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Sample records for avena sativa seed

  1. Evidence of active NADP(+) phosphatase in dormant seeds of Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, S; de Crescenzo, M A; Laval-Martin, D L

    2000-08-01

    Freshly-harvested seeds of Avena sativa L. do not germinate when imbibed at temperatures higher than 25 degrees C. This high temperature dormancy is due to the seed coats, and to the low activities of glycolysis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPP) in the embryo. The analysis by exclusion chromatography of soluble NADP(+) phosphatase activities of embryos revealed two isoforms: a 37 kDa isoform present in both dormant and after-ripened caryopses, and a second isoform, with an apparent molecular weight of 160 kDa, five times more active in embryos of dormant seeds than in the after-ripened ones, after 6 h of imbibition at 30 degrees C. Moreover, the activity of this 160 kDa isoform was three times less in embryos from dormant caryopses when they were grown at 10 degrees C, a permissive temperature for radicle protrusion. These results suggest a correlation between the activity of the 160 kDa NADP(+) phosphatase and the dormancy state of the caryopsis. The two isoforms differed in the pH required for optimal activity: pH 5.7 and 6.5 for the 37 kDa and the 160 kDa phosphatases, respectively. Furthermore, the 160 kDa NADP(+) phosphatase displayed a strong specificity for NADP(+), whereas the 37 kDa isoform was able to hydrolyse numerous other phosphorylated compounds.

  2. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Åsa; Hayden, Daniel M.; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development. PMID:19036843

  3. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Asa; Hayden, Daniel M; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development.

  4. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...

  5. Mitochondrial structural and antioxidant system responses to aging in oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds with different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Xianguo; Li, Manli; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    We observed the relationship between lifespan and mitochondria, including antioxidant systems, ultrastructure, and the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in 4 h imbibed oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds that were aged with different moisture contents (4%, 10% and 16%) for 0 (the control), 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 d at 45 °C. The results showed that the decline in the oat seed vigor and in the integrity of the mitochondrial ultrastructure occurred during the aging process, and that these changes were enhanced by higher moisture contents. Mitochondrial antioxidants in imbibed oat seeds aged with a 4% moisture content were maintained at higher levels than imbibed oat seeds aged with a 10% and 16% moisture content. These results indicated that the levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and malondialdehyde after imbibition were related to the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane in aged oat seeds. The scavenging role of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was inhibited in imbibed oat seeds aged at the early stage. Monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase played more important roles than glutathione reductase in ascorbate regeneration in aged oat seeds during imbibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteomic and Physiological Analysis of the Response of Oat (Avena sativa) Seeds to Heat Stress under Different Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Kong, Lingqi; Xia, Fangshan; Yan, Huifang; Zhu, Yanqiao; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to high temperature and moisture content (MC) during storage. The expression and metabolism of proteins plays a critical role in seed resistance to heat stress. However, the proteome response to heat stress in oat (Avena sativa) seeds during storage has not been revealed. To understand mechanisms of heat stress acclimation and tolerance in oat seeds, an integrated physiological and comparative proteomic analysis was performed on oat seeds with different MC during heat stress. Oat seeds with 10% and 16% MC were subjected to high temperatures (35, 45, and 50°C) for 24 and 2 days, respectively, and changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that seed vigor decreased significantly with temperature increase from 35 to 50°C. Also, the proline content in 10% MC seeds decreased significantly (p heat treatment from 35 to 50°C. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde content in 10% MC seeds with temperature from 35 to 50°C, but a significant (p heat shock proteins and two ATP synthases, have important roles in the mobilization of carbohydrates and energy, and in the balance between synthesis and degradation of other proteins during seed deterioration. The up-regulation of argininosuccinate synthase participated in proline biosynthesis at 16% MC, which is important for maintaining reactive oxygen species homeostasis for the resistance of heat stress. In summary, heat-responsive protein species and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism were sensitive to high temperature and MC treatment. These studies provide a new insight into acclimation and tolerance to heat stress in oat seeds.

  7. Effect of treated and untreated domestic wastewater on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase and lipase activities in Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendri, Imen; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Ben Halima, Nihed; Gdoura, Radhouane; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2013-05-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) are a potential economically viable source of lipids and starch for use in foods. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of treated and untreated urban wastewater on seed germination, growth parameters and lipase and amylase activities in A. sativa. Untreated wastewater was highly toxic in nature and had an inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth. However, after bacterial treatment, its toxicity was significantly reduced and it showed improved seed germination. It was observed that treated wastewater had no inhibitory effect on seedling growth parameters. However, A. sativa seeds treated with untreated effluent showed reduced lipase and amylase activities. Treated wastewater could be used for irrigation purposes provided that it satisfies other conditions fixed by legislation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The spectrum of major seed storage genes and proteins in oats (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Olin D

    2014-01-01

    The oat seed storage proteins are mainly composed of two classes: the globulins and avenins. Among the major cereals, the globulins are the major seed protein class in rice and oats, and along with the higher protein content of oats is the basis for the relative higher nutrition content in oats compared to the other cereals. The second major class of oat seed proteins is the avenins; also classified as prolamins - seed proteins high in proline and glutamine amino acids. The prolamins are associated with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. In spite of their importance, neither the oat globulins nor the avenins have been completely analyzed and described for any single germplasm. Using available EST resources for a single hexaploid oat cultivar, the spectrum of avenin and globulin sequences are described for the gene coding regions and the derived protein sequences. The nine unique avenin sequences are suggested to be divided into 3-4 distinct subclasses distributed in the hexaploid genome. The globulins from the same germplasm include 24 distinct sequences. Variation in globulin size results mainly from a glutamine-rich domain, similar to as in the avenins, and to variation in the C-terminal sequence domain. Two globulin genes have premature stop codons that shorten the resulting polypeptides by 9 and 17 amino acids, and eight of the globulin sequences form a branch of the globulins not previously reported. A more complete description of the major oat seed proteins should allow a more thorough analysis of their contributions to those oat seed characteristics related to nutritional value, evolutionary history, and celiac disease association.

  9. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  10. Substrate specificity screening of oat (Avena sativa) seeds aminopeptidase demonstrate unusually broad tolerance in S1 pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna D; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Drag, Marcin

    2012-05-01

    Aminopeptidases are proteolytic enzymes that remove one amino acid at a time from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. In plants, inhibitors of aminopeptidases can find potential applications in agriculture as herbicides. In this report we have used a library of fluorogenic derivatives of natural and unnatural amino acids for substrate specificity profiling of oat (Avena sativa) aminopeptidase. Interestingly, we have found that this enzyme recognizes effectively among the natural amino acids basic residues like Arg and Lys, hydrophobic Phe, Leu and Met, but also to some extent acidic residues Asp and Glu. In the case of unnatural amino acids hydrophobic residues (hPhe and hCha) and basic hArg were preferentially recognized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of α-Amylase Inhibitor From Avena sativa Seeds on Life History and Physiological Characteristics of Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, Ehsan; Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Naseri, Bahram

    2017-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of Avena sativa L. seed extract were studied on life history and some physiological aspects of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The inhibition of α-amylase activity in vitro by A. sativa proteinaceous extract suggested its potential antimetabolic effect on S. cerealella larvae. Although, chronic ingestion of A. sativa inhibitor (I10: 0.108 mg protein/artificial seed) did not show significant reduction of the growth and development of S. cerealella. However, a delay in the developmental time of immature stages was detected when S. cerealella larvae were continuously fed on I30 and I50 concentrations (0.429 and 1.11 mg protein/artificial seed, respectively) of the inhibitor. The highest realized fecundity was recorded for females which came from larvae fed on I10 concentration (102.46 ± 2.50 eggs/female), and the lowest fecundity was observed for females which came from larvae fed on I50 concentration (31.64 ± 3.17 eggs/female). The lightest weight of pupae of S. cerealella was observed on I50 concentration (2.76 ± 0.07 mg). The lowest glycogen and lipid contents of the pupae were detected on I50 concentration (50.00 ± 3.53 and 289.57 ± 29.00 µg/pupa, respectively). The lower survival rate of pupae at low temperature indicated that S. cerealella fed on I50 concentration of the inhibitor was less cold tolerant than control insects. The inhibitory studies indicated that A. sativa proteinaceous extract is a good candidate as an inhibitor of the α-amylase of this pest. This inhibitor can be expressed in genetically engineered plants to confer resistance to S. cerealella. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  12. Utilización de extractos de avena sativa l. en dermatitis Utilization of avena sativa l. extract in dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L López Agüero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los polifenoles (flavonoides y antocianinas están ampliamente distribuidos entre las diferentes especies vegetales. Estos poseen gran capacidad antioxidante; existiendo correlación positiva entre la actividad antioxidante y los polifenoles totales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar: 1° El contenido de polifenoles y antocianas totales de semillas, glumelas y extracto acuoso de Avena sativa L. 2° El efecto de la aplicación tópica de extracto acuoso de avena en 45 casos (10 mujeres y 35 hombres, entre 1 y 56 años de edad con dermatitis atópica, dermatitis de contacto irritativa y dermatitis de contacto alérgica; y 30 controles normales (15 mujeres y 15 hombres, entre 1 y 60 años de edad. Tratamiento: aplicación de compresas del extracto crudo de avena en la piel dañada durante 5 minutos, seguida de la colocación de la biomasa (T°= 33 + 2°C cubierta por una tela de gasa durante 5 minutos. Dicha biomasa se retira con el extracto de avena líquido. Entre 1 y 36 meses de iniciado el tratamiento se observó remisión de los síntomas cutáneos. El extracto acuoso, la biomasa de Avena sativa L., glumelas y semillas enteras contenían 6.12+0,45, 46,11+0,36, 212,81+0,19 y 286,60+0,50 mg/100 g ác. Gálico, respectivamente, de polifenoles totales.Polyphenols (flavonoids and anthocyanins are widely spread among the different vegetables species. They have a big antioxidant capacity. One important correlation exists between the antioxidant activity and the quantity of total polyphenols. The objective of this work was to evaluate: 1- the contents of polyphenols and anthocyanins of whole seeds, glumes and aqueous extract of Avena Sativa L., 2- the effects of topical application of aqueous extract of Avena sativa L. in 45 patients (10 females and 35 males, between 1 and 56 years olds with Atopic Dermatitis, Contact Irritative Dermatitis and Contact Allergic Dermatitis, and 30 normal controls (15 females and 15 males, between 1 and 60 years

  13. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  14. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  15. Development of resistance to Puccinia graminis avenae in Avena sativa by mutagen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.W.; Brown, P.D.; McKenzie, R.I.H.; Harder, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of over seven million M 2 oat plants derived from irradiated and chemical mutagen treated seeds (about 50,000) or low-level chronically irradiated growing plants produced no new sources of useful resistance. However, preliminary results indicate that the gene Pg-16 has been transferred from the tetraploid Avena barbata L. to the hexaploid A. sativa L. by irradiation of disomic alien addition lines and monosomic alien substitution lines. This gene is highly effective and confers resistance to all but two of the known races of stem rust occurring in North America. (author)

  16. Serpins of oat (Avena sativa) grain with distinct reactive centres and inhibitory specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Hauge, S.

    2002-01-01

    Most proteinase inhibitors from plant seeds are assumed to contribute to broad-spectrum protection against pests and pathogens. In oat (Avena sativa L.) grain the main serine proteinase inhibitors were found to be serpins, which utilize a unique mechanism of irreversible inhibition. Four distinct...

  17. Physiological biosafety assessment of genetically modified canola on weed (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out for the assessment of physiological biosafety and effects of genetically modified (GM) canola on Avena sativa, which is a common weed plant of South Asia. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of A. sativa under sterilized conditions. The extracts were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% concentrations of methanol. Results showed that the extract of GM canola increases the number of roots and root fresh weight. However, root length was significantly decreased. Similarly, a significant rate of increase was observed in shoot fresh weight and shoot length of A. sativa by treatment of GM canola. Emergence percentage, germination index, and emergence rate index show a significant effect of decrease when treated with GM canola. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Serpins of oat (Avena sativa) grain with distinct reactive centres and inhibitory specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Hauge, S.

    2002-01-01

    Most proteinase inhibitors from plant seeds are assumed to contribute to broad-spectrum protection against pests and pathogens. In oat (Avena sativa L.) grain the main serine proteinase inhibitors were found to be serpins, which utilize a unique mechanism of irreversible inhibition. Four distinct...... inhibitors of the serpin superfamily were detected by native PAGE as major seed albumins and purified by thiophilic adsorption and anion exchange chromatography. The four serpins OSZa-d are the first proteinase inhibitors characterized from this cereal. An amino acid sequence close to the blocked N...... by chymotrypsin at the putative reactive centre bond P-1 -P-1 ' Tyrdown arrowSer, and no inhibition was detected. Together the oat grain serpins have a broader inhibitory specificity against digestive serine proteinases than represented by the major serpins of wheat, rye or barley grain. Presumably the serpins...

  19. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Cynthia A; Duke, Stanley H; Livingston, David P

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L.) during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants.

  20. Metabolism of proteins in developing leaves of oats (Avena sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, H.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the first leaf of oats ( Avena sativa L.) comprises four phases. About 4 day after sowing the leaf emerges and starts to expand. Expansion is complete and maturity is reached at 7 to 9 days. Thereafter, senescence ensues, as expressed by a gradual

  1. Transferability and utility of white oat (Avena sativa) microsatellite markers for genetic studies in black oat (Avena strigosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Silva, P R; Milach, S C K; Tisian, L M

    2011-11-29

    Preservation and use of wild oat species germplasm are essential for further improvement of cultivated oats. We analyzed the transferability and utility of cultivated (white) oat Avena sativa (AACCDD genome) microsatellite markers for genetic studies of black oat A. strigosa (A(s)A(s) genome) genotypes. The DNA of each black oat genotype was extracted from young leaves and amplified by PCR using 24 microsatellite primers developed from white oat. The PCR products were separated on 3% agarose gel. Eighteen microsatellite primer pairs amplified consistent products and 15 of these were polymorphic in A. strigosa, demonstrating a high degree of transferability. Microsatellite primer pairs AM3, AM4, AM21, AM23, AM30, and AM35 consistently amplified alleles only in A. sativa, which indicates that they are putative loci for either the C or D genomes of Avena. Using the data generated by the 15 polymorphic primer pairs, it was possible to separate 40 genotypes of the 44 that we studied. The four genotypes that could not be separated are probably replicates. We conclude that A. sativa microsatellites have a high transferability index and are a valuable resource for genetic studies and characterization of A. strigosa genotypes.

  2. Mechanisms of oat (Avena sativa L.) acclimation to phosphate deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Background Deficiency of available forms of phosphorus is common in most soils and causes reduction of crop plants growth and yield. Recently, model plants responses to phosphate (Pi) deficiency have been intensively studied. However, acclimation mechanisms of cereals like oat (Avena sativa L.), to low Pi stress remains not fully understood. Oat plants have been usually cultured on poor soils, with a low nutrient content, but their responses to such conditions are not well known, therefore the main goal of the study was to investigate the mechanisms that enable oat plants to grow under low Pi conditions. Methods Four oat cultivars (A. sativa, cv. Arab, Krezus, Rajtar and Szakal) were grown for three weeks in a nutrient media with various P sources: inorganic—KH2PO4 (control), organic—phytate (PA) and with no phosphate (−P). The effects of Pi deficiency on the level of P, oat growth parameters, intensity of photosynthesis, plant productivity, root exudation ability, localization, activity and isoforms of acid phosphatases, enzymes involved in Pi mobilization, were estimated. In addition, the effect of mycorrhization on plant growth was also observed. Results All studied oat cultivars grown on Pi-deficient media had significantly decreased Pi content in the tissues. Pi deficiency caused inhibition of shoot growth, but generally it did not affect root elongation; root diameter was decreased, root/shoot ratios increased, whereas PA plants showed a similar growth to control. Photosynthesis rate and productivity parameters decreased under low Pi nutrition, however, sugar content generally increased. Studied oat cultivars did not respond to low Pi via increased exudation of carboxylates from the roots, as pH changes in the growth media were not observed. Pi starvation significantly increased the activity of extracellular and intracellular acid phosphatases (APases) in comparison to the control plants. Three major APase isoforms were detected in oat tissues and the

  3. Discrimination of the closely related A and D genomes of the hexaploid oat Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Concha; Ferrer, Esther; Fominaya, Araceli

    1998-01-01

    A satellite DNA sequence, As120a, specific to the A-genome chromosomes in the hexaploid oat, Avena sativa L., was isolated by subcloning a fragment with internal tandem repeats from a plasmid, pAs120, that had been obtained from an Avena strigosa (As genome) genomic library. Southern and in situ hybridization showed that sequences with homology to sequences within pAs120 were dispersed throughout the genome of diploid (A and C genomes), tetraploid (AC genomes), and hexaploid (ACD genomes) Avena species. In contrast, sequences homologous to As120a were found in two A-genome species (A. strigosa and Avena longiglumis) and in the hexaploid A. sativa whereas this sequence was little amplified in the tetraploid Avena murphyi and was absent in the remaining A- and C-genome diploid species. In situ hybridization of pAs120a to hexaploid oat species revealed the distribution of elements of the As120a repeated family over both arms of 14 of 42 chromosomes of this species. By using double in situ hybridization with pAs120a and a C genome-specific probe, three sets of 14 chromosomes were revealed corresponding to the A, C, and D genomes of the hexaploid species. Simultaneous in situ hybridizations with pAs120a and ribosomal probes were used to assign the SAT chromosomes of hexaploid species to their correct genomes. This work reports a sequence able to distinguish between the closely related A and D genomes of hexaploid oats. This sequence offers new opportunities to analyze the relationships of Avena species and to explore the possible evolution of various polyploid oat species. PMID:9770506

  4. Bioprocesų taikymas avena sativa gėrimų gamyboje

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoševičius, Rolandas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research: to evaluate impact of biological processes (microbial fermentation) on physical, chemical, organoleptic parameters and viscoelastic properties of the drinks made from Avena sativa. During the experiment twenty samples were made (including ten samples of oat drink fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-10). pH, lactic acid bacteria colony forming units per gram of the product (LAB cfu/g), total titratable acidity (TTA), dry matter and β–glucan content in sampl...

  5. Resistance to uprooting of Alfalfa and Avena Sativa and related importance for flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation influences sediment dynamics by stabilizing the alluvial sediment with its root system. Thus, vegetation engineers the riparian ecosystem by contributing to the formation and stabilization of river bars and islands. The resistance to uprooting of young plants in non-cohesive sediment depends on the competition between flow induced drag and root growth timescales. The investigation of flow-sediment-plant interactions in situ is difficult since variables cannot be controlled and material hardly be collected. In order to investigate ecomorphological processes, laboratory experiments are essential and have gained importance in the last decade. To achieve a better understanding of the dependence of resistance to uprooting on the root system (length and structure) we conducted vertical uprooting experiments with Alfalfa and Avena Sativa which are both species that have been used in flume experiments on vegetation-flow interactions (e.g. Tal and Paola, 2010; Perona et al., in press). Seeds were seeded on quartz sand and vertically uprooted with constant velocity whereat the weight force required to uproot a seedling was measured. After uprooting, roots were scanned and analyzed and the correlation of root parameters with the uprooting work was studied. Total root length was found to be the best explanatory variable, in particular the uprooting work increases following a power law with increasing root length. The impact of other root parameters (main root length, root number, tortuosity) on the uprooting work was as well analyzed. Still, not all influencing root parameters could be captured, like the angle between roots or root hair distribution. Environmental conditions like grain size and saturation were also found to have an effect on the uprooting resistance of roots. So, lower saturated sediment results in a higher uprooting work. This work is a first step to better understand the energy regime for vegetation uprooting and its dependence on various

  6. Growth response of Avena sativa in amino-acids-rich soils converted from phenol-contaminated soils by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Bit-Na; Choi, Yong Woo; Yoo, Kye Sang; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2012-04-01

    The biodegradation of phenol in laboratory-contaminated soil was investigated using the Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. This study showed that the phenol degradation caused by C. glutamicum was greatly enhanced by the addition of 1% yeast extract. From the toxicity test using Daphnia magna, the soil did not exhibit any hazardous effects after the phenol was removed using C. glutamicum. Additionally, the treatment of the phenolcontaminated soils with C. glutamicum increased various soil amino acid compositions, such as glycine, threonine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. This phenomenon induced an increase in the seed germination rate and the root elongation of Avena sativa (oat). This probably reflects that increased soil amino acid composition due to C. glutamicum treatment strengthens the plant roots. Therefore, the phenol-contaminated soil was effectively converted through increased soil amino acid composition, and additionally, the phenol in the soil environment was biodegraded by C. glutamicum.

  7. Comparison of Avena sativa, vinegar, and hydroxyzine for uremic pruritus of hemodialysis patients: a crossover randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaee, Samaneh; Nasiri, Ahmad; Waghei, Yadollah; Morshedi, Jamileh

    2015-07-01

    Uremic pruritus is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease. While its cause is not known for certain, different treatments are currently applied. This study aimed to compare the effects of Avena sativa, diluted vinegar, and hydroxyzine on the reduction of uremic pruritus. In this crossover randomized clinical trial, 23 hemodialysis patients with uremic pruritus were randomly divided into 3 groups. The first group was treated with Avena sativa lotion, twice a day, for as long as 2 weeks; the second group received diluted vinegar; and the third group took hydroxyzine tablets for the same time span. After 3-day-long washout periods, the therapeutic methods were crossed over. The data were collected by a pruritus scale and a visual analogue scale, which were completed before and after the interventions. Avena sativa lotion significantly decreased the mean scores of pruritus intensity, consequences, and the verbal descriptor, although it did not have a significant effect on the frequency of pruritus and the pruritic surface. Vinegar and hydroxyzine significantly decreased all of the scores.  Conclusions. Avena sativa, vinegar, and hydroxyzine were effective in decreasing pruritus. Diluted vinegar and Avena sativa can be used as a complement to hydroxyzine, which is itself a common pharmaceutical therapy.

  8. Studies on biological effects of gamma irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain Basha, M.; Mehta, A.K.; Gour, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of three oat varieties viz., Kent, JO 03-91 and JO-1 were exposed to different doses of gamma rays i.e. 200 Gy, 250 Gy, 300 Gy, 350 Gy, 400 Gy, 450 Gy and 500 Gy at Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI, New Delhi. The present investigation aims to study biological effects of gamma irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L.) in the M 1 generation. After irradiation, 10 seeds were sown from each dose on paper towel by using distilled water. Germination, root and shoot length were recorded after seven days. 100 seeds of each irradiated dose along with control were sown in the field at Regional station, IARI, Wellington, Tamil Nadu. Seedling emergence and height under field conditions was recorded after 7 and 14 days. An observation for plant height and plant survival percentage was reordered at maturity stage. Seed germination (%), root length and shoot length decreased not in a linear fashion with the increase in irradiation doses. In contrast, the gamma rays had some stimulatory effects on shoot length in comparison to root length. Seedling emergence, plant height and plant survival (%) decreased with increase in radiation dose not in a linear fashion in all three varieties. Seedling emergence was recorded less in 7 DAS in comparison to 14 DAS in all three varieties. The coefficient of correlation between radiation dose and emergence and plant survival under field conditions were found to be significant and negative in all three varieties. Radiation dose of 500 Gy proved most lethal and reduced the percentage of survived plants in oat varieties JO-1 (37.36%) and JO 03-91 (43.57%) followed by 450 Gy in JO 03-91 (54.07 %) and 400 Gy in all three varieties (<68.5%). Only in the variety JO 03-91 has three morphological mutations were found at different doses i.e. 250 Gy, 350 Gy and 450 Gy and two chlorophyll mutations namely i.e. chlorina and yellow viridis was found in JO-1 (450 Gy) and Kent (250 Gy) in M 1 generation respectively. (author)

  9. Quantification of conidia produced by Pyrenophora chaetomioides on dead leaves of Avena sativa under field condition

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Carlos R. E. da; Martinelli, José A.; Federizzi, Luiz C.; Bocchese, Carla A. C.

    2003-01-01

    Procurou-se quantificar a produção de conídios por Pyrenophora chaetomioides sobre folhas mortas de aveia branca (Avena sativa), e relacionar essas observações com as condições de temperatura e precipitação ocorridas no período. Foram coletadas regularmente folhas mortas da superfície das parcelas experimentais, onde se realizou a contagem dos conídios. Os resultados mostraram que a quantidade de conídios produzidos diminuiu com o atraso na semeadura da cultura. Além disso, a produção de coní...

  10. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for Avena sativa (Poaceae) (oat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Zongwen; Chen, Lingyun; He, Minggao

    2012-02-01

    A new set of microsatellite primers was developed for Avena sativa and characterized to assess the level of genetic diversity among cultivars and wild genotypes. Using an enrichment genomic library, 14 simple sequence repeat markers were identified. The loci of these markers were characterized and found to be polymorphic in size among 48 genotypes of oat from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to eight, while the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.031 to 0.75. These newly identified microsatellite markers will facilitate genetic diversity studies, fingerprinting, and genetic mapping of oat. Moreover, these new primers for A. sativa will aid future studies of polyploidy and hybridization in other species in this genus.

  11. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli.

  12. Elongation growth of the leaf sheath base of Avena sativa seedlings: regulation by hormones and sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    The leaf sheath base of the seedling of Avena sativa was characterized for growth response to hormones and sucrose. Six day old plants, raised under a 10:14 hr light:dark cycle, were excised at the coleoptilar node and 1 cm above the node for treatment. The growth of the leaf sheath base was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA3) and this response was dose dependent. The lag to response initiation was approximately 4 hr. Growth with or without GA3 (10 micromoles) was transient, diminishing appreciably after 48 hr. The addition of 10 mM sucrose greatly prolonged growth; the effect of GA3 and sucrose was additive. Neither indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) nor the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA), alone or in combination, promoted the growth of leaf sheath bases. However, both significantly inhibited the action of GA3. The inhibitory effect of IAA was dose dependent and was not affected by the addition of BA or sucrose. These results indicate that the growth of leaf sheath bases of Avena sativa is promoted specifically by gibberellin, that this action depends on the availability of carbohydrates from outside of the leaf sheath base, and that the promotional effect of GA3 can be modified by either auxins or cytokinins.

  13. Genetic variation and associations involving Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance in oats (Avena sativa L.) to infection by Fusarium graminearum was assessed in field trials in 2011-12 including 424 spring oat lines from North America and Scandinavia. Traits measured were Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), deoxynivalenol (DON) content, days to flowering (DTF) and days to matu...

  14. A base-catalyzed mechanism for dark state recovery in the Avena sativa phototropin-1 LOV2 domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandre, M.T.A.; Arents, J.C.; van Grondelle, R.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Kennis, J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Phototropins are autophosphorylating serine/threonine kinases responsible for blue-light perception in plants; their action gives rise to phototropism, chloroplast relocation, and opening of stomatal guard cells. The kinase domain constitutes the C-terminal part of Avena sativa phototropin 1. The

  15. Genome-wide association mapping of barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in spring oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...

  16. Characterization of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using machine vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, S; Balamurugan, P

    2013-10-15

    Machine vision or image analysis is an important tool in the study of morphology of any materials. This technique has been used successfully to differentiate the eleven oats cultivars based on morphological characters. The geometry of seeds was measured through image analyzer and the variation was observed and recorded. From the recorded data, the cluster analysis was carried out and it revealed that the cultivars could be grouped into two main clusters based on similarity in the measured parameters. Cultivar Sabzar, UPO 212, OL 9 and OL 88 formed one main cluster. The another main cluster includes cv. Kent, OS 6, UPO 94, HFO 114, OS 7, HJ 8 and JHO 822 with many sub clusters. Among the cultivars HJ 8 and JHO 822 has more similarity in all measured parameters than other cultivars. Thus morphological characterization through seed image analysis was found useful to discriminate the cultivars.

  17. Biological Control to Protect Watermelon Blossoms and Seed from Infection by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessehaie, A; Walcott, R R

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The efficacy of biological control seed treatments with Pseudomonas fluorescens (A506), Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (AAA 99-2), and an unidentified gram-positive bacterium recovered from watermelon seed (WS-1) was evaluated for the management of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of watermelon. In growth chamber and greenhouse experiments, seed treated with AAA 99-2 displayed superior disease suppression, reducing BFB transmission by 96.5%. AAA 99-2, P. fluorescens A506, and Kocide also suppressed the epiphytic growth of A. avenae subsp. citrulli when applied to attached watermelon blossoms 5 h prior to inoculation. Watermelon blossom protection reduced seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. From blossoms treated with 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 63% of the resulting seed lots were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. In contrast, for blossoms protected with WS-1, Kocide, P. fluorescens A506, and AAA 99-2, the proportion of infested seed lots were 48.3, 21.1, 24.1, and 13.8%, respectively. The effect of blossom treatments on seed lot infestation was statistically significant (P = 0.001) but WS-1 was not significantly different from PBS. These findings suggest that blossom protection with biological control agents could be a feasible option for managing BFB.

  18. Revised structures of avenacosides A and B and a new sulfated saponin from Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecio, Łukasz; Jędrejek, Dariusz; Masullo, Milena; Piacente, Sonia; Oleszek, Wiesław; Stochmal, Anna

    2012-11-01

    The revised structures of avenacosides A and B and a new sulfated steroidal saponin isolated from grains of Avena sativa L. were elucidated. Their structures and complete NMR assignments are based on 1D and 2D NMR studies and identified as nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-6-O-sulfoglucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; De, Subrata; Belkheir, Asma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent.

  20. Allelopathy of rice: effect of rice mulching on the growth of avena sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.H.; Khan, S.N.; Bashir, U.; Bajwa, R.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of suitable weed management practice is a critical step in crop production technology to reduce the competition for water, nutrients, space and light between the economically important crops and weeds. Mechanical, chemical or biological agents are being used by the farmer community to cope with the weed problem but these methods are specific in nature, expensive and detrimental to ecosystem. Allelopathy is a cost-effective and environment friendly approach replacing the previous techniques. Therefore, keeping in view the role of rice mulching in weed management, the present study was designed to manipulate the allelopathic traits of rice for the control of Avena sativa in a field trial during which it was grown in non-mulch and rice mulch regimes of different concentrations. (author)

  1. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P

    2014-04-16

    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil.

  2. Cell wall and enzyme changes during the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, David M.; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Chang, S.-R.; Brock, Thomas G.; Vadlamudi, Babu; Kim, Donghern; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Rayle, David L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    The graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa) involves an asymmetric growth response and asymmetric processes involving degradation of starch and cell wall synthesis. Cellular and biochemical events were studied by investigation of the activities of related enzymes and changes in cell walls and their constituents. It is suggested that an osmotic potential gradient acts as the driving factor for growth, while wall extensibility is a limiting factor in pulvinus growth.

  3. Characterization of copper-resistant rhizosphere bacteria from Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata for copper bioreduction and biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Copper is a toxic heavy metal widely used to microbial control especially in agriculture. Consequently, high concentrations of copper residues remain in soils selecting copper-resistant organisms. In vineyards, copper is routinely used for fungi control. This work was undertaken to study copper resistance by rhizosphere microorganisms from two plants (Avena sativa L. and Plantago lanceolata L.) common in vineyard soils. Eleven rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated, and four displayed high resistance to copper. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas putida (A1), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (A2) and Acinetobacter sp. (A6), isolated from Avena sativa rhizosphere, and Acinetobacter sp. (T5), isolated from Plantago lanceolata rhizosphere. The isolates displayed high copper resistance in the temperature range from 25°C to 35°C and pH in the range from 5.0 to 9.0. Pseudomonas putida A1 resisted as much as 1,000 mg L(-1) of copper. The isolates showed similar behavior on copper removal from liquid medium, with a bioremoval rate of 30% at 500 mg L(-1) after 24 h of growth. Speciation of copper revealed high copper biotransformation, reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), capacity. Results indicate that our isolates are potential agents for copper bioremoval and bacterial stimulation of copper biosorption by Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata.

  4. Generation and analysis of 9792 EST sequences from cold acclimated oat, Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräutigam, Marcus; Lindlöf, Angelica; Zakhrabekova, Shakhira; Gharti-Chhetri, Gokarna; Olsson, Björn; Olsson, Olof

    2005-01-01

    Background Oat is an important crop in North America and northern Europe. In Scandinavia, yields are limited by the fact that oat cannot be used as a winter crop. In order to develop such a crop, more knowledge about mechanisms of cold tolerance in oat is required. Results From an oat cDNA library 9792 single-pass EST sequences were obtained. The library was prepared from pooled RNA samples isolated from leaves of four-week old Avena sativa (oat) plants incubated at +4°C for 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 8508 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 710.7 bp. Clustering and assembly identified a set of 2800 different transcripts denoted the Avena sativa cold induced UniGene set (AsCIUniGene set). Taking advantage of various tools and databases, putative functions were assigned to 1620 (58%) of these genes. Of the remaining 1180 unclassified sequences, 427 appeared to be oat-specific since they lacked any significant sequence similarity (Blast E values > 10-10) to any sequence available in the public databases. Of the 2800 UniGene sequences, 398 displayed significant homology (BlastX E values ≤ 10-10) to genes previously reported to be involved in cold stress related processes. 107 novel oat transcription factors were also identified, out of which 51 were similar to genes previously shown to be cold induced. The CBF transcription factors have a major role in regulating cold acclimation. Four oat CBF sequences were found, belonging to the monocot cluster of DREB family ERF/AP2 domain proteins. Finally in the total EST sequence data (5.3 Mbp) approximately 400 potential SSRs were found, a frequency similar to what has previously been identified in Arabidopsis ESTs. Conclusion The AsCIUniGene set will now be used to fabricate an oat biochip, to perform various expression studies with different oat cultivars incubated at varying temperatures, to generate molecular markers and provide tools for various genetic

  5. Environmental and economic aspects of Triticum aestivum L. and Avena sativa growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelínková Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of cultivation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa grown in Central Europe within the conventional and organic farming systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and economic profitability. Organic farming may be one of the tools for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production. In the context of crop production, cereals rank among the most commonly grown crops and therefore bread wheat and oat were chosen. The Climate change impact category was assessed within the simplified LCA method and the production of greenhouse gas emissions expressed in CO2e per the production unit was calculated. Economic balance of the cultivation of monitored cereals was compiled based on the yields, farm gate prices and costs. On its basis, the cultivation of wheat within the organic farming system appears to be the most profitable. From an environmental point of view, the emission load of the organic farming system is reduced by 8.04 % within the wheat production and by 15.46 % within the oat cultivation. Therefore, the organic farming system in the Czech Republic appears to be more environmentally friendly and economically efficient within the cereals production.

  6. Competency for graviresponse in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of Avena sativa: onset to loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) was studied in terms of its competency to respond to gravistimulation. Stages of onset of competency, maximum competency and loss of competency were identified, using the length of the supertending internode as a developmental marker. During the early phases in the onset of competency, the latency period between stimulus and graviresponse decreased and the steady state response rate increased significantly. When fully competent, the latency period remained constant as the plant continued to develop, suggesting that the latency period is relatively insensitive to quantitative changes (e.g., in carbohydrate or nutrient availability) at the cell level within the plant. In contrast, the response rate was found to increase with plant development, indicating that graviresponse rate is more strongly influenced by quantitative cellular changes. The total possible graviresponse of a single oat pulvinus was confirmed to be significantly less than the original presentation angle. This was shown to not result from a loss of competency, since the graviresponse could be reinitiated by increasing the presentation angle. As a result of the low overall graviresponse of individual pulvini, two or more pulvini are required to bring the plant apex to the vertical. This was determined to occur though the sequential, rather than simultaneous, action of successive pulvini, since a given pulvinus lost competency to gravirespond shortly after the next pulvinus became fully competent.

  7. Key Phytochemicals Contributing to the Bitter Off-Taste of Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther-Jordanland, Kirsten; Dawid, Corinna; Dietz, Maximilian; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-12-28

    Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from oat flour (Avena sativa L.) followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed avenanthramides and saponins as the key phytochemicals contributing to the typical astringent and bitter off-taste of oat. Besides avenacosides A and B, two previously unreported bitter-tasting bidesmosidic saponins were identified, namely, 3-(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranosid)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-ene-3β,22,26-triol, and 3-(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranosid)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-ene-3β,22,26-triol. Depending on the chemical structure of the saponins and avenanthramides, sensory studies revealed human orosensory recognition thresholds of these phytochemicals to range between 3 and 170 μmol/L.

  8. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa) Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  9. Size controlled gold nanoparticle formation by Avena sativa biomass: use of plants in nanobiotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Herrera, Isaac; Peralta-videa, Jose R. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Chemistry (United States); Jose-yacaman, Miguel; Troiani, Horacio [University of Texas at Austin, CNM, Texas Material Institute and Chemical Engineering Department (United States); Santiago, Patricia [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM (Mexico); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2004-08-15

    Oat (Avena sativa) biomass was studied as an alternative to recover Au(III) ions from aqueous solutions and for its capacity to reduce Au(III) to Au(0) forming Au nanoparticles. To study the binding trend of Au(III) to oat and the possible formation of Au nanoparticles, the biomass and a solution of Au(III) were reacted for a period of 1 h at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. The results demonstrated that Au(III) ions were bound to oat biomass in a pH-dependent manner, with the highest adsorption (about 80%) at pH 3. HRTEM studies showed that oat biomass reacted with Au(III) ions formed Au nanoparticles of fcc tetrahedral, decahedral, hexagonal, icosahedral multitwinned, irregular, and rod shape. To our knowledge, this is the second report about the production of nanorods as a product of the reaction of a Au(III) solution with a biological material. These studies also showed that the pH of the reaction influenced the nanoparticle size. The smaller nanoparticles and the higher occurrence of these were observed at pH values of 3 and 4, whereas the larger nanoparticles were observed at pH 2.

  10. Ingested oat herb extract (Avena sativa) changes EEG spectral frequencies in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimpfel, Wilfried; Storni, Charlotte; Verbruggen, Marian

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at using quantitative assessment of human electric brain activity during mental work for determining acute effects of ingested oat herb extract on cognitive performance. Within a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, two dosages of a special oat preparation of Avena sativa herba (1250 or 2500 mg of Neuravena®) were compared to placebo. An electroencephalogram was recorded while the patient had eyes open for 6 minutes, eyes closed for 4 minutes, performance of a concentration test (d2) for 5 minutes, and performance of mental arithmetic (KLT) for 5 minutes. Source density was calculated and spectral frequency changes were averaged to give one value for each frequency range. Using quantitative brain mapping technology (CATEEM®), main effects were observed in the left frontotemporal area, known to be involved in cognitive tasks. Statistically significant differences were observed during resting (lowering of spectral δ power) and during performance of the d2-concentration test (enhancement of spectral θ power) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Also, during performance of mental arithmetic, greater enhancement of θ power was observed but only at a lower error probability (p = 0.115). No effects could be seen using the P300 paradigm during presentation of a visual stimulus. These changes suggest that oat herb extract might be effective in healthy subjects, resulting in a positive impact on cognitive performance.

  11. Size controlled gold nanoparticle formation by Avena sativa biomass: use of plants in nanobiotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Herrera, Isaac; peralta-videa, Jose R.; Jose-yacaman, Miguel; Troiani, Horacio; Santiago, Patricia; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2004-08-01

    Oat ( Avena sativa) biomass was studied as an alternative to recover Au(III) ions from aqueous solutions and for its capacity to reduce Au(III) to Au(0) forming Au nanoparticles. To study the binding trend of Au(III) to oat and the possible formation of Au nanoparticles, the biomass and a solution of Au(III) were reacted for a period of 1 h at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. The results demonstrated that Au(III) ions were bound to oat biomass in a pH-dependent manner, with the highest adsorption (about 80%) at pH 3. HRTEM studies showed that oat biomass reacted with Au(III) ions formed Au nanoparticles of fcc tetrahedral, decahedral, hexagonal, icosahedral multitwinned, irregular, and rod shape. To our knowledge, this is the second report about the production of nanorods as a product of the reaction of a Au(III) solution with a biological material. These studies also showed that the pH of the reaction influenced the nanoparticle size. The smaller nanoparticles and the higher occurrence of these were observed at pH values of 3 and 4, whereas the larger nanoparticles were observed at pH 2.

  12. Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation Increases Phenolic Content and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power in Avena sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Krna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm on the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and growth of Avena sativa. Treatments involved placing filters on frames over potted plants that reduced levels of biologically effective UV-B by either 71% (reduced UV-B or by 19% (near-ambient UV-B over the 52 day experiment (04 July - 25 August 2002. Plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had 38% less total biomass than those under reduced UV-B. The reduction in biomass was mainly the result of a 24% lower leaf elongation rate, resulting in shorter leaves and less total leaf area than plants under reduced UV-B. In addition, plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had up to 17% lower Fv/Fm values early in the experiment, and this effect declined with plant age. Concentrations of bulk-soluble phenolics and FRAP values were 17 and 24% higher under near-ambient UV-B than under reduced UV-B, respectively. There was a positive relationship between bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations and FRAP values. There were no UV-B effects on concentrations of carotenoids (carotenes + xanthophylls.

  13. Interspecific Difference in Seed Germination of the Genus Avena, at Various Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Yukiyoshi; Tachibana, Shoji; 小川, 幸持; 橘, 昌司

    1997-01-01

    Germination of seeds in different diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid Avena species as affecbed by temperatures of 18°, 24° and 30℃ was examined. Most species of seeds stored for 5 to 6 months after harvesting showed the decrease in seed germination percentage as the temperature increased.The poor germination of seeds at 30℃ was attributed to secondary dormancy induced by exposing to a high temperature. The seeds became capable of germinating at the same temperature after having stored for 10 ...

  14. The effects of Nigella sativa powder (black seed) and Echinacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... groups were fed basal diets and received water without any supplementation. Birds in treatment ... Key words: Nigella sativa, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, performance, serum biochemistry, blood hematology, broiler. ..... sativa) seeds on egg production and quality in white Leghorn layers. J. Anim.

  15. Altered growth response to exogenous auxin and gibberellic acid by gravistimulation in pulvini of Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvini of excised segments from oats (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) were treated unilaterally with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without gravistimulation to assess the effect of gravistimulation on hormone action. Optimum pulvinus elongation growth (millimeters) and segment curvature (degrees) over 24 hours were produced by 100 micromolar IAA in vertical segments. The curvature response to IAA at levels greater than 100 micromolar, applied to the lower sides of gravistimulated (90 degrees) pulvini, was significantly less than the response to identical levels in vertical segments. Furthermore, the bending response of pulvini to 100 micromolar IAA did not vary significantly over a range of presentation angles between 0 and 90 degrees. In contrast, the response to IAA at levels less than 10 micromolar, with gravistimulation, was approximately the sum of the responses to gravistimulation alone and to IAA without gravistimulation. This was observed over a range of presentation angles. Also, GA3 (0.3-30 micromolar) applied to the lower sides of horizontal segments significantly enhanced pulvinus growth and segment curvature, although exogenous GA3 over a range of concentrations had no effect on pulvinus elongation growth or segment curvature in vertical segments. The response to GA3 (10 micromolar) plus IAA (1.0 or 100 micromolar) was additive for either vertical or horizontal segments. These results indicate that gravistimulation produces changes in pulvinus responsiveness to both IAA and GA3 and that the changes are unique for each growth regulator. It is suggested that the changes in responsiveness may result from processes at the cellular level other than changes in hormonal sensitivity.

  16. Caracterização química de cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pedó

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente quatro cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa, L.: UPF-15, UPF-16, CTC-03 e UFRGS-14, recentemente selecionados pelo programa de melhoramento genético de aveia no sul do Brasil. A caracterização química foi realizada através das seguintes determinações: composição centesimal, composição mineral, composição em aminoácidos e em ácidos graxos. Os quatro cultivares estudados apresentaram altos teores de proteína (13,95 a 16,52% e lipídios (6,33 a 7,50%. Os teores médios de fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel também foram relativamente altos nestes cultivares, 4,76 e 6,36% e, conseqüentemente, o teor de amido foi relativamente baixo (53,26% em média. A composição em aminoácidos foi adequada e semelhante ao padrão teórico da FAO, sendo a lisina o primeiro aminoácido limitante, seguido da treonina. Os cultivares apresentaram altas concentrações de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo que o linoléico, oléico e palmítico representaram 96% do total. Embora não tenham sido observadas grandes diferenças entre os cultivares estudados, observa-se que o UFRGS-14 se destaca principalmente pelo teor mais elevado de proteína.

  17. Molecular mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Rollo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K

    2012-05-01

    Powdery mildew is a prevalent fungal disease affecting oat (Avena sativa L.) production in Europe. Common oat cultivar Rollo was previously shown to carry the powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in common with cultivar Mostyn. The resistance gene was mapped with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers from Triticeae group-1 chromosomes using a population of F(3) lines from a cross between A. byzantina cv. Kanota and A. sativa cv. Rollo. This comparative mapping approach positioned Eg-3 between cDNA-RFLP marker loci cmwg706 and cmwg733. Since both marker loci were derived from the long arm of barley chromosome 1H, the subchromosomal location of Eg-3 was assumed to be on the long arm of oat chromosome 17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology featured as an efficient means for obtaining markers closely linked to Eg-3.

  18. Multifunctionalised benzoxazinones in the systems Oryza sativa-Echinochloa crus-galli and Triticum aestivum-Avena fatua as natural-product-based herbicide leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Francisco A; Chinchilla, Nuria; Arroyo, Elena; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Marín, David

    2010-10-01

    Fifteen novel derivatives of D-DIBOA, including aromatic ring modifications and the addition of side chains in positions C-2 and N-4, had previously been synthesised and their phytotoxicity on standard target species (STS) evaluated. This strategy combined steric, electronic, solubility and lipophilicity requirements to achieve the maximum phytotoxic activity. An evaluation of the bioactivity of these compounds on the systems Oryza sativa-Echinochloa crus-galli and Triticum aestivum-Avena fatua is reported here. All compounds showed inhibition profiles on the two species Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Avena fatua L. The most marked effects were caused by 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA, 6F-4Val-D-DIBOA, 6Cl-4Pr-D-DIBOA and 6Cl-4Val-D-DIBOA. The IC(50) values for the systems Echinochloa crus-galli-Oryza sativa and Avena fatua-Triticum aestivum for all compounds were compared. The compound that showed the greatest selectivity for the system Echinochloa crus-galli-Oryza sativa was 8Cl-4Pr-D-DIBOA, which was 15 times more selective than the commercial herbicide propanil (Cotanil-35). With regard to the system Avena fatua-Triticum aestivum, the compounds that showed the highest selectivities were 8Cl-4Val-D-DIBOA and 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA. The results obtained for 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA are of great interest because of the high phytotoxicity to Avena fatua (IC(50) = 6 µM, r(2) = 0.9616). The in vitro phytotoxicity profiles and selectivities shown by the compounds described here make them candidates for higher-level studies. 8Cl-4Pr-D-DIBOA for the system Echinochloa crus-galli-Oryza sativa and 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA for Avena fatua-Triticum aestivum were the most interesting compounds.

  19. Respiration and Protein Synthesis in Dormant and After-ripened Seeds of Avena fatua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S S; Varner, J E

    1970-07-01

    Dormant seeds of Avena fatua, which do not germinate when allowed to imbibe water, have a respiration rate only about 20% less than that of imbibed nondormant (after-ripened) seeds in the period before actual germination and are capable of synthesizing protein at a rate comparable to that of the nondormant seeds. An increase of protein synthesis is observed in nondormant seeds at the beginning of root protrusion. Autoradiography of seeds administered (3)H-leucine shows that protein synthesis occurs in the axis part of the embryo, the scutellum, the coleorhiza, and the aleurone layer. Dormancy in seeds is not a state of general inactivity; rather, it must be due to some specific metabolic block.

  20. Respiration and Protein Synthesis in Dormant and After-ripened Seeds of Avena fatua1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shepley S. C.; Varner, J. E.

    1970-01-01

    Dormant seeds of Avena fatua, which do not germinate when allowed to imbibe water, have a respiration rate only about 20% less than that of imbibed nondormant (after-ripened) seeds in the period before actual germination and are capable of synthesizing protein at a rate comparable to that of the nondormant seeds. An increase of protein synthesis is observed in nondormant seeds at the beginning of root protrusion. Autoradiography of seeds administered 3H-leucine shows that protein synthesis occurs in the axis part of the embryo, the scutellum, the coleorhiza, and the aleurone layer. Dormancy in seeds is not a state of general inactivity; rather, it must be due to some specific metabolic block. Images PMID:16657399

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DO CULTIVO CONSORCIADO DE AVEIA PRETA (AVENA STRIGOSA SCHIEB. E ERVILHACA COMUM (VICIA SATIVA L. NA PRODUÇÃO DE FITOMASSA E NO APORTE DE NITROGÊNIO INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPED COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. AND NAKED OAT (AVENA STRIGOSA ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heinrichs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e sob preparo convencional, foi avaliada a influência de proporções de sementes de ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb. cultivadas em consórcio, na produção de fitomassa e no aporte de nitrogênio no sistema. O experimento foi implantado em solo podzolico vermelho amarelo, de Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram casualizados em quatro blocos, constituindo-se de: 1- 100% Ervilhaca comum (E; 2- 90% E + 10% Aveia preta (A; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- pousio de inverno. A amostragem da fitomassa das coberturas verdes foi efetuada na ocasião do pleno florescimento em área de 0,8m2 por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram que a aveia preta e a ervilhaca comum podem ser consorciadas, beneficiando assim, a produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio.The effect of intercropping common vetch (Vicia sativa L. with naked oat (Avena strigosa Schieb. at different seed proportions was evaluated. The trial was set up on a Red Yellow Podzolic soil of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The treatments were the following: 1- 100% E (common vetch; 2- 90% E + 10% A (naked oat; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- fall tillage organized in four randomized blocks. Biomass production was evaluated at the flowering stage in an area of 0.8 m2 per plot. Data show that both species can be intercropped which is beneficial to biomass production and nitrogen accumulation.

  2. Role of Endogenous Growth Regulators in Seed Dormancy of Avena fatua: I. Short Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, J D; Sebesta, D K

    1982-11-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous short chain fatty acids (C 6-C 10) are important in maintaining seeds of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) in the dormant state by acting as natural germination inhibitors (Berrie, Buller, Don, Parker, 1979 Plant Physiol 63: 758-764) was investigated. When germination of nondormant seeds was inhibited by treatment with short chain fatty acids, the seeds did not revert to a similar biochemical and physiological state as exhibited by dormant seeds. First, nonanoic acid-induced inhibition of seed germination was not reversed by hormone treatments which normally break dormancy in wild oat seeds. Second, nondormant seeds treated with short chain fatty acids maintained similar relative proportions of the pentose phosphate pathway and the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway for respiratory glucose metabolism as that found in the nondormant controls. Seeds imbibed in the presence of nonanoic acid lost more amino acids and proteins into the imbibition solution than did the untreated controls, suggesting membrane damage had occurred. Inasmuch as increasing concentrations of nonanoic acid also progressively reduced the growth of the coleoptile and roots of intact seedlings until all growth ceased and no germination occurred, the inhibition of seed germination could be due to a nonspecific inhibition of growth of the embryo, perhaps because of disruption of membrane structure and function. Finally, no correlation between endogenous levels of short chain fatty acids in seeds or isolated embryonic axes and seed dormancy could be demonstrated.

  3. Role of Endogenous Growth Regulators in Seed Dormancy of Avena fatua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, James D.; Sebesta, Deborah K.

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous short chain fatty acids (C 6-C 10) are important in maintaining seeds of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) in the dormant state by acting as natural germination inhibitors (Berrie, Buller, Don, Parker, 1979 Plant Physiol 63: 758-764) was investigated. When germination of nondormant seeds was inhibited by treatment with short chain fatty acids, the seeds did not revert to a similar biochemical and physiological state as exhibited by dormant seeds. First, nonanoic acid-induced inhibition of seed germination was not reversed by hormone treatments which normally break dormancy in wild oat seeds. Second, nondormant seeds treated with short chain fatty acids maintained similar relative proportions of the pentose phosphate pathway and the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway for respiratory glucose metabolism as that found in the nondormant controls. Seeds imbibed in the presence of nonanoic acid lost more amino acids and proteins into the imbibition solution than did the untreated controls, suggesting membrane damage had occurred. Inasmuch as increasing concentrations of nonanoic acid also progressively reduced the growth of the coleoptile and roots of intact seedlings until all growth ceased and no germination occurred, the inhibition of seed germination could be due to a nonspecific inhibition of growth of the embryo, perhaps because of disruption of membrane structure and function. Finally, no correlation between endogenous levels of short chain fatty acids in seeds or isolated embryonic axes and seed dormancy could be demonstrated. PMID:16662702

  4. Primary photophysics of the FMN binding LOV2 domain of the plant blue light receptor phototropin of Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttrigkeit, Tanja A.; Kompa, Christian K.; Salomon, Michael; Rüdiger, Wolfhart; Michel-Beyerle, Maria E.

    2003-11-01

    The temporal evolution of the initially excited singlet state of flavine mononucleotide, which is the cofactor in the LOV2 domain of the blue photoreceptor phototropin, has been studied in picosecond time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond time-resolved absorption experiments. In the LOV2-WT protein of Avena sativa singlet-triplet intersystem crossing proceeding within 2.3 ns is the primary process which increases the triplet yield by a factor of 1.23 as compared to a mutant where cysteine 39 is replaced by alanine. This flavin triplet state is responsible for the formation of a cysteinyl-flavin adduct which triggers the unique photocycle of the LOV2 domain and thus the sensoric function of the blue light receptor phototropin.

  5. Interacción genotipo-ambiente en avena sativa l: utilizando los modelos AMMI y factorial de correspondencias Genotype-environment interaction in avena sativa l: employing AMMI and factorial correspondence models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Abel Acciaresi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue (i determinar la presencia de interacción genotipo-ambiente (IGA en la producción forrajera de avena (Avena sativa L. de genotipos tolerantes y no tolerantes a Schizaphis graminum empleando un número bajo de ambientes en la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina mediante los modelos de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI y análisis factorial de correspondencias (AFC y (ii comparar los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos. Los ensayos se condujeron en La Dulce (Argentina y La Plata (Argentina (1993, 1994 y 1995. Se evaluaron 12 genotipos (comerciales y líneas avanzadas en 12 ambientes (combinación de localidad, años y cortes. Los factores ambiente, genotipo e interacción explicaron un 41,15% (pThe objective of this study was (i to determine the presence of genotype-environment interaction (GXE in Avena sativa l. for above dry matter yield of Schizaphis graminun tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes according to two different models: additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis; and (ii to study and compare the results obtained with these models. Twelve genotypes and 12 environments were conducted at La Dulce and La Plata (Argentina during three years (1993, 1994 and 1995. The environment (E, genotype (G and GxE factors explained a 41.15%, 7.88% and 36.36% of the total sum of square, respectively. The first three axes of principal component analysis of AMMI were highly significant (p<0.001, explaining a 57.99%, 29.03% and 6.27% of interaction sum of square. The first three factorial correspondence coordinates accounted for 58.98%, 29.58% and 5.60% of the interaction sum of square. The relationships between tolerant genotypes-first clipping environments and non-tolerant genotypes-second clipping environments were reflected in the biplots of both models. The simultaneous use of AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis appeared as a useful

  6. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of eruca sativa seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Sadiq, A.; Tariq, H.; Imran, M.; Qureshi, R.; Zeenat, A.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of Eruca sativa seed as well as seed oil was investigated against Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed from seed oil followed by methanolic seed extracts from all bacterial strains compared with broad spectrum antibiotics gentamicine. MIC values of seed oil were within the ranges of 52-72 mu g/ml as compared to 56-70 mu g/ml standard antibiotic Gentamicine). Proximate and Phytochemical analysis of seed of E. sativa showed presence of all essential phyto constituents required for promising traditional medicine. Analysis of seed oil by gas chromatography revealed that there was high concentration of Erucic acid (51.2%) followed by oleic acid (15.1%) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (12.5%). In addition, minor quantities of other essential and non essential fatty acids were also present. Therefore the present study supports effectiveness of E. sativa seeds for it use in traditional medicine used in various human disorders. (author)

  7. Implications of Environmental Stress during Seed Development on Reproductive and Seed Bank Persistence Traits in Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Weeds produce seed under a wide range of conditions, depending on timing of emergence, prevailing crop, soil microsites, and climatic conditions, among other factors. We hypothesized that the maturation environment during weed seed development will influence reproductive allocation and seed persistence traits, such as seed dormancy and vigor, and needs to be considered when formulating weed management strategies. This research evaluated the effects of shade and drought stress on reproductive allocation, seed dormancy and seed vigor in select lines of wild oat (Avena fatua L.. Plants were grown in the greenhouse under drought stress and shade. Harvested seed were subjected to controlled after-ripening and aging regimes. Drought and shade reduced reproductive allocation and resulted in seed with less intense primary dormancy compared to the plants grown under resource-rich conditions, but had no apparent effect on seed vigor. Our data provide additional support to the hypothesis that seed dormancy within a species is a highly plastic trait that can be strongly influenced by the growth conditions of the mother plant. Such plasticity may have important implications for establishing ecologically-based weed control criteria on which threshold-based weed management systems are implemented.

  8. Role of Endogenous Plant Growth Regulators in Seed Dormancy of Avena fatua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, James D.

    1983-01-01

    Gibberellin A1 (GA1) was identified by combined gas chromatographymass spectrometry as the major biologically active gibberellin (GA) in seeds of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) regardless of the depth of dormany or stage of imbibition. Both unimbibed dormant and nondromant seeds contained similar amounts of GA1 as estimated by the d5-maize bioassay. During imbibition, the level of GA1 declined in both dormant and non-dormant seeds, although the decline was more rapid in dormant seeds. Only in imbibing nondormant seeds did the GA biosynthesis inhibitor, 2-chloroethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CCC), cause a reduction in the level of GA1 from that observed in control seeds. These results are interpreted as an indication that while afterripening does not cause a direct change in the levels of GAs during dry storage, it does induce a greater capacity for GA biosynthesis during imbibition. Nondormant seeds imbibed in the presence of 50 millimolar CCC germinated equally as well as untreated seeds. When wild oat plants were fed CCC throughout the entire life cycle, viable seeds were produced that lacked detectable GA-like substances. These seeds afterripened at a slightly slower rate than the controls. Moreover, completely afterripened (nondormant) seeds from plants fed CCC continuously contained no detectable GA-like substances, and when these seeds germinated, dwarf seedlings were produced, indicating GA biosynthesis was inhibited during and after germination. In total, these results suggest that the increased capacity for GA biosynthesis observed in imbibing nondormant seeds is not a necessary prerequisite for germination. It is therefore possible that GA biosynthesis in imbibing nondormant seeds is one of many coordinated biochemical events that occur during germination rather than an initiator of the processes leading to germination. PMID:16663302

  9. Role of Endogenous Plant Growth Regulators in Seed Dormancy of Avena fatua: II. Gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, J D

    1983-11-01

    Gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) was identified by combined gas chromatographymass spectrometry as the major biologically active gibberellin (GA) in seeds of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) regardless of the depth of dormany or stage of imbibition. Both unimbibed dormant and nondromant seeds contained similar amounts of GA(1) as estimated by the d5-maize bioassay. During imbibition, the level of GA(1) declined in both dormant and non-dormant seeds, although the decline was more rapid in dormant seeds. Only in imbibing nondormant seeds did the GA biosynthesis inhibitor, 2-chloroethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CCC), cause a reduction in the level of GA(1) from that observed in control seeds. These results are interpreted as an indication that while afterripening does not cause a direct change in the levels of GAs during dry storage, it does induce a greater capacity for GA biosynthesis during imbibition.Nondormant seeds imbibed in the presence of 50 millimolar CCC germinated equally as well as untreated seeds. When wild oat plants were fed CCC throughout the entire life cycle, viable seeds were produced that lacked detectable GA-like substances. These seeds afterripened at a slightly slower rate than the controls. Moreover, completely afterripened (nondormant) seeds from plants fed CCC continuously contained no detectable GA-like substances, and when these seeds germinated, dwarf seedlings were produced, indicating GA biosynthesis was inhibited during and after germination. In total, these results suggest that the increased capacity for GA biosynthesis observed in imbibing nondormant seeds is not a necessary prerequisite for germination. It is therefore possible that GA biosynthesis in imbibing nondormant seeds is one of many coordinated biochemical events that occur during germination rather than an initiator of the processes leading to germination.

  10. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego; Fernández, Osvaldo; Busso, Carlos; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, María de la Merced; Torres, Yanina; Daddario, Juan; Ithurrart, Leticia; Giorgetti, Hugo; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Montenegro, Oscar; Baioni, Sandra; Entío, José; Fioretti, María Nélida

    2013-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus. Para cada especie se regaron 100 ...

  11. Effect of Standardized Decoction of Nigella sativa Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Standardized Decoction of Nigella sativa Seed, Hemidesmus indicus Root and Smilax glabra Rhizome on the Expression of p53 and p21 Genes in Human Hepatoma Cells (HepG2) and Mouse Liver with Chemically-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis.

  12. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of black seed (Nigella sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooti, Wesam; Hasanzadeh-Noohi, Zahra; Sharafi-Ahvazi, Naim; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon

    2016-10-01

    Black seed (Nigella sativa) is an annual flowering plant from Ranunculaceae family, native to southwest Asia. This plant has many food and medicinal uses. The use of its seeds and oil is common for treatment of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory diseases, diabetes and digestive diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive review on the scientific reports that have been published about N. sativa. The facts and statistics presented in this review article were gathered from the journals accessible in creditable databases such as Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, EMBASE, SID and IranMedex. The keywords searched in Persian and English books on medicinal plants and traditional medicine, as well as the above reputable databases were "Black seed", "Nigella sativa", "therapeutic effect", and "medicinal plant". The results showed that N. sativa has many biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, and wound healing activities. It also has effects on reproductive, digestive, immune and central nervous systems, such as anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. In summary, it can be used as a valuable plant for production of new drugs for treatment of many diseases. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Attas, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  14. An investigation of konjac glucomannan-keratin hydrogel scaffold loaded with Avena sativa extracts for diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasubramanian, Praveen Krishna; Thangavel, Ponrasu; Kannan, Ramya; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ramachandran, Balaji; Suguna, Lonchin; Muthuvijayan, Vignesh

    2018-02-13

    We have developed a novel hydrogel composed of konjac glucomannan (KGM), human hair proteins (KER), and an ethanolic extract of Avena sativa (OAT) and evaluated its potential as a dressing material for diabetic wounds. KGM is an excellent biocompatible gelling agent that stimulates fibroblast proliferation and immunomodulation. Human hair proteins (KER) are biocompatible, biodegradable, and possess abundant cell adhesion sites. KER also promotes fibroblast attachment and proliferation, keratinocyte migration, and collagen expression, which can accelerate wound healing. OAT consists of oat β-glucans and several anti-inflammatory and antioxidant moieties that can reduce prolonged inflammation in chronic wounds. SEM images confirm the highly porous architecture of the scaffolds. When immersed in PBS, KGM + KER + OAT hydrogels absorb 7.5 times their dry weight. These hydrogels display a measured rate of degradation in lysozyme. KGM + KER + OAT hydrogels showed no significant cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. DAPI and SEM images obtained after 48 h of cell culture illustrate the attachment and infiltration of fibroblasts. In vivo studies performed using a diabetic rat excision wound model showed that KGM + KER + OAT hydrogels significantly accelerated wound healing compared to the control and the KGM + KER hydrogels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Chlorophyll and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Maslova, I.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, that provides spatial resolution as fine as 6 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant chlorophyll, plant nitrogen, and other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of a crop of oats (Avena sativa) and formulated machine learning regression models of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant chlorophyll and plant nitrogen. We tested two, separate relevance vector machines (RVM) and a single multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant chlorophyll and nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the different models and a comparison of the RVM modeling methods against more traditional approaches that have been used for estimation of plant chlorophyll and nitrogen.

  16. The primary photophysics of the Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 domain observed with time-resolved emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Grondelle, Rienk; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T M

    2011-01-01

    The phototropins are blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The primary reactions of the Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 domain were investigated by means of time-resolved and low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchroscan streak camera experiments revealed a fluorescence lifetime of 2.2 ns in LOV2. A weak long-lived component with emission intensity from 600 to 650 nm was assigned to phosphorescence from the reactive FMN triplet state. This observation allowed determination of the LOV2 triplet state energy level at physiological temperature at 16600 cm(-1). FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed pH-dependent fluorescence lifetimes of 2.7 ns at pH 2 and 3.9-4.1 ns at pH 3-8. Here, too, a weak phosphorescence band was observed. The fluorescence quantum yield of LOV2 increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from 293 to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K in the steady-state emission. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresman, Bradley J; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P; Kolb, Frederic L

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel.

  18. The primary photophysics of the Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 domain observed with time-resolved emission spectroscopy†

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stokkum, Ivo H.M.; Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Grondelle, Rienk; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T.M.

    2016-01-01

    The phototropins are blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The primary reactions of the Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 domain were investigated by means of time-resolved and low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchroscan streak camera experiments revealed a fluorescence lifetime of 2.2 ns in LOV2. A weak long-lived component with emission intensity from 600 to 650 nm was assigned to phosphorescence from the reactive FMN triplet state. This observation allowed determination of the LOV2 triplet state energy level at physiological temperature at 16600 cm−1. FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed pH-dependent fluorescence lifetimes of 2.7 ns at pH 2 and 3.9–4.1 ns at pH 3 to 8. Here, too, a weak phosphorescence band was observed. The fluorescence quantum yield of LOV2 increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from 293 to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K in the steady-state emission. PMID:21261629

  19. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.

  20. Acute effects of an Avena sativa herb extract on responses to the Stroop Color-Word test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Robinson, Matthew J; Bryan, Janet; Buckley, Jonathan D; Murphy, Karen J; Howe, Peter R C

    2011-07-01

    Extracts from oat (Avena sativa) herb may benefit cognitive performance. This study investigated whether Neuravena(®), an oat herb extract, could acutely improve responses to the Stroop Color-Word test, a measure of attention and concentration and the ability to maintain task focus. Elderly volunteers with below-average cognitive performance consumed single doses (0, 1600, and 2400 mg) of oat herb extract at weekly intervals in a double-blind, randomized, crossover comparison. Resting blood pressure (BP) was assessed before and after supplementation, and a Stroop test was performed. Significantly fewer errors were made during the color-naming component of the Stroop test after consuming the 1600-mg dose than after the 0-mg or 2400-mg doses (F (1,36)=18.85, p<0.001). In 7 subjects with suspected cognitive impairment, Stroop interference score was also improved by the 1600-mg dose compared to 0- and 2400-mg doses (F (1, 34)=2.40, p<0.01). Resting BP was unaffected by supplementation. Taking 1600 mg of oat herb extract may acutely improve attention and concentration and the ability to maintain task focus in older adults with differing levels of cognitive status.

  1. In vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylation in Avena sativa L. coleoptiles: effects of Ca2+, calmodulin antagonists, and auxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluthambi, K.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylations in oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptile segments were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In vitro phosphorylation of several polypeptides was distinctly promoted at 1 to 15 micromolar free Ca2+ concentrations. Ca2(+)-stimulated phosphorylation was markedly reduced by trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, and naphthalene sulfonamide (W7). Two polypeptides were phosphorylated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, but the patterns of phosphorylation of several other polypeptides were different under the two conditions indicating that the in vivo phosphorylation pattern of proteins is not truly reflected by in vitro phosphorylation studies. Trifluoperazine, W7, or ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) + calcium ionophore A23187 treatments resulted in reduced levels of in vivo protein phosphorylation of both control and auxin-treated coleoptile segments. Analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis following in vivo phosphorylation revealed auxin-dependent changes of certain polypeptides. A general inhibition of phosphorylation by calmodulin antagonists suggested that both control and auxin-treated coleoptiles exhibited Ca2+, and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation in vivo.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J Foresman

    Full Text Available Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.. Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17 and 18D (Mrg04. This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17 and 18D (Mrg04. Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel.

  3. Identification of genes in a partially resistant genotype of Avena sativa expressed in response to Puccinia coronata infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda eLoarce

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated oat (Avena sativa, an important crop in many countries, can suffer significant losses through infection by the fungus Puccinia coronata, the causal agent of crown rust disease. Understanding the molecular basis of existing partial resistance to this disease might provide targets of interest for crop improvement programs. A suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library was constructed using cDNA from the partially resistant oat genotype MN841801-1 after inoculation with the pathogen. A total of 929 genes returned a BLASTx hit and were annotated under different GO terms, including 139 genes previously described as participants in mechanisms related to the defense response and signal transduction. Among these were genes involved in pathogen recognition, cell-wall modification, oxidative burst/ROS scavenging, and abscisic acid biosynthesis, as well genes related to inducible defense responses mediated by salicylic and jasmonic acid (although none of which had been previously reported involved in strong responses. These findings support the hypothesis that basal defense mechanisms are the main systems operating in oat partial resistance to P. coronata. When the expression profiles of 20 selected genes were examined at different times following inoculation with the pathogen, the partially resistant genotype was much quicker in mounting a response than a susceptible genotype. Additionally, a number of genes not previously described in oat transcriptomes were identified in this work, increasing our molecular knowledge of this crop.

  4. Identification of Genes in a Partially Resistant Genotype of Avena sativa Expressed in Response to Puccinia coronata Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loarce, Yolanda; Navas, Elisa; Paniagua, Carlos; Fominaya, Araceli; Manjón, José L.; Ferrer, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated oat (Avena sativa), an important crop in many countries, can suffer significant losses through infection by the fungus Puccinia coronata, the causal agent of crown rust disease. Understanding the molecular basis of existing partial resistance to this disease might provide targets of interest for crop improvement programs. A suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed using cDNA from the partially resistant oat genotype MN841801-1 after inoculation with the pathogen. A total of 929 genes returned a BLASTx hit and were annotated under different GO terms, including 139 genes previously described as participants in mechanisms related to the defense response and signal transduction. Among these were genes involved in pathogen recognition, cell-wall modification, oxidative burst/ROS scavenging, and abscisic acid biosynthesis, as well genes related to inducible defense responses mediated by salicylic and jasmonic acid (although none of which had been previously reported involved in strong responses). These findings support the hypothesis that basal defense mechanisms are the main systems operating in oat partial resistance to P. coronata. When the expression profiles of 20 selected genes were examined at different times following inoculation with the pathogen, the partially resistant genotype was much quicker in mounting a response than a susceptible genotype. Additionally, a number of genes not previously described in oat transcriptomes were identified in this work, increasing our molecular knowledge of this crop. PMID:27303424

  5. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient.

  6. Migration by seed dispersal of ACCase-inhibitor-resistant Avena fatua in north-western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoya-Razo, J Antonio; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Torres-García, Jesús R

    2017-01-01

    Biotypes of Avena fatua resistant to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides have been reported in the States of Baja California (BC) and Sonora (SON), Mexico. We hypothesised that resistant biotypes present in SON (Valle de Hermosillo and Valle del Yaqui) are derived from a resistant population from BC (Valle de Mexicali) via gene flow through the transport and exchange of contaminated wheat seed. This study aimed to determine (1) the resistance of A. fatua to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in populations from BC and SON, (2) the mutation at the site of action and (3) the genetic structure and gene flow among populations. DNA sequencing showed that all biotypes shared the same mutation (Leu × Ile at codon 1781). Microsatellites showed evidence of a genetic bottleneck in SON, and spatial analysis of molecular variance grouped one biotype from the Valle de Mexicali with two biotypes from the Valle de Hermosillo. Migration analysis suggested gene flow from the Valle de Mexicali to the Valle de Hermosillo, but not to the Valle del Yaqui. The presence of resistant biotypes of A. fatua in the Valle de Hermosillo, SON, are likely derived from seeds from BC, possibly through the transport of contaminated wheat seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Efecto fitotóxico de Baccharis ulicina sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa, Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Tucat, Guillermo; Bentivegna, Diego Javier; Fernandez, Osvaldo Alberto; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Brevedan, Roberto; Mujica, Maria de la Merced; Torres, Yanina Alejandra; Daddario, Juan Facundo Fabian; Ithurrart, Leticia Soledad; Giorgetti, Hugo Dosindo; Rodriguez, Gustavo Dionisio; Montenegro, Oscar Alberto; Baioni, Sandra Sonia; Entio, Lisandro Jose; Fioretti, Maria Nelida

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis ulicina es una maleza ampliamente distribuida en los pastizales de la zona semiárida argentina. A fin de evaluar sus posibles efectos alelopáticos, se utilizaron extractos acuosos de B. ulicina (hoja, tallo, raíz y planta entera) a dos concentraciones (50 y 150 g tejido/L agua) sobre la germinación y crecimiento inicial de Avena sativa , Lolium perenne y Raphanus sativus . Para cada especie se regaron 100 semillas y se mantuvieron a 25°C y oscuridad. Se registraron la germina...

  8. A genetic model and molecular markers for wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennimore, S A; Nyquist, W E; Shaner, G E; Doerge, R W; Foley, M E

    1999-08-01

    Seed dormancy allows weed seeds to persist in agricultural soils. Wild oat (Avena fatua L.) is a major weed of cereal grains and expresses a range of seed dormancy phenotypes. Genetic analysis of wild oat dormancy has been complicated by the difficulty of phenotypic classification in segregating populations. Therefore, little is known about the nature of the genes that regulate dormancy in wild oat. The objectives of our studies were to develop methods to classify the germination responses of segregating wild oat populations and to find molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) that regulate seed dormancy in wild oat. RAPD markers OPX-06 and OPT-04 explained 12.6% and 6.8% respectively, of the F(2) phenotypic variance. OPF-17 was not significant in a simple regression model, but it was linked in repulsion to OPT-04. A three-locus model of seed dormancy in wild oat is presented based on the 41-day germination profiles of F(1), F(2), F(3), BC(1)P(1)F(1), BC(1)P(1)F(2), and BC(1)P(2)F(1) generations, and the 113 day germination profile of 126 F(7) recombinant inbred lines. Loci G (1) and G (2) promote early germination, and the D locus promotes late germination. If at least one copy of the dominant G (1) or G (2 )alleles are present regardless of the genotype at D locus, then the individual will be nondormant. If the genotype is g (1) g (1) g (2) g (2) D_, then the phenotype will be dormant.

  9. Chitinases and β-1,3-Glucanases in the Apoplastic Compartment of Oat Leaves (Avena sativa L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Werner; Liefland, Mathias; Mendgen, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    To isolate chitinases and β-1,3-glucanases from the intercellular space of oats (Avena sativa L.), primary leaves were infiltrated with buffer and subjected to gentle centrifugation to obtain intercellular washing fluid (IWF). Approximately 5% of the chitinase and 10% of the β-1,3-glucanase activity of the whole leaf were released. Only small amounts (0.01-0.03%) of the intracellular marker malate-dehydrogenase were released into the IWF during infiltration. Activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase in the IWF and in the leaf extract were compared by different chromatographic methods. On Sephadex G-75, chitinase appeared as a single peak (Mr 29.8 kD) both in IWF and homogenate. β-1,3-Glucanase, however, showed two peaks in the IWF (Mr 52 and 31.3 kD), whereas the elution pattern of the homogenate showed only one major peak at 22 kD. Chromatofocusing indicated that the IWF contained four chitinases and five β-1,3-glucanases. The elution pattern of the homogenate and IWF were similar with regard to the elution pH, but the peak intensities were distinctly different. Our results demonstrate that extracellular β-1,3-glucanases are different from those located intracellularly. Extracellular and intracellular chitinases do not differ in molecular properties, except for one isozyme which seems to be confined to the extracellular space. We suggest that both enzymes might play a special role in pathogenesis during fungal infection. Images Fig. 6 PMID:16666294

  10. Basis for changes in the auxin-sensitivity of Avena sativa (oat) leaf-sheath pulvini during the gravitropic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1995-01-01

    During the gravitropic response, auxin-sensitivity of the lower flanks of leaf-sheath pulvini of Avena sativa (oat) is at least 1000-fold higher than those of the upper flanks and non-gravistimulated pulvini. When the pulvini are treated with 1 mM Ca2+, a 10-fold increase in auxin-sensitivity of the pulvini is observed. Related to this difference in auxin-sensitivity, in vitro activation of the vanadate-sensitive H(-)-ATPase by IAA was observed. Results show that the activation of the H(+)-ATPase by IAA is probably mediated by soluble protein factors and that the H(+)-ATPase prepared from the lower flanks is activated by IAA with a 1000-fold higher auxin-sensitivity as compared with that from the upper flanks of the graviresponding pulvini. Ammonium sulfate fractionation experiments show that these soluble protein factors are in the 30 to 60% fraction. Auxin-binding assays reveal that lower flanks contain more high-affinity soluble auxin-binding sites (kD; on the order of 10(-9) M) and less low-affinity soluble auxin-binding sites (kD; on the order of 10(-6) M) than upper flanks. It is concluded that differential auxin-sensitivity of graviresponding oat-shoot pulvini is achieved by the modulation of affinities of auxin-binding sites in upper and lower flanks of the pulvini, that Ca2+ is involved in such modulation, and that one of the probable cellular functions of these auxin binding sites is the activation of the proton pump on the plasma membranes.

  11. Low-temperature and time-resolved spectroscopic characterization of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Stokkum, I.H.; Grondelle, Rienkvan; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T. (UC)

    2004-12-13

    The phototropins are plant blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine residue in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The spectroscopic properties of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1 of Avena sativa (oat) have been investigated by means of low-temperature absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of the LOV2 domain showed a fine structure around 473 nm, indicating heterogeneity in the flavin binding pocket. The fluorescence quantum yield of the flavin cofactor increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from room temperature to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K, allowing for an accurate positioning of the flavin triplet state in the LOV2 domain at 16900 cm{sup -1}. Fluorescence from the cryotrapped covalent adduct state was extremely weak, with a fluorescence spectrum showing a maximum at 440 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments utilizing a synchroscan streak camera revealed a singlet-excited state lifetime of the LOV2 domain of 2.4 ns. FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed a pH-dependent lifetime ranging between 2.9 ns at pH 2.0 to 4.7 ns at pH 8.0. No spectral shifting of the flavin emission was observed in the LOV2 domain nor in FMN in aqueous solution.

  12. Preferred carbon precursors for lipid labelling in the heterotrophic endosperm of developing oat (Avena sativa L.) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Åsa

    2014-10-01

    Oat (Avena sativa L.) is unusual among the cereal grains in storing high amounts of oil in the endosperm; up to 90% of total grain oil. By using oat as a model species for oil metabolism in the cereal endosperm, we can learn how to develop strategies to redirect carbon from starch to achieve high-oil yielding cereal crops. Carbon precursors for lipid synthesis were compared in two genetically close oat cultivars with different endosperm oil content (about 6% and 10% of grain dw, medium-oil; MO, and high-oil; HO cultivar, respectively) by supplying a variety of (14)C-labelled substrates to the grain from both up- and downstream parts of glycolysis, either through detached oat panicles in vitro or by direct injection in planta. When supplied by direct injection, (14)C from acetate was identified to label the lipid fraction of the grain to the highest extent among substrates tested; 46% of net accumulated (14)C, demonstrating its applicability as a marker for lipids in the endosperm. Time course analyses of injected (14)C acetate during grain development suggested a more efficient transfer of fatty acids from polar lipids to triacylglycerol in the HO as compared to the MO cultivar, and turnover of triacylglycerol was suggested to not play a major role for the final oil content of oat grain endosperm despite the low amount of protective oleosins in this tissue. Moreover, availability of light was shown to drastically affect grain net carbon accumulation from (14)C-sucrose when supplied through detached panicles for the HO cultivar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered Growth Response to Exogenous Auxin and Gibberellic Acid by Gravistimulation in Pulvini of Avena sativa1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Thomas G.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvini of excised segments from oats (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) were treated unilaterally with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without gravistimulation to assess the effect of gravistimulation on hormone action. Optimum pulvinus elongation growth (millimeters) and segment curvature (degrees) over 24 hours were produced by 100 micromolar IAA in vertical segments. The curvature response to IAA at levels greater than 100 micromolar, applied to the lower sides of gravistimulated (90°) pulvini, was significantly less than the response to identical levels in vertical segments. Furthermore, the bending response of pulvini to 100 micromolar IAA did not vary significantly over a range of presentation angles between 0 and 90°. In contrast, the response to IAA at levels less than 10 micromolar, with gravistimulation, was approximately the sum of the responses to gravistimulation alone and to IAA without gravistimulation. This was observed over a range of presentation angles. Also, GA3 (0.3-30 micromolar) applied to the lower sides of horizontal segments significantly enhanced pulvinus growth and segment curvature, although exogenous GA3 over a range of concentrations had no effect on pulvinus elongation growth or segment curvature in vertical segments. The response to GA3 (10 micromolar) plus IAA (1.0 or 100 micromolar) was additive for either vertical or horizontal segments. These results indicate that gravistimulation produces changes in pulvinus responsiveness to both IAA and GA3 and that the changes are unique for each growth regulator. It is suggested that the changes in responsiveness may result from processes at the cellular level other than changes in hormonal sensitivity. PMID:11537872

  14. Genome-wide association study for oat (Avena sativa L.) beta-glucan concentration using germplasm of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Asoro, Franco G; Scott, M Paul; White, Pamela J; Beavis, William D; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-01

    Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits followed by selection has become a common approach for selection in crop plants. The QTL are most often identified by linkage mapping using experimental F(2), backcross, advanced inbred, or doubled haploid families. An alternative approach for QTL detection are genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that use pre-existing lines such as those found in breeding programs. We explored the implementation of GWAS in oat (Avena sativa L.) to identify QTL affecting β-glucan concentration, a soluble dietary fiber with several human health benefits when consumed as a whole grain. A total of 431 lines of worldwide origin were tested over 2 years and genotyped using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. A mixed model approach was used where both population structure fixed effects and pair-wise kinship random effects were included. Various mixed models that differed with respect to population structure and kinship were tested for their ability to control for false positives. As expected, given the level of population structure previously described in oat, population structure did not play a large role in controlling for false positives. Three independent markers were significantly associated with β-glucan concentration. Significant marker sequences were compared with rice and one of the three showed sequence homology to genes localized on rice chromosome seven adjacent to the CslF gene family, known to have β-glucan synthase function. Results indicate that GWAS in oat can be a successful option for QTL detection, more so with future development of higher-density markers.

  15. Low-temperature and time-resolved spectroscopic characterization of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Stokkum, I. H. M.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T. M.

    2004-09-01

    The phototropins are plant blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine residue in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The spectroscopic properties of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1 of Avena sativa (oat) have been investigated by means of low-temperature absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of the LOV2 domain showed a fine structure around 473 nm, indicating heterogeneity in the flavin binding pocket. The fluorescence quantum yield of the flavin cofactor increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from room temperature to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K, allowing for an accurate positioning of the flavin triplet state in the LOV2 domain at 16900 cm-1. Fluorescence from the cryotrapped covalent adduct state was extremely weak, with a fluorescence spectrum showing a maximum at 440 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments utilizing a synchroscan streak camera revealed a singlet-excited state lifetime of the LOV2 domain of 2.4 ns. FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed a pH-dependent lifetime ranging between 2.9 ns at pH 2.0 to 4.7 ns at pH 8.0. No spectral shifting of the flavin emission was observed in the LOV2 domain nor in FMN in aqueous solution.

  16. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map and markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R E; Jellen, E N; Ladizinsky, G; Korol, A B; Kilian, A; Beard, J L; Dumlupinar, Z; Wisniewski-Morehead, N H; Svedin, E; Coon, M; Redman, R R; Maughan, P J; Obert, D E; Jackson, E W

    2011-11-01

    Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and resources for genetic improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid, A. magna Murphy et Terrell (syn A. maroccana Gdgr., 2n = 4x = 28, CCDD), which contains approximately 31% seed protein, was hybridized with cultivated oat to produce a domesticated A. magna. Wild and cultivated accessions were crossed to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Although these materials could be used to develop domesticated, high-protein oat, mapping and quantitative trait loci introgression is hindered by a near absence of genetic markers. Objectives of this study were to develop high-throughput, A. magna-specific markers; generate a genetic linkage map based on the A. magna RIL population; and map genes controlling oat domestication. A Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array derived from 10 A. magna genotypes was used to generate 2,688 genome-specific probes. These, with 12,672 additional oat clones, produced 2,349 polymorphic markers, including 498 (21.2%) from A. magna arrays and 1,851 (78.8%) from other Avena libraries. Linkage analysis included 974 DArT markers, 26 microsatellites, 13 SNPs, and 4 phenotypic markers, and resulted in a 14-linkage-group map. Marker-to-marker correlation coefficient analysis allowed classification of shared markers as unique or redundant, and putative linkage-group-to-genome anchoring. Results of this study provide for the first time a collection of high-throughput tetraploid oat markers and a comprehensive map of the genome, providing insights to the genome ancestry of oat and affording a resource for study of oat domestication, gene transfer, and comparative genomics.

  17. Nephroprotective and diuretic effect of Nigella sativa L seeds oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to study the influences, preventive and diuretic, of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil (NSSO) on calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis induced in Wistar male rats. Methodology: Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (N.S) were analysed for the evaluation of the concentration ...

  18. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  19. Deodorizing Substance in Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasugi, Toru; Murakawa, Takushi; Shibuya, Koji; Morimoto, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    A deodorizing substance in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), a spice for curry and vegetable foods in Southwest Asia, was examined. The essential oil prepared from the seeds of this plant exhibited strong deodorizing activity against methyl mercaptan, which is a main factor in oral malodor. After purification with silica gel column chromatography, the active substance in black cumin seed oil was identified as thymoquinone. This monoterpenic quinone functions as the main deodorizing substance in this oil against methyl mercaptan. Metabolite analysis suggested that the deodorizing activity may be generated by the addition of a reactive quinone molecule to methyl mercaptan. In the present study, the menthane-type quinone and phenol derivatives exhibited deodorizing activities via this mechanism.

  20. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis, and the obtained values were compared with the control. The obtained results suggest that the extract from the shoot parts of cannabis in high concentrations of 75 and 100 % had inhibiting effect to the germination indices while the extract from the root had no statistically significant effect on germination of lettuce seeds. Extract made of root part of cannabis showed also stimulatory effect to shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings in extract concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 %.

  1. 2-DE Separation and Identification of Oat (Avena sativa L.) Proteins and Their Prolamin Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nałęcz, Dorota; Szerszunowicz, Iwona; Dziuba, Marta; Minkiewicz, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    At present two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is the most widely used proteomic tool, which enables simultaneous separation of even thousands of proteins with a high degree of resolution. The quality of 2-DE separation depends on the type of biological material used as a protein source. The presence of interfering compounds (e.g., phenols, as it is the fact in plant material including oat seeds) impedes 2-DE run. With the use of this technique it is possible to analyze the complex protein mixtures, characteristic protein fractions, as well as individual proteins.The purpose of this chapter is to describe the 2-DE technique (the separate stages of the first and the second dimension) for determining the oat protein composition (oat seed proteome), separation and preliminary identification of oat prolamin fractions. Electrophoretically separated proteins are identified on the basis of pI markers (identifying the location of both ends of an IPG strip) and on 2D SDS-PAGE standards. The gel images of oat proteins are analyzed with the help of ImageMaster 2D Platinum 6.0 program (Amersham Bioscience, part of GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden). It allows finding unique spot identifiers for the occurrence of oat prolamin fractions in oat total proteins. The characteristic spots of similar shape and intensity (anchoring spots) and characteristic groups of spots can be searched for the purpose of identification.

  2. Isolation of Oat (Avena sativa L.) Total Proteins and Their Prolamin Fractions for 2D Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nałęcz, Dorota; Dziuba, Marta; Szerszunowicz, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate sample preparation is essential to obtaining good results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). For various reasons (particularly phenolic compounds, proteolytic enzymes, and cell-wall mucilages) the extraction of proteins from plant material, among them oat proteins, is difficult. During isolation all soluble substances that may interfere with the analysis (especially isoelectric focusing) are removed, and proteins of interest are separated from the remains. However, the applied procedure of isolation cannot be too extensive, because additional stages cause loss of the proteins.In this chapter, we describe a simple procedure for the isolation of oat total proteins and their prolamin fractions prior to 2-DE, without necessity of considerable purification. It can be used for oat protein fractionation, measurement of oat protein concentration, and their 2-DE analysis, with particular reference to prolamin fractions. The presented routine includes modified methods of plant seed proteins extraction and sequential Osborne extraction, based on oat protein solubility differences.

  3. CONTENIDO Y TRASLOCACIÓN DE PLOMO EN AVENA (Avena sativa, L. Y HABA (Vicia faba, L. DE UN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García-Gallegos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento en invernadero se estableció para determinar la concentración de plomo (Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea de haba y avena; se calculó el factor de bioconcentración y traslocación en las dos especies. Se probaron 50, 100 y 150 mg·Pb·kg-1 de suelo, incluyendo un control. Las plantas se colectaron a los 60 días después de la siembra y se midieron altura de planta (AP, volumen radical (VR y biomasa seca total (BST, además del contenido de Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea. La cuantificación de Pb se realizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El suelo cultivado con haba presentó un 28.48 % de PbEDTA. Las variables AP, VR y BST no fueron afectadas de manera drástica por las concentraciones de Pb probadas. Las plantas de haba y avena absorbieron un total de 55 mg·kg-1 y 45.3 mg·kg-1, respectivamente, las cuales se consideran tóxicas para plantas cultivadas. Los resultados pueden servir de base para ampliar el conocimiento del contenido de Pb absorbido y traslocado en plantas de haba y avena, ya que la capacidad de tolerar y absorber Pb es específica de la especie, inclusive de la variedad de planta.

  4. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  5. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  6. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  7. Shade and Drought Stress-Induced Changes in Phenolic Content of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Robert S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants develop under a wide range of maternal environments, depending on the time of emergence, prevailing competition from other plants, and presence or absence of other biotic or abiotic stress factors. Stress factors, such as light limitation and drought, during plant development typically reduces the reproductive allocation to seeds, resulting in fewer and often smaller seeds. Such stress factors may also influence seed quality traits associated with persistence in the soil, such as seed dormancy and chemical defense. For this research, we hypothesized that light limitation and drought during wild oat (Avena fatua L. seed development would result in reduced allocation to seed phenolics and other aliphatic organic acids previously identified in the seeds of this species. Wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430 were grown in the greenhouse under cyclic drought conditions (2005 only or two levels of shade (50 and 70%; 2005 and 2006 achieved with standard black shade cloth. The soluble and cellular bound chemical constituents were identified and quantified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The shade and drought stress treatments often significantly affected the mass of the caryopsis and hull seed fractions, as well as the phenolic content of these seed fractions, depending upon isoline, seed fraction, phenolic fraction, and specific phenolics analyzed. Phenolic content of the hull was reduced by the stress environments by up to 48%, whereas there was some evidence of an increase in the soluble phenolic content of the caryopsis in response to the stress environments. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in both soluble and bound fractions, and bound phenolics comprised generally 95% or more of total phenolics. There was no discernable evidence that the aliphatic organic content was affected by the stress environments. Our results indicate that plant stress during seed development can reduce both the physical and

  8. Avaliação dos teores de fibra alimentar e de beta-glicanas em cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L Evaluation of dietary fiber and beta-glucan levels in oat (Avena sativa L cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. GUTKOSKI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A fibra alimentar é composta por celulose, hemiceluloses, gomas, pectinas e mucilagens sendo classificada em solúvel e insolúvel, quanto a sua solubilidade em água. As beta-glicanas são componentes da fibra alimentar solúvel presentes na aveia e sua importância é devido às propriedades funcionais e aos efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipoglicêmicos apresentados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total e de beta-glicanas de cultivares de aveia recomendados pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa, L foram descascados, as cariopses moídas e as amostras acondicionadas e armazenadas à temperatura de -20° C. Para a análise de fibra alimentar foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Entre os cultivares analisados, UPF 7, UPF 13, UPF 14 e UPF 16 apresentaram os maiores teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel. Os maiores teores de fibra alimentar solúvel foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, CTC 13, UPF 16 e CTC 2. O cultivar UPF 16 apresentou o maior teor de fibra alimentar total, seguido de UFRGS 7, CTC 13 e UFRGS 18. Para a determinação de beta-glicanas foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Os maiores teores de beta-glicanas foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, UPF 14 e UFRGS 18.The dietary fiber is composed by cellulose, hemi-celluloses, gums, pectins, and mucilages, being classified as soluble or insoluble depending on its solubility in water. Beta-glucans are a fraction of the soluble dietary fiber, being important due to its functional properties and effects in reducing cholesterol and glucose. This work aimed at evaluating the levels of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, as well as the amount of beta-glucans, present in grains of oat cultivars recommended by the Brazilian Commission for Oat Research. Oat grains were hulled, the caryopses were ground and the samples packaged and stored at temperature of -20º

  9. DISPONIBILIDAD DE NITRÓGENO Y DESARROLLO DE AVENA FORRAJERA (Avena sativa L. CON APLICACIÓN DE BIOSÓLIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Flores Félix

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un experimento para evaluar dosis crecientes de fertilizante sintético y biosólidos líquidos digeridos aeróbicamente en un cultivo de avena forrajera, para 1 evaluar la respuesta agronómica de la avena forrajera a la aplicación de nitrógeno (N como sulfato de amonio y biosólidos, y 2 estimar la disponibilidad de N en los biosólidos en el ciclo de cultivo, mediante el método de equivalencia de fertilizante (EF. Los tratamientos fueron diseñados para aportar 0, 67, 100 y 133% del requerimiento de N del cultivo (RNC de avena forrajera con ambas fuentes de N. El 100% del RNC fue de 144 kg ha-1, al cual se restó el N residual del suelo y el N del agua de riego, por lo que la dosis de fertilizante para cubrir el 100% del RNC fue de 95 kg ha-1. La altura de planta se incrementó hasta en un 53% con ambas fuentes de N, con respecto al testigo sin fertilizar. El rendimiento de materia seca (MS obtenido en las parcelas con biosólidos fue significativamente mayor que con fertilizante sintético. Con ambas fuentes de N, el rendimiento de MS se ajustó a una ecuación de regresión lineal, en función de la dosis de N. De acuerdo con el método de EF, las dosis de 160.9 kg ha-1 de N total con biosólidos (DNbios y 37.5 kg ha-1 de N inorgánico con fertilizante (DNfert, tuvieron 103.2 kg ha 1 de N extraído por el cultivo (Next. La disponibilidad de N del biosólido (NDbios se calculó como la proporción de la DNfert con respecto a la DNbios para un mismo valor de Next, expresado en porcentaje; en el presente estudio, el NDbios fue de 23.3%. La estimación del N disponible es importante para estimar dosis de aplicación de biosólidos con base en el requerimiento de N de los cultivos, evitando así aplicaciones excesivas y riesgos de contaminación.

  10. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  11. Evaluation of phenolic profile, enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Topcagic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. [N.sativa] seed extracts demonstrated numerous beneficial biological effects including, among others, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antioxidant activity. To better understand the phytochemical composition of N. sativa seeds, methanol seed extracts were analyzed for phenolic acid and flavonoid content. Furthermore, we tested N. sativa methanol, n-hexane, and aqueous seed extracts for their inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE and catalase (CAT as well as for antimicrobial activity against several bacterial and a yeast strains. The phenolic content of N. sativa was analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The inhibition of BChE was assessed by modified Ellman’s method, and the inhibition of CAT was determined by monitoring hydrogen peroxide consumption. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli using the agar diffusion method. The UHPLC-MS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of 23 phenolic compounds within 15 minutes. The major components found in N. sativa seed extract were sinapinic acid (7.22 ± 0.73 µg/mg as a phenolic acid and kaempferol (11.74 ± 0.92 µg/mg as a flavonoid. All extracts showed inhibitory activity against BChE, with methanol seed extract demonstrating the highest inhibitory activity (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] 79.11 ± 6.06 µg/ml. The methanol seed extract also showed strong inhibitory activity against CAT with an IC50 value of 6.61 ± 0.27 µg/ml. Finally, the methanol extract exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against the tested microbial strains. Overall, this is the first study to investigate the ability of black cumin seed extracts to inhibit CAT. Our results indicate that N. sativa seed can be considered as an effective inhibitor

  12. Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a suitable method to transform different cultivars using different systems of A. tumefaciens strains and binary vectors as well as selection cassettes. We describe here a detailed protocol for two cultivars, one naked and one husked, using the AGL1 strain and the pGreen vector containing the nptII selection cassette ( http://www.pgreen.ac.uk/ ), suitable for oat as well as other cereals. The pGreen vector system was recently developed for pBract ( http://www.bract.org/ ) and its transformation ability for cereals was proved. Assuming our experience and the latest knowledge on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals, we suggest using in the protocol one of the newly developed pBract or pCAMBIA ( http://www.cambia.org/daisy/cambia/ ) vector systems which carry different selection cassettes. The commonly used selection genes nptII, bar, and hpt were proved to be applicable for oat transformation and might be used as needed.

  13. Deriving isolates of powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis DC. f.sp. avenae Em. Marchal. in common oat (Avena sativa L. and using them to identify selected resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew in common oat is caused by Blumeria graminis DC. f.sp. avenae Em. Marchal. Host-pathogen tests are commonly used to identify and locate resistance genes to powdery mildew in cereals. The aim of the study was to determine the virulence of powdery mildew isolates obtained from powdery mildew populations harvested in Poland and to identify OMR1, OMR2 and OMR3 resistance genes to powdery mildew in F2 populations of inter-cultivar hybrids of common oat: Bruno × Fuchs, Jumbo × Fuchs and Mostyn × Fuchs. On the basis of the analysis conducted, isolates enabling division of the studied populations into groups of resistant and susceptible plants were selected. M10 and M14 isolates were chosen for the population which was obtained from crossbreeding of ‘Bruno’ with ‘Fuchs’; these isolates demonstrated avirulence to Bruno cultivar containing OMR1 gene. In order to divide population obtained from crossbreeding of ‘Jumbo’ with ‘Fuchs’, M13 and M16 isolates were chosen; they demonstrated avirulence to the cultivar Jumbo containing the OMR2 gene. On the basis of the tests conducted, it was impossible to select isolates characterised by avirulence to the OMR3 gene. In the F2 population of Bruno × Fuchs and Jumbo × Fuchs hybrids, a division was made into resistant and susceptible plants. The obtained results were verified by the 2 test; the proportion in the dispersion matching model was found to be 3 resistant plants: 1 sensitive plant both in the Bruno × Fuchs and Jumbo × Fuchs populations. Such dispersion indicated that the resistance to powdery mildew in the studied cultivars Bruno and Jumbo was conditioned by single dominant genes.

  14. Toxicity Effect of Cr Stress on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Lactuca Sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan Zheng; Ma, Wan Min; Du, Ying Ying; Dan, Qiong Peng; Yin, Bing; Dai, Shan Shan; Hao, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    The impact of Cr6+ on the growth of lactuca sativa in Greenhouse Cucumber was investigated. The seeds of lacuna sativa Italian bolting resistance lettuce were treated by different Cr6+ concentration to study the effects on its seed germination and seedling growth. The results showed that the seed germination rate, vigor index of seedlings decreased with increment of Cr6+ concentration to varying degrees, and vigor germination, vigor index, raw weight, root length significantly lower. The absorption of lettuce seedlings on different nutrient elements is impacted by the concentration of Cr6+.

  15. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  16. Genome-wide association study for crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) resistance in an oat (Avena sativa) collection of commercial varieties and landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Rispail, Nicolas; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Rubiales, Diego; Mur, Luis A J; Langdon, Tim; Howarth, Catherine J; Prats, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions including white and red oat cultivars and landraces were evaluated for disease resistance and further genotyped with 31 simple sequence repeat and 15,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to reveal association with disease resistance traits. After data curation, 1712 polymorphic markers were considered for association analysis. Principal component analysis and a Bayesian clustering approach were applied to infer population structure. Five different general and mixed linear models accounting for population structure and/or kinship corrections and two different statistical tests were carried out to reduce false positive. Five markers, two of them highly significant in all models tested were associated with rust resistance. No strong association between any marker and powdery mildew resistance at the seedling stage was identified. However, one DArT sequence, oPt-5014, was strongly associated with powdery mildew resistance in adult plants. Overall, the markers showing the strongest association in this study provide ideal candidates for further studies and future inclusion in strategies of marker-assisted selection.

  17. Genome-wide association study for crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae resistance in an oat (Avena sativa collection of commercial varieties and landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia eMontilla-Bascón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions including white and red oat cultivars and landraces were evaluated for disease resistance and further genotyped with 31 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 15,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers to reveal association with disease resistance traits. After data curation, 1712 polymorphic markers were considered for association analysis. Principal component analysis and a Bayesian clustering approach were applied to infer population structure. Five different general and mixed linear models accounting for population structure and/or kinship corrections and two different statistical tests were carried out to reduce false positive. Five markers, two of them highly significant in all models tested were associated with rust resistance. No strong association between any marker and powdery mildew resistance at the seedling stage was identified. However, one DArT sequence, oPt-5014, was strongly associated with powdery mildew resistance in adult plants. Overall, the markers showing the strongest association in this study provide ideal candidates for further studies and future inclusion in strategies of marker assisted selection.

  18. Chemical investigation of Nigella sativa L. seed oil produced in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Gharby, Said; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Roudani, Aziza; Boulbaroud, Samira; Ibrahimi, Mohamed; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sultana, Shazia; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds) are widely used in traditional Islamic medicine and for culinary purposes worldwide. Nigella seed oil is becoming popular in and out of the Islamic world. Composition of Nigella seed oil is known to be location-dependent. We investigated the composition of Nigella seed oil prepared by solvent- or cold press-extraction of Nigella seeds grown in Morocco. Oil extraction yield was 37% and 27% when solvent or cold press extraction methods wer...

  19. Studies in Wild Oat Seed Dormancy: I. THE ROLE OF ETHYLENE IN DORMANCY BREAKAGE AND GERMINATION OF WILD OAT SEEDS (AVENA FATUA L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, S W; Ross, J D

    1981-02-01

    Seed of Avena fatua were shown to exhibit a characteristic loss of dormancy during dry storage at 25 C, whereas similar seed stored at 5 C maintained dormancy. 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid was shown to increase germination of partly dormant seed imbibed under certain temperature regimes; a similar effect could not be established for fully dormant or fully nondormant seed. Using gas-liquid chromatography, natural ethylene levels were followed during imbibition of fully dormant and nondormant seed. A large peak in production was observed in the period prior to radicle emergence in the case of the nondormant seed. Measurements of ethylene production taken at 15 C, following periods of after-ripening in moist soil at either 5 or 25 C, indicated that endogenous production was unlikely to be a main cause of dormancy breakage in this species. The possibility that endogenous ethylene could play a role in natural dormancy breakage in aged seeds is discussed. The practical possibilities of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid as a dormancy breaking agent in a field situation are outlined.

  20. A Simple Method for Determining Aphelenchoides besseyi Infestation Level of Oryza sativa Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshino, Shigeru; Togashi, Katsumi

    1999-01-01

    A simple extraction method was developed for obtaining the white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, from single seeds of rice, Oryza sativa. The method was as follows: Individual rice seeds were split longitudinally and then transferred into single pipet tips. Tips containing a split seed were then singly placed upright in glass vials with water to extract the nematodes. This method was more efficient than the Baermann funnel technique and allowed nearly 100% recovery of living A....

  1. Impact of storage conditions on seed germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L. at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed storage conditions and different temperatures (5˚C, 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, 30˚C and 26˚C/21˚C during germination and seedling development on seed germination, shoot length and germination rate of wild oat (Avena fatua L. was examined. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a period of ten days and shoot length was measured on the last day, while germination rates were calculated from those measurements. The results showed that seed storage under controlled conditions (T1: temperature 24±1°C, humidity 40-50%; T2: temperature 26±1°C, humidity 70-80% and T3: temperature 4˚C for periods of 3 (t1 and 12 (t2 months had a significant influence on germination of wild oat seeds. The percentage of germinated seeds under all examined temperatures was higher when they were stored for 12 months under controlled temperature and humidity. The results also showed that temperature had a significant effect on the percentage of germination and germination rate of A. fatua seeds. The highest total germination occurred at 15˚C temperature (T1: t1 - 41.25%, t2 - 44.37%; T2: t1 - 28.13%, t2 - 34.37%; T3: t1 - 10.63%, t2 - 12.50%. Germination percentage under an alternating day /night photoperiod at 26˚C/21˚C temperature was higher in all treatment variants (T1: t1 - 8.13%, t2 - 10.00%; T2: t1 - 11.87%, t2 - 13.13%; T3: t1 - 2.42%, t2 - 2.70% than germination in the dark at 25˚C, 30˚C and 5˚C.

  2. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity.

  3. Effects of water-saving superabsorbent polymer on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in oat (Avena sativa L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Robiul; Xue, Xuzhang; Mao, Sishuai; Ren, Changzhong; Eneji, A Egrinya; Hu, Yuegao

    2011-03-15

    Drought stress significantly limits oat (Avena sativa L.) growth and productivity. Thus an efficient management of soil moisture and study of metabolic changes in response to drought are important for improved production of oat. The objective was to gain a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improve soil water management strategies using water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) at 60 kg ha(-1) under three irrigation levels (adequate, moderate and deficit) using a new type of hydraulic pressure-controlled auto irrigator. The results showed that the relative water content and leaf water potential (ψ(1) ) were much higher in oats treated with SAP. Although the SAP had little effect on plant biomass accumulation under adequate and moderate irrigation, it significantly increased the biomass by 52.7% under deficit irrigation. Plants treated with SAP under deficit irrigation showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in leaves compared with control plants. Our results suggested that drought stress leads to production of oxygen radicals, which results in increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the plant, and the application of SAP could conserve soil water, making same available to plants for increased biomass accumulation and reduced oxidative stress especially under severe water stress. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

  5. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activities of colloidal oatmeal (Avena sativa) contribute to the effectiveness of oats in treatment of itch associated with dry, irritated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Garay, Michelle; Nebus, Judith; Chon, Suhyoun; Kaur, Simarna; Mahmood, Khalid; Kizoulis, Menas; Southall, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa) in colloidal form is a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin conditions, including skin rashes, erythema, burns, itch, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the exact mechanism of action for the anti-inflammatory activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were made with various solvents and tested in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant assays. In addition, an investigator blind study was performed with twenty-nine healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral mild to moderate itch with moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal diminished pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro and the colloidal oat skin protectant lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, scaling, roughness, and itch intensity. These results demonstrate that colloidal oat extracts exhibit direct anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which may provide the mechanisms for observed dermatological benefits while using the colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion.

  7. Pro-apoptotic properties of (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan from Avena sativa on human melanoma HTB-140 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzonko, Andrzej; Makarewicz-Wujec, Magdalena; Jaszewska, Edyta; Harasym, Joanna; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the growth-inhibitory effect of polysaccharide (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan from oat, Avena sativa L. grains was explored on the human skin melanoma HTB-140 cells in vitro. The oat β-D-glucan (OBG) exerted cytotoxic action on HTB-140 cells. After 24h of incubation, LD50 (concentration at which 50% of the cells were found dead) was obtained of 194.6 ± 9.8 μg/mL. The oat β-D-glucan caused a concentration-dependent increase of caspase-3/-7 activation and appearance of phosphatidylserine on the external surface of cellular membranes where it was bound to annexin V-FITC, demonstrating the induction of apoptosis. Intracellular ATP level decreased along with the mitochondrial potential, which suggested a mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. A cell cycle analysis showed increase in the number of apoptotic cells, increase in the number of cells in G1 phase and decrease in the number of cells in G2/M. Although the detailed mechanism for the anti-tumor activity of the oat β-D-glucan still needs further investigation, this study provides preliminary insights into this direction along with perspectives of developing it as an anti-tumor agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hormonal and gravitropic specificity in the regulation of growth and cell wall synthesis in pulvini and internodes from shoots of Avena sativa L. (oat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, M J

    1995-01-01

    Segments can be cut from the peduncular-1 internode of oat (Avena sativa L.) shoots so as to contain the graviresponsive leaf-sheath pulvinus and gibberellin-sensitive internodal tissue. Incorporation of [14C]glucose was used to monitor cell wall synthesis in these two tissues as affected by gravistimulus, indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and fusicoccin (FC). Pulvinar cell wall synthesis was promoted by IAA and FC (both within about 1 h), as well as by gravistimulus (starting between 3 and 6 h), whereas GA3 had no effect on nongravistimulated pulvini. In contrast, GA3 and FC promoted internodal cell wall synthesis (initiated between 1 and 2 h), whereas IAA and gravistimulus caused a decrease in internodal uptake. FC preferentially promoted incorporation into the matrix component of the wall in both tissues. Gravistimulus failed to increase responsiveness of pulvinar tissue to IAA, whereas GA3 partially overcame gravistimulus-promoted incorporation into pulvinar cell wall, probably because of preferential movement of label into the rapidly elongating internode. The results demonstrate that these eight stimulus/tissue combinations can be examined easily in an isolated 10-mm stem segment, providing new opportunities for the comparative study of tissue- and stimulus-specific events in gene regulation and signal transduction in agronomically important cereals. PMID:11536686

  9. A metabolomic study in oats (Avena sativa) highlights a drought tolerance mechanism based upon salicylate signalling pathways and the modulation of carbon, antioxidant and photo-oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Heald, Jim; Kingston-Smith, Alison; Winters, Ana; Rubiales, Diego; Sanz, Mariluz; Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Although a wealth of information is available on the induction of one or several drought-related responses in different species, little is known of how their timing, modulation and crucially integration influence drought tolerance. Based upon metabolomic changes in oat (Avena sativa L.), we have defined key processes involved in drought tolerance. During a time course of increasing water deficit, metabolites from leaf samples were profiled using direct infusion-electrospray mass spectroscopy (DI-ESI-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ESI-MS/MS and analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The involvement of metabolite pathways was confirmed through targeted assays of key metabolites and physiological experiments. We demonstrate an early accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) influencing stomatal opening, photorespiration and antioxidant defences before any change in the relative water content. These changes are likely to maintain plant water status, with any photoinhibitory effect being counteracted by an efficient antioxidant capacity, thereby representing an integrated mechanism of drought tolerance in oats. We also discuss these changes in relation to those engaged at later points, consequence of the different water status in susceptible and resistant genotypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew in cultivated oats (Avena sativa L.): current status of major genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsam, Sai L K; Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2014-05-01

    The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis.

  11. Chemical investigation of Nigella sativa L. seed oil produced in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Gharby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds are widely used in traditional Islamic medicine and for culinary purposes worldwide. Nigella seed oil is becoming popular in and out of the Islamic world. Composition of Nigella seed oil is known to be location-dependent. We investigated the composition of Nigella seed oil prepared by solvent- or cold press-extraction of Nigella seeds grown in Morocco. Oil extraction yield was 37% and 27% when solvent or cold press extraction methods were used, respectively. In terms of oil major components, composition of Nigella seed oil from Morocco is similar to that from other Mediterranean countries known for their Nigella seed-oil quality.

  12. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  13. Recent research on inherent molecular structure, physiochemical properties, and bio-functions of food and feed-type Avena sativa oats and processing-induced changes revealed with molecular microspectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, Luciana Louzada [Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; Yu, Peiqiang [Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

    2017-05-16

    Avena sativa oat is a cereal widely used as human food and livestock feed. However, the low metabolized energy and the rapid rumen degradations of protein and starch have limited the use of A. sativa oat grains. To overcome this disadvantage, new A. sativa oat varieties have been developed. Additionally, heat-related processing has been performed to decrease the degradation rate and improve the absorption of amino acids in the small intestine. The nutritive value is reflected by both chemical composition and inherent molecular structure conformation. However, the traditional wet chemical analysis is not able to detect the inherent molecular structures within an intact tissue. The advanced synchrotron-radiation and globar-based molecular microspectroscopy have been developed recently and applied to study internal molecular structures and the processing induced structure changes in A. sativa oats and reveal how molecular structure changes in relation to nutrient availability. This review aimed to obtain the recent information regarding physiochemical properties, molecular structures, metabolic characteristics of protein, and the heat-induced changes in new A. sativa oat varieties. The use of the advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy was emphasized, synchrotron- and globar-based (micro)spectroscopy, to reveal the inherent structure of A. sativa oats at cellular and molecular levels and to reveal the heat processing effect on the degradation characteristics and the protein molecular structure in A. sativa oats. The relationship between nutrient availability and protein molecular inherent structure was also presented. Information described in this review gives better insight in the physiochemical properties, molecular structure, and the heat-induced changes in A. sativa oat detected with advanced molecular spectroscopic techniques in combinination with conventional nutrition study techniques.

  14. Effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on lead-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is used in the manufacture of batteries, metal products, paints and other domestic substances. This study investigated the effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on leadinduced cerebral cortex toxicity in Long Evan's rats. Twenty five Long Evans rats divided into five groups of five animals were used for the study.

  15. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  16. The effects of Nigella sativa powder (black seed) and Echinacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa (NS) powder and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract (EP) on performance and some blood biochemical and haematological parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 144, one day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were divided into three treatment ...

  17. Nigella sativa (black seed) extract improves spatial learning abilityin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the memory enhancing effect of Nigella sativa Extract on mice using Morris Water Maze. The study was conducted on 30 Albino mice of both sexes randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 animals each. Group 1 served as control and was treated with oral distilled water, Groups 2, 3 and 4 ...

  18. Effect of Standardized Decoction of Nigella sativa Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The effect of the decoction on (a) mRNA and (b) protein expression of p53 and p21 genes in. HepG2 cells and mouse livers with ... tumour suppression and cell cycle arrest. Keywords: Hemidesmus indicus, Nigella sativa, Smilax glabra, HepG2 cells, Diethylnitrosamine, p53, p21. Received: 10 May 2011. Revised ...

  19. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  20. The impact of oat (Avena sativa) consumption on biomarkers of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: A parallel randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mortazavi Najafabadi, Mojgan; Surkan, Pamela J; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Azadbakht, Leila

    2018-02-01

    Animal studies report that oat (Avena sativa L) intake has favorable effects on kidney function. However, the effects of oat consumption have not been assessed in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of oat intake on biomarkers of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifty-two patients with CKD were randomly assigned to a control group (recommended to reduce intake of dietary protein, phosphorus, sodium and potassium) or an oat consumption group (given nutritional recommendations for controls +50 g/day oats). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), urine creatinine, serum albumin, serum potassium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum klotho and urine protein concentration were measured at baseline and after an eight-week intervention. Creatinine clearance was calculated using urine creatinine concentration. Within group analysis showed a significant increase in BUN (P = 0.02) and serum potassium (P = 0.01) and a marginally significant increment in SCr (P = 0.08) among controls. However, changes in the oat group were not significant. In a multivariate adjusted model, we observed a significant difference in change of serum potassium (-0.03 mEq/L for oat group and 0.13 mEq/L for control group; P = 0.01) and a marginally significant difference in change of serum albumin (0.01 g/dl for oat group and -0.08 for control group; P = 0.08) between the two groups. There was no change in PTH concentration. Intake of oats may have a beneficial effect on serum albumin and serum potassium in patients with CKD. Present study registered under IRCT.ir identifier no. IRCT2015050414551N2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications of Environmental Stress during Seed Development on Reproductive and Seed Bank Persistence Traits in Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Robert; Granger, Kristen; Snyder, Amanda; Pittmann, Dennis; Fuerst, E.

    2013-01-01

    Weeds produce seed under a wide range of conditions, depending on timing of emergence, prevailing crop, soil microsites, and climatic conditions, among other factors. We hypothesized that the maturation environment during weed seed development will influence reproductive allocation and seed persistence traits, such as seed dormancy and vigor, and needs to be considered when formulating weed management strategies. This research evaluated the effects of shade and drought stress on reproductive ...

  2. The Effects of Nigella Sativa Seed Extract on Bone Healing in an Experimental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezirganli, Seref; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Ozdemir, Hakan; Inan, Deniz Sahin; Tek, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to histologically evaluate the effects on bone healing of nigella sativa seed extract applied on calvarial defects in an ovariectomized rat model. The study included 32 female rats weighing 280 to 310 g with an average age of 3 months. A defect was created with a trephine burr on each rat calvarium. The rats were divided into 2 groups (control and study) of 8 animals each. All the defects were grafted with a gelatin sponge mixed with normal saline. In the study group, nigella sativa seed extract was applied systemically using an oro-gastric tube. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed after 2 weeks, and the others after 4 weeks. In the control groups, the defects were not completely filled with regenerated bone. Osteoblast cells were observed more in the study groups. A higher rate of osteoclasts was determined in the control groups. In addition, the nigella sativa group had a statistically greater amount of bone formation than the others group at both 2 weeks and 4 weeks (P nigella sativa seed extract demonstrated incredibly positive effects on enhanced bone healing in this experimental osteoporotic model.

  3. Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds against skin pustules infection. The in vivo anti-microbial effect of the Nigella sativa seeds extract at a concentration of 33% on pustules staphylococcal Skin Infections was assessed and compared with standard drug mupirocin on 40 neonates .All neonates were divided and examined into two experimental and control groups randomly. Recovery times were compared between two groups. The mean of recovery time in experimental group was 75/1 with SD= ± 12, and the mean of recovery time in control group was 69/4 with SD = ± 8/7.There was no significant difference in recovery time between two groups (p value = 0/131). In clinical practice, the agent of Nigella Sativa recovered as pustular from tissues of all patients. While the extract was as nearly effective as the standard drug, mupirocin, no side effect was observed.

  4. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  5. Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa Black Seed Oil And Freshly Crushed Seeds In Rats During Tumour Induction And Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, N.M.; Eldosoky, H.M.; Mohamed, H.E.; Noaman, E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potency of Nigella sativa freshly crushed seeds (0.42 g/ kg body weight) or oil (2.5 ml/kg body weight) for preventing tumor induction through exposure of rats to a common pollutant (1,4- Dioxane) as a promoter under condition of the presence of an initiator (N-nitrosodiethylamine). The antitumor effect was evaluated alone or in combination with low doses of irradiation as a route of cancer treatment. Female Swiss albino rats were administrated orally twice weekly with Nigella sativa before and during exposure of rats to the carcinogenic compounds. Animals were exposed to 3 doses of radiation (3 Gy/ dose) day after day 2 weeks before the end of the experiment. The animals were scarified after one week of radiation. Homocysteine,'glutathione, lipid peroxide, GGT activity, nitric oxide, total protein, albumin and bilirubin levels were estimated in blood after 7 and 12 months from the start of the experiment. Rats injected with the carcinogenic compounds showed marked elevation in homocysteine, GGT activity, nitric oxide, bilirubin and lipid peroxide levels accompanied by a significant decrease in glutathione, total proteins and albumin levels. Pretreatment with Nigella sativa alone or combined with γ- irradiation potentially reversed the investigated parameters. Moreover, Nigella sativa significantly suppressed the growth of the tumor and efficiently produced synergistic effect with γ-irradiation. Therefore, Nigella sativa may be a good candidate to prevent tumor induction and so, it is advicable to use freshly crushed seeds during irradiation treatment in cancer patients as they gave more effective protection than the oil extract.

  6. Effect of atmospheric plasma treatment on seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penado, Keith Nealson M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Culaba, Ivan B.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple methods of improving plant development have been utilized over the past decades. Despite these improvements, there still exists a need for better planting methods due to the increasing population of a global community. Studies have reported that plasma treatment affects the growth and germination of a variety of plant species, including a multitude of grains which often takes the bulk in the diet of the average human being. This study explores the effect of atmospheric air plasma jet treatment on the seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The seeds were treated using an atmospheric air plasma jet for 1, 2, and 3 s. The effect of plasma exposure shows a reduction of trichomes on the surface of the seed. This caused a possible increase in wettability which significantly affected the seed germ length but did not affect the seed germination count after the germination period of 72 h.

  7. Effects of Sowing Time on Yield of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. Ecotypes under Mashhad Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Javadi hedayat abad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and yield of medicinal plants affected by planting date as an important management factor. In order to study the effects of planting dates on yield and yield components of some black seed (Nigella sativa L. ecotypes, a field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design as a split-plot with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season 2009-2010. Four planting dates (24 Feb., 16 Mar., 4 Apr. and 25 Apr. and four black seed ecotypes (Birjand, Gonabad, Neyshabour and Sabzevar were allocated to the main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that there were significant differences between planting dates for number of follicles per plant, number of seeds per follicles and 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index. Maximum numbers of follicles per plant, number of seed per follicles, biological yield and seed yield were observed in first planting date, maximum 1000-seed weight was observed in fourth planting dates and maximum harvest index were recorded in the third planting date. Yield components, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index also were affected by ecotypes and interaction effects of planting dates and black cumin ecotypes. The highest and the lowest of all traits, expect 1000-seed weight were achieved in Gonabad and Neyshabour ecotypes, respectively. The maximum and minimum 1000-seed weights were obtained in Neyshabour and Gonabad ecotypes, respectively. Planting in 24 Feb., 16 Mar. and 4 Apr. have had high seed yield and there was a reduction on seed yield due to delay planting to 25 Apr. Also, Birjand ecotype in the last planting date had the highest seed yield. According to the seed yield, Gonabad and birjand ecotypes were better than from two other ecotypes in range of planting dates.

  8. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of the Protein Expression Profile in the Mature Nigella sativa (Black Seed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Alfadda, Assim A; AlYahya, Sami A; Alghamdi, Waleed M; Aljohi, Hasan A; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Masood, Afshan

    2016-08-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed has been used as an important nutritional flavoring agent and in traditional medicine for treating many illnesses since ancient times. Understanding the proteomic component of the seed may lead to enhance the understanding of its structural and biological functional complexity. In this study, we have analyzed its proteome profile based on gel-based proteome mapping technique that includes one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry strategy. We have not come across any such studies that have been performed in N. sativa seeds up to date. A total of 277 proteins were identified, and their functional, metabolic, and location-wise annotations were carried out using the UniProt database. The majority of proteins identified in the proteome dataset based on their function were those involved in enzyme catalytic activity, nucleotide binding, and protein binding while the major cellular processes included regulation of biological process followed by regulation of secondary biological process, cell organization and biogenesis, protein metabolism, and transport. The identified proteome was localized mainly to the nucleus then to the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, mitochondria, plastid, and others. A majority of the proteins were involved in biochemical pathways involving carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and shikimate pathway, lipid metabolism, nucleotide, cell organization and biogenesis, transport, and defense processes. The identified proteins in the dataset help to improve our understanding of the pathways involved in N. sativa seed metabolism and its biochemical features and detail out useful information that may help to utilize these proteins. This study could thus pave a way for future further high-throughput studies using a more targeted proteomic approach.

  10. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization with HPTLC fingerprinting of Nigella sativa L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Husain, Asif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Damanhouri, Zoheir A A; Bhandari, Anil

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to perform the physicochemical and phytochemical standardization with HPTLC fingerprinting of Nigella sativa seeds in order to establish the standard pharmacognostical parameters of this miracle herb. Different parameters like extractive values; total ash value, acid insoluble ash value and water soluble ash value, moisture content, loss on drying, pH values of Nigella sativa seeds were performed. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done to detect different phytoconstituents by using the Harborne's phytochemical methods. Quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents, determination of pesticides residues, aflatoxin and heavy metals were also carried out. HPTLC fingerprinting of methanolic extract was performed using CAMAG-HPTLC system connected with win CAT software. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts in different solvent revealed the presence of carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, saponins, lipids, sterols and tannins. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in methanolic extract was found to be 1.4 mg/gm and 9.8 mg/gm extract respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals were found within acceptable limits. Pesticides residues and aflatoxins were not detected. The physicochemical and phytochemical standards along with HPTLC fingerprint profile established as an outcome of this research may be utilized as substantial data for identification, purification and standardization of Nigella sativa seeds.

  11. Effects of seeding rates on forage yield and quality of oat ( Avena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forage availability and quality during the dry and cool season is a major constraint to dairy development in the Highlands of Madagascar. The objective of the present study was to determine optimal seeding of oat and common vetch mixtures for increased production and quality of forage. The study was conducted under ...

  12. NEPHROPROTECTIVE AND DIURETIC EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L SEEDS OIL ON LITHIASIC WISTAR RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhelima, Abdelkader; Kaid-Omar, Zohra; Hemida, Houari; Benmahdi, Tarek; Addou, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to study the influences, preventive and diuretic, of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil (NSSO) on calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis induced in Wistar male rats. Methodology: Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (N.S) were analysed for the evaluation of the concentration of oxalate and calcium. Nigella sativa L. seeds oil is obtained by hydrodistillation and HPTLC densitometric method was adopted to determine the amount of thymoquinone (TQ) present. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (N=6). Group I, negative control, drank tap water. The other groups were II Positive control, III, IV and V received a treatment model inducing calcium oxalate urolithiasis for 28 days, using an aqueous solution involve 0.75% (EG) ethylene glycol and 1.0 % (AC) chloride ammonium. Rats in group III received in addition, 750 mg/kg Cystone from the beginning to the end of calculi induction experimentation. However, rats in Groups IV and V received (NSSO) at 5 ml/kg b.w by gavage on days 1st to 28th and 15th to 28th days, respectively. On days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, body weights were measured and the 24-hour urine samples were accumulated and analysed for biochemical elements. On the 28th day, blood samples were collected for the estimation of serum parameters including creatinine, BUN and uric acid. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and the kidneys were detached for histopathological examination. Results: Administration of (NSSO) at 5 ml/kg body weight/dose/day for 28 days exerts a protective effect by reducing significantly (p <0.01) urinary and serum rates of calcium, phosphate and oxalate. This preventive diet could increase the volume of urine excreted. Conclusion: The nephroprotectrice and diuretic activity demonstrated by Nigella sativa L. gives a scientific basis that approves their traditional use like a remedy against urolithiasis. List of Abbreviations: NSSO: Nigella sativa L. Seeds oil

  13. NEPHROPROTECTIVE AND DIURETIC EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L SEEDS OIL ON LITHIASIC WISTAR RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhelima, Abdelkader; Kaid-Omar, Zohra; Hemida, Houari; Benmahdi, Tarek; Addou, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to study the influences, preventive and diuretic, of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil ( NSSO ) on calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis induced in Wistar male rats. Seeds of Nigella sativa L. ( N.S ) were analysed for the evaluation of the concentration of oxalate and calcium. Nigella sativa L. seeds oil is obtained by hydrodistillation and HPTLC densitometric method was adopted to determine the amount of thymoquinone (TQ) present. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups ( N =6). Group I, negative control, drank tap water. The other groups were II Positive control, III, IV and V received a treatment model inducing calcium oxalate urolithiasis for 28 days, using an aqueous solution involve 0.75% (EG) ethylene glycol and 1.0 % (AC) chloride ammonium. Rats in group III received in addition, 750 mg/kg Cystone from the beginning to the end of calculi induction experimentation. However, rats in Groups IV and V received ( NSSO ) at 5 ml/kg b.w by gavage on days 1 st to 28 th and 15 th to 28 th days, respectively. On days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, body weights were measured and the 24-hour urine samples were accumulated and analysed for biochemical elements. On the 28 th day, blood samples were collected for the estimation of serum parameters including creatinine, BUN and uric acid. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and the kidneys were detached for histopathological examination. Administration of ( NSSO ) at 5 ml/kg body weight/dose/day for 28 days exerts a protective effect by reducing significantly (p Nigella sativa L. gives a scientific basis that approves their traditional use like a remedy against urolithiasis. List of Abbreviations: NSSO: Nigella sativa L. Seeds oil ; CaOx: Calcium Oxalate; N.S: Nigella sativa L.; HPTLC: High performance thin layer chromatography; TQ: Thymoquinone; N: Number; EG: Ethylene Glycol; AC: Chloride Ammonium BUN: Blood Urea Nitrogen; LD 50 : Lethal Dose 50; b.w: body weight

  14. A new chromosome nomenclature system for oat (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) based on FISH analysis of monosomic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M J; Jellen, E N; Loarce, Y; Irigoyen, M L; Ferrer, E; Fominaya, A

    2010-11-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple probes was used to analyze mitotic and meiotic chromosome spreads of Avena sativa cv 'Sun II' monosomic lines, and of A. byzantina cv 'Kanota' monosomic lines from spontaneous haploids. The probes used were A. strigosa pAs120a (a repetitive sequence abundant in A-genome chromatin), A. murphyi pAm1 (a repetitive sequence abundant in C-genome chromatin), A. strigosa pITS (internal transcribed spacer of rDNA) and the wheat rDNA probes pTa71 (nucleolus organizer region or NOR) and pTa794 (5S). Simultaneous and sequential FISH employing pairs of these probes allowed the identification and genome assignation of all chromosomes. FISH mapping using mitotic and meiotic metaphases facilitated the genomic and chromosomal identification of the monosome in each line. Of the 17 'Sun II' lines analyzed, 13 distinct monosomic lines were found, corresponding to four monosomes of the A-genome, five of the C-genome and four of the D-genome. In addition, 12 distinct monosomic lines were detected among the 20 'Kanota' lines examined, corresponding to six monosomes of the A-genome, three of the C-genome and three of the D-genome. The results show that 19 chromosomes out of 21 of the complement are represented by monosomes between the two genetic backgrounds. The identity of the remaining chromosomes can be deduced either from one intergenomic translocation detected on both 'Sun II' and 'Kanota' lines, or from the single reciprocal, intergenomic translocation detected among the 'Sun II' lines. These results permit a new system to be proposed for numbering the 21 chromosome pairs of the hexaploid oat complement. Accordingly, the A-genome contains chromosomes 8A, 11A, 13A, 15A, 16A, 17A and 19A; the C-genome contains chromosomes 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C, 5C, 6C and 7C; and the D-genome consists of chromosomes 9D, 10D, 12D, 14D, 18D, 20D and 21D. Moreover, the FISH patterns of 16 chromosomes in 'Sun II' and 15 in 'Kanota' suggest that these

  15. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa.

  16. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n  =  15), 50% hemp seed (n  =  15) or basal diet (n  =  15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts in their diets. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been monitored using the forced swim test. Rats treated with Nigella sativa L. oil exhibited a significant increase in struggling time after oral administration of Nigella sativa L. oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) for four weeks. Nigella sativa L. oil increased brain 5-HT levels and decreased 5-HT turnover (5-HT/5-HIAA ratio). Levels of tryptophan increased significantly in the brain and plasma following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil. Nigella sativa L. oil showed a potential antidepressant-like effect. PMID:24634848

  18. Protective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds and oil against columnaris disease in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2016-06-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is currently the most frequently reported bacterial disease affecting farm-raised channel catfish in the USA. Common treatments against the disease include the use of medicated feed that has led to emergent antibiotic resistant strains of F. columnare. Nigella sativa (Black cumin) is a medicinal herb commonly used by many cultures as a natural remedy for numerous disorders. Recently, we have discovered the antibacterial activity of N. sativa and its oil extract against F. columnare. In this study, we showed N. sativa oil (NSO) strongly inhibited the growth of all of the strains of F. columnare tested and yielded significantly larger zones of inhibition than those produced by oxytetracyclin. We tested the protective effect against columnaris disease in vivo by incorporating NSO (5%) or N. sativa seeds (NSS) (5%) into fish feeds. Fishes (Ictalurus punctatus and Danio rerio) fed amended diets displayed significantly lower mortality than those fed control diets. Per cent mortalities in control groups ranged from 77% to 44% and from 70% to 18% in zebrafish and channel catfish, respectively. A dose study using different NSS concentrations showed that 5% NSS offered the most protection against columnaris disease in channel catfish. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of post-germinative lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant potential in lead absorbing oat (Avena sativa) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Pal, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Rajesh; Singh, Archana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the impact of lead (Pb) on growth, metal uptake and antioxidative potential of oat seeds under metal stress. To achieve these objectives, few experiments were conducted to assess the effect of this particular metal on various anti-oxidative enzymes, during initial metabolism after germination, in presence of lead. Pb is not an oxido-reducing metal, the oxidative stress induced by Pb in growing oat seedlings appears to be an indirect effect of Pb toxicity, leading to production of ROS with simultaneous decrease in tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Content of free radical like superoxide anion and metabolite such as H2O2 were found to be more in plumule as compared to radical and endosperm of oat seedling. In response to various concentrations of lead ranging from 25-400 ppm, activities of peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were induced in plumule, radical and cotyledon on the 3rd, 6th and 9th days after germination. Growth parameters like length, fresh weight and dry weight were substantially affected in addition to reduced germination upto 49% only. The results indicated that even at the lowest concentration tested, a low inhibition of growth was obtained.

  20. Seed oil bodies from Gevuina avellana and Madia sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina; Navarrete, Patricia; Romero, Fernando; Rabert, Claudia; Jolivet, Pascale; Valot, Benoît; Chardot, Thierry

    2012-07-18

    In this study, oil bodies (OBs) from Gevuina avellana (OBs-G) and Madia sativa (OBs-M) were isolated and characterized. Microscopic inspection revealed that the monolayer on OB-G was thinner compared to that on OB-M. Cytometric profiles regarding size, complexity, and staining for the two OB sources were similar. Fatty acid to protein mass ratio in both OBs was near 29, indicating high lipid enrichment. OBs-G and OBs-M showed a strong electrostatic repulsion over wide ranges of pH (5.5-9.5) and NaCl concentration (0-150 mM). Proteins displaying highly conserved sequences (steroleosins and aquaporins) in the plant kingdom were identified. The presence of oleosins was immunologically revealed using antibodies raised against Arabidopsis thaliana oleosins. OBs-G and OBs-M exhibited no significant cytotoxicity against the cells. This is the first report about the isolation and characterization of OBs-G and OBs-M, and this knowledge could be used for novel applications of these raw materials.

  1. Prévalence de Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, agent des rayures bactériennes du riz dans les semences de base produites au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Dakouo, D.; Ouedraogo, SL.; Somda, I.; Mortensen, CN.

    2005-01-01

    Prevalence of Bacterial Stripe Organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, in Breeder Rice Seed Samples from Burkina Faso. Nine rice seed samples of improved and local varieties were tested at DGISP (Denmark) for the incidence of seed-borne bacterial stripe organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, using the cassette holder method. Twenty-six suspected bacterial colonies were identified by different methods including colony morphology, pigmentation, biochemical and pathogenicity tests. Using ...

  2. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  3. Use of Embryos Extracted from Individual Cannabis sativa Seeds for Genetic Studies and Forensic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Salvador; Borràs, Dionís; Vilanova, Santiago; Sifres, Alicia; Andújar, Isabel; Figàs, Maria R; Llosa, Ernesto R; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamosa, Abdullah O; Kaatabi, Huda; Lebdaa, Fatma M; Elq, Abdul-Muhssen Al; Al-Sultanb, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease affecting millions of people world wide. Standard treatment is failing to achieve required correction of blood glucose in many patients. Therefore, there is a need for investigating potential hypoglycemic drugs or herbs to improve glycemic control in diabetic patients. Nigella sativa seeds were used as an adjuvant therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 added to their anti-diabetic medications. A total of 94 patient were recruited and divided randomly into three dose groups. Capsules containing Nigella sativa were administered orally in a dose of 1, 2 and 3 gm/day for three months. The effect of Nigella sativa on the glycemic control was assessed through measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood glucose level 2 hours postprandially (2 hPG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Serum C-peptide and changes in body weight were also measured. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated usin the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA2). Nigella sativa at a dose of 2 gm/day caused significant reductions in FBG, 2hPG, and HbA1 without significant change in body weight. Fasting blood glucose was reduced by an average of 45, 62 and 56 mg/dl at 4, 8 and 12 weeks respectively. HbAlC was reduced by 1.52% at the end of the 12 weeks of treatment (PNigella sativa in a dose of 1 gm/day also showed trends in improvement in all the measured parameters but it was not statistically significant from the baseline. However, no further increment in the beneficial response was observed with the 3 gm/day dose. The three doses of Nigella sativa used in the study did not adversely affect either renal functions or hepatic functions of the diabetic patients throughout the study period. the results of this study indicate that a dose of 2 gm/ day of Nigella sativa might be a beneficial adjuvant to oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetic patients.

  5. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Hu

    Full Text Available With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt. was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0 and myristate (C14:0 were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0, from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  6. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on oxidative stress in hippocampus of STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Niazmand, Saeed; Mahmoudabady, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetic complications. Diabetes impairs hippocampus neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats' hippocampus. Diabetes induced by 60 mg/kg STZ, i.p, and the rats were divided into five experimental groups (n=8-10 in each group) including control (received 0.5 ml normal saline), untreated STZ-diabetic (received 0.5 ml normal saline), and treated rats received Nigella sativa extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) or metformin (300 mg/kg) by gavage for 42 days. Serum glucose concentration and body weight as well as hippocampus tissue malondialdehyde and thiol levels were determined by calorimetric assay. Serum glucose level in the diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg Nigella sativa extract at the days 24 and 45 decreased in comparison to untreated diabetic group (pNigella sativa extract at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg (pNigella sativa extract in comparison to untreated diabetic group (pNigella sativa extract, 200 mg/kg (pNigella sativa decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Nigella sativa at the dose of 200 mg/kg was more effective to reduce oxidative stress in hippocampus of rats.

  7. Impact of Thiamethoxam Seed Treatment on Growth and Yield of Rice, Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanka, S K; Senthil-Nathan, S; Blouin, D J; Stout, M J

    2017-04-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are widely used in agriculture. In rice, Oryza sativa L., in the southern United States, neonicotinoid seed treatments are used to manage early-season populations of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. In addition to their effects on pests, neonicotinoid seed treatments may benefit crop plants directly by increasing plant growth or altering plant responses to stresses. As part of an effort to assess the overall benefits of thiamethoxam seed treatment in rice, rice emergence, growth, and yield were evaluated. In a growth chamber, rice emergence from the soil was 1-2 d more rapid from treated than untreated seeds. These laboratory results were supported by field experiments that revealed higher stand counts from thiamethoxam-treated plots than from untreated plots. Yields from thiamethoxam treatments were no higher than those from untreated plots under conditions in which weevil larvae were absent, a result inconsistent with the hypothesis that thiamethoxam imparts direct yield benefits. In a series of field experiments conducted to compare the relationship between weevil larval densities and rice yields in plots treated with several rates of thiamethoxam or chlorantraniliprole (another widely used seed treatment insecticide), the relationship between weevil density and yield did not differ markedly among both seed treatments. Overall yields from both seed treatments did not differ significantly, despite more effective control in chlorantraniliprole-treated plots. These results provide strong support for effect of thiamethoxam on early-season growth of rice, but only weak support for its direct effect on rice yields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youjun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2 promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

  9. study the chemical composition of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa) from different regions of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandi, I.; Naouili, J.; Ebbadi, N.; Zoubir, B.; Ouichou, A.; Mesfioui, A

    2009-01-01

    The nigella (Nigella sativa), one of Ranunculaceae family, includes about 25 species of the Mediterranean. In Morocco, it is cultivated in fields in the region of Gharb, in the Rif and in the oases of the south. On the pharmacological level, the nigella seed has many therapeutic properties (anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, immune modulator, antihistaminic, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anti-ulcerogenic, analgesic and diuretic ...). In terms of chemicals, the nigella seeds contain several organic and inorganic substances. This work aims to characterize chemical and physico-chemical varieties of Nigella sativa seed from different regions of Morocco. The nigella oil were extracted by Soxhlet method and analyzed by HPLC. The total and soluble proteins were evaluated by the Bradford method. The mineral composition was determined by atomic emission spectrometer and identification of certain chemical groups present in the seeds by testing phytochemicals. Preliminary results show that the nigella found in Moroccan herbalists, contains: (35% to 43.33%) from fat, 31% protein, water content (6.8% to 8.8%) The ash content (4.05% to 4.55%). These ashes show varying amounts of macromolecules and trace elements: K (9.38 to 13.81%), Ca (5.17% to 8.18%), P (4.115 to 9.10%), Mg (2.61 to 5.15%), Zn (0.13 to 0.25%), Na (0.04 to 0.44%), Cu (0.09 to 0.26%), Fe ( 0.09 to 0.21%), Mn (0.02 to 0.05%). The oil analysis extracts by HPLC showed that the different varieties contain the same compound with an average retention time of 3.03 min, but does not show the same concentration of that compound. The chemical screening of Nigella sativa has highlighted the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and the absence of quinones and saponins. These findings have allowed a better understanding of nigella seeds from different regions of Morocco and a better appreciation of our natural resources. They will be used as the basis for the different possibilities of use of the plant. [fr

  10. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract on cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, Ambreena; Nazir, Shahid; Khushtar, Mohammad; Mishra, Anuradha; Jahan, Yasmeen; Ahmad, Asad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract against cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying, in a rat model. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups as follows: Group I or control group, Group II (cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p at day 5), Group III (N. sativa L. 250 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5), Group IV (N. sativa L. 500 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5) and Group V (ondansetron 3 mg/kg/day, per os + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5). Phenol red meal was adopted to estimate gastric emptying in different groups of the rats. Gastric emptying was significantly increased (p < 0.01) in N. sativa L. seed extract-pretreated rats (Group III and Group IV) when compared to cisplatin treatment alone (Group II). However, ondansetron produced significantly (p < 0.01) better reversal than N. sativa L. seed extract.

  12. Clinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Dianatkhah, Mehrnoush; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Natural products are proved to play a good role as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in many clinical conditions. Hypercholesterolemia is the most important risk factor for atherosclerosis. Previous studies showed that Nigella sativa L. has both antioxidant and lipid lowering potentials. To evaluate the efficacy of the seeds of Nigella sativa on the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial which was conducted in Isfahan city (Iran), 88 subjects aged > or =18 years with a total cholesterol concentration >200 mg/dl were included. According to the patients" profiles number, they were randomized to receive either N. sativa capsules or the matching placebo. Each N sativa capsule contained 500 +/- 10 mg N. sativa crushed seeds, and patients had to take 2 g N. sativa per day for 4 weeks. Fasting baseline laboratory values (fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and triglyceride) were obtained for all parameters on each subject prior to the start of the study and at the end of 4 weeks. In our study a significant decrease was observed in the concentration of total cholesterol (4.78%), Low density lipoprotein (7.6%) and Triglyceride (16.65%), and this decrease was more significant for TG concentration. N. sativa had not any beneficial effects on Fasting blood sugar and High density lipoprotein. According to the results of our present study it seems that N. sativa may have some beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, further investigations with a larger sample size are necessary.

  13. Protective effect of Nigella sativa seeds against spermatocyte chromosomal aberrations and genotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M; Essawy, Amina E; Hamed, Sherifa S; Abou-Gabal, Ashgan A; Alzergy, Aglal A

    2017-04-01

    Nigella sativa is a well-known dietary antioxidant and a valuable inhibitor of clastogenesis and carcinogenesis. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effects of N. sativa seeds against chromosomal aberrations in primary spermatocytes and early embryonic lethality induced by CCl 4 hepatotoxin in Swiss albino mice. One hundred male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into five groups. Groups I, II, and III received only normal saline, olive oil, and aqueous suspension of N. sativa seeds (50 mg/kg b.w.), while groups IV and V were orally given CCl 4 dissolved in olive oil at a dose level of 1.9 (¼ LD 50 ) alone and with aqueous suspension of N. sativa seeds (50 mg/kg b.w.) alternately. Aqueous extract of N. sativa significantly reduced the elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by CCl 4 in mouse primary spermatocytes. For the male-dominant lethal test, four males from each group (control and experimental) were used and each male was mated for 13 days to two untreated virgin females. On days 14-16 after breeding, all the females were evaluated for incidence of pregnancy, live implants, and fetal deaths. Treatment with 1/4 LD 50 of CCl 4 induced positive dominant lethal mutation, reflecting a high rate of deformations in male germ cells. Interestingly, no dominant lethal mutations were recorded in females mated to male mice treated with CCl 4 plus N. sativa. Under the experimental conditions of this study, our results highlight the beneficial role of N. sativa against CCl 4 -induced mutagenicity.

  14. COMPARITIVE GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF OAT (Avena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knsccf

    ... diversity, inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), morphology, oat, relationship. INTRODUCTION. Oat (Avena sativa L.) is one of the most important forage and feed crops of the world. Oat is used as green fodder, straw, hay or silage. Oat grain makes a good balanced concentrate in the rations for poultry, cattle, sheep and.

  15. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-01-01

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arbore...

  16. Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena

    2011-08-24

    The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals.

  17. Ecotoxicological impact of two soil remediation treatments in Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rede, Diana; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramos, Sandra; Oliva-Teles, Filipe; Antão, Cristina; Sousa, Susana R; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been identified as environmental emerging pollutants and are present in different compartments, including soils. Chemical remediation showed to be a good and suitable approach for soil remediation, though the knowledge in their impact for terrestrial organisms is still limited. Therefore, in this work, two different chemical remediation treatments (Fenton oxidation and nanoremediation) were applied to a soil contaminated with an environmental representative concentration of ibuprofen (3 ng g(-1)). The phytotoxic impact of a traditional soil remediation treatment (Fenton oxidation) and of a new and more sustainable approach for soil remediation (nanoremediation using green nano-scale zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs)) was evaluated in Lactuca sativa seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of the soil remediation treatments as well as of the ibuprofen contaminated soil. Both chemical remediation treatments showed to have a negative impact in the germination and development of lettuce seeds, exhibiting a reduction up to 45% in the percentage of seed germination and a decrease around 80% in root elongation comparatively to the contaminated soil. These results indicate that chemical soil remediation treatments could be more prejudicial for terrestrial organisms than contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 μg/ml, 2.20 μg/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  19. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; Marín-Aguilar, F; García-Giménez, M D; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2014-02-05

    Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L., collectively namely as "hemp", have been an interesting source of food, fiber, and medicine for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. The lipid profile showed that linoleic (55%), α-linolenic (16%), and oleic (11%) were the most abundant fatty acids. A yield (1.84-1.92%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained, and the most interesting compounds were β-sitosterol (1905.00 ± 59.27 mg/kg of oil), campesterol (505.69 ± 32.04 mg/kg of oil), phytol (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/kg of oil), cycloartenol (90.55 ± 3.44 mg/kg of oil), and γ-tocopherol (73.38 ± 2.86 mg/100 g of oil). This study is an interesting contribution for C. sativa L. consideration as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to novel research applications for hemp seed oil in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic food, and other non-food industries.

  20. Protective effect of black seed oil of nigella sativa in rats during tumour induction and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.I.M.

    2007-01-01

    the present study was conducted to evaluate the potency of nigella sativa freshly crushed seeds (0.42 g/kg body weight) or oil ( 2.5 ml/kg body weight) for preventing tumor induction through exposure of rats to a common pollutant (1,4- dioxane) as a promoter under condition of the presence of an initiator ( N-nitrosodiethylamine). the antitumor effect was evaluated alone or in combination with low doses of γ-irradiation as a route of cancer treatment. female swiss albino rats were administered orally twice weekly with nigella sativa before and during exposure of rats to the carcinogenic compounds. animals were exposed to 3 doses of radiation (3 Gy/dose) day after day 2 weeks before the end of the experiment . the animals were sacrificed after one week of radiation, homocysteine, glutathione, lipid peroxide, GGT activity, nitric oxide, total protein, albumin and bilirubin levels were estimated in blood after 7 and 12 months from the start of the experiment .this work also includes histopathological study.rats injected with the carcinogenic compounds showed marked elevation in homocysteine, GGT activity, nitric oxide, bilirubin and lipid peroxide levels accompanied by a significant decrease in glutathione, total proteins and albumin levels

  1. Dissimilaridade genética em mutantes de aveia tolerantes e sensíveis a ácidos orgânicos Genetic dissimilarity (Avena Sativa L. tolerant and sensitive mutants to organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velci Queiroz de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Para que o cultivo da aveia (Avena sativa L. seja também alternativa economicamente viável em solos de várzea, faz-se necessário a utilização de cultivares tolerantes aos principais ácidos orgânicos produzidos pela decomposição da matéria orgânica gerada em cultivos com plantio direto. Este trabalho objetivou determinar a dissimilaridade genética entre famílias mutantes M3 e a cultivar UFRGS 14 de aveia mediante a utilização de marcadores ISSR, e detectar regiões genômicas associadas ao caráter tolerância a ácidos orgânicos. Foram avaliadas 30 famílias mutantes (M3, pertencentes ao banco de mutantes de aveia do Centro de Genômica e Fitomelhoramento da Faculdade de Agronomia "Eliseu Maciel". As famílias estudadas foram originadas da cultivar UFRGS 14 irradiada com raios gama (Co60 na dose de 400 Gy. A caracterização genética foi realizada utilizando-se a técnica de marcadores ISSR. Pelos resultados verifica-se que os oligonucleotídeos UBC 854, 855, e 811 permitiram detectar regiões genômicas relacionadas à tolerância à toxicidade por ácidos orgânicos, enquanto os oligonucleotídeos UBC 850 e 826 possibilitaram identificar regiões genômicas associadas à sensibilidade.In order to cultivate oats (Avena sativa L. as an economically alternative in low lands, it is necessary to use cultivars tolerant to the main organic acids produced by organic matter decomposition resulting from no tillage systems. The objectives of this work were estimate genetic dissimilarity among m3 mutant families and the oat cultivar UFRGS 14 using ISSR markers; and to detect genomic regions associated with organic acids toxicity. Thirty M3 mutant families from the Plant Genomic Center of the College of Agronomy "Eliseu Maciel", derived from the cultivar UFRGS 14 irradiated with gamma ray (Co60 at 400 Gy dosage were used. The genetic characterization was carried out using the ISSR marker technique. The results indicated that UBC 854, 855

  2. Simultaneous Targeting of Multiple Gene Homeologs to Alter Seed Oil Production in Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Moreno, J A; Durrett, T P

    2017-07-01

    The ability to transform Camelina sativa easily with biosynthetic enzymes derived from other plants has made this oil seed crop an ideal platform for the production of unusual lipids valuable for different applications. However, in addition to expressing transgenic enzymes, the suppression of endogenous enzyme activity to reduce competition for common substrates or cofactors is also required to enhance the production of target compounds. As camelina possesses a relatively undifferentiated hexaploid genome, up to three gene homeologs can code for any particular enzymatic activity, complicating efforts to alter endogenous biosynthetic pathways. New genome editing technologies, such as that offered by the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein) system, offer the capability to introduce mutations into specifically targeted genomic sites. Here, by using a carefully designed guide RNA identical to all three homeologs, we demonstrate the ability of the CRISPR/Cas genome editing system to introduce mutations in all three CsDGAT1 or CsPDAT1 homeologous genes important for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in developing seeds. Sequence analysis from transgenic T1 plants revealed that each CsDGAT1 or each CsPDAT1 homeolog was altered by multiple mutations, resulting in a genetic mosaic in the plants. Interestingly, seed harvested from both CsDGAT1- and CsPDAT1-targeted lines was often shrunken and wrinkled. Further, lipid analysis revealed that many lines produced seed with reduced oil content and altered fatty acid composition, consistent with the role of the targeted genes in seed oil biosynthesis. The CRISPR/Cas system therefore represents a useful method to alter endogenous biosynthetic pathways efficiently in polyploid species such as camelina. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on long-storage seeds of Oryza sativa (cv. 2233) and their surface infecting fungal diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, J.P. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal (India); University Grant Commission, Department of Atomic Energy Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, 3/LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jyoti_maity@yahoo.com; Kar, S. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal (India); Banerjee, S. [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States); Chakraborty, A. [University Grant Commission, Department of Atomic Energy Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, 3/LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Santra, S.C. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal (India)

    2009-11-15

    We have reported an effective {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation method for the removal and long-time prevention of contaminating fungi of Oryza sativa cv-2233, without the losses of seed viabilities. The fungal growth and their population on gamma treated seeds was found to decrease significantly (p<0.05) with the increasing irradiation dose and storage time. Immediately after irradiation, the depletion of fungal population on rice seed was noticed (>50%) at 2 kGy, whereas total inhibition was noticed at 3 kGy after 1.5 month.

  4. Vasorelaxant effect of essential oil isolated from Nigella sativa L. seeds in rat aorta: Proposed mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui-Tangi, Khadija; Israili, Zafar Hasan; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds (Nigella oil) was investigated for its vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aorta. Nigella oil at concentrations of 10-100 μg/mL elicited a dose-dependent relaxation of the aorta, which was pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA, 10(-6) M) or KCl (100mM). In the presence of Nigella oil (75 μg/mL, the dose response curves to increasing concentrations of NA (10(-9) M to 10(-4)M) or KCl (10mM-100mM) were displaced downwards, indicating inhibition of the vasoconstrictive effect. This relaxation effect was independent of the presence of endothelium. In addition, the vasodilatory activity of the Nigella oil was not affected by pre-treatment of the rings with N(G)-nitro-L-Arginine (an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase; 0.1mM), suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect is not mediated by nitric oxide. Furthermore, pre-treatment of the rings with Nigella oil (75 μg/mL suppressed the tension increment produced by increasing external calcium concentration (0.25 mM to 1.5mM). Tin conclusion, the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa seeds produces smooth muscle relaxation, which is independent of endothelium and is not mediated by nitric oxide. The results also suggest that the vasorelaxing effect of the oil results from the blockade of both voltage-sensitive and receptor-operated calcium channels, and this may have therapeutic significance, in that Nigella oil may be useful as an antihypertensive agent in humans.

  5. The Protective Role of Black Seeds (Nigella sativa) on the Tissues of Liver and Kidney in Female Rabbits Treated with Green Lean Body Capsule

    OpenAIRE

    Muna M. Ismail; Rabab A. Naser; Mohammed Saad Almuslehi; Ahmmed M. Salah

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae herbaceous plant), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are used as herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of disease and conditions like asthma, diarrhea and dyslipidaemia. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa in protection of the liver and kidney tissues against pathological changes caused by green lean body capsule in female rabbits. Fifteen female rabbits w...

  6. Effect of Black Seed (Negella Sativa) Supplementation on Dairy Ewes3 Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty lactating ewes, being 3-4 years old and weighting an average of 40.05 Kg divided into 2 equal groups, ach of 10 animals. Ewes were weighed immediately postpartum and at weaning their lambs. Ewes were fed basal diet consisted of green berseem, rice straw and concentrate feed mixture at the rate of 15:20:65 on DM basis. The second one was fed on basal diet without supplemented and served as control. The second one was fed on basal diet and supplemented with black seed (nigella sativa) at the rate of 5 g-daily/each animal. Milk and blood samples were collected every two weeks postpartum until weaning. Daily milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk, fat, fat yield, protein and protein yield values were significantly (P>0.05) higher in the treated group than control one. Lactose percentage was significantly lower in ewes' milk fed black seeds diet than that fed control diet. The body weight of treated owes and their lambs were significantly higher than that fed control diet. Concentration of serum protein fractions, urea-N, aspartic transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and values of control one. Creatinine, alanine transaminase (ALT) and thyronine (T4) hormone did not significantly differ among the experimental groups. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration were markedly significantly lower in the treated group than control one

  7. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bingham

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids. However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  8. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-05-31

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids). However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  9. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-01-01

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids). However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed. PMID:27137379

  10. Supplementation of Powdered Black Cumin (Nigella sativa Seeds Reduces the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tauseef Sultan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional and nutraceutical foods are gaining immense popularity among the masses. Plants and their bioactive molecules are of prime importance. Although various plants from different geographical areas have been tested in the past, many horizons still need to be addressed. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. is one such example that is quite popular in South Asia and the Middle East. Context and purpose: The present research study was designed to expedite the role of black cumin seed in reducing the risk of hypercholesterolemia. For the purpose, thirty Sprague dawley rats were procured from the National Institute of Health (NIH in Islamabad, Pakistan, and further split up into three groups, (10 rats each. Experimental diets were prepared using powdered black cumin (PBC at 1% and 2%, and compared with the placebo. Results: The results revealed that PBC was effective in reducing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL. Additionally, the experimental diets resulted in a non-significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Overall, powdered black cumin at 1% and 2% reduced cholesterol level by 6.73, and 4.48%, LDL by 24.79, and 24.32% respectively. However, the supplementation of PBC at 2% resulted in marked variations as increasing tendency, which was recorded for cholesterol and triglycerides contents after 28 days of study. Conclusion: Present research investigation brightened the prospects of using powdered black cumin seed in diet based therapies to improve the lipid profile. Further studies are still required to assess the phytochemistry of the plants and indeed the functional ingredients responsible for such health benefits. Such studies would bring meticulousness for utilization of black cumin seeds as a functional food.

  11. Effect of Gamma Radiation on In Vitro Multiple Shoot Formation of Aromatic Rice Seeds (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sripichitt, P.; Saengkaewsook, W.; Tangman, P.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of exposure dose of gamma radiation on multiple shoot formation of aromatic rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.c v. Khao Dawk Mali 105) was investigated. The seeds were irradiated by gamma radiation with varying exposure doses of 0,4,8,12,16,20,24,28,32,36,40 and 44 krad. After irradiation, the seeds were surface sterilized and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with benzyl adenine 25 mg/1 to induce multiple shoot formation. After 5 weeks cultured the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds and the number of shoots per seed were counted. It was found that the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds was increased from 45.9 per mille in the control to 83.3 per mille in seeds irradiated at 24 krad. At the exposure dose of 28 krad the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds was decreased to 80 per mille and was lowest (11.4 per mille) at 40 krad. Multiple shoots formation was completely inhibited at the highest exposure dose of 44 krad. The exposure dose required to reduce the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds by 50 percent (R D 5 0) was 38 krad. Similarly, the number of shoots per multiple shoot-forming seed was increasing as the exposure dose increased from 5.7 shoots in the control to 21.3 shoots in seeds irradiated at 40 krad. The number of shoots per seed was zero at the exposure dose of 44 krad. The multiple shoots regenerated from irradiated seeds were rooted. Then the M 1 R 1 plant lets were transplanted into pots grown under greenhouse conditions

  12. Short communication: Evaluation of a model for predicting Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia seed emergence in winter rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aboutalebian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia are two important annual weeds throughout winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. production systems in the semiarid region of Iran. Timely and more accurate control of both species may be developed if there is a better understanding of its emergence patterns. Non-linear regression techniques are usually unable to accurately predict field emergence under such environmental conditions. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the emergence patterns of A. fatua and D. sophia and determine if emergence could be predicted using cumulative soil thermal time in degree days (CTT. In the present work, cumulative seedling emergence from a winter rapeseed field during 3 years data set was fitted to cumulative soil CTT using Weibull and Gompertz functions. The Weibull model provided a better fit, based on coefficient of determination (R2sqr, root mean square of error (RMSE and Akaike index (AICd, compared to the Gompertz model between 2013 and 2016 seasons for both species. Maximum emergence of A. fatua occured 70-119 days after sowing or after equals 329-426 °Cd, while in D. sophia it occurred 119-134 days after sowing rapeseed equals 373-470 °Cd. Both models can aid in the future study of A. fatua and D. sophia emergence and assist growers and agricultural professionals with planning timely and more accurate A. fatua and D. sophia control.

  13. Effect of lipid extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds on the liver ATP reduction and alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhi, Widad; Stevigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Calderon, Bedro Buc; Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Various extracts from the seeds of Nigella sativa have been used in traditional folk medicine to treat inflammation, liver disorders and arthritis. These seeds have been experimentally shown to possess antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Beside the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects, this study was carried out to evaluate, in vitro, toxicological effect of lipid extracts from the Nigella sativa seeds. The tested fractions were: (i) defatted methanolic extract, (ii) total lipid extract obtained by hexane extraction from methanolic extract and (iii) neutral and polar lipid fractions. The fractions were assessed, in vitro, for their inhibitory activity potential on the enzyme alpha-glucosidase as suppressing the enzyme activity is one among the therapeutic approaches to attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia. High inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by the two polar lipid fractions (F6 and F7) was reflected by their IC50 (0.51±0.04mg/ml and 0.55±0.09mg/ml, respectively), compared to acarbose (0.53±0.06mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.65±0.05mg/ml). The hypoglycaemic effect of the polar lipid fraction of Nigella sativa could be explained by the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase, which is one of early steps of carbohydrate metabolism. Toxicological evaluation was investigated on precision-cut rat liver slices (PCLS). On PCLS, lipid extracts reduced ATP levels by 27 to 35%. Results indicate suggest that Nigella sativa extracts don't show a hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen, but don't exhibit a major hepatotoxicity when tested alone.

  14. SELECTIVE INHIBITION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS REPLICATION BY ALPHA-ZAM, A NIGELLA SATIVA SEED FORMULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Toyama, Masaaki; Mitsuhiro, Naoki; Onifade, Abdulfatah A; Hidaka, Akemi; Okamoto, Mika; Baba, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection became curable because of the development of direct acting antivirals (DAAs). However, the high cost of DAAs has greatly impeded their potential impact on the treatment of HCV infection. As a result, hepatitis C will continue to cause substantial morbidity, and mortality among chronically infected individuals in low and middle income countries. Thus, urgent need exists for developing cheaper drugs available to hepatitis C patients in these countries. Alpha-zam, an indigenous herbal formulation from Nigella sativa seed, was examined for its anti-HCV activity and cytotoxicity in genotype 1b HCV replicon cells. The antiviral activity was determined by luciferase expression and viral RNA synthesis, while the cytotoxicity was assessed by viable cell number and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase RNA synthesis in the replicon cells. Alpha-zam was found to be a selective inhibitor of HCV replication. The 50% effective dilution and 50% cytotoxic dilution of Alpha-zam were 761- and < 100-fold, respectively, in the subgenomic replicon cells LucNeo#2. Its selective inhibition of HCV was also confirmed by HCV RNA levels in LucNeo#2 and in the full-genome HCV replicon cells NNC#2 using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the anti-HCV activity of Alpha-zam was not due to the induction of interferon. Alpha-zam selectively inhibits HCV replication and therefore has potential for a novel antiviral agent against HCV infection.

  15. Microsporomyces hainanensis sp. nov., Isolated from Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feirong; Liu, Yang; Li, Ni; Yao, Su; Li, Nannan; Wang, Weiping; Cheng, Chi

    2016-10-01

    A total of five strains were isolated from two different hybrid rice seeds samples (Oryza sativa L. Shenliangyou 5814 and Yliangyou 900) in Sanya city, Hainan province, China. Sequence analysis and physiological characteristics indicated that these strains were identical and represented a novel species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer regions revealed that this new species is located in the Microsporomyces clade, with four closely related species, namely, M. magnisporus, M. orientalis, M. bloemfonteinensis, and M. pini. The novel species differed from these four described species in ability to assimilate sorbose, cellobiose, lactose, D-arabinose, and maltose. Based on these results, the following novel yeast species is proposed: Microsporomyces hainanensis sp. nov. with the type strain of Z8(T) (CICC 33066(T) = CBS 14092(T)) belongs to phylum Basidiomycota, subphylum Pucciniomycotina, class Cystobasidiomycetes, family Microsporomycetaceae. The new species were registered in MycoBank under MB 815471.

  16. Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Nigella sativa L. Seeds Using Brine Shrimp Toxicity Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sharififar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since cytotoxicity screening is the first step necessary for any new drug development, this study was designed to find out and compare the cytotoxicity effects of the essential oil and various extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay. Materials and Methods: Essential oils and various extracts of N. sativa were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical package version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, 250 USA. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. Results: All of the tested fractions demonstrated more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of N. sativa showed the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 7 and 21 μg/ml respectively; while aqueous and ethanolic had no significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the GC/MS analysis of the essential oil of N. sativa showed the p-cymene (48.1%, α-thujone (14.38% and dihydro carveol (9.11% as the main compounds. Conclusion: These results suggest some limitation for using this spice in diet. Furthermore, this plant could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which should be studied in details.

  17. Nigella sativa seed extract and its bioactive compound thymoquinone: the new melanogens causing hyperpigmentation in the wall lizard melanophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sharique A; Meitei, Keisham V

    2011-05-01

    The effects of the lyophilized seed extract of Nigella sativa and its active ingredient, thymoquinone, were studied on the isolated melanophores of the wall lizard to find the mechanism of skin darkening at the cellular level. The integumental melanophores of the wall lizard, Hemidactylus flaviviridis, were assayed using the mean melanophore size index and their responses were recorded in the presence of various concentrations of the plant extract, thymoquinone, specific antagonists and potentiator. Significant skin darkening activity of the extract of N. sativa and thymoquinone was observed on the isolated melanophores of the wall lizard. The pigment cells responded by distinct dispersion leading to skin darkening. The effect was physiologically significant as re-immersion in physiological saline made the melanophores return to their normal intermediate state. These melanin dispersal effects were antagonized by atropine as well as hyoscine and were also found to be highly potentiated by neostigmine, an anticholinesterase agent. These findings suggest that the extract of N. sativa, as well as its active principle, mimic the action of acetylcholine in melanin dispersion leading to skin darkening via stimulation of cholinergic receptors of muscarinic nature within the melanophores of wall lizard. This study opens new vistas for the use of N. sativa active ingredient, thymoquinone, as a novel melanogen for its clinical application in skin disorders such as hypopigmentation or vitiligo. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Drought stress induced changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harish C; Baig, M J; Chandra, A; Bhatt, R K

    2010-07-01

    Seven species of genus Avena viz., Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Avena brevis, Avena vaviloviana, Avena abyssinica, Avena marocana and Avena sterilis were used to study the impact of drought stress on lipid peroxidation and other antioxidant enzymes. Maximum increase in the catalase activity was recorded in A. vaviloviana (129.97%) followed by A. sativa (122.82%) and A. brevis (83.38%) at vegetative stage; however at flowering stage the maximum increase was reported in A. sativa (25.62%) followed by A. sterilis (20.46%) and A. brevis (18.53%). At vegetative stage drought, maximum increase in peroxidase activity was recorded in A. sativa (122.82%) followed by A. brevis (83.38%) and A. sterilis (49.78%). Flowering stage drought, showed maximum increase in A. Sativa (27.09%) followed by A. marocana (23.50%) and A. sterilis (20.46%). A. sativa and A. sterilis showed stress tolerance at both the stages by accumulating higher percentage of peroxidase followed by A. brevis at vegetative and A. marocana at flowering stage. Level of lipid peroxidation in terms of Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased in the leaves when plants were subjected to moisture stress. The rate of increase in lipid peroxidation occurs irrespective of stage however; maximum increase was recorded in A. strigosa at both the stages. Avena species which showed high level of MDA content, indicates more lipid peroxidation and more membrane permeability and are comparatively more susceptible for water stress than those which produce less Malondialdehyde (MDA) content at higher magnitude of water stress such species have better capability for moisture stress tolerance.

  19. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown Camelina sativa L. Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Satyanarayana, Jella; Guha, Anirban; Chaitanya, Bsk; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2012-03-13

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future.

  20. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future. PMID:22410213

  1. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Valizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic women of 48-74 years old. In addition to Calcium-D supplements (2 tablets per day all participants were randomly received Ns extract (3ml, 0.05 ml/kg/day p .o. or placebo for 3 months. In all subjects hematological tests were performed and hepatic enzymes, BUN, Cr, Ca, P and plasma bone formation and resorption markers including osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (Bone-ALP and carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide (CTX was determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment. "nResults: Twelve participants completed the entire 12 weeks study course of which 5 and 7 women were belonged to Ns and placebo groups respectively. Women in placebo group were significantly older than women in Ns group. There were not significant differences between BMIs, BMD results and plasma levels of bone marker in two groups at the baseline and plasma levels of bone markers between Ns and placebo group at the end of 12 weeks. Alterations from baseline in bone markers levels did not differ significantly between two groups. We did not observe any side effects due to Ns therapy. "nConclusion: In this pilot study similar to the previous trial, we failed to show beneficial impact of Ns extract administration for a short time on bone turnover so we don’t suggest it for medicinal application in the osteoporosis condition. Long time duration studies with larger sample size and usage of a more tolerable dosage forms of Black seeds oil should be emphasized for further clarification of its useful anabolic effects on bone metabolism.

  2. Effects of Nigella sativa L. seed oil on abnormal semen quality in infertile men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, M; Nasri, S; Modarres, S Zadeh; Kianbakht, S; Huseini, H Fallah

    2014-05-15

    In recent years, wide utilization of herbal drugs has encouraged scientists to determine their impressive effects on health. Since Nigella sativa L. seed (N. sativa) has many uses including infertility in traditional medicine, the effects of Nigella sativa L. seed oil on abnormal semen quality in infertile men with abnormal semen quality are of interest. This study was conducted on Iranian infertile men with inclusion criteria of abnormal sperm morphology less than 30% or sperm counts below 20×10(6)/ml or type A and B motility less than 25% and 50% respectively. The patients in N. sativa oil group (n=34) received 2.5mlN. sativa oil and placebo group (n=34) received 2.5ml liquid paraffin two times a day orally for 2 months. At baseline and after 2 months, the sperm count, motility and morphology and semen volume, pH and round cells as primary outcomes were determined in both groups. Results showed that sperm count, motility and morphology and semen volume, pH and round cells were improved significantly in N. sativa oil treated group compared with placebo group after 2 months. It is concluded that daily intake of 5ml N. sativa oil for two months improves abnormal semen quality in infertile men without any adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Nigella sativa seed administration on prevention of febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy among children with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, HebatAlla Fathi Mohamed; Abd-El-Fatah, Nesrin Kamal; Darwish, Olfat Abdel-Hamid; Shehata, Shehata Farag; Fadel, Shady Hassan

    2017-05-01

    Seeds of Nigella sativa (NS) are used to combat various disease conditions through their antibacterial effects. To evaluate the seeds' potential, we studied their effect on the prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) in children with brain tumors. A randomized pretest-post-test control group study including 80 children (2-18 years) with brain tumors undergoing chemotherapy were equally allocated into two groups. Intervention group received 5 g of NS seeds daily throughout treatment while controls received nothing. CBC with differentials, incidence of FN, and LOS were noted on each follow-up. The majority of children 38/40 (95%), of the intervention group, took the seeds for 3-9 consecutive months. Eight out of 372 (2.2%) FN episodes were experienced by children of intervention group compared to controls 63/327 (19.3%) (p = 0.001) and a shorter LOS (median = 2.5 days) vs 5 days in the control group (p = 0.006). Children in both groups belonged to almost same geographical area with similar socio-economic background. Weights of children were almost equal at diagnosis. NS seeds showed a decrease in incidence of FN in children with brain tumors with shortening of subsequent LOS which may improve their outcome and thereby quality of life. Larger scale studies are needed to further evaluate the seeds' potential.

  4. Combined mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling of different pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds and correlation with antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Ryun; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Sarah; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-09-29

    Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography (GC) TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA) derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD) and Ilpoom (IP) species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  5. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Microbial Load and Chemical Constituents of Stored Black Cumin Seeds (Negilla sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.S.; Abd-El-Hamid, G.; Botros, H.W.; Abo-El-Seoud, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was carried out in an effort to study the possibility of making use of gamma radiation to elongate the storage periods of black cumin seeds (Negilla sativa). In this respect, black cumin seeds were irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 KGy and stored at room temperature for periods of 0, 4, 8 and 12 months. Samples from the irradiated and nonirradiated black cumin seeds were taken during the different storage periods and analyzed for volatile oil, carbohydrates, soluble and reducing sugars and fatty acids contents. Besides, the microbial decontamination was also investigated. Results showed that storage caused deterioration in volatile oil constituents (especially in the main component; thyloquinone), decline in total carbohydrates of the seed, enhancement of total soluble sugars, and reduction in reducing sugars content. However, gamma radiation doses up to 40 KGy maintained the quality of the seed and volatile oil components as it lowered the deterioration during storage up to 12 months. In addition, gamma radiation showed promising effect to decontaminate the microbial load of the studied seeds

  6. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  7. Combined Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Different Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds and Correlation with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ryun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD and Ilpoom (IP species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  8. Effect of silver nanoparticles on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seed germination and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesombat, Pakvirun; Hannongbua, Supot; Akasit, Sanong; Chadchawan, Supachitra

    2014-06-01

    With the advances in nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been applied in many industries, increasing their potential exposure level in the environment, yet their environmental safety remains poorly evaluated. The possible effects of different sized AgNPs (20, 30-60, 70-120 and 150nm diameter) on jasmine rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105, were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000mg/L) upon seed germination and seedling growth. The results revealed that the level of seed germination and subsequent growth of those seedlings that germinated were both decreased with increasing sizes and concentrations of AgNPs. Based on the analysis of AgNPs accumulation in plant tissues, it implied that the higher uptake was found when the seeds were treated with the smaller AgNPs, 20nm diameter AgNPs, but it was trapped in the roots rather than transported to the leaves. These resulted in the less negative effects on seedling growth, when compared to the seed soaking with the larger AgNPs with 150nm diameter. The negative effects of AgNPs were supported by leaf cell deformation when rice seeds were treated with 150-nm-diameter AgNP at the concentration of 10 or 100mg/L during seed germination. These results further strengthen our understanding of environmental safety information with respect to nanomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbohydrate content and antioxidative potential of the seed of three edible indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Supratim; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Sanyal, Saptadwipa; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains or seeds are known to lose much of their nutrient and antioxidant contents, following polishing. The current study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the carbohydrate content and antioxidant parameters in the unpolished and polished seeds of three edible indica rice cultivars, namely Swarna (SW), the most popular indica rice cultivar in India and aromatic or scented cultivars Gobindobhog (GB) and Pusa Basmati (PB). While both the sucrose and starch content was the maximum in PB seeds (both unpolished and polished), the amylose content was the highest in SW polished seeds. SW polished seeds were superior as compared to GB and PB cultivars in terms of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging and Fe(II) chelation potential, as well as the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition or H2O2 scavenging potential, probably due to the maximum accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids, the two important antioxidants. The reducing power ability was, however, identical in both SW and GB polished seeds. The PB polished seeds were more potent in superoxide and hydroxyl scavenging, whereas GB in nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. The common observation noted after polishing of seeds was the reduction in the level of carbohydrates and antioxidant potential, though the extent of reduction varied in the three cultivars. The only exception was GB, where there was no alteration in NO scavenging potential even after polishing. Our study showed the better performance of SW polished seeds with respect to higher amylose content and majority of the tested parameters governing antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging potential, thus highlighting the greater dietary significance of SW over the other two cultivars.

  10. Prévalence de Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, agent des rayures bactériennes du riz dans les semences de base produites au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakouo, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Bacterial Stripe Organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, in Breeder Rice Seed Samples from Burkina Faso. Nine rice seed samples of improved and local varieties were tested at DGISP (Denmark for the incidence of seed-borne bacterial stripe organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, using the cassette holder method. Twenty-six suspected bacterial colonies were identified by different methods including colony morphology, pigmentation, biochemical and pathogenicity tests. Using Biolog GN computer identification system, isolates were also identified as A. avenae subsp. avenae (sim 0.51 to 0.9. All the 26 isolates reacted positively in ELISA tests performed with antiserum against A. avenae subsp. avenae. The bacterium was detected in all the samples, except in that of the local variety, indicating that seeds of improved varieties are highly infected by this pathogen. Seedlings raised from infected seed samples showed typical bacterial stripe symptoms with infection rates ranging from 4.7 to 20.1%. Since such seeds are used for production of certified rice seed, it is important to develop an effective control strategy against this disease to reduce the propagation of the bacterial agent in other healthy regions of rice culture in Burkina Faso.

  11. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  12. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds.

  13. Seed Germination Behaviors Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L After Priming With Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkheir H.A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed Priming Is Famous Technique To Accelerate Seed Germination Behaviors. This Experiment Was Conducted To Study The Effect Of Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000 As Priming Agent On Seed Germination Behavior Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L. Experiment Was Carried Out By Using Two-Factor Three Aerobic Rice Cultivars And Peg With Four Replications Which Arranged In Factorial System Design And Conducted With Completely Randomized Design. The Factor Was Varieties Which Were Inpago 8 V1 Ir64 V2 And Situbagendit V3 Combine With 4 Levels Of Peg Concentrations 0100 And 200 Gl-1 And Control With No Treatment. Experiment Was Repeated 4 Times So Total Number Of Experimental Units Were 48. Germination Parameters Measured Were Germination Percentage Germination Index Days Of 50 Germination Seedling Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight And Root Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Dry Weigh Mg Seedling Shoot Dry Weight And Root Dry Weight Mg ShootRoot Ratio Seedling Length Cm Seedling Root Length Cm And Shoot Length Cm And Seed Vigor Index. The Results Indicated That Seed Priming Significantly Affected Germination Behaviors Compared With Control Depending Upon Varieties. The Highest Germination Was Obtained Under Laboratory And Greenhouse Condition By The Treatment Of Peg 200 G L-1 On The Situbagendit And Ir-64 Variety 90.25 And 93.33 Respectively Compared To Control In Inpago-8 In Both Laboratory 75.75 And Greenhouse 80 . As Implementation To Increase Seed And Seedling Vigor Of Rice It Is A Best Practice To Use Peg Priming With 200 Gl-1 Solutions Depend Upon Varietal Response And We Suggest That More Research About The Effect Of Peg As Seed Priming Techniques On Seed Germination Behavior Of Many Grain Crops Is Needed To Confirm The Methodology.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of Nigella sativa seeds in stroke model of rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohammad; Maikiyo, Aliyu Muhammad; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stroke still remains a challenge for the researchers and scientists for developing ideal drug. Several new drugs are being evaluated showing excellent results in preclinical studies but when tested in clinical trials, they failed. Many herbal drugs in different indigenous system of medicine claim to have beneficial effects but not extensively evaluated for stroke (cerebral ischemia). AIM: The present study was undertaken to evaluate chloroform and petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa seeds administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg, per orally for seven days in middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats for its neuroprotective role in cerebral ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for two hours followed by reperfusion for 22 hours. After 24 hours, grip strength, locomotor activity tests were performed in different treatment groups of rats. After completing behavioral tests, animals were sacrificed; brains were removed for the measurement of infarct volume followed by the estimation of markers of oxidative stress. RESULTS: Both chloroform and petroleum ether extracts-pretreated rats showed improvement in locomotor activity and grip strength, reduced infarct volume when compared with MCAO rats. MCA occlusion resulted in the elevation of levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), while a reduction in the levels of glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were observed. Pre-treatment of both extracts of Nigella sativa showed reduction in TBARS, elevation in glutathione, SOD, and catalase levels when compared with MCAO rats. CONCLUSION: The chloroform and petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa showed the protective effects in cerebral ischemia. The present study confirms the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory properties of Nigella sativa already reported. PMID:23833517

  15. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seed in paracetamol induced acute hepatotoxicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwah, D S; Salman, M T; Singh, P; Verma, V K; Ahmad, A

    2014-04-01

    Paracetamol overdose causes serious liver necrosis. Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa in Paracetamol induced acute hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Fasted male Wistar rats were orally treated with Nigella sativa extract in graded doses for 5 days followed by Nigella sativa extract and paracetamol 3 g kg(-1) on 6 and 7th day. Circulatory liver markers and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated and histopathological study of liver performed. Paracetamol caused a significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and total Bilirubin and a significant decrease in GSH compared to control. Nigella sativa pretreatment significantly prevented the increase in liver enzymes and total bilirubin and decrease in GSH level as compared to paracetamol group. Liver histopathology showed marked reduction in sinusoidal dilatation, midzonal necrosis, portal triaditis and occasional apoptosis in Nigella sativa extract treated groups as compared to group receiving only paracetamol. Nigella sativa extract possesses hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced acute hepatoxicity. Further research is needed to advocate its prophylactic use for drug induced hepatotoxicity.

  16. The Investment in Scent: Time-Resolved Metabolic Processes in Developing Volatile-Producing Nigella sativa L. Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, David; Botnick, Ilan; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Nikoloski, Zoran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fait, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids) and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol–3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18∶3n-3 abundant in “green” seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs. PMID:24019893

  17. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinab, E. M. EL-Bazza; Hala, A. Farrag; Mohie, E. D. Z. EL-Fouly; Seham, Y. M. EL-Tablawy

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7×10 1 to 9.8×10 3 c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2 and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B 1 and G 1. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp.

  18. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Hala, A.F.; El-Fouly, M.E.Z.; El-Tablawy, S.Y.M.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7x10 1 to 9.8x10 3 c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B 1 and G 1 . None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp. (author)

  19. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Hala, A.F. E-mail: hfarragmassoud@hotmail.com; El-Fouly, M.E.Z.; El-Tablawy, S.Y.M

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7x10{sup 1} to 9.8x10{sup 3} c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1}, G{sub 2} and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B{sub 1} and G{sub 1}. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp. (author)

  20. Significant enhancement of fatty acid composition in seeds of the allohexaploid, Camelina sativa, using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen Zhi; Henry, Isabelle M; Lynagh, Peter G; Comai, Luca; Cahoon, Edgar B; Weeks, Donald P

    2017-05-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful and flexible tool for genome editing, and novel applications of this system are being developed rapidly. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the FAD2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the closely related emerging oil seed plant, Camelina sativa, with the goal of improving seed oil composition. We successfully obtained Camelina seeds in which oleic acid content was increased from 16% to over 50% of the fatty acid composition. These increases were associated with significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i.e. a decrease from ~16% to seeds exhibiting these types of altered fatty acid profiles were homozygous for disrupted FAD2 alleles. In the allohexaploid, Camelina, guide RNAs were designed that simultaneously targeted all three homoeologous FAD2 genes. This strategy that significantly enhanced oil composition in T 3 and T 4 generation Camelina seeds was associated with a combination of germ-line mutations and somatic cell mutations in FAD2 genes in each of the three Camelina subgenomes. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.

  2. The investment in scent: time-resolved metabolic processes in developing volatile-producing Nigella sativa L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Xue

    Full Text Available The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol-3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18∶3n-3 abundant in "green" seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs.

  3. Effect of Nigella sativa Seed Extract for Hypertension in Elderly: a Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizka, Aulia; Setiati, Siti; Lydia, Aida; Dewiasty, Esthika

    2017-10-01

    Nigella sativa (NS) seed extract shows diuretic activity, inhibits sympathetic nervous system overactivity and increases the production of Nitric Oxide in in vivo studies, thus it has a potential use as an adjuvant antihypertensive for elderly population. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nigella sativa seed extract to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of elderly patients with hypertension. a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted on elderly subjects with hypertension in three outpatient clinics in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta Indonesia from June to September 2011. Subjects were divided into intervention group given 300 mg Nigella sativa seed extract twice daily for 28 days and into another group which was given placebo. Blood pressure were measured on day 1 and 28. Intention to treat analysis using unpaired t-test to compare blood pressure after intervention between the two groups was performed. of a total of 85 patients, 76 subjects fulfilled the study criteria and were randomized into 2 groups, with 38 subjects in each group. Both groups were comparable in all important prognostic factors. The mean systolic blood pressure of the NS group was decreased from 160.4 (SD 15.7) mmHg to 145.8 (SD 19.8) mmHg, and from 160.9 (16.3) mmHg to 147.53 (SD 22.0) mmHg in the placebo group (p=0.36). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the NS group was decreased from 78.3 (SD 11.9) to 74.4 (SD 8.2) mmHg, and from 79.0 (SD 12.4) to 78.2 (SD 8.9) in the placebo group (p=0.35). Reported adverse events include dyspepsia in 6 subjects (15.7%), nausea in 3 subjects (7.8%), and constipation in 2 subjects (5.2%). No electrolyte abnormalities, liver and renal toxicities, or orthostatic hypotension were observed. although a trend towards a slight decrease in blood pressure was observed, Nigella sativa has not been proven to be effective in reducing blood pressure in elderly patients with hypertension.

  4. Effect of Nigella sativa Seed Extract for Hypertension in Elderly: a Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Rizka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigella sativa (NS seed extract shows diuretic activity, inhibits sympathetic nervous system overactivity and increases the production of Nitric Oxide in in vivo studies, thus it has a potential use as an adjuvant antihypertensive for elderly population. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nigella sativa seed extract to systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of elderly patients with hypertension. Methods: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted on elderly subjects with hypertension in three outpatient clinics in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta Indonesia from June to September 2011. Subjects were divided into intervention group given 300 mg Nigella sativa seed extract twice daily for 28 days and into another group which was given placebo. Blood pressure were measured on day 1 and 28. Intention to treat analysis using unpaired t-test to compare blood pressure after intervention between the two groups was performed. Results: of a total of 85 patients, 76 subjects fulfilled the study criteria and were randomized into 2 groups, with 38 subjects in each group. Both groups were comparable in all important prognostic factors. The mean systolic blood pressure of the NS group was decreased from 160.4 (SD 15.7 mmHg to 145.8 (SD 19.8 mmHg, and from 160.9 (16.3 mmHg to 147.53 (SD 22.0 mmHg in the placebo group (p=0.36. The mean diastolic blood pressure in the NS group was decreased from 78.3 (SD 11.9 to 74.4 (SD 8.2 mmHg, and from 79.0 (SD 12.4 to 78.2 (SD 8.9 in the placebo group (p=0.35. Reported adverse events include dyspepsia in 6 subjects (15.7%, nausea in 3 subjects (7.8%, and constipation in 2 subjects (5.2%. No electrolyte abnormalities, liver and renal toxicities, or orthostatic hypotension were observed. Conclusion: although a trend towards a slight decrease in blood pressure was observed, Nigella sativa has not been proven to be effective in reducing blood pressure in

  5. Facile synthesis, stabilization, and anti-bacterial performance of discrete Ag nanoparticles using Medicago sativa seed exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Audra I; Gong, Bin; Marjo, Christopher E; Roessner, Ute; Harris, Andrew T

    2011-01-15

    The biogenic synthesis of metal nanomaterials offers an environmentally benign alternative to the traditional chemical synthesis routes. Colloidal silver (Ag) nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO(3) with Medicago sativa seed exudates under non-photomediated conditions. Upon contact, rapid reduction of Ag(+) ions was observed in nanotriangles with edge lengths of 86-108 nm, while pH adjustment to 11 resulted in monodisperse Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 12 nm. Repeated centrifugation and redispersion enhanced the percentage of nanoplates from 10% to 75% in solution. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and the Ag products were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the elements and chemical environment in the top layers of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles, while the metabolites in the exudate were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first account of M. sativa seed exudate assisted synthesis and stabilization of biogenic Ag nanoparticles; the nanoplates are notably smaller and better faceted compared with those synthesized by vascular plant extracts previously reported. Stabilized films of exudate synthesized Ag nanoparticles were effective anti-bacterial agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeka, Promise Madu; Badger-Emeka, Lorina Ineta; Eneh, Chiamaka Maryann; Khan, Tahir Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 106 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria. PMID:24991115

  7. The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Asaduzzaman, Md; Morshed, Helal; Hossain, Md Monir; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Rahman, Md Rezowanur

    2013-07-30

    Experimental evidences have demonstrated that Nigella sativa Linn. seed (NS) has positive modulation effects on aged rats with memory impairments, prevents against hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and enhances consolidation of recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in rats. NS has neuroprotective, nephroprotective, lung protective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities as established by previous studies on animals. Several clinical trials with NS on human have also demonstrated beneficial effect. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NS on memory, attention and cognition in healthy elderly volunteers. Furthermore, safety profile of NS was assessed during the nine-week study period. Forty elderly volunteers were recruited and divided randomly into group A and group B--each consisting of 20 volunteers. The treatment procedure for group A was 500 mg NS capsule twice daily for nine weeks and Group B received placebo instead of NS in the similar manner. All the volunteers were assessed for neuropsychological state and safety profile twice before treatment and after nine weeks. The neuropsychological tests were logical memory test, digit span test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, letter cancellation test, trail making test and stroop test. Safety profile was assessed by measuring biochemical markers of Cardiac (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase-MB); Liver (aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, bilirubin) and Kidney (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) through using commercial kits. There was significant difference (pmemory test-I and II, total score of digit span, 30 min delayed-recall, percent score in Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, time taken to complete letter cancellation test, time taken in trail making test-A and test

  8. Interspecific rice hybrid of Oryza sativa x Oryza nivara reveals a significant increase in seed protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed A; Sukumar, S; Krishnan, Hari B

    2008-01-23

    Wild species offer a potential reservoir of genetic variation for crop improvement. Besides the valuable genes for disease resistance that the wild species have provided for rice improvement, recent studies have shown that these wild species could also provide favorable alleles for the improvement of yield and yield-related traits. The present study reports yet another potential of wild relatives of rice, which involves the improvement of seed protein content. A significant increase in seed protein content was observed in an interspecific hybrid between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and the wild species Oryza nivara. The hybrid showed a protein content of 12.4%, which was 28 and 18.2% higher than those of the parents O. nivara and IR 64, respectively. The increase in protein content was dependent on the genetic background of the rice variety used in the hybridization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of seed storage proteins demonstrated that a significant increase in prolamins and glutelins was mainly responsible for the elevated protein content of the hybrid. Amino acid analysis of seed proteins revealed that the hybrid had net gains of 19.5% in lysine and 19.4% in threonine over the O. nivara parent on a seed dry weight basis. Molecular analysis indicated that the increase in protein content of the hybrid was not a result of chromosomal rearrangements or transposable element activation, at least in the chromosomal regions containing seed storage protein genes. A preliminary genetic analysis of the F 2 segregating population showed that the inheritance of the increased protein content was polygenic in nature. The development of this interspecific hybrid offers a great potential for selecting new rice cultivars that combine the high yield and superior cooking quality of IR 64 with improved seed protein content.

  9. Role of Relative Humidity in Processing and Storage of Seeds and Assessment of Variability in Storage Behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of relative humidity (RH while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40±2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  10. Role of relative humidity in processing and storage of seeds and assessment of variability in storage behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, A; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A K; Radhamani, J

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  11. P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE from Medicago sativa is involved in vitamin E biosynthesis and abscisic acid-mediated seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Chen, Zhihong; Ban, Liping; Wu, Yudi; Huang, Jianping; Chu, Jinfang; Fang, Shuang; Wang, Zan; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-01-01

    P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE (HPPD) is the first committed enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin E, and is characterized by catalyzing the conversion of p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisic acid (HGA). Here, an HPPD gene was cloned from Medicago sativa L. and designated MsHPPD, which was expressed at high levels in alfalfa leaves. PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), NaCl, abscisic acid and salicylic acid were shown to significantly induce MsHPPD expression, especially in the cotyledons and root tissues. Overexpression of MsHPPD was found to significantly increase the level of β-tocotrienol and the total vitamin E content in Arabidopsis seeds. Furthermore, these transgenic Arabidopsis seeds exhibited an accelerated germination time, compared with wild-type seeds under normal conditions, as well as under NaCl and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the expression level of several genes associated with ABA biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED5 and NCED9) and the ABA signaling pathway (RAB18, ABI3 and ABI5) were significantly down-regulated in MsHPPD-overexpressing transgenic lines, as well as the total free ABA content. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MsHPPD functions not only in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway, but also plays a critical role in seed germination via affecting ABA biosynthesis and signaling. PMID:28084442

  12. P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE from Medicago sativa is involved in vitamin E biosynthesis and abscisic acid-mediated seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Chen, Zhihong; Ban, Liping; Wu, Yudi; Huang, Jianping; Chu, Jinfang; Fang, Shuang; Wang, Zan; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-01-13

    P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE (HPPD) is the first committed enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin E, and is characterized by catalyzing the conversion of p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisic acid (HGA). Here, an HPPD gene was cloned from Medicago sativa L. and designated MsHPPD, which was expressed at high levels in alfalfa leaves. PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), NaCl, abscisic acid and salicylic acid were shown to significantly induce MsHPPD expression, especially in the cotyledons and root tissues. Overexpression of MsHPPD was found to significantly increase the level of β-tocotrienol and the total vitamin E content in Arabidopsis seeds. Furthermore, these transgenic Arabidopsis seeds exhibited an accelerated germination time, compared with wild-type seeds under normal conditions, as well as under NaCl and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the expression level of several genes associated with ABA biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED5 and NCED9) and the ABA signaling pathway (RAB18, ABI3 and ABI5) were significantly down-regulated in MsHPPD-overexpressing transgenic lines, as well as the total free ABA content. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MsHPPD functions not only in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway, but also plays a critical role in seed germination via affecting ABA biosynthesis and signaling.

  13. Carcass traits, fatty acid composition, gene expression, oxidative stability and quality attributes of different muscles in Dorper lambs fed Nigella sativa seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis leaves and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhaib, Kifah Jumaah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2017-11-03

    This study examined the influence of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis leaves and their combination on carcass attributes, fatty acid (FA) composition, gene expression, lipid oxidation and physicochemical properties of longissimus dorsi (LD), semitendinosus (ST) and supraspinatus (SS) muscles in Dorper lambs. Twenty-four Dorper lambs (18.68±0.6 kg, 4-5 months old) were randomly assigned to a concentrate mixture containing either, no supplement (control, T1), 1% Rosmarinus officinalis leaves (T2), 1% Nigella sativa seeds (T3), or 1% Rosmarinus officinalis leaves + 1% Nigella sativa seeds (T4) on a dry matter basis. The lambs were fed the treatments with urea-treated rice straw for 90 days, slaughtered and the muscles were subjected to a 7 d postmortem chill storage. The T2 lambs had greater (p 0.05) on the expression of SCD and LPL genes in LD and ST muscles in Dorper lambs. The T2 and T3 diets up regulated the expression of PRKAA2 gene in LD and ST muscles and up regulated the expression of SREBP1 in ST muscle in Dorper lambs. Dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa seeds and Rosmarinus officinalis leaves had beneficial effects on meat quality in Dorper lambs.

  14. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental

  15. Produtividade de grãos e componentes do rendimento da aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. afetados pela densidade e velocidade de semeadura Grain yield and yield components of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. as affected by seeding rate and velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Debiasi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da densidade (30, 60 e 90kg ha-1 de sementes viáveis e da velocidade (3,2; 5,3; 6,9 e 8,2km h-1 de semeadura na produtividade de grãos e componentes do rendimento de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb., na região de São Gabriel/RS, sob condições de pastejo intenso, executou-se um experimento em blocos ao acaso e três repetições. Observou-se um menor número de panículas por m² para as densidades de 30 e 60kg ha-1, o que foi compensado pelo maior número de cariopses por panícula, de forma que as produtividades de grãos mais elevadas foram obtidas nestas densidades. As densidades não afetaram significativamente a massa de 1000 cariopses. O número de plantas por m², a produtividade de grãos e os componentes do rendimento (à exceção do número de cariopses por panícula não foram influenciados pelas velocidades de semeadura.A field experiment in randomized blocks with three replications was carried out in São Gabriel, Brazil, to evaluate seeding rate (30, 60 e 90kg ha-1 of viable seeds and velocity (3.2; 5.3; 6.9 e 8.2km h-1 effect on grain yield and yield components of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb., under intensive cattle grazing. A minor number of panicles per m² was observed for seeding rates of 30 and 60kg ha-1, witch was compensated for the major number of cariopsis per panicle, so that higher grain yields were obtained for these seeding rates. Seeding rates did not affect significantly the 1000 cariopsis weight. Number of plants per m², grain yield and yield components (exception for number of caripsis per panicle were not influenced by seeding velocity.

  16. Imaging heterogeneity of membrane and storage lipids in transgenic Camelina sativa seeds with altered fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patrick J; Silva, Jillian E; Anderson, Danielle; Fuchs, Johannes; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Nazarenus, Tara J; Shulaev, Vladimir; Cahoon, Edgar B; Chapman, Kent D

    2013-10-01

    Engineering compositional changes in oilseeds is typically accomplished by introducing new enzymatic step(s) and/or by blocking or enhancing an existing enzymatic step(s) in a seed-specific manner. However, in practice, the amounts of lipid species that accumulate in seeds are often different from what one would predict from enzyme expression levels, and these incongruences may be rooted in an incomplete understanding of the regulation of seed lipid metabolism at the cellular/tissue level. Here we show by mass spectrometry imaging approaches that triacylglycerols and their phospholipid precursors are distributed differently within cotyledons and the hypocotyl/radicle axis in embryos of the oilseed crop Camelina sativa, indicating tissue-specific heterogeneity in triacylglycerol metabolism. Phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols enriched in linoleic acid (C18:2) were preferentially localized to the axis tissues, whereas lipid classes enriched in gadoleic acid (C20:1) were preferentially localized to the cotyledons. Manipulation of seed lipid compositions by heterologous over-expression of an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, or by suppression of fatty acid desaturases and elongases, resulted in new overall seed storage lipid compositions with altered patterns of distribution of phospholipid and triacylglycerol in transgenic embryos. Our results reveal previously unknown differences in acyl lipid distribution in Camelina embryos, and suggest that this spatial heterogeneity may or may not be able to be changed effectively in transgenic seeds depending upon the targeted enzyme(s)/pathway(s). Further, these studies point to the importance of resolving the location of metabolites in addition to their quantities within plant tissues. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of Nigella sativa seeds and certain species of fungi extracts on number and activation of dural mast cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, E; Dagistan, Y; Kotan, B; Cetinkaya, A

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa seeds and certain species of fungi extracts on the number and degranulation states of dural mast cells in rats. Rats were fed ad libitum with normal tap water or tap water with extract of N. sativa seed, Ramaria condensata, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius piperatus, and Tricholoma terreum for 3 days. Mast cells in dura mater were counted and evaluated in terms of granulation and degranulation states. Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent, and T. terreum significantly increased the percent of degranulated mast cells in dura mater, respectively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Moreover, T. terreum causes a significant increase in the total number of mast cells (p < 0.05). N. sativa significantly inhibited mast cell degranulation induced by both the compound 48/80 and T. terreum (p < 0.05), and significantly decreased the mast cell numbers increased by T. terreum (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that T. terreum following ingestion can contribute to headaches like migraine via dural mast cell degranulation and N. sativa may be able to exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects by stabilizing dural mast cells. However, investigation is needed to determine the ingredients of N. sativa that may be responsible for these beneficial effects.

  18. [Comparative cytogenetic analysis of hexaploid Avena L. species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, E D; Shelukhina, O Iu; Dedkova, O S; Loskutov, I G; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2011-06-01

    Using C-banding method and in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rRNA gene probes, six hexaploid species of the genus Avena L. with the ACD genome constitution were studied to reveal evolutionary karyotypic changes. Similarity in the C-banding patterns of chromosomal and in the patterns of distribution of the rRNA gene families suggests a common origin of all hexaploid species. Avena fatua is characterized by the broadest intraspecific variation of the karyotype; this species displays chromosomal variants typical of other hexaploid species of Avena. For instance, a translocation with the involvement of chromosome 5C marking A. occidentalis was discovered in many A. fatua accessions, whereas in other representatives of this species this chromosome is highly similar to the chromosome of A. sterilis. Only A. fatua and A. sativa show slight changes in the morphology and in the C-banding pattern of chromosome 2C. These results can be explained either by a hybrid origin of A. fatua or by the fact that this species is an intermediate evolutionary form of hexaploid oats. The 7C-17 translocation was identified in all studied accessions of wild and weedy species (A. sterilis, A. fatua, A. ludoviciana, and A. occidentalis) and in most A. sativa cultivars, but it was absent in A. byzantina and in two accessions of A. sativa. The origin and evolution of the Avena hexaploid species are discussed in context of the results.

  19. Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIOTECH

    2013-10-16

    Oct 16, 2013 ... of culture. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to pots for acclimatization. About 80% of plants were survived in the greenhouse condition. Key words: Somatic embryogenesis, immature zygotic embryos, Indica rice, plant regeneration. INTRODUCTION. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most ...

  20. Molecular analysis of genetic fidelity in Cannabis sativa L. plants grown from synthetic (encapsulated) seeds following in vitro storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Techen, Natascha; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2011-12-01

    The increasing utilization of synthetic (encapsulated) seeds for germplasm conservation and propagation necessitates the assessment of genetic stability of conserved propagules following their plantlet conversion. We have assessed the genetic stability of synthetic seeds of Cannabis sativa L. during in vitro multiplication and storage for 6 months at different growth conditions using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) DNA fingerprinting. Molecular analysis of randomly selected plants from each batch was conducted using 14 ISSR markers. Of the 14 primers tested, nine produced 40 distinct and reproducible bands. All the ISSR profiles from in vitro stored plants were monomorphic and comparable to the mother plant which confirms the genetic stability among the clones. GC analysis of six major cannabinoids [Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol and cannabinol] showed homogeneity in the re-grown clones and the mother plant with insignificant differences in cannabinoids content, thereby confirming the stability of plants derived from synthetic seeds following 6 months storage. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  1. Evaluation of the toxic potential of coffee wastewater on seeds, roots and meristematic cells of Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Coffee wastewater (CWW) is an effluent produced through wet processing of coffee containing high concentration of organic matter, nutrients, salts and also agrochemicals. It is released directly into the argillaceous soil or into decantation tanks for later disposal into soils, by fertigation, subsurface infiltration or superficial draining. However, this practice is not followed by the monitoring the toxicity potential of this effluent. In this sense, the present work aimed to evaluate the phytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and mutagenic potential of CWW on seed germination, root elongation and cell cycle alterations in the plant model Lactuca sativa L. The effluent (CWW) collected was diluted in distilled water into six concentrations solutions (1.25%, 1.66%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10%, 20%). A solution of raw CWW (100%) was also applied. Distilled water was used as negative control), and the DNA alkylating agent, metilmetano sulfonate (4×10(-4)M) as positive control. Physico-chemical parameters of the CWW was accessed and it was found that the effluent contained total phenols and inorganic matter in amounts within the limits established by the National Environment Council (CONAMA). Nevertheless, the biologicals assays performed demonstrated the phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicty of CWW. Seed germination was totally inhibited after exposure of raw CWW. In addition, a decrease in seed germination speed as well as in root growth dose-dependently manner was noticed. Moreover, nuclear and chromosomal alterations were observed in the cell cycle, mostly arising from aneugenic action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Agronomical response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., variety “Black Seed Simpson”, to Enerplant biostimulant aplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Baldoquin Hernandez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done at the school vegetable garden of Los Indios in the municipality of Rio Cauto, Granma, from March through April, 2014. The objective was to evaluate the agronomical response of the cultivation of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L variety “Black Seeded Simpson to the foliar application of three doses of Enerplant. The biostimulant was applied in the morning 7 days after transplantation. The doses used were 0.5 mL.ha-1, 1 mL.ha-1 and 1.5 mL.ha-1. The yield components were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically processed using the software package STASTISTICA 6.0 for Windows. Results showed that the three doses had a positive effect on the cultivation yield. Best results were obtained with the application of the 1.5 mL.ha-1 dose. The majority of the evaluated indicators significantly increased.

  3. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.) with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihoc, Marcela; Pop, Georgeta; Alexa, Ersilia; Radulov, Isidora

    2012-10-23

    The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd), for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82%) followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%), Armanca (29.27-25.32%), Silvana (28.89-25.04%) and Denise (26.96-25.30%). Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140-156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144-955 mg/100 g seed), Mg (237-694 mg/100 g seed), K (463-2821 mg/100 g seed), Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63-110 mg.kg-1) and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1). For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100-2520 mg.kg-1), Mg (320-376 mg.kg-1) and K (232-257 mg.kg-1). Mn (156-197 mg.kg-1) and Zn (54-67 mg.kg-1) remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000-20430 mg.kg-1). The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63-110 mg.kg-1), Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1) and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1) are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, zinc and iron.

  4. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L. with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoc Marcela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd, for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82% followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%, Armanca (29.27-25.32%, Silvana (28.89-25.04% and Denise (26.96-25.30%. Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed, Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed, K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed, Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1 and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1. For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1, Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1 and K (232–257 mg.kg-1. Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1 and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1 remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1. The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1, Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1 and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1 are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium

  5. Supplementation of Powdered Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Seeds Reduces the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tauseef Sultan; Masood Sadiq Butt; Rabia Shabeer Ahmad; Rizwana Batool; Ambreen Naz; Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Functional and nutraceutical foods are gaining immense popularity among the masses. Plants and their bioactive molecules are of prime importance. Although various plants from different geographical areas have been tested in the past, many horizons still need to be addressed. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is one such example that is quite popular in South Asia and the Middle East. Context and purpose: The present research study was designed to expedite the role of black cumin...

  6. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato/nitrito em bovinos alimentados com Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp. (azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jönck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e lesões da intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato e nitrito em bovinos alimentados com pastagens de Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp (azevém. A enfermidade ocorre em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, quando as pastagens tem crescimento exuberante, após receberem quantidades excessivas de adubo químico e/ou orgânico, principalmente quando ocorrem condições climáticas de seca e posteriormente chuva. Os animais em contato com essas pastagens desenvolvem rapidamente mucosas de coloração marrom, taquipnéia, andar cambaleante, micção frequente, timpanismo, decúbito lateral e morte em poucos minutos, ou recuperação algumas horas após. Na necropsia de quatro animais que adoeceram espontaneamente, as principais alterações encontradas foram a coloração marrom das mucosas, a cor escura do sangue (cor de chocolate e a coloração vermelho intensa da musculatura esquelética e do miocárdio esquerdo. A reprodução experimental da doença foi realizada em sete bovinos, com pastagens de quatro propriedades onde ocorreu adoença. Aveia e/ou azevém verdes e sob a forma de feno foram administradas aos bovinos. Destes bovinos quatro morreram, dois adoeceram e se recuperam, um naturalmente e outro com a aplicação de azul de metileno a 1%, na dose de 2mg/kg/peso vivo, e um bovino não apresentou alterações. Os sinais clínicos observados e as lesões nos animais que adoeceram e morreram foram idênticos aos casos naturais. Alterações microscópicas não foram observadas nos casos naturais e experimentais. O teste da difenilamina nas amostras de pastagens onde ocorreram os surtos resultou positivo em todas as propriedades. A análise bromatológica realizada em amostras coletadas de várias propriedades em que ocorreram surtos revelou de 0,30 a 3,36% de nitrato na matéria seca. A enfermidade caracterizou-se principalmente por respiração ofegante

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of seed embryo proteins associated with seed storability in rice (Oryza sativa L) during natural aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiadong; Fu, Hua; Zhou, Xinqiao; Chen, Zhongjian; Luo, Yi; Cui, Baiyuan; Chen, Guanghui; Liu, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Seed storability is considered an important trait in rice breeding; however, the underlying regulating mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we carried out a physiological and proteomic study to identify proteins possibly related to seed storability under natural conditions. Two hybrid cultivars, IIYou998 (IIY998) and BoYou998 (BY998), were analyzed in parallel because they share the same restorer line but have significant differences in seed storability. After a 2-year storage period, the germination percentage of IIY998 was significantly lower than that of BY998, whereas the level of malondialdehyde was reversed, indicating that IIY998 seeds may suffer from more severe damage than BY998 during storage. However, we did not find correlation between activities of antioxidant enzymes of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase and seed storability. We identified 78 embryo proteins in embryo whose abundance varied more than 3-fold different during storage or between IIY998 and BY998. More proteins changed in abundance in IIY998 embryo (67 proteins) during storage than in BY998 (10 proteins). Several redox regulation proteins, mainly glutathione-related proteins, exhibited different degree of change during storage between BY998 and IIY998 and might play an important role protecting embryo proteins from oxidation. In addition, some disease/defense proteins, including DNA-damage-repair/toleration proteins, and a putative late embryogenesis abundant protein were significantly downregulated in IIY998, whereas their levels did not change in BY998, indicating that they might be correlated with seed storability. Further studies on these candidate seed storage proteins might help improve our understanding of seed aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of Primary and Specialized Metabolites in Nigella sativa Seeds, a Spice with Vast Traditional and Historical Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Lev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae is an annual herb commonly used in the Middle East, India and nowadays gaining worldwide acceptance. Historical and traditional uses are extensively documented in ancient texts and historical documents. Black cumin seeds and oil are commonly used as a traditional tonic and remedy for many ailments as well as in confectionery and bakery. Little is known however about the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and localization of its active components in the seed. Chemical and anatomical evidence indicates the presence of active compounds in seed coats. Seed volatiles consist largely of olefinic and oxygenated monoterpenes, mainly p-cymene, thymohydroquinone, thymoquinone, γ-terpinene and α-thujene, with lower levels of sesquiterpenes, mainly longifolene. Monoterpene composition changes during seed maturation. γ-Terpinene and α-thujene are the major monoterpenes accumulated in immature seeds, and the former is gradually replaced by p-cymene, carvacrol, thymo-hydroquinone and thymoquinone upon seed development. These compounds, as well as the indazole alkaloids nigellidine and nigellicine, are almost exclusively accumulated in the seed coat. In contrast, organic and amino acids are primarily accumulated in the inner seed tissues. Sugars and sugar alcohols, as well as the amino alkaloid dopamine and the saponin α-hederin accumulate both in the seed coats and the inner seed tissues at different ratios. Chemical analyses shed light to the ample traditional and historical uses of this plant.

  9. Efficacy and safety of honey based formulation of Nigella sativa seed oil in functional dyspepsia: A double blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashami, Reza; Huseini, Hasan Fallah; Heydari, Mojtaba; Amini, Mohsen; Sadeqhi, Zainab; Ghaznavi, Habib; Mehrzadi, Saeed

    2015-12-04

    A honey based formulation from Nigella sativa L. (N. sativa) has been used in Traditional Persian Medicine for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Considering the traditional use of this formulation and its ingredients known pharmacologic effects, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of N. sativa seed oil mixed with honey in treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia. Seventy patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia according to ROME III criteria and confirmed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were selected to receive a traditional honey based formulation of N. sativa (5 ml N. sativa oil orally daily) or placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial using a parallel design with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients were evaluated prior to and following 8 weeks of the intervention in terms of the Hong Kong index of dyspepsia severity, presence of Helicobacter pylori infection based on urease test, scores in different domains of short form (SF-36) health survey, and any observed adverse events. The mean scores of Hong Kong index of dyspepsia severity sores and the rate of H. pylori infection were significantly lower in the N. sativa group comparing the placebo group after the intervention (P<0.001). No serious adverse event was reported. This study showed that adjuvant supplementation of honey based formulation of N. sativa can cause significant symptomatic improvement of patients with functional dyspepsia whom received the standard anti-secretory therapy. The results should be investigated further in studies with longer duration and larger sample size. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Endothelium-Independent Vasorelaxant Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract from Nigella sativa Seed in Rat Aorta: The Roles of Ca2+ and K+ Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazmand, Saeed; Fereidouni, Elahe; Mahmoudabady, Maryam; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) responsible for the vasorelaxant effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa). Methods. The activity of different concentrations of N. sativa extract was evaluated on contractile responses of isolated aorta to KCl and phenylephrine (PE). Results. The extract (2–14 mg/mL) induced a concentration dependent relaxation both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings precontracted by PE (10−6 M) and KCl (6 × 10−2 M). Extract reduced PE- and KCl-induced contractions in presence of cumulative concentrations of calcium (10−5–10−2 M) significantly. L-NAME and indomethacin had no effect on vasorelaxation effect of extract in PE-induced contraction. Diltiazem and heparin reduced significantly this vasorelaxation at a concentration of 14 mg/mL of extract; however, N. sativa-induced relaxation was not affected by ruthenium red. Tetraethylammonium chloride reduced the extract-induced relaxation in concentrations of 2–6 mg/mL of extract significantly but glibenclamide reduced this relaxative effect in all concentrations of extract. Conclusions. The inhibitory effect of N. sativa seed extract on the contraction induced by PE and KCl was endothelium-independent. This relaxation was mediated mainly through the inhibition of Ca2+ and KATP channels and also intracellular calcium release. PMID:24900958

  11. Seed storage protein polymorphism in ten elite rice ( Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed protein profiling is the most promising tool in determining the molecular polymorphism and genetic homology. Seed storage proteins help in cultivar identification by avoiding the external environmental influences. Electrophoretically detectable proteins in rice grains possess the potential of characterizing the ...

  12. Elemental bioimaging of tissue level trace metal distributions in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) from a mining area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Priyanka; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Wu, Fengchang; Fu, Zhiyou; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple food and major source of nutrients, but it also bioaccumulates toxic elements. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine tissue-level trace metal spatial distribution in rice (Oryza sativa) seeds from the active Xikuangshan Sb mine area in China. Whole grain quantified elemental bioimages showed the highest concentration of Zn (1755 mg/kg) in the embryo andmicro zones of elevated Sb, As, Pb, Cd as high as 280, 57, 31 and 830 mg/kg, respectively on the husk/bran/endosperm tissues. Bioimages suggest that both Sb and Cd may be competing with Zn for binding sites. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were detected in seeds from upstream and downstream fields indicating the presence of toxic Sb(III). Brown rice is a good source of Zn, but white rice is a safer option if rice is grown in a polluted area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of microcystin-LR, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and their mixture on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds and seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Song, Lirong; Wu, Xingqiang; Zhang, Junqian; Wang, Chunbo

    2011-06-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) are present widely in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but their combined ecotoxicological risk is unknown. This study investigated the toxic effects of MCLR, LAS and their mixture on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and evaluated MCLR accumulation level in lettuce with or without LAS. The changes in seed germination and shoot/root growth, responses of the antioxidative defense system, and the accumulation of MCLR in lettuce were tested to evaluate the single and combined toxic effect of MCLR and LAS in well-controlled conditions. The results showed that seedling growth (except for root elongation and leaf weight) was more sensitive to toxicant exposure than seed germination. For seedling leaves, lipid peroxidation was not observed when the antioxidative defense system (including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) was activated to relieve the adverse effects of oxidative stress via different pathways. Our results also confirmed that the interaction between MCLR and LAS was synergistic. Both toxicants in combination not only significantly inhibited seedling growth, but also increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as the contents of glutathione. Furthermore, LAS dramatically enhanced the accumulation of MCLR in the plant, thus leading to a reduction in quality and yield and posing greater potential risk to humans via consumption of these edible plants.

  14. Avaliação do efeito da peletização sobre o vigor de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. Evaluation of the pelletization effect on lettuce seed vigor (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Coraspe

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Verônica, do tipo crespo, foram submetidas a testes de umidade, germinação, velocidade de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, teste de frio, condutividade elétrica, e emergência. Os testes de laboratório não evidenciaram diferenças significativas da qualidade fisiológica entre sementes peletizadas e sem paletes, exceto o teste de envelhecimento acelerado. As correlações entre os testes de laboratório e a emergência em campo não foram significativas. A emergência em campo foi significativamente maior nas sementes peletizadas.Seeds of "Veronica", a crisphead lettuce cultivar (Lactuca sativa L., were submitted to laboratory tests of humidity, germination, velocity of germination, accelerated aging, cold, electrical conductivity and field emergence. Tests did not show any significant difference of the physiological quality between bare and pelleted seeds, except the accelerated aging. Correlations among laboratory tests and the field emergence were not significant. The field emergence was significantly higher from pelleted seeds than seeds without pellets.

  15. A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Hou, Yuxuan; Qiu, Jiehua; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-27

    PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development.

  16. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yu HE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  17. Characterization of Lignanamides from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed and Their Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoli; Tang, Jiajing; dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Nurisso, Alessandra; Simões-Pires, Claudia Avello; Ji, Mei; Lou, Hongxiang; Fan, Peihong

    2015-12-16

    Hemp seed is known for its content of fatty acids, proteins, and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value. Here we studied the secondary metabolites of hemp seed aiming at identifying bioactive compounds that could contribute to its health benefits. This investigation led to the isolation of 4 new lignanamides, cannabisin M (2), cannabisin N (5), cannabisin O (8), and 3,3'-demethyl-heliotropamide (10), together with 10 known lignanamides, among which 4 was identified for the first time from hemp seed. Structures were established on the basis of NMR, HR-MS, UV, and IR as well as by comparison with the literature data. Lignanamides 2, 7, and 9-14 showed good antioxidant activity, among which 7, 10, and 13 also inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The newly identified compounds in this study add to the diversity of hemp seed composition, and the bioassays implied that hemp seed, with lignanamides as nutrients, may be a good source of bioactive and protective compounds.

  18. Isolation, taxonomic analysis, and phenotypic characterization of bacterial endophytes present in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, José Luis; Alvarez, Florencia; Príncipe, Analía; Salas, María Eugenia; Lozano, Mauricio Javier; Draghi, Walter Omar; Jofré, Edgardo; Lagares, Antonio

    2018-02-10

    A growing body of evidence has reinforced the central role of microbiomes in the life of sound multicellular eukaryotes, thus more properly described as true holobionts. Though soil was considered a main source of plant microbiomes, seeds have been shown to be endophytically colonized by microorganisms thus representing natural carriers of a selected microbial inoculum to the young seedlings. In this work we have investigated the type of culturable endophytic bacteria that are carried within surface-sterilized alfalfa seeds. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the presence of bacteria that belonged to 40 separate genera, distributed within four taxa (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes). Nonsymbiotic members of the Rhizobiaceae family were also found. The evaluation of nine different in-vitro biochemical activities demonstrated isolates with complex combinations of traits that, upon a Principal-Component-Analysis, could be classified into four phenotypic groups. That isolates from nearly half of the genera identified had been able to colonize alfalfa plants grown under axenic conditions was remarkable. Further analyses should be addressed to investigating the colonization mechanisms of the alfalfa seeds, the evolutionary significance of the alfalfa-seed endophytes, and also how after germination the seed microbiome competes with spermospheric and rhizospheric soil bacteria to colonize newly emerging seedlings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Serine carboxypeptidase 46 Regulates Grain Filling and Seed Germination in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Tang, Liqun; Qiu, Jiehua; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Yifeng; Tong, Xiaohong; Wei, Xiangjin; Hou, Yuxuan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Serine carboxypeptidase (SCP) is one of the largest groups of enzymes catalyzing proteolysis for functional protein maturation. To date, little is known about the function of SCPs in rice. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the gene structure and expression profile of 59 rice SCPs. SCP46 is dominantly expressed in developing seeds, particularly in embryo, endosperm and aleurone layers, and could be induced by ABA. Functional characterization revealed that knock-down of SCP46 resulted in smaller grain size and enhanced seed germination. Furthermore, scp46 seed germination became less sensitive to the ABA inhibition than the Wild-type did; suggesting SCP46 is involved in ABA signaling. As indicated by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis, numerous grain filling and seed dormancy related genes, such as SP, VP1 and AGPs were down-regulated in scp46. Yeast-two-hybrid assay also showed that SCP46 interacts with another ABA-inducible protein DI19-1. Taken together, we suggested that SCP46 is a master regulator of grain filling and seed germination, possibly via participating in the ABA signaling. The results of this study shed novel light into the roles of SCPs in rice.

  20. Serine carboxypeptidase 46 Regulates Grain Filling and Seed Germination in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Tang, Liqun; Qiu, Jiehua; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Yifeng; Tong, Xiaohong; Wei, Xiangjin; Hou, Yuxuan

    2016-01-01

    Serine carboxypeptidase (SCP) is one of the largest groups of enzymes catalyzing proteolysis for functional protein maturation. To date, little is known about the function of SCPs in rice. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the gene structure and expression profile of 59 rice SCPs. SCP46 is dominantly expressed in developing seeds, particularly in embryo, endosperm and aleurone layers, and could be induced by ABA. Functional characterization revealed that knock-down of SCP46 resulted in smaller grain size and enhanced seed germination. Furthermore, scp46 seed germination became less sensitive to the ABA inhibition than the Wild-type did; suggesting SCP46 is involved in ABA signaling. As indicated by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis, numerous grain filling and seed dormancy related genes, such as SP, VP1 and AGPs were down-regulated in scp46. Yeast-two-hybrid assay also showed that SCP46 interacts with another ABA-inducible protein DI19-1. Taken together, we suggested that SCP46 is a master regulator of grain filling and seed germination, possibly via participating in the ABA signaling. The results of this study shed novel light into the roles of SCPs in rice. PMID:27448032

  1. New ACE-Inhibitory Peptides from Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Lara P; Boschin, Giovanna; Recca, Teresa; Morelli, Carlo F; Ragona, Laura; Francescato, Pierangelo; Arnoldi, Anna; Speranza, Giovanna

    2017-12-06

    A hemp seed protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp seed meals by alkaline solubilization/acid precipitation, was subjected to extensive chemical hydrolysis under acid conditions (6 M HCl). The resulting hydrolysate was fractionated by semipreparative RP-HPLC, and the purified fractions were tested as inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Mono- and bidimensional NMR experiments and LC-MS analyses led to the identification of four potentially bioactive peptides, i.e. GVLY, IEE, LGV, and RVR. They were prepared by solid-phase synthesis, and tested for ACE-inhibitory activity. The IC 50 values were GVLY 16 ± 1.5 μM, LGV 145 ± 13 μM, and RVR 526 ± 33 μM, confirming that hemp seed may be a valuable source of hypotensive peptides.

  2. Tratamentos físicos do grão de aveia branca (Avena sativa na alimentação de bovinos Treatments of oats grain for beef cattle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo José Goi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Centro de Treinamento da COTRIJUÍ, e no Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, de maio a dezembro de 1993, para avaliar o efeito de diferentes formas de tratamento físico do grão de aveia sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade de bovinos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para comparar o grão de aveia nas formas: grão inteiro seco (GAIS, grão moído (GAMO, grão machacado (GAMA e grão inteiro umedecido (GAIU. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 24 animais da raça Hereford, com idade média de 13 meses e peso médio de 260kg. Foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão no ganho de peso. A duração do experimento foi de 84 dias. Os ganhos de peso médio diário obtidos foram: 1,047; 1,055; 1,107 e l,067 kg para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre tratamentos. No experimento II foram utilizados, durante dois períodos, 8 novilhos da raça Holandês com idade média de 14 meses e peso médio de 243kg, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, objetivando avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão sobre a digestibilidade da dieta. A dieta experimental foi similar ao experimento I, sendo o feno de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon substituído pelo feno de aveia (Avena sativa moído. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra bruta, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e extrativos não nitrogenados, nem para o NDT. Os valores de digestibilidade da matéria orgânica obtidos foram: 59,27; 57,10; 61,46 e 59,7 6% para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente e para estes, o NDT foram 64,02; 66,56; 65,78 e 62,12%. Conclui-se que o grão de aveia branca pode ser utilizado inteiro na alimentação de bovinos sem afetar sua performance.The present work was conducted at COTRIJUÍ Experimental Farm-RS from

  3. Vitamin E homologs and ¿-oryzanol levels in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E homologs (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and gamma-oryzanol have gained significant attention due to their proposed health benefits and ability to increase vegetable oil stability. Changes in the levels of these phytochemicals were examined during seed development. Rapid accumulation of toc...

  4. The Seed Semipermeable Layer and Its Relation to Seed Quality Assessment in Four Grass Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Y. Lv

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a semipermeable layer in grass seeds has been extensively reported, yet knowledge of its influence on tests for seed viability and vigor that depend upon measurement of electrical conductivity (EC is limited. This study determined the presence and location of the semipermeable layer, and its relation to seed viability and vigor assessment, in seeds of four important grass species-Elymus nutans Griseb., Lolium perenne L., Leymus chinensis (Trin. Tzvel., and Avena sativa L. Intact seeds of E. nutans, Lolium perenne, and Leymus chinensis exhibited little staining with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC, and there were no differences in EC between seeds with different germination percentage (GP (P > 0.05. After piercing the seed coat, however, all three species displayed positive staining with TTC, along with a significant negative correlation between EC and GP (E. nutans: R2 = 0.7708; Lolium perenne: R2= 0.8414; Leymus chinensis: R2 = 0.859; P < 0.01. In contrast, both intact and pierced seeds of A. sativa possessed a permeable seed coat that showed positive staining with TTC and EC values that were significantly negatively correlated with GP [R2 = 0.9071 (intact and 0.9597 (pierced; P < 0.01]. In commercial seed lots of A. sativa, a field emergence test indicated that EC showed a significant negative correlation with field emergence at two sowing dates (R2= 0.6069, P < 0.01 and 0.5316, P < 0.05. Analysis of seed coat permeability revealed the presence of a semipermeable layer located in the seed coat adjacent to the endosperm in E. nutans, Lolium perenne, and Leymus chinensis; however, no semipermeable layer was observed in A. sativa. This is the first report of the absence of a semipermeable layer in a grass species. The existence of a semipermeable layer is one of the most important factors affecting seed viability and vigor testing (based on EC measurement in E. nutans, Lolium perenne, and Leymus chinensis. Increasing the

  5. Genetic analysis of seed-shattering genes in rice using an F₃:₄ population derived from an Oryza sativa x Oryza rufipogon cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S-J; Yu, J; Park, Y J; Son, J-H; Kim, N-S; Lee, J K

    2015-02-13

    Seed shattering of wild plant species is thought to be an adaptive trait to facilitate seed dispersal. For rice breeding, seed shatter-ing is an important trait for improving breeding strategies, particularly when developing lines use interspecific hybrids and introgression of genes from wild species. We developed F₃:₄ recombinant inbred lines from an interspecific cross between Oryza sativa cv. Ilpoombyeo and Oryza rufipogon. In this study, we genetically analyzed known shat-tering-related loci using the F₃:₄ population of O. sativa/O. rufipogon. CACTA-AG190 was significantly associated with the shattering trait CACTA-TD according to bulked segregant analysis results, and was found in the qSH-1 region of chromosome 1. Fine genetic mapping of the flanking regions around qSH-1 based on CACTA-AG190 revealed multiple-sequence variations. The highest limit of detection based on quantitative trait locus analysis was observed between shaap-7715 and a 518-bp insertion site. Two other quantitative trait locus analyses of seed-shattering-related loci, qSH-4 and sh-h, were performed using simple sequence repeat and allele-pecific single nucleotide polymor-phism markers. Our results can be applied for rice-breeding research, such as marker-assisted selection between cultivated and wild rice.

  6. Unraveling the evolutionary dynamics of ancient and recent polypoidization events in Avena (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Lin, Lei; Zhou, Xiangying; Peterson, Paul M; Wen, Jun

    2017-02-03

    Understanding the diversification of polyploid crops in the circum-Mediterranean region is a challenging issue in evolutionary biology. Sequence data of three nuclear genes and three plastid DNA fragments from 109 accessions of Avena L. (Poaceae) and the outgroups were used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The evolution of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.) and its close relatives was inferred to have involved ancient allotetraploidy and subsequent recent allohexaploidy events. The crown ages of two infrageneric lineages (Avena sect. Ventricosa Baum ex Romero-Zarco and Avena sect. Avena) were estimated to be in the early to middle Miocene, and the A. sativa lineages were dated to the late Miocene to Pliocene. These periods coincided with the mild seasonal climatic contrasts and the Mediterranean climate established in the Mediterranean Basin. Our results suggest that polyploidy, lineage divergence, and complex reticulate evolution have occurred in Avena, exemplifying the long-term persistence of tetraploids and the multiple origins of hexaploids related to paleoclimatic oscillations during the Miocene-Pliocene interval in the circum-Mediterranean region. This newly-resolved infrageneric phylogenetic framework represents a major step forward in understanding the origin of the cultivated oat.

  7. 45S rDNA external transcribed spacer organization reveals new phylogenetic relationships in Avena genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joana; Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avena comprises four distinct genomes organized in diploid (AA or CC), tetraploid (AABB or AACC) and hexaploid species (AACCDD), constituting an interesting model for phylogenetic analysis. The aim of this work was to characterize 45S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) variability in distinct species representative of Avena genome diversity-A. strigosa (AA), A. ventricosa (CvCv), A. eriantha (CpCp), A. barbata (AABB), A. murphyi (AACC), A. sativa (AACCDD) and A. sterilis (AACCDD) through the assessment of the 5' external transcribed spacer (5'-ETS), a promising IGS region for phylogenetic studies poorly studied in Avena genus. In this work, IGS length polymorphisms were detected mainly due to distinct 5'-ETS sequence types resulting from major differences in the number and organization of repeated motifs. Although species with A genome revealed a 5'-ETS organization (A-organization) similar to the one previously described in A. sativa, a distinct organization was unraveled in C genome diploid species (C-organization). Interestingly, such new organization presents a higher similarity with other Poaceae species than A-genome sequences, supporting the hypothesis of C-genome being the ancestral Avena genome. Additionally, polyploid species with both genomes mainly retain the A-genome 5'-ETS organization, confirming the preferential elimination of C-genome sequences in Avena polyploid species. Moreover, 5'-ETS sequences phylogenetic analysis consistently clustered the species studied according to ploidy and genomic constitution supporting the use of ribosomal genes to highlight Avena species evolutive pathways.

  8. Salinity induced metabolic changes in rice (oryza sativa l.) seeds during germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shereen, A.; Ansari, R.; Raza, A.; Mumtaz, S.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Six inbred lines of rice exhibiting differential tolerance to salinity were exposed to 0, 50, 75, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The salinity induced metabolic changes (solute leakage, K efflux and a-amylase activity) were studied during germination. Germination of rice seeds was not affected by NaCl concentration less than 100 mM. At higher salinity levels (100 and 200 mM NaCl), a delay of 3-6 days in germination was observed. In the present study, comparatively higher values of solute leakage were observed in those lines in which germination was comparatively affected more adversely (sensitive). Sodium chloride reduced alpha-amylase activity in germinating rice seeds to varying degree even at low NaCl concentrations (50 and 75 mM), where germination was not affected greatly. The tolerant lines exhibited higher enzymatic activity than the sensitive ones. (author)

  9. Seed germination ecology of Echinochloa glabrescens and its implication for management in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opeña, Jhoana L; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Baltazar, Aurora M

    2014-01-01

    Echinochloa glabrescens is a C4 grass weed that is very competitive with rice when left uncontrolled. The competitive ability of weeds is intensified in direct-seeded rice production systems. A better understanding is needed of factors affecting weed seed germination, which can be used as a component of integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice. This study was conducted to determine the effects of temperature, light, salt and osmotic stress, burial depth, crop residue, time and depth of flooding, and herbicide application on the emergence, survival, and growth of two populations [Nueva Ecija (NE) and Los Baños (IR)] of E. glabrescens. Seeds from both populations germinated at all temperatures. The NE population had a higher germination rate (88%) from light stimulation than did the IR population (34%). The salt concentration and osmotic potential required to inhibit 50% of germination were 313 mM and -0.24 MPa, respectively, for the NE population and 254 mM and -0.33 MPa, respectively, for the IR population. Emergence in the NE population was totally inhibited at 4-cm burial depth in the soil, whereas that of the IR population was inhibited at 8 cm. Compared with zero residue, the addition of 5 t ha(-1) of rice residue reduced emergence in the NE and IR populations by 38% and 9%, respectively. Early flooding (within 2 days after sowing) at 2-cm depth reduced shoot growth by 50% compared with non-flooded conditions. Pretilachlor applied at 0.075 kg ai ha(-1) followed by shallow flooding (2-cm depth) reduced seedling emergence by 94-96% compared with the nontreated flooded treatment. Application of postemergence herbicides at 4-leaf stage provided 85-100% control in both populations. Results suggest that integration of different strategies may enable sustainable management of this weed and of weeds with similar germination responses.

  10. Seed germination ecology of Echinochloa glabrescens and its implication for management in rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoana L Opeña

    Full Text Available Echinochloa glabrescens is a C4 grass weed that is very competitive with rice when left uncontrolled. The competitive ability of weeds is intensified in direct-seeded rice production systems. A better understanding is needed of factors affecting weed seed germination, which can be used as a component of integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice. This study was conducted to determine the effects of temperature, light, salt and osmotic stress, burial depth, crop residue, time and depth of flooding, and herbicide application on the emergence, survival, and growth of two populations [Nueva Ecija (NE and Los Baños (IR] of E. glabrescens. Seeds from both populations germinated at all temperatures. The NE population had a higher germination rate (88% from light stimulation than did the IR population (34%. The salt concentration and osmotic potential required to inhibit 50% of germination were 313 mM and -0.24 MPa, respectively, for the NE population and 254 mM and -0.33 MPa, respectively, for the IR population. Emergence in the NE population was totally inhibited at 4-cm burial depth in the soil, whereas that of the IR population was inhibited at 8 cm. Compared with zero residue, the addition of 5 t ha(-1 of rice residue reduced emergence in the NE and IR populations by 38% and 9%, respectively. Early flooding (within 2 days after sowing at 2-cm depth reduced shoot growth by 50% compared with non-flooded conditions. Pretilachlor applied at 0.075 kg ai ha(-1 followed by shallow flooding (2-cm depth reduced seedling emergence by 94-96% compared with the nontreated flooded treatment. Application of postemergence herbicides at 4-leaf stage provided 85-100% control in both populations. Results suggest that integration of different strategies may enable sustainable management of this weed and of weeds with similar germination responses.

  11. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield in relation to phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahtani, Saad Naser; Taha, El-Kazafy Abdou; Al-Abdulsalam, Mohammed

    2017-07-01

    This investigation was conducted at the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, during the alfalfa growing season in 2014. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination on alfalfa seed production. The experiment was divided into 9 treatments of open pollination, honeybee pollination, and non-pollination with three different levels (0, 300 or 600 kg P 2 O 5 /ha/year) of triple super phosphate. All vegetative growth attributes of Hassawi alfalfa were significantly higher in the non-insect pollination plots, while the yield and yield component traits were significantly higher with either open pollination or honeybee pollination in parallel with the increasing level of phosphorus fertilizer up to 600 kg P 2 O 5 /ha/year in light salt-affected loamy sand soils. There was no seed yield in Hassawi alfalfa without insect pollination. Therefore, placing honeybee colonies near the fields of Hassawi alfalfa and adding 600 kg P 2 O 5 /ha/year can increase seed production.

  12. Short and long term modulation of tissue minerals concentrations following oral administration of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed oil to laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Irum; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2018-01-15

    Nigella sativa, or commonly called black cumin is a small herb of family Ranunculaceae is a well-known medicinal plant but its effects on tissue mineral concentrations of animal bodies is unknown. To study the effect of oral administration of fixed oil of black cumin seeds on tissues mineral content using laboratory rats as experimental model. Experimental animals were exposed to two oral doses of seed oil (60 and 120 ml kg -1 body weight). Short- and long term experiments lasted 24 h and 60 days respectively, with three replicates each. Oil extracted from black cumin seeds was subjected to GC-MS to identify chemical components. Following the wet digestion in nitric acid, samples of whole blood and organs of rats were subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry for determination of elements concentrations. Data were compared statistically at p mineral metabolism with far reaching implications in health and disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Effect of adding Black seeds, Nigella Sativa, in growing lambs diets on their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen growing male lambs, four months old, were randomly divided into two equal groups, nine in each. Animals of each group were fed on one of the two tested diets. The first group fed on the basal diet as a control, while the other one fed the basal diet supplemented daily with 5 grams/head of black seeds. Wheat straw and concentrate feed mixture (CFM) were used at the ratio of 30:70, respectively. Lambs were weighed at the beginning of the experimental period then at three weeks intervals till the end of the experiment, which lasted for 118 days. At the end of experimental period, four animals from each group were used to evaluate the digestibility and nutritive values of the two experimental diets. Rumen liquor samples were taken from three animals of each group. Blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein of each animal in the morning before feeding once each three weeks. The results showed that lambs fed diet supplemented with Black seed had significant higher digestibility values for CP, EE and NFE than those fed control diet. The percentage of apparent nitrogen utilization showed similar trend. In addition, the total VFAs was also affected by supplementation while the values of ph and ammonia-N were not affected by treatment diet. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (Kg DMI/Kg gain) were better for treated group than control group. Significant differences were found also in total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, total cholesterol, triglycerides and T3 values. These Results indicated that Black seeds could be successfully used in formulating the concentrate feed mixture of growing lambs up to 5 grams/head without any negative effects on their performance and health

  14. Effects of Spring Late Frost on Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Khorsandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In many years plant growth strongly affected by late spring frost. In order to evaluate the effects of late frost on Black Seed plants, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and five Black Seed ecotypes (Birjsnd, Sabzewar, Ferdows, Gonabad and Neyshabour after two months growth and hardening in natural environment, were exposed to seven temperatures (0, -1.5, -3, -4.5, -6, -7.5 and -9°C in termogradient freezer. For determining cold stress damages, Lethal Temperature (LT for 50% of plants according to the Electrolyte Leakage percentage (LT50el, LT for 50% of plants according to the Survival percentage (LT50su, LT for 50% of plants according to the plant necrose in Test Tube (LT50tt and Reduced Dry Matter Temperature 50 (RDMT50 were measured. Ability of plants for recovery was recorded based on leaf number and leaf area, plant dry weight and cold damage percentage of leaves. According to the LT50tt, LT50su and RDMT50 Black Seed plants can tolerated cold stress in range between -5.7 to -9.0 °C and Sabzewar and Ferdows ecotypes had the most and the least cold tolerance, respectively. At the point of ability of plants for recovery, Ferdows ecotype had the least and Sabzewar and Neyshabour ecotypes had the best plant recovery. Moreover there were high correlations between LT50tt and LT50 based on electrolyte leakage, survival and RDMT50. Electrolyte leakage and visual scoring of cold damage in test tube are rapid methods, so for assessing cold tolerance in plants LT50el and LT50tt indeces may be useful.

  15. Microbiological and mycotoxigenic studies on nigella sativa seeds exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tablawy, S.Y.M.

    1997-01-01

    This work was carried out to investigate the microbial contamination and mycotoxins occurrence on the N.S. seeds collected from deferent govern orates in egypt. The effect of gamma radiation for elimination this contamination isolation and identification of the radioresistant microbes and the pathogenic organisms were determined. The effect of the antimicrobial activity of the extracted oils on the isolated strains and aflatoxin production was also studied. Effect of gamma radiation and extracted oils on the ultrastructure using electron microscope on certain selected organisms was also investigated in this work

  16. The Effect of Different Fertilizer Management on Yield and Yield Components of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P rezvani moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Given the importance of nitrogen for improving the quantitative and qualitative yield of crops (Rodrigues et al., 2006 and the need for application of chemical fertilizers in intensive agriculture to get the maximum production, nitrogen supply in adequate amounts by ecologically avowed resources is known as one of the main challenges during transition from conventional to organic farming (Rodrigues et al., 2006. Considering the sustainable nitrogen management, reconstruction and rehabilitation of agroecosystems depends on reduction the nitrogen losses due to leaching, soil erosion and volatilization (Kizilkaya, 2008. For this purpose, the use of eco-friendly bio based fertilizers that are derived from natural origin, known as effective and enforceable approaches. In this regards, the proper use of manure and free-living aerobic bacteria of soils, such as Azotobacter and Azospirillum as well as mycorrhizal inoculation which can be used as a biological fertilizers, can particularly be considered (Kizilkaya, 2008. With regard to all mentioned above, the current study was aimed to evaluate the effects of biological, organic and inorganic resources of nitrogen on yield and yield components of black seed (Nigella sativa L.. Materials and methods The field experiment was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in years of 2009-2010. Experimental site was located in a semi-arid region, Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran. The soil texture was silty loam, pH 8.36, electrical conductivity 3.72 dS.m-1, total N 0.095% and 0.195% organic carbon. The available P and K contents were 5.76 and 0.378 ppm, respectively. Experimental design was arranged by using a completely randomized block design with three replications. Experimental treatments included chemical fertilizer (urea, urea + nitroxin, urea + mycorrhizae, urea + nitroxin + mycorrhizae, urea + biosulfur, manure, manure + nitroxin, manure + mycorrhizae

  17. Cannabis sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Lewis, Melissa M; Bello, Angelica M; Wasilewski, Ewa; Clarke, Hance A; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds are popular for their high nutrient content, and strict regulations are in place to limit the amount of potentially harmful phytocannabinoids, especially Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC). In Canada, this limit is 10 μg of Δ 9 -THC per gram of hemp seeds (10 ppm), and other jurisdictions in the world follow similar guidelines. Materials and Methods: We investigated three different brands of consumer-grade hemp seeds using four different procedures to extract phytocannabinoids, and quantified total Δ 9 -THC and cannabidiol (CBD). Discussion: We discovered that Δ 9 -THC concentrations in these hemp seeds could be as high as 1250% of the legal limit, and the amount of phytocannabinoids depended on the extraction procedure employed, Soxhlet extraction being the most efficient across all three brands of seeds. Δ 9 -THC and CBD exhibited significant variations in their estimated concentrations even from the same brand, reflecting the inhomogeneous nature of seeds and variability due to the extraction method, but almost in all cases, Δ 9 -THC concentrations were higher than the legal limit. These quantities of total Δ 9 -THC may reach as high as 3.8 mg per gram of hemp seeds, if one were consuming a 30-g daily recommended amount of hemp seeds, and is a cause for concern for potential toxicity. It is not clear if these high quantities of Δ 9 -THC are due to contamination of the seeds, or any other reason. Conclusion: Careful consideration of the extraction method is very important for the measurement of cannabinoids in hemp seeds.

  18. Seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 produces gibberellins and regulates endogenous phytohormones of Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Jin so mi') seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The pure culture of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, supplied with deuterated internal standards, was subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) for quantification of GAs. Results showed the presence of GAs in various quantities (ng/mL) viz., GA20 (17.88 ± 4.04), GA36 (5.75 ± 2.36), GA24 (5.64 ± 2.46), GA4 (1.02 ± 0.16), GA53 (0.772 ± 0.20), GA9 (0.12 ± 0.09), GA19 (0.093 ± 0.13), GA5 (0.08 ± 0.04), GA12 (0.014 ± 0.34), and GA8 (0.013 ± 0.01). Since endogenous seed GAs are essential for prolonged seed growth and subsequent plant development, we used exogenous GA3 as a positive control and water as a negative control for comparative analysis of the application of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 to rice plants. The growth parameters of rice plants treated with endophytic bacterial cell application was significantly increased compared to the plants treated with exogenous GA3 and water. This was also revealed by the significant up-regulation of endogenous GA1 (17.54 ± 2.40 ng), GA4 (310 ± 5.41 ng), GA7 (192.60 ± 3.32 ng), and GA9 (19.04 ± 2.49 ng) as compared to results of the positive and negative control treatments. Rice plants inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 exhibited significantly higher endogenous salicylic acid (1615.06 ± 10.81 μg), whereas

  19. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE ON GROWTH AND SEED YIELD IN SOME Camelina sativa L. VARIETIES CULTIVATED UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela PODGOREANU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently emerged interest in using renewable vegetable sources as feedstock for biofuel production requires the identification of effective solutions aimed to follow the principles of sustainable development. Biofuels from the first generation were produced from sugarcane, starch and oils derived from agricultural products, but they may not be sustainable because are competing with the agricultural production. Currently, studies are focused on the obtaining of a second generation of biofuels that originate from plants other then food crops, from agricultural residues and from municipal wastes. Being economically attractive and having certain agro-technical advantages, the Camelina sativa seed oil is considered a sustainable source for obtaining second generation biofuels. The aim of the present research was to record the effect of genotype in 3 foreign varieties of Camelina sativa (CALENA, GP 204 and GP 202 and in 3 autochthonous ones (CAMELIA, one local population Fundulea and one hybrid line as regards both the growth characteristics and the yield components in a greenhouse experiment, in order to evaluate their potential performance and adaptability in field conditions. Periodic phenological observations were performed on the occurrence of flowering, on the pod maturation and genotypic differences of the biometric measurements such as plant height, number of branches, number of pods per plant, number of seeds in pods and thousand seed weight are discussed.

  20. Variability in seed traits in a collection of Cannabis sativa L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incoronata eGalasso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hempseed could be a new source of proteins and oil for both humans and animals. In this study, the proximate composition of a collection of hempseed cultivars and accessions of different geographical origins grown under the same conditions was analyzed. Fatty acids, tocopherols and antinutritional components, as well as concentrations of crude protein and oil were quantified. Hempseed oil concentrations varied between 285 and 360 g kg-1 dry seed (DS, while crude protein ranged between 316 and 356 g kg-1 dry matter (DM. The hempseed oil was mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids and, as expected, the dominant fatty acids were linoleic and α-linolenic acid. A high variability among the cultivars and accessions was also detected for polyphenolic content which ranged from 5.88 to 10.63 g kg-1 DM, cv. Felina was the richest, whereas cv. Finola had the lowest polyphenolic content. Regarding antinutritional compounds in seed, a high variability was detected among all genotypes analyzed and phytic acid was particularly abundant (ranging between 43 and 75 g kg-1 DM. In conclusion, our results reveal noticeable differences among hempseed genotypes for antinutritional components, oil and protein content. Collectively, this study suggests that the hempseed is an interesting product in terms of protein, oil and antioxidant molecules but a reduction of phytic acid would be desirable for both humans and monogastric animals. The high variability detected among the different genotypes indicates that an improvement of hempseed might be possible by conventional and/or molecular breeding.

  1. Influence of transplanting dates on heat-unit requirement of different phenological stages and subsequently yield and quality of scented rice (Oryza sativa) seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, N.K.; Chopra, N.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted under field conditions during the rainy seasons of 2000 and 2001 at Kamal, to study the phenology, growing degree-days (GDD) and its subsequent effect on seed yield and quality of 'Pusa Basmati l' rice (Oryza sativa L.).The crop transplanted on 30 June took 109.5 calendar days and 3 125.9 growing degree-days from transplanting to maturity (total phenophases) which got reduced with delay in transplanting almost linearly. The calendar days and growing degree-days of vegetative and generative phase I and II were reduced by 7 to 9 days and 256.5, 393.5 and 427.6 growing degree-days, respectively, with delay in transplanting (4 August) compared to 30 June. However, the calendar days and growing degree-days required for physiological maturity were significantly increased in delayed transplanting (28 July and 4 August) during ripening phase. The plant traits, viz 1 ODD-seed weight, per cent germination, vigour I and vigour II, and seed yield showed a significant decline with delay in transplanting. Increasing the growing degree-days of any growth phase had differential effect on seed yield and electrical conductivity of seed. Adverse effects of late planting (28 July and 4 August) were reflected in lower yield and increased electrical conductivity values of ripening phase. Plantings made up to the middle of July were safe for higher seed yield and quality

  2. The miR393a/target module regulates seed germination and seedling establishment under submergence in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fu; Han, Ning; Xie, Yakun; Fang, Ke; Yang, Yinong; Zhu, Muyuan; Wang, Junhui; Bian, Hongwu

    2016-10-01

    The conserved miRNA393 family is thought to be involved in root elongation, leaf development and stress responses, but its role during seed germination and seedling establishment remains unclear. In this study, expression of the MIR393a/target module and its role in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were investigated. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) analysis showed that MIR393a and OsTIR1 had spatial-temporal transcriptional activities in radicle roots, coleoptile tips and stomata cells, corresponding to a dynamic auxin response. miR393a promoted primary root elongation when rice seeds were germinated in air and inhibited coleoptile elongation and stomatal development when seeds were submerged. Under submergence, the expression of miR393a was inhibited, and then the auxin response was induced. In the process, OsTIR1 and OsAFB2, auxin receptor genes, were negatively regulated by miR393. We found that miR393a inhibited stomatal development and coleoptile elongation but promoted free indole acetic acid (IAA) accumulation in the rice coleoptile tips. In addition, exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) enhanced the expression of miR393 and inhibited coleoptile growth. Together, miR393a/target plays a role in coleoptile elongation and stomatal development via modulation of auxin signalling during seed germination and seedling establishment under submergence. This study provides new perspectives on the direct sowing of rice seeds in flooded paddy fields. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Investigation of Yield and Germination Qualitative Characteristics of seeds of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L., Isabgol (Plantago ovate Forsk. and Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. under Organic Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During the last decades interest in organic production of seed specially for medicinal plants take into consideration because of higher quality of organic products (Hermes, 2010. Seed germination is one of the principal stages in the plant life cycle and seeds with higher quality and vigour resulted in more pronounced seedlings growth and development. Therefore, investigation of agronomic practices specially nutrient management in the field is important because of its effective role in the promotion of plant growth, yield and consequently seeds with good quality criteria. Materials and methods In order to investigate seed quantitative and qualitative criteria of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., isabgol (Plantago ovate Forsk. and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. under application of organic fertilizers including cow manure, spent mushroom compost, municipal waste compost and control, an experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during two growing season of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. Consequently, their seed quality criteria were evaluated in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications in Laboratory of Seed Technology at College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran. Criteria such as biological and seed yield, harvest index, 1000- seed weight, length, width and diameter of seed, seed germination percentage and rate, seed vigour index, length and weight of seedling were investigated. Results and discussion Results indicated that organic fertilizers caused a significant increase in seed yield and biological yield in which spent mushroom compost had the highest effect on mentioned criteria compared to control in both years of experiment. Harvest index was not affected by fertilizers in isabgol and black cumin in both years while showing a significant effect in fennel

  4. Effect of Osmotic Stress on Seed Germination Indices of Nigella sativa and Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Balouchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of medicinal plants to drought and salt stress tolerance, in an attempt to plant them under drought and saline regions, is of utmost importance. Environmental stresses, especially drought and salt, reduce the global crop yields more than other factors. Selection of drought tolerant crops at germination stage, usually is, the fast and low cost method. In order to study the effect of osmotic stress on germination indices of black cumin and milk thistle, an experiment carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Seed Technology Laboratoary of Yasouj University in 2008. Treatments were 0 (as control, -2.4, -4.8, -7.2 and -9.4 bar osmotic potentials created by using PEG 6000. Results showed that, decreasing of osmotic potential reduced speed of germination and its percentage, root and shoot lengths and dry matter in these two plants. Black cumin showed higher tolerance, to -4.8 bar osmotic potential, as compared to milk thistle. However, milk thistle showed higher tolerance to drought stress, up to this osmotic potential (-4.8 bar, compared to black cumin. Milk thistle had lower germination speed and percentage at higher drought stress as compared to black cumin. Generally, milk thistle showed better growth and survival than black cumin due to its higher root and shoot length and dry matter.

  5. Seed Priming to Overcome Salinity Stress in Persian Cultivars of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

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    Ali SEPEHRI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of hydro-priming on seed germination with distilled water on germination of five Alfalfa cultivars under salinity stress, an experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Seven levels of hydro-priming and salinity of NaCl including prime and non-salinity, prime and 50 mM salinity, prime and 100 mM salinity, prime and 150 mM salinity, prime and 200 mM salinity, prime and 250 mM salinity and without prime and salinity and five alfalfa varieties, including ‘Hamedani’, ‘Isfahani’, ‘Bami’, ‘Yazdi’ and ‘Ghareh Yonjeh’ were used. The results showed that the main effect of prime, salinity and cultivars and their interaction in all studied traits were significantly affected at the 5% probability level. Priming treatments in non-salinity of all cultivars were the highest. In all cultivars, final germination percentage, length and weight of radicle, plumule and seedling, germination rate and time, relative radicle elongation, vigor index and stress index, were significantly improved in response to priming in salinity levels of 50-200 mM, compared to control. Radicle produced higher length and weight than the plumule in hydro- priming and salinity treatments. ‘Hamedani’ cultivar in most of studied characteristics had a better response than others. The lowest response to salinity stress and priming was observed in ‘Yazdi’ cultivar.

  6. The Effects of Different Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Properties, Chemical Composition, and Thermal Behavior of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nameer Khairullah Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nigella sativa L. popularly referred to as black seeds are widely used as a form of traditional nutrition and medicine. N. sativa seeds were used for the extraction of their oil by way of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and cold press (CP to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and thermal behavior. The GC-MS results showed the primary constituents in the Nigella sativa oil (NSO were Caryophyllene (17.47% followed by thymoquinone (TQ (11.80%, 1,4-Cyclohexadiene (7.17%, longifolene (3.5%, and carvacrol (1.82%. The concentration of TQ was found to be 6.63 mg/mL for oil extracted using SFE and 1.56 mg/mL for oil extracted by CP method. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and the IC50 was 1.58 mg/mL and 2.30 mg/mL for SFE oil and cold pressed oil, respectively. The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP activity for SFE oil and CP oil was 538.67 mmol/100 mL and 329.00 mmol/100 mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC of SFE oil was 160.51 mg/100 mL and 94.40 mg/100 mL for CP oil presented as gallic acid equivalents (GAE. This research showed that a high level of natural antioxidants could be derived from NSO extracted by SFE.

  7. The Effects of Different Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Properties, Chemical Composition, and Thermal Behavior of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.) Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nameer Khairullah; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid; Muhialdin, Belal J.; Alhelli, Amaal M.

    2016-01-01

    The Nigella sativa L. popularly referred to as black seeds are widely used as a form of traditional nutrition and medicine. N. sativa seeds were used for the extraction of their oil by way of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and cold press (CP) to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and thermal behavior. The GC-MS results showed the primary constituents in the Nigella sativa oil (NSO) were Caryophyllene (17.47%) followed by thymoquinone (TQ) (11.80%), 1,4-Cyclohexadiene (7.17%), longifolene (3.5%), and carvacrol (1.82%). The concentration of TQ was found to be 6.63 mg/mL for oil extracted using SFE and 1.56 mg/mL for oil extracted by CP method. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and the IC50 was 1.58 mg/mL and 2.30 mg/mL for SFE oil and cold pressed oil, respectively. The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) activity for SFE oil and CP oil was 538.67 mmol/100 mL and 329.00 mmol/100 mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC) of SFE oil was 160.51 mg/100 mL and 94.40 mg/100 mL for CP oil presented as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). This research showed that a high level of natural antioxidants could be derived from NSO extracted by SFE. PMID:27642353

  8. Seed priming with polyethylene glycol regulating the physiological and molecular mechanism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under nano-ZnO stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Sheteiwy Mohamed; Yajing, Guan; Dongdong, Cao; Jie, Li; Aamir, Nawaz; Qijuan, Hu; Weimin, Hu; Mingyu, Ning; Jin, Hu

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to highlight the impact of seed priming with polyethylene glycol on physiological and molecular mechanism of two cultivars of Oryza sativa L. under different levels of zinc oxide nanorods (0, 250, 500 and 750 mg L−1). Plant growth parameters were significantly increased in seed priming with 30% PEG under nano-ZnO stress in both cultivars. Whereas, this increase was more prominent in cultivar Qian You No. 1 as compared to cultivar Zhu Liang You 06. Significant increase in photosynthetic pigment with PEG priming under stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly reduced with PEG priming under nano-ZnO stress. Gene expression analysis also suggested that expression of APXa, APXb, CATa, CATb, CATc, SOD1, SOD2 and SOD3 genes were down regulated with PEG priming as compared to non-primed seeds under stress. The ultrastructural analysis showed that leaf mesophyll and root cells were significantly damaged under nano-ZnO stress in both cultivars but the damage was prominent in Zhu Liang You 06. However, seed priming with PEG significantly alleviate the toxic effects of nano-ZnO stress and improved the cell structures of leaf and roots in both cultivars. PMID:26419216

  9. (Nigella sativa L.) genotypes from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Coriandrum sativum L.) and. Niger (Guizotia abyssinica cass.) oil seeds. Food Chem. 80: 197-204. Ramadan MF, Morsel JT (2002). Characterization of phospholipids composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa). Nahrung/Food, 46: 240-.

  10. Radical scavenging activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Kroh, Lothar W; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-11-19

    Crude vegetable oils are usually oxidatively more stable than the corresponding refined oils. Tocopherols, phospholipids (PL), phytosterols, and phenols are the most important natural antioxidants in crude oils. Processing of vegetable oils, moreover, could induce the formation of antioxidants. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils were extracted with n-hexane and the oils were further fractionated into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), and PL. Crude oils and their fractions were investigated for their radical scavenging activity (RSA) toward the stable galvinoxyl radical by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry and toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by spectrophotometric method. Coriander seed oil and its fractions exhibited the strongest RSA compared to black cumin and niger seed oils. The data correlated well with the total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, unsaponifiables, and PL, as well as the initial peroxide values of crude oils. In overall ranking, RSA of oil fractions showed similar patterns wherein the PL exhibited greater activity to scavenge both free radicals followed by GL and NL, respectively. The positive relationship observed between the RSA of crude oils and their color intensity suggests the Maillard reaction products may have contributed to the RSA of seed oils and their polar fractions. The results demonstrate the importance of minor components in crude seed oils on their oxidative stability, which will reflect on their food value and shelf life. As part of the effort to assess the potential of these seed oils, the information is also of importance in processing and utilizing the crude oils and their byproducts.

  11. Effect of weed patch size on seed removal by harvester ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westermann, Paula R.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In dryland cereals in North-eastern Spain, the harvester ant, Messor barbarus L., is responsible for removal of a large proportion of the newly produced weed seeds (40-100%. The probability that seeds will be found by the ants may be influenced by weed patch size. To investigate this source of variability, 30 seed patches were created in each of three, 50 × 50 m, blocks in a cereal field after harvest, by sequentially seeding (10, 16 and 17 August 2010 with 2000 seeds m-2 of Avena sativa L.. Patch size varied from 0.25 to 9 m2. Twenty four hours after seeding, the remaining seeds were collected and seed removal rates estimated. Average seed removal rate was lowest in the smallest (78-94% and highest in the largest patches (99-100%. Differences were mainly caused by the fact that some of the smaller patches (9.7% were not found. However, when patches were found, they were exploited at equal rates (98-100%. As predicted, the probability of finding a patch increased slightly, but significantly, with increasing patch size. When a patch was found, it was almost always fully exploited, resulting in very high seed removal rates, irrespective of patch size. These results indicate that the size of the seed patch is only a minor source of variation influencing this form of biological control of weeds.

  12. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Planting Methods and Seeding Rates on Yield of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. CV. Hamedani in Bajgah, Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yazdani

    2015-06-01

    ha-1, respectively. Seeding rates also had a significant effect on number of weeds so that maximum and minimum weed numbers were obtained in 20 kg and 5 kg seed ha-1. Our results showed that 20 kg seed ha-1 and furrow planting method was the best treatment to gain maximum forage yield and minimum weed's detrimental impact.

  14. Particle trajectories in seeds of Lactuca sativa and chromosome aberrations after exposure to cosmic heavy ions on cosmos biosatellites 8 and 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facius, R.; Scherer, K.; Reitz, G.; Bücker, H.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.

    1994-10-01

    The potentially specific importance of the heavy ions of the galactic cosmic radiation for radiation protection in manned spaceflight continues to stimulate in situ, i.e., spaceflight experiments to investigate their radiobiological properties. Chromosome aberrations as an expression of a direct assault on the genome are of particular interest in view of cancerogenesis being the primary radiation risk for man in space. In such investigations the establishment of the geometrical correlation between heavy ions' trajectories and the location of radiation sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved for the identification of particle trajectories in the order of 2~10 μm as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed. We describe how this was achieved for seeds of Lactuca sativa as biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographies displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The incidence of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed during the COSMOS 1887 (Biosatellite 8) and the COSMOS 2044 (Biosatellite 9) mission was determined for seeds hit by cosmic heavy ions. In those seeds the incidence of both single and multiple chromosome aberrations was enhanced. The results of the Biosatellite 9 experiment, however, are confounded by spaceflight effects unrelated to the passage of heavy ions.

  15. Frakcja lipidowa i białkowa nasion konopi siewnych (C. sativa L.) oraz jej korzystny wpływ na zdrowie człowieka = Lipid and protein fraction of hemp seed (C. sativa L.) and its beneficial influence on human health

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Grzegorz; Skrajda, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Dąbrowski Grzegorz, Skrajda Marta. Frakcja lipidowa i białkowa nasion konopi siewnych (C. sativa L.) oraz jej korzystny wpływ na zdrowie człowieka = Lipid and protein fraction of hemp seed (C. sativa L.) and its beneficial influence on human health. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(9):357-366. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.62002 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3839 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Sci...

  16. Comparative Studies on Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Diuretic Effects of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) and Nigella damascena L. (Lady-in-a-Mist) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Claudia-Crina; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Vlase, Laurian; Mogoșan, Cristina; Mocan, Andrei

    2015-05-26

    This study was performed to evaluate the phenolic profile, antioxidant and diuretic effects of black cumin and lady-in-a-mist seeds. In the phenolic profile, differences between the two species are significant. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC-UV/MS method. Hyperoside was the only identified flavonoid glycoside (1.08 ± 0.01 μg∙g-1 dw plant material), in the N. damascena extract. Regarding the flavonol profile, kaempferol was identified before the hydrolysis, only in the N. sativa extract (6.06 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material) and quercetin only in N. damascena seeds (14.35 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material). The antioxidant potential of the two species was tested through several electron transfer assays, which indicated, excepting for the FRAP assay, N. damascena as exhibiting a higher free radical scavenging activity. The diuretic activity of the two extracts was tested using a rat-experimental model on acute diuresis. Administration of the ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 mg∙kg-1) resulted in a significant increase in urine volume, although less than found with the reference drug; in addition N. damascena extract did not present a diuretic effect. In reference to the elimination of Na+, K+ and uric acid, the black cumin extract exhibited a higher natriuretic than kaluretic effect and a similar uricosuric effect with control and N. damascena. For N. damascena, the Na+/K+ ratio was sub unitary, but not due to an increasing of the kaluretic effect, but mostly to a decrease of Na+ excretion.

  17. Assessment of Cellular Responses to Oxidative Stress using MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Black Seed (N. Sativa L. Extracts and H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Farah

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Black seed (N. Sativa L is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There have been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as a chemoprevention of chronic diseases as well as in cancer prevention and/or therapy. Oxidative stress is a condition that underlies many acute as well as chronic conditions. The combination and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in vivo is still a matter of conjecture. Our objective for the present study was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro (as a chronic disease example to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H2O2 as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and mixtures was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluorospectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluencey, exposure to water (WE and ethanol (AE extracts of N. sativa and H2O2 was performed. Cell survival indices were calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its mixtures were able to influence the survival of MCF-7 cells (indices ranged from 357.15- 809.50 Bg/ml in descending potency for H2O2+AE to the mix of 3. In contrast, H2O2 alone reduced effectively the survival of MCF-7 cells and the least effective combinations in descending potency were AE+H2O2, WE+H2O2, AE+WE, and WE+AE+H2O2. Mixtures other than AE+H2O2 showed possible interactions and loss of potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress was found to be effective (in vitro in influencing the survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling promising opportunities in the field of cancer

  18. Medicago sativa spp. falcata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Falcata (Medicago sativa spp. falcata L.), with its high resistance to cold weather, drought and disease, .... 40 plants. Seeds were grown in a greenhouse and seedlings were transplanted three months later to the experiment station in Hebei province ..... latitude range (from northern latitude 29° to northern.

  19. Lactuca sativa L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Seeds of four lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) genotypes viz., Great Lakes (GL), Paris Island cos, Kagraner. Sommer (KS) and Isadora were assessed for their response to salt at the germination and seedling stages. The germination rate of the four varieties was comparatively studied under 0, 50, 100, 150 and.

  20. The efficacy of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil and hypoglycemic drug combination to reduce HbA1c level in patients with metabolic syndrome risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, P. N. R.; Akrom; Darmawan, E.

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a conditions caused by metabolic abnormalities include central obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. HbA1c examination is required to study the long-term glycemic status and to prevent diabetic complications of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil and hypoglycemic drug combination to reduce HbA1c level in patients with metabolic syndrome risk. This research performed using an experimental randomized single - blind controlled trial design. A total of 99 outpatients at the Jetis I Public Health Center, Yogyakarta, Indonesia with metabolic syndrome risk were divided into three groups: The control group received placebo and two treatment groups received black seed oil orally at dose of 1.5 mL/day and 3 mL/day, respectively, for 20 days. The clinical conditions such as blood pressure, pulse rate, BMI, blood glucose serum and HbA1c levels were examined on day 0 and 21. The results obtained were analyzed with one-way ANOVA test. The mean of HbA1c levels of all groups before treatment was higher than the normal values and there was no significant difference in HbA1c value on day 0. Administration of 1.5 and 3 mL/day of black seed oil for 20 days decreased (p<0.05) HbA1c levels. It can be concluded that administration of black cumin seed oil and hypoglycemic drug combination for 20 days in patients at risk of metabolic syndrome may reduce to HbA1c levels.

  1. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of tree marigold (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Laynez Garsaball

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical compounds released by plants can to control the presence of other plants in their environment both of their own species and different ones, allelopathy is an important factor in regulating the structure of plant communities, a better understanding of these relationships is critical for appropriate agricultural development. The objective was to determine the effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of tree marigold (Tithonia diversifolia on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivar Parris Island. A 15% w/v extract was prepared with leaves of tree marigold gold, it was allowed to stand for 48 h. After, diluting extracts at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% w/v were obtained and pH and electrical conductivity (S.cm-1 were determined. Sowing was carried out in trays covered with a double layer of absorbent paper on which were placed 25 seeds/tray. Irrigation was applied twice per day using leaf extracts. The control treatment received tap water. A randomized complete block design was used with four replications. Seedlings were harvested at 14 days after sowing. pH decreased and electrical conductivity increased with increases in the concentration of leaf extracts. The germination was negatively affected by extracts. A lowering effect was observed on the overall growth of lettuce seedlings.

  2. Enhancement in seed germinability of rice (oryza sativa L.) by pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide (NO) under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, N.; Ashraf, M.; Ahmad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of two fine-rice (Shaheen and PB-95) and two coarse rice (IRRI-6 and KS-282) cultivars were soaked in varying levels of nitric oxide (NO) (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mM) and then exposed to 80 mM NaCl in sand culture. Application of salt stress significantly reduced seed germinability parameters of all four rice cultivars in terms of percent seed germinated, germination index and seedling fresh and dry weights. The toxic effects of salt stress in reducing seed germinability were greater in fine rice cultivars (Shaheen and PB-95) as compared to those in coarse ones (IRRI-6 and KS-282). Although, the application of lower levels of nitric oxide (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment showed a significant improvement, 0.1 and 0.2 mM NO were found to be the most effective in improving seed germinability under salt stress. With a further increase in NO concentration (0.3 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment, the seed germinability parameters differed non-significantly from those of control plants, while the highest levels (0.4 and 0.5 mM) showed significant inhibitory effects on seed germination and early seedling growth. It was concluded that lower levels of NO (0.1 and 0.2 mM) could be used to effectively enhance seed germination of rice plants under salt stress. (author)

  3. Assessing of the contributions of pod photosynthesis to carbon acquisition of seed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxu; Mao, Peisheng; Li, Yuan; Wang, Mingya; Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Hui

    2017-02-07

    The distribution of carbon from a branch setting pod in alfalfa was investigated during the seed development of seeds to determine the relative contribution of pod and leaf photoassimilates to the total C balance and to investigate the partitioning of these photoassimilates to other plant organs. A 13 Clabeling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates of pods and leaves in alfalfa, and the Δ 13 C values of a pod, leaves, a section of stem and roots were measured during seed development on day 10, 15, 20 and 25 after labeling of the pod. The results showed that the alfalfa pod had photosynthetic capacity early in the development of seeds, and that pod photosynthesis could provide carbon to alfalfa organs including seeds, pods, leaves, stems and roots, in addition to leaf photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in the pod affected the total C balance of the alfalfa branch with the redistribution of a portion of pod assimilates to other plant organs. The assimilated 13 C of the pod was used for the growth requirements of plant seeds and pods. The requirements for assimilated C came primarily from the young pod in early seed development, with later requirements provided primarily from the leaf.

  4. The effect of melliferous bee (Apis mellifera carnica poll and mechanical means on seed yield, yield components and quality of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of alfalfa pollinators in free pollination was investigated as well as effect of measures that promote pollination alfalfa (using sugar syrup and mechanical means. In first year of investigations, with higher precipitation, higher number of others pollinators (80,8 then honeybees (45,6 on alfalfa field was determined. In second year, there were much more honeybees (139,5 then all others alfalfa pollinators (12,37. Pollination improvement with sugar syrup had positive effect on seed yield and seed yield components since by this way more seeds were obtained compare to free pollination and by using mechanical means. Highest seed yield was obtained with sugar syrup (44,90 gm-2, with mechanical improvement of pollination 40,74 gm-2 and in free pollination 30,41 gm-2. As for yield components pollination improvement gave better results compare to free pollination. Pod setting and number of seeds per pod were especially significant compare to control. There were no statistically significant differences between free pollination and improved pollination for seed quality components (mass of 1000 seeds, energy of germination and germination ability.

  5. Nigella sativa (black seed) effects on plasma lipid concentrations in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Nobili, Valerio; Bo, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The effects of Nigella sativa (NS) on plasma lipid concentrations are controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to obtain a conclusive result in humans. PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up to August 2015) to identify RCTs investigating the impact of NS on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides concentrations. A random-effects model and the generic inverse variance weighting method were used for quantitative data synthesis. Meta-regression, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessments were performed using standard methods. A total of 17 RCTs examining the effects of NS on plasma lipid concentrations were included. Meta-analysis suggested a significant association between NS supplementation and a reduction in total cholesterol (weighed-mean-difference [WMD]: -15.65mg/dL, 95% CI: -24.67, -6.63, p=0.001), LDL-C (WMD: -14.10mg/dL, 95% CI: -19.32, -8.88, p<0.001), and triglyceride levels (WMD: -20.64mg/dL, 95% CI: -30.29, -11.00, p<0.001). No significant effect on HDL-C concentrations (WMD: 0.28mg/dL, 95% CI: -1.96, 2.53, p=0.804) was found. A greater effect of NS seed oil versus seed powder was observed on serum total cholesterol and LDL-C levels, and an increase in HDL-C levels was found only after NS seed powder supplementation. NS has a significant impact on plasma lipid concentrations, leading to lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG levels while increased HDL-C is associated with NS powder only. Further RCTs are needed to explore the NS benefits on cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-wide association mapping revealed a diverse genetic basis of seed dormancy across subpopulations in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwa, Risper Auma; Zhao, Hu; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-25

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait employed by flowering plants to avoid harsh environmental conditions for the continuity of their next generations. In cereal crops, moderate seed dormancy could help prevent pre-harvest sprouting and improve grain yield and quality. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) for dormancy, based on seed germination percentage (GP) in freshly harvested seeds (FHS) and after-ripened seeds (ARS) in 350 worldwide accessions that were characterized with strong population structure of indica, japonica and Aus subpopulations. The germination tests revealed that Aus and indica rice had stronger seed dormancy than japonica rice in FHS. Association analysis revealed 16 loci significantly associated with GP in FHS and 38 in ARS. Three out of the 38 loci detected in ARS were also detected in FHS and 13 of the ARS loci were detected near previously mapped dormancy QTL. In FHS, three of the association loci were located within 100 kb around previously cloned GA/IAA inactivation genes such as GA2ox3, EUI1 and GH3-2 and one near dormancy gene, Sdr4. In ARS, an association signal was detected near ABA signaling gene ABI5. No association peaks were commonly detected among the sub-populations in FHS and only one association peak was detected in both indica and japonica populations in ARS. Sdr4 and GA2OX3 haplotype analysis showed that Aus and indica II (IndII) varieties had stronger dormancy alleles whereas indica I (IndI) and japonica had weak or non-dormancy alleles. The association study and haplotype analysis together, indicate an involvement of independent genes and alleles contributing towards regulation and natural variation of seed dormancy among the rice sub-populations.

  7. Nondestructive determination of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) using multispectral imaging and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xuzhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2014-06-15

    Crop-to-crop transgene flow may affect the seed purity of non-transgenic rice varieties, resulting in unwanted biosafety consequences. The feasibility of a rapid and nondestructive determination of transgenic rice seeds from its non-transgenic counterparts was examined by using multispectral imaging system combined with chemometric data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) methods were applied to classify rice seeds according to their genetic origins. The results demonstrated that clear differences between non-transgenic and transgenic rice seeds could be easily visualized with the nondestructive determination method developed through this study and an excellent classification (up to 100% with LS-SVM model) can be achieved. It is concluded that multispectral imaging together with chemometric data analysis is a promising technique to identify transgenic rice seeds with high efficiency, providing bright prospects for future applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antifungal evaluation studies of copper sulfide nano-aquaformulations and its impact on seed quality of rice ( Oryzae sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anjali; Barmota, Heena; Bala, Anju

    2017-11-01

    Surface capped copper sulfide nano-aquaformulations were prepared by in situ combination of copper ions with sulfide ions using sonochemical method, followed by microwave irradiations, in the presence of capping agents. Prepared nano-aquaformulations were characterized for particle size, morphology and optical properties. The in vitro antifungal evaluations studies indicated multifold efficacy against Alternaria alternata, Drechslera oryzae and Curvularia lunata in comparison to standard used. The in vivo seed treatment on discoloured paddy seeds showed the optimum results on application @ 7μg/ml for 2 h in case of citrate capped copper sulfide nanoformulation (NCuS3). Significant reduction in seed rot and seedling blight was observed with favourable effect on germination and growth parameters at this concentration.

  9. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan).

  10. Detection of DNA polymerase λ activity during seed germination and enhancement after salinity stress and dehydration in the plumules of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, Sayantani; Bakshi, Sankar; Sengupta, Dibyendu Narayan

    2015-02-01

    DNA polymerase λ (DNA pol λ) is the only reported X-family DNA polymerases in plants and has been shown to play a significant role in dry quiescent seeds, growth, development and nuclear DNA repair. cDNA for DNA pol λ has been reported in Arabidopsis and japonica rice cultivar and has been characterized from E. coli expressed protein, but very little is known about its activity at protein level in plants. The enzymatic activity of DNA pol λ was studied in dry, imbibed and during different germination stages of indica rice IR-8 (salt sensitive) by in-gel activity assay to determine its physiological role in important stages of growth and development. The upstream sequence was also analyzed using plantCARE database and was found to contain several cis-acting elements, including light responsive elements, dehydration responsive elements, Myb binding sites, etc. Hence, 4-day-old germinating seedlings of IR29, a salt-sensitive, but high yielding indica rice cultivar and Nonabokra, a salt-tolerant, but low yielding cultivar were treated with water (control) or 250 mM NaCl or 20% polyethyleneglycol-6000 for 4 and 8 h. The protein was analyzed by in vitro DNA pol λ activity assay, in-gel activity assay and Western blot analysis. DNA pol λ was not detected in dry seeds, but enhanced after imbibition and detectable from low level to high level during subsequent germination steps. Both salinity and dehydration stress led to the enhancement of the activity and protein level of DNA pol λ, as compared to control tissues. This is the first evidence of the salinity or dehydration stress induced enhancement of DNA pol λ activity in the plumules of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

  11. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    Full Text Available The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4% was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  12. Comparative mapping of seed dormancy loci between tropical and temperate ecotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotypic variation for seed dormancy (SD) in a species contributes to plant adaptation and weed persistence in agroecosystems. This research aimed to address the similarity of SD genes between distinct ecotypes using weedy rice as a model system. Quantitative trait locus mapping identified a total ...

  13. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhu, Fugui; Li, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jianfu; Li, Xin; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC) was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4%) was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  14. Development and appraisal of economical and sustainable approach for weed management in drill seeded aerobic rice (oryza sativa l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Akbar, N.; Ehsanullah, A.; Ghafoor, A.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional rice cultivation by puddling and transplanting is a labor intensive activity. Water scarcity is a threat for the sustain ability of transplanted rice. In many areas of Asia, rice transplantation of rice is being replaced by direct seeding as farmers tried to solve the problems of labor cost and water scarcity but weed control is one of the major constraints to direct seeding. So, to control weeds in direct seeded rice present studies were designed. A two years study was conducted to develop sustainable and economical methods for managing weeds in aerobic rice grown by dry direct-seeding at Student's Farm, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the years 2008 and 2009. Experiment was laid out in RCBD with five weed management strategies: hand weeding, hoeing with kasula, inter-row cultivation with tine cultivator, inter-row cultivation with spike hoe and chemical control with Nominee 100 SC along with control (no weeding). Weed dry weight was 300 g m/sup -2/, 257 g m/sup -2/, 225 g m/sup -2/ and 157 g m/sup -2/ less in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. Paddy yield was 221%, 203%, 181% and 105% more in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. (author)

  15. Biogenic synthesis of Zinc oxide nanostructures from Nigella sativa seed: Prospective role as food packaging material inhibiting broad-spectrum quorum sensing and biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabib, Nasser A.; Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmed, Faheem; Khan, Rais Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Alsharaeh, Edreese; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Hussain, Afzal; Rehman, Md Tabish; Yusuf, Mohammad; Hassan, Iftekhar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Alsalme, Ali Mohammed; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F.; Tarasov, Vadim V.; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial spoilage of food products is regulated by density dependent communication system called quorum sensing (QS). QS control biofilm formation in numerous food pathogens and Biofilms formed on food surfaces act as carriers of bacterial contamination leading to spoilage of food and health hazards. Agents inhibiting or interfering with bacterial QS and biofilm are gaining importance as a novel class of next-generation food preservatives/packaging material. In the present study, Zinc nanostructures were synthesised using Nigella sativa seed extract (NS-ZnNPs). Synthesized nanostructures were characterized hexagonal wurtzite structure of size ~24 nm by UV-visible, XRD, FTIR and TEM. NS-ZnNPs demonstrated broad-spectrum QS inhibition in C. violaceum and P. aeruginosa biosensor strains. Synthesized nanostructures inhibited QS regulated functions of C. violaceum CVO26 (violacein) and elastase, protease, pyocyanin and alginate production in PAO1 significantly. NS-ZnNPs at sub-inhibitory concentrations inhibited the biofilm formation of four-food pathogens viz. C. violaceum 12472, PAO1, L. monocytogenes, E. coli. Moreover, NS-ZnNPs was found effective in inhibiting pre-formed mature biofilms of the four pathogens. Therefore, the broad-spectrum inhibition of QS and biofilm by biogenic Zinc oxide nanoparticles and it is envisaged that these nontoxic bioactive nanostructures can be used as food packaging material and/or as food preservative. PMID:27917856

  16. The Nigella Sativa seed extract protects γ-radiation induced GI damage in rats and PMA induced PKC inhibition in macrophages only in pretreated condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Nidhi; Kumar, Mohan; Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow and gastro intestinal (GI) cells are more sensitive to radiation induced damages, due to presence of actively proliferating cell. The radiation induces apoptosis through generating oxidative stress. Here the protective effect of non-polar hexane fraction of seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. (NS) (NSH) has been explored on GI damage. The NSH was orally given to albino rats, in pre (90 min) and post treatment whole body irradiation (WBI) by 60 Co gamma radiation for further 14 days. The NSH significantly raised the survival rate of animals. It further prevented the radiation (4 Gy) induced suppression in the activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and rise in Thio barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on 7 days post-irradiation. Histo-pathological examinations revealed significant protection of ileum cells. It restored the radiation-induced reduction in villous height and crypt number and prevented the focal mucosal erosion, congestion and loss of villi. The response was dose dependent at lower concentrations only, suggesting its use as food supplement for the patients undergoing radiotherapy. At higher doses, opposite results were observed. The mechanism of action was proposed through its FR scavenging potential as it prevented the PMA induced PKC expression only when added in the pretreatment condition or within 2 min of PMA addition to macrophage culture. Late addition had no protective response. (author)

  17. Allelopathic effects on the germination of soybean seeds (Glycine max L.Merrill/ Efeitos alelopáticos sobre a germinação de sementes de soja (Glycine max L.Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the effect of natural substances found in root exsudates of other crops on the gemination of soybean seeds. Two experiments were accomplished. For the first experiment wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cale (Triticum sp., corn (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, and black oat (Avena strigosa, that were placed to germinate, in paper rolls, in BOD at 25°C. These seeds were discarded and the papers were reused for germination of soybean seeds, using as solution-test root exsudates, and as control distilled water to humidify the paper. For the second experiment, aqueous extract of above-ground part of black oat (Avena strigosa was used to humidify the paper where the soy seeds were placed to germinate, in BOD at 25oC. Allelopatic effects alelopáticos of the root exsudates were verified on the percentage of germination of the soybean seeds, but it was not verified effect on the time and medium speed of germination. It was observed negative interference of black oat extract on the time and medium speed of soybean seeds germination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de substâncias naturais encontrados em exsudados radiculares de outras culturas, sobre a geminação da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro, sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum, triticale (Triticum sp., milho (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, e aveia preta (Avena strigosa, foram colocadas para germinar, em rolos de papel, em BOD a 25°C. Estas sementes foram descartadas e os papéis reutilizados para germinação de sementes de soja, utilizando como solução-teste exsudados radiculares, e como controle apenas água destilada para umedecer os papéis. Para o segundo experimento, foi utilizado extrato aquoso da parte área de aveia preta (Avena strigosa, como umidificante do papel, onde posteriormente as sementes de soja foram colocadas para germinar, em BOD a 25oC. Constataram-se efeitos alelopáticos dos exudados

  18. Methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed induces changes in the levels of neurotransmitter amino acids in male rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Tarek; Carretero, María Emilia; Arce, Carmen; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) (NS) has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Different parts of the plant are used to treat many disorders. This study investigates the effects of NS methanol extract on brain neurotransmitter amino acid levels. We measured the changes in aspartate, glutamate, glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid in five brain regions of male Wistar rats after methanol extract treatment. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline solution (controls) or NS methanol extract (equivalent of 2.5 g/kg body weight) and sacrificed 1 h later or after administering 1 daily dose for 8 days. The neurotransmitters were measured in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum, hippocampus and thalamus by HPLC. Results showed significant changes in amino acids compared to basal values. Glutamate increased significantly (16-36%) in the regions analyzed except the striatum. Aspartate in the hypothalamus (50 and 76%) and glycine in hippocampus (32 and 25%), thalamus (66 and 29%) and striatum (75 and 48%) also increased with the two treatment intervals. γ-Aminobutyric acid significantly increased in the hippocampus (38 and 32%) and thalamus (22 and 40%) but decreased in the cortex and hypothalamus although in striatum only after eight days of treatment (24%). Our results suggest that injected methanol extract modifies amino acid levels in the rat brain regions. These results could be of interest since some neurodegenerative diseases are related to amino acid level imbalances in the central nervous system, suggesting the prospect for therapeutic use of NS against these disorders.

  19. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jeong Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature. Samples collected from naturally infected fields were detected with two bacteria, B. glumae and A. avenae subsp. avenae but X. oryzae pv. oryzae was not detected. This assay can be used to identify pathogens directly from infected seeds, and will be an effective tool for the identification of the three pathogens in rice plants.

  20. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In Jeong; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Shim, Hyeong Kwon; Shin, Dong Bum; Heu, Suggi

    2016-12-01

    Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae , and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae , three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae , 490 bp for X. oryzae , and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature. Samples collected from naturally infected fields were detected with two bacteria, B. glumae and A. avenae subsp. avenae but X. oryzae pv. oryzae was not detected. This assay can be used to identify pathogens directly from infected seeds, and will be an effective tool for the identification of the three pathogens in rice plants.

  1. Evaluate Effect of Water Stress and Different Amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Seed Quality of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heidari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water stress and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on grian yield and accumulation macronutrients included: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micronutrient included: iron, zinc, manganese and copper, oil, protein and thymoquinone contents in seed of black cumin, a field experiment was conducted as split plot design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Zahak, Zabol during growing season of 2010-2011. Water stress treatments included: W1= control, W2= no irrigation at stem elongation stage to flowering, W3= irrigation at flowering stage until the beginning of grain filling and W4= no irrigation at flowering and grain filling as the main plots and four levels of nitrogen application fertilizer, including N1= control or without any fertilizer consumption, N2= 30 kg N/ha, N3= 60 kg N/ha and N4= 90 kg N/ha in sub plot. Results showed that water stress had significant effect on the grain yield and accumulation of macro and micronutrient in the seed of Black Cumin. Except for and iron, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, copper and zinc and the lowest amount of grain yield were obtained at W4 treatment and manganese at W3 treatment. In this experiment the interaction effect between stress and nitrogen fertilizer except grain yield and potassium had significant impact on others elements. The results indicated that water stress at flowering and grain filling (W4 stages, the maximum amount of micro and macronutrients in seed was obtained at N1 and N2 nitrogen treatment. Also, water stress and nitrogen treatments increased the percentage of protein, oil and thymoquinone contents of seed, but during the onset of water stress and the use of nitrogen fertilizer, the highest percentage of protein in and thymoquinone were obtained in W4N4.

  2. Sequence, expression and tissue localization of a gene encoding a makorin RING zinc-finger protein in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Thangavelu U; Davies, Eric; Morita, Eugene Hayato; Abe, Shunnosuke

    2007-01-01

    The makorin (MKRN) RING finger protein gene family encodes proteins (makorins) with a characteristic array of zinc-finger motifs and which are present in a wide array of eukaryotes. In the present study, we analyzed the structure and expression of a putative makorin RING finger protein gene in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare). From the analysis of the genomic (AP003543), mRNA (AK120250) and deduced protein (BAD61603) sequences of the putative MKRN gene of rice, obtained from GenBank, we found that it was indeed a bona fide member of the MKRN gene family. The rice MKRN cDNA encoded a protein with four C3H zinc-finger-motifs, one putative Cys-His zinc-finger motif, and one RING zinc-finger motif. The presence of this distinct motif organization and overall amino acid identity clearly indicate that this gene is indeed a true MKRN ortholog. We isolated RNA from embryonic axes of rice seeds at various stages of imbibition and germination and studied the temporal expression profile of MKRN by RT-PCR. This analysis revealed that MKRN transcripts were present at all the time points studied. It was at very low levels in dry seeds, increased slowly during imbibition and germination, and slightly declined in the seedling growth stage. After 6days of germination, an organ-dependent expression pattern of MKRN was observed: highest in roots and moderate in leaves. Similarly to MKRN transcripts, transcripts of cytoskeletal actin and tubulin were also detected in dry embryos, steadily increased during imbibition and germination and leveled off after 24h of germination. We studied the spatial expression profile of MKRN in rice tissues, by using a relatively fast, simple and effective non-radioactive mRNA in situ hybridization (NRISH) technique, which provided the first spatial experimental data that hints at the function of a plant makorin. This analysis revealed that MKRN transcripts were expressed in young plumules, lateral root primordia, leaf primordia

  3. A study of the effect of Nigella sativa (Black seeds) in isoniazid (INH)-induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Anwar S.; Ahmed, Jawad H.; Al-Haroon, Sawsan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possibility of hepatoprotective effect of Nigella sativa (NS) in INH-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried out on 24 male rabbits. They were divided into 4 groups (6 each); rabbits in group 1 were treated with INH following a standard protocol to induce hepatotoxicity. Rabbits in group 2 received starch. Group 3 received NS 1 g/kg/day before INH treatment. Group 4 rabbits were treated with NS only. Phenobarbital sodium (IP) was given to induce metabolism of INH. INH and NS were given orally. The experiment continued for 12 days; at day 13, animals were sacrificed. Liver function tests, malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in serum and in liver homogenates. Liver histopathological examinations were performed. Results: Histopathological changes of hepatotoxicity were found in all INH-treated rabbits. The histopathological findings were normal in three rabbits treated with NS before INH, very mild in two, and with moderate changes in one rabbit. Serum alanine aminotransferase (S.ALT) was elevated after INH treatment and returned back to the control value when NS was given before INH. Similar pattern of effect was noticed with serum aspartate aminotransferase (S.AST), S. total bilirubin, S. MDA, and Serum alkaline phosphatase.In liver homogenate, AST, ALT, and MDA were increased with INH treatment compared to the control, then decreased with NS treatment given before INH Conclusions: NS has hepatoprotective effects against INH-induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits. NS 1 g/kg proved safe, no adverse effects; no histopathological or biological abnormalities were seen. PMID:23248393

  4. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-02-01

    Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil-containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P diets (P Fads1) expression (P Fads2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg) (P < 0.005) expressions were induced by CO. No impact of treatment on liver X receptor α (Lxra) or sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c) was evident. Oil from transgenic Camelina is a bioavailable source of EPA in mice. These data provide support for the future assessment of this oil in a human feeding trial.

  5. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Avena indolines and their role in kernel texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazza, Laura; Taddei, Federica; Conti, Salvatore; Gazzelloni, Gloria; Muccilli, Vera; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato; Alfieri, Michela; Redaelli, Rita; Pogna, Norberto E

    2015-02-01

    Among cereals, Avena sativa is characterized by an extremely soft endosperm texture, which leads to some negative agronomic and technological traits. On the basis of the well-known softening effect of puroindolines in wheat kernel texture, in this study, indolines and their encoding genes are investigated in Avena species at different ploidy levels. Three novel 14 kDa proteins, showing a central hydrophobic domain with four tryptophan residues and here named vromindoline (VIN)-1,2 and 3, were identified. Each VIN protein in diploid oat species was found to be synthesized by a single Vin gene whereas, in hexaploid A. sativa, three Vin-1, three Vin-2 and two Vin-3 genes coding for VIN-1, VIN-2 and VIN-3, respectively, were described and assigned to the A, C or D genomes based on similarity to their counterparts in diploid species. Expression of oat vromindoline transgenes in the extra-hard durum wheat led to accumulation of vromindolines in the endosperm and caused an approximate 50 % reduction of grain hardness, suggesting a central role for vromindolines in causing the extra-soft texture of oat grain. Further, hexaploid oats showed three orthologous genes coding for avenoindolines A and B, with five or three tryptophan residues, respectively, but very low amounts of avenoindolines were found in mature kernels. The present results identify a novel protein family affecting cereal kernel texture and would further elucidate the phylogenetic evolution of Avena genus.

  6. Indoleacetic acid production and plant growth promoting potential of bacterial endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Kang, Sang-Mo; Seo, Chang-Woo; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial endophytes from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere have been used to produce bioactive metabolites and to promote plant growth. However, little is known about the endophytes residing in seeds. This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne bacterial endophytes from rice and elucidate their potential for phytohormone production and growth enhancement. The isolated endophytes included Micrococcus yunnanensis RWL-2, Micrococcus luteus RWL-3, Enterobacter soli RWL-4, Leclercia adecarboxylata RWL-5, Pantoea dispersa RWL-6, and Staphylococcus epidermidis RWL-7, which were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were analyzed for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by using GC-MS and IAA was found in the range of 11.50 ± 0.77 μg ml -1 to 38.80 ± 1.35 μg ml -1 . We also assessed the strains for plant growth promoting potential because these isolates were able to produce IAA in pure culture. Most of the growth attributes of rice plants (shoot and root length, fresh and dry biomass, and chlorophyll content) were significantly increased by bacterial endophytes compared to the controls. These results show that IAA producing bacterial endophytes can improve hostplant growth traits and can be used as bio-fertilizers.

  7. Reverse-phase HPLC separation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with enhanced antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2013-03-01

    Hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) was produced through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion of hemp seed protein isolate followed by partial purification and separation into eight peptide fractions by reverse-phase (RP)-HPLC. The peptide fractions exhibited higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity as well as scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals when compared to HPH. Radical scavenging activities of the fractionated peptides increased as content of hydrophobic amino acids or elution time was increased, with the exception of hydroxyl radical scavenging that showed decreased trend. Glutathione (GSH), HPH and the RP-HPLC peptide fractions possessed low ferric ion reducing ability but all had strong (>60 %) metal chelating activities. Inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by some of the HPH peptide fractions was higher at 1 mg/ml when compared to that observed at 0.1 mg/ml peptide concentration. Peptide separation resulted in higher concentration of some hydrophobic amino acids (especially proline, leucine and isoleucine) in the fractions (mainly F5 and F8) when compared to HPH. The elution time-dependent increased concentrations of the hydrophobic amino acids coupled with decreased levels of positively charged amino acids may have been responsible for the significantly higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant properties observed for some of the peptide fractions when compared to the unfractionated HPH. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of HPH after simulated GIT digestion is mainly influenced by the amino acid composition of some of its peptides.

  8. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.

  9. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa Linn: Part 2 Recent advances

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Khan, M.; Afzal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The black cumin or Nigella sativa L. seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as bronchodilatory, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating. This review article is an update on the previous article published on Nigella sativa L. in this journal in 1999. It covers the medicinal properties and chemical syntheses of the alkaloids isolated from the seeds of the herb.

  10. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa Linn: Part 2 Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram Khan, M; Afzal, M

    2016-06-01

    The black cumin or Nigella sativa L. seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as bronchodilatory, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating. This review article is an update on the previous article published on Nigella sativa L. in this journal in 1999. It covers the medicinal properties and chemical syntheses of the alkaloids isolated from the seeds of the herb.

  11. The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nigella sativa Seeds on Serum Estradiol and Prolactin Levels and obstetric Criteria due to Hypothyroidism in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Roghayeh; Hadjzadeh, Hossien; Sadegh, Majid Mohammad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Emami, Bahman; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa (NS) seeds on hypothyroid pregnant rats and their progenies. Materials and Methods: Hypothyroidism was induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) 0.03% in drinking water. Female rats were divided into seven groups: control, PTU, PTU-NS (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), and NS (100 and 400 mg/kg). All treatments were done 20 days before mating and during pregnancy. The weight of rat dams and progenies, number of progenies and serum T4, estradiol and prolactin (PRL) levels in rat dams were measured for all groups. Results: Serum T4 in all PTU-NS groups before mating was significantly increased versus PTU group. Body weight of rat dams before mating in all groups of PTU-NS was increased versus PTU group by P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively and in NS 100 and NS 400 was increased versus control group (P < 0.001). The number of offspring was significantly decreased in PTU and PTU-NS versus control group. The weight of progenies in NS 400 was higher than control group (P < 0.001) and was increased in PTU-NS 200 and PTU-NS 400 versus PTU group by P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively. Serum PRL level in rat dams in control, PTU, and PTU-NS groups were not statistically different between groups but significantly increased in NS 400 group when compared to control group. Estradiol levels were not significantly different in rat dams at 5 days after delivery. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that feeding of rat dams with NS extract before mating has positive protective effects on progenies. These effects may be due to antioxidant properties of NS in reducing oxidative stress and thyroid damages induced by PTU. PMID:29387677

  12. The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nigella sativa Seeds on Serum Estradiol and Prolactin Levels and obstetric Criteria due to Hypothyroidism in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Pakdel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa (NS seeds on hypothyroid pregnant rats and their progenies. Materials and Methods: Hypothyroidism was induced by propylthiouracil (PTU 0.03% in drinking water. Female rats were divided into seven groups: control, PTU, PTU-NS (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, and NS (100 and 400 mg/kg. All treatments were done 20 days before mating and during pregnancy. The weight of rat dams and progenies, number of progenies and serum T4, estradiol and prolactin (PRL levels in rat dams were measured for all groups. Results: Serum T4 in all PTU-NS groups before mating was significantly increased versus PTU group. Body weight of rat dams before mating in all groups of PTU-NS was increased versus PTU group by P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively and in NS 100 and NS 400 was increased versus control group (P < 0.001. The number of offspring was significantly decreased in PTU and PTU-NS versus control group. The weight of progenies in NS 400 was higher than control group (P < 0.001 and was increased in PTU-NS 200 and PTU-NS 400 versus PTU group by P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively. Serum PRL level in rat dams in control, PTU, and PTU-NS groups were not statistically different between groups but significantly increased in NS 400 group when compared to control group. Estradiol levels were not significantly different in rat dams at 5 days after delivery. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that feeding of rat dams with NS extract before mating has positive protective effects on progenies. These effects may be due to antioxidant properties of NS in reducing oxidative stress and thyroid damages induced by PTU.

  13. Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Duthie, Garry; Ranawana, Viren

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved.

  14. Discrimination of oats ( Avena sativa L.) cultivars using isozyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The enzyme extracts prepared from seven days aged seedlings of each cultivars were analyzed through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and the cultivars were differentiated based on the presence or absence of bands and intensity of bands in each isozymes. In peroxidase, totally four bands were recorded, and ...

  15. (Avena sativa) with geographical locations in Gansu Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-05

    Mar 5, 2007 ... China, especially in the alpine regions such as the. Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (Ma and Han, 2000). Oat is usually harvested as hay and fed as the supplementary feed for the grazing livestock when the animals suffer from inadequate feeds in the long, harsh cold season under the traditional farming system in ...

  16. Sorption isotherms for oat flakes (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edgar Zapata M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of oat flakes were determined at temperatures of 5, 25 and 37°C, using a gravimetric technique in an a w range of between 0.107 and 0.855. These curves were modeled using six equations commonly applied in food. The quality of the fit was assessed with the regression coefficient (r² and the mean relative percentage error (MRPE. The best fit were obtained with the Caurie model with r² of 0.996, 0.901 and 0.870, and MRPE of 7.190, 17.878 and 16.206, at 5, 25 and 37°C, respectively. The equilibrium moisture presented a dependence on temperature in the studied a w range, as did the security moisture (X S. These results suggest that the recommended storage conditions of oat flakes include: a relative air humidity of 50% between 5 and 25°C and of 38% up to 37°C.

  17. Discrimination of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using isozyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... dark at 37°C. After appearance of brown coloured bands, reaction was ceased by immersing the gel in a solution ... appearance of translucent bands in dark blue background, the gel was photographed. Evaluation and .... interact in co dominant fashion and facilitate the identification of heterozygotes from ...

  18. Studies on morpho-physiological characters of different Avena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven species of oat (Avena) were evaluated for their relative drought tolerance under soil moisture stress. The plant height, leaf area production and biomass yield reduced under soil moisture stress. Among the species tested, minimum reduction in height was recorded in Avena vaviloviana, Avena abyssinica and Avena ...

  19. Transfer of several phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species to Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae subsp. nov., comb. nov., Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax konjaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, A; Goor, M; Thielemans, S; Gillis, M; Kersters, K; De Ley, J

    1992-01-01

    DNA-rRNA hybridizations, DNA-DNA hybridizations, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins, and a numerical analysis of carbon assimilation tests were carried out to determine the relationships among the phylogenetically misnamed phytopathogenic taxa Pseudomonas avenae, Pseudomonas rubrilineans, "Pseudomonas setariae," Pseudomonas cattleyae, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. citrulli, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci. These organisms are all members of the family Comamonadaceae, within which they constitute a separate rRNA branch. Only P. pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci is situated on the lower part of this rRNA branch; all of the other taxa cluster very closely around the type strain of P. avenae. When they are compared phenotypically, all of the members of this rRNA branch can be differentiated from each other, and they are, as a group, most closely related to the genus Acidovorax. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that these organisms constitute two genotypic groups. We propose that the generically misnamed phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species should be transferred to the genus Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae and Acidovorax konjaci. Within Acidovorax avenae we distinguished the following three subspecies: Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli. Emended descriptions of the new taxa are presented.

  20. Unintended compositional changes in transgenic rice seeds ( Oryza sativa L.) studied by spectral and chromatographic analysis coupled with chemometrics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhe; Si, Xiao-xi; Li, Gong-ke; Zhang, Zhuo-min; Xu, Xin-ping

    2010-02-10

    Unintended compositional changes in transgenic rice seeds were studied by near-infrared reflectance, GC-MS, HPLC, and ICP-AES coupled with chemometrics strategies. Three kinds of transgenic rice with resistance to fungal diseases or insect pests were comparatively studied with the nontransgenic counterparts in terms of key nutrients such as protein, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, elements, and antinutrient phytic acid recommended by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The compositional profiles were discriminated by chemometrics methods, and the discriminatory compounds were protein, three amino acids, two fatty acids, two vitamins, and several elements. Significance of differences for these compounds was proved by analysis of variance, and the variation extent ranged from 20 to 74% for amino acids, from 19 to 38% for fatty acids, from 25 to 57% for vitamins, from 20 to 50% for elements, and 25% for protein, whereas phytic acid content did not change significantly. The unintended compositional alterations as well as unintended change of physical characteristic in transgenic rice compared with nontransgenic rice might be related to the genetic transformation, the effect of which needs to be elucidated by additional studies.

  1. Exploitation of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L.) flour into gluten-free rice cookies: Nutritional, antioxidant and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Rocchetti, Gabriele; Sigolo, Samantha; Fortunati, Paola; Lucini, Luigi; Gallo, Antonio

    2018-01-15

    In an effort to increase the nutritional value of common gluten-free (GF) cereal-based foods, GF cookies using alfalfa seed flour (ASF), at different substitution levels to common rice flour (0% as control, 15%, 30% and 45% w/w), were produced. Crude protein, total dietary fibre, total polyunsaturated, total n-3 and n-6 fatty acid contents increased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice with ASF. The hardness, the total phenolic content, the in vitro antioxidant capacity and the resistant starch increased linearly (p<0.05), whereas the starch hydrolysis index decreased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice flour with ASF. Despite the fact that ASF-substituted GF cookies had inferior sensory attributes compared to the control, the score given by the panellists remained at fairly good levels for all tested parameters, showing acceptability of the substituted GF cookies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Seed-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, the causal agent of brown stripe was detected in 63% of the seed samples tested indicat- ing that this pathogen is widely distributed in Tanzania. Other pathogens identified were Pantoea agglomerans causing palea brpwning, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causing bacterial blight and.

  3. Isolation and characterization of seed-Borne pathogenic bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolated bacterial strains were identified based on colony morphology, biochemical, serological and pathogenicity tests. Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, the causal agent of brown stripe was detected in 63% of the seed samples tested indicating that this pathogen is widely distributed in Tanzania. Other pathogens ...

  4. Allelopathic relations of selected cereal and vegetable species during seed germination and seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojović Biljana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is the direct or indirect harmful effect which one plant produces on another through the production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment. In the presence paper allelopathic relationships were determined in three cereals - wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., oat (Avena sativa L. and vegetable crops - spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., pepper (Capsicum annum L.. In addition to the percentage of germination, allelopathic potential was tested measuring root and stem length of tested plant species germinated either alone or in combination with others. The obtained results showed that seed germination and plant growth of cereals and vegetables are depended on the presence of other plants in all tested combinations. In this study has proven largely inhibitory allelopathic effect on germination and plant growth.

  5. Pronóstico productivo de la avena forrajera de temporal por efecto del cambio climático en el noroeste de Chihuahua, México

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Villazón Bustillos; Héctor Rubio Arias; Jesús M. Ochoa Rivero; Celia de la Mora

    2017-01-01

    El cambio climático puede afectar la productividad de los cultivos en una región determinada. El objetivo fue identificar la variabilidad en la producción de avena forrajera ( Avena sativa L.) de temporal utilizando una función estocástica y analizar sus relaciones con la temperatura y precipitación, ante escenarios de cambio climático en la región noroeste de Chihuahua, México. Se obtuvo información estadística de 13 años (2001 - 2013) en las estacione...

  6. Review: Nigella sativa (Prophetic Medicine): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Hira; Tulain, Ume Ruqia; Qureshi, Junaid; Danish, Zeeshan; Musayab, Samina; Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Saleem, Ammara; Khan, Khanzada Khanzada; Zaman, Muhammad; Waheed, Imran; Khan, Imran; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The present report is a significant effort to explore detail description of N. Sativa, its pharmacognostic characteristics, morphological characteristics, and mechanism of actions, doses and medicinal uses. Nigella sativa (N. Sativa) is greatest form of healing medicine. It is also known as Prophetic Medicine as its use has been mentioned in Prophetic Hadit, as natural remedy for all the diseases except death. It is recommended on daily basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). Hazrat Abu Hurairah States ''I have heard from Rasool Allah (PBUH) that there is cure for every disease in black seeds except death and black seeds are shooneeze''. Salim Bin Abdullah narrates with reference to his father Hazrat Abdullah Bin Omar that Rasool Allah (PBUH) said, 'Let all the black seed upon you, these contain cure of all diseases except death'. N. sativa claimed to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepato-protective, neuro-protective, gastro-protective and other useful properties. Biological and pharmacological effects are attributed to its two important constituents Thymoquinone (TQ) and Nigella sativa oil (NSO). TQ has interaction with human serum albumin. Seeds containing volatile oils mainly Melanthin showed toxicity at larger doses. This report is a reference for all pharmaceutical researchers, physicians and biologists researching on N. sativa and will open a door towards novel agent.

  7. Biology and management of Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana: two noxious weed species of agro-ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Akhter, Muhammad Javaid; Iqbal, Nadeem; Peerzada, Arslan Masood; Hanif, Zarka; Manalil, Sudheesh; Hashim, Saima; Ali, Hafiz Haider; Kebaso, Lynda; Frimpong, David; Namubiru, Halima; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2017-08-01

    Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana are closely related grass weed species infesting a large number of crops around the world. These species are widely distributed in diverse agro-ecosystems from temperate to sub-tropical regions due to their unique seed traits, successful germination ecology, high competitive ability, and allelopathic potential. A. fatua is more widespread, adaptable, and problematic than A. ludoviciana. Both these species infest major winter and spring crops, including wheat, oat, barley, canola, maize, alfalfa, and sunflower, causing up to 70% yield losses depending on crop species and weed density. Chemical control has been challenged by large-scale herbicide resistance evolution in these weed species. A. fatua is the most widespread herbicide-resistant weed in the world, infesting about 5 million hectares in 13 countries. The use of alternative herbicides with different modes of action has proved effective. Several cultural practices, including diverse crop rotations, cover crops, improved crop competition (using competitive cultivars, high seed rates, narrow row spacing, altered crop geometry), and allelopathic suppression, have shown promise for controlling A. fatua and A. ludoviciana. The integrated use of these cultural methods can reduce the herbicide dose required, and lower dependency on herbicides to control these grasses. Moreover, integrated management may successfully control herbicide-resistant populations of these weed species. The use of integrated approaches based on the knowledge of biology and ecology of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana may help to manage them sustainably in the future.

  8. Integrated effect of seeding rate, herbicide dosage and application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated effect of seeding rate, herbicide dosage and application timing on durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum l. var durum) yield, yield components and wild oat (avena fatua l.) control in south eastern Ethiopia.

  9. Calcium bridges are not load-bearing cell-wall bonds in Avena coleoptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    I examined the ability of frozen-thawed Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections under applied load to extend in response to the calcium chelators ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin II). Addition of 5 mM EGTA to weakly buffered (0.1 mM, pH 6.2) solutions of 2(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (Mes) initiated rapid extension and wall acidification. When the buffer strength was increased (e.g. from 20 to 100 mM Mes, pH 6.2) EGTA did not initiate extension nor did it cause wall acidification. At 5 mM Quin II failed to stimulate cell extension or wall acidification at all buffer molarities tested (0.1 to 100 mM Mes). Both chelators rapidly and effectively removed Ca2+ from Avena sections. These data indicate that Ca2+ chelation per se does not result in loosening of Avena cells walls. Rather, EGTA promotes wall extension indirectly via wall acidification.

  10. Oryza sativa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-25

    Apr 25, 2014 ... [Wang L. and Zhang H. 2014 Genomewide survey and characterization of metacaspase gene family in rice (Oryza sativa). J. Genet. 93, 93–102]. Introduction. Programmed cell death ..... Arabidopsis, both proline and glutamine were found to be enriched in predicted N-terminal prodomain (Vercammen et al.

  11. In vitro inhibitory effects of thymol and quinones of Nigella sativa seeds on cyclooxygenase-1-and -2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Kokoška, L.; Landa, P.; Nepovím, Aleš; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2005), s. 739-742 ISSN 0032-0943 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/02/0257; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OC926.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Nigella sativa * thymol * thymoquinone Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.628, year: 2005

  12. Clinical and Therapeutic Trials of Nigella Sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa H.M. Salama

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Nigella sativa (N. sativa have been used for thousands of years as a spice and food preservative. The oil and seed constituents have shown potential medicinal properties in traditional medicine. This review lists and discusses different therapeutic trials of N. sativa seeds and its active ingredients in many diseases affecting body systems. It has anti–oxidant effects through enhancing the oxidant scavenger system that leads to antitoxic effects induced by several insults. Its anti–inflammatory effects conduct through suppression of the inflammatory mediators’ prostaglandins and leukotriens. Its immunomodulatory properties were proved by augmenting the T cell and natural killer cell–mediated immune responses. It expresses antimicrobial and anti–tumor properties toward different microbes and cancers. It decreases DNA damage and thereby prevents initiation of carcinogenesis in colonic tissue secondary to exposure to toxic agents. N. sativa is of immense therapeutic benefit in DM. It stimulates glucose–induced secretion of insulin besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption from the intestinal mucosa. N. sativa administration protects hepatic tissue from deleterious effects of toxic substances and attenuates hepatic lipid peroxidation. N. sativa provides a promising strategy that combines anti–inflammatory, antioxidants, and antineoplastics modes of action. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 513-522

  13. Genome sequence of the rice-pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Liu, He; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-09-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is a phytobacterium which is the causative agent of several plant diseases with economic significance. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain RS-1, which was isolated from rice shoots in a rice field in China. This strain can cause bacterial stripe of rice. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Genome Sequence of the Rice-Pathogenic Bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Liu, He; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is a phytobacterium which is the causative agent of several plant diseases with economic significance. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain RS-1, which was isolated from rice shoots in a rice field in China. This strain can cause bacterial stripe of rice.

  15. Genome Sequence of the Rice-Pathogenic Bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Liu, He; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is a phytobacterium which is the causative agent of several plant diseases with economic significance. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain RS-1, which was isolated from rice shoots in a rice field in China. This strain can cause bacterial stripe of rice. PMID:21742879

  16. Chromosomal distribution patterns of the (AC)10microsatellite and other repetitive sequences, and their use in chromosome rearrangement analysis of species of the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominaya, Araceli; Loarce, Yolanda; Montes, Alexander; Ferrer, Esther

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine the physical location of the (AC) 10 microsatellite in metaphase chromosomes of six diploid species (AA or CC genomes), two tetraploid species (AACC genome), and five cultivars of two hexaploid species (AACCDD genome) of the genus Avena, a genus in which genomic relationships remain obscure. A preferential distribution of the (AC) 10 microsatellite in the pericentromeric and interstitial regions was seen in both the A- and D-genome chromosomes, while in C-genome chromosomes the majority of signals were located in the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions. New large chromosome rearrangements were detected in two polyploid species: an intergenomic translocation involving chromosomes 17AL and 21DS in Avena sativa 'Araceli' and another involving chromosomes 4CL and 21DS in the analyzed cultivars of Avena byzantina. The latter 4CL-21DS intergenomic translocation differentiates clearly between A. sativa and A. byzantina. Searches for common hybridization patterns on the chromosomes of different species revealed chromosome 10A of Avena magna and 21D of hexaploid oats to be very similar in terms of the distribution of 45S and Am1 sequences. This suggests a common origin for these chromosomes and supports a CCDD rather than an AACC genomic designation for this species.

  17. Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjun; Schuenzel, Erin L; Li, Jianqiang; Schaad, Norman W

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, has caused considerable damage to the watermelon and melon industry in China and the United States. Understanding the emergence and spread of this pathogen is important for controlling the disease. To build a fingerprinting database for reliable identification and tracking of strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed using seven conserved loci. The study included 8 original strains from the 1978 description of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, 51 from China, and 34 from worldwide collections. Two major clonal complexes (CCs), CC1 and CC2, were identified within A. avenae subsp. citrulli; 48 strains typed as CC1 and 45 as CC2. All eight original 1978 strains isolated from watermelon and melon grouped in CC1. CC2 strains were predominant in the worldwide collection and all but five were isolated from watermelon. In China, a major seed producer for melon and watermelon, the predominant strains were CC1 and were found nearly equally on melon and watermelon.

  18. Effects of untreated and treated wastewater at the morphological, physiological and biochemical levels on seed germination and development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Imen; Chaabane, Zayneb; Missaoui, Amara; Bouket, Ali Chenari; Luptakova, Lenka; Elleuch, Amine; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-03-15

    Wastewater reuse in agriculture may help mitigate water scarcity. This may be reached if high quality treatments removing harmful pollutants are applied. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of untreated (UTW) and treated wastewater (TW) on germination and seedlings development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). UTW presented high turbidity (130 NTU), chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, 719mgL -1 , BOD 5, 291mgL -1 ) and metal concentrations. These levels caused mortality (18% for fescue), decreased germination speed in seeds (37.5% for alfalfa) and reductions of root and stem length in seedlings (80% and 22% respectively for alfalfa). Adverse effects on seeds germination were reflected at the biochemical level by increased H 2 O 2 levels (6 times for sorghum after 5days) and by increased Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (more than 600 times for sorghum roots) during seedlings development. When TW was used, these parameters were close to control seeds ones. They were also dependent on plant species and developmental stage. Therefore, for efficient reclaimed wastewater reuse in irrigation, suitable crops, displaying wide tolerance to toxic contents during germination and later seedling development stages have to be selected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  20. Cardiovascular benefits of black cumin (Nigella sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman; Asim, Mohammad; Al-Azzeh, Hiba; Al Thani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Black Cumin (Nigella sativa), which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, commonly grows in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Western Asia. Its ripe fruit contains tiny black seeds, known as "Al-Habba Al-Sauda" and "Al-Habba Al-Barakah" in Arabic and black seed or black cumin in English. Seeds of Nigella sativa are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and the treatment of many ailments. However, data for the cardiovascular benefits of black cumin are not well-established. We reviewed the literature from 1960 to March 2012 by using the following key words: "Nigella sativa," "black seeds," and "thymoquinone." Herein, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of Nigella sativa in the cardiovascular diseases spectrum especially when there is a paucity of information and need of further studies in human to establish the utility of Nigella sativa in cardiovascular system protection.

  1. The starch-bound alpha-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors in Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazza, Laura; Gazzelloni, Gloria; Taddei, Federica; Latini, Arianna; Muccilli, Vera; Alfieri, Michela; Conti, Salvatore; Redaelli, Rita; Pogna, Norberto E

    2016-12-01

    Oat kernels exhibit an extra-soft texture, a trait recently demonstrated to be largely modulated by starch-bound tryptophan-rich 2S proteins, the vromindolines. In this study, fractionation by two-dimensional electrophoresis of starch-bound proteins in 25 oat (Avena sativa) cultivars and 11 diploid or tetraploid Avena species revealed novel 2S proteins called Avena α-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (AATI) because of their sequence similarity with wheat α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Thirty-seven AATI polypeptides, about 14 kDa in size, were split into three families named AATI-1, AATI-2, and AATI-3 with different primary structures and isoelectric points. AATI-1 and AATI-2 proteins showed 55.5-60.0 % sequence similarity with wheat α-amylase inhibitors CM1, CM2, and CM16, which have been found to cause innate immunity responses in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Diploid A-genome and tetraploid AC-genome oat species possess three and five genes encoding for the AATI proteins, respectively, whereas hexaploid A. sativa exhibits 12 genes dispersed over the A-, C-, and D-genomes. Some AATI proteins expressed in hexaploid oats were assigned to the A-genome based on similarity to their counterparts in diploid species, contributing to further clarify the genetic origin of hexaploid oats. Moreover, AATI may interact with starch-bound vromindolines in determining the extra-soft texture of oat kernels and, due to their balanced amino acid compositions, may contribute to the biological value of oat proteins in a positive manner.

  2. Study of Seed Germination and Morphological Characteristics of Wild Oat(Avena ludoviciana and Mustard (Sinapis arvensis Seedling, Affected by Aqueous Extracts of Black Cumin (Bunium persicum L, Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L and Mixed of Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Moradi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the effects of shoot aqueous extracts of chickpea, black cumin and their mixed aqueous extracts on seed germination and seedling morphological characteristics of wild oat and mustard as two common weed, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications. The experimental treatments were aqueous extracts in five levels (0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 percentage, Weed species in two levels (wild oat and mustard and extract concentration in five levels (0, 10, 20. 40 and 60 percentage. Result indicated that the highest and the lowest percentage and seed germination rate, length of radicle and hypocotyle, dry weight of radicle and hypocotyle and radicle / hypocotyle ratio (R/H, were obtained in control treatment and 60% concentration, respectively. Aqueous extract of black cumin and mixed extracts had the highest and the lowest effect on percentage and seed germination rate, length of radicle and hypocotyle, dry weight of radicle and hypocotyle and radicle / hypocotyle ratio, respectively. Between two weed species, wild oat had the lowest percentage of seed germination and length of radicle compared with mustard. Mustard had the lowest seed germination rate, dry weight of radicle and hypocotyle and length of hypocotyle compare with wild oat. Generally, it was concluded that chickpea and black cumin aqueous extracts have highly inhibitory in terms of weed control that can be useful for sustainable agriculture. Keywords: Allelopathy, Black cumin, Chickpea, Extract, Mustard, Wild oat

  3. The Longevity of Crop Seeds Stored Under Long-term Condition in the National Gene Bank of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desheva Gergana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed accessions from 7 plant families and 28 species stored for above 20 years in the National gene bank of Bulgaria were evaluated. All seed accessions were maintained as base collection under long-term storage conditions with low moisture contents (5±2% in hermetically closed containers at −18°C. On the basis of experimental data, the seed storage characters σ (standard deviation of seed death in storage, P50% (the time for viability to fall to 50% and P10% (the time for viability reduction of 10% were determined allowing the prediction of seed storage life and the regeneration needs. The results showed significant differences in loss of seed viability among species and within the species. After 20–24 years of storage, eleven crops showed minimal viability decline under 5% as compared to the initial viability (oats, barley, maize, bread wheat, durum wheat, smooth brome grass, faba bean, chickpea, sunflower, cucumber and pepper. For the same storage time, another group of crops (sorghum, triticale, orchard grass, tall fescue, common vetch, grass pea, lentil, common bean, rapeseed, tobacco, flax, cabbage and tomatoes presented 5–10% reduction of seed viability. More significant changes in seed viability – above 10% – were detected for peanuts, lettuce, soybean and rye. The σ values varied from 20.41 years (Arachis hypogaea L. to 500 years (for Avena sativa L. and Triticum aestivum L. There was wide variation across species, both in time taken for the viability to fall to 50% and in time taken for the seed viability reduction of 10%. The study illustrates the positive effect of both seed storability early monitoring and prediction of regeneration needs as a tool for limiting undesired losses.

  4. The outer epidermis of Avena and maize coleoptiles is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A controversy exists as to whether or not the outer epidermis in coleoptiles is a unique target for auxin in elongation growth. The following evidence indicates that the outer epidermis is not the only auxin-responsive cell layer in either Avena sativa L. or Zea mays L. coleoptiles. Coleoptile sections from which the epidermis has been removed by peeling elongate in response to auxin. The magnitude of the response is similar to that of intact sections provided the incubation solution contains both auxin and sucrose. The amount of elongation is independent of the amount of epidermis removed. Sections of oat coleoptiles from which the epidermis has been removed from one side are nearly straight after 22 h in auxin and sucrose, despite extensive growth of the sections. These data indicate that the outer epidermis is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth, at least in Avena and maize coleoptiles.

  5. Physilogical and Biochemical Responses of Avena species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mk

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... Seven species of oat (Avena) were evaluated for their relative drought tolerance under soil moisture stress. The plant height, leaf area production and biomass yield reduced under soil moisture stress. Among the species tested, minimum reduction in height was recorded in Avena vaviloviana, Avena.

  6. Type IV Pili are required for virulence, twitching motility, and biofilm formation of acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ofir; Goffer, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a threatening disease of watermelon, melon, and other cucurbits. Despite the economic importance of BFB, relatively little is known about basic aspects of the pathogen's biology and the molecular basis of its interaction with host plants. To identify A. avenae subsp. citrulli genes associated with pathogenicity, we generated a transposon (Tn5) mutant library on the background of strain M6, a group I strain of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, and screened it for reduced virulence by seed-transmission assays with melon. Here, we report the identification of a Tn5 mutant with reduced virulence that is impaired in pilM, which encodes a protein involved in assembly of type IV pili (TFP). Further characterization of this mutant revealed that A. avenae subsp. citrulli requires TFP for twitching motility and wild-type levels of biofilm formation. Significant reductions in virulence and biofilm formation as well as abolishment of twitching were also observed in insertional mutants affected in other TFP genes. We also provide the first evidence that group I strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli can colonize and move through host xylem vessels.

  7. Impacts of farmer-based training in seed production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tin Huynh Quang,

    2009-01-01

    Key words: farmer seed production school, farm-saved seed, formal seed sector, impact assessment, improved practice, local practice, rice (Oryza sativa), seed production, seed quality, Vietnam Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important food and cash crop of Vietnam. It is cultivated in all

  8. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.

  9. Seeds of Camargue rice (Oryza Sativa L. Var Cigalon) and their responses to exposure to 60-Co gamma radiations. Study of the natural phenomenon of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayonove-Barthelemy, Jacqueline

    1978-01-01

    Within the frame of a project aiming at improving a technique of experimental mutagenesis (seed processing by cobalt-60 gamma rays), this research thesis reports the radiobiological characterization of Cigalon rice seeds, the adjustment of techniques of radiation protection, and the definition of processing and irradiation conditions which could reduce the undesirable physiological effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on rice seeds. The author reports the study of variations of physiological radio-sensitivity. Damages are assessed by comparing the growth of irradiated seeds with that of non-irradiated seeds. The mechanism of radiation natural protection is studied by comparing an inhibition in distilled water at two temperatures (5 and 24 C) with that obtained with cysteamine (an efficient radiation protection compound)

  10. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of Avena macrostachya and diploid C-genome Avena species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, Ekaterina D; Shelukhina, Olga Yu; Diederichsen, Axel; Loskutov, Igor G; Pukhalskiy, Vitaly A

    2010-02-01

    The chromosome set of Avena macrostachya Balansa ex Coss. et Durieu was analyzed using C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene probes, and the results were compared with the C-genome diploid Avena L. species. The location of major nucleolar organizer regions and 5S rDNA sites on different chromosomes confirmed the affiliation of A. macrostachya with the C-genome group. However, the symmetric karyotype, the absence of "diffuse heterochromatin" and the location of large C-band complexes in proximal chromosome regions pointed to an isolated position of A. macrostachya from other Avena species. Based on the distribution of rDNA loci on the C-genome chromosomes of diploid and polyploid Avena species, we propose a model of the chromosome alterations that occurred during the evolution of oat species.

  11. Transcriptional profiling and in silico analysis of Dof transcription factor gene family for understanding their regulation during seed development of rice Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Singh, U S; Kumar, Anil

    2011-04-01

    Seed development is a complex process controlled by temporal and spatial expression of many transcription factors (TF) inside the developing seed. In the present study, transcript profiles of all the 30 members of rice DofTFs from flowering to seed development stages were analyzed. It was found that 16 Dof genes besides a previously characterized Dof gene 'RPBF' are differentially expressed during the seed development and unlike RPBF are not seed specific. Based on the expression patterns, these rice DofTFs were categorized into four groups-6 genes were constitutive while 4 genes were up-regulated and 3 genes were down regulated and four genes were maximally expressed at specific stages of seed development viz. one gene at flowering, two genes at watery ripe and one gene at milky stage. The involvement of more than one gene at different stages of seed development is suggestive of combinatorial regulation of their downstream genes involved in seed development. In silico expression analysis of wheat and Arabidopsis Dof Tfs also revealed that more than 50% of the Dof genes are expressed during the seed development process. Further in silico study of regulatory elements present in the promoters of these genes revealed the presence of some unique and common motifs in the promoters of rice and wheat Dof genes which indicate that Dof genes are possibly involved in ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways affecting grain filling and grain quality. These Dof genes containing ethylene responsive motifs in their promoter region could possibly be the targets of recently identified Sub1 gene which codes for a ethylene responsive factor.

  12. Plataformas de colheita e colheita manual com trilha mecânica sobre a qualidade de sementes de arroz ( Oryza sativa, L. Harvest header and manual harvest with mechanical strip on rice ( Oryza sativa, L. seeds quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandez Franco

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante a colheita do arroz irrigado ocorrem perdas e danos físicos e fisiológicos às sementes. No final da década de oitenta, surgiram as plataformas recolhedoras, que retiram ou arrancam o grão ao invés de cortar a panícula, porém, pouco se conhece a respeito dos danos físicos e fisiológicos que este sistema de plataforma pode causar às sementes. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os danos mecânicos causados às sementes dos cultivares de arroz BR-IRGA 409 e BR-IRGA 410, por três formas de colheita: (a colheita manual e trilha mecânica; (b colheita com plataforma de corte; (c colheita com plataforma recolhedora. Quando a colheita foi mecânica, realizou-se a coleta das amostras diretamente no graneleiro. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. Os resultados demonstraram que as sementes de arroz irrigado dos cultivares estudados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em suas qualidades físicas e fisiológicas, quando colhidas com plataforma de corte e com a plataforma recolhedora. Estes dois métodos de colheita, porém, apresentaram danos significativamente maiores quando comparados à colheita manual e trilha mecânica.During irrigated rice harvesting occur losses and physical and phisiological seed damage. Late 80's, appeared the strippers headers that strip the grain, instead of cutting the spike. However, little is know about physical and phisiological seed damage by harvest header. The objective of this work was to evaluate the mechanical damage caused to BR-IRGA 409 and BR-IRGA 410 rice cultivars by three harvesting methods: (a manual harvesting and mechanical strip; (b cutterbar harvesting and; (c stripper header harvesting. Samples were collected directly in the grain tank when the harvest was mechanical. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six replications. Results demonstrated that the rice seeds of the studied variety didn't showed significant differences in

  13. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C 10 and C 11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. HARVEST TIME AND PHYSIOLOGIC QUALITY OF SEEDS IN IRRIGATED RICE (Oryza sativa cv. BRS RORAIMA ÉPOCA DE COLHEITA E QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES EM ARROZ IRRIGADO (Oryza sativa cv. BRS RORAIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Smiderle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Harvest time is one of most important factors influencing rice seed characteristics for purpose of either planting or milling. With the objective to determine a proper harvesting  time, irrigated rice seeds of cultivar BRS Roraima were harvested at 15, 22, 29, 36, 43 and 50 days after flowering (DAF, and assessed according to humidity, viability, dry mass of 1,000 seeds, whole grain yield, productivity and storability. Seeds harvested 29 DAF showed high quality and its productivity was equivalent to the subsequent periods. Seeds harvested 50 DAF showed good performance, except for whole grain yield. Harvests 15 and 22 DAF were unsuitable, reducing the physiologic quality of seeds, mill efficiency and high initial humidity. The adequate harvest time for cultivar BRS Roraima is between 29 and 43 DAF, when seeds present higher yield, dry mass, whole grain yield, physiologic quality and storability.

    KEY-WORDS: Physiologic quality; whole grain; humidity.

    A época de colheita é um dos fatores mais importantes que influenciam as características da semente de arroz, seja para semeadura ou para consumo. Com o objetivo de determinar a época adequada de colheita de arroz irrigado, para a cultivar BRS Roraima, sementes foram colhidas aos 15, 22, 29, 36, 43 e 50 dias após o florescimento (DAF e avaliadas quanto à umidade, viabilidade, massa seca de 1.000 sementes, rendimento de grãos inteiros, produtividade e armazenabilidade. As sementes colhidas aos 29 DAF

  15. Nigella sativa provides protection against metabolic syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in all other parameters like blood pressure, circumference of waist and serum triglyceride was also observed. Thus, Nigella seeds were found to be effective as an adjuvant therapy in patients of dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Keywords: Nigella sativa, toxicity, hyperglycemia, adjuvant, antihistaminic, ...

  16. Study on Development of Non-Destructive Measurement Technique for Viability of Lettuce Seed (Lactuca sativa L) Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Chi Kook; Cho, Byoung Kwan; Mo, Chang Yeon; Kim, Moon S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique was investigated for the discrimination of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The spectral data of hyperspectral reflectance images with the spectral range between 750 nm and 1000 nm were used to develop PLS-DA model for the classification of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The discrimination accuracy of the calibration set was 81.6% and that of the test set was 81.2%. The image analysis method was developed to construct the discriminant images of non-viable seeds with the developed PLS-DA model. The discrimination accuracy obtained from the resultant image were 91%, which showed the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the mass discrimination of non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.

  17. Study on Development of Non-Destructive Measurement Technique for Viability of Lettuce Seed (Lactuca sativa L) Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chi Kook; Cho, Byoung Kwan [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeon [National Acadamy of Agricultural Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon S. [Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington (United States)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique was investigated for the discrimination of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The spectral data of hyperspectral reflectance images with the spectral range between 750 nm and 1000 nm were used to develop PLS-DA model for the classification of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The discrimination accuracy of the calibration set was 81.6% and that of the test set was 81.2%. The image analysis method was developed to construct the discriminant images of non-viable seeds with the developed PLS-DA model. The discrimination accuracy obtained from the resultant image were 91%, which showed the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the mass discrimination of non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.

  18. Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L. increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyun Hong

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the hemp seed effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  19. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Eruca sativa L. pelo teste de deterioração controlada Physiological quality of Eruca sativa L. seeds by the test of controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Zaratin Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da semente utilizada no processo de produção agrícola é um dos principais fatores a ser considerado para a implantação da cultura, havendo consenso entre todos os segmentos, sobre a importância do vigor das sementes e da necessidade de avaliá-lo. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar variações na condução do teste de deterioração controlada, verificando sua eficiência na identificação de diferentes níveis de vigor de sementes de rúcula, cultivar 'Cultivada' e 'Gigante' utilizando-se cinco lotes de sementes para cada um. As sementes foram submetidas à determinação do teor de água e a testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, emergência e, para verificar a eficiência na identificação de diferentes níveis de vigor, foram estudadas variações no teste de deterioração controlada (teor de água de 18, 21 e 24%, a 45°C durante 24 e 48 horas. O experimento foi montado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado e os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, sendo que as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Pelos resultados obtidos no teste de deterioração controlada, observou-se que não houve relação com as avaliações iniciais do potencial fisiológico das sementes, principalmente para o teste de emergência. Concluiu-se que, nas condições estudadas, esse teste não é sensível o suficiente para a avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de rúcula, para ambas as cultivares estudadas.The quality of the seed used in the process of agricultural production is one of the main factors to be considered for the implantation of the culture, having consensus between all the segments, on the importance of the vigor of the seeds and the necessity to evaluate it. This research had the purpose of studying proccedings for controlled deterioration test, to verify their sensitivity for identifying different vigor levels of arugula seed, cv

  20. [Detection method for the ability of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed germination by the use of 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Jun; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Goda, Yukihiro

    2008-11-01

    Cannabis plants show a high Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol content and are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore the cultivation of hemp and its possession are prohibited by law in Japan. Meanwhile, Cannabis seeds have been used as a component of shichimi-togarashi (a Japanese spice), bird feed, or a crude drug (mashinin). To exclude the possibility of germination, it is officially noticed that hemp seeds must be killed. However, the number of violators has increased in recent years. To judge the ability of seed germination, a germination test is performed. However, the test requires several days and thus has not been used for on-site inspection. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method to determine the ability of Cannabis seeds to germinate using 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC). The principle of the assay is as follows. The endogenous respiratory enzymes in hemp seeds convert added colorless TTC into red 1,3,5-triphenylformazan. Consequently, a living embryo is stained red, while red does not appear in the dead seeds. The reaction was active over a pH range of 8.0-9.0, and the optimum activity was found from 40 to 50 degrees C. Under the optimum conditions, we were able to determine the ability of seeds to germinate based on the presence of color within 20 min. Since this method is rapid and simple, it is applicable to on-site inspections. In addition, it could be used as an alternative technique to the germination test, because erroneous decisions is cannot occur under the assay principle.

  1. Genomic relationships among sixteen species of Avena based on (ACT)6trinucleotide repeat FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaomei; Tinker, Nick A; Zhou, Yonghong; Wight, Charlene P; Liu, Juncheng; Wan, Wenlin; Chen, Liang; Peng, Yuanying

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the locations of repeat elements could be very important in the assembly of genome sequences and their assignment to physical chromosomes. Genomic and species relationships among 16 species were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the Am1 and (ACT) 6 probes. The Am1 oligonucleotide probe was particularly enriched in the C genomes, whereas the (ACT) 6 trinucleotide repeat probe showed a diverse distribution of hybridization patterns in the A, AB, C, AC, and ACD genomes but might not be present in the B and D genomes. The hybridization pattern of Avena sativa was very similar to that of A. insularis, indicating that this species most likely originated from A. insularis as a tetraploid ancestor. Although the two FISH probes failed to identify relationships of more species, this proof-of-concept approach opens the way to the use of FISH probes in assigning other signature elements from genomic sequence to physical chromosomes.

  2. Effect of adding crushed Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa seeds and Thymus vulgaris mixture to antibiotics-free rations of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers on growth performance, antibody titer and haematological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Z. Athamneh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of crushed Pimpinella anisum (PA, Nigella sativa (NS seeds and Thymus vulgaris (TV mixture as a feed additive on growth performance and mortality rate (MR, selected antibodies titer (Ab’s and blood hematological profile of vaccinated and non-vaccinated Lohman male broiler chicks fed free-antibiotics ration. A total of 400 one-day old chicks were distributed into 16 groups (4 treatment x 4 replicates x 25chicks. The experiment lasted from one to 42 days of age. The statistical findings of this experiment prove that the use of medicinal plants mixture improves live body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and MR of vaccinated male broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. antibodies titer against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease of non-vaccinated and vaccinated male broilers were significantly improved at 21 and 42 days as a result of the addition of medicinal plant mixture to the basal ration. Concerning Newcastle disease, the use of PA, NS and TV mixture did not reflect in any additional improvement of Ab's than vaccines did. The addition of medicinal plants mixture increases WBC's, RBC's, thrombocytes count and Hb concentration of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers at 21 days of age. Meanwhile, heterophils, lymphocytes and monocytes of vaccinated male broilers (VMB were significantly improved by adding medicinal plant mixture to their basal diet. Moreover, at 42 days of age the use of PA, NS seeds and TV mixture indicate significant increase in total WBC’s, lymphocytes and monocytes and monocytes count of VMB and non-vaccinated male broiler (NVMB. No significant differences were noticed in RBC’s and Hct as a result of feeding crushed medicinal plants mixture.

  3. Characteristics of oils and nutrient contents of Nigella sativa Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The core objective of this research was to determine the oil characteristics and nutrient contents of Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds. Characteristics of seed oils revealed higher degree of unsaturation and as determined by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) reported herein the major unsaturated fatty ...

  4. Seed priming with Se alleviate As induced phytotoxicity during germination and seedling growth by restricting As translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L c.v. IET-4094).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulick, Debojyoti; Santra, S C; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-11-01

    Interactive aspect of among selenium (Se) and As (As) to mitigate As induced phytotoxicity in rice during germination and seedling growth has been based on mostly to petriplates and hydroponic mode of experiments. In this investigation we explore the consequences of sowing Se primed rice seeds in As spiked soil. Unprimed, hydroprimed and Se primed rice (IET-4094) seeds sown in As spiked soil, with five replications, arranged in complete randomized design for evaluating the impacts of seed priming on germination and seedling growth as well as As uptake and translocation pattern. Se promotes germination, seedling growth by modulating proline content, lipid peroxidation in root and shoot beside enhancing total chlorophyll content significantly in both As free and As spiked soil as compared to their respective unprimed and hydroprimed counterparts grown alike. Findings also indicates that seed priming with Se was able to execute dual roles i.e. a promotive and antagonistic aspect against As by restricting maximum soil As load to the root (with greater bioconcentration factor) and reducing translocation of As from root to shoot in a more practical and farmer friendly way to mitigate As induced toxicity and enhance germination and growth in rice seedlings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Assembly and expression analysis of oat vitamin E biosynthesis gene homeologs during seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) are particularly rich in vitamin E, an essential liposoluble vitamin that maintains membrane stability and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To date, no gene sequences involved in vitamin E biosynthesis have been reporte...

  6. Use of Repetitive Sequences for Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Avena Species from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Diana; Rodrigues, Joana; Varela, Ana; Veloso, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela

    2016-02-04

    Genomic diversity of Portuguese accessions of Avena species--diploid A. strigosa and hexaploids A. sativa and A. sterilis--was evaluated through molecular and cytological analysis of 45S rDNA, and other repetitive sequences previously studied in cereal species--rye subtelomeric sequence (pSc200) and cereal centromeric sequence (CCS1). Additionally, retrotransposons and microsatellites targeting methodologies--IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism)--were performed. A very high homology was detected for ribosomal internal transcribed sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) between the species analyzed, although nucleolar organizing regions (NOR) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed distinct number of Nor loci between diploid and hexaploid species. Moreover, morphological diversity, evidenced by FISH signals with different sizes, was observed between distinct accessions within each species. pSc200 sequences were for the first time isolated from Avena species but proven to be highly similar in all genotypes analyzed. The use of primers designed for CCS1 unraveled a sequence homologous to the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon Cereba, that was mapped to centromeric regions of diploid and hexaploid species, being however restricted to the more related A and D haplomes. Retrotransposon-based methodologies disclosed species- and accessions-specific bands essential for the accurate discrimination of all genotypes studied. Centromeric, IRAP and REMAP profiles therefore allowed accurate assessment of inter and intraspecific variability, demonstrating the potential of these molecular markers on future oat breeding programs.

  7. Polycomb Group Gene OsFIE2 Regulates Rice (Oryza sativa) Seed Development and Grain Filling via a Mechanism Distinct from Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamilli, Babi Ramesh Reddy; Zhang, Jian; Mujahid, Hana; Malone, Brandon M.; Bridges, Susan M.; Peng, Zhaohua

    2013-01-01

    Cereal endosperm represents 60% of the calories consumed by human beings worldwide. In addition, cereals also serve as the primary feedstock for livestock. However, the regulatory mechanism of cereal endosperm and seed development is largely unknown. Polycomb complex has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of endosperm development in Arabidopsis, but its role in cereal endosperm development remains obscure. Additionally, the enzyme activities of the polycomb complexes have not been demonstrated in plants. Here we purified the rice OsFIE2-polycomb complex using tandem affinity purification and demonstrated its specific H3 methyltransferase activity. We found that the OsFIE2 gene product was responsible for H3K27me3 production specifically in vivo. Genetic studies showed that a reduction of OsFIE2 expression led to smaller seeds, partially filled seeds, and partial loss of seed dormancy. Gene expression and proteomics analyses found that the starch synthesis rate limiting step enzyme and multiple storage proteins are down-regulated in OsFIE2 reduction lines. Genome wide ChIP–Seq data analysis shows that H3K27me3 is associated with many genes in the young seeds. The H3K27me3 modification and gene expression in a key helix-loop-helix transcription factor is shown to be regulated by OsFIE2. Our results suggest that OsFIE2-polycomb complex positively regulates rice endosperm development and grain filling via a mechanism highly different from that in Arabidopsis. PMID:23505380

  8. OsRACK1 Is Involved in Abscisic Acid- and H2O2-Mediated Signaling to Regulate Seed Germination in Rice (Oryza sativa, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongping; Chen, Li; Li, Dahong; Lv, Bing; Chen, Yun; Chen, Jingui; XuejiaoYan; Liang, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is one member of the most important WD repeat–containing family of proteins found in all eukaryotes and is involved in multiple signaling pathways. However, compared with the progress in the area of mammalian RACK1, our understanding of the functions and molecular mechanisms of RACK1 in the regulation of plant growth and development is still in its infancy. In the present study, we investigated the roles of rice RACK1A gene (OsRACK1A) in controlling seed germination and its molecular mechanisms by generating a series of transgenic rice lines, of which OsRACK1A was either over-expressed or under-expressed. Our results showed that OsRACK1A positively regulated seed germination and negatively regulated the responses of seed germination to both exogenous ABA and H2O2. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis had no enhancing effect on germination, whereas inhibition of ABA catabolism significantly suppressed germination. ABA inhibition on seed germination was almost fully recovered by exogenous H2O2 treatment. Quantitative analyses showed that endogenous ABA levels were significantly higher and H2O2 levels significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines as compared with those in wildtype or OsRACK1A-up regulated lines. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the transcript levels of OsRbohs and amylase genes, RAmy1A and RAmy3D, were significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines. It is concluded that OsRACK1A positively regulates seed germination by controlling endogenous levels of ABA and H2O2 and their interaction. PMID:24865690

  9. Nitric Oxide Regulates Seedling Growth and Mitochondrial Responses in Aged Oat Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chunli; Zhu, Yanqiao; Cheng, Hang; Yan, Huifang; Zhao, Liyuan; Tang, Jia; Ma, Xiqing; Mao, Peisheng

    2018-04-02

    Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds ( Avena sativa L.) exposed to exogenous nitric oxide (NO) treatment. The results showed that the accumulation of H₂O₂ in mitochondria increased significantly in aged seeds. Artificial aging can lead to a loss of seed vigor, which was shown by a decline in seed germination and the extension of mean germination time (MGT). Seedling growth was also inhibited. Some enzymes, including catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), maintained a lower level in the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) scavenging system. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of some proteins related to the TCA cycle were down-regulated and several enzymes related to mitochondrial ETC were up-regulated. With the application of 0.05 mM NO in aged oat seeds, a protective effect was observed, demonstrated by an improvement in seed vigor and increased H₂O₂ scavenging ability in mitochondria. There were also higher activities of CAT, GR, MDHAR, and DHAR in the AsA-GSH scavenging system, enhanced TCA cycle-related enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, succinate-CoA ligase, fumarate hydratase), and activated alternative pathways, as the cytochrome pathway was inhibited. Therefore, our results indicated that seedling growth and seed germinability could retain a certain level in aged oat seeds, predominantly depending on the lower NO regulation of the TCA cycle and AsA-GSH. Thus, it could be concluded that

  10. Nitric Oxide Regulates Seedling Growth and Mitochondrial Responses in Aged Oat Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Mao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds (Avena sativa L. exposed to exogenous nitric oxide (NO treatment. The results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 in mitochondria increased significantly in aged seeds. Artificial aging can lead to a loss of seed vigor, which was shown by a decline in seed germination and the extension of mean germination time (MGT. Seedling growth was also inhibited. Some enzymes, including catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, maintained a lower level in the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH scavenging system. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of some proteins related to the TCA cycle were down-regulated and several enzymes related to mitochondrial ETC were up-regulated. With the application of 0.05 mM NO in aged oat seeds, a protective effect was observed, demonstrated by an improvement in seed vigor and increased H2O2 scavenging ability in mitochondria. There were also higher activities of CAT, GR, MDHAR, and DHAR in the AsA-GSH scavenging system, enhanced TCA cycle-related enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, succinate-CoA ligase, fumarate hydratase, and activated alternative pathways, as the cytochrome pathway was inhibited. Therefore, our results indicated that seedling growth and seed germinability could retain a certain level in aged oat seeds, predominantly depending on the lower NO regulation of the TCA cycle and AsA-GSH. Thus, it could be concluded that the

  11. Malonylome analysis in developing rice (Oryza sativa) seeds suggesting that protein lysine malonylation is well-conserved and overlaps with acetylation and succinylation substantially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Hana; Meng, Xiaoxi; Xing, Shihai; Peng, Xiaojun; Wang, Cailin; Peng, Zhaohua

    2018-01-06

    In recent years, lysine malonylation has garnered wide spread interest due to its potential regulatory roles. While studies have been performed in bacteria, mouse, and human, the involvement and the biological function of this modification in plant are still largely unknown. We examined the global proteome profile of lysine malonylation in developing rice seeds using affinity enrichment followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 421 malonylated lysine sites across 247 proteins. Functional analyses showed predominant presence of malonylated proteins in metabolic processes, including carbon metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, as well as photosynthesis. Malonylation was also detected on enzymes in starch biosynthesis pathway in developing rice seeds. In addition, we found a remarkable overlap among the malonylated, succinylated and acetylated sites identified in rice. Furthermore, malonylation at conserved sites of homologous proteins was observed across organisms of different kingdoms, including mouse, human, and bacteria. Finally, distinct motifs were identified when the rice malonylation sites were analyzed and conserved motifs were observed from bacterium to human and rice. Our results provide an initial understanding of the lysine malonylome in plants. The study has critical reference value for future understanding of the biological function of protein lysine malonylation in plants. Lysine malonylation is a newly discovered acylation with functional potential in regulating cellular metabolisms and activities. However, the malonylation status has not been reported in plants. Grain yield and quality, mainly determined during cereal seed development, are closely related to food security, human health and economic value. To evaluate malonylation level in plants and the possible regulatory functions of malonylation in seed development, we conducted comprehensive analyses of malonylome in developing rice seeds. A total of 421 malonylated lysine sites

  12. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology.

  13. Interspecific Difference in α-Amylase Production by the Endosperm in the Genus Avena

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Yukiyoshi; Tachibana, Shoji; 小川, 幸持; 橘, 昌司

    1997-01-01

    Seeds of different diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid Avena species, stored for eight to nine months after harvesting, were cut transversely into two pieces at three different distances from the base of embryo attachment. Embryonated and embryoless endosperm pieces of three different sizes thus prepared were compared for the ability to produce α-amylase in the absence and presence of gibberellin A3(GA3). The abitity of the endosperm for α-amylase production was estimated by the activity of α-a...

  14. Fine mapping of a major quantitative trait locus, qLG-9, that controls seed longevity in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, K; Takeuchi, Y; Miura, K; Yamaguchi, T; Ando, T; Ebitani, T; Higashitani, A; Yamaya, T; Yano, M; Sato, T

    2015-04-01

    We fine-mapped a quantitative trait locus, qLG - 9, for seed longevity detected between Japonica-type and Indica-type cultivars. qLG - 9 was mapped in a 30-kb interval of the Nipponbare genome sequence. A quantitative trait locus, qLG-9, for seed longevity in rice has previously been detected on chromosome 9 by using backcross inbred lines derived from a cross between Japonica-type (Nipponbare) and Indica-type (Kasalath) cultivars. In the present study, the chromosomal location of qLG-9 was precisely determined by fine-scale mapping. Firstly, allelic difference in qLG-9 was verified by QTL analysis of an F2 population derived from a cross between Nipponbare and NKSL-1, in which a segment of Kasalath chromosome 9 was substituted in Nipponbare genetic background. Then, we selected F2 plants in which recombination had occurred near qLG-9 and performed F3 progeny testing on these plants to determine the genotype classes of qLG-9. Eventually, qLG-9 was mapped in a 30-kb interval (defined by two markers, CAPSb and CHPa12) of the Nipponbare genome sequence. This allowed us to nominate positional candidate genes of qLG-9. Additionally, we developed near-isogenic lines (NIL) for qLG-9 by marker-assisted selection. qLG-9 NIL showed significantly higher seed longevity than isogenic control of Nipponbare. These results will facilitate cloning of the gene(s) underlying qLG-9 as well as marker-assisted transfer of desirable genes for seed longevity improvement in rice.

  15. Seed vigor classification using analysis of mean radicle emergence time and single counts of radicle emergence in rice (Oryza sativa L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damrongvudhi Onwimol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The radicle emergence (RE test for seed vigor classification is an ingenious protocol that will lead to a fast and reliable automated procedure for verifying seed quality using image analysis. Nevertheless, the success of this protocol has never been described in rice and mung bean that are global staple foods. This experiment analyzed the correlation between RE (2 mm in length and normal seedlings (NS during a germination test of rice and mung bean. In total, 12 samples using four cultivars of each species were obtained from different locations and production years. In addition to the germination test, an accelerated ageing (AA test and an electrical conductivity (EC test were analyzed. The results revealed that the pattern of the cumulative germination curve of RE and NS coincided but the curve for NS was longer than for RE (p ≤ 0.05. There was no significant difference in the variance of the germination time between RE and NS of rice but there was a significant difference for mung bean. The vigor levels of the rice seed classified by single counts of RE at 110 h after set to germinate (HASG conformed to the result of single counts of NS at 200 HASG and the result of the AA test. However, these classifications disagreed with the result derived from the EC test. In contrast, the mung bean vigor level classified by single counts of RE, NS, the AA test and the EC test did not relate well with each other. In conclusion, it is possible to develop the automated procedure for verifying rice seed quality using image analysis via a single count of RE.

  16. Studies on the rice seed (Oryza sativa) sensitivity to gama radiation, neutrons di-enthyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.

    1978-04-01

    Dry rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce' variety were treated with gama-rays, thermal and fast neutrons, di-ethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). Biologial effects on survival, seedling height, plant fertility and chlorophy 11 mutation frequency were studied in the M 1 generation. The data obtained were analysed by 'independent test'. Survival was not affected by increased gama ray dosage, but by increased DES and SA dosages, as well as by SA treatments with increased solution acidity for seeds pretreated in distilled water. Seedling height was decreased with the increase of gama-ray dosage, DES concentration. SA acidity and concentration. Plant fertility was reduced drastically with higher gama-ray and neutron dosages and with high SA acidity and concentrations. The maximum chlorophy 11 mutation frequency was obtained in the SA treatment. Seeds pretreated with distilled water showed larger physiological damages in the SA treatments and higher mutation frequencies. Regarding chlorophyll mutation frequency, thermal neutrons were more efficient than gama-rays. SA was the most efficient mutagen used . DES showed lower physiological damages in the M 1 plants, but did not induce mutations in the used conditions [pt

  17. Simultaneous detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae in cucurbit seedlots using magnetic capture hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R

    2009-06-01

    To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae.

  18. Small kernel 1 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for mitochondrial nad7 transcript editing and seed development in maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hou, Mingming; Sun, Feng; Shen, Yun; Xiu, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Zong-Liang; Sun, Samuel S M; Small, Ian; Tan, Bao-Cai

    2014-09-01

    RNA editing modifies cytidines (C) to uridines (U) at specific sites in the transcripts of mitochondria and plastids, altering the amino acid specified by the DNA sequence. Here we report the identification of a critical editing factor of mitochondrial nad7 transcript via molecular characterization of a small kernel 1 (smk1) mutant in Zea mays (maize). Mutations in Smk1 arrest both the embryo and endosperm development. Cloning of Smk1 indicates that it encodes an E-subclass pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein that is targeted to mitochondria. Loss of SMK1 function abolishes the C → U editing at the nad7-836 site, leading to the retention of a proline codon that is edited to encode leucine in the wild type. The smk1 mutant showed dramatically reduced complex-I assembly and NADH dehydrogenase activity, and abnormal biogenesis of the mitochondria. Analysis of the ortholog in Oryza sativa (rice) reveals that rice SMK1 has a conserved function in C → U editing of the mitochondrial nad7-836 site. T-DNA knock-out mutants showed abnormal embryo and endosperm development, resulting in embryo or seedling lethality. The leucine at NAD7-279 is highly conserved from bacteria to flowering plants, and analysis of genome sequences from many plants revealed a molecular coevolution between the requirement for C → U editing at this site and the existence of an SMK1 homolog. These results demonstrate that Smk1 encodes a PPR-E protein that is required for nad7-836 editing, and this editing is critical to NAD7 function in complex-I assembly in mitochondria, and hence to embryo and endosperm development in maize and rice. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Roles of p53 and caspases in induction of apoptosis in MCF- 7 breast cancer cells treated with a methanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazmi, Mohammed I; Hasan, Tarique N; Shafi, Gowhar; Al-Assaf, Abdullah H; Alfawaz, Mohammed A; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2014-01-01

    Nigella Sativa (NS) is an herb from the Ranunculaceae family that exhibits numerous medicinal properties and has been used as important constituent of many complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). The ability of NS to kill cancer cells such as PC3, HeLa and hepatoma cells is well established. However, our understanding of the mode of death caused by NS remains nebulous. The objective of this study was to gain further insight into the mode and mechanism of death caused by NS in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were treated with a methanolic extract of NS, and a dose- and time-dependent study was performed. The IC50 was calculated using a Cell Titer Blue® viability assay assay, and evidence for DNA fragmentation was obtained by fluorescence microscopy TUNEL assay. Gene expression was also profiled for a number of apoptosis-related genes (Caspase-3, -8, -9 and p53 genes) through qPCR. The IC50 of MCF-7 cells was 62.8 μL/mL. When MCF-7 cells were exposed to 50 μL/mL and 100 μL/mL NS for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, microscopic examination (TUNEL assay) revealed a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis. Similarly, the expression of the Caspase-3, -8, -9 and p53 genes increased significantly according to the dose and time. NS induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through both the p53 and caspase pathways. NS could potentially represent an alternative source of medicine for breast cancer therapy.

  20. Fungal disease prevention in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses by growth-promoting seed-associated endophytic bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satish K.; Kingsley, Kathryn L.; Bergen, Marshall S.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James F.

    2018-01-01

    Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium, Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusariumblights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), or annual bluegrass (Poa annua) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. We found that three bacteria belonging to genus Pseudomonas spp. (SLB4-P. fluorescens, SLB6-Pseudomonas sp. and SY1-Pseudomonassp.) promoted seedling development, including enhancement of root and shoot growth, and stimulation of root hair formation. These bacteria were also found to increase phosphate solubilization in in vitro experiments. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) significantly protected grass seedlings from Fusarium infection. In co-culture experiments, strain SY1 strongly inhibited fungal pathogens with 85.71% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum, 86.33% growth inhibition of Curvularia sp. and 82.14% growth inhibition of Alternaria sp. Seedlings previously treated with bacteria were found much less infected by F. oxysporum in comparison to non-treated controls. On microscopic observation we found that bacteria appeared to degrade fungal mycelia actively. Metabolite products of strain SY1 in agar were also found to inhibit fungal growth on nutrient media. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) was found to produce antifungal volatiles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers for pyrrolnitirin synthesis and HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production

  1. Identification and quantification of phenolic and flavonoid components in straw and seed husk of some rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) and their antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Mehrabanjoubani, Pooyan; Keshavarzian, Maryam; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Abdolzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Plant foods are rich sources of bioactive compounds that can act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease, reduce inflammation, reduce the incidence of cancers and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids profiling in three varieties of rice straw and five varieties of the seed husk of Iranian rice using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and nitric oxide assays. HPLC analyses showed that the gallic acid, pyrogallol, apigenin and rutin were the main phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all varieties of rice. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Hashemi and Ali Kazemi varieties showed the highest amounts of phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Rice straw and husk of Iranian varieties showed considerable antioxidant activity and Hashemi indicated significantly (P rice straw and seed husk of Iranian varieties shows high antioxidant activities and they contain various types of phenolic and flavonoid compounds that could be use in food and medical industries. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Membrane protein profiling of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae under various growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ge, Mengyu; Wang, Yanli; Mannan, Shazia; Asif, Muhammad; Sun, Guochang

    2015-06-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) of plant pathogenic bacteria have been reported to be able to regulate many essential cellular processes associated with plant disease. The aim of the current study was to examine and compare the expression of MPs of the rice bacterial pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 under Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, M9 medium, in vivo rice plant conditions and leaf extract (LE) medium mimicking in vivo plant condition. Proteomic analysis identified 95, 72, 75, and 87 MPs under LB, in vivo, M9 and LE conditions, respectively. Among them, six proteins were shared under all tested growth conditions designated as abundant class of proteins. Twenty-six and 21 proteins were expressed uniquely under in vivo versus LB medium and LE versus M9 medium, respectively, with 17 proteins common among these uniquely induced proteins. Moreover, most of the shared proteins are mainly related to energy metabolism, transport of small molecules, protein synthesis and secretion as well as virulence such as NADH, OmpA, secretion proteins. Therefore, the result of this study not only suggests that it may be an alternate method to analyze the in vivo expression of proteins by using LE medium to mimic plant conditions, but also reveals that the two sets of differentially expressed MPs, in particular the common MPs between them, might be important in energy metabolism, stress response and virulence of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1.

  3. Effects of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) on functional characteristics of gluten-free crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Tsao, Rong

    2014-03-01

    A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers. All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves. Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9. This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product. Hemp seed oil press-cake as a by-product of cold-pressed oil processing and brown rice flour were used to design a functional gluten-free snack-type product-savory crackers. All crackers were high in minerals, fibers, and omega-3 fatty acids with a desirable omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio. Green tea leaves were added to improve antioxidant activity, which greatly

  4. Modulation of apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells) by a standardized herbal decoction of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus roots and Smilax glabra rhizomes with anti- hepatocarcinogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Sameera R; Thabrew, Ira; Galhena, Prasanna B; Tennekoon, Kamani H

    2012-03-29

    A standardized poly-herbal decoction of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus roots and Smilax glabra rhizomes used traditionally in Sri Lanka for cancer therapy has been demonstrated previously, to have anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and up regulation of p53 and p21 activities are considered to be some of the possible mechanisms through which the above decoction may mediate its anti-hepatocarcinogenic action. The main aim of the present study was to determine whether apoptosis is also a major mechanism by which the decoction mediates its anti-hepatocarcinogenic action. Evaluation of apoptosis in HepG2 cells was carried out by (a) microscopic observations of cell morphology, (b) DNA fragmentation analysis, (c) activities of caspase 3 and 9, as well as by (d) analysis of the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins associated with cell death. The results demonstrated that in HepG2 cells, the decoction can induce (a) DNA fragmentation and (b) characteristic morphological changes associated with apoptosis (nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies). The decoction could also, in a time and dose dependent manner, up regulate the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax and down regulate expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene (as evident from RT-PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry and western blotting). Further, the decoction significantly (p < .001) enhanced the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a time and dose dependent manner. Overall findings provide confirmatory evidence to demonstrate that the decoction may mediate its reported anti-hepatocarcinogenic effect, at least in part, through modulation of apoptosis.

  5. Preventive and treatment effects of a hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) meal protein hydrolysate against high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-08-01

    This work determined the ability of hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH)-containing diets to attenuate elevated blood pressure (hypertension) development in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Effects of diets on plasma levels of renin and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) in the SHRs were also determined. Defatted hemp seed protein meal was hydrolyzed using simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion with pepsin followed by pancreatin, and the resulting HMH used as a source of antihypertensive peptides. The HMH was substituted for casein at 0.5 and 1.0% levels and fed to young growing rats for 8 weeks (preventive phase) or adult rats for 4 weeks (treatment phase). Feeding of young growing SHRs with HMH resulted in attenuation of the normal increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with an average value of ~120 mmHg when compared to the casein-only group of rats (control) with a maximum of 158 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Feeding adult rats (SBP ~145 mmHg) with same diets during a 4-week period led to significant (p < 0.05) reduction in SBP to ~119 mmHg in comparison with 150 mmHg for the control rats. Plasma ACE activity was significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed (0.047-0.059 U/mL) in HMH-fed rats when compared to control rats (0.123 U/mL). Plasma renin level was also decreased for HMH-fed rats (0.040-0.054 μg/mL) when compared to control rats that were fed only with casein (0.151 μg/mL). The results suggest that HMH with strong hypotensive effects in SHRs could be used as a therapeutic agent for both the prevention and treatment of hypertension.

  6. An efficient and reproducible method for regeneration of whole plants from mature seeds of a high yielding Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety PAU 201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Shabir H; Sanghera, Gulzar S; Gosal, Satbir S

    2011-07-01

    Tissue culture is one of the tools necessary for genetic engineering and many other breeding programs. Moreover, selection of high regenerating rice varieties is a pre-requisite for success in rice biotechnology. In this report we established a reproducible plant regeneration system through somatic embryogenesis. The explants used for regeneration were embryogenic calli derived from mature seeds cultured on callus induction media. For callus induction mature seeds were cultured on MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose combined with 560 mg/l proline and 1.5-3.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.5-1.5 mg/l Kin. For plant regeneration, embryogenic calli were transferred to MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose, supplemented with 1.0-3.0 mg/l BAP, 0.5-1.5 mg/l Kin and 0.5-1.5 mg/l NAA. The highest frequency of callus induction (44.4%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/l Kin, 560 mg/l proline and 30 g/l sucrose. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (42.5%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l Kin. The plantlets were hardened and transferred to soil in earthen pots. The developed method was highly reproducible. The in vitro developed plants showed normal growth and flowering under glasshouse conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mean germination time and germination rate of oat seeds subjected to stationary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell, Maria Victoria; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine and quantify the effect produced by stationary magnetic fields on oat seed germination (Avena sativa, L. var. c obena ) . For this purpose, seeds were exposed to a magnetic field 125 mT of 250 mT during different periods of time: 20 minutes (E1, E5), 1 hour (E2, E6), 24 hours (E3, E7), or in a conic form (E4, E8) during the whole germination process. Germination tests were carried out under laboratory conditions with cylindrical magnets to obtain the magnetic field. For magnetic treatment seed on Petri dishes were placed on magnets during time necessary for each treatment. Seeds without exposition to the magnetic field were used as control group. Parameters used for germination speed analysis were: number of germinated seeds (G), mean germination time (MGT) and necessary time for germination of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 75% of N number of speeds used for each treatment (T1, T10, T25, T50, and T75). These parameters were supplied through the software Seed calculator, as well as the corresponding germination curves. In general, from the results obtained it can be said that the time required to obtain different germination percentages was lower for seeds exposed to the magnetic field (treatments E1 and E8). Reduction in time for E1 treatment stands up with 20 a minutes-exposition-time to 125 mT. MGT obtained for seeds with magnetic treatment E1 was significantly lower (11.48%) than the control group. Parameters T1, T10, T25 were also lower for seeds submitted to treatment, obtaining reductions of 46.62 %, 24.02 % and 13.46 % respectively. Reduction in germination parameters indicates that germination speed is higher. Because parameters T1 and T10 are related to the beginning of germination, this study represents a progress in germination and a reduction in the induction phase in most of the magnetic treatments applied. Previous studies done by authors about the influence of stationary magnetic fields have shown increases in

  8. Stratification periods in seeds germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different conditions of light and temperaturePeríodos de estratificação na germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. sob diferentes condições de luz e temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce seeds have a high sensitivity to variations in humidity and temperature of the environment where they germinate, therefore, studies with the aim of improve the germination and physiological performance of these have been conducted. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatment stratification (5 °C for different periods, and increase the uniformity of germination of lettuce seeds submitted to different conditions of light and germination temperatures. In the pre-germinative treatment, the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. American Great Lakes were placed in plastic boxes dark of the type “gerbox” and subjected to temperature stratification of 5 °C and the dark for 4, 8, 12 and 16 hours. After periods of stratification the seeds were submitted to germination tests which were transferred to plastic boxes type “gerbox” transparent (constant light and dark (no light and were maintained in a germination chamber B.O.D with light constant at temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5x4x2, five pre-germinative treatments, four germination temperatures and two light conditions. Stratification for 16 hours and temperatures of 20 and 25 °C stimulated the germination of lettuce seeds, providing a higher germination percentage, germination speed index and minor mean germination time. The presence of light resulted in increased germination at 0, 4, 8 and 12 hours of stratification.As sementes de alface apresentam grande sensibilidade às variações na umidade e temperatura do meio onde germinam e, por isso, estudos com o intuito de melhorar a porcentagem de germinação e o desempenho fisiológico dessas têm sido realizados. Dessa maneira, o trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência do tratamento pré-germinativo de estratificação (5°C por diferentes períodos, na uniformização e incremento da germina

  9. AFLP variation in 25 Avena species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Williams, David J

    2008-08-01

    Current molecular characterization of ex situ plant germplasm has placed more emphasis on cultivated gene pools and less on exotic gene pools representing wild relative species. This study attempted to characterize a selected set of germplasm accessions representing various Avena species with the hope to establish a reference set of exotic oat germplasm for oat breeding and research. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to screen 163 accessions of 25 Avena species with diverse geographic origins. For each accession, 413 AFLP polymorphic bands detected by five AFLP primer pairs were scored. The frequencies of polymorphic bands ranged from 0.006 to 0.994 and averaged 0.468. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 59.5% of the total AFLP variation resided among 25 oat species, 45.9% among six assessed sections of the genus, 36.1% among three existing ploidy levels, and 50.8% among eight defined genome types. All the species were clustered together according to their ploidy levels. The C genome diploids appeared to be the most distinct, followed by the Ac genome diploid A. canariensis. The Ac genome seemed to be the oldest in all the A genomes, followed by the As, Al and Ad genomes. The AC genome tetraploids were more related to the ACD genome hexaploids than the AB genome tetraploids. Analysis of AFLP similarity suggested that the AC genome tetraploid A. maroccana was likely derived from the Cp genome diploid A. eriantha and the As genome diploid A. wiestii, and might be the progenitor of the ACD genome hexaploids. These AFLP patterns are significant for our understanding of the evolutionary pathways of Avena species and genomes, for establishing reference sets of exotic oat germplasm, and for exploring new exotic sources of genes for oat improvement.

  10. Uso de inoculante y fertilización nitrogenada en la producción de forraje de avena, ballico y trigo

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Carrillo Romo; Mario H. Esqueda Coronado; Alma Delia Báez González; Gerardo Reyes López; Mario H. Royo Márquez; José Luis Ibave González

    2010-01-01

    Los objetivos fueron evaluar el efecto combinado de diferentes dosis de inoculante (Rhodococcus fascians) y fertilización nitrogenada en la producción de forraje de gramíneas así como la relación costo/beneficio. Las gramíneas fueron, Avena sativa L, Lolium multiflorum Lam yTriticum durum L con los siguientes tratamientos, inoculación, fertilización nitrogenada (0, 30, 60 kg N ha-1), y la combinación de inoculante y fertilización. Las especies se establecieron en condiciones de riego en un su...

  11. Kinetics and molecular docking studies of the inhibitions of angiotensin converting enzyme and renin activities by hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; He, Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-05-07

    Four novel peptide sequences (WVYY, WYT, SVYT, and IPAGV) identified from an enzymatic digest of hemp seed proteins were used for enzyme inhibition kinetics and molecular docking studies. Results showed that WVYY (IC50 = 0.027 mM) was a more potent (p < 0.05) ACE-inhibitory peptide than WYT (IC50 = 0.574 mM). However, WYT (IC50 = 0.054 mM) and SVYT (IC50 = 0.063 mM) had similar renin-inhibitory activity, which was significantly better than that of IPAGV (IC50 = 0.093 mM). Kinetics studies showed that WVYY had a lower inhibition constant (Ki) of 0.06 mM and hence greater affinity for ACE when compared to the 1.83 mM obtained for WYT. SVYT had lowest Ki value of 0.89 mM against renin, when compared to the values obtained for WYT and IPAGV. Molecular docking results showed that the higher inhibitory activities of WVYY and SVYT were due to the greater degree of noncovalent bond-based interactions with the enzyme protein, especially formation of higher numbers of hydrogen bonds with active site residues.

  12. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

    2014-08-01

    Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95±1.02μm) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternations in Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Composition in Egg Yolk of Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi Hens Fed with Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaib Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of hemp seed (HS supplementation on egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in laying hens. Sixty hens (Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi were evenly distributed into four groups (three replicates per group at the peak production (34 weeks. HS was included into the ration at the level of 0.0 (HS-0, 15 (HS-15, 20 (HS-20, and 25% (HS-25 and continued the supplementation for consecutively three weeks. At the end of the experiment, three eggs per replicate were randomly collected and analyzed for egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol profile. The statistical analysis of the result revealed that supplementation of HS-25 significantly (P<0.05 decreased egg yolk total cholesterol, myristic (C14:0, palmitic (C16:0, and stearic (C18:0. Similarly, total as well as individual monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly (P<0.05 while total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids increased significantly in the HS-25. In addition, total omega-3 and omega-6 increased significantly in the HS-25 group. From the present result, we concluded that addition of HS at the rate of 25% to the diet of laying hens augmented the cholesterol and fatty acids profile in egg yolk.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) on meat quality and egg fatty acid composition of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, H; Konca, Y; Durmuscelebi, F

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted in two separate experiments. Experiment I was conducted to investigate the effects of hemp seed (HS) on meat quality traits, and experiment II was designed to determine egg fatty acid (FA) composition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). In experiment I and experiment II treatments, groups were as follows: (i) control (not included HS0), (ii) 5% HS inclusion to diets, (iii) 10% HS inclusion to diets and (iv) 20% HS inclusion to diets. In experiment I, a total of 192 7-day-old-quail were fed with HS diets for 5 weeks, and end of the experiment I, a total of 64 quail (16 each) slaughtered and meat samples were analysed for meat colour, pH, cooking and thawing loss and FA composition. In experiment II, a total of 120 8-week-old laying quail were fed with experimental diets for 6 weeks and egg FA composition were determined. Breast meat cooking loss was significantly lower in 20% supplemented group (p quail eggs (p quail diets may increase quail meat redness and meat and egg yolk omega-3 FA content and decrease cooking loss of quail meats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Ameliorative effects of Nigella sativa on dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Sahebkar, A; Goli-Malekabadi, N

    2015-10-01

    Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Nigella sativa (NS) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases, in particular hyperlipidemia. We reviewed the existing literature published until 2014 by using the following keywords: ''Nigella sativa'', ''black cumin'', ''black seeds'', ''thymoquinone'', and ''lipid''. In the conducted studies, different preparations of NS including seed powder (100 mg-20 g daily), seed oil (20-800 mg daily), thymoquinone (3.5-20 mg daily), and seed extract (methanolic extract especially), were shown to reduce plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, but the effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was not significant. NS and thymoquinone have been reported to be safe and well tolerated with no severe adverse effect. In clinical trials, NS was found to be effective when added as adjunct to standard antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic medications. Lipid-modifying effects of NS could be attributed to the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption, decreased hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and up-regulation of LDL receptors. Overall, the evidence from experimental and a clinical studies suggests that NS seeds are a promising natural therapy for dyslipidemic patients.

  16. Hepatoprotective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds dietary supplementation against lead acetate-induced oxidative damage in rabbit - Purification and characterization of glutathione peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Far, Ali H; Korshom, Mahdy A; Mandour, Abdelwahab A; El-Bessoumy, Ashraf A; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2017-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induces hepatotoxicity in both animals and humans. The ability of Nigella saliva seeds (NSS) in ameliorating lead acetate (PbAc)-induced hepatic oxidative damage was investigated using a rabbit model. Forty New Zealand rabbits were given feed and water ad libitum. They were allocated randomly into four groups: control; PbAc (5g/L drinking water); NSS (20g/kg diet) and NSS+PbAc groups. After two months, liver samples were collected and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) contents. Purification and characterization of GPx were also evaluated. PbAc exposure significantly (p<0.05) increased MDA (lipid peroxidation biomarker) and reduced the GSH levels and the GST and GPx activities. Concurrently supplemented NSS significantly (p<0.05) decreased MDA levels and restored the GSH, GST, and GPx contents successfully. Electrophoretically, the homogeneous GPx preparation from the liver had a specific activity of 30.44 U/mg protein and a yield of 1.31%. The K m values for cumene hydroperoxide were 4.76μM in control, PbAc and NSS+PbAc groups, and 4.09μM in NSS group. The GPx reaction had a temperature optimum 40°C, pH optimum 8 and molecular weight 21 kDa. The obtained data indicated the potent efficacy of NSS against PbAc-induced oxidative stress; that was mediated through induction and activation of antioxidants, particularly GPx and scavenging free radicals. Moreover, the purified hepatic GPx is characterized as a selenoprotein (Se-GPx). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. CONCENTRAÇÃO DE b -GLUCANAS NAS DIFERENTES ETAPAS DO PROCESSAMENTO DA AVEIA (Avena sativa L. OAT (Avena sativa L. b -GLUCAN CONCENTRATION IN DIFFERENT PROCESSING STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Marins DE SÁ

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available As b-glucanas são fibras solúveis presentes em grande quantidade na aveia e têm importante ação na redução do colesterol sangüíneo em indivíduos com hipercolesterolemia, entre outras propriedades. Pouco se conhece em relação a este polímero em produtos brasileiros. Além disso, para ser consumida, a aveia passa por várias etapas de processamento, que poderiam alterar seu conteúdo de b-glucanas. Este trabalho avaliou a concentração de b-glucanas no cultivar de aveia IAC 7 e seus produtos, para verificar se existe alteração no teor desta fibra no decorrer do processamento. O farelo apresentou o maior teor de b-glucanas (9,51± 2,08%, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais produtos (Pb-glucanas dos demais produtos avaliados (aveia descascada, tostada, cortada, flocos inteiros, flocos e flocos finos, indicando que o processamento não tem influência no teor desta fibra no produto final.. b-glucans are soluble fibers which are quite abundant in oats. One of their many important properties is their capacity to lower blood cholesterol in individuals with hipercholesterolemy. Very little is known about this polymer in Brazilian food products. Besides, in order to be consumed as human food, the oats have to undergo several processing steps that may alter their original b-glucan concentration. The aim of this study was to measure this nutrient in cultivar IAC 7 and its products to determine if processing had any influence on the overall b-glucan content. Oat bran presented the highest values (9.51± 2.08% and was found to be significantly different from the other products (Pb-glucan contents of the other products, suggesting that processing had minimum or no effect on the concentration of this fiber.

  18. Variation of the OsGI intron and its phenotypic associations in Oryza rufipogon Griff. and Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y; Chen, Z; Pei, X; Wang, F; Yuan, Q; Wu, H; Jia, S; Peng, Y

    2013-07-30

    We analyzed intron 9 of the OsGI gene in Oryza rufipogon and Oryza sativa in order to investigate evolutionary relationships in rice and the relationship between intron variation and phenotype. OsGI-9 was cloned in 38 O. rufipogon populations and in 139 O. sativa cultivars and the phylogeny was reconstructed. Seed cold tolerance and dormancy were quantified in O. sativa. Three OsGI-9 band types occurred in O. rufipogon: S-type (1.2 kb), F-type (0.9 kb), and FS-type (1.2 and 0.9 kb), whereas only the S-type and F-type occurred in O. sativa. The S-type contains two 255-bp repeats, the F-type contains one 255-bp repeat, and the FS-type contains both. All individuals could be divided into 5 groups in the organism's phylogenetic network: S-type O. rufipogon, F-type O. rufipogon, FS-type O. rufipogon, S-type O. sativa, and F-type O. sativa. F-type O. sativa are most closely related to F-type O. rufipogon and S-type O. sativa are most closely related to S-type O. rufipogon. Statistical analysis indicated that OsGI-9 type is significantly correlated with phenotype; most S-type O. sativa have strong seed dormancy and cold tolerance, and most F-type O. sativa have no seed dormancy and poor cold tolerance.

  19. Producción de biomasa aérea y uso equivalente de la tierra en intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W Pereyra

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, el incremento de la productividad se ha asociado al aumento del rendimiento a través del mejoramiento genético y las prácticas de manejo del cultivo. Sin embargo, si se considera la producción por unidad de área y de tiempo, el sistema de intercultivos puede ser otra forma de mejorar la rentabilidad. El objetivo del experimento fue determinar la biomasa producida y el uso equivalente de la tierra en monocultivo e intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. con sorgo sudán (Sorghum sudanense L. y avena (Avena sativa L.. Se determinó la biomasa aérea de todos los tratamientos (expresada por unidad de superficie y el uso equivalente de la tierra. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado, dispuesto en bloques con dos repeticiones. Los resultados se sometieron a un ANOVA y las medias se compararon mediante la prueba de Duncan, a través del paquete estadístico INFOSTAT. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo triplicó la producción de alfalfa en relación con el monocultivo, mientras que alfalfa-avena no superó la producción de alfalfa pura en los meses de invierno. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo fue un 57 % más eficiente en el uso de la tierra que sus respectivos monocultivos, mientras que alfalfa-avena no logró superar la unidad.

  20. Whole-Plant Dynamic System of Nitrogen Use for Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) as Revealed through the Production of 350 Grains from a Germinated Seed Over 150 Days: A Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Tanno, Fumio; Tatsumi, Jiro; Mae, Tadahiko

    2016-01-01

    A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L) seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7-10 leaves on four productive tillers (forming five panicles in total), using nitrogen (N) taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and (15)N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1) During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2) A large fraction (as much as 80%) of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco). (3) Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids (AA), including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with AA transporters playing a role in transferring these AAs across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, AAs such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50 days during the

  1. Whole-plant dynamic system of nitrogen use for vegetative growth and grain filling in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. as revealed through the production of 350 grains from a germinated seed over 150 days: a review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakatsu Yoneyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7 ‒ 10 leaves on 4 productive tillers (forming 5 panicles in total, using nitrogen (N taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and 15N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1 During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2 A large fraction (as much as 80% of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco. (3 Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids, including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with amino acid transporters playing a role in transferring these amino acids across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, amino acids such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50

  2. Subgenome-specific assembly of vitamin E biosynthesis genes and expression patterns during seed development provide insight into the evolution of the oat genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E is essential for humans and thus must be a component of a healthy diet. Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) have high vitamin E content. To date, no gene sequences in the vitamin E biosynthesis pathway have been reported for oats. Using deep sequencing and orthology-g...

  3. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Farimah; Khazaei, Majid; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS) (Ranunculaceae family) is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS). The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders. PMID:27247928

  4. Dormancy-Related Seed Positional Effect in Two Populations of an Annual Grass from Locations of Contrasting Aridity

    OpenAIRE

    Volis, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In grasses, variation in seed size and dormancy often results from a seed's position within a dispersal unit. In this paper, I asked whether seed positional effect within a spikelet contributes to ecotypic differentiation between two populations of Avena sterilis having different species range position and associated aridity. I created experimental seed banks in which germination of seeds (florets) having different positions within a spikelet was examined over three years. In addition, two ge...

  5. Role of Ca++ in Shoot Gravitropism. [avena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A cornerstone in the argument that Ca(2+) levels may regulate growth is the finding the EGTA promotes straight growth. The usual explanation for these results is that Ca(2+) chelation from cell walls results in wall loosening and thus accelerated straight growth. The ability of frozen-thawed Avena coleoptile tissue (subjected to 15g tension) to extend in response to EGTA and Quin II was examined. The EGTA when applied in weakly buffered (i.e., 0.1mM) neutral solutions initiates rapid extension. When the buffer strength is increased, similar concentrations of EGTA produce no growth response. This implies when EGTA liberated protons are released upon Ca(2+) chelation they can either initiate acid growth (low buffer conditions) or if consumed (high buffer conditions) have no effect. Thus Ca(2+) chelation in itself apparently does not result in straight growth.

  6. New insights into virulence mechanisms of rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 following exposure to ?-lactam antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang; Chen, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that pathogen virulence can be altered by exposure to antibiotics, even when the growth rate is unaffected. Investigating this phenomenon provides new insights into understanding the virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. This study investigates the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of the rice pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 to ?-lactam antibiotics especially Ampicillin (Amp). Our results indicate that exposure to A...

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae cultivated in vivo and co-culture with Burkholderia seminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Li; Muhammad Ibrahim; Mengyu Ge; Zhouqi Cui; Guochang Sun; Fei Xu; Michael Kube

    2014-01-01

    Response of bacterial pathogen to environmental bacteria and its host is critical for understanding of microbial adaption and pathogenesis. Here, we used RNA-Seq to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the transcriptional response of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 cultivated in vitro, in vivo and in co-culture with rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. Results revealed a slight response to other bacteria, but a strong response to host. In particular, a large numbe...

  8. Comportamiento de la poblacion de Avena fatua tratada con graminicidas postemergentes Effect of post-emergence graminicides on the control of Avena fatua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Juan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sudoeste bonaerense de la República Argentina, avena fatua es una maleza que ocupa una significativa proporción del banco de semillas presentes en el suelo, causando severas pérdidas de rendimiento en los cultivos de trigo, lo cuál la caracteriza como una maleza invasora. A pesar de que en los cultivos, se utilizan normalmente prácticas de control com graminicidas selectivos, se observa una alta incidencia de la población de Avena fatua a través de la determinación del número de panojas y semillas por metro cuadrado remanentes de las plantas que escapan al control y que alcanzan el estado reproductivo antes de la cosecha del cereal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de varios graminicidas postemergentes selectivos para el cultivo de trigo sobre el crecimiento de la población de Avena fatua por metro cuadrado en un diseño estadístico de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los siguientes: testigo sin control, tralkoxydim (150 y 200 g/ha, fenoxaprop-p-etil (69 y 83 g/ha, pirifenop-n-butil (50 y 55 g/ha y diclofop metil (510 y 570 g/ha. En la primer campaña, con una baja infestación de la maleza (153 plantas/m2, todos los herbicidas y dosis probadas ejercieron una drástica reducción de los parámetros evaluados, no detectándose diferenciais significativas entre sí al evaluar el control por medio del número de panojas y semillas producidas por las plantas que escaparon al control. En cambio en la Segunda campaña com 285 plantas/m2 y habiéndoses realizado la aplicación delos avenicidas en un estado fenológico de la maleza más avanzado, el número de semilhas por metro quadradofue reducido a niveles que oscilaron entre un 60% y un 95% respecto del testigo sin control, detectándose diferencias entre los tratamientos. No obstante la reducción lograda, se comprobó en ciertos casos, un importante aporte de semillas que anualmente retornan al suelo, lo que podría significar sino

  9. Crude extract of Nigella sativa inhibits proliferation and induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of morbidity in women worldwide and chemotherapy for this cancer seems unsatisfactory, which demands exploring new therapeutic options. The seeds and oil from Nigella sativa have been reputed to have many curative properties in traditional medicine. Utilizing different techniques (4' ...

  10. ( Nigella sativa ) oil on Trypanosoma brucei -infected rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of black seed oil (Nigella sativa oil) on parasitaemia, some serum and liver enzymes as well as some haematological parameters in Trypanosoma brucei-infected rats were investigated. The results show there was low parasitaemia and extension of life span of rats from 12 days of the infected untreated (control) ...

  11. Agronomy and photosynthesis physiology of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Kailei

    2018-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable high-yielding crop that delivers valuable fibres, seeds and psychoactive substances. However, there is a lack of field experimental data on the cultivation of hemp because its production was largely abandoned in the last century. Hemp is now

  12. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in

  13. Pronóstico productivo de la avena forrajera de temporal por efecto del cambio climático en el noroeste de Chihuahua, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Villazón Bustillos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático puede afectar la productividad de los cultivos en una región determinada. El objetivo fue identificar la variabilidad en la producción de avena forrajera ( Avena sativa L. de temporal utilizando una función estocástica y analizar sus relaciones con la temperatura y precipitación, ante escenarios de cambio climático en la región noroeste de Chihuahua, México. Se obtuvo información estadística de 13 años (2001 - 2013 en las estaciones meteorológicas de los municipios de Bachíniva y Namiquipa utilizando la información de julio, agosto y septiembre, en cuyo periodo se concentra alrededor del 80% de la precipitación anual. Se tomó información del modelo HadCM3 (Modelo acoplado del Centro Hadley versión 3, 2001 que describe el comportamiento de variables climáticas bajo escenarios de emisión de contaminantes A2 y B2 para los años 2050 y 2080. Los cambios en las variables climáticas en el corto plazo (2050 se esperan con un aumento tanto en la temperatur a como en la precipitación, lo que permite en el caso de Bachíniva mejorar la producción de avena de 3.57 t/ha a 8.11 t/ha bajo en escenario de emisión de contaminantes A2. A largo plazo (2080 se espera un incremento permanente en la temperatura y sin imp ortar que tanto mejore la precipitación, esto provocara que en las actuales regiones productoras de avena no se logren desarrollar los cultivos para su cosecha.

  14. Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) on Oats. II. Early Root Development and Nematode Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmar, K. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of Heterodera avenae infestation on early seminal and lateral root growth was examined in four oat genotypes differing in tolerance to H. avenae. Recently emerged seminal roots were inoculated with a range of H. avenae larval densities, then transferred a hydroponic system to remove the effect of later nematode penetration on root development. Intolerance to H. avenae was assessed in terms of impairment of seminal root extension resulting in fewer primary lateral roots emerging fro...

  15. Rapid and Specific Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Using SYBR Green-Based Real-Time PCR Amplification of the YD-Repeat Protein Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Seok; Park, Duck Hwan; Ahn, Tae-Young; Park, Dong Suk

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, which causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a serious disease of cucurbit plants. The molecular and serological methods currently available for the detection of this pathogen are insufficiently sensitive and specific. Thus, a novel SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay targeting the YD-repeat protein gene of A. avenae subsp. citrulli was developed. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using DNA purified from 6 isolates of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, 7 other Acidovorax species, and 22 of non-targeted strains, including pathogens and non-pathogens. The AC158F/R primer set amplified a single band of the expected size from genomic DNA obtained from the A. avenae subsp. citrulli strains but not from the genomic DNA of other Acidovorax species, including that of other bacterial genera. Using this assay, it was possible to detect at least one genomeequivalents of the cloned amplified target DNA using 5 × 10(0) fg/μl of purified genomic DNA per reaction or using a calibrated cell suspension, with 6.5 colony-forming units per reaction being employed. In addition, this assay is a highly sensitive and reliable method for identifying and quantifying the target pathogen in infected samples that does not require DNA extraction. Therefore, we suggest that this approach is suitable for the rapid and efficient diagnosis of A. avenae subsp. citrulli contaminations of seed lots and plants.

  16. Efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de avena forrajera en un suelo andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P Amanda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available COMPENDIO La investigación evaluó los cambios en la actividad microbial por efecto de la aplicación de tres fuentes nitrogenadas al suelo: nitrato de potasio (13% de N y 44% de K20, sulfato de amonio (21% de N y 24% de S y colacteos (27% de N, 10% de K y 6% de P , en tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado y en tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg/ha, en un suelo Andisol de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia, localizado a 2820 msnm. y 12 0C. La actividad microbial se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante a la siembra y a los 45 días y con las dosis altas, sin importar la fuente utilizada. La época de aplicación no afectó el número de bacterias, ni la población de hongos pero sí la de actinomicetos, cuyo número se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante al momento de la siembra. Las dosis altas de nitrato de potasio incrementaron las poblaciones de bacterias y actinomicetos. Los contenidos de materia seca se incrementaron cuando se aplicó todo el fertilizante en la siembra o a los 45 días, mientras que los máximos rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron con 75 y 150 kg/ha. En cuanto a las fuentes los mayores rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron, respectivamente, con nitrato de potasio, sulfato de amonio y colácteos. Palabras clave: Avena sativa, fuentes nitrogenadas, actividad microbial, población microbial, Nariño, rendimiento. ABSTRACT Effect of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and forage yield in oat in an andisol of Nariño department of Colombia. The effect of three nitrogen sources potassium nitrate (13% de N y 44% de K20, ammonium sulphate (21% de N y 24% de S and colácteos (27% de N, 10 % de K20 y 6% de P2O5, at three application time (at seeding time, total at 45 days and fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing and three doses (25, 75 and 150 kg/ha, in an Andisol of Nariño, Colombia

  17. Tillage and residue burning affects weed populations and seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, S; Sindel, B M; Jessop, R S

    2006-01-01

    An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices to herbicide use such as tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. The objective of this study was to examine the value of different tillage practices and stubble burning to exhaust the seed bank of common weeds from the northern grain region of Australia. Five tillage and burning treatments were incorporated in a field experiment, at Armidale (30 degrees 30'S, 151 degrees 40'E), New South Wales, Australia in July 2004 in a randomized block design replicated four times. The trial was continued and treatments repeated in July 2005 with all the mature plants from the first year being allowed to shed seed in their respective treatment plots. The treatments were (i) no tillage (NT), (ii) chisel ploughing (CP), (iii) mould board ploughing (MBP), (iv) wheat straw burning with no tillage (SBNT) and (v) wheat straw burning with chisel ploughing (SBC). Soil samples were collected before applying treatments and before the weeds flowered to establish the seed bank status of the various weeds in the soil. Wheat was sown after the tillage treatments. Burning treatments were only initiated in the second year, one month prior to tillage treatments. The major weeds present in the seed bank before initiating the trial were Polygonum aviculare, Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. Tillage promoted the germination of other weeds like Hibiscus trionum, Medicago sativa, Vicia sp. and Phalaris paradoxa later in the season in 2004 and Convolvulus erubescens emerged as a new weed in 2005. The MBP treatment in 2004 reduced the weed biomass to a significantly lower level of 55 g/m2 than the other treatments of CP (118 g/m2) and NT plots (196 g/m2) (P < 0.05). However, in 2005 SBC and MBP treatments were similar in reducing the weed biomass. In 2004, the grain yield trend of wheat was significantly different between CP and NT, and MBP and NT (P < 0.05) with maximum yield of 5898

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-07-27

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  19. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton B Santa Brigida

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa, which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7 from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolin Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  1. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Brigida, Ailton B; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; de Armas, Elvismary M; Entenza, Júlio O P; Thiebaut, Flávia; Lima, Marcelo de F; Farrinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Lifschitz, Sérgio; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

  2. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  3. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  4. The effect of hydro and osmopriming on alfalfa seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) varieties, cv. Hamedani and Yazdi, were used to investigate the effects of osmo- and hydro-priming on seed germination, growth parameters, biochemical changes and antioxidant enzymes activities under high-level salt concentration (150 mM NaCl) stress. Seeds were primed with ...

  5. Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, He; Yang, Chun-Lan; Ge, Meng-Yu; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gong-You; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Guan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of ...

  6. Temperature and salinity affect the germination and growth of Silybum marianum Gaertn and Avena fatua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashmir, S.; Khan, M. A.; Shad, A.

    2016-01-01

    Two troublesome weeds like Silybum marianum and Avena fatua were exposed to different levels of temperature and salinity. Laboratory based experimented were conducted in the Department of Weed Science, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2015. Sterilized seeds of S. marianum and A. fatua were placed in petri-dishes in a growth chamber. The temperature levels studied were 15, 25 and 40 degree C while the NaCl concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM. Data revealed that germination and growth related traits responded differently to different levels of temperature and salinity. Optimum temperature (25 degree C) resulted in higher germination and growth of both the weed species. While highest temperature used (40 degree C) or lower temperature (15 degree C) resulted in poor germination and growth of S. marianum and A. fatua. Salinity level up to 100 mM did not affect the seed germination of S. marianum and A. fatua. NaCl concentration above 100 mM significantly decreased germination and ceased the germination of both the weeds at 600 mM. Like germination, the growth related variables were also decreased at very low or very high temperature and higher concentrations of NaCl. It is concluded that temperature and NaCl can affect establishment, growth and seed production potential of S. marianum and A. fatua. (author)

  7. The relaxant effect of Nigella sativa on smooth muscles, its possible mechanisms and clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossien

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a spice plant which has been traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Different therapeutic properties including the beneficial effects on asthma and dyspnea, digestive and gynecology disorders have been described for the seeds of N. sativa. There is evidence of the relaxant effects of this plant and some of its constituents on different types of smooth muscle including rabbit aorta, rabbit jejunum and trachea. The relaxant effect of N. sativa could be of therapeutic importance such as bronchodilation in asthma, vasodilation in hypertension and therapeutic effect on digestive or urogenital disorders. Therefore in the present article, the relaxant effects of N. sativa and its constituents on smooth muscles and its possible mechanisms as well as clinical application of this effect were reviewed. PMID:25859297

  8. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of some phenolic compounds especially thymoquinone (TQ, which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a comprehensive study of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant on induced neurotoxicity.

  9. The effect of light quality on ethylene production in leaves of oat seedlings (Avena sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbineau, F.; Rudnicki, R.M.; Goszczynska, D.M.; Come, D.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of UV, blue, green, red, far-red and white fluorescent lights at a fluence of 1.5–20 μmol m −2 s −1 photon flux density (PFD) on endogenous and ACC-dependent ethylene production by etiolated and green apical oat-leaf segments was investigated. It was found that endogenous ethylene production in light-irradiated green and etiolated oat leaves depends upon light quality and its fluence. All light of the visible spectrum (400–700 nm) at PFD 5–20 μmol m −2 s −1 reduced conversion of ACC to ethylene in green oat leaves incubated in 10 −3 M ACC. Blue light was most effective in the inhibition of ACC-dependent ethylene production at 5–10 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD, and endogenous ethylene formation at 10 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD. At 20 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD, all visible light wavebands substantially reduced endogenous ethylene production but blue and red light were most effective. In etiolated leaves UV at 1.5 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD, enhanced endogenous ethylene production and other lights at 20 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD decreased evolution of ethylene, whereas ACC-dependent ethylene formation was stimulated by UV, red and far-red wavebands. Growth of 10-day old seedlings was reduced by 40% under continuous blue light irradiation relative to that obtained with white light. Irradiation of etiolated and green leaf segments for 18 hr with blue light reduced ACC oxidase activity when compared to dark-treated ones. The influence of light quality and its fluence rate on the control of ethylene biosynthesis in oat leaves is discussed. (author). (author)

  10. Dynamics of auxin movement in the gravistimulated leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Thomas C.; Kapen, E. H.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of auxin redistribution in the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat was evaluated using H-3-indole-3-acetic acid (H-3-IAA) preloaded into isolated pulvini. Results obtained reveal that, while lateral transport of auxin occurs following gravistimulation, it is not necessary for a graviresponse. Localized changes in tissue responsiveness or the conversion of conjugated hormone to free hormone may suffice to drive the graviresponse.

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci from Two Genotypes of Oat (Avena sativa) Conditioning Resistance to Puccinia coronata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Ebrahiem M; Gordon, Tyler C; Jackson, Eric W; Chao, Shiaoman; Harrison, Stephen A; Carson, Martin L; Obert, Don E; Bonman, J Michael

    2015-02-01

    Developing oat cultivars with partial resistance to crown rust would be beneficial and cost-effective for disease management. Two recombinant inbred-line populations were generated by crossing the susceptible cultivar Provena with two partially resistant sources, CDC Boyer and breeding line 94197A1-9-2-2-2-5. A third mapping population was generated by crossing the partially resistant sources to validate the quantitative trait locus (QTL) results. The three populations were evaluated for crown rust severity in the field at Louisiana State University (LSU) in 2009 and 2010 and at the Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL) in St. Paul, MN, in 2009, 2010, and 2011. An iSelect platform assay containing 5,744 oat single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to genotype the populations. From the 2009 CDL test, linkage analyses revealed two QTLs for partial resistance in the Provena/CDC Boyer population on chromosome 19A. One of the 19A QTLs was also detected in the 2009 LSU test. Another QTL was detected on chromosome 12D in the CDL 2009 test. In the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population, only one QTL was detected, on chromosome 13A, in the CDL 2011 test. The 13A QTL from the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population was validated in the CDC Boyer/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population in the CDL 2010 and 2011 tests. Comparative analysis of the significant marker sequences with the rice genome database revealed 15 candidate genes for disease resistance on chromosomes 4 and 6 of rice. These genes could be potential targets for cloning from the two resistant parents.

  12. Effect of chemical systemic acquired resistance elicitors on avenanthramide biosynthesis in oat (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mitchell L

    2011-07-13

    Oats produce a group of phenolic antioxidants termed avenanthramides. These metabolites are, among food crops, unique to oats and have shown, in experimental systems, certain desirable nutritional characteristics such as inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation and reducing inflammation. Avenanthramides occur in both the leaves and grain of oat. In the leaves they are expressed as phytoalexins in response to crown rust (Puccina coronata) infection. The experiments reported here demonstrate that avenanthramide levels in vegetative tissue can be enhanced by treatment with benzothiadiazole (BTH), an agrochemical formulated to elicit systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The response to BTH was dramatically stronger than those produced with salicylic acid treatment. The roots of BTH treated plants also showed a smaller but distinct increase in avenanthramides. The dynamics of the root avenanthramide increase was substantially slower than that observed in the leaves, suggesting that avenanthramides might be transported from the leaves.

  13. Oat (Avena sativa L.): Oil and Nutriment Compounds Valorization for Potential Use in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Oat is a promising plant for the future. It is edible and beneficial thanks to its nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses and, hence, recognized to be useful for a healthier world. The assessment of the vital functions of oat components is important for industries requiring correct health labelling, valid during the shelf life of any product. Oil, enzymes and other biomolecules of nutraceutic or dietary usage from oats would be valorized for this purpose. Although oats have a unique and versatile composition including antioxidants and biomolecules indispensable for health, they are undervalued in comparison with other staple cereals such as wheat, barley and rice. Furthermore, oats, apart from maize, comprise a high oil content used for a wide range of beneficial purposes. In addition, they contain beta glucan that has proven to be very helpful in reducing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular diseases risks. In fact, there is diversity in the composition and content of the beneficial oat components within their genotypes and the different environmental conditions and, thus, oats are amenable to be enhanced by agronomic practices and genetic approaches.

  14. Proteomic analysis of salt-responsive proteins in oat roots (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Liu, Jinghui; Jiao, Weihong; Sa, Rula; Zhang, Na; Jia, Ruizong

    2016-08-01

    Oat is considered as a moderately salt-tolerant crop that could be used to improve saline and alkaline soil. Previous studies have focused on short-term salt stress exposure (0.5-48 h), while molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in oat remain unclear. Long-term salt stress (16 days) increased the levels of superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde content, putrescine content, spermidine content and soluble sugar content and reduced catalase activity in oat roots. The stress also caused changes in protein profiles in the roots. At least 1400 reproducible protein spots were identified in a two-dimensional electrophoresis gel, among which 23 were differentially expressed between treated vs control plants and 13 were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These differentially expressed proteins are involved in five types of biological process: (1) two fructose-bisphosphate aldolases, four alcohol dehydrogenases, an enolase, a UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase and an F1-ATPase alpha subunit related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism; (2) a choline monooxygenase related to stress and defense; (3) a lipase related to fat metabolism; (4) a polyubiquitin related to protein degradation; (5) a 14-3-3 protein related to signaling. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evaluation of dietary fiber and beta-glucan levels in oat (Avena sativa L) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    GUTKOSKI, Luiz C.; TROMBETTA, Cassiana

    1999-01-01

    A fibra alimentar é composta por celulose, hemiceluloses, gomas, pectinas e mucilagens sendo classificada em solúvel e insolúvel, quanto a sua solubilidade em água. As beta-glicanas são componentes da fibra alimentar solúvel presentes na aveia e sua importância é devido às propriedades funcionais e aos efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipoglicêmicos apresentados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total e de beta-glicanas de cultivare...

  16. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Outer membrane (OM proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  17. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shi, Yu; Qiu, Hui; Li, Bin; Jabeen, Amara; Li, Liping; Liu, He; Kube, Michael; Xie, Guanlin; Wang, Yanli; Blondel, Carlos; Santiviago, Carlos A; Contreras, Ines; Sun, Guochang

    2012-01-01

    Outer membrane (OM) proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  18. Radioprotection by Macerated Extract of Nigella sativa in Normal Tissues of Fibrosarcoma Bearing Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho-Pereira, Reelma; Kumar, A.; Pandey, B. N.; Mishra, K. P.; Jagtap, Aarti G.

    2012-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to study the effect of a macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds in normal as well as in tumour bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage to normal tissues. This was done to mimic the clinical setting where in, normal tissues of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy are exposed to the deleterious effects of radiation. The protection of cellular DNA was analysed in peripheral blood leucocytes of whole body irradiated mice following pretreatment with macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds (100 mg/kg), using alkaline comet assay, and also estimating biochemical and blood parameters such as levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein oxidation in organs such as spleen, liver, brain and intestine haemoglobin and total leucocyte count, respectively. The results showed that the macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds protected the liver, spleen, brain and intestines both in normal as well as tumour bearing mice. This study concludes that macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds has protective effects against radiation-induced damage and biochemical alterations which could be attributed to the ability to scavenge free radicals and its antioxidant properties. Hence macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds, could be used in combination with radiation to protect against oxidative stress in normal tissues and improving the quality of life of cancer patients by mitigating unwanted side effects of radiation in normal tissues. PMID:23716868

  19. Classification of specialty seed meals from NIR reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify alternative seed meals proposed for food and feed formulations. Spectra were collected from cold pressed Camelina (Camelina sativa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) meals. Additional spectra were collected ...

  20. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem; Ojaghian, Mohammad; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-i...

  1. Gamma radiation sensitivity in Nigella sativa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.K.; Biswas, A.K.; Sen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Gamma irradiation induced mutagenic sensitivity of Nigella sativa L. (black cummin) was assessed from R 1 attributes like frequency of seed germination, rate of seedling growth, chromosomal anomalies and sterility types, following exposures of dry dormant seed samples (1.8 % moisture content) to 5 KR, 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR, 50 KR and 60 KR of γ-irradiations. Results indicated that gamma radiations have induced both physiological and chromosomal disturbances. LD 50 was found to lie between 20 KR and 30 KR of γ-ray. Treatments beyond 30 KR of irradiation were found to be lethal due to complete failure of emergence of seedlings in the field conditions; although 5 KR has shown stimulation in mitotic index. Sterility types have possibly appeared as an outcome of meiotic disturbances. (author)

  2. Oryza sativa L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular evaluation of genetic diversity and association studies in rice. (Oryza sativa L.) C. Vanniarajan, K. K. Vinod and Andy Pereira. J. Genet. 91, 9–19. Table 1. Chromosome-wise distribution of SSR alleles and their number (k), polymorphic information content (PIC) and allele discrimination index (Dm). Chromosome.

  3. Behavior of cereal's varieties in the presence of Heterodera avenae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of cereals varieties (Ofanto, Waha and Vitron for durum wheat; Anza and HD1120 for bread wheat and Saida with Acsad for barly) were tested towards Heterodera avenae. The analysis of the variance reveals that the nematode has an effect on the development of durum wheat for the number of ear per ...

  4. COMPARISON OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Usman; Qureshi, Hamid Javaid; Saleem, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa or "Kalonji" is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 µl was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (pdiclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium.

  5. Cloning and characterization of differentially expressed genes in imbibed dormant and afterripened Avena fatua embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Foley, M E

    1995-11-01

    To analyze the patterns of gene expression associated with seed dormancy in wild oat (Avena fatua), we have isolated cDNA clones corresponding to genes that are differentially expressed in dormant and afterripened line M73 embryos. Gene transcripts of these clones were maintained in embryos of imbibed dormant caryopses, but declined rapidly in afterripened embryos after imbibition. GA3 treatment of dormant caryopses, which breaks dormancy, could lower the transcript levels in dormant embryos. When the germination of afterripened caryopses was inhibited by high temperature (35 degrees C), the decline in abundance of the transcripts in afterripened embryos was arrested. These genes were expressed to various degrees in water-stressed, but not in unstressed, 7-day-old seedlings. The expression of the genes was also ABA-inducible in afterripened embryos. The expression patterns in non-dormant line SH430 wild oat were similar to those of afterripened M73. DNA sequence analyses indicated that some of the cDNA clones encode LEA (late embryogenesis-abundant) proteins and aldose reductase. The significance of the expression of these genes in maintaining seed dormancy or longevity is discussed.

  6. (Vicia sativa L.) - triticale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... vetch (Vicia sativa L.) - triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) mixtures under east mediterranean rainfed .... that the grain yield of pea and oats averaged 4.9 t ha-1 in monocultures and 5.5 t ha-1 in mixtures ... The long-term average temperature from November to April in Kozan is 13.0°C and means rainfall 537 mm ...

  7. Live and Let Die - The Bsister MADS-Box Gene OsMADS29 Controls the Degeneration of Cells in Maternal Tissues during Seed Development of Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuelei; Du, Xiaoqiu; Chong, Kang; Gramzow, Lydia; Schilling, Susanne; Becker, Annette; Theißen, Günter; Meng, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Bsister genes have been identified as the closest relatives of class B floral homeotic genes. Previous studies have shown that Bsister genes from eudicots are involved in cell differentiation during ovule and seed development. However, the complete function of Bsister genes in eudicots is masked by redundancy with other genes and little is known about the function of Bsister genes in monocots, and about the evolution of Bsister gene functions. Here we characterize OsMADS29, one of three MADS-box Bsister genes in rice. Our analyses show that OsMADS29 is expressed in female reproductive organs including the ovule, ovule vasculature, and the whole seed except for the outer layer cells of the pericarp. Knock-down of OsMADS29 by double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) results in shriveled and/or aborted seeds. Histological analyses of the abnormal seeds at 7 days after pollination (DAP) indicate that the symplastic continuity, including the ovular vascular trace and the nucellar projection, which is the nutrient source for the filial tissue at early development stages, is affected. Moreover, degeneration of all the maternal tissues in the transgenic seeds, including the pericarp, ovular vascular trace, integuments, nucellar epidermis and nucellar projection, is blocked as compared to control plants. Our results suggest that OsMADS29 has important functions in seed development of rice by regulating cell degeneration of maternal tissues. Our findings provide important insights into the ancestral function of Bsister genes. PMID:23251532

  8. Targeting sources of drought tolerance within an Avena spp. collection through multivariate approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Mur, Luis A J; Rubiales, Diego; Prats, Elena

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we find and characterize the sources of tolerance to drought amongst an oat (Avena sativa L.) germplasm collection of 174 landraces and cultivars. We used multivariate analysis, non-supervised principal component analyses (PCA) and supervised discriminant function analyses (DFA) to suggest the key mechanism/s responsible for coping with drought stress. Following initial assessment of drought symptoms and area under the drought progress curve, a subset of 14 accessions were selected for further analysis. The collection was assessed for relative water content (RWC), cell membrane stability, stomatal conductance (g (1)), leaf temperature, water use efficiency (WUE), lipid peroxidation, lipoxygenase activity, chlorophyll levels and antioxidant capacity during a drought time course experiment. Without the use of multivariate approaches, it proved difficult to unequivocally link drought tolerance to specific physiological processes in the different resistant oat accessions. These approaches allowed the ranking of many supposed drought tolerance traits in the order of degree of importance within this crop, thereby highlighting those with a causal relationship to drought stress tolerance. Analyses of the loading vectors used to derive the PCA and DFA models indicated that two traits involved in water relations, temperature and RWC together with the area of drought curves, were important indicators of drought tolerance. However, other parameters involved in water use such as g (1) and WUE were less able to discriminate between the accessions. These observations validate our approach which should be seen as representing a cost-effective initial screen that could be subsequently employed to target drought tolerance in segregating populations.

  9. Live and let die - the B(sister MADS-box gene OsMADS29 controls the degeneration of cells in maternal tissues during seed development of rice (Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Yang

    Full Text Available B(sister genes have been identified as the closest relatives of class B floral homeotic genes. Previous studies have shown that B(sister genes from eudicots are involved in cell differentiation during ovule and seed development. However, the complete function of B(sister genes in eudicots is masked by redundancy with other genes and little is known about the function of B(sister genes in monocots, and about the evolution of B(sister gene functions. Here we characterize OsMADS29, one of three MADS-box B(sister genes in rice. Our analyses show that OsMADS29 is expressed in female reproductive organs including the ovule, ovule vasculature, and the whole seed except for the outer layer cells of the pericarp. Knock-down of OsMADS29 by double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi results in shriveled and/or aborted seeds. Histological analyses of the abnormal seeds at 7 days after pollination (DAP indicate that the symplastic continuity, including the ovular vascular trace and the nucellar projection, which is the nutrient source for the filial tissue at early development stages, is affected. Moreover, degeneration of all the maternal tissues in the transgenic seeds, including the pericarp, ovular vascular trace, integuments, nucellar epidermis and nucellar projection, is blocked as compared to control plants. Our results suggest that OsMADS29 has important functions in seed development of rice by regulating cell degeneration of maternal tissues. Our findings provide important insights into the ancestral function of B(sister genes.

  10. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Husain, Asif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Siddique, Nasir Ali; Damanhouri, Zoheir A.; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant. PMID:23646296

  11. Uso de inoculante y fertilización nitrogenada en la producción de forraje de avena, ballico y trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Carrillo Romo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron evaluar el efecto combinado de diferentes dosis de inoculante (Rhodococcus fascians y fertilización nitrogenada en la producción de forraje de gramíneas así como la relación costo/beneficio. Las gramíneas fueron, Avena sativa L, Lolium multiflorum Lam yTriticum durum L con los siguientes tratamientos, inoculación, fertilización nitrogenada (0, 30, 60 kg N ha-1, y la combinación de inoculante y fertilización. Las especies se establecieron en condiciones de riego en un suelo migajón franco arcilloso con pH de 6.7 y 0.34 % materia orgánica. El microorganismo se asperjó a la semilla y posteriormente a las plantas después de cada cosecha de forraje. Se evaluó producción de forraje en términos de toneladas de materia seca (MS por hectárea. La evaluación económica se realizó utilizando un análisis marginal donde los indicadores fueron, costos variables, producción de forraje y beneficios netos. El experimento se estableció con un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2x3x3 con cuatro repeticiones, donde el primer factor fue la inoculación, el segundo las especies y el tercero las dosis de fertilización nitrogenada. Los resultados muestran que el uso combinado de inoculante más 30 kg N ha-1 produjo 50 % más MS (aproximadamente 11 t más que cuando se aplica sólo nitrógeno, especialmente en avena y ballico anual. El análisis económico mostró que el mejor tratamiento fue el de inoculación con 30 kg N ha-1 en Avena sativa L, con una tasa de retorno marginal por arriba del 60 %.

  12. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  13. Analysis of metal element distributions in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds and relocation during germination based on X-ray fluorescence imaging of Zn, Fe, K, Ca, and Mn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingli; Tian, Shengke; Liao, Haibing; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoe; Labavitch, John M; Chen, Wenrong

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of mineral localization within rice grains is important for understanding the role of different elements in seed development, as well as for facilitating biofortification of seed micronutrients in order to enhance seeds' values in human diets. In this study, the concentrations of minerals in whole rice grains, hulls, brown rice, bran and polished rice were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The in vivo mineral distribution patterns in rice grains and shifts in those distribution patterns during progressive stages of germination were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence. The results showed that half of the total Zn, two thirds of the total Fe, and most of the total K, Ca and Mn were removed by the milling process if the hull and bran were thoroughly polished. Concentrations of all elements were high in the embryo regions even though the local distributions within the embryo varied between elements. Mobilization of the minerals from specific seed locations during germination was also element-specific. High mobilization of K and Ca from grains to growing roots and leaf primordia was observed; the flux of Zn to these expanding tissues was somewhat less than that of K and Ca; the mobilization of Mn or Fe was relatively low, at least during the first few days of germination.

  14. Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae: a threat to global oat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae causes crown rust disease in cultivated and wild oat. The significant yield losses inflicted by this pathogen makes crown rust the most devastating disease in the oat industry. P. coronata f. sp. avenae is a basidiomycete fungus with an obligate biotrophic lifestyle a...

  15. Characterization and Ectopic Expression of CoWRI1, an AP2/EREBP Domain-Containing Transcription Factor from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Endosperm, Changes the Seeds Oil Content in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, RuHao; Ye, Rongjian; Gao, Lingchao; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Rui; Mao, Ting; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Lin, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a key tropical crop and a member of the monocotyledonous family Arecaceae (Palmaceae). Few genes and related metabolic processes involved in coconut endosperm development have been investigated. In this study, a new member of the WRI1 gene family was isolated from coconut endosperm and was named CoWRI1. Its transcriptional activities and interactions with the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (BCCP2) promoter of CoWRI1 were confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid and yeast one-hybrid approaches, respectively. Functional characterization was carried out through seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis and endosperm-specific expression in rice. In transgenic Arabidopsis, high over-expressions of CoWRI1 in seven independent T2 lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative mRNA accumulation of genes encoding enzymes involved in either fatty acid biosynthesis or triacylglycerols assembly (BCCP2, KASI, MAT, ENR, FATA, and GPDH) were also assayed in mature seeds. Furthermore, lipid and fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0 significantly increased. In two homozygous T2 transgenic rice lines (G5 and G2), different CoWRI1 expression levels were detected, but no CoWRI1 transcripts were detected in the wild type. Analyses of the seed oil content, starch content, and total protein content indicated that the two T2 transgenic lines showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in seed oil content. The transgenic lines also showed a significant increase in starch content, whereas total protein content decreased significantly. Further analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed that palmitic acid (C16:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) increased significantly in the seeds of the transgenic rice lines, but oleic acid (C18:1) levels significantly declined. PMID:28179911

  16. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its constituent (thymoquinone): a review on antimicrobial effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa seeds have wide therapeutic effects and have been reported to have significant effects against many ailments such as skin diseases, jaundice, gastrointestinal problems, anorexia, conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, intrinsic hemorrhage, paralysis, amenorrhea, anorexia, asthma, cough, bronchitis, headache, fever, influenza and eczema. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the most active constituent and has different beneficial properties. Focus on antimicrobial effects, different extracts of N. sativa as well as TQ, have a broad antimicrobial spectrum including Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, viruses, parasites, schistosoma and fungi. The effectiveness of N. sativa seeds and TQ is variable and depends on species of target microorganisms. The present review paper tries to describe all antimicrobial activities that have been carried out by various researchers. PMID:25859296

  17. Seed germination and seedling development of white oat affected by silicon and phosphorus fertilization Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de aveia-branca em função da adubação com silício e fósforo

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    Mariana Zampar Toledo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si fertilizers have been increasingly used in agriculture due to several benefits as acidity correction in tropical soils and positive effects on the development of grasses. Nutrient availability and plant nutrition play an important role in seed production and may affect the physiological quality of white oat seeds. The present study had as objective to evaluate seed germination and seedling development of white oat (Avena sativa L. affected by silicon and phosphorus fertilization. The experimental design was the completely randomized, analyzed as a factorial 2 x 4, with six replications. Treatments consisted of 20 and 200 mg dm-3 of P2O5, applied as triple superphosphate, combined with 0, 150, 300 and 450 mg dm-3 of Si, as potassium silicate. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse, with seven plants per 15-L pot. Panicles were harvested and threshed manually and white oat seeds were stored in paper bags under normal environmental conditions. Seeds were evaluated by moisture content, seed weight, germination, electrical conductivity, seedling length and dry matter. White oat seeds with better quality are produced with 20 mg dm-3 of P2O5 under any Si doses. Higher seed germination and vigor is obtained with 300 and 450 mg dm-3 of K2SiO3, respectively. Silicon doses decreased root and total seedling length similarly up to the dose of 300 kg ha-1 but P dose only influenced seedling development distinctively whenever applied with the higher silicon dose.Os fertilizantes silicatados tem sido cada vez mais usados na agricultura devido a inúmeros benefícios, tais como correção da acidez de solos tropicais e efeitos positivos no desenvolvimento de gramíneas. A disponibilidade de nutrientes e a nutrição de plantas desempenham papel importante na produção de sementes e podem influenciar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de aveia-branca (Avena sativa L.. Avaliou-se a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de

  18. Effects of drought and salt stress on seed germination of three ...