WorldWideScience

Sample records for avena avena sativa

  1. Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-24

    Jun 24, 2011 ... Studies on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, associated with red stripe disease of sugarcane was ... fiber, organic fertilizer and many by-products/co-products with ... colour, colony diameter and size of bacteria (µm) (Dye and Kemp, ..... leaf blight of turmeric caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in.

  2. Development of resistance to Puccinia graminis avenae in Avena sativa by mutagen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.W.; Brown, P.D.; McKenzie, R.I.H.; Harder, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of over seven million M 2 oat plants derived from irradiated and chemical mutagen treated seeds (about 50,000) or low-level chronically irradiated growing plants produced no new sources of useful resistance. However, preliminary results indicate that the gene Pg-16 has been transferred from the tetraploid Avena barbata L. to the hexaploid A. sativa L. by irradiation of disomic alien addition lines and monosomic alien substitution lines. This gene is highly effective and confers resistance to all but two of the known races of stem rust occurring in North America. (author)

  3. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Avena sativa L. Extract

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    Nooshin Amini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nowadays, nanoparticles bio production, considering their performance in medicine and biological science, is increasing. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles The objectives of this study were the production of silver nanoparticles using Avena sativa L. extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of substrate (silver nitrate (AgNo3 and temperature on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. Methods: In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an extract of Avena sativa L. at different temperatures (30° C, 60° C, 90° C  and AgNo3 concentrations( 1 mM, 2mM, 4mM . The morphology and size of the nanoparticles were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. Results: SEM images showed that by increasing temperature nanoparticles size were decreased and by increasing concentrations of AgNo3 the number of nanoparticles was increased. Conclusions: The results indicated that by increasing the reaction temperature, the size of the nanoparticles would decrease. Also by increasing the concentrations of AgNo3, the amount of produced nanoparticles would be increased, but won't have a significant effect on its size. The preparation of nano- structured silver particles using Avena sativa L. extract provides an environmentally friendly option as compared to currently available chemical/ physical methods.

  4. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Henson

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L. during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants.

  5. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  6. Genome-wide association mapping of barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in spring oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...

  7. Serpins of oat (Avena sativa) grain with distinct reactive centres and inhibitory specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Hauge, S.

    2002-01-01

    Most proteinase inhibitors from plant seeds are assumed to contribute to broad-spectrum protection against pests and pathogens. In oat (Avena sativa L.) grain the main serine proteinase inhibitors were found to be serpins, which utilize a unique mechanism of irreversible inhibition. Four distinct...... inhibitors of the serpin superfamily were detected by native PAGE as major seed albumins and purified by thiophilic adsorption and anion exchange chromatography. The four serpins OSZa-d are the first proteinase inhibitors characterized from this cereal. An amino acid sequence close to the blocked N...... by chymotrypsin at the putative reactive centre bond P-1 -P-1 ' Tyrdown arrowSer, and no inhibition was detected. Together the oat grain serpins have a broader inhibitory specificity against digestive serine proteinases than represented by the major serpins of wheat, rye or barley grain. Presumably the serpins...

  8. Cell wall and enzyme changes during the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, David M.; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Chang, S.-R.; Brock, Thomas G.; Vadlamudi, Babu; Kim, Donghern; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Rayle, David L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    The graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa) involves an asymmetric growth response and asymmetric processes involving degradation of starch and cell wall synthesis. Cellular and biochemical events were studied by investigation of the activities of related enzymes and changes in cell walls and their constituents. It is suggested that an osmotic potential gradient acts as the driving factor for growth, while wall extensibility is a limiting factor in pulvinus growth.

  9. Environmental and economic aspects of Triticum aestivum L. and Avena sativa growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelínková Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of cultivation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa grown in Central Europe within the conventional and organic farming systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and economic profitability. Organic farming may be one of the tools for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production. In the context of crop production, cereals rank among the most commonly grown crops and therefore bread wheat and oat were chosen. The Climate change impact category was assessed within the simplified LCA method and the production of greenhouse gas emissions expressed in CO2e per the production unit was calculated. Economic balance of the cultivation of monitored cereals was compiled based on the yields, farm gate prices and costs. On its basis, the cultivation of wheat within the organic farming system appears to be the most profitable. From an environmental point of view, the emission load of the organic farming system is reduced by 8.04 % within the wheat production and by 15.46 % within the oat cultivation. Therefore, the organic farming system in the Czech Republic appears to be more environmentally friendly and economically efficient within the cereals production.

  10. Influence of Ash Applied to Oat Crop (Avena sativa L. Grown under Organic Fertilization with Manure

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    Benoni Lixandru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The power plant ash is an inorganic residue with a variable chemical buildup according to the type of charcoal used and quality. Depositing, stabilizing and eventually reintegrating the ash in the natural circuit raises a series of problems due to its disastrous effect on biodiversity. Even with these problems, at a moderate micro and macro mineral content, power plant ash could present interesting agro technical and ecological alternatives. For this reason, the controlled integration of ash could put a stop to pollution with ash by reintegrating the material in the agricultural ecosystems.For this purpose, in the field of research of Ecological and Forage Crops from Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies Timisoara, research was conducted over the influence of the reintegration of 40 t of ash per ha, produced by C.E.T. Timisoara, on the biomass production of oatmeal (Avena sativa L, fertilized by levels of 25 and 50 t per ha of manure. After harvesting, the analysis of the total biomass quantity, both above and underground, revealed similar results in all trials. In conditions that include heavy metal concentrations beneath normal geological values, conclude that the application of 40t per ha may be an agro technical solution for the integration of power plant ash in the agricultural ecosystem.

  11. Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation Increases Phenolic Content and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power in Avena sativa

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    Christopher T. Ruhland

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm on the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and growth of Avena sativa. Treatments involved placing filters on frames over potted plants that reduced levels of biologically effective UV-B by either 71% (reduced UV-B or by 19% (near-ambient UV-B over the 52 day experiment (04 July - 25 August 2002. Plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had 38% less total biomass than those under reduced UV-B. The reduction in biomass was mainly the result of a 24% lower leaf elongation rate, resulting in shorter leaves and less total leaf area than plants under reduced UV-B. In addition, plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had up to 17% lower Fv/Fm values early in the experiment, and this effect declined with plant age. Concentrations of bulk-soluble phenolics and FRAP values were 17 and 24% higher under near-ambient UV-B than under reduced UV-B, respectively. There was a positive relationship between bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations and FRAP values. There were no UV-B effects on concentrations of carotenoids (carotenes + xanthophylls.

  12. Caracterização química de cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa l

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    I. Pedó

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente quatro cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa, L.: UPF-15, UPF-16, CTC-03 e UFRGS-14, recentemente selecionados pelo programa de melhoramento genético de aveia no sul do Brasil. A caracterização química foi realizada através das seguintes determinações: composição centesimal, composição mineral, composição em aminoácidos e em ácidos graxos. Os quatro cultivares estudados apresentaram altos teores de proteína (13,95 a 16,52% e lipídios (6,33 a 7,50%. Os teores médios de fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel também foram relativamente altos nestes cultivares, 4,76 e 6,36% e, conseqüentemente, o teor de amido foi relativamente baixo (53,26% em média. A composição em aminoácidos foi adequada e semelhante ao padrão teórico da FAO, sendo a lisina o primeiro aminoácido limitante, seguido da treonina. Os cultivares apresentaram altas concentrações de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo que o linoléico, oléico e palmítico representaram 96% do total. Embora não tenham sido observadas grandes diferenças entre os cultivares estudados, observa-se que o UFRGS-14 se destaca principalmente pelo teor mais elevado de proteína.

  13. In vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect, on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis, of fractions and subfractions from oat (Avena sativa L.) ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol and the extract was successively isolated by liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among these extractions the ethyl acetate (EA) layer exhibited the highest total phenolic content (TPC), t...

  14. Molecular mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Rollo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K

    2012-05-01

    Powdery mildew is a prevalent fungal disease affecting oat (Avena sativa L.) production in Europe. Common oat cultivar Rollo was previously shown to carry the powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in common with cultivar Mostyn. The resistance gene was mapped with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers from Triticeae group-1 chromosomes using a population of F(3) lines from a cross between A. byzantina cv. Kanota and A. sativa cv. Rollo. This comparative mapping approach positioned Eg-3 between cDNA-RFLP marker loci cmwg706 and cmwg733. Since both marker loci were derived from the long arm of barley chromosome 1H, the subchromosomal location of Eg-3 was assumed to be on the long arm of oat chromosome 17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology featured as an efficient means for obtaining markers closely linked to Eg-3.

  15. Studies on biological effects of gamma irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain Basha, M.; Mehta, A.K.; Gour, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of three oat varieties viz., Kent, JO 03-91 and JO-1 were exposed to different doses of gamma rays i.e. 200 Gy, 250 Gy, 300 Gy, 350 Gy, 400 Gy, 450 Gy and 500 Gy at Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI, New Delhi. The present investigation aims to study biological effects of gamma irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L.) in the M 1 generation. After irradiation, 10 seeds were sown from each dose on paper towel by using distilled water. Germination, root and shoot length were recorded after seven days. 100 seeds of each irradiated dose along with control were sown in the field at Regional station, IARI, Wellington, Tamil Nadu. Seedling emergence and height under field conditions was recorded after 7 and 14 days. An observation for plant height and plant survival percentage was reordered at maturity stage. Seed germination (%), root length and shoot length decreased not in a linear fashion with the increase in irradiation doses. In contrast, the gamma rays had some stimulatory effects on shoot length in comparison to root length. Seedling emergence, plant height and plant survival (%) decreased with increase in radiation dose not in a linear fashion in all three varieties. Seedling emergence was recorded less in 7 DAS in comparison to 14 DAS in all three varieties. The coefficient of correlation between radiation dose and emergence and plant survival under field conditions were found to be significant and negative in all three varieties. Radiation dose of 500 Gy proved most lethal and reduced the percentage of survived plants in oat varieties JO-1 (37.36%) and JO 03-91 (43.57%) followed by 450 Gy in JO 03-91 (54.07 %) and 400 Gy in all three varieties (<68.5%). Only in the variety JO 03-91 has three morphological mutations were found at different doses i.e. 250 Gy, 350 Gy and 450 Gy and two chlorophyll mutations namely i.e. chlorina and yellow viridis was found in JO-1 (450 Gy) and Kent (250 Gy) in M 1 generation respectively. (author)

  16. CONTENIDO Y TRASLOCACIÓN DE PLOMO EN AVENA (Avena sativa, L. Y HABA (Vicia faba, L. DE UN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García-Gallegos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento en invernadero se estableció para determinar la concentración de plomo (Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea de haba y avena; se calculó el factor de bioconcentración y traslocación en las dos especies. Se probaron 50, 100 y 150 mg·Pb·kg-1 de suelo, incluyendo un control. Las plantas se colectaron a los 60 días después de la siembra y se midieron altura de planta (AP, volumen radical (VR y biomasa seca total (BST, además del contenido de Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea. La cuantificación de Pb se realizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El suelo cultivado con haba presentó un 28.48 % de PbEDTA. Las variables AP, VR y BST no fueron afectadas de manera drástica por las concentraciones de Pb probadas. Las plantas de haba y avena absorbieron un total de 55 mg·kg-1 y 45.3 mg·kg-1, respectivamente, las cuales se consideran tóxicas para plantas cultivadas. Los resultados pueden servir de base para ampliar el conocimiento del contenido de Pb absorbido y traslocado en plantas de haba y avena, ya que la capacidad de tolerar y absorber Pb es específica de la especie, inclusive de la variedad de planta.

  17. Decarboxylation of indole-3-acetic acid and inhibition of growth in Avena sativa seedlings by plant-derived photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.M. [Dickinson Coll., Carlisle, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-01

    A number of plant phototoxins, when supplemented with UVA (320-400 nm) radiation, are capable of sensitizing the decomposition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as measured by release of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from carboxyl-labeled IAA. Alpha-terthienyl ({alpha}T) and harmine caused significant rates of IAA decarboxylation at concentrations as low as 1 nM and were approximately 80% as effective as riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide. Partial inhibition by sodium azide indicates that the {alpha}T-induced decarboxylation of IAA is predominately, but not entirely, a type II reaction mediated by singlet oxygen. Based on changes in UV absorption spectra, it appears that the hormones gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine (a cytokinin) are less susceptible to photosensitized decomposition than is IAA. Alpha-terthienyl plus UVA also inhibited elongation growth and reduced endogenous IAA levels in Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections and promoted senescence in intact Avena seedlings. These results confirm the alelopathic potential of plant photosensitizers such as {alpha}T and indicate that the phytohormone IAA may represent an additional target for the action of photosensitizers. (Author).

  18. Interacción genotipo-ambiente en avena sativa l: utilizando los modelos AMMI y factorial de correspondencias Genotype-environment interaction in avena sativa l: employing AMMI and factorial correspondence models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Abel Acciaresi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue (i determinar la presencia de interacción genotipo-ambiente (IGA en la producción forrajera de avena (Avena sativa L. de genotipos tolerantes y no tolerantes a Schizaphis graminum empleando un número bajo de ambientes en la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina mediante los modelos de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI y análisis factorial de correspondencias (AFC y (ii comparar los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos. Los ensayos se condujeron en La Dulce (Argentina y La Plata (Argentina (1993, 1994 y 1995. Se evaluaron 12 genotipos (comerciales y líneas avanzadas en 12 ambientes (combinación de localidad, años y cortes. Los factores ambiente, genotipo e interacción explicaron un 41,15% (pThe objective of this study was (i to determine the presence of genotype-environment interaction (GXE in Avena sativa l. for above dry matter yield of Schizaphis graminun tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes according to two different models: additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis; and (ii to study and compare the results obtained with these models. Twelve genotypes and 12 environments were conducted at La Dulce and La Plata (Argentina during three years (1993, 1994 and 1995. The environment (E, genotype (G and GxE factors explained a 41.15%, 7.88% and 36.36% of the total sum of square, respectively. The first three axes of principal component analysis of AMMI were highly significant (p<0.001, explaining a 57.99%, 29.03% and 6.27% of interaction sum of square. The first three factorial correspondence coordinates accounted for 58.98%, 29.58% and 5.60% of the interaction sum of square. The relationships between tolerant genotypes-first clipping environments and non-tolerant genotypes-second clipping environments were reflected in the biplots of both models. The simultaneous use of AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis appeared as a useful

  19. Genome-wide association study for crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) resistance in an oat (Avena sativa) collection of commercial varieties and landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Rispail, Nicolas; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Rubiales, Diego; Mur, Luis A J; Langdon, Tim; Howarth, Catherine J; Prats, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions including white and red oat cultivars and landraces were evaluated for disease resistance and further genotyped with 31 simple sequence repeat and 15,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to reveal association with disease resistance traits. After data curation, 1712 polymorphic markers were considered for association analysis. Principal component analysis and a Bayesian clustering approach were applied to infer population structure. Five different general and mixed linear models accounting for population structure and/or kinship corrections and two different statistical tests were carried out to reduce false positive. Five markers, two of them highly significant in all models tested were associated with rust resistance. No strong association between any marker and powdery mildew resistance at the seedling stage was identified. However, one DArT sequence, oPt-5014, was strongly associated with powdery mildew resistance in adult plants. Overall, the markers showing the strongest association in this study provide ideal candidates for further studies and future inclusion in strategies of marker-assisted selection.

  20. Regulation of the development of the first leaf of oats (Avena sativa L.) : characterization and subcellular localization of proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der H.C.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of chlorophyll during the senescence of leaves is preceded by a decrease in protein content. Proteases responsible for the degradation of the proteins have been implicated in the regulation of the senescence process. The first leaf of the seedling of oats ( Avena

  1. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J Foresman

    Full Text Available Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.. Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17 and 18D (Mrg04. This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17 and 18D (Mrg04. Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel.

  3. Transfer of several phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species to Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae subsp. nov., comb. nov., Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax konjaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, A; Goor, M; Thielemans, S; Gillis, M; Kersters, K; De Ley, J

    1992-01-01

    DNA-rRNA hybridizations, DNA-DNA hybridizations, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins, and a numerical analysis of carbon assimilation tests were carried out to determine the relationships among the phylogenetically misnamed phytopathogenic taxa Pseudomonas avenae, Pseudomonas rubrilineans, "Pseudomonas setariae," Pseudomonas cattleyae, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. citrulli, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci. These organisms are all members of the family Comamonadaceae, within which they constitute a separate rRNA branch. Only P. pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci is situated on the lower part of this rRNA branch; all of the other taxa cluster very closely around the type strain of P. avenae. When they are compared phenotypically, all of the members of this rRNA branch can be differentiated from each other, and they are, as a group, most closely related to the genus Acidovorax. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that these organisms constitute two genotypic groups. We propose that the generically misnamed phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species should be transferred to the genus Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae and Acidovorax konjaci. Within Acidovorax avenae we distinguished the following three subspecies: Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli. Emended descriptions of the new taxa are presented.

  4. Avaliação dos teores de fibra alimentar e de beta-glicanas em cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L Evaluation of dietary fiber and beta-glucan levels in oat (Avena sativa L cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. GUTKOSKI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A fibra alimentar é composta por celulose, hemiceluloses, gomas, pectinas e mucilagens sendo classificada em solúvel e insolúvel, quanto a sua solubilidade em água. As beta-glicanas são componentes da fibra alimentar solúvel presentes na aveia e sua importância é devido às propriedades funcionais e aos efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipoglicêmicos apresentados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total e de beta-glicanas de cultivares de aveia recomendados pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa, L foram descascados, as cariopses moídas e as amostras acondicionadas e armazenadas à temperatura de -20° C. Para a análise de fibra alimentar foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Entre os cultivares analisados, UPF 7, UPF 13, UPF 14 e UPF 16 apresentaram os maiores teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel. Os maiores teores de fibra alimentar solúvel foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, CTC 13, UPF 16 e CTC 2. O cultivar UPF 16 apresentou o maior teor de fibra alimentar total, seguido de UFRGS 7, CTC 13 e UFRGS 18. Para a determinação de beta-glicanas foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Os maiores teores de beta-glicanas foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, UPF 14 e UFRGS 18.The dietary fiber is composed by cellulose, hemi-celluloses, gums, pectins, and mucilages, being classified as soluble or insoluble depending on its solubility in water. Beta-glucans are a fraction of the soluble dietary fiber, being important due to its functional properties and effects in reducing cholesterol and glucose. This work aimed at evaluating the levels of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, as well as the amount of beta-glucans, present in grains of oat cultivars recommended by the Brazilian Commission for Oat Research. Oat grains were hulled, the caryopses were ground and the samples packaged and stored at temperature of -20º

  5. Genome sequence of the rice-pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Liu, He; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-09-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is a phytobacterium which is the causative agent of several plant diseases with economic significance. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain RS-1, which was isolated from rice shoots in a rice field in China. This strain can cause bacterial stripe of rice. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Genome Sequence of the Rice-Pathogenic Bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Liu, He; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is a phytobacterium which is the causative agent of several plant diseases with economic significance. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain RS-1, which was isolated from rice shoots in a rice field in China. This strain can cause bacterial stripe of rice.

  7. Genome Sequence of the Rice-Pathogenic Bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Liu, He; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is a phytobacterium which is the causative agent of several plant diseases with economic significance. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain RS-1, which was isolated from rice shoots in a rice field in China. This strain can cause bacterial stripe of rice. PMID:21742879

  8. The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew in cultivated oats (Avena sativa L.): current status of major genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsam, Sai L K; Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2014-05-01

    The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis.

  9. Physilogical and Biochemical Responses of Avena species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mk

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... Seven species of oat (Avena) were evaluated for their relative drought tolerance under soil moisture stress. The plant height, leaf area production and biomass yield reduced under soil moisture stress. Among the species tested, minimum reduction in height was recorded in Avena vaviloviana, Avena.

  10. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  11. INFLUÊNCIA DO CULTIVO CONSORCIADO DE AVEIA PRETA (AVENA STRIGOSA SCHIEB. E ERVILHACA COMUM (VICIA SATIVA L. NA PRODUÇÃO DE FITOMASSA E NO APORTE DE NITROGÊNIO INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPED COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. AND NAKED OAT (AVENA STRIGOSA ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heinrichs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e sob preparo convencional, foi avaliada a influência de proporções de sementes de ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb. cultivadas em consórcio, na produção de fitomassa e no aporte de nitrogênio no sistema. O experimento foi implantado em solo podzolico vermelho amarelo, de Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram casualizados em quatro blocos, constituindo-se de: 1- 100% Ervilhaca comum (E; 2- 90% E + 10% Aveia preta (A; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- pousio de inverno. A amostragem da fitomassa das coberturas verdes foi efetuada na ocasião do pleno florescimento em área de 0,8m2 por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram que a aveia preta e a ervilhaca comum podem ser consorciadas, beneficiando assim, a produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio.The effect of intercropping common vetch (Vicia sativa L. with naked oat (Avena strigosa Schieb. at different seed proportions was evaluated. The trial was set up on a Red Yellow Podzolic soil of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The treatments were the following: 1- 100% E (common vetch; 2- 90% E + 10% A (naked oat; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- fall tillage organized in four randomized blocks. Biomass production was evaluated at the flowering stage in an area of 0.8 m2 per plot. Data show that both species can be intercropped which is beneficial to biomass production and nitrogen accumulation.

  12. Evaluation of iron content in a potential fodder crop oat (avena sativa l.) grown on soil treated with sugarcane filter cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.I.; Ahmad, K.; Kashaf, S.; Fardous, A.; Gondal, S.; Ejaz, A.; Ashraf, M.; Danish, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different doses of sugarcane filter cake (SFC) on iron concentrations in the leaves of varying age of a potential fodder crop oat (Avena sativa L.) are reported in this study. Nine different treatments of SFC used were: 0 (control), 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 kg/ha applied to soil as full doses before sowing, and 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 applied as two equal splits, first before sowing and the second before flower initiation. Samples of soil were taken just after mixing the appropriate dose of SFC, whereas those of leaves were taken at the vegetative stage (45 days after sowing; hereafter they are referred as early leaves) and at the grain filling stage (hereafter referred to as late leaves). Iron (Fe) concentrations in soil and leaf samples (early and late) were determined unconnectedly. Soil Fe content increased significantly due to soil amendment with filter cake and it was well above the known critical level (2.5 mg/kg). In contrast, although soil amended with SFC improved the Fe content of both early and late leaves, their Fe content was well below the normal requirement of grazing animals. Thus, the ruminants feeding on this fodder species growing on soils amended with SFC are prone to experience Fe deficiency. Mineral supplementations containing reasonable amount of Fe sources are recommended to prevent complications caused by Fe deficiency as well as to achieve an optimal animal production of ruminants being reared on the pasture. (author)

  13. Identification and Quantification of Avenanthramides and Free and Bound Phenolic Acids in Eight Cultivars of Husked Oat ( Avena sativa L) from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multari, Salvatore; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Ollennu-Chuasam, Priscilla; Hietaniemi, Veli; Yang, Baoru; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka

    2018-03-21

    Finland is the second largest oat producer in Europe. Despite the existing knowledge of phenolics in oat, there is little information on the phenolic composition of oats from Finland. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations of free and bound phenolic acids, as well as avenanthramides in eight Finnish cultivars of husked oat ( Avena sativa L.). Seven phenolic acids and one phenolic aldehyde were identified, including, in decreasing order of abundance: p-coumaric, ferulic, cinnamic, syringic, vanillic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, and o-coumaric acids and syringaldehyde. Phenolic acids were mostly found as bound compounds. Significant varietal differences ( p phenolic acids, with the lowest level found in cv. 'Viviana' (1202 ± 52.9 mg kg -1 ) and the highest in cv. 'Akseli' (1687 ± 80.2 mg kg -1 ). Avenanthramides (AVNs) 2a, 2p, and 2f were the most abundant. Total AVNs levels ranged from 26.7 ± 1.44 to 185 ± 12.5 mg kg -1 in cv. 'Avetron' and 'Viviana', respectively.

  14. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil.

  15. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB genome configuration had similar genome sizes (average 2C = 25.74 pg). Genome size was mostly consistent within species and in general agreement with current information about evolutionary distance among species. Results also suggest that most of the polyploid species in Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology.

  16. Bacterially produced Pt-GFP as ratiometric dual-excitation sensor for in planta mapping of leaf apoplastic pH in intact Avena sativa and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mühling, Karl H; Kaiser, Hartmut; Plieth, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric analysis with H(+)-sensitive fluorescent sensors is a suitable approach for monitoring apoplastic pH dynamics. For the acidic range, the acidotropic dual-excitation dye Oregon Green 488 is an excellent pH sensor. Long lasting (hours) recordings of apoplastic pH in the near neutral range, however, are more problematic because suitable pH indicators that combine a good pH responsiveness at a near neutral pH with a high photostability are lacking. The fluorescent pH reporter protein from Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Pt-GFP) comprises both properties. But, as a genetically encoded indicator and expressed by the plant itself, it can be used almost exclusively in readily transformed plants. In this study we present a novel approach and use purified recombinant indicators for measuring ion concentrations in the apoplast of crop plants such as Vicia faba L. and Avena sativa L. Pt-GFP was purified using a bacterial expression system and subsequently loaded through stomata into the leaf apoplast of intact plants. Imaging verified the apoplastic localization of Pt-GFP and excluded its presence in the symplast. The pH-dependent emission signal stood out clearly from the background. PtGFP is highly photostable, allowing ratiometric measurements over hours. By using this approach, a chloride-induced alkalinizations of the apoplast was demonstrated for the first in oat. Pt-GFP appears to be an excellent sensor for the quantification of leaf apoplastic pH in the neutral range. The presented approach encourages to also use other genetically encoded biosensors for spatiotemporal mapping of apoplastic ion dynamics.

  17. The impact of oat (Avena sativa) consumption on biomarkers of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: A parallel randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mortazavi Najafabadi, Mojgan; Surkan, Pamela J; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Azadbakht, Leila

    2018-02-01

    Animal studies report that oat (Avena sativa L) intake has favorable effects on kidney function. However, the effects of oat consumption have not been assessed in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of oat intake on biomarkers of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifty-two patients with CKD were randomly assigned to a control group (recommended to reduce intake of dietary protein, phosphorus, sodium and potassium) or an oat consumption group (given nutritional recommendations for controls +50 g/day oats). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), urine creatinine, serum albumin, serum potassium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum klotho and urine protein concentration were measured at baseline and after an eight-week intervention. Creatinine clearance was calculated using urine creatinine concentration. Within group analysis showed a significant increase in BUN (P = 0.02) and serum potassium (P = 0.01) and a marginally significant increment in SCr (P = 0.08) among controls. However, changes in the oat group were not significant. In a multivariate adjusted model, we observed a significant difference in change of serum potassium (-0.03 mEq/L for oat group and 0.13 mEq/L for control group; P = 0.01) and a marginally significant difference in change of serum albumin (0.01 g/dl for oat group and -0.08 for control group; P = 0.08) between the two groups. There was no change in PTH concentration. Intake of oats may have a beneficial effect on serum albumin and serum potassium in patients with CKD. Present study registered under IRCT.ir identifier no. IRCT2015050414551N2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Membrane protein profiling of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae under various growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ge, Mengyu; Wang, Yanli; Mannan, Shazia; Asif, Muhammad; Sun, Guochang

    2015-06-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) of plant pathogenic bacteria have been reported to be able to regulate many essential cellular processes associated with plant disease. The aim of the current study was to examine and compare the expression of MPs of the rice bacterial pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 under Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, M9 medium, in vivo rice plant conditions and leaf extract (LE) medium mimicking in vivo plant condition. Proteomic analysis identified 95, 72, 75, and 87 MPs under LB, in vivo, M9 and LE conditions, respectively. Among them, six proteins were shared under all tested growth conditions designated as abundant class of proteins. Twenty-six and 21 proteins were expressed uniquely under in vivo versus LB medium and LE versus M9 medium, respectively, with 17 proteins common among these uniquely induced proteins. Moreover, most of the shared proteins are mainly related to energy metabolism, transport of small molecules, protein synthesis and secretion as well as virulence such as NADH, OmpA, secretion proteins. Therefore, the result of this study not only suggests that it may be an alternate method to analyze the in vivo expression of proteins by using LE medium to mimic plant conditions, but also reveals that the two sets of differentially expressed MPs, in particular the common MPs between them, might be important in energy metabolism, stress response and virulence of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1.

  19. Prévalence de Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, agent des rayures bactériennes du riz dans les semences de base produites au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Dakouo, D.; Ouedraogo, SL.; Somda, I.; Mortensen, CN.

    2005-01-01

    Prevalence of Bacterial Stripe Organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, in Breeder Rice Seed Samples from Burkina Faso. Nine rice seed samples of improved and local varieties were tested at DGISP (Denmark) for the incidence of seed-borne bacterial stripe organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, using the cassette holder method. Twenty-six suspected bacterial colonies were identified by different methods including colony morphology, pigmentation, biochemical and pathogenicity tests. Using ...

  20. New insights into virulence mechanisms of rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 following exposure to ?-lactam antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang; Chen, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that pathogen virulence can be altered by exposure to antibiotics, even when the growth rate is unaffected. Investigating this phenomenon provides new insights into understanding the virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. This study investigates the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of the rice pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 to ?-lactam antibiotics especially Ampicillin (Amp). Our results indicate that exposure to A...

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae cultivated in vivo and co-culture with Burkholderia seminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Li; Muhammad Ibrahim; Mengyu Ge; Zhouqi Cui; Guochang Sun; Fei Xu; Michael Kube

    2014-01-01

    Response of bacterial pathogen to environmental bacteria and its host is critical for understanding of microbial adaption and pathogenesis. Here, we used RNA-Seq to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the transcriptional response of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 cultivated in vitro, in vivo and in co-culture with rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. Results revealed a slight response to other bacteria, but a strong response to host. In particular, a large numbe...

  2. Recent research on inherent molecular structure, physiochemical properties, and bio-functions of food and feed-type Avena sativa oats and processing-induced changes revealed with molecular microspectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, Luciana Louzada [Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; Yu, Peiqiang [Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

    2017-05-16

    Avena sativa oat is a cereal widely used as human food and livestock feed. However, the low metabolized energy and the rapid rumen degradations of protein and starch have limited the use of A. sativa oat grains. To overcome this disadvantage, new A. sativa oat varieties have been developed. Additionally, heat-related processing has been performed to decrease the degradation rate and improve the absorption of amino acids in the small intestine. The nutritive value is reflected by both chemical composition and inherent molecular structure conformation. However, the traditional wet chemical analysis is not able to detect the inherent molecular structures within an intact tissue. The advanced synchrotron-radiation and globar-based molecular microspectroscopy have been developed recently and applied to study internal molecular structures and the processing induced structure changes in A. sativa oats and reveal how molecular structure changes in relation to nutrient availability. This review aimed to obtain the recent information regarding physiochemical properties, molecular structures, metabolic characteristics of protein, and the heat-induced changes in new A. sativa oat varieties. The use of the advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy was emphasized, synchrotron- and globar-based (micro)spectroscopy, to reveal the inherent structure of A. sativa oats at cellular and molecular levels and to reveal the heat processing effect on the degradation characteristics and the protein molecular structure in A. sativa oats. The relationship between nutrient availability and protein molecular inherent structure was also presented. Information described in this review gives better insight in the physiochemical properties, molecular structure, and the heat-induced changes in A. sativa oat detected with advanced molecular spectroscopic techniques in combinination with conventional nutrition study techniques.

  3. Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) on Oats. II. Early Root Development and Nematode Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmar, K. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of Heterodera avenae infestation on early seminal and lateral root growth was examined in four oat genotypes differing in tolerance to H. avenae. Recently emerged seminal roots were inoculated with a range of H. avenae larval densities, then transferred a hydroponic system to remove the effect of later nematode penetration on root development. Intolerance to H. avenae was assessed in terms of impairment of seminal root extension resulting in fewer primary lateral roots emerging fro...

  4. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-07-27

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  5. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton B Santa Brigida

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa, which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7 from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolin Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  7. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Brigida, Ailton B; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; de Armas, Elvismary M; Entenza, Júlio O P; Thiebaut, Flávia; Lima, Marcelo de F; Farrinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Lifschitz, Sérgio; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

  8. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Outer membrane (OM proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  9. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shi, Yu; Qiu, Hui; Li, Bin; Jabeen, Amara; Li, Liping; Liu, He; Kube, Michael; Xie, Guanlin; Wang, Yanli; Blondel, Carlos; Santiviago, Carlos A; Contreras, Ines; Sun, Guochang

    2012-01-01

    Outer membrane (OM) proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  10. Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, He; Yang, Chun-Lan; Ge, Meng-Yu; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gong-You; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Guan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of ...

  11. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem; Ojaghian, Mohammad; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-i...

  12. Behavior of cereal's varieties in the presence of Heterodera avenae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of cereals varieties (Ofanto, Waha and Vitron for durum wheat; Anza and HD1120 for bread wheat and Saida with Acsad for barly) were tested towards Heterodera avenae. The analysis of the variance reveals that the nematode has an effect on the development of durum wheat for the number of ear per ...

  13. Prévalence de Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, agent des rayures bactériennes du riz dans les semences de base produites au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakouo, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Bacterial Stripe Organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, in Breeder Rice Seed Samples from Burkina Faso. Nine rice seed samples of improved and local varieties were tested at DGISP (Denmark for the incidence of seed-borne bacterial stripe organism, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, using the cassette holder method. Twenty-six suspected bacterial colonies were identified by different methods including colony morphology, pigmentation, biochemical and pathogenicity tests. Using Biolog GN computer identification system, isolates were also identified as A. avenae subsp. avenae (sim 0.51 to 0.9. All the 26 isolates reacted positively in ELISA tests performed with antiserum against A. avenae subsp. avenae. The bacterium was detected in all the samples, except in that of the local variety, indicating that seeds of improved varieties are highly infected by this pathogen. Seedlings raised from infected seed samples showed typical bacterial stripe symptoms with infection rates ranging from 4.7 to 20.1%. Since such seeds are used for production of certified rice seed, it is important to develop an effective control strategy against this disease to reduce the propagation of the bacterial agent in other healthy regions of rice culture in Burkina Faso.

  14. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  15. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

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    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  16. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli.

  17. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae cultivated in vivo and co-culture with Burkholderia seminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ge, Mengyu; Cui, Zhouqi; Sun, Guochang; Xu, Fei; Kube, Michael

    2014-07-16

    Response of bacterial pathogen to environmental bacteria and its host is critical for understanding of microbial adaption and pathogenesis. Here, we used RNA-Seq to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the transcriptional response of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 cultivated in vitro, in vivo and in co-culture with rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. Results revealed a slight response to other bacteria, but a strong response to host. In particular, a large number of virulence associated genes encoding Type I to VI secretion systems, 118 putative non-coding RNAs, and 7 genomic islands (GIs) were differentially expressed in vivo based on comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. Furthermore, the loss of virulence for knockout mutants of 11 differentially expressed T6SS genes emphasized the importance of these genes in bacterial pathogenicity. In addition, the reliability of expression data obtained by RNA-Seq was supported by quantitative real-time PCR of the 25 selected T6SS genes. Overall, this study highlighted the role of differentially expressed genes in elucidating bacterial pathogenesis based on combined analysis of RNA-Seq data and knockout of T6SS genes.

  19. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouqi Cui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  20. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-09-11

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H₂O₂ and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  1. Biology and management of Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana: two noxious weed species of agro-ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Akhter, Muhammad Javaid; Iqbal, Nadeem; Peerzada, Arslan Masood; Hanif, Zarka; Manalil, Sudheesh; Hashim, Saima; Ali, Hafiz Haider; Kebaso, Lynda; Frimpong, David; Namubiru, Halima; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2017-08-01

    Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana are closely related grass weed species infesting a large number of crops around the world. These species are widely distributed in diverse agro-ecosystems from temperate to sub-tropical regions due to their unique seed traits, successful germination ecology, high competitive ability, and allelopathic potential. A. fatua is more widespread, adaptable, and problematic than A. ludoviciana. Both these species infest major winter and spring crops, including wheat, oat, barley, canola, maize, alfalfa, and sunflower, causing up to 70% yield losses depending on crop species and weed density. Chemical control has been challenged by large-scale herbicide resistance evolution in these weed species. A. fatua is the most widespread herbicide-resistant weed in the world, infesting about 5 million hectares in 13 countries. The use of alternative herbicides with different modes of action has proved effective. Several cultural practices, including diverse crop rotations, cover crops, improved crop competition (using competitive cultivars, high seed rates, narrow row spacing, altered crop geometry), and allelopathic suppression, have shown promise for controlling A. fatua and A. ludoviciana. The integrated use of these cultural methods can reduce the herbicide dose required, and lower dependency on herbicides to control these grasses. Moreover, integrated management may successfully control herbicide-resistant populations of these weed species. The use of integrated approaches based on the knowledge of biology and ecology of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana may help to manage them sustainably in the future.

  2. Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture, a viable alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, V.; Perea, F.; Saavedra, M.; Fuentes, C.; Alcántara, C.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of vegetable protein for animal feed and the need to diversify the crop rotation in rainfed Mediterranean climates has led to study the viability as new forage crop of the Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture. Therefore, a 3-year field trial was conducted at two different and representative locations of the area to evaluate the capacity of both species to form a balanced mixture and to define its potential for high yield and forage quality. Different seeding ratios (65:35, 50:50 and 35:65) were compared with their pure stands and the standard mixture Avena sativa-Vicia sativa (65:35). Forage mixtures establishment and growth varied according to the environmental conditions with a negative influence of a dry year 1 for legumes (<300 mm) and a wet year 2 for oats (>630 mm). However, competition ratio indicated that there were not significant differences between mixed treatments, displaying intermediate ground coverage values, dry matter yield and crude protein regarding pure stands. Higher dry matter yield than control mixture in addition to similar crude protein, acid-detergent fibre, neutral-detergent fibre and digestible dry matter values, were produced at 35:65 in dry years and 65:35 and 50:50 in rainy years with loamy and clay soils, respectively. The appropriate development of both species in the mixture at different soil and rainfall conditions, as well as a good yield often higher than control mixture and a great forage quality, confirm to the narbon bean-black oat mixture as a viable and profitable crop alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions.

  3. Reclassification of subspecies of Acidovorax avenae as A. Avenae (Manns 1905) emend., A. cattleyae (Pavarino, 1911) comb. nov., A. citrulli Schaad et al., 1978) comb. nov., and proposal of A. oryzae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaad, Norman W; Postnikova, Elena; Sechler, Aaron; Claflin, Larry E; Vidaver, Anne K; Jones, Jeffrey B; Agarkova, Irina; Ignatov, Alexander; Dickstein, Ellen; Ramundo, Bruce A

    2008-12-01

    The bacterium Acidovorax avenae causes disease in a wide range of economically important monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, including corn, rice, watermelon, anthurium, and orchids. Genotypic and phenotypic relatedness among strains of phytopathogenic A. avenae subsp. avenae, A. avenae subsp. citrulli, A. avenae subsp. cattleyae and A. konjaci, as well as all other Acidovorax species, including A. facilis, the type strain of Acidovorax, was determined. The 16s rDNA sequencing confirmed previous studies showing the environmental species to be very distant from the phytopathogenic species. DNA/DNA reassociation assays on the different strains of A. avenae revealed four (A, B, C, and D) distinct genotypes. Taxon A included six A. avenae subsp. avenae strains from corn that had a mean reciprocal similarity of 81%; taxon B included six A. avenae subsp. avenae strains from rice that had a mean reciprocal similarity of 97%; taxon C contained 11 A. avenae subsp. citrulli strains from cucurbits (cantaloupe, watermelon, and pumpkin) that had a mean reciprocal similarity of 88%, and taxon D contained four A. avenae subsp. cattleyae strains from orchids that had a mean similarity of 98%. The mean reciprocal relatedness between taxa A, B, C, and D was less than 70%. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and the 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed spacer region, as well as AFLP analysis, revealed the same four taxa. All four were easily differentiated phenotypically from each other and from all other recognized Acidovorax species. Strains of A. avenae did not contain 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid, which was found in all other species. On the basis of these and previous genetic and phenotypic results, we propose an emendation of the species A. avenae. A. avenae subsp. citrulli (C strains) and A. avenae subsp. cattleyae (D strains) should be elevated to species rank as A. citrulli and A. cattleyae, respectively. We further propose a new taxon for the B strains, A. oryzae sp. nov. with

  4. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato/nitrito em bovinos alimentados com Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp. (azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jönck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e lesões da intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato e nitrito em bovinos alimentados com pastagens de Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp (azevém. A enfermidade ocorre em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, quando as pastagens tem crescimento exuberante, após receberem quantidades excessivas de adubo químico e/ou orgânico, principalmente quando ocorrem condições climáticas de seca e posteriormente chuva. Os animais em contato com essas pastagens desenvolvem rapidamente mucosas de coloração marrom, taquipnéia, andar cambaleante, micção frequente, timpanismo, decúbito lateral e morte em poucos minutos, ou recuperação algumas horas após. Na necropsia de quatro animais que adoeceram espontaneamente, as principais alterações encontradas foram a coloração marrom das mucosas, a cor escura do sangue (cor de chocolate e a coloração vermelho intensa da musculatura esquelética e do miocárdio esquerdo. A reprodução experimental da doença foi realizada em sete bovinos, com pastagens de quatro propriedades onde ocorreu adoença. Aveia e/ou azevém verdes e sob a forma de feno foram administradas aos bovinos. Destes bovinos quatro morreram, dois adoeceram e se recuperam, um naturalmente e outro com a aplicação de azul de metileno a 1%, na dose de 2mg/kg/peso vivo, e um bovino não apresentou alterações. Os sinais clínicos observados e as lesões nos animais que adoeceram e morreram foram idênticos aos casos naturais. Alterações microscópicas não foram observadas nos casos naturais e experimentais. O teste da difenilamina nas amostras de pastagens onde ocorreram os surtos resultou positivo em todas as propriedades. A análise bromatológica realizada em amostras coletadas de várias propriedades em que ocorreram surtos revelou de 0,30 a 3,36% de nitrato na matéria seca. A enfermidade caracterizou-se principalmente por respiração ofegante

  5. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs but more glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  6. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N; Jones, Michael G K; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  7. Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of this gene cluster. Consistently, the results of quantitative real-time PCR also showed alterations in expression of associated genes. Moreover, the proteins affected by TetR under oxidative stress were revealed by comparing proteomic profiles of wild-type and mutant strains via 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analyses. Taken together, our results demonstrated that tetR gene in this novel gene cluster contributed to cell survival under oxidative stress, and TetR protein played an important regulatory role in growth kinetics, biofilm-forming capability, SOD and catalase activity, and oxide detoxicating ability.

  8. Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Yang, Chun-Lan; Ge, Meng-Yu; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gong-You; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Guan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of this gene cluster. Consistently, the results of quantitative real-time PCR also showed alterations in expression of associated genes. Moreover, the proteins affected by TetR under oxidative stress were revealed by comparing proteomic profiles of wild-type and mutant strains via 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analyses. Taken together, our results demonstrated that tetR gene in this novel gene cluster contributed to cell survival under oxidative stress, and TetR protein played an important regulatory role in growth kinetics, biofilm-forming capability, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and oxide detoxicating ability.

  9. Métodos de preservação de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Preservation of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dário Venâncio de Araújo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, agente da mancha-aquosa, causa grandes prejuízos ao melão e outras cucurbitáceas no Brasil e no mundo. Os métodos dessecação em papel de filtro, repicagens periódicas, água esterilizada e folhas herborizadas foram testados para preservação de Aac1 e Aac1.12 durante 180 dias. Mensalmente, a viabilidade de Aac foi avaliada pelo crescimento em meio de cultura e a patogenicidade das culturas viáveis foi avaliada pela incidência e severidade da doença em plântulas de melão. A preservação em papel de filtro resultou em 100% de viabilidade dos isolados durante o período, enquanto que nos demais métodos houve perda de viabilidade no decorrer das avaliações. Os métodos de dessecação em papel de filtro e o de repicagens periódicas foram mais eficientes que a água esterilizada e folhas herborizadas na manutenção da patogenicidade dos isolados durante os 180 dias.The phytopathogenic bacteria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, agent of bacterial blotch, causes severe damages to melon and other cucurbits in Brazil and worlwide. The methods desiccation in filter paper, periodic transfer, sterile water and dried leaves were tested for preserving the strains Aac1 and Aac1.12 of this bacterium during 180 days. Evaluations of bacterial viability were performed monthly by growing strains on culture media. The pathogenicity of viable cultures was evaluated by disease incidence and severity on melon seedlings. The desiccation in filter paper maintained 100% viability of the strains during the period while using the other methods, viability was lost during evaluations. Desiccation in filter paper and periodic transfer were more efficient than sterile water and dried leaves in maintening strain pathogenicity during the time evaluated 180 days.

  10. Biological Control to Protect Watermelon Blossoms and Seed from Infection by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessehaie, A; Walcott, R R

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The efficacy of biological control seed treatments with Pseudomonas fluorescens (A506), Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (AAA 99-2), and an unidentified gram-positive bacterium recovered from watermelon seed (WS-1) was evaluated for the management of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of watermelon. In growth chamber and greenhouse experiments, seed treated with AAA 99-2 displayed superior disease suppression, reducing BFB transmission by 96.5%. AAA 99-2, P. fluorescens A506, and Kocide also suppressed the epiphytic growth of A. avenae subsp. citrulli when applied to attached watermelon blossoms 5 h prior to inoculation. Watermelon blossom protection reduced seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. From blossoms treated with 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 63% of the resulting seed lots were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. In contrast, for blossoms protected with WS-1, Kocide, P. fluorescens A506, and AAA 99-2, the proportion of infested seed lots were 48.3, 21.1, 24.1, and 13.8%, respectively. The effect of blossom treatments on seed lot infestation was statistically significant (P = 0.001) but WS-1 was not significantly different from PBS. These findings suggest that blossom protection with biological control agents could be a feasible option for managing BFB.

  11. Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjun; Schuenzel, Erin L; Li, Jianqiang; Schaad, Norman W

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, has caused considerable damage to the watermelon and melon industry in China and the United States. Understanding the emergence and spread of this pathogen is important for controlling the disease. To build a fingerprinting database for reliable identification and tracking of strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed using seven conserved loci. The study included 8 original strains from the 1978 description of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, 51 from China, and 34 from worldwide collections. Two major clonal complexes (CCs), CC1 and CC2, were identified within A. avenae subsp. citrulli; 48 strains typed as CC1 and 45 as CC2. All eight original 1978 strains isolated from watermelon and melon grouped in CC1. CC2 strains were predominant in the worldwide collection and all but five were isolated from watermelon. In China, a major seed producer for melon and watermelon, the predominant strains were CC1 and were found nearly equally on melon and watermelon.

  12. Development of a species-specific PCR assay for differentiation of Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are economically important cyst nematodes that restrict production of cereal crops in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) USA and elsewhere in the world. Identification of these two species is critical for recommending and implementing effective management practices. Prime...

  13. Influence of Aphelenchus avenae on Vesicular-arbuscular Endomycorrhizal Growth Response in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R S; Roncadori, R W

    1981-01-01

    The influence of Aphelenchus avenae on the relationship between cotton (Gossypium hirsutum 'Stoneville 213') and Gigaspora margarita or Glomus etunicatus was assessed by its effect on the mycorrhizal stimulation of plant growth and microorganism reproduction. The mycophagous nematode usually did not suppress stimulation of shoot growth resulting from mycorrhizae (G. margarita) at inoculum levels of 3,000 or 6,000 nematodes per pot, but retarded root growth at 6,000 per pot. When the nematode inoculum was increased to 10, 40, or 80 thousand, G. margarita stimulation of shoot or root growth was retarded at the two higher rates. Shoot growth enhancement by G. etunicatus was suppressed by 10 thousand A. avenae but not by 40 or 80 thousand. A. avenae reproduced better when the nematode was added 3 wk after G. margarita than with simultaneous inoculations. Sporulation of both fungi was affected little by the mycophagous nematode. The high numbers of A. avenae required for an antagonistic effect probably precludes the occurrence of any significant interaction between these two organisms under field conditions.

  14. Mechanisms and Characterization of Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 in Suppressing Nematodes (Heterodera avenae in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwu Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterodera avenae is an important soil-borne pathogen that affects field crops worldwide. Chemical nematicides can be used to control the nematode, but they bring toxicity to the environment and human. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has been shown to have the ability to control H. avenae cysts, but detailed microscopic observations and bioassays are lacking. In this study, we used microscopic observations and bioassays to study the effect of T. longibrachiatum T6 (TL6 on the eggs and second stage juveniles (J2s of H. avenae, and investigate the role of TL6 in inducing the resistance to H. avenae in wheat seedling at physiological and biochemical levels. Microscopic observations recorded that TL6 parasitized on the H. avenae eggs, germinated, and produced a large number of hyphae on the eggs surface at the initial stage, thereafter, the eggs were completely surrounded by dense mycelia and the contents of eggs were lysed at the late stage. Meanwhile, the conidia suspension of TL6 parasitized on the surface of J2s, produced a large number of hyphae that penetrated the cuticle and caused deformation of the nematodes. TL6 at the concentration of 1.5 × 107 conidia ml−1 had the highest rates of parasitism on eggs and J2s, reflected by the highest hatching-inhibition of eggs and the mortality of J2s. In the greenhouse experiments, wheat seedlings treated with TL6 at 1.5 × 107 conidia ml−1 had reduced H. avenae infection, and increased plant growth significantly compared to the control. The cysts and juveniles in soil were reduced by 89.8 and 92.7%, the juveniles and females in roots were reduced by 88.3 and 91.3%, whereas the activity of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase, total flavonoids and lignin contents in wheat roots were increased significantly at different stage after inoculation with the eggs and TL6 conidia in comparison to the control. Maximum activity of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase were recorded at the 20th and 15th Days after

  15. Genome Sequence of Acidovorax avenae Strain T10_61 Associated with Sugarcane Red Stripe in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Cecilia A.; Bassi, Daniela; Puglisi, Edoardo; Salazar, Sergio M.; Vignolo, Graciela M.; Coccocelli, Pier S.

    2016-01-01

    Red stripe of sugarcane in Argentina is a bacterial disease caused by Acidovorax avenae. The genome sequence from the first isolate of this bacterium in Argentina is presented here. The draft genome of the A. avenae T10_61 strain contains 5,646,552 bp and has a G+C content of 68.6 mol%. PMID:26847889

  16. Distinguishing Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cyst morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guiping; Smiley, Richard W

    2010-03-01

    The cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae impede wheat production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Accurate identification of cyst nematode species and awareness of high population density in affected fields are essential for designing effective control measures. Morphological methods for differentiating these species are laborious. These species were differentiated using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-ribosomal (r)DNA with up to six restriction endonucleases (TaqI, HinfI, PstI, HaeIII, RsaI, and AluI). The method was validated by inspecting underbridge structures of cyst vulval cones. Grid soil sampling of an Oregon field infested by both species revealed that H. filipjevi was present at most of the infested grid sites but mixtures of H. avenae and H. filipjevi also occurred. These procedures also detected and differentiated H. filipjevi and H. avenae in soil samples from nearby fields in Oregon and H. avenae in samples from Idaho and Washington. Intraspecific polymorphism was not observed within H. filipjevi or PNW H. avenae populations based on the ITS-rDNA. However, intraspecific variation was observed between H. avenae populations occurring in the PNW and France. Methods described here will improve detection and identification efficiencies for cereal cyst nematodes in wheat fields.

  17. Pronóstico productivo de la avena forrajera de temporal por efecto del cambio climático en el noroeste de Chihuahua, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Villazón Bustillos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático puede afectar la productividad de los cultivos en una región determinada. El objetivo fue identificar la variabilidad en la producción de avena forrajera ( Avena sativa L. de temporal utilizando una función estocástica y analizar sus relaciones con la temperatura y precipitación, ante escenarios de cambio climático en la región noroeste de Chihuahua, México. Se obtuvo información estadística de 13 años (2001 - 2013 en las estaciones meteorológicas de los municipios de Bachíniva y Namiquipa utilizando la información de julio, agosto y septiembre, en cuyo periodo se concentra alrededor del 80% de la precipitación anual. Se tomó información del modelo HadCM3 (Modelo acoplado del Centro Hadley versión 3, 2001 que describe el comportamiento de variables climáticas bajo escenarios de emisión de contaminantes A2 y B2 para los años 2050 y 2080. Los cambios en las variables climáticas en el corto plazo (2050 se esperan con un aumento tanto en la temperatur a como en la precipitación, lo que permite en el caso de Bachíniva mejorar la producción de avena de 3.57 t/ha a 8.11 t/ha bajo en escenario de emisión de contaminantes A2. A largo plazo (2080 se espera un incremento permanente en la temperatura y sin imp ortar que tanto mejore la precipitación, esto provocara que en las actuales regiones productoras de avena no se logren desarrollar los cultivos para su cosecha.

  18. The Low Temperature Induced Physiological Responses of Avena nuda L., a Cold-Tolerant Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paperaim of the was to study the effect of low temperature stress on Avena nuda L. seedlings. Cold stress leads to many changes of physiological indices, such as membrane permeability, free proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and chlorophyll content. Cold stress also leads to changes of some protected enzymes such as peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. We have measured and compared these indices of seedling leaves under low temperature and normal temperature. The proline and MDA contents were increased compared with control; the chlorophyll content gradually decreased with the prolongation of low temperature stress. The activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were increased under low temperature. The study was designated to explore the physiological mechanism of cold tolerance in naked oats for the first time and also provided theoretical basis for cultivation and antibiotic breeding in Avena nuda L.

  19. Purification and properties of acid phosphatase from Avena elatior L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wieczorek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase F1 from Avena elatior seeds was isolated and partially purified by means of alcohol precepitation, DEAE-, CM-column chromatography, Sephadex G-150, Sephadex G-200 and Sepharose 4B - gel filtration. The enzyme was stable at 50°C, pH 5.1. The pH optimum for phosphatase activity was 4.2. Fluoride, Zn2+, molybdate were effective inhibitors. EDTA and l, 10-phenanthroline activated the enzyme.

  20. Unravelling mycorrhiza-induced wheat susceptibility to the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amma L.; Wellham, Peter A. D.; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I.; Gange, Alan C.

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can increase or decrease aphid growth rates and reproduction, but the reason by which this happens is unknown. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction, we examined the effect of AM fungi on the English Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) development, reproduction, attraction, settlement and feeding behaviour on two naturally susceptible varieties Triticum aestivum (L.) variety Solstice and T. monococcum MDR037, and two naturally resistant lines, T. monococcum MDR045 and MDR049. Mycorrhizal colonisation increased the attractiveness of T. aestivum var. Solstice to aphids, but there was no effect on aphid development on this variety. Using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique, we found that mycorrhizal colonisation increased aphid phloem feeding on T. monococcum MDR037 and MDR045, colonisation also increased growth rate and reproductive success of S. avenae on these varieties. Mycorrhizas increased vascular bundle size, demonstrating that these fungi can influence plant anatomy. We discuss if and how this could be related to an enhanced success rate in phloem feeding in two varieties. Overall, we present and discuss how mycorrhizal fungi can affect the feeding behaviour of S. avenae in wheat, inducing susceptibility in a resistant variety.

  1. Uso de inoculante y fertilización nitrogenada en la producción de forraje de avena, ballico y trigo

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Carrillo Romo; Mario H. Esqueda Coronado; Alma Delia Báez González; Gerardo Reyes López; Mario H. Royo Márquez; José Luis Ibave González

    2010-01-01

    Los objetivos fueron evaluar el efecto combinado de diferentes dosis de inoculante (Rhodococcus fascians) y fertilización nitrogenada en la producción de forraje de gramíneas así como la relación costo/beneficio. Las gramíneas fueron, Avena sativa L, Lolium multiflorum Lam yTriticum durum L con los siguientes tratamientos, inoculación, fertilización nitrogenada (0, 30, 60 kg N ha-1), y la combinación de inoculante y fertilización. Las especies se establecieron en condiciones de riego en un su...

  2. New insights into virulence mechanisms of rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 following exposure to ß-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang; Chen, Gongyou

    2016-02-26

    Recent research has shown that pathogen virulence can be altered by exposure to antibiotics, even when the growth rate is unaffected. Investigating this phenomenon provides new insights into understanding the virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. This study investigates the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of the rice pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 to ß-lactam antibiotics especially Ampicillin (Amp). Our results indicate that exposure to Amp does not influence bacterial growth and biofilm formation, but alters the virulence, colonization capacity, composition of extracellular polymeric substances and secretion of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector Hcp. This attenuation in virulence is linked to unique or differential expression of known virulence-associated genes based on genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. The reliability of expression data generated by RNA-Seq was verified with quantitative real-time PCR of 21 selected T6SS genes, where significant down-regulation in expression of hcp gene, corresponding to the reduction in secretion of Hcp, was observed under exposure to Amp. Hcp is highlighted as a potential target for Amp, with similar changes observed in virulence-associated phenotypes between exposure to Amp and mutation of hcp gene. In addition, Hcp secretion is reduced in knockout mutants of 4 differentially expressed T6SS genes.

  3. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  4. The impact of transgenic wheat expressing GNA (snowdrop lectin) on the aphids Sitobion avenae, Schizaphis graminum, and Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jin; Wu, Yuqing; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Yu, Zhenxing; Xu, Qiongfang

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the impact of transgenic wheat expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), commonly known as snowdrop lectin, on three wheat aphids: Sitobion avenae (F.), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). We compared the feeding behavior and the life-table parameters of aphids reared on GNA transgenic wheat (test group) and those aphids reared on untransformed wheat (control group). The results showed that the feeding behaviors of S. avenae and S. graminum on GNA transgenic wheat were affected. Compared with the control group, they had shorter initial probing period, longer total nonprobing period, shorter initial and total phloem sap ingestion phase (waveform E2), shorter duration of sustained ingestion (E (pd) > 10 min), and lower percentage of phloem phase of the total observation time. Moreover, S. graminum made more probes and had a longer total duration of extracellular stylet pathway (waveform C). The fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of S. avenae and S. graminum on the transgenic wheat were lowered in the first and second generations, however, the survival and lifespan were not affected. The effects of the GNA expressing wheat on S. graminum and S. avenae were not significant in the third generation, suggesting rapid adaptation by the two aphid species. Despite the impact we found on S. avenae and S. graminum, transgenic GNA expressing wheat did not have any effects on R. padi.

  5. Type IV Pili are required for virulence, twitching motility, and biofilm formation of acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ofir; Goffer, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a threatening disease of watermelon, melon, and other cucurbits. Despite the economic importance of BFB, relatively little is known about basic aspects of the pathogen's biology and the molecular basis of its interaction with host plants. To identify A. avenae subsp. citrulli genes associated with pathogenicity, we generated a transposon (Tn5) mutant library on the background of strain M6, a group I strain of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, and screened it for reduced virulence by seed-transmission assays with melon. Here, we report the identification of a Tn5 mutant with reduced virulence that is impaired in pilM, which encodes a protein involved in assembly of type IV pili (TFP). Further characterization of this mutant revealed that A. avenae subsp. citrulli requires TFP for twitching motility and wild-type levels of biofilm formation. Significant reductions in virulence and biofilm formation as well as abolishment of twitching were also observed in insertional mutants affected in other TFP genes. We also provide the first evidence that group I strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli can colonize and move through host xylem vessels.

  6. Elevated CO2 changes interspecific competition among three species of wheat aphids: Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu Cheng; Chen, Fa Jun; Ge, Feng

    2009-02-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (twice ambient) on the interspecific competition among three species of wheat aphids (Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum) and on wheat-aphid interactions were studied. Wheat plants had higher biomass and yield and lower water and nitrogen content of grain when grown under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2; levels of condensed tannins, total phenols, and total nonstructural carbohydrates were also higher in wheat ears under elevated CO2. Compared with ambient CO2, elevated CO2 increased the abundance of R. padi when introduced solely but reduced its abundance when S. avenae was also present. The spatial distribution of wheat aphids was apparently influenced by CO2 levels, with significantly more S. avenae on ears and a more even distribution of R. padi on wheat plants under elevated CO2 versus ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not affect the abundance and spatial distribution of S. graminus when inoculated solely. Moreover, when S. avenae was present with either R. padi or S. graminum, spatial niche overlap was significantly decreased with elevated CO2. When three species co-occurred, elevated CO2 reduced spatial niche overlap between S. avenae and S. graminum and between R. padi and S. graminum. Our results suggest that increases in atmospheric CO2 would alleviate interspecific competition for these cases, which would accentuate the abundance of and the damage caused by these wheat aphids.

  7. De novo assembly and phasing of dikaryotic genomes from two isolates of Puccini coronata f. sp. avenae, the causal agent of oat crown rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa E. Miller; Ying Zhang; Vahid Omidvar; Jana Sperschneider; Benjamin Schwessinger; Castle Raley; Jonathan M. Palmer; Diana Garnica; Narayana Upadhyaya; John Rathjen; Jennifer M. Taylor; Robert F. Park; Peter N. Dodds; Cory D. Hirsch; Shahryar F. Kianian; Melania. Figueroa

    2018-01-01

    Oat crown rust, caused by the fungus Pucinnia coronata f. sp. avenae, is a devastating disease that impacts worldwide oat production. For much of its life cycle, P. coronata f. sp. avenae is dikaryotic, with two separate haploid nuclei that may vary in virulence genotype, highlighting...

  8. Identification, introgression, and molecular marker genetic analysis and selection of a highly effective novel oat crown rust resistance from diploid oat, Avena strigosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new highly effective resistance to oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) was identified in the diploid oat Avena strigosa PI 258731 and introgressed into hexaploid cultivated oat. Young plants with this resistance show moderate susceptibility, whereas older plant tissues and adult plant...

  9. Conversion of Isatin to Isatate as Related to Growth Promotion in Avena Coleoptile and Pisum Stem Sections 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.-R.; Galston, A. W.; Milstone, L.

    1966-01-01

    Isatin, (indole 2,3-dione), which promotes elongation of Pisum stem sections at concentrations exceeding 0.1 mm, promotes elongation of Avena coleoptile sections only at higher concentrations, exceeding 1 mm. Aged isatin solutions are more active than fresh solutions, due to the slow, spontaneous conversion to isatate (o-aminophenylglyoxylate). A concentration of 0.1 mm aged isatin is as active in Avena coleoptile sections as in peas. Isatate has been independently synthesized and its auxin activity in both Avena coleoptile and Pisum stem sections confirmed. The synthetic isatate is more effective than isatin in both systems. This suggests that the auxin activity of isatin is due to its conversion to isatate. PMID:16656429

  10. Role of the Genes of Type VI Secretion System in Virulence of Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae Strain RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahidul Islam Masum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is a class of macromolecular machine that is required for the virulence of gram-negative bacteria. However, it is still not clear what the role of T6SS in the virulence of rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa is. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of T6SS in Aaa strain RS2 virulence using insertional deletion mutation and complementation approaches. This strain produced weak virulence but contains a complete T6SS gene cluster based on a genome-wide analysis. Here we compared the virulence-related phenotypes between the wild-type (RS-2 and 25 T6SS mutants, which were constructed using homologous recombination methods. The mutation of 15 T6SS genes significantly reduced bacterial virulence and the secretion of Hcp protein. Additionally, the complemented 7 mutations ΔpppA, ΔclpB, Δhcp, ΔdotU, ΔicmF, ΔimpJ, and ΔimpM caused similar virulence characteristics as RS-2. Moreover, the mutant ΔpppA, ΔclpB, ΔicmF, ΔimpJ and ΔimpM genes caused by a 38.3~56.4% reduction in biofilm formation while the mutants ΔpppA, ΔclpB, ΔicmF and Δhcp resulted in a 37.5~44.6% reduction in motility. All together, these results demonstrate that T6SS play vital roles in the virulence of strain RS-2, which may be partially attributed to the reductions in Hcp secretion, biofilm formation and motility. However, differences in virulence between strain RS-1 and RS-2 suggest that other factors may also be involved in the virulence of Aaa.

  11. Inhibitory effect and mode of action of chitosan solution against rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunlan; Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhou, Kaile; Wang, Yanli; Luo, Ju; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2014-06-04

    Inhibitory effect and mode of action of chitosan solution against rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 was examined in this study. Result from this study indicated that chitosan solutions at 0.10, 0.20, and 0.40mg/mL inhibited the in vitro growth of Aaa strain RS-1, and in general the inhibitory efficiency increased with the increase of both chitosan concentration and the incubation time. Antibacterial activity of chitosan in this study may be mainly due to the damage of cell membrane, which was evidenced by both the cell lysis observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the increased release of cell materials based on the measurement of cell membrane integrity. Furthermore, chitosan solutions at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4mg/mL markedly inhibited bacterial biofilm formation compared to the control, and the inhibitory effect increased with the increase of chitosan concentration. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR of the 10 secretion system related genes revealed the differential expression of genes in particular ompA/motB, emphasizing the importance of this gene in the response of Aaa strain RS-1 to chitosan stress. These results indicated that the antibacterial mode of action of chitosan may be mainly due to membrane disruption and lysis, reduction of biofilm formation, and gene expression change. Overall, the results clearly indicated that chitosan had the potential to control bacterial brown stripe of rice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of the Genes of Type VI Secretion System in Virulence of Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae Strain RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Md Mahidul Islam; Yang, Yingzi; Li, Bin; Olaitan, Ogunyemi Solabomi; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Fang, Yushi; Qiu, Wen; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2017-09-21

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a class of macromolecular machine that is required for the virulence of gram-negative bacteria. However, it is still not clear what the role of T6SS in the virulence of rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of T6SS in Aaa strain RS2 virulence using insertional deletion mutation and complementation approaches. This strain produced weak virulence but contains a complete T6SS gene cluster based on a genome-wide analysis. Here we compared the virulence-related phenotypes between the wild-type (RS-2) and 25 T6SS mutants, which were constructed using homologous recombination methods. The mutation of 15 T6SS genes significantly reduced bacterial virulence and the secretion of Hcp protein. Additionally, the complemented 7 mutations Δ pppA , Δ clpB , Δ hcp , Δ dotU , Δ icmF , Δ impJ , and Δ impM caused similar virulence characteristics as RS-2. Moreover, the mutant Δ pppA , Δ clpB , Δ icmF , Δ impJ and Δ impM genes caused by a 38.3~56.4% reduction in biofilm formation while the mutants Δ pppA , Δ clpB , Δ icmF and Δ hcp resulted in a 37.5~44.6% reduction in motility. All together, these results demonstrate that T6SS play vital roles in the virulence of strain RS-2, which may be partially attributed to the reductions in Hcp secretion, biofilm formation and motility. However, differences in virulence between strain RS-1 and RS-2 suggest that other factors may also be involved in the virulence of Aaa.

  13. Life-history responses of insects to water-deficit stress: a case study with the aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Deguang; Dai, Peng; Li, Shirong; Ahmed, Syed Suhail; Shang, Zheming; Shi, Xiaoqin

    2018-05-29

    Drought may become one of the greatest challenges for cereal production under future warming scenarios, and its impact on insect pest outbreaks is still controversial. To address this issue, life-history responses of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), from three areas of different drought levels were compared under three water treatments. Significant differences were identified in developmental time, fecundity and adult weight among S. avenae clones from moist, semiarid and arid areas under all the three water treatments. Semiarid and arid area clones tended to have higher heritability for test life-history traits than moist area clones. We identified significant selection of water-deficit on the developmental time of 1st instar nymphs and adult weight for both semiarid and arid area clones. The impact of intermediate and severe water-stress on S. avenae's fitness was neutral and negative (e.g., decreased fecundity and weight), respectively. Compared with arid-area clones, moist- and semiarid-area clones showed higher extents of adaptation to the water-deficit level of their respective source environment. Adult weight was identified as a good indicator for S. avenae's adaptation potential under different water-stress conditions. After their exposure to intermediate water-deficit stress for only five generations, adult weight and fecundity tended to decrease for moist- and semiarid-area clones, but increase for arid-area clones. It is evident from our study that S. avenae clones from moist, semiarid and arid areas have diverged under different water-deficit stress, and such divergence could have a genetic basis. The impact of drought on S. avenae's fitness showed a water-level dependent pattern. Clones of S. avenae were more likely to become adapted to intermediate water-deficit stress than severe water-deficit stress. After continuous water-deficit stress of only five generations, the adaptation potential of S. avenae tended to decrease for moist

  14. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  15. Comportamiento de la poblacion de Avena fatua tratada con graminicidas postemergentes Effect of post-emergence graminicides on the control of Avena fatua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Juan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sudoeste bonaerense de la República Argentina, avena fatua es una maleza que ocupa una significativa proporción del banco de semillas presentes en el suelo, causando severas pérdidas de rendimiento en los cultivos de trigo, lo cuál la caracteriza como una maleza invasora. A pesar de que en los cultivos, se utilizan normalmente prácticas de control com graminicidas selectivos, se observa una alta incidencia de la población de Avena fatua a través de la determinación del número de panojas y semillas por metro cuadrado remanentes de las plantas que escapan al control y que alcanzan el estado reproductivo antes de la cosecha del cereal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de varios graminicidas postemergentes selectivos para el cultivo de trigo sobre el crecimiento de la población de Avena fatua por metro cuadrado en un diseño estadístico de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los siguientes: testigo sin control, tralkoxydim (150 y 200 g/ha, fenoxaprop-p-etil (69 y 83 g/ha, pirifenop-n-butil (50 y 55 g/ha y diclofop metil (510 y 570 g/ha. En la primer campaña, con una baja infestación de la maleza (153 plantas/m2, todos los herbicidas y dosis probadas ejercieron una drástica reducción de los parámetros evaluados, no detectándose diferenciais significativas entre sí al evaluar el control por medio del número de panojas y semillas producidas por las plantas que escaparon al control. En cambio en la Segunda campaña com 285 plantas/m2 y habiéndoses realizado la aplicación delos avenicidas en un estado fenológico de la maleza más avanzado, el número de semilhas por metro quadradofue reducido a niveles que oscilaron entre un 60% y un 95% respecto del testigo sin control, detectándose diferencias entre los tratamientos. No obstante la reducción lograda, se comprobó en ciertos casos, un importante aporte de semillas que anualmente retornan al suelo, lo que podría significar sino

  16. Induction of resistance by silicon in wheat plants to alate and apterous morphs of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P A S; Sampaio, M V; Rodrigues, M P; Korndörfer, A P; Oliveira, R S; Ferreira, S E; Korndörfer, G H

    2014-08-01

    Despite the knowledge about the effects of silicon augmenting antibiosis and nonpreference of plants by apterous aphids, few studies exist on such effects with alate aphids. This study evaluated the effects of silicon fertilization on the biology of alate and apterous morphs of Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the effect on nonpreference by S. avenae alates for wheat plants with or without silicon fertilization. A method for rearing aphids on detached leaves was evaluated comparing the biology of apterous aphids reared on wheat leaf sections and on whole plants with and without silicon fertilization. Because the use of detached leaves was a reliable method, the effect of silicon fertilization on the biology of apterous and alate S. avenae was assessed using wheat leaf sections. Biological data of aphids were used to calculate a fertility life table. Finally, the effect of silicon fertilization on the nonpreference of alate aphids was carried out for both vegetative and reproductive phases of wheat. Thirty alate aphids were released in the center of a cage, and the number of aphids per whole plant with or without silicon fertilization was observed. Silicon fertilization induced antibiosis resistance in wheat plants to apterous morphs as shown by reduced fecundity, reproductive period, longevity, intrinsic rate of increase, and net reproductive rate; however, alates were unaffected. Plants that received silicon fertilization had fewer alate aphids in both the vegetative and reproductive phases. Thus, silicon fertilization can reduce colonization by alates, enhancing nonpreference resistance, and population growth of apterous S. avenae in wheat plants.

  17. Tuber and root resistance of potato genotypes against Meloidogyne chitwoodi in the presence of Avena strigosa, related to tuber quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Thomas H.; Molendijk, Leendert P.G.; Teklu, Misghina G.; Schomaker, Corrie H.

    2017-01-01

    Relative tuber infestation and quality of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi resistant potato genotypes, AR04-4096 and 2011M1, were compared in glasshouse experiments at initial population density (Pi) = 16 second-stage juveniles (g dry soil)−1 in the presence and absence of the bristle oat, Avena strigosa.

  18. Phosphorylated and nucleotide sugar metabolism in relation to cell wall production in Avena coleoptiles treated with fluoride and peroxyacetyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, W.C.; Ordin, L.

    1972-01-01

    Coleoptile sections of Avena sativa L. were pretreated with sodium fluoride or peroxyacetyl nitrate at levels which inhibit auxin-induced growth but did not affect glucose-uptake or CO production when postincubated for 30 minutes in a 14 C-glucose medium without auxin. Labeling of metabolites involved in cell wall synthesis was measured. Peroxyacetyl nitrate decreased labeling, and it was concluded that the pool size of uridine diphosphoglucose, sucrose, and cell wall polysaccharides decreased compared to control. The changes suggest that peroxyacetyl nitrate inactivated sucrose and cell wall synthesizing enzymes including cellulose synthetase and decreased cell growth by inhibiting production of cell wall constituents. Fluoride treatment had no effect on production of cell wall polysaccharides, with or without indoleacetic acid stimulation of growth. The only change after fluoride treatment was a decrease in uridine diphosphoglucose during incubation without indoleacetic acid, a decrease that disappeared when indoleacetic acid was present. It was concluded that some other aspect of cell wall metabolism, not determined here, was involved in fluoride-induced inhibition of growth. 16 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  19. [Effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Guang; Liu, Yong

    2012-07-01

    A field investigation was conducted on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies under wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application. With the development of wheat plant, an alternation from aggregation to uniform was observed in the spatial distribution of S. avenae under the intercropping and methyl salicylate application, being more obvious under the interaction of the two practices. The spatial distribution of S. avenae natural enemies was in accordance with that of the aphid. These results could be used for the reference of sampling investigation and forecast of wheat aphid and its natural enemies in field.

  20. Television watching, videogames, and excess of body fat in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, J Pablo; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Moreno, Luis A; Wärnberg, Julia; Redondo, Carlos; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado, Manuel; Marcos, Ascensión; Castillo, Manuel; Bueno, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the individual association of sedentary behaviors with the risk of overweight and excess body fat (overfat) in adolescents. A representative sample (1960 subjects, 1012 males, age 13-18.5 y) of Spanish adolescents was studied within the framework of the Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional de los Adolescentes (AVENA) study. Television (TV) watching, videogame and computer usage, doing homework, and the way students got to school, physical activity, and socioeconomic status were analyzed. Anthropometrics were measured to describe overweight (International Obesity Task Force cutoffs for body mass index) and overfat (body fat percentage >85th percentile). When all subjects were considered as an entire group, the overweight risk increased by 15.8% (P videogame usage, respectively (both Ps videogame usage (P videogames during the weekend.

  1. An ANNEXIN-like protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae suppresses plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlong Chen

    Full Text Available Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana.

  2. Expression profiling and cross-species RNA interference (RNAi of desiccation-induced transcripts in the anhydrobiotic nematode Aphelenchus avenae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culleton Bridget A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchus avenae can be induced to enter anhydrobiosis by pre-exposure to moderate reductions in relative humidity (RH prior to extreme desiccation. This preconditioning phase is thought to allow modification of the transcriptome by activation of genes required for desiccation tolerance. Results To identify such genes, a panel of expressed sequence tags (ESTs enriched for sequences upregulated in A. avenae during preconditioning was created. A subset of 30 genes with significant matches in databases, together with a number of apparently novel sequences, were chosen for further study. Several of the recognisable genes are associated with water stress, encoding, for example, two new hydrophilic proteins related to the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA protein family. Expression studies confirmed EST panel members to be upregulated by evaporative water loss, and the majority of genes was also induced by osmotic stress and cold, but rather fewer by heat. We attempted to use RNA interference (RNAi to demonstrate the importance of this gene set for anhydrobiosis, but found A. avenae to be recalcitrant with the techniques used. Instead, therefore, we developed a cross-species RNAi procedure using A. avenae sequences in another anhydrobiotic nematode, Panagrolaimus superbus, which is amenable to gene silencing. Of 20 A. avenae ESTs screened, a significant reduction in survival of desiccation in treated P. superbus populations was observed with two sequences, one of which was novel, while the other encoded a glutathione peroxidase. To confirm a role for glutathione peroxidases in anhydrobiosis, RNAi with cognate sequences from P. superbus was performed and was also shown to reduce desiccation tolerance in this species. Conclusions This study has identified and characterised the

  3. Growth of Avena Coleoptiles and pH Drop of Protoplast Suspensions Induced by Chlorinated Indoleacetic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Doll, Hans; Böttger, M.

    1978-01-01

    -auxins. Some of the derivatives were compared for their effect on pH decline in stem protoplast suspensions of Helianthus annuus L. and Pisum sativum L. The change of pH occurs without a lag period or with only a very short one. Derivatives which are very active in the Avena straight growth assay cause......Several indoleacetic acids, substituted in the benzene ring, were compared in the Avena straight growth bioassay. 4-Chloroindoleacetic acid, a naturally occurring plant hormone, is one of the strongest hormones in this bioassay. With an optimum at 10-6 mol l-1, it is more active than indoleacetic...... a larger pH decline than indoleacetic acid, while inactive derivatives cause effectively no pH decline....

  4. Variation of productivity and nutritive values of oat (Avena sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-05

    Mar 5, 2007 ... location on productivity and nutritive values of oat are still scarce. According to ... water according to their supply and requirement balance. All the .... progressively increased with the growing stages (Table. 2). ... at its heading and blooming, the middle time of its life. Table 4 .... Work done by Deinum et al.

  5. Sorption isotherms for oat flakes (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edgar Zapata M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of oat flakes were determined at temperatures of 5, 25 and 37°C, using a gravimetric technique in an a w range of between 0.107 and 0.855. These curves were modeled using six equations commonly applied in food. The quality of the fit was assessed with the regression coefficient (r² and the mean relative percentage error (MRPE. The best fit were obtained with the Caurie model with r² of 0.996, 0.901 and 0.870, and MRPE of 7.190, 17.878 and 16.206, at 5, 25 and 37°C, respectively. The equilibrium moisture presented a dependence on temperature in the studied a w range, as did the security moisture (X S. These results suggest that the recommended storage conditions of oat flakes include: a relative air humidity of 50% between 5 and 25°C and of 38% up to 37°C.

  6. Discrimination of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using isozyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... discontinuous buffer system at a monomer concentration of 30% ... The voltage was set at 125 V ... After 30 min, 1 to 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide was added drop by drop till .... represent codominant loci distribution according to.

  7. Investigating Intraspecific Variation of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Using DNA Fingerprinting and Whole Cell Fatty Acid Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Langston, D B; Sanders, F H; Gitaitis, R D

    2000-02-01

    ABSTRACT To assess the diversity of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, 121 strains from watermelon, cantaloupe, and pumpkin were compared using pulse field gel electrophoresis of SpeI-digested DNA and gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters. Twenty-nine unique DNA fragments resulted from DNA digestion, and 14 distinct haplotypes were observed. Based on cluster analysis, two subgroups, I and II, were recognized, which accounted for 84.8% (eight haplotypes) and 15.2% (six haplotypes) of the strains, respectively. Results of cellular fatty acid analysis varied quantitatively and qualitatively for the A. avenae subsp. citrulli strains and supported the existence of the two subgroups. Group I includes strains from cantaloupe and pumpkin as well as the ATCC type strain, which was first described in the United States in 1978, whereas group II represents the typical watermelon fruit blotch-causing strains that appeared in the mainland United States in 1989. Knowledge of the two A. avenae subsp. citrulli groups may be useful in screening for watermelon fruit blotch resistance.

  8. Tripartite Interactions of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Sitobion avenae and Wheat Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A.; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  9. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  10. Temperature and salinity affect the germination and growth of Silybum marianum Gaertn and Avena fatua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashmir, S.; Khan, M. A.; Shad, A.

    2016-01-01

    Two troublesome weeds like Silybum marianum and Avena fatua were exposed to different levels of temperature and salinity. Laboratory based experimented were conducted in the Department of Weed Science, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2015. Sterilized seeds of S. marianum and A. fatua were placed in petri-dishes in a growth chamber. The temperature levels studied were 15, 25 and 40 degree C while the NaCl concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM. Data revealed that germination and growth related traits responded differently to different levels of temperature and salinity. Optimum temperature (25 degree C) resulted in higher germination and growth of both the weed species. While highest temperature used (40 degree C) or lower temperature (15 degree C) resulted in poor germination and growth of S. marianum and A. fatua. Salinity level up to 100 mM did not affect the seed germination of S. marianum and A. fatua. NaCl concentration above 100 mM significantly decreased germination and ceased the germination of both the weeds at 600 mM. Like germination, the growth related variables were also decreased at very low or very high temperature and higher concentrations of NaCl. It is concluded that temperature and NaCl can affect establishment, growth and seed production potential of S. marianum and A. fatua. (author)

  11. Plant growth and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat (Avena fatua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eIannucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L., a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant was recorded at 122 days after sowing (DAS; kernel hard stage. The increase in total aerial DM with age coincided with reductions in the leaf/stem and source/sink ratios, and an increase in the shoot/root ratio. HPLC analysis shows production of seven phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat, in order of their decreasing levels: syringic acid, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringaldehyde, ferulic acid, p-cumaric acid and vanillic acid. The seasonal distribution for the total phenolic compounds showed two peaks of maximum concentrations, at the stem elongation stage (0.71 μg/kg; 82 DAS and at the heading stage (0.70 μg/kg; 98 DAS. Thus wild oat roots exude allelopathic compounds, and the levels of these phenolics in the rhizosphere soil vary according to plant maturity.

  12. Simulation model for longterm management of Avena fatua L. in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäck, Ortrud

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems (DSS are used for weed control decisions worldwide. Several DSS for weed management have been published. However they mostly rely on full herbicide dosages and do not take weed population dynamics into account. We developed a modular DSS for long-term Avena fatua L. control in winter wheat. The DSS was parameterized with three year field experiment datasets covering yield loss data, densitydependent population dynamics data as well as data on dose dependent herbicide efficacy and dosedependent population dynamics. The DSS aims to control the A. fatua in the long run. Our hypothesis is that the optimized DSS reduces herbicide input while keeping the population density at low level, maintaining high grain yields and net return. The DSS comprises four sub-models calculating crop yield loss, A. fatua population dynamics as well as dose dependent herbicide efficacy and economics of the weed control decision. The economic sub-model calculates net return in dependency of the herbicide dosage and thus the resulting crop yield. First results of a 10-year simulation showed that herbicide input could be reduced by 40% compared to the economic threshold strategy, while the population density of A. fatua is controlled. Up to now the DSS has been parameterized for the herbicides Ralon Super, Axial 50 and Broadway. The results show the great potential of reducing herbicide input and point out the importance of including population dynamics models into DSS.

  13. Evaluation of a model for predicting Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia seed emergence in winter rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboutalebian, M.A.; Nazari, S.; Gonzalez-Andujar, J.L.

    2017-07-01

    Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia are two important annual weeds throughout winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) production systems in the semiarid region of Iran. Timely and more accurate control of both species may be developed if there is a better understanding of its emergence patterns. Non-linear regression techniques are usually unable to accurately predict field emergence under such environmental conditions. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the emergence patterns of A. fatua and D. sophia and determine if emergence could be predicted using cumulative soil thermal time in degree days (CTT). In the present work, cumulative seedling emergence from a winter rapeseed field during 3 years data set was fitted to cumulative soil CTT using Weibull and Gompertz functions. The Weibull model provided a better fit, based on coefficient of determination (R2sqr), root mean square of error (RMSE) and Akaike index (AICd), compared to the Gompertz model between 2013 and 2016 seasons for both species. Maximum emergence of A. fatua occured 70-119 days after sowing or after equals 329-426 °Cd, while in D. sophia it occurred 119-134 days after sowing rapeseed equals 373-470 °Cd. Both models can aid in the future study of A. fatua and D. sophia emergence and assist growers and agricultural professionals with planning timely and more accurate A. fatua and D. sophia control.

  14. Allelopathic activity of pakistan wheat genotypes against wild oat (Avena fatua L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Khaliq, A.; Cheema, Z.A.; Arshad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat allelopathy can be manipulated for sustainable weed management in wheat based cropping systems. Bioassays were conducted to quantify the allelopathic potential of 35 indigenous wheat genotypes against germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Foliar application of aqueous extracts of wheat straw, surface mulching and incorporation of wheat straw of different genotypes were employed for bioassays study. Results revealed the suppressive allelopathic activity of different wheat genotypes manifested in the form of impaired germination and retarded seedling growth of wild oat. A highly significant genotypic variation in allelopathic potential was observed for different traits. Germination of wild oat was decreased by 10-84% over control by different wheat genotypes. Likewise, over 70% reductions in seedling root and shoot dry weight of wild oat was also observed in V6007. Wheat genotypes viz. V6007, AS 2000, V6111, V6034, V4611, V7189, Uqa b 2000, Chanab 2000, Bhakkar 2002, Pak 81 and Rohtas 90 showed strongly inhibitory allelopathic activity against seedling growth of wild oat. V6007 exhibited highest suppression of wild oat. These studies confirm the suppressive allelopathic potential of indigenous wheat genotypes against wild oat that needs further to be explored under natural conditions. (author)

  15. Analysis of Leaf and Root Transcriptome of Soil Grown Avena barbata Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarbreck, Sté; phanie,; Lindquist, Erika; Ackerly, David; Andersen, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Slender wild oat (Avena barbata) is an annual grass dominant in many grassland ecosystems in Mediterranean climate. This species has been the subject of ecological studies that aim at understanding the effect of global climate change on grassland ecosystems and the genetic basis for adaptation under varying environmental conditions. We present the sequencing and analysis of cDNA libraries constructed from leaf and root samples collected from A. barbata grown on natural soil and under varying rainfall patterns. More than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using both GS 454-FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, and these tags were assembled into consensus sequences. We identified numerous candidate polymorphic markers in the dataset, providing possibilities for linking the genomic and the existing genetic information for A. barbata. Using the digital northern method, we showed that genes involved in photosynthesis were down regulated under high rainfall while stress- related genes were up regulated. We also identified a number of genes unique to the root library with unknown function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the root specificity of some of these transcripts such as two genes encoding O-methyl transferase. Also we showed differential expression under three water levels. Through a combination of Sanger and 454-based sequencing technologies, we were able to generate a large set of transcribed sequences for A. barbata. This dataset provides a platform for further studies of this important wild grass species

  16. [Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Li, Pei-Ling; Lin, Fang-Jing; Chen, Ju-Lian; Liu, Yong

    2012-10-01

    In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate (MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling S. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of S. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat.

  17. De Novo Assembly and Phasing of Dikaryotic Genomes from Two Isolates of Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae, the Causal Agent of Oat Crown Rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marisa E; Zhang, Ying; Omidvar, Vahid; Sperschneider, Jana; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Raley, Castle; Palmer, Jonathan M; Garnica, Diana; Upadhyaya, Narayana; Rathjen, John; Taylor, Jennifer M; Park, Robert F; Dodds, Peter N; Hirsch, Cory D; Kianian, Shahryar F; Figueroa, Melania

    2018-02-20

    Oat crown rust, caused by the fungus Pucinnia coronata f. sp. avenae , is a devastating disease that impacts worldwide oat production. For much of its life cycle, P. coronata f. sp. avenae is dikaryotic, with two separate haploid nuclei that may vary in virulence genotype, highlighting the importance of understanding haplotype diversity in this species. We generated highly contiguous de novo genome assemblies of two P. coronata f. sp. avenae isolates, 12SD80 and 12NC29, from long-read sequences. In total, we assembled 603 primary contigs for 12SD80, for a total assembly length of 99.16 Mbp, and 777 primary contigs for 12NC29, for a total length of 105.25 Mbp; approximately 52% of each genome was assembled into alternate haplotypes. This revealed structural variation between haplotypes in each isolate equivalent to more than 2% of the genome size, in addition to about 260,000 and 380,000 heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 12SD80 and 12NC29, respectively. Transcript-based annotation identified 26,796 and 28,801 coding sequences for isolates 12SD80 and 12NC29, respectively, including about 7,000 allele pairs in haplotype-phased regions. Furthermore, expression profiling revealed clusters of coexpressed secreted effector candidates, and the majority of orthologous effectors between isolates showed conservation of expression patterns. However, a small subset of orthologs showed divergence in expression, which may contribute to differences in virulence between 12SD80 and 12NC29. This study provides the first haplotype-phased reference genome for a dikaryotic rust fungus as a foundation for future studies into virulence mechanisms in P. coronata f. sp. avenae IMPORTANCE Disease management strategies for oat crown rust are challenged by the rapid evolution of Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae , which renders resistance genes in oat varieties ineffective. Despite the economic importance of understanding P. coronata f. sp. avenae , resources to study the

  18. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp citrulli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Siqueira Junior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana de plantas medicinais tem sido pesquisada em diversas espécies no Brasil. A utilização de extratos vegetais como uma ferramenta para o controle de doenças de plantas se tornou uma prática útil na agricultura. No presente estudo, 7 extratos etanólicos de plantas foram testados quanto suas atividades antibacterianas. A ação antibacteriana foi avaliada através da inoculação de placas contendo meio Sacarose Peptona Agar (SPA, com a bactéria Acidovorax avenae, com  nove discos de papel contendo, um deles, o antimicrobianos comercial (ampicilina e os outros embebidos com 100 mL dos extratos etanólicos. As placas foram incubadas a 37 ºC por 48 horas, e a leitura de diâmetro halos de inibição foi feita. Os resultados demonstraram que os extratos testados foram ativos contra a bactéria com exceção dos extratos de mamona, e de abricó para os quais não foi detectada a inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Os extratos de tanchagem, pitomba e baquipari provocaram a inibição no crescimento bacteriano formando halos médios de 26, 26 e 23,3 mm, respectivamente. De maneira surpreendente, a mistura dos extratos de abricó e baquipari (1:1 causou um aumento na inibição do crescimento bacteriano, sugerindo o potencial de uso de extratos combinados contra patógenos de plantas.

  19. Non Target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tomas Fernandez-Moreno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L. is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress. In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha-1 for exposed (E and un-exposed (UE glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE, while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica and Lolium rigidum.

  20. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  1. Life table analysis of the performance of aphid Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae nymphs exposed to a static magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Juan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the age-stage two-sex life table, this work was undertaken in order to determine the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs at two flux densities (0.176T and 0.065T applied at increasing times of duration (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h on the development, fecundity and reproduction of the aphid, Sitobion avenae. Exposed nymphs had a statistically significant shortened first instar period and adult longevity and prolonged fourth instar periods compared to controls. There were significant differences in the population parameters for two exposure combinations, 0.176T for 0.5 h and 0.065T for 1 h. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T were 0.1165, 3.5 and 11.7 days, respectively, 0.176 T for 0.5 h and -0.0198, 0.7 and 11.8 days, respectively, 0.065T for 1 h. We therefore recommend using the age-stage, two-sex life table to study the effect of the static magnetic field on development and growth of the aphid, Sitobion avenae.

  2. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmei eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod. The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (< 24h old offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests.

  3. A mutation (L1014F) in the voltage-gated sodium channel of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is associated with resistance to pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Paul, Verity L; Slater, Russell; Warren, Anne; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important pest of cereal crops. Pesticides are the main method for control but carry the risk of selecting for resistance. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroid sprays applied to S. avenae, field samples were collected and screened for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target site for pyrethroids. Aphid mobility and mortality to lambda-cyhalothrin were measured in coated glass vial bioassays. A single amino acid substitution (L1014F) was identified in the domain IIS6 segment of the sodium channel from the S. avenae samples exhibiting reduced pyrethroid efficacy. Bioassays on aphids heterozygous for the kdr mutation (SR) or homozygous for the wild-type allele (SS) showed that those carrying the mutation had significantly lower susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin. The L1014F (kdr) mutation, known to confer pyrethroid resistance in many insect pests, has been identified for the first time in S. avenae. Clonal lines heterozygous for the mutation showed 35-40-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in laboratory bioassays, consistent with the reported effect of this mutation on pyrethroid sensitivity in other aphid species. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. De novo assembly and phasing of dikaryotic genomes from two isolates of Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae, the causal agent of oat crown rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oat crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Pca), is a devastating disease that impacts worldwide oat production. For much of its life cycle Pca is dikaryotic with two separate haploid nuclei that may vary in virulence genotypes, which highlights the importance of understan...

  5. Rapid and Specific Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Using SYBR Green-Based Real-Time PCR Amplification of the YD-Repeat Protein Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Seok; Park, Duck Hwan; Ahn, Tae-Young; Park, Dong Suk

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, which causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a serious disease of cucurbit plants. The molecular and serological methods currently available for the detection of this pathogen are insufficiently sensitive and specific. Thus, a novel SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay targeting the YD-repeat protein gene of A. avenae subsp. citrulli was developed. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using DNA purified from 6 isolates of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, 7 other Acidovorax species, and 22 of non-targeted strains, including pathogens and non-pathogens. The AC158F/R primer set amplified a single band of the expected size from genomic DNA obtained from the A. avenae subsp. citrulli strains but not from the genomic DNA of other Acidovorax species, including that of other bacterial genera. Using this assay, it was possible to detect at least one genomeequivalents of the cloned amplified target DNA using 5 × 10(0) fg/μl of purified genomic DNA per reaction or using a calibrated cell suspension, with 6.5 colony-forming units per reaction being employed. In addition, this assay is a highly sensitive and reliable method for identifying and quantifying the target pathogen in infected samples that does not require DNA extraction. Therefore, we suggest that this approach is suitable for the rapid and efficient diagnosis of A. avenae subsp. citrulli contaminations of seed lots and plants.

  6. The Occurrence of Two Species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota, Pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae, in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissem Ben Fekih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1 was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota, Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia.

  7. The occurrence of two species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Fekih, Ibtissem; Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2013-01-01

    The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan) and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota), Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana) were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia.

  8. Rapid on-site detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli by gold-labeled DNA strip sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Lu, Jie; Ma, Wenwei; Xu, Chuanlai; Kuang, Hua; Zhu, Shuifang

    2011-06-15

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (AAC) is one of the most harmful diseases in cucurbit production. A rapid and sensitive DNA strip sensor was constructed based on gold nanoparticle-labeled oligonucleotide probes for the detection of AAC. Both the qualitative and semi-quantitative detections of target DNA were successfully achieved using the developed DNA strip sensor. The qualitative limit of detection (LOD) of the strip sensor was determined as 4 nM. The LOD for the semi-quantitative detection was calculated to be 0.48 nM in the range of 0-10 nM. The genomic DNA was detected directly using the DNA strip sensor without any further treatment. This DNA strip sensor is a potentially useful tool for rapid on-site DNA screening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  10. De Novo Assembly and Phasing of Dikaryotic Genomes from Two Isolates of Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae, the Causal Agent of Oat Crown Rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa E. Miller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oat crown rust, caused by the fungus Pucinnia coronata f. sp. avenae, is a devastating disease that impacts worldwide oat production. For much of its life cycle, P. coronata f. sp. avenae is dikaryotic, with two separate haploid nuclei that may vary in virulence genotype, highlighting the importance of understanding haplotype diversity in this species. We generated highly contiguous de novo genome assemblies of two P. coronata f. sp. avenae isolates, 12SD80 and 12NC29, from long-read sequences. In total, we assembled 603 primary contigs for 12SD80, for a total assembly length of 99.16 Mbp, and 777 primary contigs for 12NC29, for a total length of 105.25 Mbp; approximately 52% of each genome was assembled into alternate haplotypes. This revealed structural variation between haplotypes in each isolate equivalent to more than 2% of the genome size, in addition to about 260,000 and 380,000 heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 12SD80 and 12NC29, respectively. Transcript-based annotation identified 26,796 and 28,801 coding sequences for isolates 12SD80 and 12NC29, respectively, including about 7,000 allele pairs in haplotype-phased regions. Furthermore, expression profiling revealed clusters of coexpressed secreted effector candidates, and the majority of orthologous effectors between isolates showed conservation of expression patterns. However, a small subset of orthologs showed divergence in expression, which may contribute to differences in virulence between 12SD80 and 12NC29. This study provides the first haplotype-phased reference genome for a dikaryotic rust fungus as a foundation for future studies into virulence mechanisms in P. coronata f. sp. avenae.

  11. Simultaneous detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae in cucurbit seedlots using magnetic capture hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R

    2009-06-01

    To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae.

  12. [Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Artero, Enrique; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mesa, José L; Delgado, Manuel; González-Gross, Marcela; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Gutiérrez, Angel; Castillo, Manuel J

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the level of physical activity or physical fitness (i.e., aerobic capacity and muscle strength) in Spanish adolescents influences lipid and metabolic profiles. From a total of 2859 Spanish adolescents (age 13.0-18.5 years) taking part in the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study, 460 (248 male, 212 female) were randomly selected for blood analysis. Their level of physical activity was determined by questionnaire. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the Course-Navette test. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual dynamometry, the long jump test, and the flexed arm hang test. A lipid-metabolic cardiovascular risk index was derived from the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and glucose. No relationship was found between the level of physical activity and lipid-metabolic index in either sex. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the lipid-metabolic index and aerobic capacity in males (P=.003) after adjustment for physical activity level and muscle strength. In females, a favorable lipid-metabolic index was associated with greater muscle strength (P=.048) after adjustment for aerobic capacity. These results indicate that, in adolescents, physical fitness, and not physical activity, is related to lipid and metabolic cardiovascular risk. Higher aerobic capacity in males and greater muscle strength in females were associated with lower lipid and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  13. Self-paired monoclonal antibody lateral flow immunoassay strip for rapid detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haijuan; Guo, Wenbo; Liang, Beibei; Li, Jianwu; Zhai, Xuzhao; Song, Chunmei; Zhao, Wenjun; Fan, Enguo; Liu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    We screened a highly specific monoclonal antibody (McAb), named 6D, against Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac). Single McAb 6D was used as both nanogold-labeled antibody and test antibody to develop a single self-paired colloidal gold immunochromatographic test strip (Sa-GICS). The detection limit achieved using the Sa-GICS approach was 10(5) CFU/mL, with a result that can be observed by the naked eye within 10 min. Moreover, Sa-GICS can detect eight strains of Aac and display no cross-reactions with other pathogenic plant microorganisms. Artificial contamination experiments demonstrated that Sa-GICS would not be affected by impurities in the leaves or stems of the plants and were consistent with the PCR results. This is the first report on the development of a colloidal gold immunoassay strip with self-paired single McAb for the rapid detection of Aac. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the test strip.

  14. Short communication: Evaluation of a model for predicting Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia seed emergence in winter rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aboutalebian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia are two important annual weeds throughout winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. production systems in the semiarid region of Iran. Timely and more accurate control of both species may be developed if there is a better understanding of its emergence patterns. Non-linear regression techniques are usually unable to accurately predict field emergence under such environmental conditions. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the emergence patterns of A. fatua and D. sophia and determine if emergence could be predicted using cumulative soil thermal time in degree days (CTT. In the present work, cumulative seedling emergence from a winter rapeseed field during 3 years data set was fitted to cumulative soil CTT using Weibull and Gompertz functions. The Weibull model provided a better fit, based on coefficient of determination (R2sqr, root mean square of error (RMSE and Akaike index (AICd, compared to the Gompertz model between 2013 and 2016 seasons for both species. Maximum emergence of A. fatua occured 70-119 days after sowing or after equals 329-426 °Cd, while in D. sophia it occurred 119-134 days after sowing rapeseed equals 373-470 °Cd. Both models can aid in the future study of A. fatua and D. sophia emergence and assist growers and agricultural professionals with planning timely and more accurate A. fatua and D. sophia control.

  15. Proyecto de factibilidad para la producción y distribución de una bebida fortificante a base de avena en la ciudad de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Vaca, Giovanny Paúl

    2012-01-01

    En la presente investigación se pretende demostrar la factibilidad para la implementación de una microempresa dedicada a la producción y distribución de una bebida fortificada a base de avena en el Sur de Quito, esta idea nace de la necesidad de las personas en consumir alimentos sanos, nutritivos y a un precio accesible, de tal manera que se pueda preservar la salud ya que está comprobado que la mala nutrición vacía las reservas de grasas y proteínas del cuerpo, llegando ...

  16. Shade and Drought Stress-Induced Changes in Phenolic Content of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Robert S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants develop under a wide range of maternal environments, depending on the time of emergence, prevailing competition from other plants, and presence or absence of other biotic or abiotic stress factors. Stress factors, such as light limitation and drought, during plant development typically reduces the reproductive allocation to seeds, resulting in fewer and often smaller seeds. Such stress factors may also influence seed quality traits associated with persistence in the soil, such as seed dormancy and chemical defense. For this research, we hypothesized that light limitation and drought during wild oat (Avena fatua L. seed development would result in reduced allocation to seed phenolics and other aliphatic organic acids previously identified in the seeds of this species. Wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430 were grown in the greenhouse under cyclic drought conditions (2005 only or two levels of shade (50 and 70%; 2005 and 2006 achieved with standard black shade cloth. The soluble and cellular bound chemical constituents were identified and quantified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The shade and drought stress treatments often significantly affected the mass of the caryopsis and hull seed fractions, as well as the phenolic content of these seed fractions, depending upon isoline, seed fraction, phenolic fraction, and specific phenolics analyzed. Phenolic content of the hull was reduced by the stress environments by up to 48%, whereas there was some evidence of an increase in the soluble phenolic content of the caryopsis in response to the stress environments. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in both soluble and bound fractions, and bound phenolics comprised generally 95% or more of total phenolics. There was no discernable evidence that the aliphatic organic content was affected by the stress environments. Our results indicate that plant stress during seed development can reduce both the physical and

  17. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poblete Pérez Cecilia Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH deavena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desiertoen el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez díasdespués de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseñocompletamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH deavena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadasy sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, gananciade peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kgMS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, pesode la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P ≤ 0.05 el consumo de alimento,tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso comorecurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  18. Impact of storage conditions on seed germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L. at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed storage conditions and different temperatures (5˚C, 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, 30˚C and 26˚C/21˚C during germination and seedling development on seed germination, shoot length and germination rate of wild oat (Avena fatua L. was examined. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a period of ten days and shoot length was measured on the last day, while germination rates were calculated from those measurements. The results showed that seed storage under controlled conditions (T1: temperature 24±1°C, humidity 40-50%; T2: temperature 26±1°C, humidity 70-80% and T3: temperature 4˚C for periods of 3 (t1 and 12 (t2 months had a significant influence on germination of wild oat seeds. The percentage of germinated seeds under all examined temperatures was higher when they were stored for 12 months under controlled temperature and humidity. The results also showed that temperature had a significant effect on the percentage of germination and germination rate of A. fatua seeds. The highest total germination occurred at 15˚C temperature (T1: t1 - 41.25%, t2 - 44.37%; T2: t1 - 28.13%, t2 - 34.37%; T3: t1 - 10.63%, t2 - 12.50%. Germination percentage under an alternating day /night photoperiod at 26˚C/21˚C temperature was higher in all treatment variants (T1: t1 - 8.13%, t2 - 10.00%; T2: t1 - 11.87%, t2 - 13.13%; T3: t1 - 2.42%, t2 - 2.70% than germination in the dark at 25˚C, 30˚C and 5˚C.

  19. Development of surface plasmon resonance imaging for detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac) using specific monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttharugsa, Chokchai; Wangkam, Thidarat; Huangkamhang, Nongluck; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Himananto, Orawan; Sutapun, Boonsong; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2011-01-15

    An immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) using a specific monoclonal antibody 11E5 (MAb 11E5) was developed for the detection of the seed-borne bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), which causes fruit blotch in watermelons and cantaloupes, and compared to the conventional ELISA technique. The 1:40 mixed self-assembled monolayer (mixed SAM) surface was used for the immobilized MAb 11E5 on sensor surface for the detection of Aac. Both whole cells and broken cells of Aac were tested by using direct and sandwich detection assay. The limit of detection (LOD) of Aac using the SPR imaging technique and a direct detection assay was 10(6)cfu/ml and a subsequent amplification of the SPR signal using a polyclonal antibody (PAb) lowered the LOD to 5×10(5) cfu/ml. The LOD for the ELISA technique was 5×10(4) cfu/ml for the detection of Aac, which was slightly better than that for the SPR technique. However, the sensor surface based on SPR imaging offered a major advantage in terms of surface regeneration, allowing at least five cycles with a shorter time assay, multi-channel analysis with an application on multiplex detection, and an ease of the surface usage for the detection of Aac in the naturally infected plant. The surface was tested against the naturally infected sample and showed good selectivity toward the Aac bacteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences of nitrogen fertilization on the evolution of CO2 and yield in oat in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol, of Nariño department of Colombia Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de CO2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de Chimangual (Andisol, departamento de Nariño - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar Juan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and yield of oat crop in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol of Nariño department of Colombia was mesasured. The experiment was designed using a factorial design arranged in a CBD. The three N sources consisted of: potassium nitrate, 13%N, ammonium sulfate 21%N and colacteos 27%N (a local nitrogen fertilizer. Also, three doses (25,75 y 150 kg N ha-1 and three application times were used: at sowing time, total at 45 days an fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing. The higher respiration values at week 2 and 7 were observed after the higher dose of N (75 and 150 kg N ha-1 and fractional application were done. Potassium nitrate, colacteos and ammonium sulfate caused the higher increments in soil respiration and yield of green forage these fertilizer were applied at sowing time fractional and at 45 days respectively. Respiration positively correlated with yields of the established crop. Key words: Fertilizatión, respiration, yield, microbial activity, oat Avena sativa.En un diseño factorial con arreglo en BCA se analizó el efecto de tres fuentes de nitrógeno (nitrato de potasio 13% de N, sulfato de amonio 21% de N y colácteos 27% de N, este es una fuente local de fertilización, tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de Avena sativa. Se encontraron valores de respiración más altos en las semanas 2 y 7 siguientes a la incorporación de las dosis más altas (75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y con las aplicaciones fraccionadas de los fertilizantes. El nitrato de potasio, colácteos y sulfato de amonio ocasionaron mayores incrementos en los valores de respiración del suelo y rendimiento de forraje verde cuando se aplicaron a la siembra, fraccionado y a los 45 días respectivamente. La respiración correlacionó positivamente con los rendimientos del cultivo establecido

  1. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation; Irradiacion de lodos residuales y su uso en el cultivo de avena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A J; Colin, C A; Gomeztagle, M M; Frias, P H [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  2. Electrophoretic study of enzymes from cereal aphid populations : 4. Detection of hidden genetic variation within populations of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxdale, H D; Rhodes, J A; Fox, J S

    1985-07-01

    A study of variation in three peptidases (PEP-3 to -5) in a parthenogenetic S. avenae field population at Rothamsted using serial one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (involving changes of gel concentration and electrophoretic run-time) increased the overall number of "allozymes" (mobility variants) detected from 10 under standard conditions (6% gels, 2 h run-time) to 22, as well as revealing putative heterozygous banding patterns under some test conditions. However, an examination of another enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) in a sample collected at Rothamsted the following year failed, using a combination of serial methods (changes of gel concentration) and isoelectric focusing, to increase the total number of 6-PGD bands separated (seven, none of which appeared to be allelic in origin). Nevertheless, some major bands were split into several bands, whilst other infrequent bands were either gained or lost. The findings are briefly discussed.

  3. Estudio comparativo de la estabilidad lipídica de harinas de soja, sorgo, avena, salvado y germen de trigo con y sin extrusión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de harinas de grano entero está condicionado por la pérdida de calidad nutricional, funcional y sensorial durante su almacenamiento. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto del proceso de extrusión en la degradación lipídica de harina de varios tipos de granos y derivados (soja, sorgo, avena, salvado y germen de trigo. Se realizó seguimiento de ácidos grasos libres, humedad, actividad de agua y del desarrollo del descriptor “rancio-oxidado” por olfatación directa, en muestras de harina con y sin extrusión almacenadas durante 60 días en bolsa de polietileno de 30 micrones a 30-35 ºC. También se estudió la aceptabilidad de pan elaborado con 36% de incorporación de una combinación de harinas. Se realizaron medidas de color, materia grasa y actividad ureásica al inicio, medio y final del almacenamiento. Se ajustaron funciones de regresión de la diferencia “sin extrusión” y “con extrusión”, para las medidas AGL, Aw, %H. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que la extrusión disminuye significativamente la degradación lipídica de las harinas de sorgo, salvado, soja, avena; sin embargo, la harina de germen extrudida tuvo un aumento de rancidez por oxidación. La incorporación de las harinas no extrudidas en la masa de pan disminuyó significativamente la aceptabilidad y afectó la textura y volumen del pan.

  4. Oat (Avena sativa L.): Oil and Nutriment Compounds Valorization for Potential Use in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Oat is a promising plant for the future. It is edible and beneficial thanks to its nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses and, hence, recognized to be useful for a healthier world. The assessment of the vital functions of oat components is important for industries requiring correct health labelling, valid during the shelf life of any product. Oil, enzymes and other biomolecules of nutraceutic or dietary usage from oats would be valorized for this purpose. Although oats have a unique and versatile composition including antioxidants and biomolecules indispensable for health, they are undervalued in comparison with other staple cereals such as wheat, barley and rice. Furthermore, oats, apart from maize, comprise a high oil content used for a wide range of beneficial purposes. In addition, they contain beta glucan that has proven to be very helpful in reducing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular diseases risks. In fact, there is diversity in the composition and content of the beneficial oat components within their genotypes and the different environmental conditions and, thus, oats are amenable to be enhanced by agronomic practices and genetic approaches.

  5. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  6. Detection of gold nanoparticles signal inside wheat (Triticum Aestivum.L) and oats (Avena sativa) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Nayyar, Harsh; Dharamvir, Keya; Verma, Gaurav

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructures have recently been reported by various research groups to induce growth enhancement in variety of crops. In this report 30-40 nm size gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at two concentrations were found to enhance the total biomass yield of wheat and oats. Treating plants with up to 100 µl /mL and 200 µl /mL of AuNPs shows an increased growth and germination rate. The noticeable difference in fresh weight and relative leaf water content were recorded. The fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy detected the gold nanoparticles inside the seedling.

  7. The effect of light quality on ethylene production in leaves of oat seedlings (Avena sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbineau, F.; Rudnicki, R.M.; Goszczynska, D.M.; Come, D.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of UV, blue, green, red, far-red and white fluorescent lights at a fluence of 1.5–20 μmol m −2 s −1 photon flux density (PFD) on endogenous and ACC-dependent ethylene production by etiolated and green apical oat-leaf segments was investigated. It was found that endogenous ethylene production in light-irradiated green and etiolated oat leaves depends upon light quality and its fluence. All light of the visible spectrum (400–700 nm) at PFD 5–20 μmol m −2 s −1 reduced conversion of ACC to ethylene in green oat leaves incubated in 10 −3 M ACC. Blue light was most effective in the inhibition of ACC-dependent ethylene production at 5–10 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD, and endogenous ethylene formation at 10 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD. At 20 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD, all visible light wavebands substantially reduced endogenous ethylene production but blue and red light were most effective. In etiolated leaves UV at 1.5 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD, enhanced endogenous ethylene production and other lights at 20 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD decreased evolution of ethylene, whereas ACC-dependent ethylene formation was stimulated by UV, red and far-red wavebands. Growth of 10-day old seedlings was reduced by 40% under continuous blue light irradiation relative to that obtained with white light. Irradiation of etiolated and green leaf segments for 18 hr with blue light reduced ACC oxidase activity when compared to dark-treated ones. The influence of light quality and its fluence rate on the control of ethylene biosynthesis in oat leaves is discussed. (author). (author)

  8. Modification of mutation process in radiated seeds oat (Avena sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The results of a long-term investigations for experimental mutagenesis of oats and barley are reported in the article. It was found the problem of modification of a mutant process to spread spectrum and increase the general induction frequency and display of macro- and micro mutations. Application as modificators of salts the heavy metals, inhibitors of nuclein, protein synthesis and energy returned processes and also doses spectrum and its strength of gamma-radiation and ultrasound allowed to increase the general frequency of mutant induction of barley and oats on 1-2 order. On the base of evaluation of correlative links between the attributes variability in M1 and M2 generations it was formulated a conception of guarantied creation of mutant forms of the grain crops. (authors)

  9. Effect of Vegetable Oils on the Surface Tension, Diffusion and Efficiency of Sethoxydim to Control Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hammami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During last century, population explosion has been pressing man to produce more supplies of food by consuming more energy in agroecosystems like applying chemical management strategies. herbicides have increasingly become a key component of weed management programs. In Iran, using herbicides led to increasing wheat yield about 20% and 22% in rainfed and irrigated farms respectively (20. Nonetheless, herbicides have also a negative impact on environment. A tool for reducing the herbicide usage which allows to decreasing their cost and side effects is the use of adjuvants. They increase the effectiveness of the post-emergence herbicides. Some adjuvants have toxic effects on living organisms such as Polyethoxylated tallowamine adjuvants that they are very toxic in fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus (6. Vegetable oils are not phytotoxic and likely are degraded and metabolized quickly in the environment (8. Sethoxydim is an acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase inhibitor that is considered to be a key enzyme in lipid biosynthesis. Similar to other foliar applied herbicides, it need to be associated with an adjuvant for more effective control. Vegetable oils can be developed characteristics of sethoxydim solution such as surface tension and spry drop diffusion. Therefore, the objective of this research is to determine the effect of vegetable oils on the surface tension, diffusion and efficiency of sethoxydim to control wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.. Materials and Metods: To evaluate the effect of vegetable oils on properties of sethoxydim solution, a series of experiments were separately conducted at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Khorasan Science and Technology Park in 2012. For evaluating the effect of vegetable oils on surface tension of distilled water and sethoxydim solution and the sethoxydim efficiency on wild oat control, three experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design. In other

  10. Association analysis of resistance to cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera avenae) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei) in CIMMYT advanced spring wheat lines for semi-arid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dababat, Abdelfattah A; Ferney, Gomez-Becerra Hugo; Erginbas-Orakci, Gul; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Imren, Mustafa; Toktay, Halil; Elekcioglu, Halil I; Mekete, Tesfamariam; Nicol, Julie M; Ansari, Omid; Ogbonnaya, Francis

    2016-12-01

    To identify loci linked to nematode resistance genes, a total of 126 of CIMMYT advanced spring wheat lines adapted to semi-arid conditions were screened for resistance to Heterodera avenae , Pratylenchus neglectus , and P. thornei , of which 107 lines were genotyped with 1,310 DArT. Association of DArT markers with nematode response was analyzed using the general linear model. Results showed that 11 markers were associated with resistance to H. avenae (pathotype Ha21), 25 markers with resistance to P. neglectus , and 9 significant markers were identified to be linked with resistance to P. thornei . In this work we confirmed that chromosome 4A (~90-105 cM) can be a source of resistance to P. thornei as has been recently reported. Other significant markers were also identified on chromosomal regions where no resistant genes have been reported for both nematodes species. These novel QTL were mapped to chromosomes 5A, 6A, and 7A for H. avenae ; on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 3A, 3B, 6B, 7AS, and 7D for P. neglectus ; and on chromosomes 1D, 2A, and 5B for P. thornei and represent potentially new loci linked to resistance that may be useful for selecting parents and deploying resistance into elite germplasm adapted to regions where nematodes are causing problem.

  11. Desarrollo de galletas con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo con harina de algarroba (Prosopis alba y avena para planes sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Macías

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La diversificación de alimentos es una estrategia para abordar problemas nutricionales. Producir alimentos de consumo masivo incorporando harinas regionales sería una opción para obtener alimentos de valor nutritivo optimizado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar galletas de calidad nutricional mejorada, para escolares, con mezclas de harinas de trigo, de algarroba y avena. Se determinó la composición proximal y Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K y Zn en harina de algarroba con metodología AOAC y disponibilidad potencial in vitro para Ca, Fe y Zn. Se evaluó la calidad proteica teórica de distintas mezclas por el método del Puntaje Químico, previa corrección por digestibilidad, utilizando como proteína de referencia los requerimientos del patrón FAO. Se diseñaron galletas con 3 mezclas porcentuales: harina de trigo:harina de algarroba 70:30 y 80:20, harina de trigo:harina de algarroba:avena 80:10:10 y un testigo con 100 % harina de trigo. Se determinaron composición proximal, contenido y disponibilidad potencial de Ca, Fe y Zn. Se midieron parámetros tecnológicos en masas y galletas (color y factor de expansión. Las galletas se evaluaron sensorialmente con 35 consumidores, usando escala hedónica de 9 puntos. El Puntaje Químico aumentó ≈ el 25 % en la mezcla 70:30, 19 % en la 80:20 y 28 % para la 80:10:10 respecto del aminoácido lisina en harina de trigo. La corrección por digestibilidad, posicionó con mejor calidad proteica a la mezcla 80:10:10. El diámetro de las galletas aumentó con la disminución del espesor. El balance entre criterios nutricionales y tecnológicos favoreció la elección de las galletas 80:20 y 80:10:10. Son fuente de fibra y minerales. En pruebas sensoriales, las galletas obtuvieron puntaje superior a 6, siendo la más aceptada la 80:10:10. Es tecnológicamente posible sustituir un 20 % de harina de trigo por los ingredientes propuestos obteniéndose galletas nutricionalmente mejoradas y aceptables para

  12. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Zheng

    Full Text Available One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae. These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi

  13. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on some ecophysiological traits associated with competitiveness of old and new Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars against wild oat ( Avena ludoviciana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eskandar zand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during 1996-1997 growing season in Mashhad, NE of Iran to evaluate the genetic improvement in ecophysiological traits that enhance the competitiveness of Iranian winter wheat (Triticum aestivuml against wild oat ( Avena ludovicianal. Six Iranian winter wheat cultivars which have been released during the past 40 years were used for this experiment. A factorial experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each cultivar was planted at its own optimum seeding rate with and without competition with wild oat. Wild oat was planted at a constant density of 80 plants per square meter. The results showed that more recent cultivars had much higher competitive ability compared to earlier cultivars. Alvand (the most recent cultivar had higher dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and relative leaf area growth rate (RLGR compared to Bezostaya. Alvand had a higher proportion of its leaf area in higher canopy layer. Wild oat was also shorter in height when it was competing with Alvand compared to Bezostaya. It was found that following characteristics were the most important criteria in competitive ability of winter wheat against wild oats: 1 leaf area at the end of tillering stage. 2 final leaf area index. 3 relative leaf area index, and 4 the canopy layer where the higher leaf area was measured

  15. Reference gene selection for molecular studies of dormancy in wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses by RT-qPCR method.

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    Izabela Ruduś

    Full Text Available Molecular studies of primary and secondary dormancy in Avena fatua L., a serious weed of cereal and other crops, are intended to reveal the species-specific details of underlying molecular mechanisms which in turn may be useable in weed management. Among others, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR data of comparative gene expression analysis may give some insight into the involvement of particular wild oat genes in dormancy release, maintenance or induction by unfavorable conditions. To assure obtaining biologically significant results using this method, the expression stability of selected candidate reference genes in different data subsets was evaluated using four statistical algorithms i.e. geNorm, NormFinder, Best Keeper and ΔCt method. Although some discrepancies in their ranking outputs were noticed, evidently two ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme homologs, AfUBC1 and AfUBC2, as well as one homolog of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase AfGAPDH1 and TATA-binding protein AfTBP2 appeared as more stably expressed than AfEF1a (translation elongation factor 1α, AfGAPDH2 or the least stable α-tubulin homolog AfTUA1 in caryopses and seedlings of A. fatua. Gene expression analysis of a dormancy-related wild oat transcription factor VIVIPAROUS1 (AfVP1 allowed for a validation of candidate reference genes performance. Based on the obtained results it can be recommended that the normalization factor calculated as a geometric mean of Cq values of AfUBC1, AfUBC2 and AfGAPDH1 would be optimal for RT-qPCR results normalization in the experiments comprising A. fatua caryopses of different dormancy status.

  16. Reference gene selection for molecular studies of dormancy in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) caryopses by RT-qPCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruduś, Izabela; Kępczyński, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Molecular studies of primary and secondary dormancy in Avena fatua L., a serious weed of cereal and other crops, are intended to reveal the species-specific details of underlying molecular mechanisms which in turn may be useable in weed management. Among others, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data of comparative gene expression analysis may give some insight into the involvement of particular wild oat genes in dormancy release, maintenance or induction by unfavorable conditions. To assure obtaining biologically significant results using this method, the expression stability of selected candidate reference genes in different data subsets was evaluated using four statistical algorithms i.e. geNorm, NormFinder, Best Keeper and ΔCt method. Although some discrepancies in their ranking outputs were noticed, evidently two ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme homologs, AfUBC1 and AfUBC2, as well as one homolog of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase AfGAPDH1 and TATA-binding protein AfTBP2 appeared as more stably expressed than AfEF1a (translation elongation factor 1α), AfGAPDH2 or the least stable α-tubulin homolog AfTUA1 in caryopses and seedlings of A. fatua. Gene expression analysis of a dormancy-related wild oat transcription factor VIVIPAROUS1 (AfVP1) allowed for a validation of candidate reference genes performance. Based on the obtained results it can be recommended that the normalization factor calculated as a geometric mean of Cq values of AfUBC1, AfUBC2 and AfGAPDH1 would be optimal for RT-qPCR results normalization in the experiments comprising A. fatua caryopses of different dormancy status.

  17. Herbicide resistance-endowing ACCase gene mutations in hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua): insights into resistance evolution in a hexaploid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Ahmad-Hamdani, M S; Han, H; Christoffers, M J; Powles, S B

    2013-01-01

    Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but far too little about the evolution of resistance mutations in polyploids is understood. Hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua) is a global crop weed and many populations have evolved herbicide resistance. We studied plastidic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide resistance in hexaploid wild oat and revealed that resistant individuals can express one, two or three different plastidic ACCase gene resistance mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly and Cys-2088-Arg). Using ACCase resistance mutations as molecular markers, combined with genetic, molecular and biochemical approaches, we found in individual resistant wild-oat plants that (1) up to three unlinked ACCase gene loci assort independently following Mendelian laws for disomic inheritance, (2) all three of these homoeologous ACCase genes were transcribed, with each able to carry its own mutation and (3) in a hexaploid background, each individual ACCase resistance mutation confers relatively low-level herbicide resistance, in contrast to high-level resistance conferred by the same mutations in unrelated diploid weed species of the Poaceae (grass) family. Low resistance conferred by individual ACCase resistance mutations is likely due to a dilution effect by susceptible ACCase expressed by homoeologs in hexaploid wild oat and/or differential expression of homoeologous ACCase gene copies. Thus, polyploidy in hexaploid wild oat may slow resistance evolution. Evidence of coexisting non-target-site resistance mechanisms among wild-oat populations was also revealed. In all, these results demonstrate that herbicide resistance and its evolution can be more complex in hexaploid wild oat than in unrelated diploid grass weeds. Our data provide a starting point for the daunting task of understanding resistance evolution in polyploids. PMID:23047200

  18. Study on screening and antagonistic mechanisms of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 54 against bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Wu, Fang; Yu, Zhen-Yun; Xie, Ping; Ke, Hong-Jiao; Li, Hong-Wei; Yu, Yi-Yang; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) was a serious threat to cucurbitaceae crops. It was caused by the gram-negative bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli. Two hundred strains, which have the potential in controlling plant diseases in our laboratory's biocontrol strain library, were employed to this research to screen some antagonistic bacteria, which can efficiently control bacterial fruit blotch disease. Based on the results of antagonistic activity experiments, greenhouse tests and field trials, 5 of the test strains have high abilities to control BFB. One of the 5 bacteria strains has the highest potential to control BFB named 54. The biocontrol efficacy of 54 was up to 60%. To characterize the strain, we used series of methods to evaluate the bacterium, including morphology analysis, physiological biochemical test and biomolecular assay. We found that the bacterium 54 belongs to the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The colonization test results showed that 54 had the highest colonization levels, and the density of the strain on leaves was up 10(5)colony forming units (CFU) per gram of leaf tissue. Our recent results show that B. amyloliquefaciens 54 can promote the plant growth due to raised the contents of available N, P, K and the leaf chlorophyll. The antagonistic bacterium 54 can significantly control the BF B by increasing the expression level of defense-related gene PR1 and the accumulation the hydrogen peroxide in the plant. The results of trail experiment was also verified this efficient results of bacterium. This is also the first report of B. amyloliquefaciens strain that is able to control BFB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Producción y calidad de forraje de variedades de avena en condiciones de temporal en Zacatecas, México

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    Ricardo A. Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la pro ducción, calidad y componentes de rendimiento de seis variedades de avena forrajera en Zacatecas. Los experimentos se establecieron en julio de 2011 y 2012 en el municipio de Monte Escobedo. El dise ño experimental fue bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, la densidad de siembra fue 120 kg ha -1 y dosis de fertilización de 60-40-00 de N, P 2 O 5 , K. La cosecha fue en estado fisiológico lechoso-masoso. En 2011 y 2012, La variedad Saía sobresalió ( P 0.05 entre variedades con un rango de 10.6 a 13.8 %. En los dos años de estudio Karma presentó las mejores características nutricionales: baja acumulación de fibra detergente neutr o (51 % y acida (33.4 y 35.3 %, valores altos en total de nutrientes digestibles (54 y 58 %, digestibilidad de la materia seca (60 y 62 %, valor relativo del forraje (110 y 113 y energía neta para lactación (1.4 y 1.34 Mcal/kg; P <0.05. Las variables asociadas de manera positiva con forraje seco fueron altura de planta (r=0.701, días a co secha (r=0.685 y proporción de tallo (r=0.629, y negativamente con proporción de espiga (r=-0.629. En calidad nut ricional Karma tuvo mejor valor forrajero. Saia es una buena alternativa para incrementar el rendimiento de forraje por hectárea.

  20. Crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli sob diferentes temperaturas, pH, concentrações de cloreto de sódio e fontes de carbono Growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli under different variable temperature, pH, sodium chloride concentrations and carbon sources

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    Márcia Tanajura Cavalcanti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito da temperatura (0 a 45°C, pH (4 a 10 e concentração de NaCl (1 a 10% sobre o crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Quatro estirpes de Aac foram cultivadas em meio de cultura líquido específico e o crescimento avaliado pela absorbância (580nm. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear. O crescimento das estirpes também foi avaliado em caldo base para fermentação contendo 1% dos carboidratos glicose, galactose, ramnose, sacarose, lactose, maltose, amido, inulina, manitol, dulcitol, sorbitol e salicina, indicada pela mudança da cor do meio. Com base nas análises de regressão, as temperaturas mínima, ótima e máxima para crescimento de Aac foram, respectivamente, 1, 32 e 41°C; o pH ótimo para crescimento dessa bactéria foi 7,4 com os extremos mínimo de 4,0 e máximo de 10,8 e; o crescimento de Aac decresceu com o aumento da concentração de NaCl, sendo o nível de 6,2% letal. Todos os carboidratos testados foram utilizados pelas estirpes de Aac como fonte de carbono, com pequena variação de crescimento observada pela velocidade e intensidade da utilização do substrato com produção de ácido.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature (0 to 45°C, pH (4 to 10 and NaCl concentration (1 to 10% in the growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Four Aac strains were grown in specific liquid medium, and their growth evaluated by absorbance (580nm. Data were submitted to nonlinear regression analysis. The bacterial growth was also studied in fermentation broth containing 1% of fermentable carbohydrates, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, starch, inulin, mannitol, dulcitol, sorbitol and salicin, being evaluated by medium color change. Based upon regression analyses, the minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures for Aac growth were respectively 1, 32 and 41°C; the optimum pH for Aac

  1. Fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle químico da ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fungicides, rates and spray volumes in the chemical control of oats crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae

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    Ana R. de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da folha (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae é a doença mais destrutiva da aveia, e aplicações de fungicidas com volumes baixos de calda podem reduzir a eficácia do controle químico. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência técnica e econômica de fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle da ferrugem da folha da aveia. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2003, na área experimental da FAMV/UPF, com a cultivar de aveia UPFA-20. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelas combinações entre dois fungicidas (tebuconazole, Folicur, 0,75 L ha-1 e epoxiconazole + piraclostrobim, Opera, 0,5 L ha-1, quatro doses (40; 60; 80 e 100% da dose recomendada e dois volumes de calda (100 e 200 L ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial (2x4x2 e quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se a severidade, o controle da ferrugem, a massa do hectolitro, a massa de mil grãos e o rendimento de grãos, realizando-se análise econômica. O volume de calda de 200 L ha-1 proporcionou maiores níveis de controle da doença. As aplicações dos fungicidas com volume de 200 L ha-1 e meia dose ou com 100 L ha-1 e dose cheia proporcionam níveis de controle da ferrugem equivalentes. O resultado econômico difere entre fungicidas e independe do volume de calda. Os efeitos de doses dependem do fungicida.Crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae is the most important disease of oats in Brazil. In susceptible oat cultivars, fungicides are needed to control the disease efficiently. However, spray at low volumes may reduce fungicide performance significantly. A field experiment with the oat cultivar UPFA-20 was carried out at the FAMV/UPF to evaluate the influence of fungicides, rates, and spray volumes on the efficacy of the chemical control for crown rust. The tested treatments combined two fungicides (tebuconazole, Folicur, 0,75 L ha-1; epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, Opera, 0,5 L ha-1, four rates (40; 60; 80 and 100

  2. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity analysis β-glucan content variability in grain of oat (Avena sativa L.

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    Đukić Nevena H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In grain of ten genetically divergent oat cultivars (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flaming-Kurz, Nuptiele, Prode, Pellerva, Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Simo the variability β-glucan content were investigated. The different value of content of β-glucan was found. Among analyzed oat cultivars, the highest β- glucan contents had Pellerva (6.597%, while the least had Simo (2.971%. The contents of β-glucans were determined by ICC standard Method No 168. The value of β-glucans varied and indicated the differences and similarities between analysed cultivars. The degree of cultivar similarity was determined by dendrogram on which was discriminated two clusters of similar cultivars toward to contents of β-glucan . Within cluster 1, a small group of oats, are five cultivars with small distance (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flamings-Kurz, Nuptiele and Prode. The highest similarity in the range of 88 or the least distance in the range of 12. Within cluster 2 was four oat cultivars (Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Pellerva in which the least differences was between Emperor and Astor with average distance in range 27. Cluster 1 and cluster 2 differed with an average distance of 63. The cultivar Simo expressed the greatest distance to all analysed oat cultivars grouped in two clusters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31092

  3. Quantification of betaglucans, lipid and protein contents in whole oat groats (Avena sativa L.) using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole oat has been described as an important healthy food for humans due to its beneficial nutritional components. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a powerful, fast, accurate and non-destructive analytical tool that can be substituted for some traditional chemical analysis. A total o...

  4. Structural characterization and evaluation of antioxidant, anticancer and hypoglycemic activity of radiation degraded oat (Avena sativa) β- glucan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Rather, Sarver A.; Suradkar, Prashant P.

    2018-03-01

    Oat β-D-glucan after extraction was degraded at doses of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy. The average molecular weight decreased to 45 kDa at dose of 15 kGy from an initial value of 200 kDa in native sample. XRD analysis revealed no significant change in diffraction pattern of irradiated samples when compared with control, except a decrease in intensity of x-ray diffraction. The results of the antioxidant activity revealed decrease in EC50 values and corresponding increase in antioxidant activity of radiation degraded oat β-D-glucan. Results of the anticancer studies indicated that cytotoxicity of gamma irradiated oat β-D-glucan in cancer cell lines was highest against colo-205 and MCF7 cancer cells compared to T47D cell and no cytotoxicity was observed in normal cell lines at all concentrations used. Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity showed highest inhibition in α-glucosidase activity compared to α-amylase activity due to gamma irradiation of oat β-D-glucan. Comparison of the EC50 values of known standards and gamma irradiated oat beta-glucan samples indicates that radiation treatment significantly modified the biological activity of the beta-glucan samples. Therefore, it is suggested that gamma irradiation can be used for producing low molecular weight oat β-D-glucan; which can help in modifying the biological activities.

  5. Caracterização química de cariopses de aveia (Avena sativa L da cultivar UPF 18

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    Weber Fernanda Hart

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente uma nova cultivar de aveia, a UPF 18, recomendada pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia da safra agrícola de 1999 foram descascados, as cariopses moídas em granulometria inferior a 0,250mm e a farinha avaliada quanto à composição centesimal, composição em aminoácidos, composição em ácidos graxos, índice de solubilidade de nitrogênio, digestibilidade da proteína in vitro, escore químico e energia metabolizável. A cultivar estudada apresentou alto teor de proteínas (15,07%. Os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel foram relativamente altos (5,59 e 7,73%, respectivamente, e, conseqüentemente, o teor de amido foi baixo (41,00%. A composição em aminoácidos foi semelhante ao padrão teórico da FAO, sendo a lisina o primeiro aminoácido limitante. A cultivar apresentou altas concentrações de ácidos graxos insaturados, onde o linoléico, oléico e palmítico representam 96,06% do total. A digestibilidade da proteína in vitro foi de 98,86%, o escore químico de 52,20%, o índice de solubilidade de nitrogênio de 20,24% e a energia metabolizável foi de 326,56kcal/ 100g.

  6. Producción de biomasa aérea y uso equivalente de la tierra en intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

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    T. W Pereyra

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, el incremento de la productividad se ha asociado al aumento del rendimiento a través del mejoramiento genético y las prácticas de manejo del cultivo. Sin embargo, si se considera la producción por unidad de área y de tiempo, el sistema de intercultivos puede ser otra forma de mejorar la rentabilidad. El objetivo del experimento fue determinar la biomasa producida y el uso equivalente de la tierra en monocultivo e intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. con sorgo sudán (Sorghum sudanense L. y avena (Avena sativa L.. Se determinó la biomasa aérea de todos los tratamientos (expresada por unidad de superficie y el uso equivalente de la tierra. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado, dispuesto en bloques con dos repeticiones. Los resultados se sometieron a un ANOVA y las medias se compararon mediante la prueba de Duncan, a través del paquete estadístico INFOSTAT. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo triplicó la producción de alfalfa en relación con el monocultivo, mientras que alfalfa-avena no superó la producción de alfalfa pura en los meses de invierno. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo fue un 57 % más eficiente en el uso de la tierra que sus respectivos monocultivos, mientras que alfalfa-avena no logró superar la unidad.

  7. Herança da resistência à ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca Inheritance of oat leaf rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. resistance in white oat brazilian genotypes

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    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da folha da aveia é a moléstia mais importante que ataca a cultura da aveia, ocorrendo em praticamente todas as áreas em que a aveia é cultivada. A forma mais indicada para o seu controle é a utilização de cultivares resistentes. Contudo, para que seja alcançada a resistência durável ao patógeno, é necessário que se conheça a genética da resistência à ferrugem da folha em aveia. O objetivo foi determinar a forma de herança da resistência a três isolados de Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led., (coletados no sul do Brasil em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca. Para a determinação da herança da resistência a cada um dos três isolados, foram utilizadas populações F2 geradas por meio de cruzamentos artificiais, entre genótipos resistentes (R e suscetíveis (S e entre genótipos resistentes (R. Desta forma, foram utilizadas populações F2 dos cruzamentos artificiais entre: i URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 16 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 16 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado um (1; ii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 18 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado dois (2; iii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (S, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado três (3. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o genótipo URPEL 15 apresenta genes dominantes de resistência aos três isolados de ferrugem da folha da aveia avaliados, que o cultivar UPF 16 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 1 e o cultivar UPF 18 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 2. E que os genes de resistência apresentados pelos genótipos URPEL 15, UPF 16 e UPF 18, segregam de forma independente.Oat crown rust is the most important disease for the oat crop, occurring in practically all the areas where oat is cultivated. The most indicated form of control for this disease is

  8. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1 from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi.

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    Fen Qiao

    Full Text Available Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266, Ha-far-2 (KU877267, Hf-far-1 (KU877268. Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more

  9. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fen; Luo, Lilian; Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  10. Reconocimiento de alimentos vegetales: caracterización micro-gráfica del grano de avena Reconhecimento de alimentos vegetais: caracterização micrográfica do grão de aveia

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    N.O. Crivaro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la estructura micrográfica del grano de seis variedades de avena con la finalidad de su caracterización, para desarrollar parámetros de identificación en alimentos elaborados con la misma y, consecuentemente, determinar su autenticidad, contribuyendo a optimizar la producción, la comercialización y el consumo del cereal y sus derivados. El diseño experimental consistió en el estudio micrográfico de los granos vestidos y desnudos efectuando un análisis morfológico mediante observación con lupa binocular y fotografía, ultraestructural utilizando microscopio electrónico de barrido, micrográfico y micrométrico, empleando el sistema de video microscopia digitalizado y software adecuado. Dada su variabilidad natural, los estudios se efectuaron durante tres temporadas consecutivas sobre muestras cosechadas de variedades procedentes de cultivos de semillas certificadas, y sobre alimentos procesados (avena arrollada y salvado de avena comerciales. Los resultados consistieron en diseños micrográficos, y en valores micrométricos de gránulos de almidón relacionados, además, en modelos matemáticos. En todos los casos se validó estadísticamente. Como parámetros micrográficos de caracterización se seleccionaron las estructuras diferenciales, que revelaron una presencia constante en el vegetal y resistieron los tratamientos tecnológicos, y las características y dimensiones del almidón.Este trabalho estuda a estrutura micrográfica do grão de seis variedades de aveia com a finalidade de sua caracterização para desenvolver parâmetros de identificação em alimentos elaborados com a mesma e, conseqüentemente, determinar sua genuinidade, contribuindo para otimizar a produção, a comercialização e o consumo do cereal e seus derivados. O experimento consistiu no estudo micrográfico dos grãos com casca e sem casca, efetuando análise morfológica mediante observação com lupa binocular e fotografia ultra

  11. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  12. Época e Densidade de Semeadura de Aveia Preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e Azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. no Alto Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaresso Jefferson Araújo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Epagri, Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC, com o objetivo de determinar a época e a densidade de semeadura de Avena strigosa Schreb. (aveia preta e Lolium multiflorum Lam. (azevém. Os tratamentos foram avaliados por três anos, dispostos num delineamento de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As épocas de semeadura para as duas espécies foram: Época 1 - meados de março; Época 2 - meados de abril; Época 3 - meados de maio; Época 4 - meados de junho. As densidades de sementes puras viáveis foram: aveia preta, 60, 80 e 100 kg/ha; azevém, 15, 25 e 35 kg/ha. A aveia preta foi menos produtiva e mais precoce que o azevém. Para as duas espécies, não houve diferença significativa entre as densidades de semeaduras. A melhor época de implantação das espécies foi em meados de abril.

  13. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  14. Sharing a Host Plant (Wheat [Triticum aestivum]) Increases the Fitness of Fusarium graminearum and the Severity of Fusarium Head Blight but Reduces the Fitness of Grain Aphids (Sitobion avenae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulic, Jassy; Caulfield, John; Woodcock, Christine; Jones, Stephen P. T.; Linforth, Robert; Bruce, Toby J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that interactions between fusarium head blight-causing pathogens and herbivores are likely to occur because they share wheat as a host plant. Our aim was to investigate the interactions between the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, and Fusarium graminearum on wheat ears and the role that host volatile chemicals play in mediating interactions. Wheat ears were treated with aphids and F. graminearum inoculum, together or separately, and disease progress was monitored by visual assessment and by quantification of pathogen DNA and mycotoxins. Plants exposed to both aphids and F. graminearum inoculum showed accelerated disease progression, with a 2-fold increase in disease severity and 5-fold increase in mycotoxin accumulation over those of plants treated only with F. graminearum. Furthermore, the longer the period of aphid colonization of the host prior to inoculation with F. graminearum, the greater the amount of pathogen DNA that accumulated. Headspace samples of plant volatiles were collected for use in aphid olfactometer assays and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-coupled electroantennography. Disease-induced plant volatiles were repellent to aphids, and 2-pentadecanone was the key semiochemical underpinning the repellent effect. We measured aphid survival and fecundity on infected wheat ears and found that both were markedly reduced on infected ears. Thus, interactions between F. graminearum and grain aphids on wheat ears benefit the pathogen at the expense of the pest. Our findings have important consequences for disease epidemiology, because we show increased spread and development of host disease, together with greater disease severity and greater accumulation of pathogen DNA and mycotoxin, when aphids are present. PMID:25769834

  15. Avaliação da composição química e da digestibilidade in vitro da mistura aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb + ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. em diferentes alturas sob pastejo Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of mixture of oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L. under grazing in different sward heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mascarenhas Grise

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das alturas (8,9; 10,0; 11,2; 11,8; 13,3; 13,6; 14,6; 18,2 cm de pastos consorciados de aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 com ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. sob pastejo sobre a relação folha/colmo (F/C, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental usado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A relação F/C não foi influenciada pela altura do pasto, porém apresentou comportamento quadrático com o avanço na maturidade do pasto. Os teores de PB apresentaram comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, devido à interação entre altura do pasto e o tempo. Os teores de FDN e FDA mostraram um comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, ocorrendo uma diminuição dos mesmos quando as plantas se apresentavam mais baixas e, uma elevação, quando as plantas estavam mais altas, isto ocorreu em função da interação das variáveis tempo e altura. A DIVMS e a DIVMO tiveram incrementos lineares em função do aumento da altura do pasto, porém com comportamento quadrático no tempo (dias em todas as alturas, sendo mais elevadas nas alturas intermediárias do pasto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different sward heights (8.9, 10.0, 11.2, 11.8; 13.3; 13.6; 14.6; 18.2 cm in the mixture of black oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L., under grazing, on leaf/stem ratio (L/S, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents and dry matter (DMIVD and of organic matter (OMIVD in vitro digestibility. A completely randomized experimental design with two replicates was used. L/S ratio was not influenced by sward height, although it presented quadratic behavior with the progress of

  16. COMPARITIVE GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF OAT (Avena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knsccf

    protein and 30 to 35% dry matter. ... environment interaction, hence not much dependable but ... Principal coordinate (3D) analysis was .... Relationships among 20 genotypes of oat visualized by principal component analysis (PCoA) of rainfed ...

  17. Tracking multi-walled carbon nanotubes inside oat (Avena sativa L.) plants and assessing their effect on growth, yield, and mammalian (human) cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Kaur, Simranjeet; Singh, Pargat; Dharamvir, Keya; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav

    2018-05-01

    Our findings show that oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) having serpent-like morphology and smaller sizes (diameter of 35 nm and lengths of 200-300 nm) are compatible with oat plant tissues. Applied by seed-priming method as 90 µg/ml concentration, these serpentine MWCNT (having open-end caps) enter the oat plant and traverse the cells. Tracking of MWCNT inside sections and tissues during growth of oat plant has been done using special sample preparation. We present clear images of MWCNT inside the primed seeds and vascular bundles, the conducting tissues of root and shoot of oat. A dye fluorescein isothiocyanate non-covalently bonded to MWCNT also helped in detecting the path through circumferential perimeters of the oat channels, using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. The presence of MWCNT inside oat enhanced the growth of xylem cells by about 1.85-fold in vasculature of shoots. Compared to controls, the chlorophyll content increased by 57%, while photosynthetic activity enhanced by 15% for the same sample in MWCNT-primed plants. Overall, the growth factors were also augmented leading to significant increase in yield components. No toxic effects of MWCNT were observed in the DNA of the primed plants, and in the human cell lines treated with grains harvested from the MWCNT-primed plants. Our study provides some new insights about the role of MWCNT in plants and their potential benefits in agriculture.

  18. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-01-01

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides

  19. Oat (Avena sativa) Seed Extract as an Antifungal Food Preservative Through the Catalytic Activity of a Highly Abundant Class I Chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans; Madsen, Lone; Petersen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity...

  20. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental dose of synthetic nitrogen source to sustain crop production.

  1. PREDIÇÃO DOS TEORES DE COMPOSTOS FENÓLICOS E FLAVONOIDES NA PARTE AÉREA DAS ESPÉCIES Secale cereale L., Avena strigosa L. E Raphanus sativus L. POR MEIO DE ESPECTROSCOPIA NO INFRAVERMELHO PRÓXIMO (NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Souza

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy associated with chemometrics is a non-destructive method of the samples for the prediction of phenolic compounds. The objective of the work was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for the prediction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in aerial part samples of cover crops plants Raphanus sativus L., Secale cereale L. and Avena strigosa L. Samples were collected at 60, 80 and 100 days after sowing (DAS of the plants and, after lodging (DAA, at 15 and 30 days, in an experiment implanted in the field, in the city of Ituporanga, Santa Catarina. The samples were homogenized, identified, transported on dry ice, lyophilized, crushed, sieved and stored at -20 °C for analysis. For the calibration, 84 samples were used and for the validation 10 samples. The combination of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis by partial least squares regression allowed the development of prediction models of phenolics and flavonoids with associated errors averaging 10%. NIR spectroscopy is recommended for the development of calibration models because it allows to non-destructive infer phenolic and total flavonoid contents, with high analytical frequency, without the use of reagents and other inputs required by the reference method, with results very close to those obtained in the laboratory.

  2. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  3. Germination induction of dormant Avena fatua caryopses by KAR(1) and GA(3) involving the control of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2(·-)) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase) both in the embryo and the aleurone layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowska-Lech, Danuta; Koprowski, Marek; Kępczyński, Jan

    2015-03-15

    Avena fatua L. caryopses did not germinate at 20 °C in darkness because they were dormant. However, they were able to germinate in the presence of karrikinolide (KAR1), a key bioactive compound present in smoke, and also in the presence of gibberellin A3 (GA3), a commonly known stimulator of seed germination. The aim of this study was to collect information on a possible relationship between the above regulators and abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenging antioxidants in the regulation of dormant caryopses germination. KAR1 and GA3 caused complete germination of dormant A. fatua caryopses. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), compounds generating the superoxide (O2(·-)), i.e. menadione (MN), methylviologen (MV) and an inhibitor of catalase activity, aminotriazole (AT), induced germination of dormant caryopses. KAR1, GA3, H2O2 and AT decreased ABA content in embryos. Furthermore, KAR1, GA3, H2O2, MN, MV and AT increased α-amylase activity in caryopses. The effect of KAR1 and GA3 on ROS (H2O2, O2(·-)) and activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined in caryopses, embryos and aleurone layers. SOD was represented by four isoforms and catalase by one. In situ localization of ROS showed that the effect of KAR1 and GA3 was associated with the localization of hydrogen peroxide mainly on the coleorhiza. However, the superoxide was mainly localized on the surface of the scutellum. Superoxide was also detected in the protruding radicle. Germination induction of dormant caryopses by KAR1 and GA3 was related to an increasing content of H2O2, O2(·-)and activities of SOD and CAT in embryos, thus ROS homeostasis was probably required for the germination of dormant caryopses. The above regulators increased the content of ROS in aleurone layers and decreased the activities of SOD and CAT, probably leading to the programmed cell death. The presented data provide new insights into the germination induction of A. fatua dormant

  4. Germination of Avena fatua under different gaseous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, J.W.; Berrie, A.M.M.

    1966-01-01

    The atmosphere in which seeds germinate can profoundly affect the level of germination and dormancy. Seeds were germinated in atmospheres containing various concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen. At the same time the effect of light on these systems was examined. The germination of partially dormant populations of wild oat seed is inhibited by white light. This response to light is most apparent when the caryopsis is enclosed in the pales. Investigations into the effect of the ambient atmosphere on germination have indicated that, while oxygen is a necessary factor in the germination of this species, carbon dioxide also has an effect. A lack of carbon dioxide increases the degree of light inhibition of germination; 3% carbon dioxide (by volume) allows germination in light; 20% carbon dioxide inhibits germination in light and darkness at all tested oxygen concentrations.

  5. MODULATION OF H+-ATPASE ACTIVITY BY FUSICOCCIN IN PLASMA-MEMBRANE VESICLES FROM OAT (AVENA-SATIVA L) ROOTS - A COMPARISON OF MODULATION BY FUSICOCCIN, TRYPSIN, AND LYSOPHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANFERMEIJER, FC; PRINS, HBA

    The fungal phytotoxin fusicoccin affects various transport processes in the plasma membrane of plant cells. The plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.35) seems to be the primary target of fusicoccin action. The kinetics of the stimulation of the PM H+-ATPase by fusicoccin was studied in PM

  6. Production of aerial biomass and equivalent land use in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra, T. W.; Pagliaricci, H. R.; Ohanian, A. E.; Bonvillani, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Productivity increase has traditionally been associated to yield increase through breeding and crop management practices. Nevertheless, if production is considered per area and time unit, the intercropping system may be another way to improve cost-effectiveness. The objective of the experiment was to determine the produced biomass and the equivalent land use in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) monocrop and intercrops with sorghum Sudan (Sorghum sudanense L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.). The aerial biomass of all the treatments (expressed per surface unit) and the equivalent land use were determined. The design was completely randomized, arranged in blocks with two repetitions. The results were subject to an ANAVA and the means were compared through Duncan's test, by means of the statistical pack INFOSTAT. The alfalfa-sorghum intercrop triplicated the alfalfa production with regards to the monocrop, while alfalfa-oat did not exceed the production of pure alfalfa in the winter months. The alfalfa-sorghum intercrop was 57 % more efficient in land use than the respective monocrops, while alfalfa-oat did not surpass the unit. (author)

  7. Excessive TV viewing and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. The AVENA cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive television (TV viewing might play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between TV viewing and CVD risk factors in adolescents. Methods A sample of 425 adolescents, aged 13- to 18.5-year-old, was included in this study. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo A-1, apo B-100, and lipoprotein(a levels were determined. A composite CVD risk score was computed based on age-, sex-, sexual maturation- and race-standardized triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose. TV viewing was self-reported. Results Two hundred and twenty-five adolescents (53% who spent >3 hrs/day watching TV were considered as the "high TV viewing" group. Ninety-nine adolescents (23% from the total sample were classified as overweight according to International age- and sex-specific BMI values. The high TV viewing group had significantly less favorable values of HDL-cholesterol, glucose, apo A1 and CVD score, independent of age, sex, sexual maturation, race and weight status. There was a significant interaction effect of TV viewing × weight status (P = 0.002 on WC, and the negative influence of TV viewing on WC persisted in the overweight group (P = 0.031 but was attenuated in non-overweight adolescents (P > 0.05. Conclusion Excessive TV viewing seems to be related to an unfavorable CVD risk factors profile in adolescence. Reducing TV viewing in overweight adolescents might be beneficial to decrease abdominal body fat.

  8. Annual predictions of the peak numbers of Sitobion avenae infesting winter wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, A.; Martinková, Z.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Saska, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 5 (2017), s. 352-362 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : metopolophium-dirhodum wlk * cereal aphid populations * rhopalosiphum-padi l * english grain aphid * field populations * growth-stages * fixed levels * yield loss * homoptera * dynamics * abundance * ears * growth * leaves * maximum * population Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  9. Phytochrome quantitation in crude extracts of Avena by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, Y; Cordonnier, M M; Pratt, L H

    1983-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which uses both rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antibodies to phytochrome, has been adapted for quantitation of phytochrome in crude plant extracts. The assay has a detection limit of about 100 pg phytochrome and can be completed within 10 h. Quantitation of phytochrome in crude extracts of etiolated oat seedlings by ELISA gave values that agreed well with those obtained by spectrophotometric assay. When etiolated oat seedlings were irradiated continuously for 24 h, the amount of phytochrome detected by ELISA and by spectrophotometric assay decreased by more than 1000-fold and about 100-fold, respectively. This discrepancy indicates that phytochrome in light-treated plants may be antigenically distinct from that found in fully etiolated plants. When these light-grown oat seedlings were kept in darkness for 48 h, phytochrome content detected by ELISA increased by 50-fold in crude extracts of green oat shoots, but only about 12-fold in extracts of herbicide-treated oat shoots. Phytochrome reaccumulation in green oat shoots was initially more rapid in the more mature cells of the primary leaf tip than near the basal part of the shoot. The inhibitory effect of Norflurazon on phytochrome accumulation was much more evident near the leaf tip than the shoot base. A 5-min red irradiation of oat seedlings at the end of a 48-h dark period resulted in a subsequent, massive decrease in phytochrome content in crude extracts from both green and Norflurazon-bleached oat shoots. These observations eliminate the possibility that substantial accumulation of chromophore-free phytochrome was being detected and indicate that Norflurazon has a substantial effect on phytochrome accumulation during a prolonged dark period. 25 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Duplication and diversification of the LEAFY HULL STERILE1 and Oryza sativa MADS5 SEPALLATA lineages in graminoid Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ashley R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence in function of the resulting paralogs via subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization is hypothesized to have played a major role in the evolution of plant form. The LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (LHS1 SEPALLATA (SEP genes have been linked with the origin and diversification of the grass spikelet, but it is uncertain 1 when the duplication event that produced the LHS1 clade and its paralogous lineage Oryza sativa MADS5 (OSM5 occurred, and 2 how changes in gene structure and/or expression might have contributed to subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization in the two lineages. Methods Phylogenetic relationships among 84 SEP genes were estimated using Bayesian methods. RNA expression patterns were inferred using in situ hybridization. The patterns of protein sequence and RNA expression evolution were reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML methods, respectively. Results Phylogenetic analyses mapped the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event to the base of the grass family. MP character reconstructions estimated a change from cytosine to thymine in the first codon position of the first amino acid after the Zea mays MADS3 (ZMM3 domain converted a glutamine to a stop codon in the OSM5 ancestor following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event. RNA expression analyses of OSM5 co-orthologs in Avena sativa, Chasmanthium latifolium, Hordeum vulgare, Pennisetum glaucum, and Sorghum bicolor followed by ML reconstructions of these data and previously published analyses estimated a complex pattern of gain and loss of LHS1 and OSM5 expression in different floral organs and different flowers within the spikelet or inflorescence. Conclusions Previous authors have reported that rice OSM5 and LHS1 proteins have different interaction partners indicating that the truncation of OSM5 following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event has resulted in both partitioned and potentially novel gene

  11. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  12. Rhizodeposition of nitrogen and carbon by mungbean (Vigna radiata L. and its contribution to intercropped oats (Avena nuda L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Zang

    Full Text Available Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N and carbon (C in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S or intercropped (I with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp and at maturity (Im and Sm. More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp, 9.2% (Ip, 20.1% (Sm, and 21.2% (Im of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp, 42.0% (Ip, 15.4% (Sm, and 22.6% (Im of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4-83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N and 58.4-85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops.

  13. [Increase in cigarette smoking and decrease in the level of physical activity among Spanish adolescentes. AVENA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercedor, P; Martín-Matillas, M; Chillón, P; Pérez López, I J; Ortega, F B; Wärnberg, J; Ruiz, J R; Delgado, M

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents as well as the level of physical activity constitutes a public health care issue. The aim is knowing the relationship between cigarette smoking and practice of physical activity. Schooled Spanish adolescents 2859 Spanish adolescents (1357 boys, 1502 girls; age range: 13-18.5 years). A questionnaire is applied to know the level of cigarette smoking and four other questionnaires to know the level of physical activity during different periods. 40.8% of the adolescents stated not doing any physical activity at all, boys being more active than girls (p < 0.001). 29.9% of the adolescents stated usually smoking cigarettes, without differences by gender. Both active boys and girls stated smoking less (P < or = 0.01). The greater the age, the higher cigarette smoking and the lower the level of physical activity, both in boys and girls (p < 0.001). The level of physical activity is low, being even lower for girls. Cigarette smoking shows a negative relationship with the level of physical activity, the individuals more physically active being those smoking the less.

  14. A comparative study between nonlinear regression and artificial neural network approaches for modelling wild oat (Avena fatua) field emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-linear regression techniques are used widely to fit weed field emergence patterns to soil microclimatic indices using S-type functions. Artificial neural networks present interesting and alternative features for such modeling purposes. In this work, a univariate hydrothermal-time based Weibull m...

  15. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasitóides nos afídeos mumificados ao longo deste estudo.

  16. 2018-03-13T08:12:57Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae ainsi que Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ont été chacune détectées dans 50 % des échantillons et Burkholderia Glumae dans 16,66 %. 52 % des bactéries identifiées se rapportent à Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, 35 % à Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae et 13 % à Burkholderia ...

  17. Subgenome-specific assembly of vitamin E biosynthesis genes and expression patterns during seed development provide insight into the evolution of the oat genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E is essential for humans and thus must be a component of a healthy diet. Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) have high vitamin E content. To date, no gene sequences in the vitamin E biosynthesis pathway have been reported for oats. Using deep sequencing and orthology-g...

  18. Assembly and expression analysis of oat vitamin E biosynthesis gene homeologs during seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) are particularly rich in vitamin E, an essential liposoluble vitamin that maintains membrane stability and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To date, no gene sequences involved in vitamin E biosynthesis have been reporte...

  19. Chernobyl Doses. Volume 3. Habitat and Vegetation Near the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare, Avena sativa, Fagopyrum esculentum, Beta vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Linum usitatissimum , Cannabis satii, Humulus lupulus, Daucus carota... USITATISSIMUM flax It is grown for fiber. Fine-quality fiber can be obtained from plants grown on podzolic and gley soils with considerable fertilizing. In the

  20. Assessment of the nutritive value of cereal and legume straws based on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, S.; Davies, D.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    The nutritive value of 17 straws was determined on the basis of their chemical composition, in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility and rumen fermentation kinetics (from gas production curves measured in vitro). Five roughages were from the cereal species Avena sativa (oat), Hordeum vulgare (barley),

  1. Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) recombinant inbred lines intercropped with oat ( Avena sativa L.) weeds. ... Furthermore, the commonly used herbicide price is soaring from time to time and out of the reach of the poor farmers in the developing countries. Therefore, this method is an ...

  2. Effects of mowing utilization on forage yield and quality in five oat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oat (Avena sativa) is grown to provide feed in winter for livestock production in the alpine area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The effect of early cutting (T1), late cutting (T2) as well as once cutting and twice cutting (T3) on forage yields and qualities were investigated for five oat varieties (YTA, CNC, B3, Q473 and Q444).

  3. Vulnerability of grain crops and croplands in the Midwest to climatic variability and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Gylcine max (L.) Merr.) are the dominant grain crops across the Midwest and are grown on 75% of the arable land with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.) small but economically important crops. Historically there have been variations in annual yiel...

  4. Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: an example for plants exposed to nickel in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenzin, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Marcomini, A.

    2007-01-01

    The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2)

  5. "Navajita Cecilia" Bouteloua gracilis H.B.K (Lag.. Nueva variedad de pasto para zonas áridas y semiáridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Beltrán López

    2010-01-01

    fertilización nitrogenada. Los resultados muestran que el uso combinado de inoculante más 30 kg N ha-1 produjo 50 % más MS (aproximadamente 11 t más que cuando se aplica sólo nitrógeno, especialmente en avena y ballico anual. El análisis económico mostró que el mejor tratamiento fue el de inoculación con 30 kg N ha-1 en Avena sativa L, con una tasa de retorno marginal por arriba del 60 %.

  6. Effects of lead on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiussello, N.; Molinari, M.T.

    1973-01-01

    The poisonousness of lead nitrate to seedlings of several plant species has been tested in Petri dishes, with 10/sup -1/, 10/sup -2/, 10/sup -3/, 10/sup -4/ M conc. Distilled water and KNO/sub 3/ solutions 2 X 10/sup -1/, 2 X 10/sup -2/, 2 X 10/sup -3/, 2 X 10/sup -4/ M were employed as controls. The tested species show a decreasing sensitivity: Capsicum annum > Beta vulgaris > Phalaris canariensis > Vicia sativa > Helianthus annuus > Oryza sativa > Triticum vulgare Avena sativa > Pisum sativum. Avena sativa shows a diminution of 34% in ww, 23% in dw, 26% in chlorophyll content in comparison with the controls after 21 days 10/sup -4/ M lead nitrate. The chlorophyll content, referred to dry weight, is related to lead concentration. Since the early stages of chlorophyll biosynthesis are similar, if not identical, with those for Haemoglobin, lead could interfere as it does in haemoglobin synthesis.

  7. Exploring the origin of the D genome of oat by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaomei; Zhang, Haiqin; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Zhou, Yonghong

    2014-09-01

    Further understanding of the origin of cultivated oat would accelerate its genetic improvement. In particular, it would be useful to clarify which diploid progenitor contributed the D genome of this allohexaploid species. In this study, we demonstrate that the landmarks produced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of species of Avena using probes derived from Avena sativa can be used to explore the origin of the D genome. Selected sets of probes were hybridized in several sequential experiments performed on exactly the same chromosome spreads, with multiple probes of cytological preparations. Probes pITS and A3-19 showed there might be a similar distribution of pITS between the Ac and D genomes. These results indicated that the Ac genome is closely related to the D genome, and that Avena canariensis (AcAc) could be the D-genome donor of cultivated oat.

  8. Nigella sativa L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... and agro-biodiversity in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) genotypes from ... analysis. INTRODUCTION. Among the medicinal plants in use from prehistoric times, .... AA240 FS Fast sequential atomic absorption spectrophotometer) ... Lead (Pb) mg kg- ..... for herbal, pharmaceutical, neutraceutical and cosmetic.

  9. Sugarcane crop residue and bagasse allelopathic impact on oat (Avena sative L.), morningglory (Ipomoea purpurea L.), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelopathy, the chemical interaction between plants, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development, and can include compounds released from a crop that adversely impact crop or weed species. The objective of this research was to determine the allelopathic impact of sugarcane (Sacchar...

  10. Simulation of Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L. Competition on Winter Wheat (Triticum astivum Growth and Yield. I: Model Description and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mondani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth models could stimulate growth and development based on science principles and mathematical equations. They also able to evaluate effects of climate, soil, water and agronomic management practices on crop yield. In the present study, an eco-physiological simulation model developed to assess wild oat damage to winter wheat growth and yield. The general structure of this model is derived from LINTUL1 model which modified to wild oat competition against winter wheat. LINTUL1 model was developed for simulation of spring wheat potential production level. In this study, first, we added development stage (DVS and vernalization to LINTUL1 for simulation of winter wheat growth and development and then the model calibrated for potential production level. Finally, we incorporate harmful effects of wild oat to winter wheat growth and yield. Weather data used as input were average daily minimum and maximum temperature (°C and daily global radiation (MJ m-2 in Mashhad, Iran. Parameter values were derived from the literature. The model is written in Fortran Simulation Translator (FST programming language and then validated based on an experiment data. For these purposes different wild oat plant densities were arranged. The data of this experiment does not use for calibration. The results showed that this model was in general able to simulate the temporal changes in DVS of winter wheat and wild oat, total dry matter (TDM of winter wheat and wild oat and yield loss of wheat due to wild oat competition in all treatments, satisfactorily. Root mean square error (RMSE for winter wheat DVS, wild oat DVS, average winter wheat TDM, average wild oat TDM, and yield loss of winter wheat was 10.4, 14.5, 5.8, 7.6 and 7.5, respectively.

  11. The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Wild Oat (Avena ludoviciana L. Competition Ability with Winter Wheat (Triticum asetivum L. in Kermanshah Climate Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jalilian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cereals are the main agricultural production. Wheat is an annual crop, which plays an important role in human’s source of food. Wheat grains have various nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and various amino acids. The annual per capita consumption of wheat is about 232 in Iran, which is about double time of the world capita consumption. Weed interference decrease the quality and quantity of wheat production. Weed management in wheat farms is one of the main cost and time-consuming practices. Wheat yield decrease significantly by weed competition. Therefore, effective weed management dependents on knowledge about the effect of competition on yield and yield components. Response of the yield and yield components to weeds competition is different in crop species during the growth period. Yield components in development stages show the maximum sensitivity to weed competition. Wild Oat is the most important weed in wheat fields. Synchrony in development stages of wild oat with development stages of wheat is much more important reason in reducing of wheat yield and yield component. On the other hand, wild oat damage on wheat yield and yield components depends on several factors including species, plant density, wheat cultivars, nutrients consumption, sowing date, row spacing, and other ecological conditions. Moreover, leaf area index, plant height, leaf area density in canopy determine competitiveness of wild oat among wheat. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of wild oat competition in different plant densities and levels of Nitrogen fertilizer consumption on yield and yield components of wheat under Kermanshah climate. Materials and Methods This study was conducted to evaluate the competition of wild oat and winter wheat at the Research Farm of Campus of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Razi University during 2014-2015. The experiment was arranged in a split plots based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included amounts of 30, 60, 100, and 120 % of wheat demand to nitrogen fertilizer as a main plot and wild oat plant density of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 in m-2 as a subplot. Fertilizer applications were based on soil test recommendations at the rates of 250 kg ha-1 urea and 100 kg ha1 super phosphate triple. All phosphate and 1/3 of urea fertilizer were applied at planting, and 2/3 of urea was applied later. The experimental farm was ploughed using a mold board plough and then it was disked twice before sowing. Wheat and wild oat seeds were planted on November 20. Wheat plant density was 400 plants m-2. The experimental plot includes 10 planting row of three meters length with 25 cm row spacing. Wild oat seeds were collected from surrounding farms and pocket companies. In order to breaking wild oat seed dormancy was used KNO3 2% about 24 hours. Irrigation was done using a surface method based on plant demand. Analysis of variance was conducted by SAS software (version 9.4. Also, post-anova analysis performed to slicing interaction of nitrogen fertilizer application and wild oat plant density. The comparison of means was done based on LSD at 5% level. Results and Discussion The results showed that number of spike per square meter (24%, number of grain in spike (31%, 1000 grains weight (19.4%, grain yield (49.82%, wheat total dry weight (54.1% and wild oat total dry weight (54.2% improved by increasing of Nitrogen fertilizer application from 30 to 120 % wheat demand. Also number of spike per square meter (12.8%, number of grain per spike (23.5%, 1000 grains weight (21.8%, grain yield (38.9%, and wheat total dry weight (27.7% decreased by increasing of wild oat plant density from zero to 100 plant per square meter. The results of interaction of nitrogen fertilizer application and wild oat plant density showed that the extent of wild oat damage on yield and yield components of wheat were increased with the increasing of nitrogen fertilizer application. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that higher resources absorption by wild oat and converting them to biomass compare to wheat increased the ability of wild oat in competition for resources and production of higher biomass and, consequently caused to more damage on yield and yield components of wheat especially with more nitrogen fertilizer application. In addition, it can be concluded that an increase in application of nitrogen fertilizer to higher than wheat demand not only did not improve wheat yield and yield components but also wild oat damage increased.

  12. Individual and combined effects of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms on cognitive performance in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Ruth; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; Fuentes, Miguel García; Lamuño, Domingo González; Alvarez Granda, Jesus L; Lucia, Alejandro; Ortega, Francisco B

    2010-06-01

    To examine the individual and combined associations of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms with cognitive performance in adolescents. The study comprised 412 Spanish adolescents (13 to 18.5 years of age). Cognitive performance (verbal, numeric and reasoning abilities, and an overall score) was measured by the Spanish-version of the SRA-Test of Educational-Ability. We observed no differences in the cognitive performance study variables in adolescents carrying or not carrying the ApoE epsilon4 variant. Adolescents without the MTHFR 677TT genotype had significantly better cognitive performance than their TT peers. The analysis of the combined effect of these polymorphisms revealed that those individuals carrying both the ApoE epsilon4 variant and the MTHFR 677TT genotype had significantly worse cognitive performance than their peers with other genotype combinations. These findings were independent of sex, age pubertal status, socioeconomic status, physical activity, and skipping breakfast. The results of the present study suggest that the ApoE epsilon4 alone is not associated with cognitive performance in adolescents. Individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype had slightly impaired cognitive performance, whereas we observed a combined effect of both the ApoE epsilon4 variant and the MTHFR 677TT genotype on cognitive performance. More research is needed in larger population samples to corroborate our findings. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, In Jeong; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Shim, Hyeong Kwon; Shin, Dong Bum; Heu, Suggi

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an opti...

  14. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  15. OUEDRAOGO SLmdi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lara

    DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA TRANSMITTED BY RICE SEEDS IN BURKINA FASO. Twelve seed samples of rice from various localities of Burkina Faso were .... NCPPB 1770 / 22 07 1997 ;. Acidovorax avena subsp avenae, NEPAL ;. Pseudomonas glumae, NCPPB, 2391,.

  16. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jeong Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature. Samples collected from naturally infected fields were detected with two bacteria, B. glumae and A. avenae subsp. avenae but X. oryzae pv. oryzae was not detected. This assay can be used to identify pathogens directly from infected seeds, and will be an effective tool for the identification of the three pathogens in rice plants.

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In Jeong; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Shim, Hyeong Kwon; Shin, Dong Bum; Heu, Suggi

    2016-12-01

    Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae , and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae , three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae , 490 bp for X. oryzae , and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature. Samples collected from naturally infected fields were detected with two bacteria, B. glumae and A. avenae subsp. avenae but X. oryzae pv. oryzae was not detected. This assay can be used to identify pathogens directly from infected seeds, and will be an effective tool for the identification of the three pathogens in rice plants.

  18. Efeitos de parâmetros de aplicação na açâo dessecante do herbicida sulfosate sobre aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. Effects of application parameters on desiccation action of sulfosate herbicide on oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Gilberto Fleck

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar os aspectos da inter-relação da dose herbicida, sua concentração na solução e o volume do veículo diluente na ação do herbicida sulfosate, usando-se aveia-preta como espécie reagente. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 1994 na EEA/UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul, RS. Foram testadas cinco doses de sulfosate (0,75; 1,125; 1,5; 2,25 e 3,0 l ha-1 do produto comercial; cinco volumes de diluente (62; 94; 125; 188 e 250 l ha-1; e cinco concentrações de produto na calda (0,6; 0,9; 1,2; l,8 e 2,4% v/v, mais três padrões para comparação: glyphosate, paraquat+diuron e testemunha não tratada. Em cada situação, um desses parâmetros era mantido constante. Não houve diferença estatística na ação de glyphosate e sulfosate quando ambos foram usados sob as mesmas condições de aplicação. Ao se manter constante a variável volume de calda, constatou-se resposta significativa à dose de sulfosate. Esse comportamento se repetiu quando se manteve constante a concentração herbicida na calda e se variou a dose do produto. Em ambas as situações, níveis finais de controle, variáveis entre 90 e 100%, somente foram alcançados por doses de sulfosate de l,125 l ha-1 ou superiores; dose de 0,75 l ha-1 atingiu apenas 80% de controle. Já quando se manteve constante a dose herbicida, variando-se a concentração do sulfosate na calda, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. Plantas de aveia tratadas no florescimento com 0,75 l ha-1 de sulfosate acumularam parcialmente reservas nos grãos, os quais também mostraram viabilidade de germinação em bioteste.The objective of this research was to investigate aspects of inter-relations of herbicide rate, its concentration in spray solution, and volume of vehicle diluent in the herbicide action of sulfosate, using oats as reagent species. The experiment was conducted during the 1994, growing season at the EEA/UFRGS, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. There were tested five rates of sulfosate (0.75; 1.125; 1.5; 2.5; and 3,0 l ha-1 of formulated product; five diluent volumes (62; 94; 125; 188; and 250 l ha-1; and five concentrations in spray solution (0.6; 0.9; 1.2; 1.8; and 2.4% v/v; and also three standard treatments to compare with: glyphosate, paraquat + diuron, and a check plot not treated. In each situation, one of these parameters was maintained constant. There was no statistical differences in action between glyphosate and sulfosate when both were used under the same application conditions. At maintaining spray volume variable constant, it was detected significant response to sulfosate rate. This same behaviour repeated when herbicide concentration in spray solution was maintained constant and product rate varied. In both situations, final levels of control, varying between 90 and 100%, were reached only by sulfosate rates of 1.125 l ha-1 or higher; rate of 0.75 l ha-1 reached maximum control of 80%. When herbicide rate was maintained fixed, varying sulfosate concentration in spray solution, there were no differences among treatments. Oat plants treated at flowering with 0.75 l ha-1 of sulfosate partially accumulated reserves in grains, which also showed viability of germination in biossay.

  19. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior degradabilidade efetiva para todos os nutrientes avaliados e a peletização da grama Esmeralda promoveu maior DE da MS e da fibra, sem alterar a DE da PB.

  20. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  1. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrates and proteins fractioning of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbieris Junior, Valter Harry; Jobim, Cloves Cabreira; Emile, Jean Claude; Rossi, Robson; Calixto Junior, Moyses; Branco, Antonio Ferriani

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the ruminal degradability, and the fractioning of carbohydrates, as well as of the nitrogen fractions of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The treatments had been: triticale silage (X. Triticosecale Wittimack) (ST); triticale silage + forage pea (Pisum arvense) (STE); triticale silage + oats (Avena strigosa Scheb) + forage pea + vetch (Vicia sativa) (STAE). Three castrated bovine Prim’Holstein males had been used, with aver...

  2. Characterization of Cannabis sativa allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Green, Brett J; Sussman, Gordon; Berlin, Noam; Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Hettick, Justin M; Beezhold, Donald H

    2013-07-01

    Allergic sensitization to Cannabis sativa is rarely reported, but the increasing consumption of marijuana has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals who become sensitized. To date, little is known about the causal allergens associated with C sativa. To characterize marijuana allergens in different components of the C sativa plant using serum IgE from marijuana sensitized patients. Serum samples from 23 patients with a positive skin prick test result to a crude C sativa extract were evaluated. IgE reactivity was variable between patients and C sativa extracts. IgE reactivity to C sativa proteins in Western blots was heterogeneous and ranged from 10 to 70 kDa. Putative allergens derived from 2-dimensional gels were identified. Prominent IgE reactive bands included a 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 and a 50-kDa protein identified to be the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Additional proteins were identified in the proteomic analysis, including those from adenosine triphosphate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and luminal binding protein (heat shock protein 70), suggesting these proteins are potential allergens. Deglycosylation studies helped refine protein allergen identification and demonstrated significant IgE antibodies against plant oligosaccharides that could help explain cross-reactivity. Identification and characterization of allergens from C sativa may be helpful in further understanding allergic sensitization to this plant species. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of elevated cadmium content in soil on the uptake of nitrogen by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciecko, Z.; Kalembasa, S.; Wyszkowski, M.; Rolka, E. [University of Warmia & Mazury Olsztyn, Olsztyn (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg Cd/kg of soil) contamination in soil with the application of different substances (compost, brown coal, lime and bentonite) on the intake of nitrogen by some plants. The correlations between the nitrogen content in the plants and the cadmium concentration in the soil, as well as the plant yield and the content of micro- and macroelements in the plants were determined. Plant species and cadmium dose determined the effects of soil contamination with cadmium on the content of nitrogen. Large doses of cadmium caused an increase in nitrogen content in the Avena sativa straw and roots and in the Zea mays roots. Soil contamination with cadmium resulted in a decrease of nitrogen content in the Avena sativa grain, in above-ground parts and roots of the Lupinus luteus, in the above-ground parts of the Zea mays and in the above-ground parts and roots of Phacelia tanacaetifolia. Among the experimental different substances, the application of bentonite had the strongest and a usually negative effect on the nitrogen content in plants. The greatest effect of bentonite was on Avena sativa grain, above-ground parts Zea mays and Lupinus luteus and Phacelia tanacaetifolia. The content of nitrogen in the plants was generally positively correlated with the content of the macroelements and some of the microelements, regardless of the substances added to the soil.

  4. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  5. Haplodiploid androgenetic breeding in oat: genotypic variation in anther size and microspore development stage Melhoramento por haplodiploidização androgenética: variação genotípica no tamanho das anteras e no estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos em aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniela De Cesaro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oat (Avena spp. is poorly responsive to the haplodiploidization process, which leads to the production of homozygous lines in one step, increasing breeding efficiency. Androgenetic haploids in small grain cereal crops are obtained from microspores cultured at the mononucleate stage, which can be identified by the size of anthers. In order to identify the appropriate anther size for in vitro culture, microspore cytological analyses were made in Avena sativa cultivars UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout and Avena sterilis CAV 3361, cultivated in growth chamber under controlled light and temperature conditions. Variation was observed within and among genotypes for anther size at each microspore developmental stage and according to the position of spikelets in the panicle. Architecture variation in panicle shape and non-linear microsporogenesis maturation increased the challenge of identifying potentially androgenetic oat anthers. Cytological screening before culture is critical in identifying microspores at the right stage for oat androgenesis.A aveia (Avena spp. tem sido pouco responsiva à haplodiploidização, um processo que aumenta a eficiência da seleção no melhoramento por gerar, em uma etapa, linhas puras homozigóticas. A fase mononucleada do micrósporo é critica para o sucesso da androgênese in vitro nos cereais de inverno e, em geral, pode ser inferida pelo tamanho da antera. Foram medidas anteras e analisados citológicamente micrósporos das cultivares de Avena sativa UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout e da linhagem CAV 3361 de Avena sterilis, cultivadas em câmaras de crescimento sob temperaturas dia-noite variando de 16ºC a 9ºC e 12 horas de intensidade luminosa de 300 mol m-2 s-1. O tamanho das anteras em cada fase de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos variou significativamente entre genótipos e de acordo com a região de inserção das espiguetas na panícula. A variação na arquitetura da panícula e a maturação não linear das

  6. Selección de abonos verdes para los suelos de Turmequé (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viteri Silvio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar asociaciones de abonos verdes con el mejor potencial como fuente de materia orgánica para los suelos del municipio de Turmequé (Boyacá. Los experimentos se desarrollaron en tres fincas, ubicadas a 2.300, 2.650 y 2.860 msnm. De cada finca se tomó una muestra representativa de suelo, que se envió al laboratorio para análisis de fertilidad. Los tratamientos incluyeron 10 asociaciones triples y 3 cuádruples. Las asociaciones se conformaron con la leguminosa vicia atropurpúrea (Vicia sativa L. en combinación con avena caldas (Avena sativa L., girasol (híbrido Hi Doris (Helianthus annus L., higuerilla (Ricinus communis L., nabo forrajero (Raphanus sativus L. o quinua (Chenopodium quinua. El porcentaje de semilla leguminosa respecto a las otras especies en las asociaciones triples fue 40:30:30 y en las cuádruples 40:20:20:20. El porcentaje de semilla de cada especie se calculó con base en la cantidad recomendada para siembra en monocultivo. Se utilizó el diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 13 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. Las variables determinadas fueron producción de materia verde por especie, por asociación y por las plantas arvenses y materia seca por asociación. Además, se observó la tolerancia de las especies al ataque de plagas y enfermedades. Los resultados indicaron que entre las especies estudiadas las más promisorias son el nabo forrajero, la avena y la vicia, conformando la asociación vicia × avena × nabo forrajero.

  7. Bioactive spirans and other constituents from the leaves of Cannabis sativa f. sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Qing-Chao; Zhao, Yong; Hou, Yu-Fei; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Sheng-Yong; Bai, Nai-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, 17 compounds (1-17) were isolated from the leaves of Hemp (Cannabis sativa f. sativa). Among the isolates, two were determined to be new spirans: cannabispirketal (1), and α-cannabispiranol 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranose (2) by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known compounds 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, and 16 were isolated from Hemp (C. sativa f. sativa) for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 8 and 13 were isolated from the nature for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity on different tissue-derived passage cancer cell lines through cell viability and apoptosis assay. Among these compounds, compounds 5, 9 and 16 exhibited a broad-spectrum antitumor effect via inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. These results obtained have provided valuable clues to the understanding of the cytotoxic profile for these isolated compounds from Hemp (C. sativa f. sativa).

  8. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  9. [Therapeutic potential of Cannabis sativa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avello L, Marcia; Pastene N, Edgar; Fernández R, Pola; Córdova M, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marihuana) is considered an illicit drug due to its psychoactive properties. Recently, the Chilean government opened to the use cannabis in the symptomatic treatment of some patients. The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary treatment of specific clinical situations such as chronic pain. We retrieved scientific information about the analgesic properties of cannabis, using it as a safe drug. The drug may block or inhibit the transmission of nervous impulses at different levels, an effect associated with pain control. Within this context and using adequate doses, forms and administration pathways, it can be used for chronic pain management, considering its effectiveness and low cost. It could also be considered as an alternative in patients receiving prolonged analgesic therapies with multiple adverse effects.

  10. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Beheshti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (NS (Ranunculaceae family is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  11. Liberação de nutrientes durante a decomposição de palha de aveia preta (Avena strigosa com diferentes teores de silício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Silva

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O Si absorvido pelas plantas é, em sua maior parte, depositado na parte externa da parede celular de folhas como uma camada de sílica amorfa (SiO2.nH2O e poderia afetar a decomposição da palha no solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da presença deste elemento no tecido vegetal sobre a decomposição da palha, foi desenvolvido um experimento. Nesse experimento, a parte aérea de plantas de aveia preta, cultivadas em solução nutritiva com e sem adição de Si, foi incubada em tubos de PVC com areia e solo. Aos 6, 14, 30, 66, 100 e 182 dias, foram realizadas percolações com água destilada e determinados os teores de Si, carbono orgânico solúvel, N mineral, Ca, Mg, Na e K. Os resultados dos teores dos elementos na água percolada em cada período foram convertidos em quantidade liberada por kg de substrato (solo ou areia e acumulados no tempo para serem utilizados como índices da decomposição da palha. Em todos os parâmetros avaliados, não houve diferença significativa entre a palha c/Si e s/Si, exceto para o teor de Si e este somente quando a palha foi decomposta na areia. O silício absorvido pelas plantas de aveia preta, quando comparado com plantas cultivadas sem adição deste elemento, não alterou a liberação de carbono e nutrientes presentes na água de percolação durante o período de 182 dias da decomposição da palha.

  12. Study of Seed Germination and Morphological Characteristics of Wild Oat(Avena ludoviciana and Mustard (Sinapis arvensis Seedling, Affected by Aqueous Extracts of Black Cumin (Bunium persicum L, Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L and Mixed of Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Moradi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the effects of shoot aqueous extracts of chickpea, black cumin and their mixed aqueous extracts on seed germination and seedling morphological characteristics of wild oat and mustard as two common weed, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications. The experimental treatments were aqueous extracts in five levels (0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 percentage, Weed species in two levels (wild oat and mustard and extract concentration in five levels (0, 10, 20. 40 and 60 percentage. Result indicated that the highest and the lowest percentage and seed germination rate, length of radicle and hypocotyle, dry weight of radicle and hypocotyle and radicle / hypocotyle ratio (R/H, were obtained in control treatment and 60% concentration, respectively. Aqueous extract of black cumin and mixed extracts had the highest and the lowest effect on percentage and seed germination rate, length of radicle and hypocotyle, dry weight of radicle and hypocotyle and radicle / hypocotyle ratio, respectively. Between two weed species, wild oat had the lowest percentage of seed germination and length of radicle compared with mustard. Mustard had the lowest seed germination rate, dry weight of radicle and hypocotyle and length of hypocotyle compare with wild oat. Generally, it was concluded that chickpea and black cumin aqueous extracts have highly inhibitory in terms of weed control that can be useful for sustainable agriculture. Keywords: Allelopathy, Black cumin, Chickpea, Extract, Mustard, Wild oat

  13. Induction of cellular accessibility and inaccessibility and suppression and potentiation of cell death in oat attacked by ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤avenae¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, M.F.; Neyron, L.

    1999-01-01

    graminis DC.). Successful penetration and haustorium formation by the inducer rendered living epidermal cells highly accessible to later challenge attack as judged by increased frequency of challenge penetration success compared to controls. Conversely, where failure of inducer attack on living epidermal......First-formed (seedling) and later-formed leaves of oat cvs Selma (susceptible) and Maldwyn (adult plant resistance under complex genetic control) were subjected to a double inoculation procedure ('inducer' followed by 'challenger') with conidia of Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer (Syn. Erysiphe......, suggesting that induced changes in (in)accessibility may be a common consequence of B. graminis attack in cereals. As expected, in Maldwyn, cell death was a consistent but infrequent response to attack (5-20%, of attacks caused cell death in controls). Here, the successful formation of an inducer haustorium...

  14. Individual and Combined Effects of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T Polymorphisms on Cognitive Performance in Spanish Adolescents: The AVENA Study RID C-7661-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Castillo, Ruth; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno López, Luis A.; García Fuentes, Miguel; González Lamuno, Domingo; Álvarez Granda, Jesús L.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Ortega, Francisco B.; Avena Study Group

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the individual and combined associations of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms with cognitive performance in adolescents. Study design The study comprised 412 Spanish adolescents (13 to 18.5 years of age). Cognitive performance (verbal, numeric and reasoning abilities, and an overall score) was measured by the Spanish-version of the SRA-Test of Educational-Ability. Results We observed no differences in the cognitive performance study variables in adolescents carrying or ...

  15. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  16. The influence of intercrop plants and the date of their ploughing-in on weed infestation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008 in the Felin Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin on podzolic soil developed from dusty medium loam. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch. cv. Polanowicka was involved in the experiment. The experimental factors were 3 species of intercrop plants: common vetch (Vicia sativa, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia, oat (Avena sativa and 2 dates of ploughing-in: pre-winter and spring. In total, 26 taxons characteristic for vegetable plantations were identified in chicory weed infestation. Monocarpic species dominated, among which Senecio vulgaris, Chenopodium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Galinsoga ciliata, and Capsella bursa-pastoris were predominant. The date of ploughing-in did not significantly affect the status and size of weed infestation of chicory plots. Short-lived species occurred after pre-winter ploughing-in, while perennial - after spring ploughing-in. The application of intercrops significantly reduced chicory weed infestation as compared to the cultivation with no intercrop. The ploughing-in of Avena sativa biomass appeared to be the most efficient. The intercrop plants reduced the occurrence of Senecio vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris which were the most numerous in the treatment without intercrops. Biomass of Vicia sativa favored the growth of Chenopodium album and Lamium amplexicaule. The secondary weed infestation did not depend on agrotechnical factors applied during the experiment.

  17. Cardiovascular benefits of black cumin (Nigella sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman; Asim, Mohammad; Al-Azzeh, Hiba; Al Thani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Black Cumin (Nigella sativa), which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, commonly grows in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Western Asia. Its ripe fruit contains tiny black seeds, known as "Al-Habba Al-Sauda" and "Al-Habba Al-Barakah" in Arabic and black seed or black cumin in English. Seeds of Nigella sativa are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and the treatment of many ailments. However, data for the cardiovascular benefits of black cumin are not well-established. We reviewed the literature from 1960 to March 2012 by using the following key words: "Nigella sativa," "black seeds," and "thymoquinone." Herein, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of Nigella sativa in the cardiovascular diseases spectrum especially when there is a paucity of information and need of further studies in human to establish the utility of Nigella sativa in cardiovascular system protection.

  18. Phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Radwan, Mohamed M; Gul, Waseem; Chandra, Suman; Galal, Ahmed

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, or hemp) and its constituents-in particular the cannabinoids-have been the focus of extensive chemical and biological research for almost half a century since the discovery of the chemical structure of its major active constituent, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC). The plant's behavioral and psychotropic effects are attributed to its content of this class of compounds, the cannabinoids, primarily Δ 9 -THC, which is produced mainly in the leaves and flower buds of the plant. Besides Δ 9 -THC, there are also non-psychoactive cannabinoids with several medicinal functions, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG), along with other non-cannabinoid constituents belonging to diverse classes of natural products. Today, more than 560 constituents have been identified in cannabis. The recent discoveries of the medicinal properties of cannabis and the cannabinoids in addition to their potential applications in the treatment of a number of serious illnesses, such as glaucoma, depression, neuralgia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, and alleviation of symptoms of HIV/AIDS and cancer, have given momentum to the quest for further understanding the chemistry, biology, and medicinal properties of this plant.This contribution presents an overview of the botany, cultivation aspects, and the phytochemistry of cannabis and its chemical constituents. Particular emphasis is placed on the newly-identified/isolated compounds. In addition, techniques for isolation of cannabis constituents and analytical methods used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of cannabis and its products are also reviewed.

  19. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith K Booth

    Full Text Available Cannabis (Cannabis sativa plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E-β-ocimene, (--limonene, (+-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  20. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  1. The Novel Kasugamycin 2′-N-Acetyltransferase Gene aac(2′)-IIa, Carried by the IncP Island, Confers Kasugamycin Resistance to Rice-Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Atsushi; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Kasugamycin (KSM), a unique aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been used in agriculture for many years to control not only rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea but also rice bacterial grain and seedling rot or rice bacterial brown stripe caused by Burkholderia glumae or Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, respectively. Since both bacterial pathogens are seed-borne and cause serious injury to rice seedlings, the emergence of KSM-resistant B. glumae and A. avenae isolates highlights the ...

  2. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  3. "Navajita Cecilia" Bouteloua gracilis H.B.K (Lag.). Nueva variedad de pasto para zonas áridas y semiáridas

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Beltrán López; Carlos Alberto García Díaz; José Antonio Hernández Alatorre; Catarina Loredo Osti; Jorge Urrutia Morales; Luis Antonio González Eguiarte; Héctor Guillermo Gámez Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    Los objetivos fueron evaluar el efecto combinado de diferentes dosis de inoculante (Rhodococcus fascians) y fertilización nitrogenada en la producción de forraje de gramíneas así como la relación costo/beneficio. Las gramíneas fueron: Avena sativa L, Lolium multiflorum Lam yTriticum durum L con los siguientes tratamientos: inoculación, fertilización nitrogenada (0, 30, 60 kg N ha-1), y la combinación de inoculante y fertilización. Las especies se establecieron en condiciones de riego en un...

  4. Infrared light-emitting diode radiation causes gravitropic and morphological effects in dark-grown oat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. F.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Chapman, D. K.; Deitzer, G. F.

    1996-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa cv Seger) seedlings were irradiated with IR light-emitting diode (LED) radiation passed through a visible-light-blocking filter. Infrared LED irradiated seedlings exhibited differences in growth and gravitropic response when compared to seedlings grown in darkness at the same temperature. Thus, the oat seedlings in this study were able to detect IR LED radiation. These findings call into question the use of IR LED as a safe-light for some photosensitive plant response experiments. These findings also expand the defined range of wavelengths involved in radiation-gravity (light-gravity) interactions to include wavelengths in the IR region of the spectrum.

  5. Cannabis sativa allergy: looking through the fog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, I I; Van Gasse, A L; Cop, N; Sabato, V; Faber, M A; Mertens, C; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L; Rihs, H P; Ebo, D G

    2017-02-01

    IgE-mediated Cannabis (C. sativa, marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may trigger a C. sativa sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical presentation of a C. sativa allergy varies from mild to life-threatening reactions and often seems to depend on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can result in various cross-allergies, mostly for plant foods. This clinical entity, designated as the 'cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome', might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, natural latex and plant-food-derived alcoholic beverages. Hitherto, these cross-allergies are predominantly reported in Europe and appear mainly to rely upon cross-reactivity between nonspecific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in C. sativa and their homologues, ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies predominantly rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from crushed buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures. Whether avoidance of further use will halt the extension of related cross-allergies remains uncertain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Polyketide synthases in Cannabis sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, Isvett Josefina

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, which have been grouped in cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans; the cannabinoids are the best known group of natural products from this plant. The pharmacological aspects of this

  7. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars.

  8. Plant Identity Exerts Stronger Effect than Fertilization on Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Sown Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in plant nutrition and plant productivity. AM fungal responses to either plant identity or fertilization have been investigated. However, the interactive effects of different plant species and fertilizer types on these symbiotic fungi remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of the factorial combinations of plant identity (grasses Avena sativa and Elymus nutans and legume Vicia sativa) and fertilization (urea and sheep manure) on AM fungi following 2-year monocultures in a sown pasture field study. AM fungal extraradical hyphal density was significantly higher in E. nutans than that in A. sativa and V. sativa in the unfertilized control and was significantly increased by urea and manure in A. sativa and by manure only in E. nutans, but not by either fertilizers in V. sativa. AM fungal spore density was not significantly affected by plant identity or fertilization. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA. The OTU richness and Shannon diversity index of AM fungi were significantly higher in E. nutans than those in V. sativa and/or A. sativa, but not significantly affected by any fertilizer in all of the three plant species. AM fungal community composition was significantly structured directly by plant identity only and indirectly by both urea addition and plant identity through soil total nitrogen content. Our findings highlight that plant identity has stronger influence than fertilization on belowground AM fungal community in this converted pastureland from an alpine meadow.

  9. Evaluation of Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima derived progenies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... The genus Oryza has two cultivated species, Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and 22 wild species. O. glaberrima is low yielding but has useful genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Introgression lines derived from backcrossing of O. sativa x O. glaberrima,.

  10. Assessment of genomic relationship between Oryza sativa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hybrid was produced between these two species at the International Rice Research Institute using embryo rescue technique. The chromosome pairing was examined in pollen mother cells of O. australinesis, O. sativa and the hybrid between O. sativa and O. australinesis. The hybrid was highly sterile with pollen stain ...

  11. Screening wild oat accessions from Morocco for resistance to Puccinia coronata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report the screening of 338 new accessions of 11 different wild oat species (Avena) from the USDA Small Grains Collection for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata). Wild oat species were originally collected in Morocco by C. Al Faiz, INRAT Rabat: Avena agadiriana, A. atlantica, A. bar...

  12. cyst nematode in tiaret a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Labdelli

    1 sept. 2017 ... Le nématode à kyste Heterodera avenae Woll. trouvé pour la ... décrite par [43] la culture est réalisée dans un mélange composé de terre, sable et ..... Heterodera avenae on Wheat an Barley yield components and on final ...

  13. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  14. Comparação entre dois métodos analíticos para determinação da lignina de algumas gramíneas forrageiras Comparison between two analytical methods for determining lignin concentration of some grass forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Shigueo Fukushima

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados dois métodos analíticos para a determinação da lignina (lignina em detergente ácido - LDA e lignina permanganato de potássio - LPer bem como para averiguar a possível relação dos teores desse componente com a digestibilidade da fibra dos seguintes fenos: andropogon (Andropogon gayanus; aveia (Avena sativa; e dois tipos de coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, um bem fenado e outro de baixa qualidade. Os valores de LDA e LPer foram diferentes (p This work was carried out aiming to compare lignin concentration of some grass forages through two analytical methods (acid detergent lignin - ADL and permanganate lignin - PerL as well to verify a possible relationship of lignin concentration with fiber digestion of the following grass hays: andropogon (Andropogon gayanus; oats (Avena sativa; a good quality and another of poor quality coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon. Acid detergent and permanganate lignin values were different (p <= 0.05 among the hays, however PerL concentrations were consistently lower than ADL values. There were differences (p <= 0.05 among the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber fractions, however a clear relationship between these values with lignin concentration could not be assessed. The data suggested that lignin concentration, taken individually, is not the only factor to explain a given value of digestibility.

  15. AT SEED – A MULTIFUNCTIONAL SUBJECT FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Havrlentová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Oats (Avena sativa L. among the basic cereals are highly appreciated from the nutritive and the dietetic point of view. This beneficial effect of oat products is primary attributed to the soluble dietary fibre compound β-D-glucan, major polysaccharide constituent of cell walls of oats. Mature grains of naked oat genotypes dispose of higher content of β-D-glucan (Havrlentová and Kraic, 2006 and its value decreases in milled grain with time (Gajdošová et al., 2007. Locality and year influence its content, although it seems that the genotypes with black colour of the glumes account significantly lower standard deviation and variation coefficients in the content of β-D-glucan, what indicates markedly stable biosynthetic mechanism of studied metabolite (Čertík et al., unpublished data. Oat seed is also an important source of dietary fibre and its content can be influenced by both genotype and locality. The importance and exploitation of oats have an increasing style and therefore the monitoring of microsatellite polymorphism of Avena sativa DNA has his foundation. 20 pairs of microsatellite primers occurring in non-coding regions of DNA were tested. The best value of DI (0.938, the maximum value of PIC (0.938, and the minimum value of PI (0.000 was found in the microsatellite AM1. Generally, the oat DNA seems to be very conservative.

  16. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluzzo Rinaldi José Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.

  17. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normando Villafañe Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.

  18. Molecular diversity study of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro 2520

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... Nigella sativa L. (commonly known as black cumin) belonging to family Rannunculaceae is an ...... landraces under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Afr. J. ... distances among DNA haplotypes: Application to human.

  19. A genome browser database for rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... sativa) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) genomes. The genome ... tant staple food for a large part of the world's human population. .... some banding region for selection and the overview panel shows the location of ...

  20. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina Modification of fertility by agronomic practices on the soil in Famatina, La Rioja, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normando Villafañe Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.The study was carried out with garlic (Allium sativum L. cropped in a sandy loam soil in Famatina, La Rioja Argentine. Strips of soil were used with the following soil treatments: T1, a 2-year period with no fertilizers or manure after one year without cropping; T2, a 2-year period with chemical fertilizers (CF preceded by garlic.; T3, combined use of CF and 23 t ha-1 of goat feces for a 1-year period preceded by oats (Avena sativa L.; T4 pooled CF and 23 t ha-1 of goat feces for a 2-year period preceded by oats; T5 a 1-year period with CF came after an oat crop of two years; and T6, use of CF following

  1. Introducción de cultivos de cobertura en la rotación soja-maíz: efecto sobre algunas propiedades del suelo Inclusion of cover crops in a soybean-corn rotation: effect on some soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Beatriz Restovich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco limosos de la Pampa Ondulada bajo siembra directa (SD con predominio de soja y, secundariamente maíz, registran una progresiva disminución de su fertilidad física y química. La introducción de cultivos de cobertura (CC en sistemas agrícolas cada vez menos diversificados podría constituir una herramienta agronómica para mitigar esta degradación edáfica. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: 1 evaluar el efecto de diferentes CC sobre algunas propiedades del suelo (porosidad, distribución de tamaño de poros, estabilidad estructural, densidad aparente, carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, carbono lábil y 2 analizar la evolución de las propiedades edáficas durante la introducción de CC en la secuencia soja-maíz bajo SD. En 2005, se instaló un ensayo sobre un Argiudol típico (franco limoso con diferentes especies de ciclo otoño-invernal, utilizadas como CC. Las especies fueron: cebada forrajera (Hordeum vulgare L., ray grass (Lolium multiflorum L., avena (Avena sativa L., cebadilla (Brumus unioloides L., vicia (Vicia sativa L., colza (Brassica napus L., nabo forrajero (Raphanus sativus L., una consociación de vicia y avena y un testigo sin CC. Los cambios en las propiedades edáficas producidos durante la introducción de CC fueron: aumento de la macroporosidad y de su estabilidad y aumento del COS y de su fracción lábil. Estos cambios fueron de mediana a baja magnitud, se registraron principalmente próximos a la superficie (0-5 cm, estuvieron asociados a los momentos en los que se realizaron aportes importantes de C y fueron fáciles de revertir en asociación con períodos de lluvias intensas. El efecto acumulado de la rotación mostró mayor aporte de COS al sistema en presencia de CC. De los CC probados, se destacó el nabo forrajero como generador de porosidad y la avena como estabilizadora del sistema poroso.Silt loam soils of the Rolling Pampas cultivated with soybean and, secondarily, corn under no

  2. Binding of 45Ca2+ to particulate fractions of coleoptile tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesper, M.J.; Saftner, R.A.; Sharma, D.; Evans, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques, we have investigated the binding of 45 Ca 2+ to membrane preparations from corn (Zea mays L) and oat (Avena sativa L) colcoptile tissue. Scatchard plot analysis reveals at least two Ca 2+ binding sites in each tissue, a high affinity binding site (Ksub(m)=7.7 x 10 -7 M, n=6.9 x 10 -10 mol . 0.5g f.w. -1 in corn, Ksub(m)=4.93 x 10 -6 M, n=2.29 x 10 -9 mol . 0.5g f.w. -1 in Avena) and a low affinity binding site (Ksub(m)=9.01 x 10 -5 M, n=5.4 x 10 -8 mol . 0.5g f.w. -1 in corn; Ksub(m)=1.03 x 10 -4 M, n=3.40 x 10 -8 mol . 0.5g f.w. -1 in Avena). There is also some evidence of a third, lower affinity binding site in each tissue, especially corn. More detailed studies with corn coleoptile homogenates show that they contain a potent dialyzable inhibitor of Ca 2+ binding. Monovalent cations were observed to be ineffective as inhibitors of Ca 2+ binding in corn. However, of six divalent cations tested, all were capable of strong inhibition of Ca 2+ binding and there appeared to be a relationship between size of the atomic radius of the ion and potency as an inhibitor of calcium binding. (orig.) [de

  3. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Attas, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  4. [Ttextual research of Cannabis sativa varieties and medicinal part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingfang; Wang, Huadong; Guo, Shanshan; Yan, Jie; Long, Fei

    2010-07-01

    To determine the medicinal part and varieties of Cannabis Sativa through herbal textual research to Provide bibliographic reference for clinical application. Herbal textual research of C. Sativa from ancient herbal works and modern data analysis. Through the herbal textual research, the plant of the C. sativa, for Fructus Cannabis used now is identical with that described in ancient herbal literatures. People did not make a sharp distinction on medicinal part of C. sativa in the early stage literatures, female inflorescence and unripe fruit, fruit and kernel of seed were all used. Since Taohongjing realized the toxicity ofpericarp, all the herbal and prescription works indicate that the pericarp shall be removed before usage and only the kernel can be used. However, in modem literatures, both fruit and kernel can be used as medicinal part. The plants for Fructus Cannabis described in modern and ancient literatures are identical. The base of the original plant is the same either in ancient or modern. And the toxicity of the fruit is more than that of the kernel. The kernel is the exact medicinal part of C. Sativa.

  5. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyehyun; Seo, Boyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Jo, Euna; Park, Jin-Kyoung; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848 bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854 bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankun Wang

    Full Text Available Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Proteomic characterization of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Gilda; Fasoli, Elisa; Boschin, Giovanna; Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Citterio, Attilio; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-09-16

    This paper presents an investigation on hempseed proteome. The experimental approach, based on combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), SDS-PAGE separation, nLC-ESI-MS/MS identification, and database search, permitted identifying in total 181 expressed proteins. This very large number of identifications was achieved by searching in two databases: Cannabis sativa L. (56 gene products identified) and Arabidopsis thaliana (125 gene products identified). By performing a protein-protein association network analysis using the STRING software, it was possible to build the first interactomic map of all detected proteins, characterized by 137 nodes and 410 interactions. Finally, a Gene Ontology analysis of the identified species permitted to classify their molecular functions: the great majority is involved in the seed metabolic processes (41%), responses to stimulus (8%), and biological process (7%). Hempseed is an underexploited non-legume protein-rich seed. Although its protein is well known for its digestibility, essential amino acid composition, and useful techno-functional properties, a comprehensive proteome characterization is still lacking. The objective of this work was to fill this knowledge gap and provide information useful for a better exploitation of this seed in different food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A.; Geno, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [ 14 C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [ 14 C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14 C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  9. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis, and the obtained values were compared with the control. The obtained results suggest that the extract from the shoot parts of cannabis in high concentrations of 75 and 100 % had inhibiting effect to the germination indices while the extract from the root had no statistically significant effect on germination of lettuce seeds. Extract made of root part of cannabis showed also stimulatory effect to shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings in extract concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 %.

  10. EFECTO TÓXICO DE Acremonium zeae EN POLLOS DE ENGORDA EN INICIACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma S\\u00E1nchez-Bautista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si Acremonium zeae afecta el desarrollo de pollos de engorde. En el Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, en el Estado de México de agosto a diciembre de 2010, se realizó un experimento con pollos recién nacidos bajo un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cinco dietas (tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, cada una constó de cinco pollos. Los animales fueron alimentados durante tres semanas con cada una de las dietas, en las que se adicionaron porcentajes de avena contaminada con A. zeae en sustitución del maíz. Los tratamientos fueron: T1, 0% avena contaminada: 100% de maíz; T2, 25% avena contaminada: 75% de maíz; T3, 50% avena contaminada: 50% de maíz; T4, 75% avena contaminada: 25% de maíz; y, T5, 100% avena contaminada: 0% de maíz. Durante tres semanas cada siete días se registró el incremento en peso de los pollos y el consumo de alimento. Hubo efecto negativo en el peso a partir de la segunda semana de alimentación, con una composición de dieta elaborada con un mínimo de 50% de avena contaminada con el hongo.

  11. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  12. Induced mutations for tolerance of oats to crown rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, M.D.; Frey, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Seeds of three oat (Avena sativa and A. abyssinica) strains were treated with ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), and crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata var. avenae) tolerance ratios of M 5 -derived lines were compared with untreated checks. Tolerance ratios of mutant lines tended to be distributed in both plus and minus directions. No mutant oat line had a significant increase in grain yield, but many showed significantly depressed yields. With C.I. 6665, only five of 130 mutagen-derived lines were not significantly below the check for grain yield; one of these had significantly improved tolerance. Re-treatment of selected strains from a previous EMS treatment (original cultivar was Clintland-60) gave one M 5 -derived oat line (of 100 tested) that was equal to Clintland-60 in grain yield and sustained no damage from crown rust (i.e. it had a tolerance ratio of 100). EMS treatment of the highly susceptible tetraploid C.I. 2110 resulted in both significantly increased and reduced tolerance. (author)

  13. Compromised Photosynthetic Electron Flow And H2O2 Generation Correlate with Genotype-Specific Stomatal Dysfunctions During Resistance Against Powdery Mildew In Oats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Martín

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stomatal dysfunction known as locking has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e. penetration resistance, early and late HR to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga were used. Results demonstrated that stomatal dysfunctions were genotype but not response-type dependent since genotypes with similar resistance responses when assessed histologically showed very different locking patterns. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm of photosystem II were compromised in most Bga–oat interactions and photoinhibition increased. However, the extent of the photosynthetic alterations was not directly related to the extent of HR. H2O2 generation is triggered during the execution of resistance responses and can influence stomatal function. Artificially increasing H2O2 by exposing plants to increased light intensity further reduced Fv/Fm ratios and augmented the patterns of stomatal dysfunctions previously observed. The latter results suggest that the observed dysfunctions and hence a cost of resistance may be linked with oxidative stress occurring during defence induced photosynthetic disruption.

  14. Production and chemical composition of grasses and legumes cultivated in pure form, mixed or in consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Cortiana Tambara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the edible biomass and chemical composition of forages grown on pure form, as a grass mix, and in grass-legume consortia. The following species were tested: white oats (Avena sativa, black oats (Avena strigosa, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, white clover (Trifolium repens, and red clover (Trifolium pratense. The experiment consisted of sixteen treatments arranged in a completely randomized design. The parameters measured were total dry matter (PMST, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and crude protein (CP. No significant differences in PMST were found among the consortia (p > 0.05. Only the pure cultivated white clover (p > 0.05 was comparable to the consortia in terms of biomass production. The three legumes had the lowest average NDF values (p > 0.05, based on their contributions to the total NDF content of the consortia along the cuts. The ADF content increased for all treatments during the cuts. The results indicate that in pasture, legumes increase protein content, and forage consortia increase both the pasture production and the grazing period. Their chemical composition is adequate for boosting livestock production in pastures.

  15. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  16. Variation of photosynthetic tolerance of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... (Oryza sativa L.) to chilling temperature in the light. Xia Li*, Kun Cao, Chao .... 2 mol) formed red-brown trimethine that can be detected quantitatively with spectrophoto- ..... ses through the generation of appropriate signals (H2O2) and the balance ..... was under weak light intensity (Murata, 1989). Light.

  17. Sample preparation of Medicago sativa L. hay for chemical analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the grinding procedure on the moisture and crude protein concentration of a ground Medicago sativa L. hay sample for quality grading. An additional aim was to investigate the accuracy of electronic moisture testers (EMT). Variance of analyses revealed significant ...

  18. Genetic transformation of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ): A review | Dan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a globally important leafy vegetable that can be grown worldwide. Due to the rapid growth of population and the human desire to progress, there have been a lot of studies made by researchers, especially in genetic engineering. Improvements in regeneration system and transformation ...

  19. Prediction of chemical composition of South African Medicago sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict chemical and digestibility parameters was investigated. Samples (n = 168) representing the spectral characteristics of the South African. Medicago sativa L. hay population were chemically analysed for the development of calibration equations. Values for r² and ...

  20. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  1. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-385 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

  2. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2010-08-01

    Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies.

  3. Nigella sativa (black seed) extract improves spatial learning abilityin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the memory enhancing effect of Nigella sativa Extract on mice using Morris Water Maze. The study was conducted on 30 Albino mice of both sexes randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 animals each. Group 1 served as control and was treated with oral distilled water, Groups 2, 3 and 4 ...

  4. The effects of Nigella sativa powder (black seed) and Echinacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... was supplemented with EP at the rate of 0.25 ml/kg body weight (BW). Body ..... values in laying hen with references to fertility in cockerels. Proc of 7th ... under high temperature conditions 2- black cumin (Nigella Sativa) or.

  5. Nigella Sativa Concoction induced sustained seroreversion in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Abstract. Nigella sativa had been documented to possess many therapeutic functions in medicine but the least expected is sero-reversion in HIV infection which is very rare despite extensive therapy with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).

  6. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the

  7. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in

  8. Agronomy and photosynthesis physiology of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Kailei

    2018-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable high-yielding crop that delivers valuable fibres, seeds and psychoactive substances. However, there is a lack of field experimental data on the cultivation of hemp because its production was largely abandoned in the last century. Hemp is now

  9. A model for assessing Medicago Sativa L. hay quality | Scholtz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to identify chemical parameters and/or models for assessing. Medicago sativa L. (L) hay quality, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) milk prediction as a criterion of accuracy. Milk yield (MY) derived from the ...

  10. Molecular and genetic characterization of OSH6 ( Oryza sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic studies of dissociation (Ds) insertion mutant rice plants indicated that ectopic expression of truncated OSH6 (Oryza sativa Homeobox 6) mRNA may be responsible for the mutant phenotype of knotted leaf formation at the peduncle. Additionally, ectopic expression of truncated OSH6 mRNA in the OSH6-Ds mutant ...

  11. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of black seed (Nigella sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooti, Wesam; Hasanzadeh-Noohi, Zahra; Sharafi-Ahvazi, Naim; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon

    2016-10-01

    Black seed (Nigella sativa) is an annual flowering plant from Ranunculaceae family, native to southwest Asia. This plant has many food and medicinal uses. The use of its seeds and oil is common for treatment of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory diseases, diabetes and digestive diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive review on the scientific reports that have been published about N. sativa. The facts and statistics presented in this review article were gathered from the journals accessible in creditable databases such as Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, EMBASE, SID and IranMedex. The keywords searched in Persian and English books on medicinal plants and traditional medicine, as well as the above reputable databases were "Black seed", "Nigella sativa", "therapeutic effect", and "medicinal plant". The results showed that N. sativa has many biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, and wound healing activities. It also has effects on reproductive, digestive, immune and central nervous systems, such as anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. In summary, it can be used as a valuable plant for production of new drugs for treatment of many diseases. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding rhizosphere processes to enhance phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that are not actually rare in terms of concentrations in soils but they are hardly available for plant uptake due to interactions with organic matter (SOM), secondary soil constituents such as Fe/Mn oxides and P bearing soil fractions. Processes in the rhizosphere might influence availability of Ge and REEs in the soil-plant system, since lowering of the pH and presence of carboxylates and siderophores (small molecules that strongly chelate Fe and other elements) strongly influences the chemical speciation of Ge and REEs in soil and consequently this comprehensive knowledge helps us to improve phytomining. In a series of field and greenhouse experiments 16 plant species from the functional groups of grasses, herbs and legumes were tested with regard to their accumulation efficiency of Ge and REEs in shoots. Subsequently, we conducted mixed culture experiments in which inefficient species (e.g. cereals like Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum) were cultivated in mixed cultures with efficient species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius). Based on the plant concentrations a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify significant factors that explain the accumulation behavior of different plant species with regard to Ge, REEs, Si, Fe and Mn. In this analysis Mn was used to identify plant species with efficient mechanisms to access sparingly available P-resources in soils. Particularly in nonmycorrhizal species concentrations of Mn in leaves often indicate a carboxylate based P-mobilising strategy. Herbaceous plant species accumulated significantly higher amounts of REEs while grasses accumulated significantly higher amounts of Ge. Concentrations of Ge in shoots of grasses correlated significantly positive with Si, but negatively with concentrations of Mn. Indeed, the results of the PCA clearly show that plants with high Mn concentrations tend to have

  13. Rhizosphere organic anions play a minor role in improving crop species’ ability to take up residual phosphorus (P in agricultural soils low in P availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many arable lands have accumulated large reserves of residual phosphorus (P and a relatively large proportion of soil P is less available for uptake by plants. Root released organic anions are widely documented as a key physiological strategy to enhance P availability, while limited information has been generated on the contribution of rhizosphere organic anions to P utilization by crops grown in agricultural soils that are low in available P and high in extractable Ca, Al and Fe. We studied the role of rhizosphere organic anions in P uptake from residual P in four common crops Triticum aestivum, Avena sativa, Solanum tuberosum and Brassica napus in low- and high-P availability agricultural soils from long-term fertilization field trials in a mini-rhizotron experiment with four replications. Malate was generally the dominant organic anion. More rhizosphere citrate was detected in low P soils than in high P soil. Brassica napus showed 74-103% increase of malate in low P loam, compared with clay loam. Avena sativa had the greatest rhizosphere citrate concentration in all soils (5.3-15.2 mol g-1 root DW. Avena sativa also showed the highest level of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (36% and 40%, the greatest root mass ratio (0.51 and 0.66 in the low-P clay loam and loam respectively, and the greatest total P uptake (5.92 mg P/mini-rhizotron in the low-P loam. Brassica napus had 15-44% more rhizosphere APase activity, ~0.1-0.4 units lower rhizosphere pH than other species, the greatest increase in rhizosphere water-soluble P in the low-P soils, and the greatest total P uptake in the low-P clay loam. Shoot P content was mainly explained by rhizosphere APase activity, water-soluble P and pH within low P soils across species. Within species, P uptake was mainly linked to rhizosphere water soluble P, APase and pH in low P soils. The effects of rhizosphere organic anions varied among species and they appeared to play minor roles in

  14. Tracking alien chromosome in sativa background by genomic in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, F.M.; Iqbal, M.; Salim, M.

    2004-01-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to look into the genomic constitution of monosomic alien -addition line derived from O. sativa x O. brachyantha. Biotin label genomic DNA from O. brachyantha was used as probe. The probe hybridized to the brachyantha chromosome. No detectable hybridization signal was observed on sativa chromosomes. This differential painting of chromosome enables us to unequivocally discriminate brachyantha chromosome from those of sativa. Results showed the usefulness of GISH in the identification of a single alien chromosome in the sativa background. (author)

  15. Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Stefania; Moccia, Eleonora; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Gabriele, Morena; Longo, Vincenzo; Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgi, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2018-10-01

    In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Relationships within the Proteobacteria of plant pathogenic Acidovorax species and subspecies, Burkholderia species, and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA, numerical analysis and determinative tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, F P; Young, J M; Triggs, C M; Park, D C; Saul, D J

    2001-12-01

    Sequence data for 16S rDNA of the type strains of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, A. avenae subsp. cattleyae, A. avenae subsp. citrulli, A. konjaci and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans were compared with GenBank library accessions of Burkholderia spp., Comamonas sp., Ralstonia solanacearum and Variovorax sp. Maximum Parsimony analysis produced two clusters: 1. Acidovorax spp., Comamonas sp., and Variovorax sp. (all in the Comamonadaceae), and 2. Burkholderia spp., Ralstonia solanacearum, and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans. Maximum Likelihood analysis produced only one cluster (of the Comamonadaceae). Using nutritional and laboratory tests, all Acidovorax spp., Burkholderia spp., and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans were discriminated in distinct clusters at the species level, and could be identified by selected determinative tests. There were no phenotypic tests constituted as a circumscription of the genera and which permitted the allocation of strains to genera. Strain identification as species allowed allocation to genera only by inference. The nomenclatural implications of these data are discussed.

  17. Applications of response surface methodology approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... germ tube growth of Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae urediosopores ... and can provide incorrect conclusions in case of strong interactions among the ..... resistance, grain yield, test weight, and seed weight in oat. Crop Sci.

  18. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    J Živković; I Mujić; G Nikolić; S Vidović; A Mujić

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Conten...

  19. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of eruca sativa seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Sadiq, A.; Tariq, H.; Imran, M.; Qureshi, R.; Zeenat, A.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of Eruca sativa seed as well as seed oil was investigated against Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed from seed oil followed by methanolic seed extracts from all bacterial strains compared with broad spectrum antibiotics gentamicine. MIC values of seed oil were within the ranges of 52-72 mu g/ml as compared to 56-70 mu g/ml standard antibiotic Gentamicine). Proximate and Phytochemical analysis of seed of E. sativa showed presence of all essential phyto constituents required for promising traditional medicine. Analysis of seed oil by gas chromatography revealed that there was high concentration of Erucic acid (51.2%) followed by oleic acid (15.1%) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (12.5%). In addition, minor quantities of other essential and non essential fatty acids were also present. Therefore the present study supports effectiveness of E. sativa seeds for it use in traditional medicine used in various human disorders. (author)

  20. Formulation and characterization of a nutritional pumpkin-based whey beverages, enriched with oatmeal and passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Valencia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect on the addition of oatmeal (Avena sativa and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis in the content of fiber, calcium, iron, phosphorus and A vitamin in beverage formulation based on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, milk and whey, was determined. The beverages undergone significant changes during the storage time, the pH decreased as the acidity showed a slight increase. The coordinates of CIELAB (L *, a * and b * were located in quadrant 1 indicating a clear tendency to yellow caused by the presence of carotenoids from the pumpkin and passion fruit. Based on the sensory analysis it was selected best treatment who was higher in 3 of the 4 parameters evaluated. This sample also presented a pseudoplastic behavior with a consistency index of 3.57 Pa.s0.24 and a shelf life of 9 days

  1. Chemical changes in the soil and production of oat fertilized with treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to ensure the quality and impact of the application of treated sewage wastewater on the chemical properties of Dystrophic Yellow Argisol and on biomass and grain production of white oat (Avena sativa, L. After the wastewater was chemically characterized, it was applied to the soil in concentrations of 0, 30, 60 and 90 m3 ha-1 in plots of 200 m2. Doses of water were compared with mineral fertilizer doses recommended for oat. The experimental design was a split plot with four randomized blocks. The wastewater had chemical qualities useful for grain cultivation. The values of calcium, CTC, V, pH increased and acidity potential decreased in the soil after the wastewater was applied. Doses of the wastewater provided increments in biomass production and oat grains similar to that obtained with chemical fertilizers. We conclude that wastewater can be used to correct soil acidity and replace or supplement chemical fertilizers.

  2. Efficiency of application of instantaneous radiation of seeds by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, A.R.; Gordeev, Yu.A.; Poddubnaya, O.V.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of application of instantaneous (impulse) radiation of seeds of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and oat (Avena sativa) by plasma was analyzed. Research results showed that presowing treatment of seeds with instantaneous helium radiation in course of 0,01 seconds (the total duration of seed treatment with plasmatron ion source impulses – one second). In course of the practical experiments there was proved possibility of application impulse radiation technologies in modern agricultural production. Seed germination capacity exceeded the control variants on 14%. Results of influence of applied irradiation on length of sprouts, length of roots and their germinating ability were presented. Irradiation efficiency developed in course of plant vegetation. In accordance with research results and accumulated experimental material on presowing seed treatment with impulses of low temperature helium plasma could make it possible to obtain yields with higher capacity and quality with the minimal expenses for seed treatment

  3. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  4. Transfer of alien genes by means of induced translocation in oats and other crop species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, H.; Taing Aung

    1977-01-01

    Some of the best sources of resistance to mildew, which is the most important disease of the oat crop in the United Kingdom, occur in related weed species. The mildew resistance found in a genotype of the tetraploid species Avena barbata has been transferred into the germ plasm of the cultivated hexaploid species A. sativa by means of an induced translocation. The procedures adopted to isolate the desirable translocation and to determine its breeding behaviour are described. A number of alien genes have been transferred into wheat by means of induced translocations and genetic induction, but their successful introduction into commercial varieties has been limited. In this paper, the use and limitations of alien transfers as breeding material are discussed. (author)

  5. Action de I'AlA sur la teneur en azote total et protéinique des graines de céréales cultivées à different niveau de la capacité capillaire en eau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available L'action de I'AIA sur la teneur en azote total et en azote protéinique des graines du Triticum vulgare, d'Hordeum vulgare et d'Avena sativa cultivés a 30%, 60% et 90% de la capacité capillaire en eau du sable a tété étudiée au cours de trois ans (1969, 1970, 1971. La teneur en g-protéines totales liée au rendement des graines de céréales examinees a été plus élevée dans les conditions de sécheresse (30% de la capacite capillaire en eau à la suite d'un traitement auxinique. La teneur (% en azote total et proteinique ne semble pas etre tellement modifiee dans les graines de cereales à la suite d'un traitement auxinique.

  6. The sustainable utilization of malting industry wastewater biological treatment sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, T. A.; Svintsov, A. V.; Chernysh, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with the research of using the sludge from malting industry wastewater’s biological treatment and the calcium carbonate slurry as organo-mineral fertilizing additives. The sludge, generated as a result of industrial wastewater biological treatment, is subject to dumping at solid domestic waste landfills, which has a negative impact on the environment, though its properties and composition allow using it as an organic fertilizer. The physical and chemical properties of both wastes have been studied; the recommendations concerning the optimum composition of soil mix, containing the above-mentioned components, have been provided. The phytotoxic effect on the germination capacity and sprouts of cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Hordéum vulgáre) and oats (Avena sativa) in soil mixes has been determined. The heavy metals and arsenic contents in the sludge does not exceed the allowable level; it is also free of pathogenic flora and helminthes.

  7. Radiological aspects of choice of a system of cultivation of sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with different degree of humidity on lands of Mogilev region contaminated with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevich, S.S.; Ermolenko, A.V.; Shapsheeva, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented data about the influence of technological factors on entry of 137Cs into plant products (grain and green mass). In course of the study there were analyzed the following variants of soil cultivation: moldboard plowing; subsurface chisel soil tillage; subsurface surface soil tillage; minimal tillage. There were presented data on specific activity of 137Cs in plant product samples of oat (Avena sativa) grain; field pea (Pisum arvense L.) and oat mixture grain and green mass; wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain. There were determined the main principles of influence of cultivation systems of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil with different degree of humidity on transition of 137Cs into plants depending on the degree of soil and crop humidity. On the automorphic soil there was revealed a tendency of increased transition of 137Cs into grain and green mass after application of subsurface surface soil tillage system

  8. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean 210 Pb/ 210 Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively.

  9. Studies on methodology for vegetal bio indicators in bioremediation areas contaminated with petroleum wastes; Estudos sobre metodologia para bioindicadores vegetais em areas de biorremediacao contaminadas com residuos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Castro, Rodrigo Azevedo; Krenczynski, Michele Cristine; Goncalves, Claudia Martins; Souza, Sergio Luiz de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Grube, Karl; Coelho, Jorge Ibirajara Evangelista [PETROBRAS, PR (Brazil). REPAR

    1998-07-01

    The present work has as it main objective the development of bioindicator methodology for use of soil biorremediation criteria and environmental assessment evaluation upon the actual soil biorremediation status quantification. In order to do so morphophysiological aspects of Avena sativa and Barbarea verna, were determinated under greenhouse conditions for a dilution series of contaminated soil with the non contaminated one. A quantification scale model was proposed report the based on the statistical analysis for the defined morphophisyological parameters. Therefore, it has possible to quantigicate phytoxicity and construct phytotoxicity curves for the contaminated soil dilution series. It was possible to conclude that the developed methodology can be used as a criteria of soil actual biorremediation status. (author)

  10. Allelopathic relations of selected cereal and vegetable species during seed germination and seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojović Biljana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is the direct or indirect harmful effect which one plant produces on another through the production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment. In the presence paper allelopathic relationships were determined in three cereals - wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., oat (Avena sativa L. and vegetable crops - spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., pepper (Capsicum annum L.. In addition to the percentage of germination, allelopathic potential was tested measuring root and stem length of tested plant species germinated either alone or in combination with others. The obtained results showed that seed germination and plant growth of cereals and vegetables are depended on the presence of other plants in all tested combinations. In this study has proven largely inhibitory allelopathic effect on germination and plant growth.

  11. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-05-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mycorrhizal Propagule Persistence in a Succession of Cereals in a Disturbed and Undisturbed Andisol Fertilized with Two Nitrogen Sources Persistencia de Propágulos Micorrícicos en una Sucesión de Cereales en un Andisol Disturbado y no Disturbado, Fertilizado con Dos Fuentes de Nitrógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cornejo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF form symbiosis with plant roots, improving its establishment, nutrition, and tolerance to adverse soil conditions. In annual crop rotations, some aspects such as the type of N fertilizer and tillage system used can affect the AMF propagule density and its functionality in the following crop. To analyze the effect of the agronomic practices previously mentioned on the persistence and density of AMF propagules, a study in a succession of cereals was carried out. For this, soil previously cropped with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and fertilized with urea (NH4+ or sodium nitrate (NO3- was disturbed in each case by simulating conventional tillage (CT or maintained without disturbing, simulating no-tillage (NT. It was then cultivated with oat (Avena sativa L. using the same N sources. Higher densities of AMF active mycelium and colonized root length in the NT soil were observed (76 and 497% higher than in CT soil, respectively, P Los hongos micorrícico-arbusculares (AMF forman simbiosis con las raíces de las plantas, favoreciendo su establecimiento, nutrición y tolerancia a condiciones adversas del suelo. En rotaciones de cultivos anuales algunos aspectos como el tipo de fertilizante nitrogenado utilizado y el sistema de labranza pueden afectar la densidad de propágulos de AMF y su funcionalidad en el cultivo siguiente. Para analizar el efecto de las prácticas agronómicas previamente mencionadas sobre la persistencia y densidad de los propágulos de AMF, se realizó un estudio en microcosmos simulando una rotación de cereales. Para esto, suelo previamente cultivado con trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y fertilizado con urea (NH4+ o nitrato de sodio (NO3- fue, en cada caso, disturbado simulando una labranza convencional (CT o mantenido sin disturbar simulando cero labranza (NT y cultivado con avena (Avena sativa L., utilizando las mismas fuentes de N. Se observaron mayores densidades de micelio activo de AMF y

  13. Macroaggregation and soil organic carbon restoration in a highly weathered Brazilian Oxisol after two decades under no-till.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ferreira, Ademir; de Moraes Sá, João Carlos; Lal, Rattan; Tivet, Florent; Briedis, Clever; Inagaki, Thiago Massao; Gonçalves, Daniel Ruiz Potma; Romaniw, Jucimare

    2018-04-15

    Conclusions based on studies of the impacts of soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions and soil texture on macroaggregation and SOC stabilization in long-term (>20years) no-till (NT) fields remain debatable. This study was based on the hypothesis that the amount and frequency of biomass-C input associated with NT can be a pathway to formation of macroaggregates and to SOC buildup. The objectives were to: 1) assess the macroaggregate distribution (proportional mass, class mass) and the SOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks of extra-large (8-19mm), large (2-8mm) and small (0.25-2mm) macroaggregate size classes managed for two decades by NT, and 2) assess the recovery of SOC stocks in extra-large macroaggregates compared to adjacent native vegetation (Andropogon sp., Aristida sp., Paspalum sp., and Panicum sp.). The crop rotation systems were: soybean (Glycine max L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in summer; and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb), white oat (Avena sativa), vetch (Vicia sativa L.), black oat.+vetch (Avena strigosa Schreb+vetch) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in winter. The experimental was laid out as 2×2 randomized block factorial with 12 replicates of a NT experiment established in 1997 on two highly weathered Oxisols. The factors comprised of: (a) two soil textural types: clay loam and sandy clay, and (b) two sampling depths: 0-5 and 5-20cm. The three classes of macroaggregates were obtained by wet sieving, and the SOC content was determined by the dry combustion method. The extra-large macroaggregate classes in 0-20cm depth for sandy clay (SdC) and clay loam (CL) Oxisol represented 75.2 and 72.4% of proportional mass, respectively. The SOC and POC stocks among macroaggregate classes in 0-5 and 5-20cm depths decreased in the order: 8-19mm>2-8mm ≈ 0.25-2mm. The SdC plots under soybean/maize at 3:1 ratio recovered 58.3%, while those at 1:1 ratio (high maize frequency) in CL recovered 73.1% of SOC stock in the extra

  14. Cultivos de cobertura: efectos sobre la macroporosidad y la estabilidad estructural de un suelo franco-limoso Cover crops: effects on soil macroporosity and soil structural stability in a silt loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Varela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco-limosos manejados con siembra directa a menudo poseen porosidad estructural baja e inestable. Con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad de los cultivos de cobertura (CC de mejorar la porosidad y estabilidad estructural de estos suelos se llevaron a cabo experimentos de campo y de invernáculo. Ambos tuvieron tratamientos con y sin CC (avena, Avena sativa L., en rotación con soja (Glicine max L. Merr.. Luego de los CC se midieron densidad aparente (DA, el índice de inestabilidad estructural (IE y en el ensayo de invernáculo además, se midió la evolución de la distribución de tamaño de poros (DTP. En ambos ensayos la introducción de CC no disminuyó la DA, aunque incrementó la estabilidad del suelo (PNo- till (NT silt loam topsoils have often a low and unstable structural porosity. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of cover crops (CC of improving the structural porosity and stability of silt loam soils under NT. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out on a silt loam soil (Typic Argiudoll with and without CC (oat, Avena sativa L. in crop sequences with soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.. Soil bulk density (DA and aggregate instability index (IE were measured after the CC in both experiments. In the greenhouse experiment, soil pore size distribution (DTP was measured. The use of CC did not change DA, but soil IE was significantly lower in crop sequences with CC (P < 0.05 both under field and greenhouse conditions. Stability increases were likely due to the effect of CC residues and root mass. No differences in DTP were found between treatments, although a significant effect of sampling date was observed (P<0.05. Changes in DTP were due to significant increases in mesopore (517.5% and macropore (52.7% volumes. Such changes occurred in all the treatments, probably due to the soil wetting-drying cycles. The results found in this study agree with other studies carried out on silt loams in the

  15. Toxicological and safety evaluation of Nigella sativa lipid and volatile fractions in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tauseef Sultan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicological aspects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa lipid and volatile fractions in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus. Methods: National Institute of Health (NIH, Islamabad provided us thirty Sprague Dawley rats that were further divided into three groups, i.e. control, N. sativa lipid fraction (4% and N. sativa volatile fraction (0.3%, respectively. The serological and haematological indices were evaluated at 4-week intervals during 56 d study. Results: The results indicated that the diabetes mellitus imparted negative effects on various serological and haematological attributes. However, supplementation of the N. sativa lipid fraction and N. sativa volatile fraction ameliorated the adverse consequences of diabetes mellitus. The diabetes induced renal toxicity and imbalanced serum chemistry were slightly modulated by experimental diets. However, the impact of essential oil was more significant as compared to the fixed oil. Conclusions: In a nutshell, experimental diets containing N. sativa lipid fraction and N. sativa volatile fraction are effective without having any toxicological effects, and experimental diets reduced toxicological and adverse consequences of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Why develop O. sativa x O. rufipogon chromosome segment substitution line libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgressive variation has been observed in rice (Oryza sativa) as an increase in grain yield in advanced backcross mapping populations derived from crosses between several adapted O. sativa varieties and a single accession (IRGC105491) of the ancestral parent, O. rufipogon. The phenomena of hybrid...

  17. 114_M.I. Imam et al.,_Nigella Sativa EXTRACT IMPROVES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    ut to assess the memory enhancing effect of Nigella sativa Extract on m ze. The study was ... a sativa has a beneficial effect on learning and memory and has a be t memory than piracetam. ..... deserves more attention. Journal of Ayub. Medical ...

  18. Apoptotic Effect of Nigella sativa on Human Lymphoma U937 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Belkis Atasever; Isik, Fatma Busra; Gur, Hazal; Ozen, Fatih; Catal, Tunc

    2017-10-01

    Nigella sativa is from botanical Ranunculaceae family and commonly known as black seed. Apoptotic effect of N. sativa and its apoptotic signaling pathways on U937 lymphoma cells are unknown. In this study, we investigated selective cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of N. sativa extract and its apoptotic mechanisms on U937 cells. In addition, we also studied selective cytotoxic activity of thymoquinone that is the most active essential oil of N. sativa . Our results showed that N. sativa extract has selective cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects on U937 cells but not ECV304 control cells. However, thymoquinone had no significant cytotoxicity against on both cells. N. sativa extract increased significantly caspase-3, BAD, and p53 gene expressions in U937 cells. N. sativa may have anticancer drug potential and trigger p53-induced apoptosis in U937 lymphoma cells. This is the first study showing the apoptotic effect of Nigella sativa extract on U937 cells. Abbreviations used: CI: Cytotoxicity index, DMEM: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, HL: Hodgkin's lymphoma, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethy lthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium.

  19. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  20. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties of the Nigella sativa L. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Labib

    2005-12-01

    A larger number of medicinal plants and their purified constituents have been shown beneficial therapeutic potentials. Seeds of Nigella sativa, a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been employed for thousands of years as a spice and food preservative. The oil and seed constituents, in particular thymoquinine (TQ), have shown potential medicinal properties in traditional medicine. In view of the recent literature, this article lists and discusses different immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic potentials for the crude oil of N. sativa seeds and its active ingredients. The published findings provide clear evidence that both the oil and its active ingredients, in particular TQ, possess reproducible anti-oxidant effects through enhancing the oxidant scavenger system, which as a consequence lead to antitoxic effects induced by several insults. The oil and TQ have shown also potent anti-inflammatory effects on several inflammation-based models including experimental encephalomyelitis, colitis, peritonitis, oedama, and arthritis through suppression of the inflammatory mediators prostaglandins and leukotriens. The oil and certain active ingredients showed beneficial immunomodulatory properties, augmenting the T cell- and natural killer cell-mediated immune responses. Most importantly, both the oil and its active ingredients expressed anti-microbial and anti-tumor properties toward different microbes and cancers. Coupling these beneficial effects with its use in folk medicine, N. sativa seed is a promising source for active ingredients that would be with potential therapeutic modalities in different clinical settings. The efficacy of the active ingredients, however, should be measured by the nature of the disease. Given their potent immunomodulatory effects, further studies are urgently required to explore bystander effects of TQ on the professional antigen presenting cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, as well as its modulatory effects upon Th1

  1. Transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelmore, R; Marsh, E; Seely, S; Landry, B

    1987-12-01

    Lactuca sativa can be routinely transformed using Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing a chimeric kanamycin resistance gene (NOS.NPTII.NOS). Critical experimental variables were plant genotype, bacterial concentration, presence of a nurse culture and timing of transfers between tissue culture media. Transformation was confirmed by the ability to callus and root in the presence of kanamycin, nopaline production, and by hybridization in Southern blots. Transformation has been achieved with several Ti vectors. Several hundred transformed plants have been regenerated. Kanamycin resistance was inherited monogenically. Homozygotes can be selected by growing R2 seedlings on media containing G418.

  2. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatawiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-1 0 C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  3. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  4. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid Detection of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei

    2016-07-01

    In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. are restricted by law. As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C. sativa is desired. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid identification of C. sativa. By optimizing the conditions for the LAMP reaction that targets a highly conserved region of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, C. sativa was identified within 50 min at 60-66°C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. The LAMP assay detected all 21 specimens of C. sativa, showing high specificity. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. sativa could be accomplished within 90 min from sample treatment to detection without use of special equipment. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. sativa has been developed and is applicable to forensic investigations and industrial quality control.

  5. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  6. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  7. Toxic effects of copper-based nanoparticles or compounds to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren M; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 days-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1). At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species.

  8. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 3Department of Statistics, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan. 4Mityari Sugar Mills ... Key words: Oryza sativa L., seedling biomass, epidermal cells, proline content. ... Attempts to reduce the soil salinity, using mechanical.

  9. Influence of Salicylic Acid on the Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-10

    Apr 10, 2018 ... Keywords: Water stress, Salicylic acid, Growth, Lactuca sativa. Water stress in plant is an ... processes in plant adaptation to drought stress as it synthesis and ... manure was added to the soil in the preparation for planting.

  10. DNA barcoding of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA barcoding revealed the presence of the polyphagous leafminer pest Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Bangladesh. DNA barcode sequences for mitochondrial COI were generated for Agromyzidae larvae, pupae and adults collected from field populations across Bangladesh. BLAST sequence similarity searches ...

  11. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of some phenolic compounds especially thymoquinone (TQ, which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a comprehensive study of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant on induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Ability of phytoremediation for absorption of strontium and cesium from soils using Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Seyed Hoseini

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that strontium can be absorbed by Cannabis sativa, with the highest absorption by the roots, stems, and leaves. However, cesium does not reach the plant because of its single capacity and inactive complex formation.

  13. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds.

  14. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  15. Silymarin and Nigella sativa extract ameliorate paracetamol induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Zakaria Hamza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa water extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP-induced renal function deterioration in male mice at the biochemical levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group. The first group was served as control. The second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa water extract alone, respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa water extract, respectively. The seventh group was treated with a combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa water extract with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose for mice led to an alteration of kidney function parameters, increase in the level of serum urea and creatinine. Also, paracetamol administration induced oxidative stress in kidney homogenates by increasing malondialdhyde level and decreasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and this stress was ameliorated by administration of either silymarin or N. sativa water extract. Conclusions: Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa water extract to APAP-treated mice alleviate the toxicity of APAP, and this appeared clearly by biochemical improvement of kidney function parameters and antioxidant parameters. But, the alleviation is more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Thus, the pronounce effect of silymarin and N. sativa water extract is most effective in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the kidney function parameters and antioxidant status of kidney of male mice.

  16. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M C; Krikorian, A D

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  17. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

    2010-01-01

    Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `Pūriņi' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

  18. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins.

  19. In silico gene expression profiling in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The cannabis plant and its active ingredients (i.e., cannabinoids and terpenoids) have been socially stigmatized for half a century. Luckily, with more than 430,000 published scientific papers and about 600 ongoing and completed clinical trials, nowadays cannabis is employed for the treatment of many different medical conditions. Nevertheless, even if a large amount of high-throughput functional genomic data exists, most researchers feature a strong background in molecular biology but lack advanced bioinformatics skills. In this work, publicly available gene expression datasets have been analyzed giving rise to a total of 40,224 gene expression profiles taken from cannabis plant tissue at different developmental stages. The resource presented here will provide researchers with a starting point for future investigations with Cannabis sativa .

  20. Influence of lead upon the plant cell. [Lactuca sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekerka, V; Bobak, M

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to study the influence of tetramethyl lead upon the mitotic activity of cells, structural changes of the chromosomes, upon the mitotic apparatus and the ultrastructure of the cells in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Tetramethyl lead is an antidetonant additive to the gasoline of automobiles. The authors have found that the Pb ions are toxic for the plant cell, its toxicity increases with an increasing concentration and the prolonged time of action of the Pb solution. Tetramethyl lead influences the cell division causing especially different disturbances of the chromosomes and of the dividing figure during karykinesis and evoking damages of the submicroscopic structure of the plant cell. First of all, the following organels are damaged: the nucleus, the mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmatic reticulum and the proplastids. A considerable number of formations similar to translosomes arises in the plant cells at the same time.

  1. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  2. Oxygen dynamics in submerged rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy D.; Pedersen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Complete submergence of plants prevents direct O2 and CO2 exchange with air. Underwater photosynthesis can result in marked diurnal changes in O2 supply to submerged plants. Dynamics in pO2 had not been measured directly for submerged rice (Oryza sativa), but in an earlier study, radial O2 loss...... from roots showed an initial peak following shoot illumination.  O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged rice were monitored during light and dark periods, using O2 microelectrodes. Tissue sugar concentrations were also measured.  On illumination of shoots of submerged rice, pO2 increased rapidly...... of magnitude higher than in darkness, enhancing also pO2 in roots.The initial peak in pO2 following illumination of submerged rice was likely to result from high initial rates of net photosynthesis, fuelled by CO2 accumulated during the dark period. Nevertheless, since sugars decline with time in submerged...

  3. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R; Page, Jonathan E

    2011-10-20

    Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Purple Kush using shortread approaches. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of 534 Mb and a transcriptome of 30,000 genes. Comparison of the transcriptome of Purple Kush with that of the hemp cultivar 'Finola' revealed that many genes encoding proteins involved in cannabinoid and precursor pathways are more highly expressed in Purple Kush than in 'Finola'. The exclusive occurrence of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase in the Purple Kush transcriptome, and its replacement by cannabidiolic acid synthase in 'Finola', may explain why the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is produced in marijuana but not in hemp. Resequencing the hemp cultivars 'Finola' and 'USO-31' showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. The availability of the Cannabis sativa genome enables the study of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics.

  4. Molecular characterization of edestin gene family in Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docimo, Teresa; Caruso, Immacolata; Ponzoni, Elena; Mattana, Monica; Galasso, Incoronata

    2014-11-01

    Globulins are the predominant class of seed storage proteins in a wide variety of plants. In many plant species globulins are present in several isoforms encoded by gene families. The major seed storage protein of Cannabis sativa L. is the globulin edestin, widely known for its nutritional potential. In this work, we report the isolation of seven cDNAs encoding for edestin from the C. sativa variety Carmagnola. Southern blot hybridization is in agreement with the number of identified edestin genes. All seven sequences showed the characteristic globulin features, but they result to be divergent members/forms of two edestin types. According to their sequence similarity four forms named CsEde1A, CsEde1B, CsEde1C, CsEde1D have been assigned to the edestin type 1 and the three forms CsEde2A, CsEde2B, CsEde2C to the edestin type 2. Analysis of the coding sequences revealed a high percentage of similarity (98-99%) among the different forms belonging to the same type, which decreased significantly to approximately 64% between the forms belonging to different types. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that both edestin types are expressed in developing hemp seeds and the amount of CsEde1 was 4.44 ± 0.10 higher than CsEde2. Both edestin types exhibited a high percentage of arginine (11-12%), but CsEde2 resulted particularly rich in methionine residues (2.36%) respect to CsEde1 (0.82%). The amino acid composition determined in CsEde1 and CsEde2 types suggests that these seed proteins can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Origin of Oryza sativa in China inferred by nucleotide polymorphisms of organelle DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wei

    Full Text Available China is rich of germplasm resources of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. and Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L. which consists of two subspecies, indica and japonica. Previous studies have shown that China is one of the domestication centers of O. sativa. However, the geographic origin and the domestication times of O. sativa in China are still under debate. To settle these disputes, six chloroplast loci and four mitochondrial loci were selected to examine the relationships between 50 accessions of Asian cultivated rice and 119 accessions of common wild rice from China based on DNA sequence analysis in the present study. The results indicated that Southern China is the genetic diversity center of O. rufipogon and it might be the primary domestication region of O. sativa. Molecular dating suggested that the two subspecies had diverged 0.1 million years ago, much earlier than the beginning of rice domestication. Genetic differentiations and phylogeography analyses indicated that indica was domesticated from tropical O. rufipogon while japonica was domesticated from O. rufipogon which located in higher latitude. These results provided molecular evidences for the hypotheses of (i Southern China is the origin center of O. sativa in China and (ii the two subspecies of O. sativa were domesticated multiple times.

  6. Performance and emission of CI engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruczyński, Stanisław W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Camelina sativa as a potential source of alternative fuel. ► Neat camelina sativa oil as a fuel for CI engine. ► The engine performance and emissions of CI engine fuelled with neat camelina sativa oil. ► Comparison of rate of heat release for camelina sativa oil and diesel oil. - Abstract: The paper describes the results of the tests of CI Perkins 1104C-44 engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil. The engine was not especially calibrated for fuelling with the vegetable fuel. During the test the engine performance and emissions were analysed. For comparison the same speed characteristic was examined for standard fuelling of the engine with diesel oil. In order to understand the engine performance and emission the mass fraction burnt and the rate of heat release was calculated and compared for the same energy provided to the engine cylinder with the injected fuels. The results show that there is possible to receive relatively good engine performance for fuelling the engine with camelina sativa oil but there is a need to change the calibration parameters of the engine fuel system when the engine is fuelled with this fuel.

  7. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations.

  8. Identification of IgE- binding pollen protein from Cannabis sativa in pollen-hypersensitive patients from north Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shazia; Murad, Sheeba; Hayat, Muhammad Qasim; Shakoor, Zahid; Arshad, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa (C.sativa) is well-known for its medicinal, industrial and recreational use. However, allergies in relation to Cannabis sativa (C.sativa) are rarely reported. C. sativa is one of the common weeds found in Pakistan and its pollen grains are common in spring and fall season. Although categorized as an aeroallergen, there are limited number of reports regarding allergenic potential in C. sativa. Therefore, the current study is aimed at exploring the IgE- binding potential among the C. sativa pollen in local pollen allergic patients. Initial screening of C. sativa sensitized individuals was carried out by dot blot from the sera of pollen allergic patients. Proteins from the pollen grains were extracted and resolved on 10% gel. Eight bands were visible on gel however only one protein fragment i.e. of 14KDa size was found to bind to IgE as analyzed through protein gel blot analysis. Strong IgE affinity of a 14 kDa protein fragment from C. sativa pollen extract suggests its allergenic potential. Further study is required to find the exact nature of this protein fragment.

  9. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  10. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects to simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. Simulated rainfalls of 2.5, 25, 63, 398, 100 and 2512 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.6, 4.6, 4.2, 3.4, 3.0 and 2.6, respectively) decreased root yields (fresh mass) of radishes 26, 42, 37, 41, 66 and 73% compared with plants not exposed to rainfalls, Similar reductions were present in radish shoot fresh mass, leaf area, and root diameter. Fresh mass yields of lettuce plants exposed to 100, 794 and 1995 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 4.0, 3.1 and 2.7, respectively) were 11, 10 and 14%, respectively, below heads of plants not exposed to rainfalls. Yields of plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of 2.0 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.7) were similar to plants not exposed to rainfalls. Although visible foliar injury occurred to lettuce, this injury was present only on wrapper leaves and would not affect marketable quality. Yields of wheat which were applied during anthesis and caryopsis development were not influenced by exposure to 46 simulated rainfalls even as high as 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7). Alfalfa plants exhibited no overall differences in fresh mass of forage among treatments even after 57 simulated rainfalls of 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7) over 105 days. 22 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Impact of water-deficit stress on tritrophic interactions in a wheat-aphid-parasitoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Suhail Ahmed

    Full Text Available Increasing temperature and CO2 concentrations can alter tritrophic interactions in ecosystems, but the impact of increasingly severe drought on such interactions is not well understood. We examined the response of a wheat-aphid-parasitoid system to variation in water-deficit stress levels. Our results showed that arid area clones of the aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius, tended to have longer developmental times compared to semiarid and moist area clones, and the development of S. avenae clones tended to be slower with increasing levels of water-deficit. Body sizes of S. avenae clones from all areas decreased with increasing water-deficit levels, indicating their declining adaptation potential under drought. Compared to arid area clones, moist area clones of S. avenae had a higher frequency of backing under severe water stress only, but a higher frequency of kicking under well-watered conditions only, suggesting a water-deficit level dependent pattern of resistance against the parasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead. The number of S. avenae individuals attacked by the parasitoid in 10 min showed a tendency to decrease with increasing water-deficit levels. Clones of S. avenae tended to have lower parasitism rates under treatments with higher water-deficit levels. The development of the parasitoid tended to be slower under higher levels of water-deficit stress. Thus, the bottom-up effects of water-deficit stressed plants were negative on S. avenae. However, the top-down effects via parasitoids were compromised by water-deficit, which could favor the growth of aphid populations. Overall, the first trophic level under water-deficit stress was shown to have an indirect and negative impact on the third trophic level parasitoid, suggesting that parasitoids could be increasingly vulnerable in future warming scenarios.

  12. Desempenho de forrageiras hibernais sob distintos níveis de luminosidade Performance of hibernal forages under distinct brightness levels

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    Roque Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os possíveis efeitos da restrição de luminosidade, obtida com distintas densidades de árvores de Pinnus taeda, sobre a produção e qualidade de: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Comum, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L. cv. Fapa 2, azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Comum, trigo (Triticum aestivum L. duplo propósito cv. BRS Tarumã e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa L.. Avaliaram-se três níveis de luminosidade: a sol aberto (sem presença de árvores de Pinnus taeda, 30% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento entre árvores de 15 × 3 m, com 222 árvores/ha e 60% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento de 9 × 3 m, com 370 árvores/ha. Foram realizadas avaliações da produção de forragem, da composição química e dos componentes estruturais das plantas, do potencial hídrico das plantas, da umidade do solo, das variáveis microclimáticas e da produção de acículas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos completos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. O azevém foi a espécie mais produtiva em todos os níveis de luminosidade, embora a ervilhaca tenha apresentado a menor redução de produção quando sombreada. Houve maior potencial hídrico nas plantas e maior umidade no solo nos ambientes sombreados, mesmo assim, a produção de forragem reduziu significativamente no sombreamento mais intenso (81%. A composição química e os componentes estruturais de todas as forrageiras estudadas também são afetados pelo aumento da restrição luminosa.Possible effects of brightness restriction, obtained by different Pinnus taeda tree densities, on the production and quality of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common, white oat (Avena sativa L. cv. FAPA 2, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Common, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. dual purpose BRS Tarumã were studied. It was evaluated three brightness levels: 1 - full sunlight with

  13. Evaluation of phenolic profile, enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts

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    Anela Topcagic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. [N.sativa] seed extracts demonstrated numerous beneficial biological effects including, among others, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antioxidant activity. To better understand the phytochemical composition of N. sativa seeds, methanol seed extracts were analyzed for phenolic acid and flavonoid content. Furthermore, we tested N. sativa methanol, n-hexane, and aqueous seed extracts for their inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE and catalase (CAT as well as for antimicrobial activity against several bacterial and a yeast strains. The phenolic content of N. sativa was analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The inhibition of BChE was assessed by modified Ellman’s method, and the inhibition of CAT was determined by monitoring hydrogen peroxide consumption. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli using the agar diffusion method. The UHPLC-MS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of 23 phenolic compounds within 15 minutes. The major components found in N. sativa seed extract were sinapinic acid (7.22 ± 0.73 µg/mg as a phenolic acid and kaempferol (11.74 ± 0.92 µg/mg as a flavonoid. All extracts showed inhibitory activity against BChE, with methanol seed extract demonstrating the highest inhibitory activity (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] 79.11 ± 6.06 µg/ml. The methanol seed extract also showed strong inhibitory activity against CAT with an IC50 value of 6.61 ± 0.27 µg/ml. Finally, the methanol extract exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against the tested microbial strains. Overall, this is the first study to investigate the ability of black cumin seed extracts to inhibit CAT. Our results indicate that N. sativa seed can be considered as an effective inhibitor

  14. Effect of administering black cumin (Nigella sativa) toward postpartum mice (MusMusculus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imelda, F.; Darti, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    The period of childbirth is a period for the health provider monitoring that less monitoring can cause the mother to suffer a variety of problemsandcomplications during childbirth such as post-partum infections. This type of research was an experimental group P0: control group, treatment groups by administering Nigella sativa P1:2.6mg/day, P2:3.9mg/day, P3:5.2mg/day, and P4:6.5mg/day, which each group 5 samples. The average amount of leukocytes after given Nigella sativa 2.6mg/day for seven days (P1) which was 7:10±0:57 (x103cells/mm3), and at least in female mice after given Nigella sativa 6.5mg/day for sevendays (P4) which was 6.62±0.52 (x103cells/mm3). The average amount lymphocytes after given Nigella sativa 2.6mg/day for seven days (P1) which was 63.40±4.77 (x103cells/mm3), and least in female mice after given Nigella sativa 3.9 mg/day for seven days (P3) which was 47.00±14:58 (x103cells/mm3). Amount of monocytes after given Nigella sativa 5.2mg/day for seven days (P3) which was 5.40±0.55 (x103cells/mm3), and least in female mice after given Nigella sativa 2.6mg/day for seven days (P1) which was 4.80±1.30 (x103cells/mm3).

  15. Antibacterial effect of Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa L. oils

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    Gecgel, Umit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of five different oils from Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa used in foods mainly for their flavour, preservation and natural therapies were screened for their antibacterial effects at 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % concentrations using the agar diffusion method against twenty four pathogenic, spoilage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. All tested oils showed antibacterial activity against all the bacteria used in the assay. The oils at 2.0 % concentration were more effective than of the other concentrations. The most sensitive bacterium against all of the oil concentrations was Aeromonas hydrophila, while the most resistant was Yersinia enterocolitica. Generally, lactic acid bacteria had more resistance than pathogenic and spoilage bacteria against black cumin oils. Consequently, black cumin oil may be used as an antimicrobial agent in food products to prevent spoilage.Se ensayaron un total de cinco aceites diferentes de comino negro turco ( Nigella sativa L., que se utilizan habitualmente en alimentos para darles sabor, ayudar a la conservación o por sus efectos terapéuticos, para estudiar sus propiedades antimicrobianas a concentraciones de 0.5 %, 1.0 %, y 2 %. Para ello se utilizó el método de difusión en agar, frente a veinticuatro microorganismos patógenos, causantes de alteraciones o bacterias ácido lácticas (LAB. Todos los aceites ensayados mostraron actividad antimicrobiana contra todos los microorganismos ensayados, siendo las concentraciones del 2 % las concentraciones más eficaces. Aeromonas hydrophyla fue el microorganismo mas sensible a todas las concentraciones mientras que Yersinia enterocolitica fue la más resistente. Generalmente las bacterias acido lácticas tuvieron más resistencia que los gérmenes patógenos y las bacterias que causan alteraciones. En consecuencia, el aceite de comino negro turco se puede utilizar como agente antimicrobiano en productos alimenticios para evitar su alteración.

  16. Population structure and genotype-phenotype associations in a collection of oat landraces and historic cultivars

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    Louisa Rosemarie Winkler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L. remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent; with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae resistance, days to anthesis and growth habit (winter/spring. In addition, two novel loci were

  17. Semeadura direta de genótipos de arroz irrigado em sucessão a espécies de cobertura de inverno

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    Menezes Valmir Gaedke

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A adoção do sistema de semeadura direta de arroz em sucessão a espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno é uma importante alternativa para possibilitar o cultivo em uma mesma área todos os anos. Com o objetivo de avaliar espécies de cobertura do solo no inverno mais apropriadas para participarem de um sistema de sucessão de culturas com semeadura direta de genótipos de arroz irrigado, conduziu-se um experimento na Estação Experimental do Arroz do Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz, em Cachoeirinha, RS, nas estações de crescimento de 1996/97, 1997/98 e 1998/99. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro genótipos de arroz irrigado (BRS6, BR-IRGA 409, IRGA 416 e IRGA 417 instalados em semeadura direta, sobre parcelas com as coberturas de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Scheib, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L., azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., serradela nativa [Ornithopus micranthus (Benth. Arechavaleta] e de vegetação espontânea e com solo desnudo (testemunha. Quanto ao rendimento de grãos, houve interação entre sistemas de cobertura de solo e estações de crescimento. Nas três estações de crescimento, somente o arroz cultivado em sucessão à leguminosa serradela nativa apresentou rendimento de grãos similar ao obtido no sistema de cultivo convencional. Por outro lado, o arroz cultivado em sucessão ao azevém foi o único a apresentar rendimento de grãos inferior em relação ao sistema de cultivo convencional nas três estações de crescimento.

  18. Canaryseed Crop

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    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El alpiste (Phalaris canariensis L. es una gramínea con un ciclo de cultivo y prácticas de producción similares a las de otros cereales invernales, tales como el trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y la avena (Avena sativa L.. Actualmente, sus granos se destinan, casi con exclusividad, a la alimentación de aves, solos o en mezcla con otros como mijo, girasol y lino. El alpiste es un cereal genuino con una composición única que sugiere un potencial para uso alimentario. P. canariensis se cultiva en muchas zonas de climas templados. En la actualidad, su producción se concentra en las provincias del suroeste de Canadá (Alberta, Saskatchewan y Manitoba y en menor escala en Argentina, Tailandia y Australia. A nivel mundial es considerado como un cultivo menor, con pertinencia regional, con una producción de alrededor de 250 mil toneladas al año, lo que restringe la inversión privada y la investigación pública en su mejoramiento genético y tecnológico. Por esta razón, el tipo de manejo del cultivo que se aplica a esta especie depende en gran medida a las innovaciones hechas en otros cultivos similares. Este trabajo ofrece una revisión actualizad a de la información disponible sobre esta especie, sus necesidades, distribución, recursos genéticos, prácticas de cultivo, usos potenciales, comercialización y otros temas de interés para los investigadores y productores.

  19. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

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    Shewmaker Christine K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the presence of three copies of both FAD2 and FAE1 as well as LFY, a known single copy gene in other species. All three copies of both CsFAD2 and CsFAE1 are expressed in developing seeds, and sequence alignments show that previously described conserved sites are present, suggesting that all three copies of both genes could be functional. The regions downstream of CsFAD2 and upstream of CsFAE1 demonstrate co-linearity with the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, three expressed haplotypes were observed for six predicted single-copy genes in 454 sequencing analysis and results from flow cytometry indicate that the DNA content of C. sativa is approximately three-fold that of diploid Camelina relatives. Phylogenetic analyses further support a history of duplication and indicate that C. sativa and C. microcarpa might share a parental genome. Conclusions There is compelling evidence for triplication of the C. sativa genome, including a larger chromosome number and three-fold larger measured genome size than other Camelina relatives, three isolated copies of FAD2, FAE1, and the KCS17-FAE1 intergenic region, and three expressed haplotypes observed for six predicted single-copy genes. Based on these results, we propose that C. sativa be considered an allohexaploid. The characterization of fatty acid synthesis pathway genes will allow for the future manipulation of oil composition of this emerging biofuel crop; however, targeted manipulations of oil composition and general

  20. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review

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    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. N. sativa is referred in the Middle East as a part of an overall holistic approach to health. Pharmacological properties of N. sativa including immune stimulant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, spasmolytic and bronchodilator have been shown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress are known as the major causes of many diseases such as liver injury and many substances and drugs can induce oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Many pharmacological properties of N. sativa are known to be attributed to the presence of thymoquinone and its antioxidant effects. Thymoquinone protects liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and glutathione level, radical scavengering, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase, inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the roles of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms of N. sativa in prevention of liver injury.

  1. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. N. sativa is referred in the Middle East as a part of an overall holistic approach to health. Pharmacological properties of N. sativa including immune stimulant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, spasmolytic and bronchodilator have been shown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are known as the major causes of many diseases such as liver injury and many substances and drugs can induce oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Many pharmacological properties of N. sativa are known to be attributed to the presence of thymoquinone and its antioxidant effects. Thymoquinone protects liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and glutathione level, radical scavengering, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase, inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the roles of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms of N. sativa in prevention of liver injury.

  2. COMPARISON OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Usman; Qureshi, Hamid Javaid; Saleem, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa or "Kalonji" is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 µl was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (pdiclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium.

  3. Species identification of Cannabis sativa using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher E; Premasuthan, Amritha; Satkoski Trask, Jessica; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2013-03-01

    Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabis sativa. Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids. Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays. DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C. sativa materials, but they require several nanograms of template DNA. Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C. sativa chloroplast, we have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay that is capable of identifying picogram amounts of chloroplast DNA for species determination of suspected C. sativa material. This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. sativa. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Husain, Asif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Siddique, Nasir Ali; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-05-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.

  5. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron

  6. An integrated interspecific AFLP map of lettuce (Lactuca) based on two L. Saligna x L. sativa F2-populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, M.; Wijk, van R.; Peleman, J.; Lindhout, P.

    2001-01-01

    AFLP markers were obtained with 12 EcoRI/ MseI primer combinations on two independent F2 populations of Lactuca sativa 2 Lactuca saligna. The polymorphism rates of the AFLP products between the two different L. saligna lines was 39°between the two different L. sativa cultivars 13 nd between the L.

  7. Systematic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) metabolic responses to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Christeller, John T; Fukumoto, Kaori; Isshiki, Ryutaro; Shinya, Tomonori; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Plants defend against attack from herbivores by direct and indirect defence mechanisms mediated by the accumulation of phytoalexins and release of volatile signals, respectively. While the defensive arsenals of some plants, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis are well known, most of rice's (Oryza sativa) defence metabolites and their effectiveness against herbivores remain uncharacterized. Here, we used a non-biassed metabolomics approach to identify many novel herbivory-regulated metabolic signatures in rice. Most were up-regulated by herbivore attack while only a few were suppressed. Two of the most prominent up-regulated signatures were characterized as phenolamides (PAs), p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine. PAs accumulated in response to attack by both chewing insects, i.e. feeding of the lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia) and the rice skipper (Parnara guttata) larvae, and the attack of the sucking insect, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). In bioassays, BPH insects feeding on 15% sugar solution containing p-coumaroylputrescine or feruloylputrescine, at concentrations similar to those elicited by heavy BPH attack in rice, had a higher mortality compared to those feeding on sugar diet alone. Our results highlight PAs as a rapidly expanding new group of plant defence metabolites that are elicited by herbivore attack, and deter herbivores in rice and other plants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Isolation and culture of protoplast from leaves of Lactuca sativa

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    Witool Chaipakdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings after in vitro germination for 25, 30, 40 and 50 days. The leaves were stripped and incubated in various combinations of cellulase and pectinase. Protoplasts were cultured on MS medium containing various kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators in different culture systems including liquid media, hanging, drop culture and solid media. Results revealed that the highest number of viable protoplasts, 14.1x105 cells per gram of fresh weight, was obtained from 30 day-old leaves of lettuce seedlings and isolated by using 2% cellulase in combination with 1% pectinase. Liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA promoted the highest cell division up to 17.67%. First division of protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture and microcolony formation occurred at the 4th week after culturing. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  9. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

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    Zuardi A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  10. Induction of mutants in Cannabis Sativa L. by {gamma} radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuochi, P; Lavalle, M [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattivita, Bologna (Italy); Di Candilo, M; Ranalli, P [Istituto Sperimentale per le Colture Industriali, Bologna (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A description is given of the mutations induced in a well known cultivar of fibre hemp belonging to the species Cannabis sativa in order to obtain new phenotypic characters that could unequivocally differentiate it from drug hemp. Two new dioecious hemp cultivars, characterized by clear morphological markers and low ({<=}0.2%){delta}-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, have been obtained by mutagenesis of seeds irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays(optimum dose 300-350 Gy) and selection of the segregant progenies. These new cultivars, named red petiole (exhibiting anthocyanin leaf petioles) and yellow apex (exhibiting yellow distal leaflets), have been compared with varieties C.S., carmagnola and fibranova by growing them in three different areas (centre-north and south) of Italy. These agronomical trials highlighted the good performance of both new cultivars as for yield in dry matter and in fibre, not significantly different from the results of carmagnola. Besides, the new cultivars showed THC contents (0.09 and 0.17%) lower than the threshold set by the E.U. (0.2%). (Author)

  11. Induction of mutants in Cannabis Sativa L. by γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuochi, P.; Lavalle, M.; Di Candilo, M.; Ranalli, P.

    2002-01-01

    A description is given of the mutations induced in a well known cultivar of fibre hemp belonging to the species Cannabis sativa in order to obtain new phenotypic characters that could unequivocally differentiate it from drug hemp. Two new dioecious hemp cultivars, characterized by clear morphological markers and low (≤0.2%)Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, have been obtained by mutagenesis of seeds irradiated with 60 Co γ rays(optimum dose 300-350 Gy) and selection of the segregant progenies. These new cultivars, named red petiole (exhibiting anthocyanin leaf petioles) and yellow apex (exhibiting yellow distal leaflets), have been compared with varieties C.S., carmagnola and fibranova by growing them in three different areas (centre-north and south) of Italy. These agronomical trials highlighted the good performance of both new cultivars as for yield in dry matter and in fibre, not significantly different from the results of carmagnola. Besides, the new cultivars showed THC contents (0.09 and 0.17%) lower than the threshold set by the E.U. (0.2%). (Author)

  12. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheliga, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz. is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials is of particular interest due to the high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. For the establishment of camelina as a crop in agricultural crop rotation systems weed control should not be disregarded despite the rather good competitive ability against weeds. Based on greenhouse experiments a field trial in 2015 with different herbicide strategies was carried out. Besides Butisan Top (metazachlor + quinmerac, Devrinol FL (napropamide and Stomp Aqua (pendimethalin and also Betasana SC (phenmedipham has been tested in various amounts and combinations. Using assessments to weed density and herbicide tolerance different herbicide strategies were compared with each other. Though, it is difficult to find a compromise between satisfactory herbicidal effect and a slight injury to the crop plant. The herbicide selection, the application rate and the combination of different herbicides have an effect on the crop. To confirm the data obtained further tests are necessary.

  13. Biofertilizer in the nutritional quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

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    Rodrigo Luis Lemes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in the nutritional composition to the application of biofertilizers. The experiment was conducted with increasing doses of biofertilizers in a greenhouse at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine / UNESP, Araçatuba - Sao Paulo, Brazil, from April to October 2010. The experimental design was completely randomized with six biofertilizer doses from cattle manure (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m3 ha-1 and five replications. Cuts were performed, on average, every 27 days, 10 cm above the ground when 10% of the plants were flowering. Biofertilization had a positive significant impact on foliar nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and shoot iron concentrations. The values of crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ between doses of biofertilizers. Biofertilization is a viable alternative for nutrition of this species, showing positive results in the nutritional composition of alfalfa. However, but long-term studies are necessary to assess the environmental impact of these fertilizers.

  14. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safwat A; Ross, Samir A; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2015-09-01

    Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. variety. Structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and GC-MS. These minor compounds include four hexahydrocannabinols, four tetrahydrocannabinols, and one hydroxylated cannabinol, namely 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 7-oxo-9α-hydroxyhexa-hydrocannabinol, 10α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 10aR-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-THC aldehyde A, 8-oxo-Δ(9)-THC, 10aα-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(8)-THC, 9α-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(6a,10a)-THC, and 1'S-hydroxycannabinol, respectively. The latter compound showed moderate anti-MRSa (IC50 10.0 μg/mL), moderate antileishmanial (IC50 14.0 μg/mL) and mild antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 clone) and P. falciparum (W2 clone) with IC50 values of 3.4 and 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In silico discovery of terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Due to their efficacy, cannabis based therapies are currently being prescribed for the treatment of many different medical conditions. Interestingly, treatments based on the use of cannabis flowers or their derivatives have been shown to be very effective, while therapies based on drugs containing THC alone lack therapeutic value and lead to increased side effects, likely resulting from the absence of other pivotal entourage compounds found in the Phyto-complex. Among these compounds are terpenoids, which are not produced exclusively by cannabis plants, so other plant species must share many of the enzymes involved in their metabolism. In the present work, 23,630 transcripts from the canSat3 reference transcriptome were scanned for evolutionarily conserved protein domains and annotated in accordance with their predicted molecular functions. A total of 215 evolutionarily conserved genes encoding enzymes presumably involved in terpenoid metabolism are described, together with their expression profiles in different cannabis plant tissues at different developmental stages. The resource presented here will aid future investigations on terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa .

  16. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both.

  18. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  19. Potentiating Effects of Lactuca sativa on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been recommended for its hypnotic property. The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of this plant. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of lettuce and its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were administrated (IP) to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. Moreover, both in-vivo and in-vitro toxicity of the extracts were determined. The quality of HAE and NBF was also evaluated using HPLC fingerprint. The HAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration at dose of 400 mg/Kg. The NBF was the only fraction which could increase the sleep duration and decrease sleep latency. The effects of NBF were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. The LD50-value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. No neurotoxic effect was observed either by HAE or by its fractions in cultured PC12 neuron-like cells. The results suggest that lettuce potentiates pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. The main component(s) responsible for this effect is most likely to be non-polar agent(s) which found in NBF of this plant.

  20. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  1. Fe deficiency induced changes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwen; Xu, Chao; Li, Kang; Cai, Xiaojie; Wu, Min; Chen, Guoxiang

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency is an important abiotic stress that limits productivity of crops all over the world. We selected a hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), LYPJ, which is super high-yield and widely cultured in China, to investigate changes in the components and structure of thylakoid membranes and photosynthetic performance in response to iron deficiency. Our results demonstrated that photosystem I (PSI) is the primary target for iron deficiency, while the changes in photosystem II (PSII) are important for rebuilding a balance in disrupted energy utilization and dissipation caused by differential degradation of photosynthetic components. The result of immunoblot analysis suggested that the core subunit PsaA declined drastically, while PsbA remained relatively stable. Furthermore, several organizational changes of the photosynthetic apparatus were found by BN-PAGE, including a marked decrease in the PSI core complexes, the Cytb 6 /f complex, and the trimeric form of the LHCII antenna, consistent with the observed unstacking grana. The fluorescence induction analysis indicated a descending PSII activity with energy dissipation enhanced markedly. In addition, we proposed that the crippled CO 2 assimilation could be compensated by the enhanced of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), which is suggested by the decreased ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and photosynthetic efficiency.

  2. Revitalization of Industrial Hemp Cannabis sativa L. Var. sativa in Slovenia: a Study of Green Hemp Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijavec Tatjana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of industrial hemp as a source of highly valuable textile fi bres is briefly presented through its use for textiles and composites and its increasing cultivated areas in the 21st century. On the territory of present Slovenia, about 160 ha of agricultural area was cultivated with hemp before WWII, then it quickly began to decline and at the end of the 1970s, it was no longer cultivated. Revitalization of industrial hemp in Slovenia with fi eld experiments started already in the years 2000/2001 for producing seeds, whereas hemp fi bres were used only as an insulation for buildings. The textile technological properties of hemp fi bres from diff erent varieties grown in Slovenia have not been examined till now. They are important for using hemp fibres in highly valuable textile products. The properties of green hemp fi bres extracted mechanically from non-retted hemp stems of Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa (varieties: Novosadska, Juso-11, Bialobrzeskie, Unico- B and Beniko were determined. All the analysed varieties except Beniko had stem height over 200 cm. The highest yield of green fibres was 33.1% (Novosadska. The analysed green fibres’ content was 1.24–3.26% of ash, 7.77–8.50% of moisture regain, 10.69–13.92% of water-soluble substances and 8.45–10.83% of pectin. Through a biodegradation process of retting green hemp fibres in tap water at temperature 35°C, 9.01– 18.89% of dry mass was removed after ten days. Average linear density of green hemp fi bres was very high, around 200 tex. Tenacity of fi bres’ bundles was in the range of 167–272 MPa, but tenacity of elementary fibres was 548–672 MPa. From the curves of specific stress-strain, it is seen that green hemp fibres from all five varieties had similar superstructure. All analysed green hemp fibres had high linear density and low mechanical properties. For textile application, they should be further processed into finer fibres in order to increase their

  3. Anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa and its effect on behavioral activities of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Anilakumar, Kandangath Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of Lactuca sativa extract with respect to pharmacological action.We investigated the anxiolytic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa on mice. The behavioral tests performed on mice models to assess anti-anxiety properties were: open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM), elevated T maze test, and marble burying test. Increased locomotor activity and time spent in the "open-arm" were observed in extract fed group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were decreased, catalase and glutathione levels were increased in Lactuca sativa treated mice. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extract of Lactuca sativa can afford significant protection against anxiolytic activity.

  4. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  5. Prevalence of sensitization to Cannabis sativa. Lipid-transfer and thaumatin-like proteins are relevant allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larramendi, Carlos H; López-Matas, M Ángeles; Ferrer, Angel; Huertas, Angel Julio; Pagán, Juan Antonio; Navarro, Luis Ángel; García-Abujeta, José Luis; Andreu, Carmen; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Although allergy to Cannabis sativa was first reported over 40 years ago, the allergenicity has scarcely been studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of sensitization to this plant, to analyze the clinical characteristics and allergenic profile of sensitized individuals and to identify the allergens involved. Five hundred and forty-five individuals in Spain attending allergy clinics with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms underwent a skin-prick test (SPT) with C. sativa leaf extract. The extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Specific IgE to C. sativa was measured in positive SPT individuals. The clinical and allergenic profiles of sensitized individuals were investigated and the most-recognized allergens sequenced and characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Of this preselected population, 44 individuals had positive SPT to C. sativa (prevalence 8.1%). Prevalence was higher in individuals who were C. sativa smokers (14.6%). Two individuals reported mild symptoms with C. sativa. Twenty-one individuals from 32 available sera (65.6%) had positive specific IgE to C. sativa. Twelve sera recognized at least 6 different bands in a molecular-weight range of between 10 and 60 kDa. Six of them recognized a 10-kDa band, identified as a lipid transfer protein (LTP) and 8 recognized a 38-kDa band, identified as a thaumatin-like protein. There is a high prevalence of sensitization to C. sativa leaves. The clinical symptoms directly attributed to C. sativa were uncommon and mild. The sensitization profile observed suggests that C. sativa sensitization may be mediated by two mechanisms, i.e. cross-reactivity, mainly with LTP and thaumatin-like protein, and exposure-related 'de novo' sensitization. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  7. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [ed.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N [ed.; ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E [ed.; Rome, Univ. ` La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

    1998-06-01

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

  8. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Tanaman Ketan Hitam (Oryza Sativa Glutinosa) sebagai Indikator Asam Basa

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Muhammad Arief; Amran, Elva Yasmi; ', Susilawati

    2016-01-01

    Research was conducted with the aims to determine pH range, percentage acid base indicator titration error, and stability of Oryza sativa Glutinosa extract as acid base indicator. Oryza sativa Glutinosa grains respectively extracted with maseration using ethanol (HCl 1%). pH range determined by added the extract into buffer solutions pH 1-9. Percentage acid base indicator titration error determined by applied the extract in strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base...

  9. Toxicity Effect of Cr Stress on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Lactuca Sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan Zheng; Ma, Wan Min; Du, Ying Ying; Dan, Qiong Peng; Yin, Bing; Dai, Shan Shan; Hao, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    The impact of Cr6+ on the growth of lactuca sativa in Greenhouse Cucumber was investigated. The seeds of lacuna sativa Italian bolting resistance lettuce were treated by different Cr6+ concentration to study the effects on its seed germination and seedling growth. The results showed that the seed germination rate, vigor index of seedlings decreased with increment of Cr6+ concentration to varying degrees, and vigor germination, vigor index, raw weight, root length significantly lower. The absorption of lettuce seedlings on different nutrient elements is impacted by the concentration of Cr6+.

  10. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  11. Bekatul (Oryza sativa L. Menghambat Peningkatan Kadar Kolesterol Darah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Kania

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penyakit kardiovaskuler merupakan penyebab utama kematian dan kecacatan di seluruh dunia, termasuk Indonesia. Penyakit kardiovaskuler disebabkan oleh pembentukan aterosklerosis pada pembuluh darah. Konsumsi larutan tepung bekatul (Oryza sativa L. dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu upaya untuk mencegah terjadinya aterosklerosis dengan cara menghambat peningkatan kadar kolesterol darah. Penelitian ini untuk menilai efek larutan tepung bejatul terhadap penghambatan peningkatan kadar kolesterol darah. Penelitian eksperimental laboratorik dengan rancangan acak lengkap telah dilakukan pada 20 ekor tikus putih jantan galur Wistar yang dibagi menjadi lima kelompok. Kelompok I adalah kontrol negatif yang diberikan diet tinggi lemak dan propiltiurasil (PTU 0,01%, kelompok II merupakan kontrol positif yang hanya diberi pelet. Kelompok III, IV, dan V adalah kelompok perlakuan yang diberikan sediaan uji 0,27 gram/200 gram BB, 0,54 gram/200 gram BB, dan 1,08 gram/200 gram BB, DTL dan PTU 0,01% secara bersamaan. Pengukuran kadar kolesterol darah dilakukan sebelum diberikan perlakuan (hari ke-7 dan setelah diberikan perlakuan (hari ke-21 dengan menggunakan metode kolorimetrik enzimatik. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa larutan tepung bekatul memiliki efek penghambatan terhadap peningkatan kadar kolesterol darah dengan dosis 0,54 gram/200 gram BB. Efek penghambatan tersebut diakibatkan oleh mekanisme interaksi  dari orizanol, fitosterol, dan omega-3 yang terdapat dalam larutan tepung bekatul. Kata kunci: Bekatul, efek penghambatan, kolesterol darah   Rice Bran (Oryza sativa L. Inhibit the Increase of Blood Cholesterol Level Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, including Indonesia. This disease caused by atherosclerosis formation in blood vessel. Consumption of rice bran is one alternative to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting the increase of blood cholesterol level. The Aim of study was to

  12. Morphometric characteristics of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oľga Grygorieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to determine morphometric differences of fruits between selected sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.. The 28 genotypes (referred as CS-01 to CS-28 were introduced by seeds from Czech Republic, Carpathians, Kyrgyzstan. Genotypes of sweet chestnut are grow more than 30 years in Forest-Steppe of Ukraine in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine. They are well adapted to the climatic and soil conditions. The fruits were collected at the period of their full maturity (September. The population differs in weight, shape, size and color of fruits. Their morphometric parameters were following: weight from 1.70 g (CS-26 to 18.60 g (CS-20, length from 8.07 mm (CS-28 to 33.39 mm (CS-11, width from 16.34 mm (CS-28 to 40.95 mm (CS-11, thickness from 9.02 mm (CS-26 to 28.70 mm (CS-11 and hilum length from 6.62 mm (CS-26 to 31.30 mm (CS-07, hilum width from 6.50 mm (CS-23 to 19.99 mm (CS-07. The shape index of the fruits was found in the range of 0.81 (CS-20 to 0.98 (CS-12. The shape index of the hilum was found in the range of 1.48 (CS-04 to 2.03 (CS-23. The outcome of the research point to the fact that the genepool Ukrainian sweet chestnut is a rich source of genetic diversity and might be used in selection for creation a new genotypes and cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle M Andre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fibre since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibres. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e. cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented.

  13. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M.; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenes and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented. PMID:26870049

  14. Environmental impact assessment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Tedesco, Doriana; Pretolani, Roberto; Ferrante, Valentina

    2018-09-01

    On-farm production of hay and high-protein-content feed has several advantages such as diversification of on-farm cultivated crops, reduction of off-farm feed concentrates transported over long distances and a reduction in runoff during the winter season if grown crops are perennial. Among those crops cultivated for high-protein-content feed, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important in the Italian context. Nevertheless, up to now, only a few studies have assessed the environmental performance of alfalfa hay production. In this study, using the Life Cycle Assessment approach, the environmental impact of alfalfa hay production in Northern Italy was analyzed. More in detail, two production practices (without and with irrigation) were compared. The results show that alfalfa hay production in irrigated fields has a better environmental performance compared to non-irrigated production, mainly because of the yield increase achieved with irrigation. In particular, for the Climate Change impact category, the impact is equal to 84.54 and 80.21kgCO 2 /t of hay for the scenario without and with irrigation, respectively. However, for two impact categories (Ozone Depletion and Human Toxicity-No Cancer Effect), the impact of irrigation completely offsets the yield increase, and the cultivation practice without irrigation shows the best environmental performance. For both scenarios, the mechanization of harvest is the main environmental hotspot, mostly due to fuel consumption and related combustion emissions. Wide differences were highlighted by comparing the two scenarios with the Ecoinvent process of alfalfa hay production; these differences are mostly due to the cultivation practice and, in particular, to the more intensive fertilization in Swiss production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transesterification of camelina sativa oil with supercritical alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yingqiang; Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Reddy, Harvind K.; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Zheling; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification of camelina oil under supercritical methanol/ethanol and 1-butanol mixture conditions. • Chemical composition of fatty acid methyl esters, ethyl esters and butyl esters. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on biodiesel yields. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on physical properties of biodiesel products. - Abstract: The transesterification of camelina sativa oil with methanol–1-butanol, and ethanol–1-butanol alcohol mixtures under supercritical conditions have been studied in order to maximize biodiesel yield and improve biodiesel quality. The influence of the variation of the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol and ethanol–1-butanol from 1:0, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, to 0:1 on the yield of free fatty methyl esters/free fatty ethanol esters–free fatty acid butyl esters, the composition of the biodiesel blend mixtures, and the physical properties of the biodiesel have been investigated at the reaction temperature of 290 °C, reaction time of 30 min, and the initial reaction pressure of 500 psi. A maximum yield of 86.14 wt% for free fatty acid methyl esters–free fatty acid butyl esters with the optimum cold property can be obtained at the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol of 0.5–0.9. Also, a maximum yield of 85.60 wt% for free fatty ethyl esters–free fatty butyl esters with the lowest pour point can be achieved at the molar ratio of ethanol–1-butanol in the range of 0.5–0.7

  16. Pb low doses induced genotoxicity in Lactuca sativa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Silva, P; Oliveira, H; Gaivão, I; Matos, M; Pinto-Carnide, O; Santos, C

    2017-03-01

    Soil and water contamination by lead (Pb) remains a topic of great concern, particularly regarding crop production. The admissible Pb values in irrigation water in several countries range from ≈0.1 to ≈5 mg L -1 . In order to evaluate putative effects of Pb within legal doses on crops growth, we exposed Lactuca sativa seeds and seedlings to increasing doses of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 up to 20 mg L -1 . The OECD parameter seed germination and seedling/plant growth were not affected by any of the Pb-concentrations used. However, for doses higher than 5 mg L -1 significant DNA damage was detected: Comet assay detected DNA fragmentation at ≥ 5 mg L -1 and presence of micronuclei (MN) were detected for 20 mg L -1 . Also, cell cycle impairment was observed for doses as low as 0.05 mg L -1 and 0.5 mg L -1 (mostly G 2 arrest). Our data show that for the low doses of Pb used, the OECD endpoints were not able to detect toxicity, while more sensitive endpoints (related with DNA damage and mitotic/interphase disorders) identified genotoxic and cytostatic effects. Furthermore, the nature of the genotoxic effect was dependent on the concentration. Finally, we recommend that MN test and the comet assay should be included as sensitive endpoints in (eco)toxicological assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. ANALISIS TUMBUH SELADA (LACTUCA SATIVA L) PADA PERBEDAAN JENIS PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR ( Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L) Growth Analysis At Different Type Of Liquid Organic Fertilizer)

    OpenAIRE

    Duaja, Made Deviani; Arzita, .; Redo, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to analysis the growth and yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) at different type of organic liquid fertilizers. The experiment has conducted at Agriculture Faculty Research Farm, Jambi University. Six treatments were arranged in Randomized Completed Block Design. The treatments are kinds of liquid organic fertilizers, they are P0 (none of liquid organic fertilizers), P1 (Golden Harvest liquid organic fertilizers), P2 (NASA liquid organic fertilizers), P3 (C...

  18. Nigella sativa improves the carbon tetrachloride-induced lung damage in rats through repression of erk/akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aslan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine whether Nigella sativa plays a protective role against the damage in the lung by administering carbon tetra-chloride (CCl4 to rats. Male Wistar albino (n=28, 8 weeks old rats were divided into 4 groups: a negative control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 and N. sativa was administered; b Positive control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 was administered but N. sativa was administered; c CCl4 Group: Normal water consuming and group to which CCl4 was administered (1.5 mL/kg, ip; d N. sativa plus CCl4 group: CCl4 and N. sativa administered group (1.5 mL/kg, ip. Caspase-3, caspase -9, erk, akt protein syntheses were examined via Western blotting. Malondialdehyde determination in lung tissue was made using spectrophotometer. As a results, malondialdehyde amount was decreased in the CCl4 plus N. sativa group in comparison to CCl4 group whereas caspase-3, caspase-9 was increased and erk, akt had decreased. These results show that N. sativa protects the lung against oxidative damage.

  19. A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition and Antithrombotic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the regular consumption of vegetables. Eruca sativa Mill., commonly known as rocket, is a leafy vegetable that has anti-inflammatory activity. However, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities have not been described. Methods: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL, was evaluated on human platelets: (i P-selectin expression by flow cytometry; (ii platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; (iii IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 release; and (iv activation of NF-κB and PKA by western blot. Furthermore, (v antithrombotic activity (200 mg/kg and (vi bleeding time in murine models were evaluated. Results: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 induced by ADP was inhibited by Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract. Furthermore, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract inhibited NF-κB activation. Finally, in murine models, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. Conclusion: Eruca sativa Mill. presents antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity.

  1. Review on the Potential Therapeutic Roles of Nigella sativa in the Treatment of Patients with Cancer: Involvement of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa, family Ranunculaceae is a medicinal plant that has been widely used for centuries throughout the world as a natural remedy. A wide range of chemical compounds found in N. sativa expresses its vast therapeutic effects. Thymoquinone (TQ is the main component (up to 50% in the essential oil of N. sativa. Also, pinene (up to 15%, p-cymene (40%, thymohydroquinone (THQ, thymol (THY, and dithymoquinone (DTQ are other pharmacologically active compounds of its oil. Other terpenoid compounds, such as carvacrol, carvone, 4-terpineol, limonenes, and citronellol, are also found in small quantities in its oil. The main pharmacological characteristics of this plant are immune system stimulatory, anti- inflammatory, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, anti- tussive, milk production, uricosuric, choleretic, anti-fertility, and spasmolytic properties. In this regard, we have searched the scientific databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar with keywords of N. sativa, anti-cancer, apoptotic effect, antitumor, antioxidant, and malignancy over the period from 2000 to 2017. The effectiveness of N. sativa against cancer in the blood system, kidneys, lungs, prostate, liver, and breast and on many malignant cell lines has been shown in many studies, but the molecular mechanisms behind that anti-cancer role are still not clearly understood. From among the many effects of N. sativa, including its anti-proliferative effect, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, ROS generation, anti-metastasis/anti-angiogenesis effects, Akt pathway control, modulation of multiple molecular targets, including p53, p73, STAT-3, PTEN, and PPAR-γ, and activation of caspases, the main suggestive anti-cancer mechanisms of N. sativa are its free radical scavenger activity and the preservation of various anti-oxidant enzyme activities, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione-S- transferase. In this review

  2. A Review on the Cosmeceutical and External Applications of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Eid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO that most of the world’s population depends on herbal medicine for their health care. Nigella sativa (N. sativa, also known as black-caraway and as “Kalonji,” is a well-known seed all over the world. It is one of the most common medicinal plants worldwide and contains many useful chemical constituents that we can find in its fixed oil, such as thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol, nigellicine, carvacrol, nigellimine, nigellicine, nigellidine, and alpha-hederin. Due to these numerous important ingredients it was found that it affects different areas of our body and has many pharmacological effects as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effect and also for acne vulgaris, skin cancer, pigmentation, and many cosmeceutical applications. Based on the folklore usage of N. sativa seeds and oil, they are used in various systems of food and medicines. The aim of this article is to provide a detailed survey of the literature of cosmeceutical and external applications of N. sativa which is expected to stimulate further studies on this subject.

  3. Differential distribution of cadmium in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florijn, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Large genotypic variation in shoot Cd concentrations has been reported in literature for several plant species including lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.). The objective of this thesis was to elucidate the physiological andlor

  4. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A; Zanaty, Mohamed I

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.

  5. Analysis and antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa essential oil formulated in microemulsion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Hamdy A; Sadek, Zainab; Edris, Amr E; Saad-Hussein, Amal

    2015-01-01

    The Essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa (black cumin) was extracted from the crude oil and the volatile constituents were characterized using gas chromatographic analysis. The EO was formulated in water-based microemulsion system and its antibacterial activity against six pathogenic bacteria was evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. This activity was compared with two other well known biologically active natural and synthetic antimicrobials namely eugenol and Ceftriaxone(®). Results showed that N. sativa EO microemulsion was highly effective against S. aureus, B. cereus and S. typhimurium even at the lowest tested concentration of that EO in the microemulsion (100.0 μg/well). Interestingly, the EO microemulsion showed higher antibacterial activity than Ceftriaxone solution against S. typhimurium at 400.0 μg/well and almost comparable activity against E. coli at 500.0 μg/well. No activity was detected for the EO microemulsion against L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa. Eugenol which was also formulated in microemulsion was less effective than N. sativa EO microemulsion except against P. aeruginosa. The synthetic antibiotic (Ceftriaxone) was effective against most of the six tested bacterial strains. This work is the first report revealing the formulation of N. sativa EO in microemulsion system and investigating its antibacterial activity. The results may offer potential application of that water-based microemulsion in controlling the prevalence of some pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIOTECH

    2013-10-16

    Oct 16, 2013 ... of culture. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to pots for acclimatization. About 80% of plants were survived in the greenhouse condition. Key words: Somatic embryogenesis, immature zygotic embryos, Indica rice, plant regeneration. INTRODUCTION. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most ...

  7. Semi-high throughput screening for potential drought-tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of th...

  8. Phosphomannose isomerase gene for selection in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bříza, Jindřich; Růžičková, N.; Niedermeierová, Hana; Dusbábková, Jana; Vlasák, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-68 ISSN 0001-527X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : pmi * npt II * Lactuca sativa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.234, year: 2010

  9. Plant Age Affects Wound-Induced Senescense in Lactuca Sativa L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the performance of dark-stored wounded leaf discs and pieces (to some extent mimicking fresh-cut product) of Lactuca sativa L. in relation to the physiological maturity at harvest. We used two related genotypes, i.e. a green (cv. Troubadour) and a red butterhead

  10. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Shakeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa (Ranunculacea has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone.

  11. Assessment of the use and misuse of Cannabis sativa amongst some residents of Jos metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Jimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cannabis can be used for its medicinal properties when used appropriately. However, the misuse of the product can cause some unwanted effects such as psychological dependence, and therefore addiction. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the extent of misuse of Cannabis sativa in Jos and environs. Materials and Methods: The use and misuse of C. sativa in Jos metropolis was studied using a structured self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 400 respondents in the metropolis. Result: The result showed that 59.9% of the participants were male while 40.1% were female with 88.2% of the population being youth between the ages of 20-35 years. The result also shows that at least 31.3% of the studied population had used C. sativa, for different reasons including among others: to boost confidence (11.4%, 5.1% take it to increase alertness, 5.1% take it to decrease fatigue, 0.3% take it to decrease stress, 5.4% take it to get high while 4% take it for other reasons. Conclusion: The result of the study showed an observed high incidence of C. sativa intake among the study population who were mostly youths for different purposes, including to: Boost confidence, feel high, increase alertness, and decrease fatigue. Similarly, a high percentage of the respondents said the drug is used for hair treatment.

  12. Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahhab, M A; Aly, S E

    2005-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of closely related, extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can occur as natural contaminants of foods and feeds. Aflatoxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic to different animal species. Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil are used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and have antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of these volatile oils to scavenge free radicals generated during aflatoxicosis. Sixty male rats were divided into six treatment groups, including a control group, and the groups were treated for 30 days with Nigella sativa and Syzygium aromaticum oils with or without aflatoxin. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experimental period for haematological and biochemical analysis. The results indicated that exposure to aflatoxins resulted in haematological and biochemical changes typical for aflatoxicosis. Treatment with Nigella sativa and Syzygium aromaticum oil of rats fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet resulted in significant protection against aflatoxicosis. Moreover, Nigella sativa oil was found to be more effective than Syzygium aromaticum oil in restoring the parameters that were altered by aflatoxin in rats. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  13. Construction of six Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon Chromosome Segment Substitution Line (CSSL) Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgressive variation has been observed in rice (Oryza sativa) as an increase in grain yield and attributed to the ancestral parent, O. rufipogon, in mapping populations developed from several adapted rice varieties crossed with a single O. rufipogon accession. To explore this phenomenon of transg...

  14. Exploring the power of rice (O. sativa x O. rufipogon) chromosome segment substitution line libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgressive variation was reported as an increase in grain yield for several rice (Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon) advanced backcross mapping populations. The objective of this study was to develop chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) libraries to further dissect the reported transgressive var...

  15. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by Nigella sativa oil – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bouti

    2013-10-01

    The patient was advised to stop taking N. sativa oil. The only treatment that was instituted was N-acetylcysteine. A clinically significant change in symptoms and chest radiograph was observed. The patient has remained stable 18 months after the diagnosis.

  16. Biochemical and Histopathological Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Nigella sativa and Mentha piperita Oils to Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian H. Ghaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biochemical and histopathological effects of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa and Mentha piperita oils to broilers for 6 weeks. A total 80 unsexed one day old Cobb broiler chicks was obtained from Cairo Company with average body weight 55g were used .The chicks were taken and randomly allocated into 4 equal groups (20 each named control, Nigella sativa oil treated group, Mentha piperita oil treated group and Nigella sativa + Mentha piperita oils treated group. Serum samples and tissue samples (liver and kidney were obtained at 21 and 42 days old for some serum biochemical analysis (ALT, AST and ALP activities; creatinine, Urea, Total protein and Albumin levels and histopathological examination (Liver and Kidney processed slide sections. The obtained results indicated that dietary supplementation of broilers diet with Nigella sativa, Mentha piperita and their combination for long period (6 weeks couldn’t alter liver and kidney functions as cleared from biochemical findings but could caused slight hepatic and renal histopathological changes as showed from histopathological examination.

  17. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A.; Zanaty, Mohamed I.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture. PMID:27298610

  18. Can rice (Oryza sativa) mitigate pesticides and nutrients in agricultural runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation of nutrients and pesticides in runoff is a growing conservation effort, particularly in agriculturally intensive areas such as the lower Mississippi River Valley. In the current study, rice (Oryza sativa) was examined for its mitigation capacity of nitrogen, phosphorus, diazinon, a...

  19. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa. L.) plants ... 2008), which is a real threat to human's food security. Existed situation may ..... content and composition of essential oil and minerals in black cumin. (Nigella ...

  20. Analysis of the temporal variation of radiation balance components in arid rice (Oryza sativa L.) culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prates, J.E.; Coelho, D.T.; Steinmetz, S.

    1988-01-01

    The time variation of measured radiation balance components in a cultived rice area (Oryza sativa L.) under arid conditions in the Brazil central-west region was analysed. The relation between global solar radiation, radiation balance, reflected radiation and terrestrial effective radiation in three different stages of the culture development: vegetative stage; blooming and maturation, was determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of different genotypes of Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijin Chen

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Genetic diversity studies revealed that 50 rice types were clustered into different subpopulations whereas three genotypes were admixtures. Molecular fingerprinting and 10 specific markers were obtained to identify the 53 rice genotypes. These results can facilitate the potential utilization of sibling species in rice breeding and molecular classification of O. sativa and O. glaberrima germplasms.

  2. Genetic identification of female Cannabis sativa plants at early developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techen, Natascha; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2010-11-01

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to identify female plants at an early developmental stage in four different varieties of Cannabis sativa. Using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, DNA was isolated from two-week-old plants of three drug-type varieties (Terbag W1, Terbag K2, and Terbag MX) and one fiber-type variety (Terbag Fedora A7) of C. sativa grown under controlled environmental conditions through seeds. Attempts to use MADC2 (male-associated DNA from Cannabis sativa) primers as a marker to identify the sex of Cannabis sativa plants were successful. Amplification of genomic DNA using MADC2-F and MADC2-R primers produced two distinct fragments, one with a size of approximately 450 bp for female plants and one for male plants with a size of approximately 300 bp. After harvesting the tissues for DNA extraction, plants were subjected to a flowering photoperiod (i.e., 12-h light cycle), and the appearance of flowers was compared with the DNA analysis. The results of the molecular analysis were found to be concordant with the appearance of male or female flowers. The results of this study represent a quick and reliable technique for the identification of sex in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. First report of race 2 of Colletotrichum trifolii causing anthracnose on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), caused by Colletotrichum trifolii, is widespread in the United States. Three physiological races have been described. Race 1 is reported to be the dominant race that is present wherever alfalfa is grown, while race 2 was reported in a limited area in the Mid...

  4. Identification of novel RNA viruses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa): an Alphapartitivirus, a Deltapartitivirus, and a Marafivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyein; Park, Dongbin; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2018-01-05

    Genomic RNA molecules of plant RNA viruses are often co-isolated with the host RNAs, and their sequences can be detected in plant transcriptome datasets. Here, an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) transcriptome dataset was analyzed and three new RNA viruses were identified, which were named Medicago sativa alphapartitivirus 1 (MsAPV1), Medicago sativa deltapartitivirus 1 (MsDPV1), and Medicago sativa marafivirus 1 (MsMV1). The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of MsAPV1, MsDPV1, and MsMV1 showed about 68%, 58%, and 46% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, with their closest virus species. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses indicated that MsAPV1, MsDPV1, and MsMV1 were novel RNA virus species that belong to the genus Alphapartitivirus of the family Partitiviridae, the genus Deltapartitivirus of the family Partitiviridae, and the genus Marafivirus of the family Tymoviridae, respectively. The bioinformatics procedure applied in this study may facilitate the identification of novel RNA viruses from plant transcriptome data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grass-clover as cut-and-carry fertilizers in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Onfarm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grassclover directly as sources of fertilizer on arable land: cutandcarry fertilizers. In two arable crops, the use of lucerne

  6. An ecogeographic analysis of Oryza series Sativae in Asia and the Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaticla-Hilario, M.C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The non-cultivated speciesof the genus Oryza can provide a genetic arsenal of useful traits for improving the widely cultivated and consumed Asian rice (O. sativa). The diversity of these valuable plant resources must be well understood to ensure their effective in- and ex-situ

  7. The potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) for sustainable fibre production: a crop physiological appraisal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.M.G.; Mathijssen, E.W.J.M.; Haverkort, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) fibre can be used as a raw material for paper and textile production. A comprehensive research programme in the Netherlands has concluded that fibre hemp is a potentially profitable crop, having the right profile to fit into sustainable farming systems. This paper presents

  8. Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)-induced photosensitization in goats and horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa is a European biennial weed that was inadvertently introduced and has subsequently spread through many parts of North America. Though it is generally considered a nuisance as it displaces beneficial forages. It has also been sporadically associated with photosensitiza...

  9. Effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on lead-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is used in the manufacture of batteries, metal products, paints and other domestic substances. This study investigated the effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on leadinduced cerebral cortex toxicity in Long Evan's rats. Twenty five Long Evans rats divided into five groups of five animals were used for the study.

  10. Uptake of perfluorinated alkyl acids by hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felizeter, S.; McLachlan, M.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    An uptake study was carried out to assess the potential human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) through the ingestion of vegetables. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown in PFAA-spiked nutrient solutions at four different concentrations, ranging from 10 ng/L to 10 μg/L. Eleven

  11. A review of Neuropharmacology Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Main Component, Thymoquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Soheila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of drug effect on nervous system. In the last few years, different natural plants and their active constituents have been used in neurological therapy. The availability, lower price, and less toxic effects of herbal medicines compared with synthetic agents make them as simple and excellent choice in the treatment of nervous diseases. Nigella sativa, which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. In traditional and modern medicines several beneficial properties have been attributed to N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone (TQ). In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the neuropharmacological aspects of N. sativa and TQ have been introduced. Results of these studies showed that N. sativa and TQ have several properties including anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-ischemic, analgesic, antipsychotic, and memory enhancer. Furthermore, its protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and multiple sclerosis have been discussed. Although there are many studies indicating the beneficial actions of this plant in nervous system, the number of research projects relating to the human reports is rare. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Correlation between temperature and phenology prediction error in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Zhang, T.; Vries, de M.E.; Heinemann, A.B.; Meinke, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    For rice (Oryza sativa L.), simulation models like ORYZA2000 and CERES-Rice have been used to explore adaptation options to climate change and weather-related stresses (drought, heat). Output of these models is very sensitive to accurate modelling of crop development, i.e. phenology. What has to

  13. Effects of nigella sativa on various parameters in patients of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Shaikh, G.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of progressive liver disorders worldwide. Drug options are limited with varying results. Nigella sativa in the form of herbal medicine could be another option because of its strong historical background. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect Nigella sativa on various parameters in patients of NAFLD. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at outpatient clinic of medical unit-1 of Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, in which seventy patients of NAFLD were divided in to interventional and non-interventional groups. The interventional group was given cap Nigella sativa 1g twice a day while non-interventional group was given cap placebo in a same way for three months. Body weight, BMI, liver enzymes and ultrasound finding of fatty liver were assayed before and after treatment. Results: After 12 weeks treatment with Nigella sativa body weight decreased significantly from 86±13.8 to76±12.6 kg vs placebo (p=0.041). BMI also reduced significantly from 29.06±4.6 to 26.25±6.2kg/m2 vs placebo(p=0.012). There is remarkable reduction in aminotransferases level after treatment with Nigella sativa vs placebo (ALT: 78.05±5.52 to 52.6±5.65 IU/L vs 76.48±4.95-74.32±5.58 IU/L (p=0.036). AST: 65.54±4.56-44.56±5.52 IU/L vs 63.25±5.43-59.43±3.39 IU/L (p=0.021). There was overall 57.14 % patient had normal fatty liver grading on ultrasound after 12 weeks treatment with Nigella sativa as compared to placebo (p=0.002). Conclusion: Nigella sativa improves bio chemical and fatty liver changes in NAFLD patients. Its use in early stages of NAFLD is recommended in order to prevent its life-threatening complication. (author)

  14. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideeg, Rasha Mohamed

    2000-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P≤ 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P≤ 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P≤ 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P≤ 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P≤ 0.01) and abdominal fat (P≤ 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P≤ 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P ≤0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P≤ 0.01, P≤0.05, and P≤0

  15. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideeg, Rasha Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2000-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P{<=} 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P{<=} 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P{<=} 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P {<=} 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P{<=} 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P{<=} 0.01) and abdominal fat (P{<=} 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P{<=} 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P {<=}0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P{<=} 0.01, P{<=}0.05, and P

  16. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world.

  17. "Chitin-specific" peroxidases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, I V; Cherepanova, E A; Khairullin, R M

    2003-01-01

    The activity of various plant peroxidases and the ability of their individual isoforms to bind chitin was studied. Some increase in peroxidase activity was observed in crude extracts in the presence of chitin. Activated peroxidases of some species fell in the fraction not sorbed on chitin and those of other species can bind chitin. Only anionic isoperoxidases from oat (Avena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), garden radish (Raphanus sativus var. radicula), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Link et Otto) were sorbed on chitin. Both anionic and cationic isoforms from pea (Pisum sativum), galega(Galega orientalis), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) were sorbed on chitin. Peroxidase activation under the influence of chitin was correlated to the processes that occur during hypersensitive reaction and lignification of sites, in which pathogenic fungus penetrates into a plant. The role of chitin-specific isoperoxidases in inhibition of fungal growth and connection of this phenomenon with structural characteristics of isoperoxidases are also discussed.

  18. Iron Requirement and Iron Uptake from Various Iron Compounds by Different Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Rudolf A.

    1974-01-01

    The Fe requirements of four monocotyledonous plant species (Avena sativa L., Triticum aestivum L., Oryza sativa L., Zea mays L.) and of three dicotyledonous species (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Cucumis sativus L., Glycine maxima (L.) Merr.) in hydroponic cultures were ascertained. Fe was given as NaFe-EDDHA chelate (Fe ethylenediamine di (O-hydroxyphenylacetate). I found that the monocotyledonous species required a substantially higher Fe concentration in the nutrient solution in order to attain optimum growth than did the dicotyledonous species. Analyses showed that the process of iron uptake was less efficient with the monocotyledonous species. When the results obtained by using chelated Fe were compared with those using ionic Fe, it was shown that the inefficient species were equally inefficient in utilizing Fe3+ ions. However, the differences between the efficient and the inefficient species disappeared when Fe2+ was used. This confirms the work of others who postulated that Fe3+ is reduced before uptake of chelated iron by the root. In addition, it was shown that reduction also takes place when Fe is used in ionic form. The efficiency of Fe uptake seems to depend on the efficiency of the root system of the particular plant species in reducing Fe3+. The removal of Fe from the chelate complex after reduction to Fe2+ seems to present no difficulties to the various plant species. PMID:16658933

  19. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  20. Activities of arginine and ornithine decarboxylases in various plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birecka, H; Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P

    1985-10-01

    In extracts from the youngest leaves of Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Zea Mays, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lactuca sativa, and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing species of Heliotropium, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase, close to V(max), ranged between traces and 1.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight when based on putrescine formed during incubation with labeled ornithine. The arginine decarboxylase activities in the same extracts ranged between 8 and 8000 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight being lowest in the borages and highest in oat and barley. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine and alpha-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, respectively, in all species. Agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were found in all, diaminopropane in eight, and cadaverine in three species.No correlation was observed between arginine or ornithine decarboxylase level and the levels of total polyamines. The in vitro decarboxylase activities found in the borages cannot explain the high accumulation of putrescine-derived pyrrolizidines in their youngest leaves if the pyrrolizidines are produced in situ from arginine and/or ornithine as precursors; other possibilities are discussed.In assays of ornithine decarboxylase, an interference of decarboxylation not due to this enzyme was observed in extracts from all species. In arginine decarboxylase assays, the interfering decarboxylation as well as the interference of arginase were apparent in two species. Addition of aminoguanidine was needed to suppress oxidative degradation of putrescine and agmatine during incubation of extracts from pea, bean, lettuce, Heliotropium angiospermum, and Heliotropium indicum.

  1. Activities of Arginine and Ornithine Decarboxylases in Various Plant Species 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birecka, Helena; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1985-01-01

    In extracts from the youngest leaves of Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Zea Mays, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lactuca sativa, and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing species of Heliotropium, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase, close to Vmax, ranged between traces and 1.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight when based on putrescine formed during incubation with labeled ornithine. The arginine decarboxylase activities in the same extracts ranged between 8 and 8000 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight being lowest in the borages and highest in oat and barley. α-Difluoromethylornithine and α-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, respectively, in all species. Agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were found in all, diaminopropane in eight, and cadaverine in three species. No correlation was observed between arginine or ornithine decarboxylase level and the levels of total polyamines. The in vitro decarboxylase activities found in the borages cannot explain the high accumulation of putrescine-derived pyrrolizidines in their youngest leaves if the pyrrolizidines are produced in situ from arginine and/or ornithine as precursors; other possibilities are discussed. In assays of ornithine decarboxylase, an interference of decarboxylation not due to this enzyme was observed in extracts from all species. In arginine decarboxylase assays, the interfering decarboxylation as well as the interference of arginase were apparent in two species. Addition of aminoguanidine was needed to suppress oxidative degradation of putrescine and agmatine during incubation of extracts from pea, bean, lettuce, Heliotropium angiospermum, and Heliotropium indicum. PMID:16664442

  2. Methods to ensure the quality of excavated soil material from geogenically metalliferous sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhard, Peter; Sager, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Soils at geogenically metalliferous sites might exceed heavy metal threshold levels with respect to agricultural use, apart from anthropogenic contamination sources. As a fundamental substrate for green plants and green plant production, soil is not easily renewable, its formation needs long time (e.g. 500 years for 20 mm). In Austria, about 10ha of soil get sealed every day, resulting in complete loss of its biological functions. Excavated soil material has been classified as waste from a legal point of view, which made 33 mill. tons resp. 48% of total waste in Austria in 2010. Recycling of excavated soil material for agricultural use will be an important task to reduce future waste and to enlarge agricultural substrate volumes, but methods to ensure proper qualities are needed to improve regulations. Within this investigation, the transfer of various metals from geogenically metalliferous soils to various crop plants will be investigated, and correlated with various simple soil test methods. Four excavated soil materials from the metalliferous schist zone within the Austrian province of Styria (Kraubath/Mur, Übelbach) and a low-metal reference sample have been taken as substrates to grow raygrass (lolium multiflorum) as a green cover, salad (Lactuca sativa) as a vegetable food item, oats (Avena sativa), maize (Zea mais) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) as a hyperaccumulating species. Results and recommendations will be presented.

  3. Land-cover classification with an expert classification algorithm using digital aerial photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. de la Cruz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the spectral information of digital aerial sensors in determining land-cover classification using new digital techniques. The land covers that have been evaluated are the following, (1 bare soil, (2 cereals, including maize (Zea mays L., oats (Avena sativa L., rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeun vulgare L., (3 high protein crops, such as peas (Pisum sativum L. and beans (Vicia faba L., (4 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., (5 woodlands and scrublands, including holly oak (Quercus ilex L. and common retama (Retama sphaerocarpa L., (6 urban soil, (7 olive groves (Olea europaea L. and (8 burnt crop stubble. The best result was obtained using an expert classification algorithm, achieving a reliability rate of 95%. This result showed that the images of digital airborne sensors hold considerable promise for the future in the field of digital classifications because these images contain valuable information that takes advantage of the geometric viewpoint. Moreover, new classification techniques reduce problems encountered using high-resolution images; while reliabilities are achieved that are better than those achieved with traditional methods.

  4. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego N. Chavarría

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L., vetch (Vicia sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. which were sown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1 and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2, with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield.

  5. Stem base diseases of winter wheat grown after forecrops of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study into the sanitary state of roots and culm base of winter wheat was carried out in 1999-2002 in the Production and Experimental Station in Bałcyny near Ostróda. Experimental wheat was cultivated after spring cross plants such as spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., white mustard (Sinapis alba L, chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L., oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. and after oats (Avena sativa L. as a control. The other experimental factor was the method of after-harvest residue management, i.e. ploughing in the stubble, ploughing in the stubble and straw, ploughing in the stubble and straw with nitrogen added. The occurrence of root rot and stem base diseases was affected by weather conditions and forecrop species. Winter wheat roots were attacked to the lowest degree when spring rape and radish were used as forecrops, and to the highest degree - when grown after oat. The culm base was most intensely infected with fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.. The remaining root-rot diseases occurred every year but with different intensity. The method of utilization of after-harvest residues did not have a clear effect on the intensity of infection of the roots and culm base of winter wheat.

  6. Managing Sonchus arvensis using mechanical and cultural methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Perennial sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis L. represents an increasing problem in Finland. Options for mechanical and cultural control of S. arvensis were studied in a field experiment on clay soil under organic production. The experiment consisted of different crop sequences: spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2001, oats, Avena sativa L., in 2002 with or without inter-row hoeing and/or stubble cultivation, bare fallow, fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L., and ley with mowing. In 2003 the entire field was sown to spring wheat. Crop plant and Sonchus shoot density and dry mass prior to cereal harvest and crop yield were assessed. The control effect was rated: bare fallow > ley > cereal with or without inter-row hoeing > poor growth fibre hemp. Bare fallow was an effective but costly way to reduce S. arvensis infestation. Introduction of a regularly mown green fallow or silage ley in the crop rotation is advisable. Mechanical weed control by inter-row hoeing in cereals limits S. arvensis growth. Infestation might also be reduced by stubble cultivation in autumn. When managing S. arvensis using mechanical and cultural methods, appropriate options, including a competitive crop, should be chosen for the specific field and rotation.;

  7. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarría, D.N.; Verdenelli, R.A.; Muñoz, M.J.; Conforto, C.; Restovich, S.B.; Andriulo, A.E.; Meriles, J.M.; Vargas-Gil, S.

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC) as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation) during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L.), vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) which weresown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1) and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2), with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield. (Author)

  8. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.J.; Saleem, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  9. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cannabis Sativa on appetite hormone in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Baghban Taraghdari, Sara; Rezaee, Peyman; Kamgar, Maryam; Jomezadeh, Mohammad Reza; Akbarieh Hasani, Omid; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Esmaily, Habibollah; Patterson, Michael; Nematy, Mohsen

    2014-12-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide which is secreted from stomach. Cannabis sativa is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is published about its effect on energy intake and its mechanism. In the current study, the possible effect of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativa on appetite and ghrelin is evaluated. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two control groups were selected, the first group received 0.5 mL water per day (vehicle group) and another group did not receive anything (control group). The other three groups were treated daily with 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of C. sativa for 7 days, respectively. Daily energy intake of the rats was calculated for 10 days prior to the> intervention and for the 7 day intervention. To investigate changes in plasma ghrelin as a potential mechanism, an orexigenic dose (150 mg/kg) of C. sativa or distilled water (vehicle) was fed to two separate groups of six rats by gavage. Total ghrelin levels in plasma were measured for 3 h post-gavage. There was no significant difference in energy intake between control and vehicle groups. Treatment with 100 and 150 mg/kg of the extract significantly increased energy intake vs the other groups (psativa group vs vehicle 30 and 60 min post-gavage. This study showed that C. sativa had both positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant in human.

  10. A Hypersensitivity-Like Response to Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Ngan Thi; De Waele, Dirk; Lorieux, Mathias; Xiong, Lizhong; Bellafiore, Stephane

    2018-04-01

    Meloidogyne graminicola is a major plant-parasitic nematode affecting rice cultivation in Asia. Resistance to this nematode was found in the African rice genotypes Oryza glaberrima and O. longistaminata; however, due to interspecific hybrid sterility, the introgression of resistance genes in the widely consumed O. sativa varieties remains challenging. Recently, resistance was found in O. sativa and, here, we report for the first time the histological and genetic characterization of the resistance to M. graminicola in Zhonghua 11, an O. sativa variety. Bright-light microscopy and fluorescence observations of the root tissue of this variety revealed that the root cells surrounding the nematode displayed a hypersensitivity-like reaction with necrotic cells at early stages of infection when nematodes are migrating in the root's mesoderm. An accumulation of presumably phenolic compounds in the nematodes' neighboring root cells was also observed. In addition, at a later stage of infection, not only were few feeding sites observed but also the giant cells were underdeveloped, underlining an incompatible interaction. Furthermore, we generated a hybrid O. sativa population by crossing Zhonghua 11 with the susceptible O. sativa variety IR64 in order to describe the genetic background of this resistance. Our data suggested that the resistance to M. graminicola infection was qualitative rather than quantitative and, therefore, major resistance genes must be involved in this infection process. The full characterization of the defense mechanism and the preliminary study of the genetic inheritance of novel sources of resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in rice constitute a major step toward their use in crop breeding.

  11. Inhibition of Blumeria graminis germination and germling development within colonies of oat mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Roberts, P.C.; Thomas, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Germination by Blumeria graminis. DC Speer ff. spp. avenae, hordei and tritici, was greatly suppressed when conidia fell within colonies of ff. spp. avenae or hordei established on susceptible oat or barley, respectively. On healthy oat or barley, and when distant from powdery mildew, colonies. all...... ff. spp. formed normal appressoria. This was also true When conidia germinated within established barley mildew colonies. Within barley mildew colonies, appressoria of f. sp. hordei penetrated epidermal cells formed haustoria more frequently than appressoria distant from colonies. Similarly, ff. spp....... avenae and tritici, normally unable to infect barley. frequently penetrated epidermal cells subtending established barley mildew colonies. Thus, colony, establishment induced barley epidermal cell accessibility, even to non-pathogenic ff. spp, In contrast. when all three ff. spp. germinated within...

  12. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  13. SSH reveals a linkage between a senescence-associated protease and Verticillium wilt symptom development in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify lettuce (Lactuca sativa) genes that are differentially expressed in symptomatic leaves infected with Verticillium dahliae. Genes expressed only in symptomatic leaves included those with homology to pathogenesis-related (PR) protei...

  14. Nigella sativa EXTRACT IMPROVES SEMINIFEROUS TUBULE EPITHELIAL THICKNESS IN LEAD ACETATE-EXPOSED BALB/C MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Diana, Alis Nur; I’tishom, Reny; Sudjarwo, Sri Agus

    2017-01-01

    Lead that enters the body may lead to increased production of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) that may affect reproductive system. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) extract contains high antioxidant, tymoquinone, that may be used to suppress oxidative stress induced by lead in animal experiments. This study aimed to prove that black cumin (Nigella sativa) extract improves the thickness of seminiferous tubular epithelium in Balb/c mice exposed to lead (Pb) acetate. This study used post-test only cont...

  15. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-sensitized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Carnés, Jerónimo; García-Abujeta, José Luís; García-Endrino, Ana; Muñoz-Palomino, Elena; Huertas, Angel Julio; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Ferrer, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. sativa and to characterize the C. sativa leaf extract. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: group A, 10 individuals sensitized to tomato, reporting reactions by contact or inhalation to Cannabis; group B, 14 individuals sensitized to tomato, without reactions to Cannabis; group C, 8 individuals not sensitized to tomato and without reactions to Cannabis. Sensitivity to Cannabis, tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects (and 1 negative) had positive skin tests to C. sativa leaves and hashish. Specific IgE to C. sativa and peach peel was more common than to tomato. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. vulgaris extracts inhibited most of the bands present in C. sativa. P. hybrida inhibited only the high-molecular-weight bands. Sensitization to C. sativa with or without symptoms is frequent among patients in Spain sensitized to tomato. C. sativa leaves are a potential allergenic source and their allergens may cross-react with other allergenic sources from plants (fruit peels and pollen). (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vetch (Vicia sativa is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  17. Methodical characterization of rice ( Oryza sativa bran oil from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood, Zahid

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The hexane-extracted oil content of four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa viz. Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati, bran was ranged 14.70-19.10 %. Other physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oils were as follow: Iodine value 112.40, 109.80, 105.1 and 103.70; refractive index ( 40 °C 1.4650, 1.4680, 1.4657 and 1.4660; density ( 40 °C 0.919, 0.913, 0.909 and 0.911; saponification value 183, 177, 186 and 190; unsaponifiable matter 6.15, 5.60, 4.98 and 5.40 % respectively. Tocopherols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 284.00, 175.12, 180.42, 300.06; 83.40, 98.70, 120.70, 90.60; 75.16, 57.20, 39.32, 83.00 mg/kg respectively. The contents of tocotrienols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 120.30, 106.00, 95.20, 135.74; 196.00, 125.00, 210.0, 276.41; 72.50, 20.00, 39.30, 64.00 mg/kg respectively. The amount of γ - Oryzanol in the investigated oils was ranged 415.12-802.05 The induction periods (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 °C of the crude oils were 6.81, 5.99, 6.39 and 7.40 h respectively. The major sterol fractions of the oils consisted of campesterol ranged (10.10-19.20%, stigmasterol (14.00-19.28 %, b -sitosterol (49.30-58.20 %, and D5 ,avenasterol (8.14-13.05 %. The investigated varieties ( Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati of rice bran oil were found to contain high levels of oleic acid 42.67, 38.59, 40.68 and 36.78 % followed by linoleic and palmitic acids 31.58, 33.80, 28.70, 30.51 and 17.00, 14.88, 19.63, 20.00 % respectively. The contents of myristic, stearic and arachidic acids was 1.50, 2.02, 4.28, 1.00; 2.64, 2.87, 4.02, 7.48; and 1.28, 3.00, 1.00, 1.00 % respectively. A number of parameters of the investigated rice bran oils indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical rice bran and some other vegetable oils, reported in the literature. The results of the present analysis as compared with those of different vegetable oils demonstrated rice bran to be a potential oil source and thus could be useful

  18. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  19. Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing...

  20. Interspecific somatic hybridization between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and wild species L. virosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, E

    1991-02-01

    Somatic hybrids between cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and a wild species L. virosa were produced by protoplast electrofusion. Hybrid selection was based on inactivation of L. sativa with 20mM iodoacetamide for 15 min, and the inability of L. virosa protoplasts to divide in the culture conditions used. Protoplasts were cultured in agarose beads in a revised MS media. In all 71 calli were formed and 21 of them differentiated shoots on LS medium containing 0.1mg/l NAA and 0.2mg/l BA. Most regenerated plants exhibited intermediate morphology. These plants were confirmed as hybrids by isoenzyme analysis. The majority of somatic hybrids had 2n=4x=36 chromosomes, and had more vigorous growth than either parent. Hybrids had normal flower morphology, but all were sterile.

  1. [Analysis of the mineral elements of Lactuca sativa under the condition of different spectral components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Wang, Li-Chun; Li, Liang; Chen, Fei

    2013-08-01

    Mineral elements absorption and content of Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP-AES technology. The results showed that: (1) For Lactuca sativa, the average proportion for Ca : Mg : K : Na : P was 5.5 : 2.5 : 2.3 : 1.5 : 1.0, the average proportion for Fe : Mn : Zn : Cu : B was 25.9 : 5.9 : 2.8 : 1.1 : 1.0; (2) The absorptions for K, P, Ca, Mg and B are the largest under the LED treatment R/B = 1 : 2.75, red light from fluorescent lamps and LED can both promote the absorptions of Fe and Cu; (3)The LED treatments exhibiting relatively higher content of mineral elements are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and R/W = 1 : 1 while higher dry matter accumulations are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and B/W = 1 : 1.

  2. Plant Age Affects Wound-Induced Senescense in Lactuca Sativa L

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the performance of dark-stored wounded leaf discs and pieces (to some extent mimicking fresh-cut product) of Lactuca sativa L. in relation to the physiological maturity at harvest. We used two related genotypes, i.e. a green (cv. Troubadour) and a red butterhead (cv. Teodore) differing in their pigment levels. For both genotypes, senescence of the wounded (fresh-cut) tissue prepared from leaves of younger plants was significantly delayed compared to wounde...

  3. EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA ON NUMBER OF CYSTIC FOLLICLES IN LETROZOLE INDUCED POLYCYSTIC OVARIES IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of Nigella sativa on number of cystic follicles in Letrozole induced polycystic ovaries in mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College in collaboration with National Institute of Health from Nov 2014 to Nov 2015. Material and Methods: Forty female BALB/c mice were selected and divided in four groups, each having 10 animals. Group A served as control and was given normal diet. Group B was given Letrozole at a dose of 1milligram/kilogram body weight. Group C was treated with Letrozole for eight weeks at a dose of 1milligram/kilogram body weight and Nigella sativa seeds powder at a dose of 10grams/kilogram body weight once daily starting at 22 day and continued up to eight weeks. Group D was treated with Letrozole for eight weeks at a dose of 1milligram/kilogram body weight and Nigella sativa oil at a dose of 4milliliter/kilogram body weight once daily starting at 22 day and continued up to eight weeks. Animals were dissected a day after last dose. Size, shape, color and consistency of ovary was observed. Right ovary was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Number of cystic follicles were counted and noted. Results: Significant number of cystic follicles was observed in ovaries of animals of group B as compared to group A. While their number decreased significantly in group C and D as compared to group B. Conclusion: Nigella sativa seeds powder and its oil, both have a similar protective effect on histomorphology of ovary of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS in mice by decreasing the number of cystic follicles.

  4. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  5. Enhancement of metal(loid)s phytoextraction by Cannabis sativa L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2012), s. 631-641 ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : phytoextraction * chelate * glutathione * Cannabis sativa L. * metal Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012 http://www.isfae.org/scientficjournal/2012/issue1/pdf/environment/e0.pdf

  6. Tanggap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Padi (Oryza sativa L.) Varietas Ciherang Terhadap Pemberian Pupuk Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Vira Irma

    2011-01-01

    VIRA IRMA SARI. Response of Growth and Production of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Variety Ciherang to The Application of Organic Fertilizer. Scarcity of inorganic fertilizer and the negative effect caused by inorganic fertilizer continuing to make organic fertilizer as a solution to overcome these problems. The availability of organic fertilizers is expected that the farmers can get the optimal production and profit, because the organic fertilizer is cheaper and easy ...

  7. Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Yang; Xiaoxian Cui; Xiaoxian Cui; Li Zhao; Doudou Guo; Lei Feng; Shiwei Wei; Chao Zhao; Chao Zhao; Danfeng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and ...

  8. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  9. Plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by biolistic DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2014-01-01

    The interest in producing pharmaceutical proteins in a nontoxic plant host has led to the development of an approach to express such proteins in transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). A number of therapeutic proteins and vaccine antigen candidates have been stably integrated into the lettuce plastid genome using biolistic DNA delivery. High levels of accumulation and retention of biological activity suggest that lettuce may provide an ideal platform for the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  10. Nigella sativa L. and its bioactive constituents as hepatoprotectant: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Heena; Ahmad, Asad; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2018-04-26

    The pharmacological properties of Nigella sativa L. are well attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds, mainly, thymoquinone (TQ), thymol (THY) and α hederin and their antioxidant effects. TQ,THY and alpha-hederin (α-hederin) provide protection to liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and (GSH) level, radical scavenging, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glutathione transferase (GST), inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both (COX) and (LOX) protects liver from injuries. The main aim of this literature review is to reflect the relevant role of ROS in inducing hepatic diseases and also the preventive role of N. sativa L. in hepatic diseases. The present article is directed towards highlighting the beneficial contribution of researchers to explore the pharmacological actions with therapeutic potential of this precious natural herb and its bioactive compounds pertaining to the hepatoprotective effects. We systematically searched for research literature through well-framed review question and presented the data in the tabular forms for the convenience of the readers. Two hundred forty-one papers were embodied in this review, oxidative effect and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be the major causes of many diseases such as hepatic cancer. Many drugs and chemicals have shown to incite oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Therefore, this review intent to focus the role of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms through which N. sativa prevents hepatic diseases. The mechanisms by which N. sativa impede progression in chronic liver diseases should be used as a preventive medicine in patients with hepatic disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in Oryza sativa x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inheritance of yield and yield components and to estimate the heritabilities of important quantitative traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2 of a cross between IET6279 and IR70445-146-3-3 were used for the study. Generation mean analysis suggested that additive effects had a ...

  12. Detection of Norspermidine and Norspermine in Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Phillips, Gregory C.; Kuehn, Glenn D.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot meristem tissues of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., were found by high performance liquid chromatography analyses to contain the uncommon polyamines, norspermidine and norspermine. The chemical structures of norspermidine and norspermine, purified from alfalfa, were confirmed by comparison of mass spectra with those from authentic standards. The discovery of norspermidine and norspermine in alfalfa implicates the presence of at least two biosynthetic enzymes, a polyamine oxidase and a previously uncharacterized aminopropyltransferase. PMID:16666576

  13. Development and Identification of Introgression Lines from Cross of Oryza sativa and Oryza minuta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Si-bin; WEI Yu; LI Xiao-qiong; LIU Kai-qiang; HUANG Feng-kuan; CHEN Cai-hong; GAO Guo-qing

    2013-01-01

    Introgression line population is effectively used in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs),identifying favorable genes,discovering hidden genetic variation,evaluating the action or interaction of QTLs in multiple conditions and providing the favorable experimental materials for plant breeding and genetic research.In this study,an advanced backcross and consecutive selfing strategy was used to develop introgression lines (ILs),which derived from an accession of Oryza minuta (accession No.101133) with BBCC genome,as the donor,and an elite indica cultivar IR24 (O.sativa),as the recipient.Introgression segments from O.minuta were screened using 164 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the genome of each IL.Introgressed segments carried by 131 ILs covered the whole O.sativa genome.The average number of homozygous O.minuta segments per introgression line was about 9.99.The average length of introgressed segments was approximate 14.78 cM,and about 79.64%of these segments had sizes less than 20 cM.In the genome of each introgression line,the O.minuta chromosomal segments harbored chromosomal fragments of O.sativa ranging from 1.15% to 27.6%,with an overall average of 8.57%.At each locus,the ratio of substitution of O.minuta alleles had a range of 1.5%-25.2%,with an average of 8.3% Based on the evaluation of the phenotype of these ILs,a wide range of alterations in morphological and yield-related traits were found.After inoculation,ILs 41,11 and 7 showed high resistance to bacterial blight,brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper,respectively.These O.minuta-O.sativa ILs will serve as genetic materials for identifying and using favorable genes from O.minuta.

  14. Differences in the Sensitivity to UVB Radiation of Two Cultivars of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Hidema; Hye-Sook, Kang; Tadashi, Kumagai; Institute of Genetic Ecology, Tohoku University; Institute of Genetic Ecology, Tohoku University; Institute of Genetic Ecology, Tohoku University

    1996-01-01

    The effects of UVB radiation on the growth of two cultivars of Japanese lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.), Sasanishiki and Norin 1, were examined in a phytotron. Supplementation of visible radiation with UVB radiation reduced plant length, tiller number, the fresh and dry weights of the aboveground parts of plants, and the amounts of total leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, soluble protein and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in the eighth leaf, the youngest fully expanded leaf...

  15. Growth promotion of Lactuca sativa in response to volatile organic compounds emitted from diverse bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincheira, Paola; Venthur, Herbert; Mutis, Ana; Parada, Maribel; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    Agrochemicals are currently used in horticulture to increase crop production. Nevertheless, their indiscriminate use is a relevant issue for environmental and legal aspects. Alternative tools for reducing fertilizers and synthetic phytohormones are being investigated, such as the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as growth inducers. Some soil bacteria, such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus, stimulate Arabidopsis and tobacco growth by releasing VOCs, but their effects on vegetables have not been investigated. Lactuca sativa was used as model vegetable to investigate bacterial VOCs as growth inducers. We selected 10 bacteria strains, belonging to Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Serratia genera that are able to produce 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), a compound with proven growth promoting activity. Two-day old-seedlings of L. sativa were exposed to VOCs emitted by the selected bacteria grown in different media cultures for 7 days. The results showed that the VOCs released from the bacteria elicited an increase in the number of lateral roots, dry weight, root growth and shoot length, depending on the media used. Three Bacillus strains, BCT53, BCT9 and BCT4, were selected according to its their growth inducing capacity. The BCT9 strain elicited the greatest increases in dry weight and primary root length when L. sativa seedlings were subjected to a 10-day experiment. Finally, because acetoin only stimulated root growth, we suggest that other volatiles could be responsible for the growth promotion of L. sativa. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that bacteria volatiles can be used as growth-inducers as alternative or complementary strategies for application in horticulture species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of outer space environments on Lactuca sativa seeds flown on Cosmos biosatellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maksimova, E.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Kaminskaya, E.V.; Marennyj, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm 3 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity

  17. Comparative analysis of the small RNA transcriptomes of Pinus contorta and Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ryan D; Aksay, Gozde; Dolgosheina, Elena; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Unrau, Peter J

    2008-04-01

    The diversity of microRNAs and small-interfering RNAs has been extensively explored within angiosperms by focusing on a few key organisms such as Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana. A deeper division of the plants is defined by the radiation of the angiosperms and gymnosperms, with the latter comprising the commercially important conifers. The conifers are expected to provide important information regarding the evolution of highly conserved small regulatory RNAs. Deep sequencing provides the means to characterize and quantitatively profile small RNAs in understudied organisms such as these. Pyrosequencing of small RNAs from O. sativa revealed, as expected, approximately 21- and approximately 24-nt RNAs. The former contained known microRNAs, and the latter largely comprised intergenic-derived sequences likely representing heterochromatin siRNAs. In contrast, sequences from Pinus contorta were dominated by 21-nt small RNAs. Using a novel sequence-based clustering algorithm, we identified sequences belonging to 18 highly conserved microRNA families in P. contorta as well as numerous clusters of conserved small RNAs of unknown function. Using multiple methods, including expressed sequence folding and machine learning algorithms, we found a further 53 candidate novel microRNA families, 51 appearing specific to the P. contorta library. In addition, alignment of small RNA sequences to the O. sativa genome revealed six perfectly conserved classes of small RNA that included chloroplast transcripts and specific types of genomic repeats. The conservation of microRNAs and other small RNAs between the conifers and the angiosperms indicates that important RNA silencing processes were highly developed in the earliest spermatophytes. Genomic mapping of all sequences to the O. sativa genome can be viewed at http://microrna.bcgsc.ca/cgi-bin/gbrowse/rice_build_3/.

  18. Protein estimation and palynlogical studies of cannabis sativa l. pollen in relation to respiratory allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Tanvir, M.; Yusuf, O.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne pollen allergies and asthma are on a rise in the metropolitan city of Islamabad. Knowledge of allergenic pollen is limited in the area. Cannabis sativa L. or commonly known as Hemp is widely spread weed in the city. Morphological studies performed via light microscopy and SEM have shown that the pollen of Cannabis sativa are 21 micro m long having triporate aperture, spheroidal in shape and scaberate exine. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of pollen proteins has also be done in to recognize allergenic protein bands. Bradford's analysis for proteins quantification has shown that the hemp pollen has 30.69 mg/g protein in fresh weight of pollen. While SDS-PAGE analysis showed 11 bands of various protein size ranging from 17kDa to 150kDa. The research findings indicate that Cannabis sativa, could be a potent allergenic pollen-producing weed that might cause serious health problems in the population of Islamabad. (author)

  19. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY chromosome sex determination system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G Divashuk

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71, 5S rDNA (pCT4.2, a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1 and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants. The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution.

  20. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, Golnaz; Taki, Mohamad Javad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2017-10-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617) was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls. C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  1. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Vaseghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. Materials and Methods: In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617 was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Results: Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls.  Conclusion: C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis.  The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  2. Effects of Lactuca sativa extract on exploratory behavior pattern, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Harsha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antianxiety property of Lactuca sativa, an important and commonly used leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties belongs to Asteraceae family. Methods: Elevated plus maze (EPM, open field test (OFT, rat exposure test, hyponeophagia and marble burying test were performed in mice models to assess the exploratory behaviour and to assess anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt. served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and evaluated exploratory behaviour, locomotor and anxiolytic activities. Results: Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was measured in EPM followed by total locomotor activity in OFT and latency to enter the food zone in hyponeophagia. Conclusions: The study suggested that hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa leaves possess potent anxiolytic property.

  3. Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xia Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le. The F1 grains and leaves were non-aromatic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370. The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY chromosome sex determination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divashuk, Mikhail G; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Razumova, Olga V; Kirov, Ilya V; Karlov, Gennady I

    2014-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution.

  5. Evaluation of a 13-loci STR multiplex system for Cannabis sativa genetic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Rachel; Birck, Matthew; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-05-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA. The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats (STRs) could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases. For this purpose, a modified 13-loci STR multiplex method was optimized and evaluated according to ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. A real-time PCR quantification method for C. sativa was developed and validated, and a sequenced allelic ladder was also designed to accurately genotype 199 C. sativa samples from 11 U.S. Customs and Border Protection seizures. Distinguishable DNA profiles were generated from 127 samples that yielded full STR profiles. Four duplicate genotypes within seizures were found. The combined power of discrimination of this multilocus system is 1 in 70 million. The sensitivity of the multiplex STR system is 0.25 ng of template DNA. None of the 13 STR markers cross-reacted with any of the studied species, except for Humulus lupulus (hops) which generated unspecific peaks. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparison of 11 cases using F st as genetic distance revealed the genetic association of four groups of cases. Moreover, due to their genetic similarity, a subset of samples (N = 97) was found to form a homogeneous population in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. The results of this research demonstrate the applicability of this 13-loci STR system in associating Cannabis cases for intelligence purposes.

  6. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhele, Sindiswa T; Motadi, Lesetja R

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year. Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies. In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines. To achieve our aim, phytochemical screening, MTT assay, cell growth analysis, flow cytometry, morphology analysis, Western blot, caspase 3/7 assay, and ATP measurement assay were conducted. Results obtained indicate that both cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extracts were able to halt cell proliferation in all cell lines at varying concentrations. They further revealed that apoptosis was induced by cannabidiol as shown by increased subG0/G1 and apoptosis through annexin V. Apoptosis was confirmed by overexpression of p53, caspase 3 and bax. Apoptosis induction was further confirmed by morphological changes, an increase in Caspase 3/7 and a decrease in the ATP levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines.

  7. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a control. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics. After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically. It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05, while feed intake was significantly lower (P<0.05, in group D compared to the control. FCR was significantly better in birds of group D compared to controls. Differences in dressing percentage and mortality were non significant between the treated and control groups. Return per chick (in rupees was significantly higher in group D compared to groups A and B (P<0.05. It was concluded from these results that seeds of Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks.

  8. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze

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    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM. Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks old were force-fed daily with 6.0 μL/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n=6 or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control (CO group; n=6 for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME in the NSO-treated group.

  9. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Mohamed, Abdul Majid; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n = 6) or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control) (CO group; n = 6) for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME) in the NSO-treated group.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction of Nigella sativa L. essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Rismanchi, Marjan; Shahdoostkhany, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    It has been previously reported that the essential oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds and its major active component, thymoquinone (TQ), possess a broad variety of biological activities and therapeutic properties. In this work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the essential oil from Nigella sativa L. seeds and its antioxidant activity were studied. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, irradiation power and moisture content on extraction yield and TQ content. Optimal parameters obtained by CCD and RSM were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 450 W, and moisture content 50%. The extraction yield and TQ content of the essential oil were 0.33 and 20% under the optimum conditions, respectively. In contrast, extraction yield and TQ amount of oil obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) were 0.23 and 3.71%, respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil extracted by MAE and HD were p -cymene, TQ, α-thujene and longifolene, comprising more than 60% of total peak area. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and compared with traditional antioxidants. The results showed that MAE method was a viable alternative to HD for the essential oil extraction from N. sativa seeds due to the excellent extraction efficiency, higher thymoquinone content, and stronger antioxidant activity.

  11. Cannabis sativa L. genetically transformed root based culture via Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush Berahmand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is an increased interest in the therapeutic potential of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana for treatment of multiple sclerosis and HIV neuropathy. Because of limitation in cultivation of this plant, an efficient hairy root induction system for Cannabis sativa L. was developed in the present study. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation performed by two different co-cultivation mediums and four different bacterial strains including A4, ATCC15834, MSU440, and A13 (MAFF-02-10266. Genomic DNA from putative transgenic hairy root lines and the control root was extracted using a modified CTAB protocol. Molecular analysis of transformed root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers of the rolB gene. The transformation frequency by Murashige and Skoog co-cultivation medium resulting in hairy root induction frequencies of 42.3%, 46.3%, 68.6% and 39.3% by A4, ATCC15834, MSU440, and A13 strains, respectively. There was no significant difference between MS or ½ MS co-cultivation mediums.  This study established a reliable protocol for induction of hairy roots of C. sativa. The best A. rhisogenes strain was MSU440. It was observed no significant difference between MS and ½ MS co-cultivation mediums on transformation frequency.

  12. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Hangun-Balkir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste utilization is an essential component of sustainable development and waste shells are rarely used to generate practical products and processes. Most waste shells are CaCO3 rich, which are converted to CaO once calcined and can be employed as inexpensive and green catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel. Herein, we utilized lobster and eggshells as green catalysts for the transesterification of Camelina sativa oil as feedstock into biodiesel. Camelina sativa oil is an appealing crop option as feedstock for biodiesel production because it has high tolerance of cold weather, drought, and low-quality soils and contains approximately 40% oil content. The catalysts from waste shells were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscope. The product, biodiesel, was studied by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of methanol to oil ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, and catalyst concentration were investigated. Optimum biodiesel yields were attained at a 12 : 1 (alcohol : oil molar ratio with 1 wt.% heterogeneous catalysts in 3 hours at 65°C. The experimental results exhibited a first-order kinetics and rate constants and activation energy were calculated for the transesterification reaction at different temperatures. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from Camelina sativa oil and waste shells were compared with those of the petroleum-based diesel by using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards.

  13. Microencapsulation of Nigella sativa oleoresin by spray drying for food and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DEWAX Transcription Factor Is Involved in Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa

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    Seulgi Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle of land plants is the first physical barrier to protect their aerial parts from biotic and abiotic stresses. DEWAX, an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor, negatively regulates cuticular wax biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa overexpressing DEWAX and in Arabidopsis dewax mutant. Compared to wild type (WT leaves, Arabidopsis DEWAX OX and dewax leaves were more and less permeable to toluidine blue dye, respectively. The ROS levels increased in DEWAX OX leaves, but decreased in dewax relative to WT leaves. Compared to WT, DEWAX OX was more resistant, while dewax was more sensitive to B. cinerea; however, defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000:GFP were inversely modulated. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses indicated that the expression of defense-related genes was upregulated in DEWAX OX, but downregulated in dewax relative to WT. Transactivation assay showed that DEWAX upregulated the expression of PDF1.2a, IGMT1, and PRX37. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that DEWAX directly interacts with the GCC-box motifs of PDF1.2a promoter. In addition, ectopic expression of DEWAX increased the tolerance to B. cinerea in C. sativa. Taken together, we suggest that increased ROS accumulation and DEWAX-mediated upregulation of defense-related genes are closely associated with enhanced resistance to B. cinerea in Arabidopsis and C. sativa.

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. at the contaminated fluvisol

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    Jakšić Snežana P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, heavy metals concentrations increased in some agricultural areas due to the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals (As, Cr, Ni and Pb in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. grown on fluvisol, in order to obtain information on safety of these nutrients. The total content of Pb, As, Cr and Ni in the samples of fluvisol was above the maximum allowable amount. The content of heavy metals in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. was below the critical and toxic concentrations in all samples originating from contaminated soil. It was concluded that the accumulation of heavy metals in plants did not depend only on the total content in soil, but also the affinity of the plant, and individual and interactive effects of various soil properties. No statistically significant differences in the accumulation of heavy metals between Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L were observed. It is necessary to further control of heavy metals in the investigated area, in order to prevent their entry into the food chain and provide healthy food.

  16. Medicago sativa--Sinorhizobium meliloti Symbiosis Promotes the Bioaccumulation of Zinc in Nodulated Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Kais; Nouairi, Issam; Slama, Ines; Talbi-Zribi, Ons; Mhadhbi, Haythem

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated effects of Zn supply on germination, growth, inorganic solutes (Zn, Ca, Fe, and Mg) partitioning and nodulation of Medicago sativa This plant was cultivated with and without Zn (2 mM). Treatments were plants without (control) and with Zn tolerant strain (S532), Zn intolerant strain (S112) and 2 mM urea nitrogen fertilisation. Results showed that M. sativa germinates at rates of 50% at 2 mM Zn. For plants given nitrogen fertilisation, Zn increased plant biomass production. When grown with symbionts, Zn supply had no effect on nodulation. Moreover, plants with S112 showed a decrease of shoot and roots biomasses. However, in symbiosis with S532, an increase of roots biomass was observed. Plants in symbiosis with S. meliloti accumulated more Zn in their roots than nitrogen fertilised plants. Zn supply results in an increase of Ca concentration in roots of fertilised nitrogen plants. However, under Zn supply, Fe concentration decreased in roots and increased in nodules of plants with S112. Zn supply showed contrasting effects on Mg concentrations for plants with nitrogen fertilisation (increase) and plants with S112 (decrease). The capacity of M. sativa to accumulate Zn in their nodulated roots encouraged its use in phytostabilisation processes.

  17. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium

  18. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton and oat (Avena sativa straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost.Três formulações de composto, à base de palhas de Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (cultivares Coast-cross e Tyfton e Aveia-Avena sativa, foram testadas no cultivo das linhagens ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03 e ABI-06/04 de A. bisporus. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial, inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos (4 linhagens de A. bisporus x 3 tipos de composto e 8 repetições. Cada unidade experimental constou de uma caixa com 1212,5 kg de composto fresco úmido. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se que a produção de cogumelos foi influenciada pela linhagem e/ou pelo tipo de composto. Também verificou-se que o teor de proteína bruta, cinzas e fibra bruta de basidiomas variou com a linhagem de A. bisporus e com o tipo de palha utilizada na formulação do composto.

  19. Allelopathy of winter cover straws on the initial maize growthAlelopatia de palhadas de coberturas de inverno sobre o crescimento inicial de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Senen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural crops is common planting the main crop on the remains of straw harvesting the crop earlier due to no-tillage system. The straw remaining in the soil can exert positive or negative influence on the main crop through the release of organic compounds that carry allelopathy on plants of the subsequent growing. This experiment consisted of mixing and blending of different types of turnip (Brassica rapa L., oats (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. Ex RE Fries, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. and rapeseed (Brassica napus L . var in soil and placed in plastic trays where they planted the seeds of maize. The experimental design was completely randomized design with six treatments and three repetições. As ratings were: emergence, rate of emergence, shoot length, root length, root dry weight, dry weight of shoots. The cover crops canola and safflower showed a positive effect, as crambe, turnips and oats had a negative effect on initial growth of maize seedlings, are not suitable for cover crop to maize sowing.Nas lavouras agrícolas é comum o cultivo da cultura principal sobre os restos de palha da colheita do cultivo anterior em decorrência do sistema de plantio direto. A palhada remanescente no solo pode exercer influência positiva ou negativa sobre a cultura principal pela liberação de compostos orgânicos que exercem alelopatia sobre as plantas da cultura subsequente. Este experimento constou da mistura e homogeneização das palhas de nabo (Brassica rapa L., aveia (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries, cartamo (Carthamus tinctorius L. e canola (Brassica napus L.var no solo, que foi colocado em bandejas plásticas onde semeou-se o milho. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados com seis tratamentos e três repetições. As características analizadas foram: emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento de parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, massa

  20. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fração fibrosa e da proteína bruta de forrageiras Forages dry matter, fibrous fraction and crude protein ruminal degradability

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    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta da alfafa (Medicago sativa, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e guandu (Cajanus cajan. Amostras de 3 g das forragens foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da matéria seca da alfafa e da aveia, para a taxa de passagem de 5% por hora, foram elevadas (acima de 60%. A leucena e o guandu apresentaram valores inferiores, 50,9 e 56,0%, respectivamente. A partir de 24 horas de incubação, a aveia se destacou com maior desaparecimento da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido, e ainda apresentou as mais elevadas taxas de degradação efetiva destas frações. A aveia foi a forragem que apresentou maior degradabilidade da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta no rúmen. O guandu, entretanto, foi a forragem com as piores taxas de degradação.The objective of this work was to evaluate ruminal degradability of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black oat (Avena strigosa, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Samples of 3 g of forages were incubated in the rumen of three steers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours periods. The dry matter effective degradabilities of alfalfa and oat, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were high (over 60%. However, leucaena and pigeon pea showed lower values, 50.9 and 56.0%, respectively. From 24-hour incubation period on, the oat presented the highest neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber disappearance and showed the greatest effective degradation rates of these fractions. The oat was the forage with the highest dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and