field size is larger, difference of these BSF with that for flat surface phantom tends to be larger. Maximum difference by calculation condition assumed in this article was more than 10%. The cause of this difference is because scattering volume in irradiated body of cylindrical or elliptic cylinder phantom is smaller than flat surface phantom. To obtain patient entrance surface dose more precisely, it is necessary to use BSF respectively calculated for phantom resembling patient's body such as cylindrical or elliptic cylinder phantom by means of the Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Comparative study on body surface area computation formula of the female college students%女大学生体表面积计算公式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国柱

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the scientific rationality of five kinds of body surface area calculation formula.Methods:Based on physical health test data of 2 496 female college students in 2010,using mathematical statistics and osculating value method to study five kinds of differences in surface area calculation formula.Results:All of these five formulas showed that body surface area of female college students had significant individual differences.Analysis of variance of repeated measurement indicated that there were also significant differences among the five computational formulas,which came from different algorithms,and the optimum results of osculating value method to female body surface area formula were different from Wu Gengye studies.Conclusion:All of the five kinds of body surface area formula can reflect the human body surface area,and differ in degree of closeness of real results,suggesting that can be used in the research of the surface area formula of female college students.%目的:研究5种体表面积计算公式的科学合理性.方法:以2 496名女大学生2010年体质健康测试数据,利用数理统计和密切值法研究5种体表面积计算公式的差异.结果:5种计算公式均反映出女大学生体表面积存在显著的个体差异,重复测量方差分析表明,5种计算公式间也存在显著的差异,这种差异来源于不同的算法.密切值法对女性体表面积公式的优选结果与吴暅晔的研究不同.结论:5种体表面积公式均能反映出人体体表面积,只是接近真实结果的程度不同,建议女大学生体表面积公式采用赵松山等的研究结果.

  5. A practical guide to averaging functions

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakov, Gleb; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications ...

  6. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  7. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  8. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  9. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Polygon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  10. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...

  11. Monthly snow/ice averages (ISCCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11.5 percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. Data from NASA show that the land ice sheets in...

  12. Appeals Council Requests - Average Processing Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual data from 1989 through 2015 for the average processing time (elapsed time in days) for dispositions by the Appeals Council (AC) (both...

  13. Average Annual Precipitation (PRISM model) 1961 - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  14. Average Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  15. Average Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  16. Average Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  17. Average Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  18. Average Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  19. Average Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  20. Average Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  1. Average Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  2. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  3. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Balogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

  4. Application of NURBS Mothld in Geometry Modeling of Automobile Body Part Die Surface%NURBS方法在覆盖件模具型面几何建模中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方贵盛

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of surface design by using NURBS and the application of NURBS in 3D modeling of surface of automobile body part die.Taking the top automobile surface as an example,the process,the advantage & disadvantage of surface design by using NURBS are introduced.The smoothing of primitive data points of automobile body part and fitting of NURBS curves and surfaces are also discussed.%分析NURBS方法进行曲面设计的特点,并将之应用到汽车覆盖件模具工作型面的三维设计过程中.同时以汽车顶盖模具型面设计为例,具体说明采用NURBS方法进行曲面设计的设计过程及其优缺点,并深入探讨了汽车覆盖件原始数据点的光顺处理及NURBS曲线曲面的插值拟合等内容.

  5. 40 CFR 1051.720 - How do I calculate my average emission level or emission credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1051.720 How do I calculate my average emission level or... vehicles in the engine family times the average internal surface area of the vehicles' fuel tanks....

  6. Discrete Averaging Relations for Micro to Macro Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The well-known Hill's averaging theorems for stresses and strains as well as the so-called Hill-Mandel principle of macrohomogeneity are essential ingredients for the coupling and the consistency between the micro and macro scales in multiscale finite element procedures (FE$^2$). We show in this paper that these averaging relations hold exactly under standard finite element discretizations, even if the stress field is discontinuous across elements and the standard proofs based on the divergence theorem are no longer suitable. The discrete averaging results are derived for the three classical types of boundary conditions (affine displacement, periodic and uniform traction boundary conditions) using the properties of the shape functions and the weak form of the microscopic equilibrium equations. The analytical proofs are further verified numerically through a simple finite element simulation of an irregular representative volume element undergoing large deformations. Furthermore, the proofs are extended to include the effects of body forces and inertia, and the results are consistent with those in the smooth continuum setting. This work provides a solid foundation to apply Hill's averaging relations in multiscale finite element methods without introducing an additional error in the scale transition due to the discretization.

  7. Average Temperatures in the Southwestern United States, 2000-2015 Versus Long-Term Average

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This indicator shows how the average air temperature from 2000 to 2015 has differed from the long-term average (1895–2015). To provide more detailed information,...

  8. Averaged controllability of parameter dependent conservative semigroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohéac, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    We consider the problem of averaged controllability for parameter depending (either in a discrete or continuous fashion) control systems, the aim being to find a control, independent of the unknown parameters, so that the average of the states is controlled. We do it in the context of conservative models, both in an abstract setting and also analysing the specific examples of the wave and Schrödinger equations. Our first result is of perturbative nature. Assuming the averaging probability measure to be a small parameter-dependent perturbation (in a sense that we make precise) of an atomic measure given by a Dirac mass corresponding to a specific realisation of the system, we show that the averaged controllability property is achieved whenever the system corresponding to the support of the Dirac is controllable. Similar tools can be employed to obtain averaged versions of the so-called Ingham inequalities. Particular attention is devoted to the 1d wave equation in which the time-periodicity of solutions can be exploited to obtain more precise results, provided the parameters involved satisfy Diophantine conditions ensuring the lack of resonances.

  9. On the averaging area for incident power density for human exposure limits at frequencies over 6 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yota; Hirata, Akimasa; Morimoto, Ryota; Aonuma, Shinta; Laakso, Ilkka; Jokela, Kari; Foster, Kenneth R.

    2017-04-01

    Incident power density is used as the dosimetric quantity to specify the restrictions on human exposure to electromagnetic fields at frequencies above 3 or 10 GHz in order to prevent excessive temperature elevation at the body surface. However, international standards and guidelines have different definitions for the size of the area over which the power density should be averaged. This study reports computational evaluation of the relationship between the size of the area over which incident power density is averaged and the local peak temperature elevation in a multi-layer model simulating a human body. Three wave sources are considered in the frequency range from 3 to 300 GHz: an ideal beam, a half-wave dipole antenna, and an antenna array. 1D analysis shows that averaging area of 20 mm  ×  20 mm is a good measure to correlate with the local peak temperature elevation when the field distribution is nearly uniform in that area. The averaging area is different from recommendations in the current international standards/guidelines, and not dependent on the frequency. For a non-uniform field distribution, such as a beam with small diameter, the incident power density should be compensated by multiplying a factor that can be derived from the ratio of the effective beam area to the averaging area. The findings in the present study suggest that the relationship obtained using the 1D approximation is applicable for deriving the relationship between the incident power density and the local temperature elevation.

  10. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  11. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  12. High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A

    2001-05-23

    We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

  13. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  14. Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

  15. Cosmic structure, averaging and dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wiltshire, David L

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes review the theoretical problems associated with coarse-graining the observed inhomogeneous structure of the universe at late epochs, of describing average cosmic evolution in the presence of growing inhomogeneity, and of relating average quantities to physical observables. In particular, a detailed discussion of the timescape scenario is presented. In this scenario, dark energy is realized as a misidentification of gravitational energy gradients which result from gradients in the kinetic energy of expansion of space, in the presence of density and spatial curvature gradients that grow large with the growth of structure. The phenomenology and observational tests of the timescape model are discussed in detail, with updated constraints from Planck satellite data. In addition, recent results on the variation of the Hubble expansion on < 100/h Mpc scales are discussed. The spherically averaged Hubble law is significantly more uniform in the rest frame of the Local Group of galaxies than in t...

  16. Construction of 3-D body surface model based on partitioning%基于部位划分的三维人体曲面模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓志; 李晓久

    2013-01-01

    By the self-developed 3-D body measurement system,the 3-D body scan line point cloud data can be acquired.For the complexity of the human body surface,if a body surface model is directly constructed,the result may cause arms with torso,left leg with right legs together as one contour,or big errors in the head-shoulder with the arms and the torso and the torso with legs.So the paper first divides the human body surface into six parts based on the shape,then constructs a triangular mesh for each part and puts forward a new method that divides the single contour into multi-contour to establish the triangular mesh between single contour and multi contours of the head-shoulder with the arms and the torso and the torso with legs.Finally,the triangular mesh surface model of the entire human body is constructed.%应用自主开发的三维人体测量系统获取人体扫描线点云数据.由于人体表面比较复杂,如果直接对整个人体点云进行模型的重构,可能会使人体手臂与人体躯干、左腿与右腿连在一起,或者导致体头肩部与人体躯干、手臂以及躯干与两腿之间连接的部分出现较大误差,为此,首先根据人体形状,将人体表面分割为6个部分,并对每部分人体点云分别进行三角网格化处理,然后提出将单轮廓划分为多轮廓的方法,将人体头肩部与人体躯干、手臂以及躯干与两腿进行合成,最终生成完整的人体三角网格曲面模型.

  17. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t

  18. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr......Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach...

  19. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J M M Senovilla

    2007-07-01

    Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.

  20. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the

  1. Segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin: A method for correcting errors due to incomplete contact of the body with a surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Janieas, N.R.D.J.; Silva, M.C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin is often correlated with the local thermal sensation of people and is used for indoor environment assessment. It is also used to assess performance of heated/cooled/ventilated car seats, etc. However, the body of the th...

  2. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    ­logue between a written text and a visceral on-line performance involving photographs and music, the reader/audience has the possibility to be touched both sensually and intellectually, although through communication is in cyberspace, missing the liveliness of direct body language. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-May......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...... and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move...

  3. Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single qu...

  4. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...

  5. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  6. High average-power induction linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.

    1989-03-15

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs.

  7. Discontinuities and hysteresis in quantized average consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceragioli, Francesca; Persis, Claudio De; Frasca, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We consider continuous-time average consensus dynamics in which the agents’ states are communicated through uniform quantizers. Solutions to the resulting system are defined in the Krasowskii sense and are proven to converge to conditions of ‘‘practical consensus’’. To cope with undesired chattering

  8. On averaging methods for partial differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, F.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of weakly nonlinear partial differential equations both qualitatively and quantitatively is emerging as an exciting eld of investigation In this report we consider specic results related to averaging but we do not aim at completeness The sections and contain important material which

  9. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  10. Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a simple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generalization optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation...

  11. Average utility maximization: A preference foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen

  12. Full averaging of fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Skripnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the substantiation of the method of full averaging for fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions is studied. We extend the similar results for impulsive differential inclusions with Hukuhara derivative (Skripnik, 2007, for fuzzy impulsive differential equations (Plotnikov and Skripnik, 2009, and for fuzzy differential inclusions (Skripnik, 2009.

  13. Materials for high average power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, J.E.; Pertica, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Unique materials properties requirements for solid state high average power (HAP) lasers dictate a materials development research program. A review of the desirable laser, optical and thermo-mechanical properties for HAP lasers precedes an assessment of the development status for crystalline and glass hosts optimized for HAP lasers. 24 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter;

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...

  15. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use

  16. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  17. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  18. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  19. 基于多属性的地质目标体表面重建方法研究%Research on Surface Reconstruction Method of 3D Geological Target Body Based on Multi-Attribute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓博文; 赵正果; 姚兴苗

    2015-01-01

    地震资料解释几乎覆盖整个基础地质的研究过程,而其中三维地质目标体的表面重建及可视化又是极其重要的一部分。在实际的地震解释过程中,不同的地震属性从不同的方面反映出地震数据的特点,为了结合不同的地震属性更加全面的反映地质目标体的特点并且消除单一地震属性数据带来的多解性问题,提出一种新的三维地质目标体表面重建及数据填充和表面平滑的方法流程。介绍基于模糊逻辑的多属性数据特征融合的地质目标体提取方法;介绍基于形态学方法的地质目标体数据填充方法和基于高斯平滑算法的地质目标体表面平滑。通过对实际地震工区进行仿真实验,得到理想的实验结果,为三维地质目标体表面重建提供一种新的研究思路。%Almost all of the basic geological study and petroleum geology study will involve the seismic data interpretation, and 3D surface recon-struction and visualization of anomaly bodies is an important part of seismic data interpretation. In the practical seismic data, different seismic attributes often reflect different aspects of underground situation. In order to combine different seismic attributes to reflect the characteristics of target body more fully and eliminate the uncertainty of a single seismic data, proposes a new surface reconstruction method work flow of 3D target body. This workflow includes surface reconstruction method, data filling and surface smoothing. Introduces the method of 3D geological target body extraction based on data fusion of different seismic attributes, and this method adapts the method of fuzzy logic. Introduces data filling of 3D geological target body method based on morphology and surface smoothing of 3D geological target body based on Gaussian smoothing. This new workflow is used in practical project of geological interpretation, and has some nice results. It gives surface

  20. The Role of the Harmonic Vector Average in Motion Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eJohnston

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition to the geometrically correct global velocity as indicated by the intersection of constraints (IOC solution. Here a new combination rule, the harmonic vector average (HVA, is introduced, as well as a new algorithm for computing the IOC solution. The vector sum can be discounted as an integration strategy as it increases with the number of elements. The vector average over local vectors that vary in direction always provides an underestimate of the true global speed. The harmonic vector average however provides the correct global speed and direction for an unbiased sample of local velocities with respect to the global motion direction, as is the case for a simple closed contour. The HVA over biased samples provides an aggregate velocity estimate that can still be combined through an IOC computation to give an accurate estimate of the global velocity, which is not true of the vector average. Psychophysical results for type II Gabor arrays show perceived direction and speed falls close to the intersection of constraints direction for Gabor arrays having a wide range of orientations but the IOC prediction fails as the mean orientation shifts away from the global motion direction and the orientation range narrows. In this case perceived velocity generally defaults to the harmonic vector average.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  2. Time-average dynamic speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    For the study of microscopic processes occurring at structural level in solids and thin biological objects, a method of dynamic speckle interferometry successfully applied. However, the method has disadvantages. The purpose of the report is to acquaint colleagues with the method of averaging in time in dynamic speckle - interferometry of microscopic processes, allowing eliminating shortcomings. The main idea of the method is the choice the averaging time, which exceeds the characteristic time correlation (relaxation) the most rapid process. The method theory for a thin phase and the reflecting object is given. The results of the experiment on the high-cycle fatigue of steel and experiment to estimate the biological activity of a monolayer of cells, cultivated on a transparent substrate is given. It is shown that the method allows real-time visualize the accumulation of fatigue damages and reliably estimate the activity of cells with viruses and without viruses.

  3. Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meehan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.

  4. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Faming

    2010-01-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400--407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305--320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE al...

  5. Cortical evoked potentials recorded from the guinea pig without averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walloch, R A

    1975-01-01

    Potentials evoked by tonal pulses and recorded with a monopolar electrode on the pial surface over the auditory cortex of the guinea pig are presented. These potentials are compared with average potentials recorded in previous studies with an electrode on the dura. The potentials recorded by these two techniques have similar waveforms, peak latencies and thresholds. They appear to be generated within the same region of the cerebral cortex. As can be expected, the amplitude of the evoked potentials recorded from the pial surface is larger than that recorded from the dura. Consequently, averaging is not needed to extract the evoked potential once the dura is removed. The thresholds for the evoked cortical potential are similar to behavioral thresholds for the guinea pig at high frequencies; however, evoked potential thresholds are eleveate over behavioral thresholds at low frequencies. The removal of the dura and the direct recording of the evoked potential appears most appropriate for acute experiments. The recording of an evoked potential with dura electrodes empploying averaging procedures appears most appropriate for chronic studies.

  6. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  7. The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities without averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2009-01-01

    The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities are one of the most mysterious features of spin glasses. We prove the GG identities in a large class of models that includes the Edwards-Anderson model, the random field Ising model, and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in the presence of a random external field. Previously, the GG identities were rigorously proved only `on average' over a range of temperatures or under small perturbations.

  8. Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.

  9. A simple algorithm for averaging spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julienne, Hannah; Houghton, Conor

    2013-02-25

    Although spike trains are the principal channel of communication between neurons, a single stimulus will elicit different spike trains from trial to trial. This variability, in both spike timings and spike number can obscure the temporal structure of spike trains and often means that computations need to be run on numerous spike trains in order to extract features common across all the responses to a particular stimulus. This can increase the computational burden and obscure analytical results. As a consequence, it is useful to consider how to calculate a central spike train that summarizes a set of trials. Indeed, averaging responses over trials is routine for other signal types. Here, a simple method for finding a central spike train is described. The spike trains are first mapped to functions, these functions are averaged, and a greedy algorithm is then used to map the average function back to a spike train. The central spike trains are tested for a large data set. Their performance on a classification-based test is considerably better than the performance of the medoid spike trains.

  10. Analysis on the relationship between the school furniture and the work surface lighting and the body posture of public Middle School students from João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Bueno; da Costa Eulálio, Eliza Juliana; Souto Coutinho, Antonio; Gonçalves Soares, Elaine Victor; de Lourdes Silva dos Santos, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of school furniture and work surface lighting on the body posture of two public Middle School students from Paraíba (Brazil). The target population included 8th grade groups involving 31 students. Brazilian standards for lighting levels, the CEBRACE standards for furniture measurements and the Postural Assessment Software (SAPO) for the postural misalignment assay were adopted for the measurements comparison. The statistic analysis includes analyses of parametric and non-parametric correlations. The results show that the students' most affected parts of the body were the spine, the regions of the knees and head and neck and about 90% of the students presented postural misalignment. The lighting levels were usually found below 300 lux, below recommended levels. Such results indicate the need of investments in more suitable school furniture and structural reforms aimed at improving the lighting in the classrooms, which could fulfill the students' profile and reduce their complaints.

  11. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...... presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research....

  12. Contamination of environmental surfaces by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rooms of inpatients with MRSA-positive body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, E Jessica Ohashi; Oie, Shigeharu; Furukawa, H

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can contaminate environmental surfaces that are frequently touched by the hands of patients with MRSA colonization/infection. There have been many studies in which the presence or absence of MRSA contamination was determined but no studies in which MRSA contamination levels were also evaluated in detail. We evaluated MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces (overbed tables, bed side rails, and curtains) in the rooms of inpatients from whom MRSA was isolated via clinical specimens. We examined the curtains within 7-14 days after they had been newly hung. The environmental surfaces were wiped using gauze (molded gauze for wiping of surface bacteria; 100% cotton, 4cm×8cm) moistened with sterile physiological saline. The MRSA contamination rate and mean counts (range) were 25.0% (6/24 samples) and 30.6 (0-255)colony-forming units (cfu)/100cm(2), respectively, for the overbed tables and 31.6% (6/19 samples) and 159.5 (0-1620)cfu/100cm(2), respectively, for the bed side rails. No MRSA was detected in 24 curtain samples. The rate of MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces was high for the overbed tables and bed side rails but low for the curtains. Therefore, at least until the 14th day of use, frequent disinfection of curtains may be not necessary.

  13. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  14. Bayesian Model Averaging and Weighted Average Least Squares : Equivariance, Stability, and Numerical Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.; Magnus, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the estimation of linear regression models with uncertainty about the choice of the explanatory variables. We introduce the Stata commands bma and wals which implement, respectively, the exact Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) estimator and the Weighted Average Least Squa

  15. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker......" variance estimator derived from the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework. The results of a small-scale Monte Carlo experiment are found to be consistent with the theory and indicate in particular that sensitivity with respect to the bandwidth choice can be ameliorated by using the "robust...

  16. The average free volume model for liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

  17. Phase-averaged transport for quasiperiodic Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Bellissard, J; Schulz-Baldes, H

    2002-01-01

    For a class of discrete quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators defined by covariant re- presentations of the rotation algebra, a lower bound on phase-averaged transport in terms of the multifractal dimensions of the density of states is proven. This result is established under a Diophantine condition on the incommensuration parameter. The relevant class of operators is distinguished by invariance with respect to symmetry automorphisms of the rotation algebra. It includes the critical Harper (almost-Mathieu) operator. As a by-product, a new solution of the frame problem associated with Weyl-Heisenberg-Gabor lattices of coherent states is given.

  18. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    CERN Document Server

    Bénet, L; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.

  19. Sparsity averaging for radio-interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel regularization method for compressive imaging in the context of the compressed sensing (CS) theory with coherent and redundant dictionaries. Natural images are often complicated and several types of structures can be present at once. It is well known that piecewise smooth images exhibit gradient sparsity, and that images with extended structures are better encapsulated in wavelet frames. Therefore, we here conjecture that promoting average sparsity or compressibility over multiple frames rather than single frames is an extremely powerful regularization prior.

  20. A sixth order averaged vector field method

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haochen; Wang, Yushun; Qin, Mengzhao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theory of rooted trees and B-series, we propose the concrete formulas of the substitution law for the trees of order =5. With the help of the new substitution law, we derive a B-series integrator extending the averaged vector field (AVF) method to high order. The new integrator turns out to be of order six and exactly preserves energy for Hamiltonian systems. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the energy-preserving property of the s...

  1. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benet, L [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Flores, J [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Hernandez-Saldana, H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Izrailev, F M [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Leyvraz, F [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Seligman, T H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2003-02-07

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.

  2. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches for robust PCA do not scale beyond small-to-medium sized datasets. To address this, we introduce the Grassmann Average (GA), whic...

  3. Theoretical Investigation into Friction Resistance Calculation of Van Body Surface in the Presence of Air Film%气膜条件下车厢表面摩擦阻力计算理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小鹏; 曹立峰; 曾建豪

    2015-01-01

    According to the friction resistance decrease of van body surface observed by experiments in the presence of air film, three theories, namely the thickened boundary layer theory , the mixed deceleration theory and the thickened boundary layer-mixed deceleration theory , are put forward to explore the mechanism of air-film drag re-duction , and a model to calculate the friction resistance of van body surface in the presence of air film is estab -lished .Then , the friction resistances of van body surface with and without air film are qualitatively compared and analyzed , respectively .The results show that the friction resistance decreases in the presence of air film , which is consistent with the previous experimental results obtained by the authors .This research provides a theoretical foun-dation for the practical application of air-film drag reduction of van body surface .%针对气膜条件下厢式运输车厢体表面摩擦阻力减小的实验结果,分别提出边界层加厚理论、混合降速理论、边界层加厚-混合降速理论3种理论来研究空气介质中空气膜的减阻机理,建立了气膜条件下厢式运输车厢体表面气流摩擦阻力计算模型,定性对比分析了厢体表面在有气膜和无气膜条件下各自所受到的气流摩擦阻力。结果表明,有气膜时摩擦阻力减小,这一结果与笔者前期的实验研究结果趋于一致,为气膜减阻在厢体表面减阻中的实际应用提供了理论基础。

  4. Surface adsorption of metals onto the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the isopod Porcellio scaber is negligible compared to absorption in the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijver, Martina G; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Vink, Jos P M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2005-03-20

    In terrestrial organisms, bioaccumulation is usually based on a summation of the amount of metal adsorbed to the body wall and absorbed into the body. The relative proportions of metal adsorption and absorption are usually not quantified. In this study, the distinction between adsorbed and absorbed metals was investigated in two different terrestrial species exposed to metals for 2 weeks. The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus was chosen as representative for organisms mainly taking up metals via the dermal route, and the isopod Porcellio scaber as an organism taking up metals mainly via the alimentary tract. Cross-sections of whole animals were made using a cryostat and accumulated metals were localized by means of a phosphor screen (autoradiography). Radiolabels were used to determine the distribution of metals over the different organs and to distinguish between adsorption and absorption. Cd in the earthworm was mainly found in tissues of the chloragogenous region, whereas Zn was also found in various other organs and in the connective tissue. In the isopod, both Cd and Zn were mainly located in the hepatopancreas. Adsorbed amounts of Cd and Zn were negligible compared to internalized Cd and Zn concentrations for both organisms. Consequently, when focusing on effects of metal uptake for the organism itself, there is no need to correct for adsorption. This suggests that adsorption to the epidermis is not a rate limiting step in metal uptake by soil invertebrates.

  5. The -Curvature Images of Convex Bodies and -Projection Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Songjun Lv; Gangsong Leng

    2008-08-01

    Associated with the -curvature image defined by Lutwak, some inequalities for extended mixed -affine surface areas of convex bodies and the support functions of -projection bodies are established. As a natural extension of a result due to Lutwak, an -type affine isoperimetric inequality, whose special cases are -Busemann–Petty centroid inequality and -affine projection inequality, respectively, is established. Some -mixed volume inequalities involving -projection bodies are also established.

  6. Harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian: an efficient tool to capture quantum effects of large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonggang; Liu, Xiaomeng; Meuwly, Markus; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2012-11-26

    Starting from a reaction path Hamiltonian, a suitably reduced harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian is derived by averaging over all the normal mode coordinates. Generalization of the harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian to any dimensions are performed and the feasibility to use a linear reaction path/surface are investigated and discussed. By use of a harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian, the tunneling splitting and proton transfer dynamics of malonaldehyde is briefly discussed and shows that the harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian is an efficient tool to capture quantum effects in larger systems.

  7. MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Kevin; Allison, Trent; Evans, Richard; Coleman, James; Grippo, Albert

    2003-05-01

    A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.

  8. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2010-10-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  9. Effect of surface roughness on grain growth and sintering of alumina

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Padmaja Parameswaran Nampi; Shoichi Kume; Yuji Hotta; Koji Watari

    2011-07-01

    The production of ceramic bodies with less surface roughness is industrially important when one considers the aspect of final machining processes. Hence an attempt have been made to study the variation in surface roughness parameters (a, y, z) of alumina having three different kinds of roughness features at different sintering temperatures. Variation in surface roughness properties are also correlated with grain size. z shows significant difference between fine and intermediate surfaces, hence predicts small difference in their microstructural features. As a general trend, average grain size increases with increase in sintering temperature, but wide distribution of grains with enhanced non-uniform grain growth is observed when the surface is coarse. Hence, creation of fine surface in the green body is necessary for homogeneously distributed grains with controlled uniform grain growth. The final roughness and grain size of the sintered alumina depend on the initial surface roughness of the green body.

  10. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...... of, for example, how rheumatoid arthritis sufferers view their treatment, how decisions are made in simulated emergencies, and how therapists and homeopaths use distributed language and cognition with their clients....

  11. A coefficient average approximation towards Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Yongxin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2015-06-24

    Gutzwiller wavefunction is a physically well-motivated trial wavefunction for describing correlated electron systems. In this work, a new approximation is introduced to facilitate the evaluation of the expectation value of any operator within the Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism. The basic idea is to make use of a specially designed average over Gutzwiller wavefunction coefficients expanded in the many-body Fock space to approximate the ratio of expectation values between a Gutzwiller wavefunction and its underlying noninteracting wavefunction. To check with the standard Gutzwiller approximation (GA), we test its performance on single band systems and find quite interesting properties. On finite systems, we noticed that it gives superior performance over GA, while on infinite systems it asymptotically approaches GA. Analytic analysis together with numerical tests are provided to support this claimed asymptotical behavior. Finally, possible improvements on the approximation and its generalization towards multiband systems are illustrated and discussed.

  12. A coefficient average approximation towards Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Yongxin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Gutzwiller wavefunction is a physically well-motivated trial wavefunction for describing correlated electron systems. In this work, a new approximation is introduced to facilitate the evaluation of the expectation value of any operator within the Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism. The basic idea is to make use of a specially designed average over Gutzwiller wavefunction coefficients expanded in the many-body Fock space to approximate the ratio of expectation values between a Gutzwiller wavefunction and its underlying noninteracting wavefunction. To check with the standard Gutzwiller approximation (GA), we test its performance on single band systems and find quite interesting properties. On finite systems, we noticed that it gives superior performance over GA, while on infinite systems it asymptotically approaches GA. Analytic analysis together with numerical tests are provided to support this claimed asymptotical behavior. Finally, possible improvements on the approximation and its generalization towards multiband systems are illustrated and discussed.

  13. Data Point Averaging for Computational Fluid Dynamics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jr., David (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for generating fluid flow parameter data for use in aerodynamic heating analysis. Computational fluid dynamics data is generated for a number of points in an area on a surface to be analyzed. Sub-areas corresponding to areas of the surface for which an aerodynamic heating analysis is to be performed are identified. A computer system automatically determines a sub-set of the number of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas and determines a value for each of the number of sub-areas using the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The value is determined as an average of the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The resulting parameter values then may be used to perform an aerodynamic heating analysis.

  14. Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Badea, Cristian T.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-11-01

    We present a 3-D image reconstruction method for free-space fluorescence tomography of mice using hybrid anatomical prior information. Specifically, we use an optically reconstructed surface of the experimental animal and a digital mouse atlas to approximate the anatomy of the animal as structural priors to assist image reconstruction. Experiments are carried out on a cadaver of a nude mouse with a fluorescent inclusion (2.4-mm-diam cylinder) implanted in the chest cavity. Tomographic fluorescence images are reconstructed using an iterative algorithm based on a finite element method. Coregistration of the fluorescence reconstruction and micro-CT (computed tomography) data acquired afterward show good localization accuracy (localization error 1.2+/-0.6 mm). Using the optically reconstructed surface, but without the atlas anatomy, image reconstruction fails to show the fluorescent inclusion correctly. The method demonstrates the utility of anatomical priors in support of free-space fluorescence tomography.

  15. Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2010-12-01

    Present work highlights the involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced biochemical regulation of seedling growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Morden). The growth response is dependent on NaCl concentration to which seedlings are exposed, they being tolerant to 40 mM NaCl and showing a reduction in extension growth at 120 mM NaCl. NaCl sensitivity of sunflower seedlings accompanies a fourfold increase in Na(+) /K(+) ratio in roots (as compared to that in cotyledons) and rapid transport of Na(+) to the cotyledons, thereby enhancing Na(+) /K(+) ratio in cotyledons as well. A transient increase in endogenous NO content, primarily contributed by putative NOS activity in roots of 4-day-old seedlings subjected to NaCl stress and the relative reduction in Na(+) /K(+) ratio after 4 days, indicates that NO regulates Na(+) accumulation, probably by affecting the associated transporter proteins. Root tips exhibit an early and transient enhanced expression of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) positive NO signal in the presence of 120 mM NaCl. Oil bodies from 2-day-old seedling cotyledons exhibit enhanced localization of NO signal in response to 120 mM NaCl treatment, coinciding with a greater retention of the principal oil body membrane proteins, i.e. oleosins. Abolition of DAF positive fluorescence by the application of specific NO scavenger [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyllimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)] authenticates the presence of endogenous NO. These novel findings provide evidence for a possible protective role of NO during proteolytic degradation of oleosins prior to/accompanying lipolysis.

  16. Body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  17. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  18. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...... diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and wholegrain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state....

  19. Averaged Null Energy Condition from Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, Thomas; Tajdini, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey microcausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, $\\int du T_{uu}$, must be positive. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to $n$-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form $\\int du X_{uuu\\cdots u} \\geq 0$. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment ...

  20. Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wainwright, Martin J

    2007-01-01

    Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log ...

  1. Bivariate phase-rectified signal averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Schumann, Aicko Y; Bauer, Axel; Schmidt, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Phase-Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA) was shown to be a powerful tool for the study of quasi-periodic oscillations and nonlinear effects in non-stationary signals. Here we present a bivariate PRSA technique for the study of the inter-relationship between two simultaneous data recordings. Its performance is compared with traditional cross-correlation analysis, which, however, does not work well for non-stationary data and cannot distinguish the coupling directions in complex nonlinear situations. We show that bivariate PRSA allows the analysis of events in one signal at times where the other signal is in a certain phase or state; it is stable in the presence of noise and impassible to non-stationarities.

  2. Hedge algorithm and Dual Averaging schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Michel

    2011-01-01

    We show that the Hedge algorithm, a method that is widely used in Machine Learning, can be interpreted as a particular instance of Dual Averaging schemes, which have recently been introduced by Nesterov for regret minimization. Based on this interpretation, we establish three alternative methods of the Hedge algorithm: one in the form of the original method, but with optimal parameters, one that requires less a priori information, and one that is better adapted to the context of the Hedge algorithm. All our modified methods have convergence results that are better or at least as good as the performance guarantees of the vanilla method. In numerical experiments, our methods significantly outperform the original scheme.

  3. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  4. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

  5. Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Coupled with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent.

  6. Electron work function and surface energy of body-centered and face-centered cubic modifications of 4 d- and 5 d-metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'eva, L. P.; Shebzukhova, I. G.

    2016-07-01

    A technique for the evaluation of the electron work function of metallic single crystals and the electron work function anisotropy has been developed in the framework of the electron-statistical method. The surface energy and the electron work function have been calculated for crystal faces of allotropic modifications of 4 d- and 5 d-metals. A change in the electron work function due to the allotropic transformations has been estimated, and the periodic dependence of the electron work function has been determined. It has been shown that the results obtained using the proposed technique correlate with the available experimental data for polycrystals.

  7. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  8. The Study Progress and Application on the Surface Features of Wake Behind a Going Body Underwater%水下运动体尾流水面特征的研究进展与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴猛猛; 陈伯义; 杨立

    2009-01-01

    综述了国内外水下运动体尾流的水面冷热特征、水力特征和电导率特征的研究进展与应用领域,并给出了作者对有关问题的评论和拓展性思考.研究水下运动体尾流的水面特征,是发展反潜技术中需要解决的关键课题,这方面的研究成果不仅具有重要的学术价值,而且在国防建设中有着迫切和现实的需求.无论是潜艇探测技术还是隐身技术,都应该综合考虑潜艇尾流的水面冷热特征和水力特征及电导率特征.%This paper summarizes the domestic and international study progress and application fields about the surface features of wake behind a going body underwater which includes cold and thermal feature,hydrodynamic feature and conductivity feature.The comments on the relevant issues and extended thinking are given.The study of the surface features of wake behind a going body underwater is the key to the development of anti-submarine technology.The study outcome of this field is not only of important academic value,but also of urgent and realistic needs in the building up of national defenses.The cold and thermal feature,hydrodynamic feature and conductivity feature of surface of submarine wake should be considered comprehensively whether in the submarine detection technology or the stealth technology.

  9. A design of body surface gastric pacing device with self-feedback%体外自主反馈式胃起搏装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 王成章; 张汇泉; 李章勇; 郭毅军; 任永

    2012-01-01

    Objective A surface feedback-stimulation gastric-pacing device was designed to extract gastric surface information,determine the status of gastric and surface stimulation.Methods The characteristic parameters of gastric electrical formed by processing signal and extracting parameter.By that,the state of stomach could be confirmed,and stimulus signal of stomach pace-making in different frequency and intensity could be decided as needed.During the processes of the stimulation,the variations of gastric electrical parameters can be analyzed in real-time and the stimulation parameters could be modified to achieve the self-feedback mode.Results Self-feedback model in different gastric motility analog environment could be realized.Conclusion The preliminary validation of experimental results proved the effectiveness of self-feedback of gastric pacing devices and its application prospects in some areas.%目的 提供一种集体表胃电检测、胃蠕动状态分析和判断、体表胃刺激起搏于一体的自主反馈式胃起搏装置设计.方法 依据胃电的检测采集,通过信号处理与参数提取形成胃电特征参数,以此判断胃的运动状态并按需要发生不同频率、强度的胃起搏刺激信号.刺激过程中,可实时分析胃电特征参数的变化,修改刺激参数,实现自主反馈模式.结果 自主反馈模式在不同的胃运动模拟信号环境中得到实现.结论 初步验证实验证明了该自主反馈胃起搏装置工作的有效性,显示了一定的应用前景.

  10. CATIA在拖拉机车身曲面设计中的应用研究%Research of Tractor Body Curve Surface Design with CATIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 师帅兵; 朱亚东

    2009-01-01

    从拖拉机车身外形图片及车身造型结构设计图纸入手,通过运用辅助造型软件CATIA的模块,提出了一种拖拉机车身曲面设计的方法.利用CATIAV5中的Wireframe and Surface Design,Freestyle和Sketch Tracer模块作为构建拖拉机车身三维几何模型的基础而利用CATIA强大的曲面造型能力对拖拉机车身曲面分块重新设计,时车身曲面设计过程中涉及的关键技术进行了分析,提出了一种可行性的方案.

  11. Africa-wide monitoring of small surface water bodies using multisource satellite data: a monitoring system for FEWS NET: chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel B.; Rowland, James; Verdin, James P.; Alemu, Henok; Melesse, Assefa M.; Abtew, Wossenu; Setegn, Shimelis G.

    2014-01-01

    Continental Africa has the highest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs, and rivers, yet it suffers from problems such as water availability and access. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access will increase further. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water points in Africa. Under this project, multisource satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor several hundreds of small to medium surface water points in Africa. This approach has been already tested to operationally monitor 41 water points in East Africa. The validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60 % of the observed gauge variability with a mean root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 22 %. The data on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration (ETo) for water points in East and West Africa were modeled since 1998 and current information is being made available in near-real time. This chapter presents the approach, results from the East African study, and the first phase of expansion activities in the West Africa region. The water point monitoring network will be further expanded to cover much of sub-Saharan Africa. The goal of this study is to provide timely information on the water availability that would support already established FEWS NET activities in Africa. This chapter also presents the potential improvements in modeling approach to be implemented during future expansion in Africa.

  12. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M; Kamarchik, Eugene

    2016-03-21

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na(+)H2O, F(-)H2O, and Cl(-)H2O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H2O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20,000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na(+) and aVTZ basis for Cl(-) and F(-)), over a large range of distances and H2O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.

  13. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    In post-revolution Iran, the sacred notion of martyrdom has been transformed into a routine act of government – a moral sign of order and state sovereignty. Moving beyond the debates of the secularisation of the sacred and the making sacred of the secular, this article argues that the moment...... of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  14. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  15. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  16. Validity of a Wearable Accelerometer Device to Measure Average Acceleration Values During High-Speed Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeremy P; Hopkinson, Trent L; Wundersitz, Daniel W T; Serpell, Benjamin G; Mara, Jocelyn K; Ball, Nick B

    2016-11-01

    Alexander, JP, Hopkinson, TL, Wundersitz, DWT, Serpell, BG, Mara, JK, and Ball, NB. Validity of a wearable accelerometer device to measure average acceleration values during high-speed running. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3007-3013, 2016-The aim of this study was to determine the validity of an accelerometer to measure average acceleration values during high-speed running. Thirteen subjects performed three sprint efforts over a 40-m distance (n = 39). Acceleration was measured using a 100-Hz triaxial accelerometer integrated within a wearable tracking device (SPI-HPU; GPSports). To provide a concurrent measure of acceleration, timing gates were positioned at 10-m intervals (0-40 m). Accelerometer data collected during 0-10 m and 10-20 m provided a measure of average acceleration values. Accelerometer data was recorded as the raw output and filtered by applying a 3-point moving average and a 10-point moving average. The accelerometer could not measure average acceleration values during high-speed running. The accelerometer significantly overestimated average acceleration values during both 0-10 m and 10-20 m, regardless of the data filtering technique (p < 0.001). Body mass significantly affected all accelerometer variables (p < 0.10, partial η = 0.091-0.219). Body mass and the absence of a gravity compensation formula affect the accuracy and practicality of accelerometers. Until GPSports-integrated accelerometers incorporate a gravity compensation formula, the usefulness of any accelerometer-derived algorithms is questionable.

  17. Early excision and grafting, an alternative approach to the surgical management of large body surface area levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jason; Gruber, Paul; Perry, Travis L

    2015-05-01

    Levamisole-adulterated cocaine as a cause of retiform purpura progressing to full-thickness skin necrosis was first documented in 2003 and currently comprises over 200 reported cases. Whereas, its presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic workup have been reasonably well-defined, only one publication has significantly detailed its surgical management. For this reason there exists a relative absence of data in comparison to its reported incidence to suggest a preferred treatment strategy. In the case mentioned, treatment emphasized delayed surgical intervention while awaiting lesion demarcation and the monitoring of autoantibodies. At our institution we offer an alternative approach and present the case of a 34 year old female who presented with 49% TBSA, levamisole-induced skin necrosis managed with early surgical excision and skin grafting. The patient presented three days following cocaine exposure with painful, purpura involving the ears, nose, buttocks, and bilateral lower extremities which quickly progressed to areas of full-thickness necrosis. Lab analysis demonstrated elevated p-ANCA and c-ANCA, as well as leukopenia, decreased C4 complement, and urinalysis positive for levamisole, corroborating the diagnosis. Contrasting the most thoroughly documented case in which the patient underwent first surgical excision on hospital day 36 and underwent 18 total excisions, our patient underwent first excision on hospital day 10 and received only one primary excision prior to definitive autografting. To our knowledge, this is the largest surface area surgically treated that did not result in surgical amputation or autoamputation of limbs or appendages, respectively. We contend that early excision and grafting provides optimal surgical management of this syndrome while avoiding the morbidity seen with delayed intervention.

  18. Hearing Office Average Processing Time Ranking Report, February 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A ranking of ODAR hearing offices by the average number of hearings dispositions per ALJ per day. The average shown will be a combined average for all ALJs working...

  19. Carrier Noise Reduction in Speckle Correlation Interferometry by a Unique Averaging Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1999-01-20

    We present experimental result of carrier speckle noise averaging by a novel approach to generate numerous identical correlation fringes with randomly different speckles. The surface under study is sprayed with a new dry paint or a layer each time for the repetitive experiments to generate randomly different surfaces of the carrier speckle patterns.

  20. Contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI protocol with improved spatial and time resolution for in vivo microimaging of the mouse with a 1.5-T body scanner and a superconducting surface coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginefri, Jean-Christophe; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Robert, Philippe; Darrasse, Luc

    2005-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well suited for small animal model investigations to study various human pathologies. However, the assessment of microscopic information requires a high-spatial resolution (HSR) leading to a critical problem of signal-to-noise ratio limitations in standard whole-body imager. As contrast mechanisms are field dependent, working at high field do not allow to derive MRI criteria that may apply to clinical settings done in standard whole-body systems. In this work, a contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI protocol with improved spatial and time resolution was used to perform in vivo tumor model imaging on the mouse at 1.5 T. The needed sensitivity is provided by the use of a 12-mm superconducting surface coil operating at 77 K. High quality in vivo images were obtained and revealed well-defined internal structures of the tumor. A 3-D HSR sequence with voxels of 59x59x300 microm3 encoded within 6.9 min and a 2-D sequence with subsecond acquisition time and isotropic in-plane resolution of 234 microm were used to analyze the contrast enhancement kinetics in tumoral structures at long and short time scales. This work is a first step to better characterize and differentiate the dynamic behavior of tumoral heterogeneities.

  1. Extraction and Purification of IgM from Catfish Body Surface Mucus and Characterization of Its Antibacterial Activity%鲶鱼体表黏液IgM的分离纯化及其抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志涛; 张志强; 马俪珍

    2013-01-01

    Using ammonium sulfate gradient fractionation precipitation,ion-exchange column chromatography and gel filtration chromatography,IgM was purified from catfish body surface mucus,and the antibacterial activity was determined.The result showed that the best condition of gel filtration chromatography was eluting with 0.02 mol/L Tris-HCl buffer(pH 8.0),and the optimal eluant velocity was 0.3 mL/min.IgM extracted from catfish body surface mucus had the strongest antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli,and followed by Bacillus subtilis.The weakest antibacterial activity was found to Micrococcus luteus.Low temperature at 0~4 ℃ helped to keep antibacterial activity,while the antibacterial activity decreased with time increasing.%依次采用硫酸铵分级沉淀、离子交换层析和凝胶过滤层析法从鲶鱼体表黏液中分离纯化IgM,并对其抑菌活性进行了检测.通过试验可以得出,凝胶层析的最佳分离条件为:0.02 mol/L pH 8.0的Tris-HCl缓冲液、洗脱速度为0.3 mL/min.鲶鱼体表黏液中提取的IgM对大肠杆菌抑菌作用最强,其次是枯草芽孢杆菌,对藤黄微球菌抑菌效果最不明显.在低温贮存时温度控制在0~4℃,有助于保持其抑菌活性,但随着时间的延长,抑菌活性也会逐渐减弱.

  2. 表面 PIV在潜航体兴波伴流场测量中的应用%The application of surface PIV in the measurement of wave making of underwater moving body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文进; 蒋小勤; 王建中; 方频捷

    2016-01-01

    This paper is mainly to introduce an experimental method for measuring wave making of underwater moving body by PIV. Apart from of analysing the principle of Surface-PIV, defining coordinate, and how to eliminate interference from background, the precision of Surface-PIV is also analysed in detail. Experiment show that 'V' type wave and source-sink effect are successfully detected. Comparing with the traditional PIV, Surface-PIV is not only economical and practicable under the laboratory conditions, but also accurate and reliable. Effective accuracy of Surface-PIV can reach 0.01pixel.%介绍潜航体兴波伴流场的表面 PIV测量方法,对表面 PIV的标定,示踪粒子的选择,背景干扰流场的消除方法以及表面 PIV测量精度等问题开展分析讨论。实验表明:运用表面 PIV技术可灵敏地探测到潜航体微弱的 V型兴波伴流场,该兴波伴流场可以用潜航体的‘源-汇’效应解释。本文采用普通 CCD数码摄像机以及普通光源摄取表面粒子图像,与传统的激光 PIV设备相比,不仅经济而且使用方便,测量结果精确可靠,运用表面 PIV技术测量表面微弱流场的精度可达0.01 pixel。

  3. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  4. Clinical Utility and Pitfalls of Ultrasound Guided Foreign Body Removal in War Fighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Intensity in an Acquired MR Image ,” Avinash Gopal B, (Based on original patent application number 60/002,517 “Intensity Correction of Phased -Array...565. 9. Murakami JW, Hayes CE, Weinberger E, Intensity Correction of Phased Array Surface Coil Images . MRM 1996; 35:585-590. 10. Murakami JW...position, forceps use, foreign body definition, forceps grasp, recognition of volume averaging, and oblique cross cut artifact. Pre-training testing

  5. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  6. Spreading of oil and the concept of average oil thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, R. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada); Quintero-Marmol, A.M. [Pemex E and P, Campeche (Mexico); Bannerman, K. [Radarsat International, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Stevenson, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The area of on oil slick on water can be readily measured using simple techniques ranging from visual observations to satellite-based radar systems. However, it is necessary to know the volume of spilled oil in order to determine the environmental impacts and best response strategy. The volume of oil must be known to determine spill quantity, response effectiveness and weathering rates. The relationship between volume and area is the average thickness of the oil over the spill area. This paper presents the results of several experiments conducted in the Gulf of Mexico that determined if average thickness of the oil is a characteristic of a specific crude oil, independent of spill size. In order to calculate the amount of oil on water from the area of slick requires information on the oil thickness, the inhomogeneity of the oil thickness and the oil-to-water ratio in the slick if it is emulsified. Experimental data revealed that an oil slick stops spreading very quickly after the application of oil. After the equilibrium thickness has been established, the slick is very sensitive to disturbances on the water surface, such as wave action, which causes the oil circle to dissipate into several small irregular shapes. It was noted that the spill source and oceanographic conditions are both critical to the final shape of the spill. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. The monthly-averaged and yearly-averaged cosine effect factor of a heliostat field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Elsayed, M.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Thermal Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Calculations are carried out to determine the dependence of the monthly-averaged and the yearly-averaged daily cosine effect factor on the pertinent parameters. The results are plotted on charts for each month and for the full year. These results cover latitude angles between 0 and 45[sup o]N, for fields with radii up to 50 tower height. In addition, the results are expressed in mathematical correlations to facilitate using them in computer applications. A procedure is outlined to use the present results to preliminary layout the heliostat field, and to predict the rated MW[sub th] reflected by the heliostat field during a period of a month, several months, or a year. (author)

  8. 体表络脉是观察人体健康和疾病状况的窗口%Collateral Veins in the Body Surface are Observation Windows to Detect Human Health and Disease Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向丽华; 陈彦静; 王筠; 张治国

    2012-01-01

    Collateral veins are special channels of Qi and blood. But it is also the gateway of pathogenic factors that lead to its pathological changes. Parts of the collateral veins can be visual observed in the body surface. Its changes re-flect different human body status and the changes of Qi, blood, Yin, Yang, etc (The terminology of traditional Chinese medicine). So, collateral veins in the body surface are observation windows to detect human health and disease status. Traditional Chinese doctors observe the change of the collateral veins to find out patients'condition at the place of skin, sublingual, retina, iris, sclera and conjunctiva. Significant change can be seen in patierits of diabetes; high blood pres-sure and atherosclerosis, etc. Compared with visual observe, a magnifier or a microscope can greatly improve our obser-vation ability, which can show the change in the collateral veins more clearly and some changes we cant see with eyes. It can provide information about patients'condition earlier and more accurate. So using a magnifier or a microscope to ob-serve the change of collateral veins can be a basis in a medical inspection.%络脉是气血运行的通道,也是病邪传入通道和病变部位.部分络脉在体表可见,其变化可反映人体气血阴阳和寒热虚实状态,也是观察人体健康和疾病状态的窗口.中医师通过观察皮肤、舌下、视网膜、虹膜、巩膜、结膜等部位络脉了解病情,糖尿病、高血压、动脉硬化等病患者在这些部位的络脉则发生明显变化.与肉眼观察相比较,用放大镜、显微镜等手段能大大提高我们的观察能力,能清晰观察到肉眼看不到的内容,更早、更准确地为我们提供疾病信息,其可作为体检、诊断的依据.

  9. Surfacing Moves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    such as schedules, machines, and aging bodies. To this end, the article also experiments with ‘surfacing’ as an ethnographic heuristic for figuring these different ‘spatial-timings’. The article concludes that surfacing matters not only in senior home care but also in the field-desks of ethnographic analysis....

  10. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  11. Investigating the surface reactivity of SiO2-TiO2-CaO-Na2O/SrO bioceramics as a function of structure and incubation time in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Coughlan, A; Wren, Anthony W

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on evaluating the biocompatibility of a SiO2-TiO2-CaO-Na2O/SrO glass and glass-ceramic series. Glass and ceramic samples were synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction. Each material was subject to maturation in simulated body fluid over 1, 7 and 30 days to describe any changes in surface morphology. Calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition was observed predominantly on the Na(+) containing amorphous and crystalline materials, with plate-like morphology. The precipitated surface layer was also observed to crystallize with respect to maturation, which was most evident in the amorphous Na(+) containing glasses, Ly-N and Ly-C. The addition of Sr(2+) greatly reduced the solubility of all samples, with limited CaP precipitation on the amorphous samples and no deposition on the crystalline materials. The morphology of the samples was also different, presenting irregular plate-like structures (Ly-N), needle-like deposits (Ly-C) and globular-like structures (Ly-S). Cell culture analysis presented a significant increase in cell viability with the Na(+) materials, 134%, while the Sr(2+) containing glasses, 60-80% and ceramics, 60-85% presented a general reduction in cell viability, however these reductions were not significant.

  12. Understanding Stokes forces in the wave-averaged equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2016-05-01

    The wave-averaged, or Craik-Leibovich, equations describe the dynamics of upper ocean flow interacting with nonbreaking, not steep, surface gravity waves. This paper formulates the wave effects in these equations in terms of three contributions to momentum: Stokes advection, Stokes Coriolis force, and Stokes shear force. Each contribution scales with a distinctive parameter. Moreover, these contributions affect the turbulence energetics differently from each other such that the classification of instabilities is possible accordingly. Stokes advection transfers energy between turbulence and Eulerian mean-flow kinetic energy, and its form also parallels the advection of tracers such as salinity, buoyancy, and potential vorticity. Stokes shear force transfers energy between turbulence and surface waves. The Stokes Coriolis force can also transfer energy between turbulence and waves, but this occurs only if the Stokes drift fluctuates. Furthermore, this formulation elucidates the unique nature of Stokes shear force and also allows direct comparison of Stokes shear force with buoyancy. As a result, the classic Langmuir instabilities of Craik and Leibovich, wave-balanced fronts and filaments, Stokes perturbations of symmetric and geostrophic instabilities, the wavy Ekman layer, and the wavy hydrostatic balance are framed in terms of intuitive physical balances.

  13. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-09-25

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels.

  14. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the branches in the outer whorl measured from the point...

  15. 7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average... average quality loss factors that are reflected in the market by county or part of a county. (c)...

  16. Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.

  17. Body art and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Body art has gained tremendously in popularity over the past 20 years, and a substantial number of pregnant women may have tattoos or piercings. In most cases, pregnancy will be uneventful. However, on rare occasions, body art may become an issue or cause complications. Navel and abdominal surface piercing and microdermal implants may cause unsightly stretch marks from gravid distension. Nipple piercing could impair breastfeeding. In emergency situations, oral piercing may interfere with airway management and nasal jewelry can be inhaled or swallowed during orotracheal intubation. Tattoos may become distorted if placed on a distended area or they may cover surgical incision lines. The risk of introducing tattoo pigments during epidural analgesia, with the potential for tumor growth, is currently under debate, although the arguments are highly speculative and without solid basis.

  18. Occupational exposure assessment of magnetic fields generated by induction heating equipment-the role of spatial averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Bor; Valič, Blaž; Kotnik, Tadej; Gajšek, Peter

    2012-10-07

    Induction heating equipment is a source of strong and nonhomogeneous magnetic fields, which can exceed occupational reference levels. We investigated a case of an induction tempering tunnel furnace. Measurements of the emitted magnetic flux density (B) were performed during its operation and used to validate a numerical model of the furnace. This model was used to compute the values of B and the induced in situ electric field (E) for 15 different body positions relative to the source. For each body position, the computed B values were used to determine their maximum and average values, using six spatial averaging schemes (9-285 averaging points) and two averaging algorithms (arithmetic mean and quadratic mean). Maximum and average B values were compared to the ICNIRP reference level, and E values to the ICNIRP basic restriction. Our results show that in nonhomogeneous fields, the maximum B is an overly conservative predictor of overexposure, as it yields many false positives. The average B yielded fewer false positives, but as the number of averaging points increased, false negatives emerged. The most reliable averaging schemes were obtained for averaging over the torso with quadratic averaging, with no false negatives even for the maximum number of averaging points investigated.

  19. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  20. Runoff and leaching of metolachlor from Mississippi River alluvial soil during seasons of average and below-average rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Lloyd M; Appelboom, Timothy W; Fouss, James L

    2009-02-25

    The movement of the herbicide metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] via runoff and leaching from 0.21 ha plots planted to corn on Mississippi River alluvial soil (Commerce silt loam) was measured for a 6-year period, 1995-2000. The first three years received normal rainfall (30 year average); the second three years experienced reduced rainfall. The 4-month periods prior to application plus the following 4 months after application were characterized by 1039 +/- 148 mm of rainfall for 1995-1997 and by 674 +/- 108 mm for 1998-2000. During the normal rainfall years 216 +/- 150 mm of runoff occurred during the study seasons (4 months following herbicide application), accompanied by 76.9 +/- 38.9 mm of leachate. For the low-rainfall years these amounts were 16.2 +/- 18.2 mm of runoff (92% less than the normal years) and 45.1 +/- 25.5 mm of leachate (41% less than the normal seasons). Runoff of metolachlor during the normal-rainfall seasons was 4.5-6.1% of application, whereas leaching was 0.10-0.18%. For the below-normal periods, these losses were 0.07-0.37% of application in runoff and 0.22-0.27% in leachate. When averages over the three normal and the three less-than-normal seasons were taken, a 35% reduction in rainfall was characterized by a 97% reduction in runoff loss and a 71% increase in leachate loss of metolachlor on a percent of application basis. The data indicate an increase in preferential flow in the leaching movement of metolachlor from the surface soil layer during the reduced rainfall periods. Even with increased preferential flow through the soil during the below-average rainfall seasons, leachate loss (percent of application) of the herbicide remained below 0.3%. Compared to the average rainfall seasons of 1995-1997, the below-normal seasons of 1998-2000 were characterized by a 79% reduction in total runoff and leachate flow and by a 93% reduction in corresponding metolachlor movement via these routes

  1. Formation of Apatite in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Dong-hui; XU Zheng; LI Shi-pu; YAN Yu-hua

    2002-01-01

    It is confirmed that the essential condition for glasses and glass-ceramics to bond to living bone is the formation of an apatite layer on their surfaces in the body. It is proposed that a hydrated silica formed on the surfaces of these materials in the body plays an important role in forming the surface apatite layer, which has noi been proved yet. It is shown experimentally that a pure hydrated silica gel can induce the apatite formation on its surface in a simulated body fluid when its starting pH is increased from 7.2 to 7.4.

  2. Biocompatibility and Surface Studies of Microwave CVD Diamond Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian; Garguilo, J. M.; Koeck, F. A. M.; Nemanich, R. J.; Price, K. J.

    2002-03-01

    The structure and surface properties of a variety of diamond and diamond like carbon films were studied at the nano-scale, in an attempt to assess the biocompatibility of these surfaces. The process of microwave chemical vapor deposition was used to deposit undoped diamond, nitrogen doped diamond, diamond with a titanium monolayer, and diamond-like carbon samples. The contact angles of de-ionized water droplets on the surface of the samples were measured to analyze the surface energy of each film. The rms roughness values of the diamond films measured by atomic force microscopy were also used in determining surface characteristics. Surface treatments of hydrogen passivation, and oxidization were applied to the surface of each film. Hydrogen passivation of the undoped diamond, and nitrogen doped diamond surfaces increases the contact angle on average 30 degrees. Oxidation of the surface decreases the contact angle on average 20 degrees. The surface treatments did not significantly change the contact angle of the diamond like carbon films. Protein adsorption is the first event to take place at a tissue/material interface of an implant into the body, and fibrinogen is the major surface protein, which initiates coagulation and inflammation in the body. The adsorption of fibrinogen was used as an indicator of the biocompatibility of these diamond materials. Fibrinogen was applied to the diamond, and diamond like carbon films. A correlation between contact angle/surface energy, roughness, and the fibrinogen adsorption of these diamond surfaces is reported. There was no significant change in the contact angles following the application of fibrinogen to the surface of the films. This could indicate the biocompatibility of the diamond films. This work supported by the NSF REU program at NCSU and a Physical Sciences Student Research grant from MSU.

  3. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.

  4. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-12

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. 12 figs.

  5. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator.

  6. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung.

  7. Vertebral surface registration using ridgelines/crestlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.; Ward, Michael M.

    2008-03-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is an efficient and popular technique for surface registration. It however suffers from the well-known problem of local minima that make the algorithm stop before it reaches the desired global solution. ICP can be improved by the use of landmarks or features. We recently developed a level set capable of evolving on the surface of an object represented by a triangular mesh. This level set permits the segmentation of portions of a surface based on curvature features. The boundary of a segmented portion forms a ridgeline/crestline. We show that the ridgelines/crestlines and corresponding enclosed surfaces extracted by the algorithm can substantially improve ICP registration. We compared the performance of an ICP algorithm in three setups: 1) ICP without landmarks. 2) ICP using ridgelines. 3) ICP using ridgelines and corresponding enclosed surfaces. Our material consists of vertebral body surfaces extracted for a study about the progression of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Same vertebrae scanned at intervals of one or two years were rigidly registered. Vertebral body rims and the end plate surfaces they enclose were used as landmarks. The performance measure was the mean error distance between the registered surfaces. From the one hundred registrations that we performed the average mean error was respectively 0.503mm, 0.335mm and 0.254mm for the three setups. Setup 3 almost halved the average error of setup 1. Moreover the error range is dramatically reduced from [0.0985, 2.19]mm to just [0.0865, 0.532]mm, making the algorithm very robust.

  8. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  10. Determination of averaging period parameter and its effects analysis for eddy covariance measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Xiaomin; ZHU; Zhilin; XU; Jinping; YUAN; Guofu

    2005-01-01

    It is more and more popular to estimate the exchange of water vapor, heat and CO2fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere using the eddy covariance technique. To get believable fluxes, it is necessary to correct the observations based on the different surface conditions and to determine relevant techinical parameters. The raw 10 Hz eddy covariance data observed in the Yucheng and Changbai Mountains stations were recalculated by various averaging periods (from 1 to 720 min) respectively, and the recalculated results were compared with the results calculated by the averaging period of 30 mins. Meanwhile, the distinctions of fluxes calculated by different averaging periods were analyzed. The continuous 15 days observations over wheat fields in the Yucheng station were mainly analyzed. The results are shown that: (i) In the Yucheng station, compared with the observations by 30 min, when the averaging period changes from 10 to 60 min, the variations of the eddy-covariance estimates of fluxes were less than 2%; when the averaging period changes less than 10 min, the estimate of fluxes reduced obviously with the reduction of the averaging period (the max relative error was -12%); and when the averaging period exceeds 120 min, the eddy covariance estimates of fluxes will be increased and become unsteady (the max relative error is over 10%); (ii) the eddy covariance estimates of fluxes over wheat field in the Yucheng station suggusted that it is much better to take 10 min as an averaging period in studying diurnal change of fluxes, and take 30min for a long-term flux observation; and (iii) normalized ratio was put forward to determine the range of averaging period of eddy covariance measurements. By comparing the observations over farmlands and those over forests, it is indicated that the increase of eddy covariance estimates over tall forest was more than that over short vegetation when the averaging period increased.

  11. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  12. Average American 15 Pounds Heavier Than 20 Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160233.html Average American 15 Pounds Heavier Than 20 Years Ago ... since the late 1980s and early 1990s, the average American has put on 15 or more additional ...

  13. Trait valence and the better-than-average effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ron S; Brown, Mark G

    2011-12-01

    People tend to regard themselves as having superior personality traits compared to their average peer. To test whether this "better-than-average effect" varies with trait valence, participants (N = 154 students) rated both themselves and the average student on traits constituting either positive or negative poles of five trait dimensions. In each case, the better-than-average effect was found, but trait valence had no effect. Results were discussed in terms of Kahneman and Tversky's prospect theory.

  14. Investigating Averaging Effect by Using Three Dimension Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The eddy current displacement sensor's averaging effect has been investigated in this paper,and thefrequency spectrum property of the averaging effect was also deduced. It indicates that the averaging effect has no influences on measuring a rotor's rotating error, but it has visible influences on measuring the rotor's profile error. According to the frequency spectrum of the averaging effect, the actual sampling data can be adjusted reasonably, thus measuring precision is improved.

  15. Average of Distribution and Remarks on Box-Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue-sheng

    2001-01-01

    A class of generalized moving average operators is introduced, and the integral representations of an average function are provided. It has been shown that the average of Dirac δ-distribution is just the well known box-spline. Some remarks on box-splines, such as their smoothness and the corresponding partition of unity, are made. The factorization of average operators is derived. Then, the subdivision algorithm for efficient computing of box-splines and their linear combinations follows.

  16. Exterior-interior Correlation of "Heart" and Body Surface Based on Researches of Classic Literature and Modern Animal Experiments%基于经脉-脏腑相关研究心的表里关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张田宁; 周美启; 吴生兵; 曹健; 高纺; 盛红梅

    2013-01-01

    Exterior-interior relationship of meridians and zangfu organs is an important component of the theory of acu-puncturology in Chinese medicine. According to the descriptions in classic works of Chinese medicine and findings of modern experimental researches, in the present paper, the authors analyzed the close association between the "Heart" and "Small Intestine", exterior-interior correlation between the Heart Meridian and Small Intestine Meridian, and between the "Heart" and body surface (acupoints), limbs, five sensory organs, etc. In addition, the authors also summarized the underlying mechanisms of the above-mentioned exterior-interior relationship of the "Heart" and put forward some proposals for the future researches.%本文从古代文献及现代研究成果入手,分析了心与小肠的脏腑联系,心经与小肠经的表里经联系,以及心与躯体部位(穴位)、四肢百骸、五官九窍的组织联系等表里关系,阐释了其表里关系的内在机制,并就如何进一步开展心的表里关系研究提出一些设想.

  17. Averaging and Globalising Quotients of Informetric and Scientometric Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of impact factors for "Journal Citation Reports" subject categories focuses on the difference between an average of quotients and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages. Applications in the context of informetrics and scientometrics are given, including journal prices and subject discipline influence scores.…

  18. 76 FR 6161 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... No: 2011-2363] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year 2009 was $25,251. The average annual cost to confine an...

  19. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is computed by first determining the employee's highest 60 months of railroad compensation...

  20. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices with matrix entries

    CERN Document Server

    Sadel, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A Jacobi matrix with matrix entries is a self-adjoint block tridiagonal matrix with invertible blocks on the off-diagonals. Averaging over boundary conditions leads to explicit formulas for the averaged spectral measure which can potentially be useful for spectral analysis. Furthermore another variant of spectral averaging over coupling constants for these operators is presented.