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Sample records for avena avena sativa

  1. Development of resistance to Puccinia graminis avenae in Avena sativa by mutagen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of over seven million M2 oat plants derived from irradiated and chemical mutagen treated seeds (about 50,000) or low-level chronically irradiated growing plants produced no new sources of useful resistance. However, preliminary results indicate that the gene Pg-16 has been transferred from the tetraploid Avena barbata L. to the hexaploid A. sativa L. by irradiation of disomic alien addition lines and monosomic alien substitution lines. This gene is highly effective and confers resistance to all but two of the known races of stem rust occurring in North America. (author)

  2. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  3. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Chen, Huimin

    2003-06-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions ofyoung-embryo-derived calli, which were nonregenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% ofthe same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity ofless than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of 300 muW/cm(2) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts ofthe recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants. PMID:18763139

  4. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤宁; 夏光敏; 陈惠民

    2003-01-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions of young-embryo-derived calli, whichwere non- regenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% of the same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity of less than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of300 μW/cm2 for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts of the recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants.

  5. Studies Regarding Tailings Pond Seepage Water from Mining Activities over Avena sativa L. Germination Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of oat in the limiting areas of tailings pond might be regarded as one of the possibilities that could lead to the general amelioration of these places. In order to characterize the waste products, to determine and evaluate the components that may be leached from waste products and that can affect the limiting areas of tailings pond, leaching tests were performed. In this paper, we have observed the influence of eluate, obtained from leaching tests, on seed germination, radicle and coleoptyle development as well as on the amount of accumulated dry matter for Avena sativa L., genotypes. According to our researches, we may conclude that the studied genotypes of Avena sativa L. showed tolerance to eluate while values registered for seed germination, radicle and coleoptyle development as well as dry matter content were comparatively higher than those registered for the control variant.

  6. Avena sativa: An Effective Natural Ingredient in Herbal Shampoos for the Treatment of Hair Greasiness

    OpenAIRE

    Farboud, Effat Sadat; Amin, Gholamreza; Akbari, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Evaluation of anti-greasiness properties of oat extract and oil in shampoos. Methodology: Seborrhea can cause greasiness in scalp and hair. There are few compounds currently in use to reduce sebaceous gland secretions. Avena sativa or oat is a plant containing saponins as active ingredients with cleansing activity. In a double blinded, randomized, placebo clinical study, we investigated anti-grease and cleansing effects of oat by comparing shampoos formulated from oat extract and oil wi...

  7. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Grown in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Vilmane Laila; Zute Sanita; Straumīte Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Bre...

  8. Regulation of the development of the first leaf of oats (Avena sativa L.). Characterization and subcellular localization of proteases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der H.C.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of chlorophyll during the senescence of leaves is preceded by a decrease in protein content. Proteases responsible for the degradation of the proteins have been implicated in the regulation of the senescence process. The first leaf of the seedling of oats ( Avena sativa L.) demonstrates the

  9. Serpins of oat (Avena sativa) grain with distinct reactive centres and inhibitory specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Hauge, S.

    2002-01-01

    Most proteinase inhibitors from plant seeds are assumed to contribute to broad-spectrum protection against pests and pathogens. In oat (Avena sativa L.) grain the main serine proteinase inhibitors were found to be serpins, which utilize a unique mechanism of irreversible inhibition. Four distinct...... chymotrypsin at the putative reactive centre bond P-1 -P-1 ' Tyrdown arrowSer, and no inhibition was detected. Together the oat grain serpins have a broader inhibitory specificity against digestive serine proteinases than represented by the major serpins of wheat, rye or barley grain. Presumably the serpins...... compensate for the low content of reversible inhibitors of serine proteinases in oats in protection of the grain against pests or pathogens....

  10. Allelopathy of rice: effect of rice mulching on the growth of avena sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of suitable weed management practice is a critical step in crop production technology to reduce the competition for water, nutrients, space and light between the economically important crops and weeds. Mechanical, chemical or biological agents are being used by the farmer community to cope with the weed problem but these methods are specific in nature, expensive and detrimental to ecosystem. Allelopathy is a cost-effective and environment friendly approach replacing the previous techniques. Therefore, keeping in view the role of rice mulching in weed management, the present study was designed to manipulate the allelopathic traits of rice for the control of Avena sativa in a field trial during which it was grown in non-mulch and rice mulch regimes of different concentrations. (author)

  11. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; De, Subrata; Belkheir, Asma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:23072529

  12. Caracterização química de cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa l)

    OpenAIRE

    I. Pedó; V.C. SGARBIERI

    1997-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente quatro cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa, L.): UPF-15, UPF-16, CTC-03 e UFRGS-14, recentemente selecionados pelo programa de melhoramento genético de aveia no sul do Brasil. A caracterização química foi realizada através das seguintes determinações: composição centesimal, composição mineral, composição em aminoácidos e em ácidos graxos. Os quatro cultivares estudados apresentaram altos teores de proteína (13,95 a 16,52%) e lipídi...

  13. High dilutions of acetone affect the Avena sativa growth in vitro

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    Kely Karina Belato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acetone is an organic solvent with molecular structure CH3(COCH3, its endogenous production in the animal body is called ketosis. The production of this compound increases with the fat. Acetone influences the lipid membrane, altering its fluidity and lipid composition [1], causing cell damage and leakage and can cause cell death. The use of herbicides in organic farming is not accepted by the Brazilian legislation [2]. So the weed control becomes a problem for organic farmers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the herbicide potential of high dilutions of acetone on Avena sativa L. Materials and Methods: The preliminary tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Homeopathy, State University of Maringá (UEM. The seeds of Avena sativa are placed in Petri dishes. Fitty seeds were germinated and grown in Petri dishes containing 15ml of high dilution of acetone and maintained at 25°C ± 2 and 12h photoperiod. Acetone dilutions (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30cH were obtained according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [3]. Were evaluated the shoot length (cm, total length (cm, fresh root (mg and total dry mass (mg. The plants growth was measured after 7 days. The control consisted of distilled water. The experiment evaluated 4 replicates of each treatment and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by Scott-Knott test (P ≤ 0.05. Results and Discussion: Dilutions 6, 24 and 30 cH inhibited the growth of the shoot and total seedling of A. sativa. The root fresh weight was significantly reduced by 4 dilutions (6,12,24 and 30x, with no difference of 24x compared to the control. The total dry mass of plants of A. sativa was reduced in all the dilutions studied, showing an inhibitory effect on growth of seedlings subjected to treatment. Somehow, acetone diluited inhibited the growth and accumulation of biomass of these seedlings, suggesting an imbalance in metabolism

  14. Protein Level and Heavy Metals (Pb, Cr, and Cd) Concentrations in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and in Oat (Avena sativa) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Noor Ul Abideen; Syed Ainul Abideen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate heavy metal accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and oat (Avena sativa), and other physiological and biochemical parameters affected by these heavy metals. The data revealed that maximum plant fresh weight and plant dry weight was recorded for oat and minimum plant fresh weight and plant dry weight was noted for wheat (Triticum aestivum). The data also indicated that higher concentration of proline and DNA concentration was noted in wheat (Triticum...

  15. Cell wall and enzyme changes during the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, David M.; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Chang, S.-R.; Brock, Thomas G.; Vadlamudi, Babu; Kim, Donghern; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Rayle, David L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    The graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa) involves an asymmetric growth response and asymmetric processes involving degradation of starch and cell wall synthesis. Cellular and biochemical events were studied by investigation of the activities of related enzymes and changes in cell walls and their constituents. It is suggested that an osmotic potential gradient acts as the driving factor for growth, while wall extensibility is a limiting factor in pulvinus growth.

  16. Genome-wide association study for crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) resistance in an oat (Avena sativa) collection of commercial varieties and landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Rispail, Nicolas; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Rubiales, Diego; Mur, Luis A. J.; Langdon, Tim; Howarth, Catherine J.; Prats, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions...

  17. Generation and analysis of 9792 EST sequences from cold acclimated oat, Avena sativa

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    Olsson Björn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oat is an important crop in North America and northern Europe. In Scandinavia, yields are limited by the fact that oat cannot be used as a winter crop. In order to develop such a crop, more knowledge about mechanisms of cold tolerance in oat is required. Results From an oat cDNA library 9792 single-pass EST sequences were obtained. The library was prepared from pooled RNA samples isolated from leaves of four-week old Avena sativa (oat plants incubated at +4°C for 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 8508 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 710.7 bp. Clustering and assembly identified a set of 2800 different transcripts denoted the Avena sativa cold induced UniGene set (AsCIUniGene set. Taking advantage of various tools and databases, putative functions were assigned to 1620 (58% of these genes. Of the remaining 1180 unclassified sequences, 427 appeared to be oat-specific since they lacked any significant sequence similarity (Blast E values > 10-10 to any sequence available in the public databases. Of the 2800 UniGene sequences, 398 displayed significant homology (BlastX E values ≤ 10-10 to genes previously reported to be involved in cold stress related processes. 107 novel oat transcription factors were also identified, out of which 51 were similar to genes previously shown to be cold induced. The CBF transcription factors have a major role in regulating cold acclimation. Four oat CBF sequences were found, belonging to the monocot cluster of DREB family ERF/AP2 domain proteins. Finally in the total EST sequence data (5.3 Mbp approximately 400 potential SSRs were found, a frequency similar to what has previously been identified in Arabidopsis ESTs. Conclusion The AsCIUniGene set will now be used to fabricate an oat biochip, to perform various expression studies with different oat cultivars incubated at varying temperatures, to generate molecular markers and provide tools for

  18. Influence of Ash Applied to Oat Crop (Avena sativa L. Grown under Organic Fertilization with Manure

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    Benoni Lixandru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The power plant ash is an inorganic residue with a variable chemical buildup according to the type of charcoal used and quality. Depositing, stabilizing and eventually reintegrating the ash in the natural circuit raises a series of problems due to its disastrous effect on biodiversity. Even with these problems, at a moderate micro and macro mineral content, power plant ash could present interesting agro technical and ecological alternatives. For this reason, the controlled integration of ash could put a stop to pollution with ash by reintegrating the material in the agricultural ecosystems.For this purpose, in the field of research of Ecological and Forage Crops from Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies Timisoara, research was conducted over the influence of the reintegration of 40 t of ash per ha, produced by C.E.T. Timisoara, on the biomass production of oatmeal (Avena sativa L, fertilized by levels of 25 and 50 t per ha of manure. After harvesting, the analysis of the total biomass quantity, both above and underground, revealed similar results in all trials. In conditions that include heavy metal concentrations beneath normal geological values, conclude that the application of 40t per ha may be an agro technical solution for the integration of power plant ash in the agricultural ecosystem.

  19. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa) Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):684-690. PMID:27272074

  20. Resistance to uprooting of Alfalfa and Avena Sativa and related importance for flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation influences sediment dynamics by stabilizing the alluvial sediment with its root system. Thus, vegetation engineers the riparian ecosystem by contributing to the formation and stabilization of river bars and islands. The resistance to uprooting of young plants in non-cohesive sediment depends on the competition between flow induced drag and root growth timescales. The investigation of flow-sediment-plant interactions in situ is difficult since variables cannot be controlled and material hardly be collected. In order to investigate ecomorphological processes, laboratory experiments are essential and have gained importance in the last decade. To achieve a better understanding of the dependence of resistance to uprooting on the root system (length and structure) we conducted vertical uprooting experiments with Alfalfa and Avena Sativa which are both species that have been used in flume experiments on vegetation-flow interactions (e.g. Tal and Paola, 2010; Perona et al., in press). Seeds were seeded on quartz sand and vertically uprooted with constant velocity whereat the weight force required to uproot a seedling was measured. After uprooting, roots were scanned and analyzed and the correlation of root parameters with the uprooting work was studied. Total root length was found to be the best explanatory variable, in particular the uprooting work increases following a power law with increasing root length. The impact of other root parameters (main root length, root number, tortuosity) on the uprooting work was as well analyzed. Still, not all influencing root parameters could be captured, like the angle between roots or root hair distribution. Environmental conditions like grain size and saturation were also found to have an effect on the uprooting resistance of roots. So, lower saturated sediment results in a higher uprooting work. This work is a first step to better understand the energy regime for vegetation uprooting and its dependence on various

  1. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L. Grown in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmane Laila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute - were cultivated in 2013 under conventional farming methods using three nitrogen (N application rates (80, 120, and 160 kg·ha-1 and under organic farming. Protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, amino acid composition by high-performance liquid chromatography method using Waters AccQ Tag, and gluten content by Sandwich R5 ELISA. The results showed that oat genotype had significant effect p < 0.001 on protein and gluten content, as well as on amino acid composition. The applied amount of fertiliser did not have significant effect on the studied quality parameters, but the growing system did (p < 0.001. Higher content of protein was observed in hulless oat samples, compared to that in husked oat samples. There was also a significant difference (p = 0.01 in the total amount of amino acids between husked and hulless oat samples. In hulless oat variety 'Stendes Emilija' and hulless breeding line '33793' the content of gluten was similar and two times higher than in the husked oat variety 'Lizete'. Further breeding work is necessary to obtain oats with a lower content of gluten-like proteins.

  2. Caracterização química de cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa l

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    I. Pedó

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente quatro cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa, L.: UPF-15, UPF-16, CTC-03 e UFRGS-14, recentemente selecionados pelo programa de melhoramento genético de aveia no sul do Brasil. A caracterização química foi realizada através das seguintes determinações: composição centesimal, composição mineral, composição em aminoácidos e em ácidos graxos. Os quatro cultivares estudados apresentaram altos teores de proteína (13,95 a 16,52% e lipídios (6,33 a 7,50%. Os teores médios de fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel também foram relativamente altos nestes cultivares, 4,76 e 6,36% e, conseqüentemente, o teor de amido foi relativamente baixo (53,26% em média. A composição em aminoácidos foi adequada e semelhante ao padrão teórico da FAO, sendo a lisina o primeiro aminoácido limitante, seguido da treonina. Os cultivares apresentaram altas concentrações de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo que o linoléico, oléico e palmítico representaram 96% do total. Embora não tenham sido observadas grandes diferenças entre os cultivares estudados, observa-se que o UFRGS-14 se destaca principalmente pelo teor mais elevado de proteína.

  3. Studies on biological effects of gamma irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of three oat varieties viz., Kent, JO 03-91 and JO-1 were exposed to different doses of gamma rays i.e. 200 Gy, 250 Gy, 300 Gy, 350 Gy, 400 Gy, 450 Gy and 500 Gy at Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI, New Delhi. The present investigation aims to study biological effects of gamma irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L.) in the M1 generation. After irradiation, 10 seeds were sown from each dose on paper towel by using distilled water. Germination, root and shoot length were recorded after seven days. 100 seeds of each irradiated dose along with control were sown in the field at Regional station, IARI, Wellington, Tamil Nadu. Seedling emergence and height under field conditions was recorded after 7 and 14 days. An observation for plant height and plant survival percentage was reordered at maturity stage. Seed germination (%), root length and shoot length decreased not in a linear fashion with the increase in irradiation doses. In contrast, the gamma rays had some stimulatory effects on shoot length in comparison to root length. Seedling emergence, plant height and plant survival (%) decreased with increase in radiation dose not in a linear fashion in all three varieties. Seedling emergence was recorded less in 7 DAS in comparison to 14 DAS in all three varieties. The coefficient of correlation between radiation dose and emergence and plant survival under field conditions were found to be significant and negative in all three varieties. Radiation dose of 500 Gy proved most lethal and reduced the percentage of survived plants in oat varieties JO-1 (37.36%) and JO 03-91 (43.57%) followed by 450 Gy in JO 03-91 (54.07 %) and 400 Gy in all three varieties (<68.5%). Only in the variety JO 03-91 has three morphological mutations were found at different doses i.e. 250 Gy, 350 Gy and 450 Gy and two chlorophyll mutations namely i.e. chlorina and yellow viridis was found in JO-1 (450 Gy) and Kent (250 Gy) in M1 generation respectively. (author)

  4. Interacción genotipo-ambiente en avena sativa l: utilizando los modelos AMMI y factorial de correspondencias Genotype-environment interaction in avena sativa l: employing AMMI and factorial correspondence models

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    Horacio Abel Acciaresi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue (i determinar la presencia de interacción genotipo-ambiente (IGA en la producción forrajera de avena (Avena sativa L. de genotipos tolerantes y no tolerantes a Schizaphis graminum empleando un número bajo de ambientes en la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina mediante los modelos de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI y análisis factorial de correspondencias (AFC y (ii comparar los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos. Los ensayos se condujeron en La Dulce (Argentina y La Plata (Argentina (1993, 1994 y 1995. Se evaluaron 12 genotipos (comerciales y líneas avanzadas en 12 ambientes (combinación de localidad, años y cortes. Los factores ambiente, genotipo e interacción explicaron un 41,15% (pThe objective of this study was (i to determine the presence of genotype-environment interaction (GXE in Avena sativa l. for above dry matter yield of Schizaphis graminun tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes according to two different models: additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis; and (ii to study and compare the results obtained with these models. Twelve genotypes and 12 environments were conducted at La Dulce and La Plata (Argentina during three years (1993, 1994 and 1995. The environment (E, genotype (G and GxE factors explained a 41.15%, 7.88% and 36.36% of the total sum of square, respectively. The first three axes of principal component analysis of AMMI were highly significant (p<0.001, explaining a 57.99%, 29.03% and 6.27% of interaction sum of square. The first three factorial correspondence coordinates accounted for 58.98%, 29.58% and 5.60% of the interaction sum of square. The relationships between tolerant genotypes-first clipping environments and non-tolerant genotypes-second clipping environments were reflected in the biplots of both models. The simultaneous use of AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis appeared as a useful

  5. Genome-wide association study for crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) resistance in an oat (Avena sativa) collection of commercial varieties and landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Rispail, Nicolas; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Rubiales, Diego; Mur, Luis A J; Langdon, Tim; Howarth, Catherine J; Prats, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions including white and red oat cultivars and landraces were evaluated for disease resistance and further genotyped with 31 simple sequence repeat and 15,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to reveal association with disease resistance traits. After data curation, 1712 polymorphic markers were considered for association analysis. Principal component analysis and a Bayesian clustering approach were applied to infer population structure. Five different general and mixed linear models accounting for population structure and/or kinship corrections and two different statistical tests were carried out to reduce false positive. Five markers, two of them highly significant in all models tested were associated with rust resistance. No strong association between any marker and powdery mildew resistance at the seedling stage was identified. However, one DArT sequence, oPt-5014, was strongly associated with powdery mildew resistance in adult plants. Overall, the markers showing the strongest association in this study provide ideal candidates for further studies and future inclusion in strategies of marker-assisted selection. PMID:25798140

  6. Lâminas de água e doses de nitrogênio na produção de aveia (Avena sativa L. para forragem Irrigation depths and nitrogen levels for forage oat (Avena sativa L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Frizzone

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado experimento visando estudar os efeitos da irrigação suplementar e da adubação nitrogenada na produtividade de aveia (Avena sativa L., variedade UPF7, para ferragem. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de quatro lâminas de irrigação aplicadas quando a evaporação acumulada no tanque "Classe A" (ECA atingia aproximadamente 30 mm (I = 0%, I = 50%, I = 100% e I = 150% de ECA e quatro níveis de adubação nitrogenada (N = O, N = 80, N = 160 e N = 240 kg.ha-1 de nitrogênio. A máxima produtividade total de matéria seca (6,9 Lha-1 foi estimada para 319,2 mm de água e 152,4 kg.ha-1 de nitrogênio. Aos preços considerados para insumos e produto, a máxima receita líquida (R$ 897.ha-1 foi obtida para 310 mm de água e 120 kg.ha-1 de nitrogênio.This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on forage oat (Avena sativa, L. productivity, variety UPF7. The experiment was a split-plot randomized block design with four replications. The experimental unit consisted of combinations of four irrigation depths applied when cumulative Classe A pan evaporation (ECA approximately reached 30 mm, (I = 0%, I = 50%, I = 100% and I = 150% of ECA, and four nitrogen levels (N = O, N = 80, N = 160 e N = 240 kg.ha-1. The total maximum productivity of dry matter (6,9 t.ha-1 was obtained for the water depth of 319,2 mm and 152,4 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen. For the considered prices, the water and nitrogen levels that induced the maximum net income were 310 mm and 120 kg.ha-1, respectively, reaching a maximum net return of R$ 897.ha-1.

  7. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient. PMID:22864323

  8. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition. PMID:22186063

  9. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresman, Bradley J.; Oliver, Rebekah E.; Jackson, Eric W.; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P.; Kolb, Frederic L.

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel. PMID:27175781

  10. Phytochrome-controlled extension growth of Avena sativa L. seedlings : I. Kinetic characterization of mesocotyl, coleoptile, and leaf responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopfer, P; Fidelak, K H; Schäfer, E

    1982-05-01

    The effects of continuous red and far-red light and of brief light pulses on the growth kinetics of the mesocotyl, coleoptile, and primary leaf of intact oat (Avena sativa L.) seedlings were investigated. Mesocotyl lengthening is strongly inhibited, even by very small amounts of Pfr, the far-red light absorbing form of phytochrome (e.g., by [Pfr]≈0.1% of total phytochrome, established by a 756-nm light pulse). Coleoptile growth is at first promoted by Pfr, but apparently inhibited later. This inhibition is correlated in time with the rupturing of the coleoptile tip by the primary leaf, the growth of which is also promoted by phytochrome. The growth responses of all three seedling organs are fully reversible by far-red light. The apparent lack of photoreversibility observed by some previous investigators of the mesocotyl inhibition can be explained by an extremely high sensitivity to Pfr. Experiments with different seedling parts failed to demonstrate any further obvious interorgan relationship in the light-mediated growth responses of the mesocotyl and coleoptile. The organspecific growth kinetics, don't appear to be influenced by Pfr destruction. Following an irradiation, the growth responses are quantitatively determined by the level of Pfr established at the onset of darkness rather than by the actual Pfr level present during the growth period. PMID:24276065

  11. Efficacy of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in comparison with atorvastatin in treatment of hypercholesterolemia in albino rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisaa M. AL-Rawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin, on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats. Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats were used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with cholesterol (0.5% w/w for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemic rats on oat supplemented diet (20% w/w for 4 weeks and the forth group was atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats orally at a dose of 0.18 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Results: The biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum LDL-C and a significant decrease in HDL-C level. In addition the activity of AST was increased in cholesterol-fed rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat soluble fiber or atorvastatin drug improved the above mentioned parameters. The histopathological examination of liver sections of cholesterol-fed group showed accumulation of lipid. Hepatocytes showed ballooning degeneration and manifested clear necrotic signs. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was found around the blood vessels, mild fibrosis near the portal blood vessels. However, liver impairment was reduced markedly in the liver of oat soluble fiber fed rats rather than atorvastatin drug treated rats. Conclusion: The present study, however, confirms that the cereal grain oat may have potent beneficial health effects in reducing LDL cholesterol and should be included in the prudent diet of individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  12. Effects of NaCl Stress on the Growth and Physiological Changes in Oat (Avena sativa Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang MU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oat (Avena sativa is a kind of cereal grain, which has high saline-alkali tolerance. This experiment was carried out to investigate and compare the growth and physiological changes of oat seedling. Oat was grown under five concentrations of NaCl stress (48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 mmolL-1. The results showed that NaCl stress had no effect on the survival rate and organic acids. With the increasing of the NaCl concentration, tiller number, the chlorophyll, K+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2PO4- contents, shoot length, the shoot biomass, and shoot water content were decreased significantly. However, the Cl-, Na+, Na+/K+, SO42- and proline contents were extremely increased. K+, Ca2+, dry weight, and water content of shoots changed greater than that of roots. While Na+ and Na+/K+ of shoots changed less than that of roots. When NaCl concentration was less than 96 mmolL-1, the length, dry weight, and water content of roots had no significant changes. Based on this investigation, it can be concluded that oat seedlings accumulated more proline, Cl- and SO42- to maintaining osmotic and ion balance. In addition, NaCl stress had no significant effect on the growth of roots, and the roots can play the interceptive and protective role with a stronger salt tolerance. The roots can change the distribution of Na+, then it decreased the harm on the shoots and increased the tolerance of oat seedling.

  13. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  14. Detection of drechslera avenae in oat seeds Detecção de Drechslera avenae em sementes de aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADIA C. LÂNGARO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Drechslera avenae, the causal agent of Helminthosporium leaf spot on oats (Avena sativa, survives as mycelium in crop residues and in infected seeds. In trials carried out in the laboratory, ten methods were evaluated for their efficiency to detect D. avenae in oat seeds. In each experiment, groups of two or three methods were compared to a standard protocol, in which seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing the Reis selective medium and incubated at 25±2 °C for ten days. Data were submitted to analysis of variation and the means of the methods were compared using the Dunnett test at the 5% significance level. Overall, the highest levels of seed infection by D. avenae were observed on oat seeds plated in the osmotic, the oat-agar and the Reis media, or on seeds subjected to heat treatment previous to incubation in malt-agar. Therefore, these methods should be recommended for detection of D. avenae in oat seed testing.O fungo Drechslera avenae, agente causal da helmintosporiose da aveia (Avena sativa, sobrevive como micélio em restos culturais e em sementes infetadas. Em ensaios conduzidos em laboratório, dez métodos foram avaliados considerando-se sua eficiência em detectar D. avenae em sementes de aveia. Em cada experimento, grupos de dois ou três métodos foram comparados a um padrão, no qual as sementes foram dispostas em placas de Petri contendo meio seletivo de Reis e incubadas a 25±2 °C por dez dias. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Dunnett (5%. Entre os métodos testados, maiores níveis de infecção de D. avenae foram observados nas sementes dispostas nos meios ou métodos osmótico, aveia-ágar e seletivo de Reis, ou no qual as sementes foram aquecidas previamente à incubação em malte-ágar. Sugerem-se que, em análise de sanidade de sementes de aveia, sejam utilizados esses métodos para a detecção de D. avenae.

  15. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map and markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD genomes) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and genetic resources for protein improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid A. magna Ladiz. contains approximately 31% seed protein and has been hybr...

  16. Avaliação dos teores de fibra alimentar e de beta-glicanas em cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L Evaluation of dietary fiber and beta-glucan levels in oat (Avena sativa L cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. GUTKOSKI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A fibra alimentar é composta por celulose, hemiceluloses, gomas, pectinas e mucilagens sendo classificada em solúvel e insolúvel, quanto a sua solubilidade em água. As beta-glicanas são componentes da fibra alimentar solúvel presentes na aveia e sua importância é devido às propriedades funcionais e aos efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipoglicêmicos apresentados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total e de beta-glicanas de cultivares de aveia recomendados pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa, L foram descascados, as cariopses moídas e as amostras acondicionadas e armazenadas à temperatura de -20° C. Para a análise de fibra alimentar foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Entre os cultivares analisados, UPF 7, UPF 13, UPF 14 e UPF 16 apresentaram os maiores teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel. Os maiores teores de fibra alimentar solúvel foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, CTC 13, UPF 16 e CTC 2. O cultivar UPF 16 apresentou o maior teor de fibra alimentar total, seguido de UFRGS 7, CTC 13 e UFRGS 18. Para a determinação de beta-glicanas foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Os maiores teores de beta-glicanas foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, UPF 14 e UFRGS 18.The dietary fiber is composed by cellulose, hemi-celluloses, gums, pectins, and mucilages, being classified as soluble or insoluble depending on its solubility in water. Beta-glucans are a fraction of the soluble dietary fiber, being important due to its functional properties and effects in reducing cholesterol and glucose. This work aimed at evaluating the levels of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, as well as the amount of beta-glucans, present in grains of oat cultivars recommended by the Brazilian Commission for Oat Research. Oat grains were hulled, the caryopses were ground and the samples packaged and stored at temperature of -20º

  17. Oat (Avena sativa) Seed Extract as an Antifungal Food Preservative Through the Catalytic Activity of a Highly Abundant Class I Chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans; Madsen, Lone; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...... similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found...... that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds....

  18. Red stripe caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae is considered to be of minor importance because, most often when found, only the mild leaf stripe symptom is observed. In 2010, both leaf stripe and the more severe top rot symptom were observed in commercial sugarcane fields in Louis...

  19. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on heavy metal tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) on a sewage-sludge treated soil; Bedeutung der arbuskulaeren Mykorrhiza (AM) fuer die Schwermetalltoleranz von Luzerne (Medicago sativa L.) und Hafer (Avena sativa L.) auf einem klaerschlammgeduengten Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricken, B. [Institut fuer Pflanzenernaehrung, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Hoefner, W. [Institut fuer Pflanzenernaehrung, Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    In pot experiments with a sewage sludge treated soil, the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolates of Glomus sp. (T6 and D13) on plant growth and on the uptake of heavy metals by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Alfalfa showed an increase of biomass with mycorrhizal infection only to a small extent. In oat AMF inoculation increased the growth of both root and shoot by up to 70% and 55% respectively. Mycorrhization raised the P-content and -uptake in alfalfa, but not in oat, in both roots and shoots. Mycorrhizal alfalfa showed lower Zn-, Cd- and Ni-contents and uptake in roots and shoots. The root length was significantly decreased in mycorrhizal alfalfa plants (up to 38%). The translocation of heavy metals into the shoot of mycorrhizal alfalfa was slightly increased. Mycorrhizal infection of oat led to higher concentrations of Zn, Cd and Ni in the root but to less Zn in the shoot. The translocation of heavy metals to the oat shoot was clearely decreased by mycorrhizal colonisation. This may be based on the ability of fungal tissues to complex heavy metals at the cell walls, thus excluding metals from the shoot. This conclusion is supported by the enhanced root length (up to 78%) of mycorrhizal oat plants in this experiment. The mycorrhizal infection seemed to protect plants against heavy metal pollution in soils. It was obvious that different host plants reacted in different ways. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Gefaessversuchen mit einem klaerschlammgeduengten Boden wurde der Einfluss der arbuskulaeren Mykorrhiza (AM)-Pilzisolate von Glomus sp. (T6 und D13) auf Pflanzenwachstum und Schwermetall (SM)-aufnahme von Luzerne (Medicago sativa L.) und Hafer (Avena sativa L.) untersucht. Das Wachstum von Luzerne wurde durch eine Mykorrhizierung nicht signifikant beeinflusst. Bei Hafer foerderte eine AM-Inokulation mit T6 das Wachstum von Wurzel und Spross bis zu 70% bzw. 55%, zur Reife aber ergab sich gleicher Sprossertrag

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DO CULTIVO CONSORCIADO DE AVEIA PRETA (AVENA STRIGOSA SCHIEB. E ERVILHACA COMUM (VICIA SATIVA L. NA PRODUÇÃO DE FITOMASSA E NO APORTE DE NITROGÊNIO INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPED COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. AND NAKED OAT (AVENA STRIGOSA ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heinrichs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e sob preparo convencional, foi avaliada a influência de proporções de sementes de ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb. cultivadas em consórcio, na produção de fitomassa e no aporte de nitrogênio no sistema. O experimento foi implantado em solo podzolico vermelho amarelo, de Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram casualizados em quatro blocos, constituindo-se de: 1- 100% Ervilhaca comum (E; 2- 90% E + 10% Aveia preta (A; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- pousio de inverno. A amostragem da fitomassa das coberturas verdes foi efetuada na ocasião do pleno florescimento em área de 0,8m2 por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram que a aveia preta e a ervilhaca comum podem ser consorciadas, beneficiando assim, a produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio.The effect of intercropping common vetch (Vicia sativa L. with naked oat (Avena strigosa Schieb. at different seed proportions was evaluated. The trial was set up on a Red Yellow Podzolic soil of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The treatments were the following: 1- 100% E (common vetch; 2- 90% E + 10% A (naked oat; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- fall tillage organized in four randomized blocks. Biomass production was evaluated at the flowering stage in an area of 0.8 m2 per plot. Data show that both species can be intercropped which is beneficial to biomass production and nitrogen accumulation.

  1. Maternal and paternal transmission to offspring of B-chromosomes of Zea mays L. in the alien genetic background of Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-chromosomes are supernumerary dispensable chromosomes with highly host-specific organization, behavior, and mode of inheritance described in hundreds of animal, fungal, and plant species. We transferred native B chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays cv. Black Mexican Sweet) to oats (Avena sa...

  2. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity. PMID:26134441

  3. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil. PMID:26940160

  4. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds. PMID:19224400

  5. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology. PMID:26881940

  6. Selección de genotipos de avena para la identificación de razas de roya del tallo Selection of oat genotypes for the identification of stem rust races

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro; Julio Huerta Espino; Héctor Eduardo Villaseñor Mir; Santos Gerardo Leyva Mir; José Sergio Sandoval Islas; Ignacio Benítez Riquelme

    2011-01-01

    La identificación de razas fisiológicas de Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae al usar diferenciales, es importante en los programas de mejoramiento genético de avena, para obtener genotipos resistentes a roya del tallo y conocer la evolución y dispersión regional del patógeno. En 2008-2009 en los invernaderos del CIMMYT, El Batán, México, se probaron 50 aislamientos monopustulares de P. graminis f. sp. avenae en 24 genotipos de avena (Avena sativa L.), con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad...

  7. Observations on the attacks of Ustilago avenae (Pers. Jens. fungus on oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POPESCU

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available In vorliegender Arbeit wird von den Verfasser eine vergleichende Untersuchung uber den Infektionsgrad von Flugbard (Ustilago avenae Pers. Jens. bei 10 Hafersorten and-arten nach den Methoden Zade, Reed und einer originellen halbanaturlichen Methode geboten. Aus den erhaltenen Daten geht hervor, dass die wirksamste Methode der kunstlichen Infektion die Zade'sche ist, gefolgt von der Methodenach Reed. Man nimmt an, dass die besseren Ergebnisse durch die Methode nach Zade auf die Verwengund von Regenwasser bei der Herstellung der Sporensuspension zuruckgefuhrt warden konnen; welckes sich als ein gunstigeres Medium fur die Keimung erweist. Als die widerstandsfahigsten Sorten gegen diese Pflanzenkrankheit haben, sich Richland und Markton Oast 166 erwiesen, wahrend die Art Avena nuda und Avena sativa mit den Sorten Peragis und Baragan 878 am anfalligsten waren.

  8. Detoxification of Gramine by the Cereal Aphid Sitobion avenae

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-Nian; Han, Ying; Cao, Ya-Zhong; Hu, Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Bi, Jian-Long

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important role in host plant resistance to insects, and insects, in turn, may develop mechanisms to counter plant resistance mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of gramine to the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae and some enzymatic responses of S. avenae to this alkaloid. When S. avenae fed on an artificial diet containing gramine, mortality occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The LC50 of gramine was determined to be 1.248 mM. In response to grami...

  9. 燕麦种子基因组DNA不同提取方法的比较%Comparison of Different Extraction Methods of Genomic DNA from Avena sativa L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝豆豆; 朱勇; 雷鸣; 武俊喜; 拉多; 张勇群

    2015-01-01

    为缩短DNA提取时间 ,省去种子萌发到幼苗培养等一系列过程 ,以燕麦种子为材料 ,用5种方法提取其基因组DNA ,通过紫外分光光度法检测DNA的浓度和纯度 ,琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测DNA的完整性 ,以ITS2为引物将燕麦种子基因组DNA进行PCR扩增.结果表明 :5种方法中除了传统CTAB法 ,其余方法都可以提取到燕麦种子基因组DNA ,但不同方法提取到的基因组 DNA 的纯度、浓度存在差异 ,试剂盒法提取的DNA质量最好、纯度最高 ,但提取的DNA量少且成本高 ,改良CTAB法和高盐低pH法提取的DNA的纯度相近 ,都有少量的蛋白质和糖类的污染 ,改良SDS法提取的DNA纯度最低.%In order to overleap seeding culture and decrease the experimental time ,taking Avena sativa L seeds as material ,the genomic DNA of Avena sativa L were extracted by five kinds of methods .The concentraction and purity of DNA were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry .And integrity was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis .Based on ITS2 for primers ,the DNA was detected through PCR amplification .The results showed that except for traditional CTAB ,the other four methods could extract the genomic DNA from Avena sativa L seeds ,there were obvious difference in extracted purity of genomic DNA with different methods ,DNA was extracted with the kit method which had the highest quality and purity ,but it was expensive and had less DNA extracted .The difference of DNA purity between improved CTAB method and high salt and low pH method was not very obvious ,there was a small number of protein and carbohydrate in DNA .The purity of DNA was the lowest with improved SDS method .

  10. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in avena

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Martín, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Oat is an important grain and forage crop cultivated over than 9 million hectares globally. However, drought and biotrophic fungal diseases, such as crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) seriously threaten oat production. To combat this, agricultural scientists must develop a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms through which plants can tolerate/resist stress and translate this to crop breeding programmes. Thu...

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. PMID:27472315

  12. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

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    Muhammad Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Outer membrane (OM proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  13. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  14. Calcium bridges are not load-bearing cell-wall bonds in Avena coleoptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    I examined the ability of frozen-thawed Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections under applied load to extend in response to the calcium chelators ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin II). Addition of 5 mM EGTA to weakly buffered (0.1 mM, pH 6.2) solutions of 2(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (Mes) initiated rapid extension and wall acidification. When the buffer strength was increased (e.g. from 20 to 100 mM Mes, pH 6.2) EGTA did not initiate extension nor did it cause wall acidification. At 5 mM Quin II failed to stimulate cell extension or wall acidification at all buffer molarities tested (0.1 to 100 mM Mes). Both chelators rapidly and effectively removed Ca2+ from Avena sections. These data indicate that Ca2+ chelation per se does not result in loosening of Avena cells walls. Rather, EGTA promotes wall extension indirectly via wall acidification.

  15. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

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    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  16. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. PMID:18942974

  17. Cultivo del nematodo Panagrellus redivivus (Goodey, 1945) en un medio de avena enriquecida con Spirulina sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón de Lara; Thalía Castro; Jorge Castro; Germán Castro

    2007-01-01

    El nematodo Panagrellus redivivus se cultivó en dos medios: uno con hojuelas de avena y otro con hojuelas de avena enriquecido con Spirulina sp., en recipientes de plástico de 15x15x5 cm de altura con 200 g de hojuela de avena y 300 mL de agua purificada. Se utilizaron 5 g de Spirulina en el medio. Se utilizó el programa SYSTAT versión 10.2 para el análisis estadístico; para determinar las diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, se usó un análisis de varianza unidireccional (ANDEVA...

  18. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato/nitrito em bovinos alimentados com Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp. (azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jönck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e lesões da intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato e nitrito em bovinos alimentados com pastagens de Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp (azevém. A enfermidade ocorre em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, quando as pastagens tem crescimento exuberante, após receberem quantidades excessivas de adubo químico e/ou orgânico, principalmente quando ocorrem condições climáticas de seca e posteriormente chuva. Os animais em contato com essas pastagens desenvolvem rapidamente mucosas de coloração marrom, taquipnéia, andar cambaleante, micção frequente, timpanismo, decúbito lateral e morte em poucos minutos, ou recuperação algumas horas após. Na necropsia de quatro animais que adoeceram espontaneamente, as principais alterações encontradas foram a coloração marrom das mucosas, a cor escura do sangue (cor de chocolate e a coloração vermelho intensa da musculatura esquelética e do miocárdio esquerdo. A reprodução experimental da doença foi realizada em sete bovinos, com pastagens de quatro propriedades onde ocorreu adoença. Aveia e/ou azevém verdes e sob a forma de feno foram administradas aos bovinos. Destes bovinos quatro morreram, dois adoeceram e se recuperam, um naturalmente e outro com a aplicação de azul de metileno a 1%, na dose de 2mg/kg/peso vivo, e um bovino não apresentou alterações. Os sinais clínicos observados e as lesões nos animais que adoeceram e morreram foram idênticos aos casos naturais. Alterações microscópicas não foram observadas nos casos naturais e experimentais. O teste da difenilamina nas amostras de pastagens onde ocorreram os surtos resultou positivo em todas as propriedades. A análise bromatológica realizada em amostras coletadas de várias propriedades em que ocorreram surtos revelou de 0,30 a 3,36% de nitrato na matéria seca. A enfermidade caracterizou-se principalmente por respiração ofegante

  19. Epistasis and Maternal Effect in Resistance to Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks in Oats (Avena sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bnejdi F; Hammami I; Allagui M B; Saadoun M; el Gazzah M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the mode of heredity for resistance in oats (Arena sp.) to crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks.Eight generations of 2 crosses were used to estimate genetic effects and narrow-sense heritability (NSH).Separate generation means analysis (GMA) indicated a complex gene action controlling this trait with additive,dominance,epistatic and maternal effects (ME).The genetic model which assumed no epistasis and no ME did not accurately describe the resistance to P.coronata.In both crosses,the digenic epistatic model with ME epistatic components were negative in most cases,suggesting that gene effects contributed more to the resistance than to the susceptibility.The estimated values of NSH were 15-99% depending upon the cross and isolates.The results indicated that appropriate choice of maternal parent and recurrent selection would increase resistance to crown rust in oats.

  20. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs but more glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  1. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N; Jones, Michael G K; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction. PMID:24802510

  2. Caracterização de isolados de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Characterization of strains of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína C. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados 41 isolados de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli com base em aspectos fisiológicos e bioquímicos. Todos os isolados induziram sintomas típicos da mancha-aquosa em plântulas, plantas e frutos de meloeiro (Cucumis melo e melancieira (Citrullus lanatus. Pelo teste de agrupamento de Scott-Knott (P = 0,05 os isolados foram separados quanto ao índice de doença em 5 e 7 grupos, respectivamente para plântulas de meloeiro e melancieira, e em 2 grupos para plantas das duas hospedeiras. Em frutos, os isolados foram separados em 3 e 10 grupos para a variável diâmetro da lesão externa e 2 e 9 grupos para profundidade da lesão, respectivamente para melão e melancia. Todos os isolados induziram reação de hipersensibilidade em fumo (Nicotiana tabacum; utilizaram os compostos asparagina, L-leucina e DL-ácido lático; produziram enzimas lipolíticas e o fitohormônio ácido indol acético; foram sensíveis a oxicloreto de cobre (120 µg mL-1, óxido cuproso (120 µg mL-1, hidróxido de cobre (138,2 µg mL-1, sulfato de estreptomicina (25 µg mL-1 e Agrimaicin 500 (428 µg mL-1; e resistentes a kasugamicina (87 µg mL-1, agrimicina (200 µg mL-1, eritromicina (15 µg, gentamicina (10 µg, amoxicilina (10 µg, neomicina (30 µg, estreptomicina (10 µg, norfloxacina (10 µg e rifampicina (5 µg. Nenhum isolado apresentou atividade pectinolítica, amilolítica, celulolítica e proteolítica ou produção do polissacarídeo levana e da toxina siringomicina. Foi constatada variabilidade entre os 41 isolados de A. avenae subsp. citrulli quanto à sensibilidade à tetraciclina (30 µg, sendo 41,5% resistentes, 46,3% moderadamente sensíveis e 12,2% altamente sensíveis.Forty-one isolates of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli were characterized based on physiological and biochemical aspects. All isolates induced typical symptoms of fruit blotch on seedlings, plants and fruits of melon (Cucumis melo and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. The

  3. Tratamentos físicos do grão de aveia branca (Avena sativa na alimentação de bovinos Treatments of oats grain for beef cattle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo José Goi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Centro de Treinamento da COTRIJUÍ, e no Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, de maio a dezembro de 1993, para avaliar o efeito de diferentes formas de tratamento físico do grão de aveia sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade de bovinos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para comparar o grão de aveia nas formas: grão inteiro seco (GAIS, grão moído (GAMO, grão machacado (GAMA e grão inteiro umedecido (GAIU. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 24 animais da raça Hereford, com idade média de 13 meses e peso médio de 260kg. Foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão no ganho de peso. A duração do experimento foi de 84 dias. Os ganhos de peso médio diário obtidos foram: 1,047; 1,055; 1,107 e l,067 kg para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre tratamentos. No experimento II foram utilizados, durante dois períodos, 8 novilhos da raça Holandês com idade média de 14 meses e peso médio de 243kg, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, objetivando avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão sobre a digestibilidade da dieta. A dieta experimental foi similar ao experimento I, sendo o feno de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon substituído pelo feno de aveia (Avena sativa moído. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra bruta, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e extrativos não nitrogenados, nem para o NDT. Os valores de digestibilidade da matéria orgânica obtidos foram: 59,27; 57,10; 61,46 e 59,7 6% para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente e para estes, o NDT foram 64,02; 66,56; 65,78 e 62,12%. Conclui-se que o grão de aveia branca pode ser utilizado inteiro na alimentação de bovinos sem afetar sua performance.The present work was conducted at COTRIJUÍ Experimental Farm-RS from

  4. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H

    1984-07-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H. avenae and improve yields. Early-sown crops (April-May) are less severely damaged than late-sown crops (June-July). The resowing of damaged wheat crops or the application of nitrogenous fertilizers rarely improve grain yields. 'Katyil,' the world's first wheat cultivar bred specifically with resistance to H. avenae, has been released in Victoria. Chemical control of the nematode in cereals is now commercially feasible, and five nematicides are registered for use by growers. PMID:19294014

  5. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-Lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the 'Amigo' variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. 'Tm' (Triticum monococcum), 'Astron,' 'Xanthus,' 'Ww2730,' and 'Batis' varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, 'Amigo,' 'Xiaoyan22,' and some '186Tm' samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for '98-10-35,' 'Xiaoyan22,' 'Tp,' 'Tam200,' 'PI high,' and other '186Tm' samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to 'Xinong1376,' because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of laboratory and long-term field experiments in targeted planting

  6. The Low Temperature Induced Physiological Responses of Avena nuda L., a Cold-Tolerant Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paperaim of the was to study the effect of low temperature stress on Avena nuda L. seedlings. Cold stress leads to many changes of physiological indices, such as membrane permeability, free proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and chlorophyll content. Cold stress also leads to changes of some protected enzymes such as peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. We have measured and compared these indices of seedling leaves under low temperature and normal temperature. The proline and MDA contents were increased compared with control; the chlorophyll content gradually decreased with the prolongation of low temperature stress. The activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were increased under low temperature. The study was designated to explore the physiological mechanism of cold tolerance in naked oats for the first time and also provided theoretical basis for cultivation and antibiotic breeding in Avena nuda L.

  7. Inheritance of prehaustorial resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; Ayliffe, Michael; Khatkar, Mehar S; Fetch, Tom; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Rust pathogens within the genus Puccinia cause some of the most economically significant diseases of crops. Different formae speciales of P. graminis have co-evolved to mainly infect specific grass hosts; however, some genotypes of other closely related cereals can also be infected. This study investigated the inheritance of resistance to three diverse pathotypes of the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) in the 'Yerong' ✕ 'Franklin' (Y/F) barley doubled haploid (DH) population, a host with which it is not normally associated. Both parents, 'Yerong' and 'Franklin', were immune to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes; however. there was transgressive segregation within the Y/F population, in which infection types (IT) ranged from complete immunity to mesothetic susceptibility, suggesting the presence of heritable resistance. Both QTL and marker-trait association (MTA) analysis was performed on the Y/F population to map resistance loci in response to P. graminis f. sp. avenae. QTL on chromosome 1H ('Yerong' Rpga1 and Rpga2) were identified using all forms of analysis, while QTL detected on 5H ('Franklin' Rpga3 and Rpga4) and 7H (Rpga5) were only detected using MTA or composite interval mapping-single marker regression analysis respectively. Rpga1 to Rpga5 were effective in response to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes used in this study, suggesting resistance is not pathotype specific. Rpga1 co-located to previously mapped QTL in the Y/F population for adult plant resistance to the barley leaf scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) on chromosome 1H. Histological evidence suggests that the resistance observed within parental and immune DH lines in the population was prehaustorial and caused by callose deposition within the walls of the mesophyll cells, preventing hyphal penetration. PMID:25025780

  8. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H....

  9. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae. PMID:25870923

  10. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  11. Prueba de similitud en genes con resistencia a roya del tallo en genotipos de avena Test of similarity in genes with resistance to stem rust in oat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro

    Full Text Available La roya del tallo causada por Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae, es considerada el factor biótico que más afecta al cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L., disminuyendo el rendimiento y peso de grano en variedades susceptibles, en 75% y 60%, respectivamente. La estrategia que más ha apoyado al control de esta enfermedad es el uso de variedades resistentes, requiriéndose constantemente de fuentes de resistencia. La forma cómo opera la resistencia y los genes que están confiriéndola en el germoplasma de avena se desconoce; de tal modo, que es necesario hacer más estudios sobre número y similitud de genes así como de su forma de acción. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la similitud y el número de genes de resistencia en planta adulta y plántula, en familias F3 de cruzas entre seis progenitores de avena, moderadamente resistentes a roya del tallo; por su importancia para los programas de mejoramiento como fuentes de resistencia, mediante el análisis de las progenies derivadas de las cruzas entre ellos desde 2006 a 2009. En estado de plántula en invernadero, los progenitores por separado tuvieron lecturas de 0, ";", y 1, indicando su resistencia ante el aislamiento PgaMex99.13. Las familias F3 de todas las cruzas no segregaron familias susceptibles, indicando que estos seis progenitores poseen un gen en común confiriendo resistencia contra el aislamiento probado. En campo, aún con inoculaciones del mismo aislamiento, las familias en todas las cruzas mostraron diferentes niveles de infección, algunos mayores a 60% indicando la incidencia de otras razas distintas a la inoculada, para las cuales el gen de resistencia en común en los progenitores no fue efectivo.The stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae is considered the biotic factor that affects the most to oat cultivation (Avena sativa L., decreasing yield and grain weight in susceptible varieties, in 75% and 60%, respectively. The strategy that has

  12. Selección de genotipos de avena para la identificación de razas de roya del tallo Selection of oat genotypes for the identification of stem rust races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de razas fisiológicas de Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae al usar diferenciales, es importante en los programas de mejoramiento genético de avena, para obtener genotipos resistentes a roya del tallo y conocer la evolución y dispersión regional del patógeno. En 2008-2009 en los invernaderos del CIMMYT, El Batán, México, se probaron 50 aislamientos monopustulares de P. graminis f. sp. avenae en 24 genotipos de avena (Avena sativa L., con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad del patógeno en muestras recolectadas en seis estados de México y conocer si estos genotipos podían ser utilizados como plantas diferenciales. Los genotipos Avemex, Obsidiana, Papigochi, Diamante, Rarámuri, Chihuahua y el Progenitor 7, expresaron diferentes tipos de infección y se pueden usar como diferenciales para estudiar la diversidad del patógeno y la prevalencia de razas. Al usar estas diferenciales se encontraron 24 razas diferentes del patógeno. Esto permite concluir que existe gran variabilidad genética del hongo en las regiones muestreadas. Se observó que ante los aislamientos probados las variedades Agata, Avena desnuda, Menonita y Saia, mostraron el mayor nivel de resistencia; y los progenitores 11, 12 y 13, y las variedades 12, 14, 27, 28, 36, 43 y 44 tuvieron buen nivel de resistencia, por lo que pueden ser utilizados como progenitores en futuros planes de cruzamientos.Identification of physiological races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae using differentials, is important in oat's genetic improvement programs, in order to obtain resistance to stem rust and learn about evolution and regional spread of the pathogen. In 2008-2009, in greenhouses of CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 50 monopustule isolates of P. graminis f. sp. avenae were tested in 24 genotypes of oat (Avena sativa L., in order to determine the pathogen diversity in samples collected in six states of Mexico and see if these genotypes could be used as differential plants

  13. Effect of temperature on juvenile emergence of Spanish populations of Heterodera avenae

    OpenAIRE

    Valdeolivas, A.; Romero, M.D.; Muñiz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Hatching tests with,Spanish populations of Heterodera avenae using cysts in distilled water kept in soil at 15 cm depth, showed juvenile emergence beginning in the autumn at 15-20°C, without needing a cold stimulus. Maximum emergence coincided with temperatures of 5;10.5°C and emergence stopped in spring as temperature approached 15°C. Percentage of emergence was about 90-100% far 8-17% of the individuals, and >60% for 14-28% of them.

  14. Plant growth and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat (Avena fatua L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna eIannucci; Mariagiovanna eFragasso; Cristiano ePlatani; Roberto ePapa

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM) accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L.), a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant) was ...

  15. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  16. Osmoregulation in the Avena coleoptile in relation to auxin and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, T.T.; Cleland, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    A study has been made of the effects of auxin and growth on the ability of Avena coleoptile sections to osmoregulate, i.e., to take up solutes so as to maintain their osmotic concentration, turgor pressure, and growth rate. The high auxin-induced growth rate of Avena coleoptiles is maintained when cells are provided sucrose, glucose, NaCl, or KCl as a source of absorbable solutes, but not when 2-deoxy-O-glucose or 3-O-methyl-O-glucose is used. In the absence of auxin, cells take up solutes from a 2% sucrose solution and the osmotic concentration increases. Solute uptake is not stimulated by auxin when growth is inhibited osmotically or by calcium ions. Solute uptake appears to have two components: a basal rate, independent of auxin or growth, and an additional uptake which is proportional to growth. Osmoregulation of sections may be limited by the rate of entry of solutes into the tissue rather than by their rate of uptake into the cells.

  17. Comportamiento de la poblacion de Avena fatua tratada con graminicidas postemergentes Effect of post-emergence graminicides on the control of Avena fatua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Juan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sudoeste bonaerense de la República Argentina, avena fatua es una maleza que ocupa una significativa proporción del banco de semillas presentes en el suelo, causando severas pérdidas de rendimiento en los cultivos de trigo, lo cuál la caracteriza como una maleza invasora. A pesar de que en los cultivos, se utilizan normalmente prácticas de control com graminicidas selectivos, se observa una alta incidencia de la población de Avena fatua a través de la determinación del número de panojas y semillas por metro cuadrado remanentes de las plantas que escapan al control y que alcanzan el estado reproductivo antes de la cosecha del cereal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de varios graminicidas postemergentes selectivos para el cultivo de trigo sobre el crecimiento de la población de Avena fatua por metro cuadrado en un diseño estadístico de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los siguientes: testigo sin control, tralkoxydim (150 y 200 g/ha, fenoxaprop-p-etil (69 y 83 g/ha, pirifenop-n-butil (50 y 55 g/ha y diclofop metil (510 y 570 g/ha. En la primer campaña, con una baja infestación de la maleza (153 plantas/m2, todos los herbicidas y dosis probadas ejercieron una drástica reducción de los parámetros evaluados, no detectándose diferenciais significativas entre sí al evaluar el control por medio del número de panojas y semillas producidas por las plantas que escaparon al control. En cambio en la Segunda campaña com 285 plantas/m2 y habiéndoses realizado la aplicación delos avenicidas en un estado fenológico de la maleza más avanzado, el número de semilhas por metro quadradofue reducido a niveles que oscilaron entre un 60% y un 95% respecto del testigo sin control, detectándose diferencias entre los tratamientos. No obstante la reducción lograda, se comprobó en ciertos casos, un importante aporte de semillas que anualmente retornan al suelo, lo que podría significar sino

  18. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  19. Phosphorylated and nucleotide sugar metabolism in relation to cell wall production in Avena coleoptiles treated with fluoride and peroxyacetyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleoptile sections of Avena sativa L. were pretreated with sodium fluoride or peroxyacetyl nitrate at levels which inhibit auxin-induced growth but did not affect glucose-uptake or CO production when postincubated for 30 minutes in a 14C-glucose medium without auxin. Labeling of metabolites involved in cell wall synthesis was measured. Peroxyacetyl nitrate decreased labeling, and it was concluded that the pool size of uridine diphosphoglucose, sucrose, and cell wall polysaccharides decreased compared to control. The changes suggest that peroxyacetyl nitrate inactivated sucrose and cell wall synthesizing enzymes including cellulose synthetase and decreased cell growth by inhibiting production of cell wall constituents. Fluoride treatment had no effect on production of cell wall polysaccharides, with or without indoleacetic acid stimulation of growth. The only change after fluoride treatment was a decrease in uridine diphosphoglucose during incubation without indoleacetic acid, a decrease that disappeared when indoleacetic acid was present. It was concluded that some other aspect of cell wall metabolism, not determined here, was involved in fluoride-induced inhibition of growth. 16 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  20. Hydration and Pasting Properties of Oat (Avena sativa) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Induck; Han, Ok-kyu; Chun, Jiyeon; Kang, Chon-Sik; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Kil; Cheong, Young-Keun; Park, Tae-il; Choi, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Three oat cultivars and one oat breeding line were evaluated for chemical, hydration and pasting properties. Protein, starch and β-glucan levels ranged 11.13∼14.37, 56.37∼64.86 and 3.44∼4.76%, respectively. The oat cultivars Daeyang and Seonyang contained higher β-glucan levels of 4.76 and 4.35%. The Daeyang variety had a higher water absorption index (WAI) of 2.83∼3.35 (g/g), but a lower water solubility index (WSI) of 8.67 ∼11.08%. Daeyang and Seonyang cultivars showed higher peak and troug...

  1. Comparação entre medidas de distância genealógica, morfológica e molecular em aveia em experimentos com e sem a aplicação de fungicida Comparison among pedigree, morphological and molecular distance measures in oats (Avena sativa in experiments with and without fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da divergência genética entre cultivares pode ser útil em um programa de melhoramento para o direcionamento de hibridações e o conhecimento do germoplasma disponível. O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa, por meio de marcadores AFLP e do coeficiente de parentesco, e correlacionar essas estimativas entre si e com a estimativa da dissimilaridade genética a partir de caracteres agronômicos em experimentos com e sem a aplicação de fungicida. Onze cultivares de aveia foram utilizadas na estimativa da distância genética a partir de marcadores AFLP. Desses 11 genótipos, nove foram avaliados no campo em experimento com e sem fungicida, para a estimativa da divergência genética a partir de caracteres morfológicos. Para a estimativa dos coeficientes de parentesco foram utilizados oito, dentre nove genótipos coincidentes entre as avaliações dos caracteres agronômicos e molecular, que possuem genealogia conhecida. Posteriormente, efetuou-se a comparação entre as matrizes por meio da estimativa da correlação entre elas. Dentre as medidas de dissimilaridade avaliadas, as distâncias estimadas com base na utilização de dados moleculares e a técnica de coeficiente de parentesco foram as que evidenciaram a maior correlação (0,45, sendo significativa, porém não elevada. A segunda maior correlação observada ocorreu entre as distâncias fenotípicas em experimentos com e sem a aplicação de fungicida (0,44; não se observaram correlações significativas em todas as demais medidas de divergência. Dessa forma, fica evidente a presença de elevada variabilidade genética entre os genótipos estudados e a necessidade da utilização conjunta das três técnicas para a obtenção de uma estimativa mais fiel da divergência genética.Estimatives of genetic dissimilarity between cultivars can be useful in a breeding program for directing crosses and

  2. Expression profiling and cross-species RNA interference (RNAi of desiccation-induced transcripts in the anhydrobiotic nematode Aphelenchus avenae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culleton Bridget A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchus avenae can be induced to enter anhydrobiosis by pre-exposure to moderate reductions in relative humidity (RH prior to extreme desiccation. This preconditioning phase is thought to allow modification of the transcriptome by activation of genes required for desiccation tolerance. Results To identify such genes, a panel of expressed sequence tags (ESTs enriched for sequences upregulated in A. avenae during preconditioning was created. A subset of 30 genes with significant matches in databases, together with a number of apparently novel sequences, were chosen for further study. Several of the recognisable genes are associated with water stress, encoding, for example, two new hydrophilic proteins related to the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA protein family. Expression studies confirmed EST panel members to be upregulated by evaporative water loss, and the majority of genes was also induced by osmotic stress and cold, but rather fewer by heat. We attempted to use RNA interference (RNAi to demonstrate the importance of this gene set for anhydrobiosis, but found A. avenae to be recalcitrant with the techniques used. Instead, therefore, we developed a cross-species RNAi procedure using A. avenae sequences in another anhydrobiotic nematode, Panagrolaimus superbus, which is amenable to gene silencing. Of 20 A. avenae ESTs screened, a significant reduction in survival of desiccation in treated P. superbus populations was observed with two sequences, one of which was novel, while the other encoded a glutathione peroxidase. To confirm a role for glutathione peroxidases in anhydrobiosis, RNAi with cognate sequences from P. superbus was performed and was also shown to reduce desiccation tolerance in this species. Conclusions This study has identified and characterised the

  3. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on the river Avena (Calabria, southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Concetta Milazzo; Calogero Di Bella; Juan Carlos Casanova; Alexis Ribas; Mara Cagnin

    2011-01-01

    Helminth parasites of woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus were studied from May 1993 through to June 1994 on the River Avena (Calabria, southern Italy), which, as other Mediterranenan rivers, is dry for most of the year. Trapping sites were located in three different habitats of the river: slopes, shores and the riverbed. A total of 106 animals was captured and screened for the presence of helminths. Five endoparasitic species were detected: Corrigia vitta,...

  4. Impacts of Water Deficiency on Life History of Sitobion avenae Clones From Semi-arid and Moist Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Liu, Deguang; Shi, Xiaoqin

    2015-10-01

    The climate warming trend appears to be evident with an increasing frequency of drought events in Shaanxi Province of China, which may have contributed to an increase in outbreaks of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius). To explore the potential effects of water-deficit stress on aphid outbreak risks, clones of S. avenae were collected from semi-arid and moist areas of Shaanxi. The life histories of collected clones were then compared on wheat under well-watered and moderately water-stressed conditions in the laboratory. Our results demonstrated that semi-arid area clones of S. avenae had longer developmental times, shorter reproductive times, lower fecundities, and lower net reproductive rates compared with moist area clones. Age-specific reproductive rates of moist area clones tended to be higher than those of semi-arid area clones. Significant differences between semi-arid and moist area clones were found for the survival functions when tested under water-stressed conditions, and semi-arid area clones tended to have a lower survival rate than moist area clones throughout their lives. "Population origin" (i.e., semi-arid and moist area clones) and "clone" together explained 62.74-96.56% of the total variance of tested life-history traits, suggesting the genetic basis for differentiation of clones from both areas. Significant differences in correlations, and selection differentials and gradients of life-history traits were also found between clones from both areas, providing further evidence of genetic basis for the life-history differentiation between them. Divergence between clones from both areas and its implications for S. avenae outbreaks are discussed. PMID:26453713

  5. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  6. Plant growth and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat (Avena fatua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eIannucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L., a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant was recorded at 122 days after sowing (DAS; kernel hard stage. The increase in total aerial DM with age coincided with reductions in the leaf/stem and source/sink ratios, and an increase in the shoot/root ratio. HPLC analysis shows production of seven phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat, in order of their decreasing levels: syringic acid, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringaldehyde, ferulic acid, p-cumaric acid and vanillic acid. The seasonal distribution for the total phenolic compounds showed two peaks of maximum concentrations, at the stem elongation stage (0.71 μg/kg; 82 DAS and at the heading stage (0.70 μg/kg; 98 DAS. Thus wild oat roots exude allelopathic compounds, and the levels of these phenolics in the rhizosphere soil vary according to plant maturity.

  7. Agronomic performance of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb., cultivated in constructed wetlands

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    Alisson Carraro Borges

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb., when cultived in constructed wetlands (CWs in the treatment of domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted in four CWs for secondary/tertiary treatment of domestic wastewater. The black oats were sown in the CWs at a density of 80 kg ha-1 of seeds. The organic loading rates (OLRs applied in the CWs were 100, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 d-1 of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. The OLRs were obtained from results of analysis of BOD influent the CWs. The variables evaluated in influent and effluent of CWs were biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium, sodium and electrical conductivity. In plant tissue the productivity of dry matter and the content of crude protein were evaluated. The productivity of dry matter for black oats were independent of OLRs applied. The highest yield of dry matter was obtained by applying 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 BOD. There was an average productivity of crude protein of 15.38 dag kg-1 in the black oat. The domestic wastewater can be a suitable nutritional solution for production of black oats in the CWs.

  8. Molecular interactions between wheat and cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae): analysis of changes to the wheat proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Natalie; Stavroulakis, Stylianos; Guan, Wenzhu; Davison, Gillian M; Bell, Howard A; Weaver, Robert J; Down, Rachel E; Gatehouse, John A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2011-05-01

    Aphids are major insect pests of cereal crops, acting as virus vectors as well as causing direct damage. The responses of wheat to infestation by cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae) were investigated in a proteomic analysis. Approximately, 500 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the extracts from leaves of wheat seedlings after extraction and 2-DE. Sixty-seven spots differed significantly between control and infested plants following 24 h of aphid feeding, with 27 and 11 up-regulated, and 8 and 21 down-regulated, in local or systemic tissues, respectively. After 8 days, 80 protein spots differed significantly between control and aphid treatments with 13 and 18 up-regulated and 27 and 22 down-regulated in local or systemic tissues, respectively. As positive controls, plants were treated with salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate; 81 and 37 differentially expressed protein spots, respectively, were identified for these treatments. Approximately, 50% of differentially expressed protein spots were identified by PMF, revealing that the majority of proteins altered by aphid infestation were involved in metabolic processes and photosynthesis. Other proteins identified were involved in signal transduction, stress and defence, antioxidant activity, regulatory processes, and hormone responses. Responses to aphid attack at the proteome level were broadly similar to basal non-specific defence and stress responses in wheat, with evidence of down-regulation of insect-specific defence mechanisms, in agreement with the observed lack of aphid resistance in commercial wheat lines. PMID:21500340

  9. Analysis of Leaf and Root Transcriptome of Soil Grown Avena barbata Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarbreck, Sté; phanie,; Lindquist, Erika; Ackerly, David; Andersen, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Slender wild oat (Avena barbata) is an annual grass dominant in many grassland ecosystems in Mediterranean climate. This species has been the subject of ecological studies that aim at understanding the effect of global climate change on grassland ecosystems and the genetic basis for adaptation under varying environmental conditions. We present the sequencing and analysis of cDNA libraries constructed from leaf and root samples collected from A. barbata grown on natural soil and under varying rainfall patterns. More than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using both GS 454-FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, and these tags were assembled into consensus sequences. We identified numerous candidate polymorphic markers in the dataset, providing possibilities for linking the genomic and the existing genetic information for A. barbata. Using the digital northern method, we showed that genes involved in photosynthesis were down regulated under high rainfall while stress- related genes were up regulated. We also identified a number of genes unique to the root library with unknown function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the root specificity of some of these transcripts such as two genes encoding O-methyl transferase. Also we showed differential expression under three water levels. Through a combination of Sanger and 454-based sequencing technologies, we were able to generate a large set of transcribed sequences for A. barbata. This dataset provides a platform for further studies of this important wild grass species

  10. Simulation model for longterm management of Avena fatua L. in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäck, Ortrud

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems (DSS are used for weed control decisions worldwide. Several DSS for weed management have been published. However they mostly rely on full herbicide dosages and do not take weed population dynamics into account. We developed a modular DSS for long-term Avena fatua L. control in winter wheat. The DSS was parameterized with three year field experiment datasets covering yield loss data, densitydependent population dynamics data as well as data on dose dependent herbicide efficacy and dosedependent population dynamics. The DSS aims to control the A. fatua in the long run. Our hypothesis is that the optimized DSS reduces herbicide input while keeping the population density at low level, maintaining high grain yields and net return. The DSS comprises four sub-models calculating crop yield loss, A. fatua population dynamics as well as dose dependent herbicide efficacy and economics of the weed control decision. The economic sub-model calculates net return in dependency of the herbicide dosage and thus the resulting crop yield. First results of a 10-year simulation showed that herbicide input could be reduced by 40% compared to the economic threshold strategy, while the population density of A. fatua is controlled. Up to now the DSS has been parameterized for the herbicides Ralon Super, Axial 50 and Broadway. The results show the great potential of reducing herbicide input and point out the importance of including population dynamics models into DSS.

  11. Allelopathic activity of pakistan wheat genotypes against wild oat (Avena fatua L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat allelopathy can be manipulated for sustainable weed management in wheat based cropping systems. Bioassays were conducted to quantify the allelopathic potential of 35 indigenous wheat genotypes against germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Foliar application of aqueous extracts of wheat straw, surface mulching and incorporation of wheat straw of different genotypes were employed for bioassays study. Results revealed the suppressive allelopathic activity of different wheat genotypes manifested in the form of impaired germination and retarded seedling growth of wild oat. A highly significant genotypic variation in allelopathic potential was observed for different traits. Germination of wild oat was decreased by 10-84% over control by different wheat genotypes. Likewise, over 70% reductions in seedling root and shoot dry weight of wild oat was also observed in V6007. Wheat genotypes viz. V6007, AS 2000, V6111, V6034, V4611, V7189, Uqa b 2000, Chanab 2000, Bhakkar 2002, Pak 81 and Rohtas 90 showed strongly inhibitory allelopathic activity against seedling growth of wild oat. V6007 exhibited highest suppression of wild oat. These studies confirm the suppressive allelopathic potential of indigenous wheat genotypes against wild oat that needs further to be explored under natural conditions. (author)

  12. Alelopatia de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Avena strigosa Allelopathic of Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of Avena strigosa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Ricardo Sartor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR, Campus de Pato Branco, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamento fatorial (bifatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo, com três repetições, sob condições de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade controladas. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de extrato bruto de acículas de pínus em estágio vegetativo (acícula verde, moderadamente decomposto (acícula seca e em decomposição avançada (acícula decomposta. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada 24 horas. Foram avaliados os parâmetros porcentagem de germinação, velocidade média de germinação e comprimento de radículas e epicótilos das plântulas de Avena strigosa. O estágio de acícula verde afetou significativamente as variáveis avaliadas e esse problema aumentou com a concentração do extrato.The purpose of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from the Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of black oat (Avena strigosa seedlings. The work was carried out at the Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR, Campus Pato Branco, using a completely randomized design with factorial distribution in three replicates, under temperature, humidity and light controlled conditions. The extract from the pine needles was composed of five percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the crude extract (EB dilution, composed of distilled water + pine needles in vegetative stage (green needles, moderately decomposed (dry needles and in advanced decomposition (decomposed needles. The

  13. Alelopatia de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Avena strigosa Allelopathic of Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of Avena strigosa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Laércio Ricardo Sartor; Paulo Fernando Adami; Nelso Chini; Thomas Newton Martin; José Abramo Marchese; André Brugnara Soares

    2009-01-01

    O trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa). O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), Campus de Pato Branco, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamento fatorial (bifatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo), com três repeti...

  14. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  15. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  16. Evaluación del Riesgo de Acidovorax avenae Subsp. citrulli Asociada a Semilla de Sandía de Importación a México

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Alejandra Elizalde Jiménez; Javier Hernández Morales; Santos Gerardo Leyva Mir; Cristian Nava Díaz; Ronald A. Sequeira; Glenn Fowler; Roger Magarey

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causante de la mancha bacteriana del fruto de la sandía, se considera un patógeno con alto potencial de destrucción capaz de causar pérdidas del 100% en vivero o plantación, cuando se desarrolla bajo condiciones ambientales favorables para su multiplicación y diseminación. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el riesgo de introducción y establecimiento de A. avenae subsp. citrulli (plaga cuarentenaria para México), asociada a semil...

  17. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of a New Acid Phosphatase Gene (Ha-acp1) from Heterodera avenae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-ke; HUANG Wen-kun; LONG Hai-bo; PENG Huan; HE Wen-ting; PENG De-liang

    2014-01-01

    For sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes, parasitism genes encoding secretory protein expressed in the subventral glands cells always play an important role during the early parasitic process. A new acid phosphatase gene (Ha-acp1) expressed in the subventral glands of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) was cloned and the characteristics of the gene were analyzed. Results showed that the gene had a putative signal peptide for secretion and in situ hybridization showed that the transcripts of Ha-acp1 accumulated speciifcally in the subventral gland cells of H. avenae. Southern blot analysis suggested that Ha-acp1 belonged to a multigene family. RT-PCR analysis indicated that this transcription was strong at the pre-parasitic juveniles. Knocking down Ha-acp1 using RNA interference technology could reduce nematode infectivity by 50%, and suppress the development of cyst. Results indicated that Ha-acp1 could play an important role in destroying the defense system of host plants.

  18. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y-H; Zheng, X-S; Gao, X-W

    2016-08-01

    The aphid species Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi are the most important pests in wheat growing regions of many countries. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity in both aphid species by comparing 3-h exposure for one or three generations. Our results indicated that 3-h exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid for one generation had no discernible effect on the survival, fecundity, longevity, or enzyme activity levels of aphids. However, when pulse exposures to imidacloprid were sustained over three generations, both fecundity and longevity were significantly decreased in both S. avenae and R. padi. Interestingly, the fecundity of R. padi had almost recovered by the F5 generation, but its longevity was still deleteriously affected. These results indicated that R. padi laid eggs in shorter time lags and has a more fast resilience. The change in reproduction behavior may be a phenomenon of R. padi to compensate its early death. If this is stable for the next generation, it means that the next generation is more competitive than unexposed populations, which could be the reason underlying population outbreaks that occur after longer-term exposure to an insecticide. This laboratory-based study highlights the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the longevity and fecundity of descendants and provides an empirical basis from which to consider management decisions for chemical control in the field. PMID:27161277

  19. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmei eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod. The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (< 24h old offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests.

  20. Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli 危害新寄主籽瓜和病菌的快速检测%Edible Seed Watermelon as a New Host of Acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli and Rapid Detection of this Pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任毓忠; 李国英; 李晖; 孙岚春

    2007-01-01

    Through observation of field symptoms,identification of the isolated bacterial strains based on biological characteristics, biochemical and physiological tests including Gram reaction,catalase,oxidase and oxygen requirement test,and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection,Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli was first reported infecting edible seed watermelon (citrullus lanatus var.Lanatus) in Xinjiang province of China.This pathogen mainly infected fruit and cotyledon of edible seed watermelon,especially causing spots with black and star-shaped cracks in fruit.To control this disease,rapid detection method of A.avenae subsp.Citrulli in plant seed was studied.It was shown that pecific primer PCR could detect the pathogen in seed rapidly and sensitively.Seed suspension could be directly used as PCR template when seed infection was more than 4%. When extracted DNA from seed suspension was used as template,target pathogen could be easily detected with seed infection at or less 2%.%根据病原菌的生物学特性、生理生化特性包括革兰氏染色反应、氧化酶反应、过氧化氢酶反应、氧需求等和特异性PCR扩增结果,以及病原菌危害造成的田间症状,发现燕麦嗜酸菌属西瓜亚种(Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli)可在新寄主-籽瓜上造成严重危害.该病菌在田间主要侵染籽瓜的果实和子叶,症状在果实上尤为明显,形成黑色的星状开裂.为了控制该病的发生,对种子携带病原菌的快速检测方法进行了研究.结果表明,特异性PCR作为检测种传病原菌具有快速、准确和灵敏的特点.当种子浸出液为PCR反应的模板时,可检测出的种子带菌率极限最低为4%;当以种子浸出液提取的DNA为模板时,种子带菌率检测极限为2%甚至更低.

  1. PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION OF NAKED OAT (AVENA NUDA L. AND BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH BY BIOLOGICAL METHODS AND PDCAAS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vršková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the protein quality of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by traditional biological methods [Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Biological value] and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS. As an animal model we used growing rats at the age of 21 days and at average body weight 83 g. The tested feeds represented the only nitrogen source in the experimental diets, and the tested nitrogen substances were 10 % of the feed ration in dry matter. We found higher values achieved in growth, feed conversion and crude protein intake in the group fed buckwheat. Buckwheat achieved higher biological value. Oat achieved a higher digestibility, which was also influenced by higher PDCAAS. Buckwheat achieved higher biological protein value. Isoleucine was the limiting amino acid in both tested feeds. Other parameters of the evaluation of protein quality (PER, NPU had minimal differences.

  2. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  3. Efecto del consumo de dietas con avena y caraotas negras sobre el perfil lipídico en un modelo experimental en rata Effect of consumption of diets with oats and black beans on the lipid profile of an experimental model in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirla Ch Morón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alimentos ricos en fibra dietética (FD soluble e insoluble, afecta favorablemente el perfil de lípidos séricos al reducir las concentraciones de colesterol total, colesterol- LDL y triglicéridos (TG. El objetivo de este trabajo, fue comparar el efecto del consumo de dietas con avena (Avena sa tiva y con caraotas negras (Phaseolus vulgaris sobre el perfil lipídico de ratas. Quince ratas machos, cepa Sprague Dawley, fueron alimentadas ad libitum por 18 días, con tres tipos de dietas: un con trol, una conteniendo caraotas negras (15% p/p y otra con avena (15% p/p. La concentración del colesterol total sérico disminuyo 50,56% en el grupo alimentado con avena y 40,52% en el alimentado con caraotas. Así mismo, se observó una disminución de colesterol-LDL de 49,21% en el grupo alimentado con avena y un 42,93% en el grupo alimentado con caraotas. Hubo una reducción de 52,47% del colesterol-HDL en el grupo alimentado con avena y 31,29% para el grupo alimentado con caraotas; esta reducción no es beneficiosa. La concentración de TG séricos fue significativamente menor, un 50,20% para el grupo alimentado con avena y de 51,8% para el grupo alimentado con caraota. La disminución de los lípidos séricos debido a la dieta, con avena o con caraotas, mostró diferencias significativas respecto al control, pero, no entre ellas. La consideración de estos resultados en el caso de la salud humana es bien importante, particularmente en la disminución de la prevalencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares. El efecto de FD sobre los niveles de colesterol-HDL, son hasta los momentos, contradictoriosThe consumption of foods rich in soluble and insoluble dietary fiber (DF favorably affects the serum lipid profile by lowering total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (TG. The objective of this work was to compare the effect of consumption of diets with oats (Avena sativa and black beans (Pha seo lus vulgaris on the lipid profile of

  4. Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de co2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de chimangual (andisol), departamento de nariño - colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Amanda,; Gálviz, Carmen; Menjivar, Juan

    2007-01-01

    En un diseño factorial con arreglo en BCA se analizó el efecto de tres fuentes de nitrógeno (nitrato de potasio 13% de N, sulfato de amonio 21% de N y colácteos 27% de N, este es una fuente local de fertilización), tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg N ha-1) y tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado) sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de Avena sativa. Se encontraron valores de respiración más altos en las semanas 2 y 7 siguientes a la incorporación de las dosis má...

  5. RECRIA DE TERNEROS A BASE DE PASTOREO DE TAGASASTE (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis SUPLEMENTADOS CON AVENA GRANO EN LA PROVINCIA DE ARAUCO, CHILE Calf fattening based on tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis grazing and supplemented by oats in Arauco province, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Klee G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El experimento tuvo como objetivo evaluar las variaciones de peso vivo (PV de terneros en pastoreo otoño - invierno de tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis, de cuatro años de edad, 2.500 árboles ha-1, establecido sobre pradera natural, y evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con dos niveles de avena grano (Avena sativa L.. Se utilizaron 18 terneros Holando Europeo x Aberdeen Angus o Hereford, de 184 kg PV y 7,5 meses de edad. Los tratamientos fueron: T1: pastoreo de tagasaste; T2: T1 + 2 kg diarios de avena ternero-1; y T3: T1 + 4 kg diarios de avena ternero-1. Las ganancias diarias de PV fueron significativamente distintas (P The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the liveweight (LW gains of calves grazing during the fall-winter season on 4 year-old tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis, 2.500 trees per ha, planted on natural pasture, and to evaluate the effect of two levels of oat (Avena sativa L. grain supplementation. Eighteen Holstein x Aberdeen Angus or Hereford bull calves of 184 kg liveweight and 7.5 months of age were used. The treatments studied were: T1: Tagasaste grazing; T2: Tagasaste grazing plus 2 kg of oats calf-1 day-1; and T3: Tagasaste grazing plus 4 kg of oats calf-1 day-1. The daily LW gain differed significantly (P < 0.05 and was 0.6, 1.8, and 1.10 kg calf-1 and 270, 382 and 529 kg ha-1 in the treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The estimated consumption of tagasaste DM (leaves and soft stems was 3.7 kg DM bull-calf - 1 day-1. The components of tagasaste plants were 25.3% leaves, 11.3% tender stems and 63.4% woody stems. The mean DM per bush was 1983 g plant-1 and 4,957 kg ha-1. The CP and ME content in leaves were 21.8% and 2.4 Mcal kg-1; in soft stems were 9% and 1.71 Mcal kg-1; in ripe stems 3.4% and 1.9 Mcal kg-1, respectively. Tagasaste was an acceptable resource for winter grazing that on being supplemented with oat grainpermitted significantly better liveweight gains.

  6. Alternative management of a problematic weed of wheat Avena fatua L. by metabolites of Trichoderma Alternativas de manejo de una maleza problemática de trigo Avena fatua L. por metabolitos de Trichoderma

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    Arshad Javaid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild oat (Avena fatua L. is a problematic weed of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Pakistan. The present study was designed to evaluate the herbicidal activity of culture filtrates of four Trichoderma spp., namely T. harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, T. reesei and T. viride, against this weed species. In a laboratory bioassay, original (100% and diluted (50% culture filtrates of T. harzianum and T. pseudokoningii significantly reduced shoot and root growth of A. fatua seedlings. Only original culture filtrates of T. reesei exhibited significant effects, while the effect of filtrates of T. viride was insignificant against shoot and root growth of the target weed species. Generally, original concentrations of culture filtrates of all Trichoderma spp., except T. harzianum, significantly reduced various parameters of root and shoot growth of wheat seedlings. In foliar spray bioassay, pot-grown 1-wk and 2-wk old A. fatua and wheat seedlings were sprayed with 100% culture filtrates of the four Trichoderma spp. thrice with 5 d interval each. Culture filtrates of all except T. viride significantly diminished root and shoot biomass of A. fatua plants in 1-wk old plants. The effect of foliar spray on root and shoot growth of wheat was insignificant. Present study concludes that metabolites of T. harzianum, T. reesei and T. pseudokoningii contain herbicidal constituents for the management of A. fatua.La avena silvestre (Avena fatua L. es una maleza problemática del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en Paquistán. El presente estudio se diseñó para evaluar la actividad de filtrados de cultivos de cuatro Trichoderma spp.: T. harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, T. reesei y T. viride, contra esta especie. En un bioensayo de laboratorio, filtrados de cultivos originales (100% y diluidos (50% de T. harzianum and T. pseudokoningii redujeron significativamente el crecimiento de brotes y raíces de plántulas de A fatua. Sólo los filtrados de cultivos originales de T. reesei

  7. Simultaneous detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae in cucurbit seedlots using magnetic capture hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R

    2009-06-01

    To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae. PMID:19453225

  8. Resposta da aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb à irrigação por aspersão e adubação nitrogenada = Response of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb on the aspersion irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

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    Pedro Henrique de Cerqueira Luz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada e da irrigação por aspersão no crescimento e na produção de massa seca (MS da aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg de N ha-1 e, também, a presença ou ausência de irrigação. Foram determinadas as seguintesvariáveis: altura de planta, produção de massa seca, taxa de crescimento e o teor de MS. Quando irrigada, a altura da planta foi maior, refletindo maior produção de massa seca. Na área de sequeiro, o teor de MS foi superior (24,7% ao da área irrigada (18,7%. Quanto à adubação nitrogenada, houve resposta somente para altura de planta, com comportamento linear, quando da utilização de irrigação. Os efeitos da irrigação foram mais determinantes para a produção da aveia preta que a adubação nitrogenada.The objective of the study was assessing the effect of the nitrogen and the aspersion irrigation on the growth and dry matter yield of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. The experiment was conducted in the Campus of USP in Pirassununga, São Paulo State. In the study were evaluated four nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg of N ha-1 and also the presence or absence of the irrigation. The plant variablesevaluated were: mean height, dry matter percentage, yield and growth rate. The results had disclosed to greater height of plant in the irrigated condition, reflecting in the higher production of dry matter. In dry land area, percentage of DM was 24.7% and in irrigatedarea 18.7%. The nitrogen was significantly only for plant mean height that showed linear fit when carried through the irrigation. The effect of the irrigation was better for the production of black oats than nitrogen.

  9. Dispersion pattern and fixed precision sequential sampling of Sitobion avenae (Fabricus (Hemiptera: Aphididae in wheat fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran

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    V. Soltani Ghasemloo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dispersion pattern of a species is an important pre-requisite for developing an effective pest management program. In this study, four hundred wheat plants were surveyed for Sitobion avenae twice a week during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in two fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran. In each field only one of the two cultivers of Bahar or Shiraz was planted. Analysis of spatial distribution pattern using Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s regression model showed that S. avenae exhibited an aggregated distribution on wheat. Taylor’s power law was estimated from 84 data sets and fitted the data better than Iwao’s regression model. The optimal sample sizes needed for fixed precision levels of 0.25 and 0.30 were estimated using Taylor’s regression coefficients, and the required sample sizes increased dramatically with increased levels of precision. Therefore, the samplingplan we presented here should be used as a tool for an efficient estimation of S. avenae population density in wheat fields for pest management decision.

  10. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus on the river Avena (Calabria, southern Italy

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    Concetta Milazzo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites of woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus were studied from May 1993 through to June 1994 on the River Avena (Calabria, southern Italy, which, as other Mediterranenan rivers, is dry for most of the year. Trapping sites were located in three different habitats of the river: slopes, shores and the riverbed. A total of 106 animals was captured and screened for the presence of helminths. Five endoparasitic species were detected: Corrigia vitta, Rictularia proni, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia stroma and S. frederici. Four helminth species were recorded from the riverbed and shore sections, whereas only H. polygyrus and S. frederici were found on the slopes. Syphacia frederici occurred at every trapping site. The total prevalence was 25.5% and total mean intensity was 27.2 parasites/mouse. No statistical significant difference was found for both the prevalence and mean intensity of infection between either habitats or sexes, suggesting that, from the point of view of the helminth community, the study area should be considered as a single habitat.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy. PMID:27079356

  12. Impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on the competitive ability of multiple herbicide resistant wild oat (Avena fatua.

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    Erik A Lehnhoff

    Full Text Available Ecological theory predicts that fitness costs of herbicide resistance should lead to the reduced relative abundance of resistant populations upon the cessation of herbicide use. This greenhouse research investigated the potential fitness costs of two multiple herbicide resistant (MHR wild oat (Avena fatua populations, an economically important weed that affects cereal and pulse crop production in the Northern Great Plains of North America. We compared the competitive ability of two MHR and two herbicide susceptible (HS A. fatua populations along a gradient of biotic and abiotic stresses The biotic stress was imposed by three levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum competition (0, 4, and 8 individuals pot(-1 and an abiotic stress by three nitrogen (N fertilization rates (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha(-1. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models and results showed that the biomass of all A. fatua populations decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at all N rates. Similarly, A. fatua relative growth rate (RGR decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at the medium and high N rates but there was no response with 0 N. There were no differences between the levels of biomass or RGR of HS and MHR populations in response to T. aestivum competition. Overall, the results indicate that MHR does not confer growth-related fitness costs in these A. fatua populations, and that their relative abundance will not be diminished with respect to HS populations in the absence of herbicide treatment.

  13. MOTIVOS DE PRÁCTICA DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICO-DEPORTIVA EN ADOLESCENTES ESPAÑOLES: ESTUDIO AVENA

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    Alejandro César Martínez Baena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La práctica de actividad físico-deportiva es un medio ideal para la obtención dbeneficios bio-psico-sociales en la salud de los jóvenes. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los motivos de práctica de actividad físico-deportiva en una muestra representativa de adolescentes españoles. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal y se empleó la encuesta sobre comportamientos, actitudes y valores sobre actividad física y deportiva del Grupo AVENA. La muestrafueron 2.859 estudiantes, procedentes de centros públicos y privados de cinco ciudades españolas: Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander y Zaragoza. Resultados: La diversión, la realización de ejercicio físico, estar con los amigos y el gusto hacia lapráctica son, en ese orden, los principales motivos señalados para realizar actividad físico- deportiva en el tiempo libre. El género y la edad modifican significativamente los motivos de práctica físico deportiva. Conclusiones: El conocimiento de los motivos de práctica podría permitir desarrollar programas deintervención eficaces y duraderos en la adopción de estilos de vida saludables en los jóvenesactuales.

  14. Impact of storage conditions on seed germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L. at different temperatures

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    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed storage conditions and different temperatures (5˚C, 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, 30˚C and 26˚C/21˚C during germination and seedling development on seed germination, shoot length and germination rate of wild oat (Avena fatua L. was examined. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a period of ten days and shoot length was measured on the last day, while germination rates were calculated from those measurements. The results showed that seed storage under controlled conditions (T1: temperature 24±1°C, humidity 40-50%; T2: temperature 26±1°C, humidity 70-80% and T3: temperature 4˚C for periods of 3 (t1 and 12 (t2 months had a significant influence on germination of wild oat seeds. The percentage of germinated seeds under all examined temperatures was higher when they were stored for 12 months under controlled temperature and humidity. The results also showed that temperature had a significant effect on the percentage of germination and germination rate of A. fatua seeds. The highest total germination occurred at 15˚C temperature (T1: t1 - 41.25%, t2 - 44.37%; T2: t1 - 28.13%, t2 - 34.37%; T3: t1 - 10.63%, t2 - 12.50%. Germination percentage under an alternating day /night photoperiod at 26˚C/21˚C temperature was higher in all treatment variants (T1: t1 - 8.13%, t2 - 10.00%; T2: t1 - 11.87%, t2 - 13.13%; T3: t1 - 2.42%, t2 - 2.70% than germination in the dark at 25˚C, 30˚C and 5˚C.

  15. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

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    Poblete Pérez Cecilia Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH deavena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desiertoen el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez díasdespués de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseñocompletamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH deavena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadasy sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, gananciade peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kgMS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, pesode la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P ≤ 0.05 el consumo de alimento,tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso comorecurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  16. Shade and Drought Stress-Induced Changes in Phenolic Content of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Robert S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants develop under a wide range of maternal environments, depending on the time of emergence, prevailing competition from other plants, and presence or absence of other biotic or abiotic stress factors. Stress factors, such as light limitation and drought, during plant development typically reduces the reproductive allocation to seeds, resulting in fewer and often smaller seeds. Such stress factors may also influence seed quality traits associated with persistence in the soil, such as seed dormancy and chemical defense. For this research, we hypothesized that light limitation and drought during wild oat (Avena fatua L. seed development would result in reduced allocation to seed phenolics and other aliphatic organic acids previously identified in the seeds of this species. Wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430 were grown in the greenhouse under cyclic drought conditions (2005 only or two levels of shade (50 and 70%; 2005 and 2006 achieved with standard black shade cloth. The soluble and cellular bound chemical constituents were identified and quantified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The shade and drought stress treatments often significantly affected the mass of the caryopsis and hull seed fractions, as well as the phenolic content of these seed fractions, depending upon isoline, seed fraction, phenolic fraction, and specific phenolics analyzed. Phenolic content of the hull was reduced by the stress environments by up to 48%, whereas there was some evidence of an increase in the soluble phenolic content of the caryopsis in response to the stress environments. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in both soluble and bound fractions, and bound phenolics comprised generally 95% or more of total phenolics. There was no discernable evidence that the aliphatic organic content was affected by the stress environments. Our results indicate that plant stress during seed development can reduce both the physical and

  17. Dispersion pattern and fixed precision sequential sampling of Sitobion avenae (Fabricus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in wheat fields of Badjgah (Fars province) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    V. Soltani Ghasemloo; M. Aleosfoor

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the dispersion pattern of a species is an important pre-requisite for developing an effective pest management program. In this study, four hundred wheat plants were surveyed for Sitobion avenae twice a week during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in two fields of Badjgah (Fars province) in Iran. In each field only one of the two cultivers of Bahar or Shiraz was planted. Analysis of spatial distribution pattern using Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s regression model showed that S. aven...

  18. Prueba oral de tolerancia al almidón del grano de avena en ponies (Oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies)

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, G.; Honrado, M.; Caviglia, J.; Tassara, M.; Janciar, C.; González, G.; Perez, A.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenSe efectuó una Prueba Oral de Tolerancia al Almidón del grano de Avena en ponies, para desarrollar una curva de glucemia propia de estas razas, compararla con las curvas de glucemia de equinos de mayor alzada, consumiendo pasturas o dietas mixtas de forrajes y concentrados, y observar si algún pony pudiera ser considerado unvalor atípico.SummaryAn oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies was carried out to develop a glycaemic curve specific to these breeds, compared it with glyc...

  19. Phylogenetic Relationships of Tetraploid AB-Genome Avena Species Evaluated by Means of Cytogenetic (C-Banding and FISH) and RAPD Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Badaeva, E. D.; O. Yu. Shelukhina; Goryunova, S. V.; Loskutov, I. G.; V. A. Pukhalskiy

    2010-01-01

    Tetraploid oat species Avena abyssinica, A. vaviloviana, A. barbata, and A. agadiriana were studied using C-banding technique, in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and RAPD analysis in comparison with the diploid species carrying different types of the A-genome (A. wiestii, As; A. longiglumis, Al; A. canariensis, Ac; A. damascena, Ad, A. prostrata, Ap). The investigation confirmed that all four tetraploids belong to the same AB-genome group; however A. agadiriana occupies di...

  20. Phylogenetic Relationships of Tetraploid AB-Genome Avena Species Evaluated by Means of Cytogenetic (C-Banding and FISH and RAPD Analyses

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    E. D. Badaeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid oat species Avena abyssinica, A. vaviloviana, A. barbata, and A. agadiriana were studied using C-banding technique, in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and RAPD analysis in comparison with the diploid species carrying different types of the A-genome (A. wiestii, As; A. longiglumis, Al; A. canariensis, Ac; A. damascena, Ad, A. prostrata, Ap. The investigation confirmed that all four tetraploids belong to the same AB-genome group; however A. agadiriana occupies distinct position among others. The C-banding, FISH, and RAPD analyses showed that Avena abyssinica, A. vaviloviana, and A. barbata are very similar; most probably they originated from a common tetraploid ancestor as a result of minor translocations and alterations of C-banding polymorphism system. AB-genome species are closely related with the A-genome diploids, and an As-genome species may be regarded as the most probable donor of their A-genome. Although their second diploid progenitor has not been identified, it seems unlikely that it belongs to the As-genome group. The exact diploid progenitors of A. agadiriana have not been determined; however our results suggest that at least one of them could be related to A. damascena.

  1. Influences of nitrogen fertilization on the evolution of CO2 and yield in oat in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol, of Nariño department of Colombia Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de CO2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de Chimangual (Andisol, departamento de Nariño - Colombia

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    Menjivar Juan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and yield of oat crop in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol of Nariño department of Colombia was mesasured. The experiment was designed using a factorial design arranged in a CBD. The three N sources consisted of: potassium nitrate, 13%N, ammonium sulfate 21%N and colacteos 27%N (a local nitrogen fertilizer. Also, three doses (25,75 y 150 kg N ha-1 and three application times were used: at sowing time, total at 45 days an fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing. The higher respiration values at week 2 and 7 were observed after the higher dose of N (75 and 150 kg N ha-1 and fractional application were done. Potassium nitrate, colacteos and ammonium sulfate caused the higher increments in soil respiration and yield of green forage these fertilizer were applied at sowing time fractional and at 45 days respectively. Respiration positively correlated with yields of the established crop. Key words: Fertilizatión, respiration, yield, microbial activity, oat Avena sativa.En un diseño factorial con arreglo en BCA se analizó el efecto de tres fuentes de nitrógeno (nitrato de potasio 13% de N, sulfato de amonio 21% de N y colácteos 27% de N, este es una fuente local de fertilización, tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de Avena sativa. Se encontraron valores de respiración más altos en las semanas 2 y 7 siguientes a la incorporación de las dosis más altas (75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y con las aplicaciones fraccionadas de los fertilizantes. El nitrato de potasio, colácteos y sulfato de amonio ocasionaron mayores incrementos en los valores de respiración del suelo y rendimiento de forraje verde cuando se aplicaron a la siembra, fraccionado y a los 45 días respectivamente. La respiración correlacionó positivamente con los rendimientos del cultivo establecido

  2. Fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle químico da ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) Fungicides, rates and spray volumes in the chemical control of oats crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana R.; Walter Boller; CARLOS A. FORCELINI; Rubens Blum; André Lopes

    2007-01-01

    A ferrugem da folha (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) é a doença mais destrutiva da aveia, e aplicações de fungicidas com volumes baixos de calda podem reduzir a eficácia do controle químico. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência técnica e econômica de fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle da ferrugem da folha da aveia. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2003, na área experimental da FAMV/UPF, com a cultivar de aveia UPFA-20. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelas combin...

  3. Prueba oral de tolerancia al almidón del grano de avena en ponies (Oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone, G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe efectuó una Prueba Oral de Tolerancia al Almidón del grano de Avena en ponies, para desarrollar una curva de glucemia propia de estas razas, compararla con las curvas de glucemia de equinos de mayor alzada, consumiendo pasturas o dietas mixtas de forrajes y concentrados, y observar si algún pony pudiera ser considerado unvalor atípico.SummaryAn oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies was carried out to develop a glycaemic curve specific to these breeds, compared it with glycaemic curves of larger height horses, pasture fed or forage and concentrates fed, and see if any pony could be considered outlier.

  4. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation; Irradiacion de lodos residuales y su uso en el cultivo de avena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Colin, C.A.; Gomeztagle, M.M.; Frias, P.H. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  5. The effect of light quality on ethylene production in leaves of oat seedlings (Avena sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV, blue, green, red, far-red and white fluorescent lights at a fluence of 1.5–20 μmol m−2 s−1 photon flux density (PFD) on endogenous and ACC-dependent ethylene production by etiolated and green apical oat-leaf segments was investigated. It was found that endogenous ethylene production in light-irradiated green and etiolated oat leaves depends upon light quality and its fluence. All light of the visible spectrum (400–700 nm) at PFD 5–20 μmol m−2 s−1 reduced conversion of ACC to ethylene in green oat leaves incubated in 10−3 M ACC. Blue light was most effective in the inhibition of ACC-dependent ethylene production at 5–10 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD, and endogenous ethylene formation at 10 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD. At 20 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD, all visible light wavebands substantially reduced endogenous ethylene production but blue and red light were most effective. In etiolated leaves UV at 1.5 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD, enhanced endogenous ethylene production and other lights at 20 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD decreased evolution of ethylene, whereas ACC-dependent ethylene formation was stimulated by UV, red and far-red wavebands. Growth of 10-day old seedlings was reduced by 40% under continuous blue light irradiation relative to that obtained with white light. Irradiation of etiolated and green leaf segments for 18 hr with blue light reduced ACC oxidase activity when compared to dark-treated ones. The influence of light quality and its fluence rate on the control of ethylene biosynthesis in oat leaves is discussed. (author). (author)

  6. Influence of ammonium and nitrate salts on the bioelectric potential of oat (Avena sativa L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ślesak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the influence of various forms of nitrogen on the bioelectric potential of leaves of oats growing under different light conditions. The measurements performed demonstrated differences in the bioelectric potential of leaves on plants growing on an ammonium or nitrate substrate. On the ammonium substrate the potential is more negative and the differences are wider at higher light intensities. Analyses of potassium and chlorophyll content in the leaves showed no direct correlation between the potential value and potassium content, whereas an increase in chlorophyll content was associated with an eletronegative potential in the leaves.

  7. Elimination of micronuclei from microspores in a Brazilian oat (Avena sativa L. variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Roseli Baptista-Giacomelli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids is a powerful tool in breeding programs. Of 12 Brazilian oat varieties recommended for cultivation in southern Brazil, one variety, UFRGS 15, presented a new type of chromosome elimination never described in any other species. Chromosomes that produced micronuclei during meiosis were eliminated from microspores as microcytes. The micronucleus reached the microspore wall and formed a kind of bud, separated from the microspore. The eliminated microcytes gave origin to small and sterile pollen grains. The possible applications of this finding for oat breeding are discussed.Eliminação de cromossomos em híbridos interespecíficos é uma ferramenta poderosa em programas de melhoramento. Entre 12 variedades brasileiras de aveia recomendadas para cultivo na região Sul, uma (UFRGS 15 apresentou um tipo de eliminação cromossômica nunca antes descrita em outra espécie. Cromossomos que deram origem a micronúcleos durante a meiose foram eliminados do micrósporo como micrócito. O micronúcleo aproximava-se da parede do micrósporo, formava um tipo de brotamento e sofria separação do micrósporo. Os micrócitos eliminados deram origem a grãos de pólen pequenos e estéreis. As possíveis aplicações deste achado para o melhoramento de aveia são discutidas.

  8. Elimination of micronuclei from microspores in a Brazilian oat (Avena sativa L.) variety

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Roseli Baptista-Giacomelli; Maria Suely Pagliarini; Juliano Luiz de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids is a powerful tool in breeding programs. Of 12 Brazilian oat varieties recommended for cultivation in southern Brazil, one variety, UFRGS 15, presented a new type of chromosome elimination never described in any other species. Chromosomes that produced micronuclei during meiosis were eliminated from microspores as microcytes. The micronucleus reached the microspore wall and formed a kind of bud, separated from the microspore. The eliminated micr...

  9. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  10. Efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de avena forrajera en un suelo andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

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    Silva P Amanda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available COMPENDIO La investigación evaluó los cambios en la actividad microbial por efecto de la aplicación de tres fuentes nitrogenadas al suelo: nitrato de potasio (13% de N y 44% de K20, sulfato de amonio (21% de N y 24% de S y colacteos (27% de N, 10% de K y 6% de P , en tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado y en tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg/ha, en un suelo Andisol de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia, localizado a 2820 msnm. y 12 0C. La actividad microbial se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante a la siembra y a los 45 días y con las dosis altas, sin importar la fuente utilizada. La época de aplicación no afectó el número de bacterias, ni la población de hongos pero sí la de actinomicetos, cuyo número se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante al momento de la siembra. Las dosis altas de nitrato de potasio incrementaron las poblaciones de bacterias y actinomicetos. Los contenidos de materia seca se incrementaron cuando se aplicó todo el fertilizante en la siembra o a los 45 días, mientras que los máximos rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron con 75 y 150 kg/ha. En cuanto a las fuentes los mayores rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron, respectivamente, con nitrato de potasio, sulfato de amonio y colácteos. Palabras clave: Avena sativa, fuentes nitrogenadas, actividad microbial, población microbial, Nariño, rendimiento. ABSTRACT Effect of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and forage yield in oat in an andisol of Nariño department of Colombia. The effect of three nitrogen sources potassium nitrate (13% de N y 44% de K20, ammonium sulphate (21% de N y 24% de S and colácteos (27% de N, 10 % de K20 y 6% de P2O5, at three application time (at seeding time, total at 45 days and fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing and three doses (25, 75 and 150 kg/ha, in an Andisol of Nariño, Colombia

  11. Desarrollo de galletas con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo con harina de algarroba (Prosopis alba y avena para planes sociales

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    Sara Macías

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La diversificación de alimentos es una estrategia para abordar problemas nutricionales. Producir alimentos de consumo masivo incorporando harinas regionales sería una opción para obtener alimentos de valor nutritivo optimizado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar galletas de calidad nutricional mejorada, para escolares, con mezclas de harinas de trigo, de algarroba y avena. Se determinó la composición proximal y Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K y Zn en harina de algarroba con metodología AOAC y disponibilidad potencial in vitro para Ca, Fe y Zn. Se evaluó la calidad proteica teórica de distintas mezclas por el método del Puntaje Químico, previa corrección por digestibilidad, utilizando como proteína de referencia los requerimientos del patrón FAO. Se diseñaron galletas con 3 mezclas porcentuales: harina de trigo:harina de algarroba 70:30 y 80:20, harina de trigo:harina de algarroba:avena 80:10:10 y un testigo con 100 % harina de trigo. Se determinaron composición proximal, contenido y disponibilidad potencial de Ca, Fe y Zn. Se midieron parámetros tecnológicos en masas y galletas (color y factor de expansión. Las galletas se evaluaron sensorialmente con 35 consumidores, usando escala hedónica de 9 puntos. El Puntaje Químico aumentó ≈ el 25 % en la mezcla 70:30, 19 % en la 80:20 y 28 % para la 80:10:10 respecto del aminoácido lisina en harina de trigo. La corrección por digestibilidad, posicionó con mejor calidad proteica a la mezcla 80:10:10. El diámetro de las galletas aumentó con la disminución del espesor. El balance entre criterios nutricionales y tecnológicos favoreció la elección de las galletas 80:20 y 80:10:10. Son fuente de fibra y minerales. En pruebas sensoriales, las galletas obtuvieron puntaje superior a 6, siendo la más aceptada la 80:10:10. Es tecnológicamente posible sustituir un 20 % de harina de trigo por los ingredientes propuestos obteniéndose galletas nutricionalmente mejoradas y aceptables para

  12. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed. PMID:27209215

  13. STUDIES REGARDING THE DENSITY DYNAMICS OF AVENA FATUA WEED SPECIES ON WHEAT CULTIVATED IN MONOCULTURE (2 AND 3 YEARS AND IN THE WHEAT–RAPE CROP ROTATION ON BURNAS PLATFORM (ALEXANDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai BERCA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Until 1995, the Avena fatua (odos wasn’t even known as a weed in Burnas Plain wheat crop. Starting with the beginning of the first decade of the millennium, also fostered by the climate change process, Avena fatua has been slowly, but surely, installed in the area. By 2010 it reached almost 50 plants/m2 on wheat after wheat and about 90 plants/m2 in 3 years wheat monoculture. Over the past three years, the specie’s density has logarithmically increased up to 600 plants/m2 on wheat after wheat and to almost 900 plants/m2 in 3 years wheat monoculture. The surfaces identified by us have exceeded 1500 ha, while the yield losses reach up to 100%. In these conditions, the rape-wheat simple crop rotation reduces weed infestation and keeps it slightly variable between 5-10 plants/m2, well below the economic threshold of tolerance. At the same time, substantive amendments in weed’s biology and ecology were observed, it becoming therophytes - hemitherophytes due to climate change. Can talk about a weed infestation of the crop with biannual and annual forms. Between all the chemical methods used so far, very good results were obtained with the Pallas 75 WG product, at a dose of 150 g/ha, even without safener.

  14. Dynamics of indole alkaloids in wheat varieties with various resistance to wheat aphid Sitobion avenae%小麦不同抗蚜品种(系)中吲哚生物碱的含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡青年; 王宇; 张青文; 周明群

    2004-01-01

    UV spectrometry measurement on the indole alkaloids(IA)contents of seven wheat varieties(KOK1679,My295,Li,Han4564 and Yanda1817,resistant to S.avenae;Shaanximazha and Lovrin10,susceptible to S.avenae) showed that during tillering and stem elongation stages,KOK1679,My295 and Li had a higher IA content (>0.5 mg·g-1 FW);and during heading and anthesis stages,the penultimate leaves of all five resistant varieties contained higher IA (>0.5 mg·g-1 FW).The IA content was lower in the flag leaves of both resistant and susceptible varieties,but was significantly higher in the ears of resistant varieties(up to 0. 645 mg·g-1 FW in KOK1679) than in those of susceptible ones.It was showed that the IA content in wheat's ear playod an important role in the resistance to S.avenae.

  15. Fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle químico da ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fungicides, rates and spray volumes in the chemical control of oats crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da folha (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae é a doença mais destrutiva da aveia, e aplicações de fungicidas com volumes baixos de calda podem reduzir a eficácia do controle químico. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência técnica e econômica de fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle da ferrugem da folha da aveia. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2003, na área experimental da FAMV/UPF, com a cultivar de aveia UPFA-20. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelas combinações entre dois fungicidas (tebuconazole, Folicur, 0,75 L ha-1 e epoxiconazole + piraclostrobim, Opera, 0,5 L ha-1, quatro doses (40; 60; 80 e 100% da dose recomendada e dois volumes de calda (100 e 200 L ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial (2x4x2 e quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se a severidade, o controle da ferrugem, a massa do hectolitro, a massa de mil grãos e o rendimento de grãos, realizando-se análise econômica. O volume de calda de 200 L ha-1 proporcionou maiores níveis de controle da doença. As aplicações dos fungicidas com volume de 200 L ha-1 e meia dose ou com 100 L ha-1 e dose cheia proporcionam níveis de controle da ferrugem equivalentes. O resultado econômico difere entre fungicidas e independe do volume de calda. Os efeitos de doses dependem do fungicida.Crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae is the most important disease of oats in Brazil. In susceptible oat cultivars, fungicides are needed to control the disease efficiently. However, spray at low volumes may reduce fungicide performance significantly. A field experiment with the oat cultivar UPFA-20 was carried out at the FAMV/UPF to evaluate the influence of fungicides, rates, and spray volumes on the efficacy of the chemical control for crown rust. The tested treatments combined two fungicides (tebuconazole, Folicur, 0,75 L ha-1; epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, Opera, 0,5 L ha-1, four rates (40; 60; 80 and 100

  16. Crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli sob diferentes temperaturas, pH, concentrações de cloreto de sódio e fontes de carbono Growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli under different variable temperature, pH, sodium chloride concentrations and carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Tanajura Cavalcanti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito da temperatura (0 a 45°C, pH (4 a 10 e concentração de NaCl (1 a 10% sobre o crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Quatro estirpes de Aac foram cultivadas em meio de cultura líquido específico e o crescimento avaliado pela absorbância (580nm. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear. O crescimento das estirpes também foi avaliado em caldo base para fermentação contendo 1% dos carboidratos glicose, galactose, ramnose, sacarose, lactose, maltose, amido, inulina, manitol, dulcitol, sorbitol e salicina, indicada pela mudança da cor do meio. Com base nas análises de regressão, as temperaturas mínima, ótima e máxima para crescimento de Aac foram, respectivamente, 1, 32 e 41°C; o pH ótimo para crescimento dessa bactéria foi 7,4 com os extremos mínimo de 4,0 e máximo de 10,8 e; o crescimento de Aac decresceu com o aumento da concentração de NaCl, sendo o nível de 6,2% letal. Todos os carboidratos testados foram utilizados pelas estirpes de Aac como fonte de carbono, com pequena variação de crescimento observada pela velocidade e intensidade da utilização do substrato com produção de ácido.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature (0 to 45°C, pH (4 to 10 and NaCl concentration (1 to 10% in the growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Four Aac strains were grown in specific liquid medium, and their growth evaluated by absorbance (580nm. Data were submitted to nonlinear regression analysis. The bacterial growth was also studied in fermentation broth containing 1% of fermentable carbohydrates, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, starch, inulin, mannitol, dulcitol, sorbitol and salicin, being evaluated by medium color change. Based upon regression analyses, the minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures for Aac growth were respectively 1, 32 and 41°C; the optimum pH for Aac

  17. Severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro sob diferentes condições de molhamento foliar e concentração de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Elineide B.; Michereff Sami J.; Mariano Rosa L. R.

    2003-01-01

    Avaliou-se a severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro (Cucumis melo) em diferentes intervalos de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h) e do início do período de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h após inoculação), e diferentes concentrações de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (3,4 x 10¹ a 3,4 x 10(7) UFC.ml-1). Foram utilizados três isolados do patógeno e os híbridos de meloeiro tipo Amarelo, AF-646 e AF-682. As folhas das plantas com 20 dias foram pulverizadas com a suspensã...

  18. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in oat (Avena sativa L.): implications for genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The level of population structure and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) can have large impacts on the power, resolution, and design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in plants. Until recently, the topics of LD and population structure have not been explored in oat due to the lack of...

  19. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity analysis β-glucan content variability in grain of oat (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Nevena H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In grain of ten genetically divergent oat cultivars (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flaming-Kurz, Nuptiele, Prode, Pellerva, Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Simo the variability β-glucan content were investigated. The different value of content of β-glucan was found. Among analyzed oat cultivars, the highest β- glucan contents had Pellerva (6.597%, while the least had Simo (2.971%. The contents of β-glucans were determined by ICC standard Method No 168. The value of β-glucans varied and indicated the differences and similarities between analysed cultivars. The degree of cultivar similarity was determined by dendrogram on which was discriminated two clusters of similar cultivars toward to contents of β-glucan . Within cluster 1, a small group of oats, are five cultivars with small distance (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flamings-Kurz, Nuptiele and Prode. The highest similarity in the range of 88 or the least distance in the range of 12. Within cluster 2 was four oat cultivars (Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Pellerva in which the least differences was between Emperor and Astor with average distance in range 27. Cluster 1 and cluster 2 differed with an average distance of 63. The cultivar Simo expressed the greatest distance to all analysed oat cultivars grouped in two clusters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31092

  20. Mobilization of lipid reserves during germination of oat (Avena sativa L.), a cereal rich in endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, Svetlana; Grimberg, Asa; Marttila, Salla; Stymne, Sten; Carlsson, Anders S

    2010-06-01

    Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, beta-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the use of the endosperm oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs) released from TAG or as intact TAG immediately degraded to FFAs. These data were supported by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM) studies where close contact between endosperm lipid droplets and the scutellum was observed. The appearance of the fused oil in the oat endosperm changed into oil droplets during germination in areas close to the aleurone and the scutellar epithelium. However, according to the data obtained by TEM these oil droplets are unlikely to be oil bodies surrounded by oleosins. Accumulation of FFA pools in the embryo suggested further transport of FFAs from the scutellum. Noticeably high levels of TAG were also accumulated in the embryo but were not synthesized by re-esterification from imported FFAs. Comparison between two oat cultivars with different amounts of oil and starch in the endosperm suggests that an increased oil to starch ratio in oat grains does not significantly impact the germination process. PMID:20497973

  1. Mobilization of lipid reserves during germination of oat (Avena sativa L.), a cereal rich in endosperm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Leonova, Svetlana; Grimberg, Åsa; Marttila, Salla; Stymne, Sten; Carlsson, Anders S.

    2010-01-01

    Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, β-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the use of the endosperm oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs...

  2. Effects of Saline and Alkaline Stresses on Growth and Physiological Changes in Oat (Avena sativa L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwu GAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4 and alkaline salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 were both mixed in 2:1 ratio, and the effects of saline and alkaline stresses on growth and physiological changes in oat seedlings were explored. Result showed that biomass, water content and chlorophyll content decreased while cell membrane permeability significantly increased under alkaline stress. Saline stress did not have obvious effect on pH value in tissue fluids of shoot and root, but alkaline stress increased pH value in root tissue fluid. The contents of Na+, Na+/K+, SO42- increased more, and K+, NO3-,H2PO4- decreased more under alkaline stress, the Cl- content increased obviously under saline stress but had little change under alkaline stress. The increments of proline and organic acid were both greater under alkaline stress, but organic acid content kept the same level under saline stress. Alkaline stress caused more harmful effects on growth and physiological changes in oat seedlings especially broke the pH stability in root tissue fluid. Physiological adaptive mechanisms of oat seedlings under saline stress and alkaline stress were different, which mainly took the way of accumulating organic acid under alkali stress but accumulating Cl- under saline stress.

  3. Caracterização química de cariopses de aveia (Avena sativa L) da cultivar UPF 18

    OpenAIRE

    Weber Fernanda Hart; Gutkoski Luiz Carlos; Elias Moacir Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente uma nova cultivar de aveia, a UPF 18, recomendada pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia da safra agrícola de 1999 foram descascados, as cariopses moídas em granulometria inferior a 0,250mm e a farinha avaliada quanto à composição centesimal, composição em aminoácidos, composição em ácidos graxos, índice de solubilidade de nitrogênio, digestibilidade da proteína in vitro, escore químico e energia metabolizá...

  4. Effect of different processing techniques on nutritional characteristics of oat (Avena sativa) grains and formulated weaning mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Neha; Awasthi, Pratima

    2014-09-01

    One of the variety of oat, UPO 94 was processed by two simple processing techniques. One method is malting and other is roasting. Malted and roasted oat flour as well as weaning mixes prepared from these two processed flour were analyzed for their nutrient composition, alpha amylase activity and in-vitro protein digestibility. For making weaning mix, oat flour, wheat flour, green gram and skim milk powder were taken in a ratio of 30:30:25:15 respectively. Higher moisture, ash, crude fat, energy, amylase activity, and in-vitro protein digestibility were reported in malted oat flour and weaning mix prepared from malted flour. The minerals, calcium (180.0 mg/100 g) and iron (7.9 mg/100 g) were also higher in malted weaning mix as compared to roasted weaning mix. Both malted and roasted weaning gruels were evaluated for sensory quality characteristics and both were found acceptable by the panel members. PMID:25190893

  5. Effect of different processing techniques on nutritional characteristics of oat (Avena sativa) grains and formulated weaning mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Neha; Awasthi, Pratima

    2012-01-01

    One of the variety of oat, UPO 94 was processed by two simple processing techniques. One method is malting and other is roasting. Malted and roasted oat flour as well as weaning mixes prepared from these two processed flour were analyzed for their nutrient composition, alpha amylase activity and in-vitro protein digestibility. For making weaning mix, oat flour, wheat flour, green gram and skim milk powder were taken in a ratio of 30:30:25:15 respectively. Higher moisture, ash, crude fat, ener...

  6. Herança da resistência à ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca Inheritance of oat leaf rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. resistance in white oat brazilian genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da folha da aveia é a moléstia mais importante que ataca a cultura da aveia, ocorrendo em praticamente todas as áreas em que a aveia é cultivada. A forma mais indicada para o seu controle é a utilização de cultivares resistentes. Contudo, para que seja alcançada a resistência durável ao patógeno, é necessário que se conheça a genética da resistência à ferrugem da folha em aveia. O objetivo foi determinar a forma de herança da resistência a três isolados de Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led., (coletados no sul do Brasil em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca. Para a determinação da herança da resistência a cada um dos três isolados, foram utilizadas populações F2 geradas por meio de cruzamentos artificiais, entre genótipos resistentes (R e suscetíveis (S e entre genótipos resistentes (R. Desta forma, foram utilizadas populações F2 dos cruzamentos artificiais entre: i URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 16 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 16 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado um (1; ii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 18 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado dois (2; iii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (S, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado três (3. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o genótipo URPEL 15 apresenta genes dominantes de resistência aos três isolados de ferrugem da folha da aveia avaliados, que o cultivar UPF 16 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 1 e o cultivar UPF 18 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 2. E que os genes de resistência apresentados pelos genótipos URPEL 15, UPF 16 e UPF 18, segregam de forma independente.Oat crown rust is the most important disease for the oat crop, occurring in practically all the areas where oat is cultivated. The most indicated form of control for this disease is

  7. Reconocimiento de alimentos vegetales: caracterización micro-gráfica del grano de avena Reconhecimento de alimentos vegetais: caracterização micrográfica do grão de aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Crivaro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la estructura micrográfica del grano de seis variedades de avena con la finalidad de su caracterización, para desarrollar parámetros de identificación en alimentos elaborados con la misma y, consecuentemente, determinar su autenticidad, contribuyendo a optimizar la producción, la comercialización y el consumo del cereal y sus derivados. El diseño experimental consistió en el estudio micrográfico de los granos vestidos y desnudos efectuando un análisis morfológico mediante observación con lupa binocular y fotografía, ultraestructural utilizando microscopio electrónico de barrido, micrográfico y micrométrico, empleando el sistema de video microscopia digitalizado y software adecuado. Dada su variabilidad natural, los estudios se efectuaron durante tres temporadas consecutivas sobre muestras cosechadas de variedades procedentes de cultivos de semillas certificadas, y sobre alimentos procesados (avena arrollada y salvado de avena comerciales. Los resultados consistieron en diseños micrográficos, y en valores micrométricos de gránulos de almidón relacionados, además, en modelos matemáticos. En todos los casos se validó estadísticamente. Como parámetros micrográficos de caracterización se seleccionaron las estructuras diferenciales, que revelaron una presencia constante en el vegetal y resistieron los tratamientos tecnológicos, y las características y dimensiones del almidón.Este trabalho estuda a estrutura micrográfica do grão de seis variedades de aveia com a finalidade de sua caracterização para desenvolver parâmetros de identificação em alimentos elaborados com a mesma e, conseqüentemente, determinar sua genuinidade, contribuindo para otimizar a produção, a comercialização e o consumo do cereal e seus derivados. O experimento consistiu no estudo micrográfico dos grãos com casca e sem casca, efetuando análise morfológica mediante observação com lupa binocular e fotografia ultra

  8. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  9. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J.; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  10. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  11. Severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro sob diferentes condições de molhamento foliar e concentração de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Elineide B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro (Cucumis melo em diferentes intervalos de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h e do início do período de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h após inoculação, e diferentes concentrações de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (3,4 x 10¹ a 3,4 x 10(7 UFC.ml-1. Foram utilizados três isolados do patógeno e os híbridos de meloeiro tipo Amarelo, AF-646 e AF-682. As folhas das plantas com 20 dias foram pulverizadas com a suspensão bacteriana e mantidas em casa de vegetação, sendo determinados período de incubação, taxa de progresso da doença, índice de doença e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença. As equações de regressão para as variáveis analisadas foram melhores ajustadas pelos modelos quadráticos ou logarítmicos. O período de incubação variou de 1,3 a 2,7 dias e foi maior nas plantas sem molhamento foliar. O índice de doença e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença aumentaram com a elevação da duração do molhamento foliar. Mesmo na ausência do molhamento foliar ocorreram sintomas da mancha-aquosa com índice de doença e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença de 43,4% e 8,9, respectivamente. O início do período de molhamento foliar às 48 h elevou significativamente (P<0,05 o período de incubação e a taxa de progresso da doença em relação aos demais períodos. A taxa de progresso da doença, índice de doença e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença aumentaram com o incremento da concentração de inóculo de A. avenae subsp. citrulli, atingindo os valores máximos de 4,4 unidades de infecção/dia, 74% e 19, respectivamente, na concentração 3,4 x 10(7 UFC.ml-1.

  12. 吡虫啉与联苯菊酯混配对麦长管蚜的毒力及增效作用%Synergistic Effect of Combinating Imidacloprid and Bifenthrin to Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威; 谢咸升; 李大鹏

    2015-01-01

    参照FAO推荐的浸渍法,研究了吡虫啉与联苯菊酯的5种配比对麦长管蚜的防治效果。结果表明,吡虫啉和联苯菊酯混配后,表现增效作用的配比为1颐1,2颐1,共毒系数(CTC)分别为273.22,126.17;表现相加作用的配比为1颐2,5颐1,共毒系数(CTC)为95.28,104.65;表现拮抗作用的配比为1颐5,共毒系数(CTC)为60.46。5种配比中以1颐1的配比增效作用最强。%Five kinds ratio of imidacloprid and bifenthrin are reaseached on Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)for synergistic effect refered to FAO recommended immersion method. The result shows that mixed ratio of synergistic effect are 1:1,2:1,co-toxicity coefficient (CTC)are 273.22,126.17,additive effect are 1:2,5:1,CTC are 95.28,104.65;antagonism effect is 1:5,CTC is 60.46. The better ratio of synergistic effect was 1:1,which can provide the reasonable mixed basis for imidacloprid and bifenthrin.

  13. Dessecação da aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb com herbicida de contato, em presença ou não de assistência de ar junto à barra do pulverizador, em diferentes volumes de calda Black-oats (Avena strigosa Schreb control with contact burndown herbicide applied at different carrier volumes, with and without air assistance at sleeve boom sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Garcia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia de aplicação dos produtos fitossanitários na agricultura pode ser aprimorada mediante a redução dos desperdícios. Com o objetivo de contribuir com tal avanço tecnológico, avaliou-se a eficácia de um herbicida com ação de contato, aplicado em pós-emergência com pulverizadores sem e com assistência de ar junto à barra, em diferentes volumes de calda. O experimento foi instalado no município de Ponta Grossa - PR, com a dessecação de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb implantada em sistema de plantio direto sob a palha. Empregou-se a mistura herbicida formulada (SC de dicloreto de paraquate (400 g ha-1 + diuron (200 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados (DBC, em esquema fatorial 2 (pulverizador sem e com assistência de ar x 5 (volumes de calda: 0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 L ha-1, com quatro repetições. A avaliação do efeito da dessecação se deu por meio da escala proposta pela Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM. A interação entre os fatores foi significativa, obtendo-se suficiência na dessecação a partir de 200 e 100 L ha-1, sem e com assistência de ar na barra, respectivamente.Agricultural pesticide application technology is largely improved by reduction of waste and losses. With such objective, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of a post-emergence contact herbicide applied with and without air-assisted sleeve boom in different spray volumes. The experiment was carried out in Ponta Grossa county, in a no-till black oats cover crop (Avena strigosa Schreb. The formulated mixture (SC of paraquat and diuron at 400 + 200 g a.i ha-1 was applied with a sleeve boom sprayer, with and without air-assistance and five spray volumes: 0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 L ha-1. Treatments were placed in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Herbicide efficacy was evaluated by the ALAM rating system. Efficacy

  14. Avaliação da composição química e da digestibilidade in vitro da mistura aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb + ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. em diferentes alturas sob pastejo Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of mixture of oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L. under grazing in different sward heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mascarenhas Grise

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das alturas (8,9; 10,0; 11,2; 11,8; 13,3; 13,6; 14,6; 18,2 cm de pastos consorciados de aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 com ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. sob pastejo sobre a relação folha/colmo (F/C, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental usado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A relação F/C não foi influenciada pela altura do pasto, porém apresentou comportamento quadrático com o avanço na maturidade do pasto. Os teores de PB apresentaram comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, devido à interação entre altura do pasto e o tempo. Os teores de FDN e FDA mostraram um comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, ocorrendo uma diminuição dos mesmos quando as plantas se apresentavam mais baixas e, uma elevação, quando as plantas estavam mais altas, isto ocorreu em função da interação das variáveis tempo e altura. A DIVMS e a DIVMO tiveram incrementos lineares em função do aumento da altura do pasto, porém com comportamento quadrático no tempo (dias em todas as alturas, sendo mais elevadas nas alturas intermediárias do pasto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different sward heights (8.9, 10.0, 11.2, 11.8; 13.3; 13.6; 14.6; 18.2 cm in the mixture of black oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L., under grazing, on leaf/stem ratio (L/S, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents and dry matter (DMIVD and of organic matter (OMIVD in vitro digestibility. A completely randomized experimental design with two replicates was used. L/S ratio was not influenced by sward height, although it presented quadratic behavior with the progress of

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: oat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tiva_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NS ...

  16. Identification of Resistance to Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli of Edible Seed Watermelon Germplasm Resources%籽用西瓜种质资源对细菌性果斑病的抗性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宋楠; 王惠林; 郑健; 高强

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The project aims to clarify the different disease resistances of edible seed watermelon germplasm resources to Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli.[Method] The method of artificial inoculation in door was used to identify 62 inbred pure lines from hybrid progeny of edible seed watermelon,egusi seed introduced from abroad and other common watermelons.[Result] The results of identification showed that the 22 middle resistant varieties included ES84,ES90,etc,the 22 middle sensitive varieties included ES30,ES94,etc,and the 18 high sensitive varieties included ES46,ES50,etc.There were no high resistant and immune varieties.[Conclusion] In Xinjiang,the present main cuhivars Minzi 1 and Minqin manifested middle sensitiveness in blockbuster area,Neimenghe in moderate blockbuster area and Hefeng from Anhui Province in small blockbuster area.The resistant gene was contained in all the selected varieties of middle resistance:ES84,ES90 and ES30,etc.%[目的]通过对62份来源于籽用西瓜、国外引进的粘耔西瓜及普通西瓜杂交后代的自交纯系进行苗期抗病性鉴定,以此来探明籽用西瓜种质资源对瓜类细菌性果斑病的抗病性差异.[方法]通过室内人工接种法.[结果]筛选出了ES84、ES90等22份中抗材料;ES30、ES94等22份中感材料;ES46、ES50等18份高感材料,没有高抗和免疫材料.[结论]目前新疆主栽品种民籽1号、民勤大片表现中感,内蒙古黑中片、黑丰、安徽黑小片表现为感病.筛选出的中抗材料ES84、ES90、ES30等均含有粘籽西瓜的抗性基因.

  17. Isolation and identification of fungal parasites of cyst nematodes in Heterodera avenae group%小麦禾谷孢囊线虫生防真菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁虹霞; 陈莉; 张飞跃; 李洪连

    2011-01-01

    Cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) in the Heterodera avenae group are recognised as the important pest of wheat in Huanghuai area. So far, there is no effective control method for CCN in this area. In order to seek for the biocontrol agents for CCN, 42 parasitic fungi were isolated from CCN cysts from different locations in Henan. The biocontrol potential of these isolates was evaluated in pots and in the field (Xuchang, 2008-2009). Eleven isolates (F03, F04, F08, F11, F13, F15, F20, F25, F26, F33, and F37 ) provided good control of CCN in pots, with average control efficacy more than 50% ( based on disease index value). Five isolates provided good control in the field with control efficacy of over 35%. Based on morphology and rDNA-ITS PCR sequence analyses, five isolates (F04, F08, F20, F26, and F37 ) can be identified as Chaetomium sp. , Fusarium solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Stemphylium solani, and F. proliferatum , respectively.%禾谷孢囊线虫病是我国黄淮流域小麦主产区的重要病害,为寻找小麦禾谷孢囊线虫病的生防菌株,采用组织分离法对河南各地小麦孢囊线虫孢囊上的寄生真菌进行分离,共获得42株分离物,并进行盆栽防治效果测定.结果显示,F03,F04,F08,F1I,F13,F15,F20,F25,F26,F33和F37等11个菌株对小麦禾谷孢囊线虫具有较好的防治效果,平均防治效果均在50%以上.2008-2009年在河南许昌县的大田防治试验结果表明,F04,F08,F20,F26和F37等5个菌株表现出较好的防病作用,灌浆期平均防治效果均达到35%以上.通过形态学和rDNA-ITS PCR分子鉴定,这些菌株分别属于毛壳菌Chaetomium sp.、茄病镰刀菌Fusarium solani、草酸青霉Penicillium oxalicum,茄匍栖霉属stemphylium sonali和层出镰刀菌Fusarium proliferatum.

  18. Histological analysis and 3D reconstruction of winter cereal crowns recovering from freezing: a unique response in oat (Avena sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Livingston

    Full Text Available The crown is the below ground portion of the stem of a grass which contains meristematic cells that give rise to new shoots and roots following winter. To better understand mechanisms of survival from freezing, a histological analysis was performed on rye, wheat, barley and oat plants that had been frozen, thawed and allowed to resume growth under controlled conditions. Extensive tissue disruption and abnormal cell structure was noticed in the center of the crown of all 4 species with relatively normal cells on the outside edge of the crown. A unique visual response was found in oat in the shape of a ring of cells that stained red with Safranin. A tetrazolium analysis indicated that tissues immediately inside this ring were dead and those outside were alive. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the barrier fluoresced with excitation between 405 and 445 nm. Three dimensional reconstruction of a cross sectional series of images indicated that the red staining cells took on a somewhat spherical shape with regions of no staining where roots entered the crown. Characterizing changes in plants recovering from freezing will help determine the genetic basis for mechanisms involved in this important aspect of winter hardiness.

  19. Kinetics fermentation and gas production of the neutral detergent-soluble fraction of fresh forage, silage and hay of Avena sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Piccolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutral detergent treatment to evaluate the structural polysaccharides (NDF removes soluble sugars, pectin substances, starch and the non-carbohydrate fraction (Van Soest, 1991. Despite the widely recognized importance of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates (NDS in the early stages of forage digestion, little is known about their digestion kinetics because most in vitro methods have studied the disappearance of insoluble cell wall components. However, knowledge of the degradation characteristics of both fractions is very important to formulate balanced diets for high-yielding animals. Using the in vitro gas production system........

  20. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM. PMID:26468909

  1. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides

  2. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-11-15

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides.

  3. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  4. Quality of mixed naked oats (Avena nuda)and alfalfa (Medicago sativa)silage%紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混贮发酵品质和营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛剑; 杨翠军; 杨志敏; 白雪梅; 赵海香; 刘贵河

    2015-01-01

    Using sun-dried or fresh alfalfa and naked oats as materials,five silages,including alfalfa silage,na-ked oats silage,three mix silage,(alfalfa∶naked oats =1∶1,alfalfa∶naked oats =1 ∶2 and alfalfa∶naked oats =2 ∶1 ),were prepared.After 60 days ensiling,the sensory score,fermentation quality and nutrition composition of silages were evaluated.The results revealed that silage made of fresh alfalfa showed a common performance in the sensory score and V-Score and Kaiser-Score evaluation system,while both silage made of sun-dried materials and mixed silage had a improved silage score.Sun-drying and mixing process had effect on silage quality,such as decreasing pH value,acetic acid (AA),propionic acid (PA),butyrate acid (BA)and ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen (AN/TN)(P <0.01 or P <0.05)content of silages,significantly increasing lactate (LA)content (P <0.01or P <0.05)of silages.Among which,mixed silage of alfalfa and naked oats with a ratio of 2∶1 showed a biggest increasing and decreasing describe above.The sun-drying process had a significantly effect on the dry matter (DM),water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC)and crude ash (Ash)content of silage,while had no effect on remaining nutrients.Notably,mixing process had significant effects on most of fermentative indexes,such as the content of crude protein (CP),water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC),neu-tral detergent fiber (NDF)(P <0.05 or P <0.01),whereas had no effect on other nutrient indexes.In conclu-sion,the interaction of sun-drying process to silage materials and mixed ratio can improve silage quality,while had no effect on nutrient composition of silages.According to the sensory score,fermentation quality,and nu-trient content,the mixed and sun-dried materials can produce better silages than sole and fresh material,and silage made of naked oats and alfalfa with a ration of 2∶1 was the best.%以新鲜及晾晒后的紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦为原料,分别设计紫花苜蓿单贮、裸燕麦单贮、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶1、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1及裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶2混贮等5个处理,青贮60 d 后,对其感官评分、发酵品质和营养成分等进行分析。结果表明,鲜贮苜蓿在感官评定、V-Score 及 Kaiser 评价体系中表现一般,而晾晒及混合青贮各处理组均能不同程度提高青贮评分。晾晒和混合青贮对发酵品质产生影响,两者显著或极显著降低 pH值、PA(丙酸)、AA(乙酸)、BA(丁酸)和 AN/TN(氨态氮/总氮)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),显著或极显著升高LA(乳酸)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),其中以裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1降低或升高最明显。晾晒对青贮饲料的干物质、可溶性碳水化合物及粗灰分含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分含量影响不大(P >0.05)。混合比例对青贮饲料的所有发酵项目均有极显著影响(P <0.01),对粗蛋白质、可溶性碳水化合物及中性洗涤纤维含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分指标影响不显著(P >0.05)。晾晒和混合青贮的交互作用可显著提高青贮饲料的发酵品质,但对养分含量影响不明显。因此,从青贮后感官评价、发酵品质及养分含量来看,紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混合青贮品质优于单独青贮,且晾晒相对于鲜贮更易于青贮,而无论晾晒和鲜贮,当裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1时,青贮品质均优于其他各组。

  5. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. PMID:26471595

  6. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on the River Avena (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milazzo, C.; Di Bella, C.; Casanova, J. C.; Ribas, Alexis; Cagnin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2010), s. 171-176. ISSN 0394-1914 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : endoparasites * rodents * fiumara * Southern Italy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.308, year: 2010

  7. Biochemical changes in black oat (avena strigosa schreb) cultivated in vineyard soils contaminated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Brunetto, Gustavo; Miotto, Alcione; Tiecher, Tadeu L; de Conti, Lessandro; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Schmatz, Roberta; Giachini, Admir; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2016-06-01

    Soils used for the cultivation of grapes generally have a long history of copper (Cu) based fungicide applications. As a result, these soils can accumulate Cu at levels that are capable of causing toxicity in plants that co-inhabit the vineyards. The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth parameters and oxidative stress in black oat plants grown in vineyard soils contaminated with high levels of Cu. Soil samples were collected from the Serra Gaúcha and Campanha Gaúcha regions, which are the main wine producing regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse in 2009, with soils containing Cu concentrations from 2.2 to 328.7 mg kg(-1). Evaluated parameters included plant root and shoot dry matter, Cu concentration in the plant's tissues, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the shoots of plants harvested 15 and 40 days after emergence. The Cu absorbed by plants predominantly accumulated in the roots, with little to no translocation to the shoots. Even so, oat plants showed symptoms of toxicity when grown in soils containing high Cu concentrations. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of oat plants were unable to reverse the imposed oxidative stress conditions. PMID:27002244

  8. Motivos de abandono y no practica de actividad fisicodeportiva en adolescentes espanoles estudio Avena

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Baena, Alejandro César; Chillón, Palma; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A pesar de los reconocidos beneficios físicos, psíquicos y sociales que la práctica de actividad físico-deportiva produce en la salud de los jóvenes, la prevalencia de abandono y falta de este tipo de actividades está mostrando un importante aumento a nivel mundial, particularmente en los países desarrollados. Se precisan actuaciones educativas inmediatas para frenar esta situación. El objetivo del estudio es analizar la expresión de interés hacia la actividad físico-deporti...

  9. Microstructural and cytogenetic disorders in endosperm of an Avena fatua × A. sterilis hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Tomaszewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A significant difference for cytogenetic and developmental stability of endosperm was discovered between two wild oat species and their hybrid progeny. The development of hybrid endosperm was regulated by apoptosis and proceeded according to a domainal pattern. Many cytogenetic anomalies were also noted, and their appearance was attributed to the activity of transposons or somatic crossing-over. The normal development of endosperm should be considered as an important factor determining viability of seedlings and their intrapopulational competitiveness.

  10. Microstructural and cytogenetic disorders in endosperm of an Avena fatua × A. sterilis hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Tomaszewska; Romuald Kosina

    2014-01-01

    A significant difference for cytogenetic and developmental stability of endosperm was discovered between two wild oat species and their hybrid progeny. The development of hybrid endosperm was regulated by apoptosis and proceeded according to a domainal pattern. Many cytogenetic anomalies were also noted, and their appearance was attributed to the activity of transposons or somatic crossing-over. The normal development of endosperm should be considered as an important factor determining viabil...

  11. Duplication and diversification of the LEAFY HULL STERILE1 and Oryza sativa MADS5 SEPALLATA lineages in graminoid Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ashley R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence in function of the resulting paralogs via subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization is hypothesized to have played a major role in the evolution of plant form. The LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (LHS1 SEPALLATA (SEP genes have been linked with the origin and diversification of the grass spikelet, but it is uncertain 1 when the duplication event that produced the LHS1 clade and its paralogous lineage Oryza sativa MADS5 (OSM5 occurred, and 2 how changes in gene structure and/or expression might have contributed to subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization in the two lineages. Methods Phylogenetic relationships among 84 SEP genes were estimated using Bayesian methods. RNA expression patterns were inferred using in situ hybridization. The patterns of protein sequence and RNA expression evolution were reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML methods, respectively. Results Phylogenetic analyses mapped the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event to the base of the grass family. MP character reconstructions estimated a change from cytosine to thymine in the first codon position of the first amino acid after the Zea mays MADS3 (ZMM3 domain converted a glutamine to a stop codon in the OSM5 ancestor following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event. RNA expression analyses of OSM5 co-orthologs in Avena sativa, Chasmanthium latifolium, Hordeum vulgare, Pennisetum glaucum, and Sorghum bicolor followed by ML reconstructions of these data and previously published analyses estimated a complex pattern of gain and loss of LHS1 and OSM5 expression in different floral organs and different flowers within the spikelet or inflorescence. Conclusions Previous authors have reported that rice OSM5 and LHS1 proteins have different interaction partners indicating that the truncation of OSM5 following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event has resulted in both partitioned and potentially novel gene

  12. Redistribution of phosphorus in soil through cover crop roots

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio C. Franchini; Marcos A. Pavan; Mário Miyazawa

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if cover crops can absorb P from the upper layers and transport it in their roots to subsoil layers. Samples of an Oxisol were placed in PVC columns. Super phosphate fertilizer was applied to the 0-10 cm soil surface layers. The cover crops tested were: Avena strigosa, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Pisum sativum subsp arvense, Pisum sativum, Vicia villosa, Vicia sativa, Lupinus angustifoliu, Lupinus albus, and Triticum aestivum. After a growth perio...

  13. Comparison of various stress responses in oat in compatible and nonhost resistant interactions with rust fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Werner; Liefland, Mathias; Mendgen, Kurt

    1990-01-01

    The role of extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases and chitinases was investigated in oat leaves after infection with different rust fungi. The oat leaves (Avena sativa L .) were inoculated with the compatible rust Puccinia coronata f. sp . avenae and the two nonpathogens Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. No alterations in enzyme activities were found in the compatible interaction . In the nonhost interaction with P. recondita ff sp. tritici beta-1,3-glucanase...

  14. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso; Anderson Soares Bento; Humberto Misdei Moreski; Francielli Gasparotto

    2014-01-01

    Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR) in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa), T2: black oat (Avena ...

  15. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasitóides nos afídeos mumificados ao longo deste estudo.

  16. A new pathotype characterization of Daxing and Huangyuan populations of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jiang-kuan; HUANG Wen-kun; PENG Huan; LIU Shi-ming; WANG Gao-feng; KONG Lin-an; PENG De-liang

    2015-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heteroder aavenae) causes serious yield loss on cereal crops, especial y wheat, worldwide. Daxing population in Beijing City and Huangyuan population in Qinghai Province, China, are two CCN populations. In this study, the CCN pathotypes of Daxing and Huangyuan populations were characterized by tests on 23 standard“International Test Assortment”with the local species Wenmai 19 as the susceptible control. Tested materials were grouped by three nematode populations’ virulence on resistant genes (Rha1, Rha2, Rha3, Cre1) and nonresistant genes, varieties and lines. Both Daxing and Huangyuan populations were avirulent to Ortolan (Ha1). Barley cvs. Ortolan, Siri, Morocco, Bajo Aragon 1-1, and Martin 403-2 were al resistant to both populations. Cultivars Herta, Harlan 43 and wheat Iskamish-K-2-light were al susceptible to Huangyuan population, al of them, however, were resistant to Daxing population. The other ifve oats were al resistant to the two tested CCN populations. Except Iskamisch K-2-light, al the other wheat cultivars (Capa, Lo-ros×Koga, AUS 10894, and Psathias) were susceptible to Daxing population. Because the pathotypes of the two tested CCN populations in Beijing and Qinghai were not identical to any of the 13 pathotypes previously characterized by the test assortment, we classiifed Daxing and Huangyuan populations as the new pathotypes, named Ha91.

  17. A comparative study between nonlinear regression and artificial neural network approaches for modelling wild oat (Avena fatua) field emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-linear regression techniques are used widely to fit weed field emergence patterns to soil microclimatic indices using S-type functions. Artificial neural networks present interesting and alternative features for such modeling purposes. In this work, a univariate hydrothermal-time based Weibull m...

  18. Growth of Avena Coleoptiles and pH Drop of Protoplast Suspensions Induced by Chlorinated Indoleacetic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Doll, Hans; Böttger, M.

    1978-01-01

    acid, 2,4-dichlorphenoxyacetic acid and naphthaleneacetic acid. 5-Chloro- and 6-chloroindoleacetic acids are very strong auxins as well. Other derivatives tested have a lower activity. 5,7-Dichloro- and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids have very low auxin activity at 10-4 mol l-1 and may be anti-auxins...

  19. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). Virtually al...

  20. Photoinhibition of Photosystems I and II Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Maria Jose

    2005-01-01

    In this study the photoinhibition of photosystems (PS) I and II caused by exposure to high intensity light in oat ("Avena sativa," var Prevision) is measured by the emission of chlorophyll fluorescence in intact leaves adapted to darkness. The maximal quantum yield of PS II was lower in plants grown under high light intensity than in plants grown…

  1. Studying the Effect of Light Quality on the Size of the Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoz, Romualdo; Quiles, Maria J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the effect of light quality on the size of the photosystem II (PSII) light harvesting complex (LHCII) is studied by measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence emitted by leaf sections of oat ("Avena sativa," var. Prevision) plants previously treated with either white light or with light filtered through blue, green, red or farred…

  2. A consensus map in cultivated hexaploid oat reveals conserved grass synteny with substantial sub-genome rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa, 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family with a very large genome (~13 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs: seven from each of two similar ancestral diploids (A and D) and seven from a more diverged ancestral diploid (C). Physical rearrangements among ancestral oat...

  3. Reference genome-directed resolution of homologous and homeologous relationships within and between different oat linkage maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome research on oat (Avena sativa) has received less attention than wheat and barley because it is a less prominent component of the food chain. To assess the potential of the model grass Brachypodium as a surrogate for oat genome research, the whole genome sequence (WGS) of Brachypodium was empl...

  4. Environ: E00766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00766 Oats Medicinal herb Gramine [CPD:C08304], Avenacoside [CPD:C08887 C08888], b...:C00034], Zinc [CPD:C00038] Avena sativa [TAX:4498] Poaceae oats aerial part Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00766 Oats ...

  5. FORMATION OF MICROBE-PLANT CONSORTIUMS OF THE RHIZOSPHERE IN ONTOGENESIS OF GRAIN CROPS Формирование микробно-растительных сообществ ризосферы в онтогенезе зерновых культур

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeeva T. K.; Maslennikova S. N.; Gazheeva T. P.

    2012-01-01

    The microbiological composition of the rhizosphere of the soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the two-row barley (Hordeum distichon L.) and the sowing oats (Avena sativa) was studied. It is shown, that the total number of the rhizosphere microorganisms changes during the plant growth and development. The specificity of the microbial composition of the three studied cereal crops has been observed

  6. Emission spectra of luminous bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit-van der Burg, A.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between the rate of photosynthesis and the pigment content was studied in seedlings of Avena sativa var. Victory. Etiolated seedlings were illuminated during different periods. Next, the rate of photosynthesis as well as the pigment concentrations were determined in the primary leaves.

  7. Single and Twin Row Peanut Production within Narrow and Wide Strip Tillage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased production costs and potential benefits of maintaining surface residue has renewed interest in conservation tillage systems for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production. We initiated a study to determine remaining surface residue cover from rye (Secale cereale L.) or oat (Avena sativa L.)...

  8. Desempenho de forrageiras hibernais sob distintos níveis de luminosidade Performance of hibernal forages under distinct brightness levels

    OpenAIRE

    Roque Kirchner; André Brugnara Soares; Laércio Ricardo Sartor; Paulo Fernando Adami; Francisco Migliorini; Lidiane Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se determinar os possíveis efeitos da restrição de luminosidade, obtida com distintas densidades de árvores de Pinnus taeda, sobre a produção e qualidade de: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) cv. Comum, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L.) cv. Fapa 2, azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.) cv. Comum, trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) duplo propósito cv. BRS Tarumã e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa L.). Avaliaram-se três níveis de luminosidade: a sol aberto (sem presença de árvores de Pinnus taeda), ...

  9. Cultivos de cobertura: efectos sobre la macroporosidad y la estabilidad estructural de un suelo franco-limoso Cover crops: effects on soil macroporosity and soil structural stability in a silt loam soil

    OpenAIRE

    María Florencia Varela; Patricia Lilia Fernández; Gerardo Rubio; Miguel Ángel Taboada

    2011-01-01

    Los suelos franco-limosos manejados con siembra directa a menudo poseen porosidad estructural baja e inestable. Con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad de los cultivos de cobertura (CC) de mejorar la porosidad y estabilidad estructural de estos suelos se llevaron a cabo experimentos de campo y de invernáculo. Ambos tuvieron tratamientos con y sin CC (avena, Avena sativa L.), en rotación con soja (Glicine max L. Merr.). Luego de los CC se midieron densidad aparente (DA), el índice de inesta...

  10. Effects of lead on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiussello, N.; Molinari, M.T.

    1973-01-01

    The poisonousness of lead nitrate to seedlings of several plant species has been tested in Petri dishes, with 10/sup -1/, 10/sup -2/, 10/sup -3/, 10/sup -4/ M conc. Distilled water and KNO/sub 3/ solutions 2 X 10/sup -1/, 2 X 10/sup -2/, 2 X 10/sup -3/, 2 X 10/sup -4/ M were employed as controls. The tested species show a decreasing sensitivity: Capsicum annum > Beta vulgaris > Phalaris canariensis > Vicia sativa > Helianthus annuus > Oryza sativa > Triticum vulgare Avena sativa > Pisum sativum. Avena sativa shows a diminution of 34% in ww, 23% in dw, 26% in chlorophyll content in comparison with the controls after 21 days 10/sup -4/ M lead nitrate. The chlorophyll content, referred to dry weight, is related to lead concentration. Since the early stages of chlorophyll biosynthesis are similar, if not identical, with those for Haemoglobin, lead could interfere as it does in haemoglobin synthesis.

  11. Health of leaves and ears of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivated after different forecrops

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Adam Okorski

    2013-01-01

    The research was conduced in the years 2000-2002. The aim of the research was to determinate the health of leaves and ears of spring wheat cultivated after spring cruciferae plants such as: spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz.), chiiiese mustard (Brassica juncea L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), ole iferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L.), false flax (Camelina sativa L.), crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst.), as well as after oat (Avena sativa L.) as con tro...

  12. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  13. Alimentación en adolescentes: Valoración del consumo de alimentos y nutrientes en España: Estudio AVENA

    OpenAIRE

    Mesana Graffe, María Isabel; Fajo Pascual, María Marta; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Rodríguez Martínez, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad existe un considerable interés en el crecimiento, desarrollo y maduración de los niños y adolescentes y cómo estos aspectos se relacionan posteriormente con la obesidad en el adulto. La adolescencia ha sido identificada como una de las etapas que juegan un papel crítico en el desarrollo y persistencia de la obesidad y sus enfermedades relacionadas en la edad adulta (Dietz, 1997). En los últimos veinte años, la obesidad infantil ha alcanzado proporciones epidémicas en todo el...

  14. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  15. Alimentación y valoración del estado nutricional de los adolescentes españoles (Estudio AVENA): Evaluación de riesgos y propuesta de intervención. I. Descripción metodológica del proyecto Feeding and assessment of nutritional status of Spanish adolescents (AVENA study): Assessment of risks and intervention proposal

    OpenAIRE

    M. González-Gross; Castillo, M.J.; Moreno, L.; E. De Nova; D. González-Lamuño; Pérez-Llamas, F; Gutiérrez, A; Garaulet, M.; Joyanes, M.; de Leiva, A.; Marcos, A

    2003-01-01

    Antecedentes: La adolescencia es una etapa decisiva en el desarrollo humano por los múltiples cambios fisiológicos y psicológicos que en ella ocurren los cuales, a su vez, condicionan tanto las necesidades nutricionales como los hábitos de alimentación, actividad física y comportamiento. Además, está demostrado que estos hábitos tienen repercusión en el estado de salud en la vida adulta. El interés de este tema así como su apropiado desarrollo ha merecido una financiación por parte del Fondo ...

  16. Alimentación y valoración del estado nutricional de los adolescentes españoles (Estudio AVENA: Evaluación de riesgos y propuesta de intervención. I. Descripción metodológica del proyecto Feeding and assessment of nutritional status of Spanish adolescents (AVENA study: Assessment of risks and intervention proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Gross

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La adolescencia es una etapa decisiva en el desarrollo humano por los múltiples cambios fisiológicos y psicológicos que en ella ocurren los cuales, a su vez, condicionan tanto las necesidades nutricionales como los hábitos de alimentación, actividad física y comportamiento. Además, está demostrado que estos hábitos tienen repercusión en el estado de salud en la vida adulta. El interés de este tema así como su apropiado desarrollo ha merecido una financiación por parte del Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria del Instituto de Salud Carlos III. Objetivo: Desarrollar una metodología que evalúe el estado de salud así como la situación nutricional-metabólica y forma física de una muestra representativa de adolescentes españoles. Especial atención se prestará a tres tipos específicos de patologías como son obesidad, anorexia nerviosa/bulimia, dislipidemia. Metodología: Para alcanzar el objetivo, se van a estudiar ocho tipos diferentes de magnitudes: 1 ingesta dietética, hábitos alimentarios y conocimientos nutricionales; 2 actividad física habitual y actitud frente a la práctica físico-deportiva; 3 nivel de condición física; 4 antropometría y composición corporal; 5 estudio hematobioquímico: perfil fenotípico lipídico y metabólico, estudio hematológico; 6 perfil genotípico de factores lipídicos de riesgo cardiovascular; 7 perfil inmunológico de estado nutricional; 8 perfil psicológico. Conclusión: Este proyecto incluye la actividad coordi nada de cinco centros españoles situados en otras tantas ciudades (Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander, Zaragoza. Cada uno de esos centros tiene larga y acreditada experiencia en la parte del estudio de la que es responsable. En función de los resultados obtenidos, se propondrá un programa específico de intervención que permita mejorar la alimentación y neutralizar el riesgo que, para las patologías antes mencionadas, existe entre los adolescentes españoles. Con ello se pretende contribuir a mejorar el estado de salud de la población española del nuevo milenio.Background: Adolescence is a decisive period in human life due to the multiple physiological and psychological changes that take place. These changes will condition both nutritional requirements and eating/physical activity behavior. It has been demonstrated that these "adolescence" factors are of significant influence in health status during adult life. Due to its importance and adequate development the project has been granted by the Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria of the Institute of Health Carlos III. Objective: To develop a methodology to evaluate the health and nutritional status of a representative population of Spanish adolescents. Specific attention is paid to three specific health problems: obesity, anorexia nervosa/ bulimia, dislipidemia. Methodology: The following magnitudes will be studied: 1 dietary intake, food habits and nutrition knowledge; 2 daily physical activity and personal approach; 3 physical condition; 4 anthropometry and body composition; 5 hematobiochemical study: plasma lipid phenotypic and metabolic profile, blood cell counts; 6 genotipic profile of cardiovascular risk lipid factors; 7 immune function profile related to nutritional status; 8 psychological profile. Conclusion: This project includes the co-ordinate activity of five Spanish centers of five different cities (Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander, Zaragoza. Each center is specialized in a specific area and will be responsible for the corresponding part of the study. From the data obtained, we will elaborate a specific intervention program in order to improve nutrition and neutralize the risk for nutritional related problems in adolescence. By this, we will contribute to improve the health status of the Spanish population in the new millennium.

  17. Incremento del consumo de tabaco y disminución del nivel de práctica de actividad física en adolescentes españoles: Estudio AVENA Increase in cigarette smoking and decrease in the level of physical activity among Spanish adolescents: AVENA study

    OpenAIRE

    P. Tercedor; M. Martín-Matillas; P. Chillón; I. J. Pérez López; Ortega, F.B. (Francisco B.); J. Wärnberg; Ruiz, J. R.; Delgado, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: El consumo de tabaco entre los adolescentes así como la disminución de los niveles de práctica de actividad física constituyen un problema de salud pública. El objetivo es conocer la relación existente entre el consumo de tabaco y la práctica de actividad física. Ámbito: Adolescentes españoles escolarizados. Sujetos: 2.859 adolescentes españoles (1.357 hombres, 1.502 mujeres; rango de edad: 13-18,5 años). Intervenciones: Se aplica un cuestionario para conocer el consumo de tabaco y ...

  18. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior degradabilidade efetiva para todos os nutrientes avaliados e a peletização da grama Esmeralda promoveu maior DE da MS e da fibra, sem alterar a DE da PB.

  19. Incremento del consumo de tabaco y disminución del nivel de práctica de actividad física en adolescentes españoles: Estudio AVENA Increase in cigarette smoking and decrease in the level of physical activity among Spanish adolescents: AVENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tercedor

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El consumo de tabaco entre los adolescentes así como la disminución de los niveles de práctica de actividad física constituyen un problema de salud pública. El objetivo es conocer la relación existente entre el consumo de tabaco y la práctica de actividad física. Ámbito: Adolescentes españoles escolarizados. Sujetos: 2.859 adolescentes españoles (1.357 hombres, 1.502 mujeres; rango de edad: 13-18,5 años. Intervenciones: Se aplica un cuestionario para conocer el consumo de tabaco y otros cuatro cuestionarios para conocer la práctica de actividad física en diferentes periodos de tiempo. Resultados: Un 40,8% de los adolescentes indicaron no practicar actividad física, mostrándose los varones más activos que las mujeres (p Objetive: Cigarette smoking among adolescents as well as the level of physical activity constitutes a public health care issue. The aim is knowing the relationship between cigarette smoking and practice of physical activity. Setting: Schooled Spanish adolescents. Subjects: 2859 Spanish adolescents (1357 boys, 1502 girls; age range: 13-18.5 years. Interventions: A questionnaire is applied to know the level of cigarette smoking and four other questionnaires to know the level of physical activity during different periods. Results: 40.8% of the adolescents stated not doing any physical activity at all, boys being more active than girls (p < 0.001. 29.9% of the adolescents stated usually smoking cigarettes, without differences by gender. Both active boys and girls stated smoking less (P ≤ 0.01. The greater the age, the higher cigarette smoking and the lower the level of physical activity, both in boys and girls (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The level of physical activity is low, being even lower for girls. Cigarette smoking shows a negative relationship with the level of physical activity, the individuals more physically active being those smoking the less.

  20. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; Kumar, Arvind; Unnikrishnan, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received considerable attention for their high content of dietary fibres, phytochemicals and nutritional value. It is believed that consumption of oats possesses various health benefits such as hypocholesterolaemic and anticancerous properties. Oats have also recently been considered suitable in the diet of celiac patients. Owing to their high nutritional value, oat-based food products like breads, biscuits, cookies, probiotic drinks, breakfast cereals, flakes and ...

  1. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvaney, Michael J.; Wood, C.W.; Balkcom, K.S.; D. A. Shannon; Kemble, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Metadata only record Combining high biomass cover crops with in situ organic mulches may achieve adequate weed control for no-till production, but the persistence and nutrient release rates from cover crops and mulches is unknown. This article describes carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates from three organic mulches (mimosa (Albizia julibrissin Durazz.), lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don)), and oat (Avena sativa L.) straw) and one summer cover crop (soybean (Glycine max...

  2. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; João Paulo Furlan de Jesus; Fabrício Rocha Vieira; Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes Viana; Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni

    2014-01-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellu...

  3. Methodology adjustments for organic acid tolerance studies in oat under hydroponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Marini Kopp; Viviane Kopp da Luz; Velci Queiróz de Souza; Jefferson Luis Meirelles Coimbra; Rogério Oliveira de Sousa; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of anaerobic conditions in hydromorphic soils favors the development of anaerobic microorganisms that produce phytotoxic substances representing primarily by organic acids. The selection of promising oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes for use in those situations requires field evaluations that can be cumbersome, making hydroponics a viable alternative. The objective of this work was to adjust a methodology to use in studies of tolerance to organic acids in oat under hydroponic sys...

  4. PROBLEM OF RISK ELEMENTS ACCUMULATION IN CEREAL RAW MATERIALS AND FOODSTUFFS

    OpenAIRE

    RASTISLAV MIKUŠKA; ZDENKA MUCHOVÁ; MARTINA FIKSELOVÁ

    2009-01-01

    Four kinds of cereals- wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum sativum L.), triticosecale (Triticosecale sativum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L) were taken from risk region of Slovakia in order to determine risk elements content in individual parts of grain. The results indicate significant differences in the content of the risk elements in four mill streams. Among observed cereals the highest content of risk metals decreased in order: oat>barley>triticosecale >spring wheat>win...

  5. Allelopathic effects on the germination of soybean seeds (Glycine max L.Merrill)/
    Efeitos alelopáticos sobre a germinação de sementes de soja (Glycine max L.Merrill)

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes; Michele Fernanda Bortolini

    2005-01-01

    This work had as objective to study the effect of natural substances found in root exsudates of other crops on the gemination of soybean seeds. Two experiments were accomplished. For the first experiment wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum), cale (Triticum sp.), corn (Zea mays), ervilhaca (Vicia sativa), and black oat (Avena strigosa), that were placed to germinate, in paper rolls, in BOD at 25°C. These seeds were discarded and the papers were reused for germination of soybean seeds, using as solu...

  6. Comparison of cytokinin-binding proteins from wheat and oat grains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamínek, Miroslav; Trčková, M.; Fox, J. E.; Gaudinová, Alena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 4 (2003), s. 453-458. ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV206/96/K188; GA ČR GA522/02/0530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Cytokinin-binding proteins * Avena sativa * SDS-polyacrylamide gel Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2003

  7. Comparison of protocols for DNA extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Aleixandre, Salvador; Sifres Cuerda, Alicia Gemma; Llosa, E.; Llamas, M.; Vilanova Navarro, Santiago; Prohens Tomás, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is an important crop cultivated both for industrial (var. sativa) and medicinal and recreational (var. indica) purposes. Cultivation of var. indica plants is generally forbidden and this difficults genetic studies. An alternative is the extraction of DNA from seed embryos. In order to develop an efficient protocol for DNA extraction of C. sativa seeds we have tested six DNA extraction methods in seeds and leaves of a C. sativa var. sativa accession. We found that the best prot...

  8. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Farimah; Khazaei, Majid; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS) (Ranunculaceae family) is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS). The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders. PMID:27247928

  9. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Beheshti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (NS (Ranunculaceae family is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  10. Thymoquinone: The Bioactive Component of Nigella Sativa

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLLÜ, Elif BACAK; AVCI, Gülcan

    2013-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) which was isolated from Nigella Sativa (NS), particularly has the beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anticancerogenic, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective. The biochemical and physiological properties of TQ was summarized in this review

  11. ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA

    OpenAIRE

    Salomi, M.J.; Panikkar, K.R.; Kesavan, M.; Donata, K.; Rajagopalan, K.

    1989-01-01

    An extract of Smilax china, Hemidesmus indicus and Nigella Sativa on the ratio 3:2:1, prepared by boiling in water and concentrated could completely cure cases of oral canger diagnosed by modern methods. Cytotoxic studies with the three components showed activity in Nigella sativa at a concentration of 25 microgram equivalent of the dry powder against Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells. Animal experiments indicated the retarded growth of ascites as compared to the controls with a longivity of 90%.

  12. Genetic variation in Puccinia graminis collected from oats, rye, and barberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Anna; Djurle, Annika; Samils, Berit; Yuen, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Puccinia graminis, the causal agent of stem rust, was collected from its alternate host barberry (Berberis spp.) and two different uredinial hosts, oats (Avena sativa) and rye (Secale cereale). The samples were analyzed using 11 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. There were large differences between fungal populations on oats (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) and rye (P. graminis f. sp. secalis), and the genetic variation within the different formae speciales was also high. It was possible to distinguish between the two formae speciales on barberry. Additional genotypic groups not present in the field samples from oats and rye were also identified on barberry. Our results confirm the importance of barberry in maintaining the populations of P. graminis in Sweden and the importance of the sexual stage for the survival of the pathogen. PMID:22734559

  13. Emerging clinical and therapeutic applications of Nigella sativa in gastroenterology

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) decreases DNA damage and thereby prevents initiation of carcinogenesis in colonic tissue secondary to exposure to toxic agents such as azoxymethane. N. sativa is of immense therapeutic benefit in diabetic individuals and those with glucose intolerance as it accentuates glucose-induced secretion of insulin besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption from the intestinal mucosa. N. sativa administration protects hepatic tissue from deleterious effects of tox...

  14. INDUSTRIJSKA KONOPLJA (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. sativa) V SLOVENIJI IN PO SVETU

    OpenAIRE

    Medved, Meta

    2012-01-01

    Gojenje industrijske konoplje (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. sativa) ima v Sloveniji in po svetu še vedno negativen prizvok. Razlog za to je sorodnost te rastline z indijsko konopljo (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. indica), ki se vzgaja za pridobivanje droge. To se odraža tudi v zakonodaji, ki nekaterim državam prepoveduje, drugim pa omejuje gojenje konoplje. Namen te raziskave je predstaviti uporabnost in dobičkonosnost pri pridelavi konoplje, ter preveriti vpliv pojavnosti droge, indijske konoplje na ...

  15. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodzadeh, Homa; Ghasemi, Mohsen; Hasan ZANGANEH

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies sh...

  16. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-gl...

  17. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa (Gold-of-pleasure or false flax) has been cultivated as an oilseed crop for centuries, and has been used as both a fuel oil and an edible oil. Current research efforts centers on its exceptionally high levels of omega-3 fatty acids which is uncommon in vegetable oils, as well as ric...

  18. Induction of cellular accessibility and inaccessibility and suppression and potentiation of cell death in oat attacked by ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤avenae¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, M.F.; Neyron, L.; Strudwicke, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    First-formed (seedling) and later-formed leaves of oat cvs Selma (susceptible) and Maldwyn (adult plant resistance under complex genetic control) were subjected to a double inoculation procedure ('inducer' followed by 'challenger') with conidia of Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer (Syn. Erysiphe...

  19. Induction of cellular accessibility and inaccessibility and suppression and potentiation of cell death in oat attacked by ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤avenae¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, M.F.; Neyron, L.;

    1999-01-01

    First-formed (seedling) and later-formed leaves of oat cvs Selma (susceptible) and Maldwyn (adult plant resistance under complex genetic control) were subjected to a double inoculation procedure ('inducer' followed by 'challenger') with conidia of Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer (Syn. Erysiphe...... graminis DC.). Successful penetration and haustorium formation by the inducer rendered living epidermal cells highly accessible to later challenge attack as judged by increased frequency of challenge penetration success compared to controls. Conversely, where failure of inducer attack on living epidermal...

  20. Individual and Combined Effects of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T Polymorphisms on Cognitive Performance in Spanish Adolescents: The AVENA Study RID C-7661-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Ruth; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno López, Luis A.; García Fuentes, Miguel; González Lamuno, Domingo; Álvarez Granda, Jesús L.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Ortega, Francisco B.; Avena Study Group

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the individual and combined associations of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms with cognitive performance in adolescents. Study design The study comprised 412 Spanish adolescents (13 to 18.5 years of age). Cognitive performance (verbal, numeric and reasoning abilities, and an overall score) was measured by the Spanish-version of the SRA-Test of Educational-Ability. Results We observed no differences in the cognitive performance study variables in adolescents carrying or ...

  1. Liberação de nutrientes durante a decomposição de palha de aveia preta (Avena strigosa) com diferentes teores de silício

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, L. S; H. Bohnen

    2001-01-01

    O Si absorvido pelas plantas é, em sua maior parte, depositado na parte externa da parede celular de folhas como uma camada de sílica amorfa (SiO2.nH2O) e poderia afetar a decomposição da palha no solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da presença deste elemento no tecido vegetal sobre a decomposição da palha, foi desenvolvido um experimento. Nesse experimento, a parte aérea de plantas de aveia preta, cultivadas em solução nutritiva com e sem adição de Si, foi incubada em tubos de PVC com a...

  2. The influence of intercrop plants and the date of their ploughing-in on weed infestation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008 in the Felin Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin on podzolic soil developed from dusty medium loam. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch. cv. Polanowicka was involved in the experiment. The experimental factors were 3 species of intercrop plants: common vetch (Vicia sativa, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia, oat (Avena sativa and 2 dates of ploughing-in: pre-winter and spring. In total, 26 taxons characteristic for vegetable plantations were identified in chicory weed infestation. Monocarpic species dominated, among which Senecio vulgaris, Chenopodium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Galinsoga ciliata, and Capsella bursa-pastoris were predominant. The date of ploughing-in did not significantly affect the status and size of weed infestation of chicory plots. Short-lived species occurred after pre-winter ploughing-in, while perennial - after spring ploughing-in. The application of intercrops significantly reduced chicory weed infestation as compared to the cultivation with no intercrop. The ploughing-in of Avena sativa biomass appeared to be the most efficient. The intercrop plants reduced the occurrence of Senecio vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris which were the most numerous in the treatment without intercrops. Biomass of Vicia sativa favored the growth of Chenopodium album and Lamium amplexicaule. The secondary weed infestation did not depend on agrotechnical factors applied during the experiment.

  3. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars. PMID:26329384

  4. Plant species, atmospheric CO2 and soil N interactively or additively control C allocation within plant-soil systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shenglei; Howard Ferris

    2006-01-01

    Two plant species, Medicago truncatula (legume) and Avena sativa (non-legume), were grown in low- or high-N soils under two CO2 concentrations to test the hypothesis whether C allocation within plant-soil system is interactively or additively controlled by soil N and atmospheric CO2 is dependent upon plant species. The results showed the interaction between plant species and soil N had a significant impact on microbial activity and plant growth. The interaction between CO2 and soil N had a significant impact on soil soluble C and soil microbial biomass C under Madicago but not under Avena. Although both CO2 and soil N affected plant growth significantly, there was no interaction between CO2 and soil N on plant growth. In other words, the effects of CO2 and soil N on plant growth were additive. We considered that the interaction between N2 fixation trait of legume plant and elevated CO2 might have obscured the interaction between soil N and elevated CO2 on the growth of legume plant. In low-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Avena dropped from 2.63±0.20 in the early growth stage to 1.47±0.03 in the late growth stage, indicating that Avena plant allocated more energy to roots to optimize nutrient uptake (i.e. N) when soil N was limiting. In high-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Medicago increased significantly over time (from 2.45±0.30 to 5.43±0.10), suggesting that Medicago plants allocated more energy to shoots to optimize photosynthesis when N was not limiting.The shoot-to-root ratios were not significantly different between two CO2 levels.

  5. Anticancer activities of Nigella sativa (black cumin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Chen, Han-chun; Tania, Mousumi; Zhang, Dian-zheng

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa has been used as traditional medicine for centuries. The crude oil and thymoquinone (TQ) extracted from its seeds and oil are effective against many diseases like cancer, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, asthma, kidney disease etc. It is effective against cancer in blood system, lung, kidney, liver, prostate, breast, cervix, skin with much safety. The molecular mechanisms behind its anticancer role is still not clearly understood, however, some studies showed that TQ has antioxidant role and improves body's defense system, induces apoptosis and controls Akt pathway. Although the anti-cancer activity of N. sativa components was recognized thousands of years ago but proper scientific research with this important traditional medicine is a history of last 2∼3 decades. There are not so many research works done with this important traditional medicine and very few reports exist in the scientific database. In this article, we have summarized the actions of TQ and crude oil of N. sativa against different cancers with their molecular mechanisms. PMID:22754079

  6. Genetic mapping of agronomic traits in false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, A; Friedt, W; Lühs, W; Snowdon, R J

    2006-12-01

    The crucifer oilseed plant false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa) possesses numerous valuable agronomic attributes that make it attractive as an alternative spring-sown crop for tight crop rotations. The oil of false flax is particularly rich in polyunsaturated C18-fatty acids, making it a valuable renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry. Because of the minimal interest in the crop throughout the 20th century, breeding efforts have been limited. In this study, a genetic map for C. sativa was constructed, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, in a population of recombinant inbred lines that were developed, through single-seed descent, from a cross between 'Lindo' and 'Licalla', 2 phenotypically distinct parental varieties. Three Brassica simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also integrated into the map, and 1 of these shows linkage to oil-content loci in both C. sativa and Brassica napus. Fifty-five other SSR primer combinations showed monomorphic amplification products, indicating partial genome homoeology with the Brassica species. Using data from field trials with different fertilization treatments (0 and 80 kg N/ha) at multiple locations over 3 years, the map was used to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed yield, oil content, 1000-seed mass, and plant height. Some yield QTLs were found only with the N0 treatment, and might represent loci contributing to the competitiveness of false flax in low-nutrient soils. The results represent a starting point for future marker-assisted breeding. PMID:17426770

  7. Parâmetros de fermentação ruminal em bovinos alimentados com grãos de milho ou sorgo de alta umidade ensilados

    OpenAIRE

    Passini Roberta; Rodrigues Paulo Henrique Mazza; Castro Ari Luiz de; Silveira Antonio Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Os parâmetros de fermentação ruminal de dietas contendo silagem de sorgo úmido em substituição à de milho úmido foram estudados em 12 fêmeas bovinas, com peso médio de 584 kg. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos: substituição do milho úmido pelo sorgo úmido ensilado, nos níveis de 0, 50 e 100%. As dietas continham grão úmido de milho ou de sorgo ensilados, soja extrusada, uréia, feno de aveia (Avena sativa sp.), suplemento mineral e monensina. Adicionalmente, foi ...

  8. Cereal starch, protein, and fatty acid pre-caecaldisappearance is affected by both feed technological treatment and efficiency of the chewing action in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Dickow, Mia Schødt; Brøkner, Christine;

    2012-01-01

    Horses have a digestive tract adapted for digesting a continuous flow of grasses with high fibre and low starch contents. However, to meet the energy requirements of performance horses, diets often contain energy dense and starch rich cereals. This is a practise, which can cause digestive disorders...... matter, starch, protein, and fattyacids from maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) subjected to different feedtechnologicaltreatments together with different types of untreated black and yellow oats (Avena sativa). However, degradation of feed in the gastrointestinal tract is not solely...

  9. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian R Descamps; Carolina Sánchez Chopa

    2011-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of...

  10. Primary Reactions of the LOV2 Domain of Phototropin Studied with Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, M.T.A.; Domratcheva, T.; Bonetti, C; Wilderen, van, L.J.G.W.; Grondelle, van, J Joop; Groot, M L; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Kennis, J.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Phototropins, major blue-light receptors in plants, are sensitive to blue light through a pair of flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding light oxygen and voltage (LOV) domains, LOV1 and LOV2. LOV2 undergoes a photocycle involving light-driven covalent adduct formation between a conserved cysteine and the FMN C(4a) atom. Here, the primary reactions of Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 (AsLOV2) were studied using ultrafast mid-infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. The singlet excited state (S...

  11. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 – 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. Th...

  12. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; Diego Cunha Zied; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni; João Kopytowski Filho

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The ...

  13. Comportamento de adubos verdes de inverno na região serrana fluminense Behaviour of temperate green manure species in a mountain region of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Antonio Almeida Barradas; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Dejair Lopes de Almeida; Helvécio De-Polli

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o comportamento de espécies de adubos verdes de inverno, em um Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico, sob duas condições de fertilidade, a 1.100 m de altitude. Dois experimentos de campo foram conduzidos em Nova Friburgo, RJ, utilizando as seguintes espécies: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schieb.), azevém-anual (Lollium multiflorum Lam.), chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L.), ervilhaca-comum (Vicia sativa L.), ervilhaca-peluda (Vicia villosa Roth), utilizada some...

  14. Comportamento de adubos verdes de inverno na região serrana fluminense

    OpenAIRE

    Barradas Carlos Antonio Almeida; Freire Luiz Rodrigues; Almeida Dejair Lopes de; De-Polli Helvécio

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o comportamento de espécies de adubos verdes de inverno, em um Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico, sob duas condições de fertilidade, a 1.100 m de altitude. Dois experimentos de campo foram conduzidos em Nova Friburgo, RJ, utilizando as seguintes espécies: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schieb.), azevém-anual (Lollium multiflorum Lam.), chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L.), ervilhaca-comum (Vicia sativa L.), ervilhaca-peluda (Vicia villosa Roth), utilizada some...

  15. Implicações da aplicação de fungicida na adaptabilidade e estabilidade de rendimento de grãos em aveia branca Implications of fungicide application to adaptability and stability of grain yield in oat

    OpenAIRE

    Claudir Lorencetti; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Volmir Sergio Marchioro; Giovani Benin; Antônio Costa de Oliveira; Elmar Luiz Foss

    2004-01-01

    Vinte genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa L.), testados em 13 ambientes, foram submetidos à análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização de fungicida nestes parâmetros, através do modelo de regressão segmentado de CRUZ et al. (1989). A aplicação de fungicida afetou os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1), responsividade (b1+b2) e estabilidade (), indicando que as estimativas devam ser realizadas em separado nos ambientes com e sem fungicida. Além disso, ...

  16. Implicações da aplicação de fungicida na adaptabilidade e estabilidade de rendimento de grãos em aveia branca

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencetti Claudir; Carvalho Fernando Irajá Félix de; Marchioro Volmir Sergio; Benin Giovani; Oliveira Antônio Costa de; Foss Elmar Luiz

    2004-01-01

    Vinte genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa L.), testados em 13 ambientes, foram submetidos à análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização de fungicida nestes parâmetros, através do modelo de regressão segmentado de CRUZ et al. (1989). A aplicação de fungicida afetou os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1), responsividade (b1+b2) e estabilidade (), indicando que as estimativas devam ser realizadas em separado nos ambientes com e sem fungicida. Além disso, ...

  17. Adaptability and stability of white oat cultivars in relation to chemical composition of the caryopsis Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de aveia-branca quanto à composição química da cariopse

    OpenAIRE

    Maraisa Crestani Hawerroth; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Antonio Costa de Oliveira; José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva; Luiz Carlos Gutkoski; João Francisco Sartori; Leomar Guilherme Woyann; Rosa Lía Barbieri; Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the chemical properties of white oat (Avena sativa) caryopsis and to determine the adaptability and stability of cultivars recommended for cultivation in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The trials were carried out in the 2007, 2008 and 2009 crop seasons, in three municipalities: Augusto Pestana, Capão do Leão, and Passo Fundo. Fifteen cultivars were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replicates. The contents of protein, lip...

  18. Effect of weed patch size on seed removal by harvester ants

    OpenAIRE

    Westermann, Paula R.; Atanackovic, Valentina; Torra, Joel

    2014-01-01

    In dryland cereals in North-eastern Spain, the harvester ant, Messor barbarus L., is responsible for removal of a large proportion of the newly produced weed seeds (40-100%). The probability that seeds will be found by the ants may be influenced by weed patch size. To investigate this source of variability, 30 seed patches were created in each of three, 50 × 50 m, blocks in a cereal field after harvest, by sequentially seeding (10, 16 and 17 August 2010) with 2000 seeds m-2 of Avena sativa L....

  19. Fornecimento de nitrogênio por plantas de cobertura de inverno e de verão para o milho em sistema de plantio direto Nitrogen supply by winter and summer cover plants to corn in no-till system

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Nelson Beutler; Flavio Luiz Foletto Eltz; Antônio Carlos Rabenschlag de Brum; Thomé Lovato

    1997-01-01

    Em experimento de campo num solo Podzólico vermelho-amarelo, textura superficial arenosa, localizado ná área experimental do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, foi avaliado o efeito de espécies de cobertura de inverno e de verão no suprimento parcial de nitrogênio e no rendimento de grãos de milho durante os anos agrícolas de1992/93 a 1994/95. Os tratamentos de inverno foram: (a) Consorciação aveia preta (Avena strigosa) + ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa) + 130kg ha-1...

  20. Biological testing of a digested sewage sludge and derived composts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, R.; Sousa, J.P.; Canhoto, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate a possible loss of soil habitat function after amendment with organic wastes, a digested sewage sludge and derived composts produced with green residues, where biologically tested in the laboratory using soil animals (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) and plants (Brassica rapa and Avena sativa). Each waste was tested mimicking a field application of 6 ton/ha or 12 ton/ha. Avoidance tests did not reveal any impact of sludge and composts to soil biota. Germination and grow...

  1. Decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio de resíduos culturais de plantas de cobertura de solo solteiras e consorciadas

    OpenAIRE

    Aita C.; Giacomini S. J.

    2003-01-01

    A dinâmica de decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio (N) de resíduos culturais provenientes de plantas de cobertura de solo, solteiras e consorciadas, foi avaliada em um experimento realizado em condições de campo, utilizando-se os seguintes materiais: (a) aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb); (b) ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa L.); (c) nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.); (d) 32 % de aveia preta + 68 % de ervilhaca comum, e (e) 51 % de aveia preta + 49 % de ervilhaca co...

  2. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species.

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekah E Oliver; Tinker, Nicholas A.; Lazo, Gerard R.; Shiaoman Chao; Jellen, Eric N.; Martin L. Carson; Rines, Howard W; Donald E Obert; Lutz, Joseph D.; Irene Shackelford; Korol, Abraham B.; Charlene P. Wight; Gardner, Kyle M.; Jiro Hattori; Beattie, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources wer...

  3. Triterpene Saponins from Nigella sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞKIN, Mustafa Kemal; ÇALIŞKAN, Özgen ALANKUŞ; ANIL, Hüseyin

    2005-01-01

    Three known triterpene glycosides were isolated from the MeOH extract of dried and powdered seeds of Nigella sativa. The structures of the compounds were established as 3-O-[b-D-xylopyranosyl- (1 \\to 3)-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 \\to 2)-a -L-arabinopyranosyl]- 28-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 \\to 4)-b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 \\to 6)- b-D-glucopyranosyl]-hederagenin (1), 3-O-[a -L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1 \\to 2)-a-L-arabinopyranosyl]-28-O-[a -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 \\to 4)- b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1\\to 6)-b-D-...

  4. The possibility of using macrophytes in lake Palić sediment remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petričević J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Palić is a typical, shallow Pannonian plain lake, with thick sediment layers and high content of phosphorus and nitrogen. The thick layers are the result of accelerated eutrophication, and cause biodiversity loss and disruption of the ecosystem. Numerous methods can be used to overcome the problem of accelerated eutrophication, (sediment removal, phosphorus inactivation etc.. However, these methods have many deficiencies. Lately, using macrophytes as a way to resolve this problem is becoming more and more popular. The aim of this work was to examine the germination possibilities of white mustard (Sinapis alba L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., oats (Avena sativa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. on Lake Palić’s sediment, as a prescreening test for their suitability for further phytoremediation. The results show that plant species can germinate and grow in early stages in such substrates, so they can be recommended for sediment phytoremediation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080

  5. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  6. Cross-amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa microsatellites across 22 other Vicia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Gi-An; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa). For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species. PMID:25608853

  7. Gamma radiation sensitivity in Nigella sativa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation induced mutagenic sensitivity of Nigella sativa L. (black cummin) was assessed from R1 attributes like frequency of seed germination, rate of seedling growth, chromosomal anomalies and sterility types, following exposures of dry dormant seed samples (1.8 % moisture content) to 5 KR, 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR, 50 KR and 60 KR of γ-irradiations. Results indicated that gamma radiations have induced both physiological and chromosomal disturbances. LD50 was found to lie between 20 KR and 30 KR of γ-ray. Treatments beyond 30 KR of irradiation were found to be lethal due to complete failure of emergence of seedlings in the field conditions; although 5 KR has shown stimulation in mitotic index. Sterility types have possibly appeared as an outcome of meiotic disturbances. (author)

  8. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa Linn: Part 2 Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram Khan, M; Afzal, M

    2016-06-01

    The black cumin or Nigella sativa L. seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as bronchodilatory, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating. This review article is an update on the previous article published on Nigella sativa L. in this journal in 1999. It covers the medicinal properties and chemical syntheses of the alkaloids isolated from the seeds of the herb. PMID:27068721

  9. Nigella Sativa Concoction Induced Sustained Seroreversion in HIV Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Onifade, Abdulfatah Adekunle; Jewell, Andrew Paul; Adedeji, Waheed Adeola

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa had been documented to possess many therapeutic functions in medicine but the least expected is sero-reversion in HIV infection which is very rare despite extensive therapy with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). This case presentation is to highlight the complete recovery and sero-reversion of adult HIV patient after treatment with Nigella sativa concoction for the period of six months. The patient presented to the herbal therapist with history of chronic fever, di...

  10. Single-nucleotide polymorphism identification and genotyping in Camelina sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ravinder; Bollina, Venkatesh; Higgins, Erin E.; Clarke, Wayne E.; Eynck, Christina; Sidebottom, Christine; Gugel, Richard; Snowdon, Rod; Parkin, Isobel A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Camelina sativa, a largely relict crop, has recently returned to interest due to its potential as an industrial oilseed. Molecular markers are key tools that will allow C. sativa to benefit from modern breeding approaches. Two complementary methodologies, capture of 3′ cDNA tags and genomic reduced-representation libraries, both of which exploited second generation sequencing platforms, were used to develop a low density (768) Illumina GoldenGate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Th...

  11. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF 'RAPHANUS SATIVUS', 'LACTUCA SATIVA', 'TRITICUM AESTIVUM' AND 'MEDICAGO SATIVA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences a...

  12. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0270 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0270 ref|YP_972704.1| flagellar hook-length control ... protein [Acidovorax avenae subs ... ulli AAC00-1] gb|ABM34930.1| flagellar hook-length control ... protein [Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli AAC00-1 ...

  14. AT SEED – A MULTIFUNCTIONAL SUBJECT FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY

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    M. Havrlentová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Oats (Avena sativa L. among the basic cereals are highly appreciated from the nutritive and the dietetic point of view. This beneficial effect of oat products is primary attributed to the soluble dietary fibre compound β-D-glucan, major polysaccharide constituent of cell walls of oats. Mature grains of naked oat genotypes dispose of higher content of β-D-glucan (Havrlentová and Kraic, 2006 and its value decreases in milled grain with time (Gajdošová et al., 2007. Locality and year influence its content, although it seems that the genotypes with black colour of the glumes account significantly lower standard deviation and variation coefficients in the content of β-D-glucan, what indicates markedly stable biosynthetic mechanism of studied metabolite (Čertík et al., unpublished data. Oat seed is also an important source of dietary fibre and its content can be influenced by both genotype and locality. The importance and exploitation of oats have an increasing style and therefore the monitoring of microsatellite polymorphism of Avena sativa DNA has his foundation. 20 pairs of microsatellite primers occurring in non-coding regions of DNA were tested. The best value of DI (0.938, the maximum value of PIC (0.938, and the minimum value of PI (0.000 was found in the microsatellite AM1. Generally, the oat DNA seems to be very conservative.

  15. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions. PMID:17516948

  16. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  17. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. (Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (USA)); Geno, P.W. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  18. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  19. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis, and the obtained values were compared with the control. The obtained results suggest that the extract from the shoot parts of cannabis in high concentrations of 75 and 100 % had inhibiting effect to the germination indices while the extract from the root had no statistically significant effect on germination of lettuce seeds. Extract made of root part of cannabis showed also stimulatory effect to shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings in extract concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 %.

  20. Effect of Nigella sativa on the kidney function in rats

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    Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an amazing herb which is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illnesses including bronchial asthma, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, as well as beneficial effect on blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides level. This study aimed to determine the toxic effect of N. sativa powder on the kidney function which was evaluated by serum urea and creatinine and through histopathological examination of kidney tissue. Methods and Materials: In this study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (six each. The rats were kept in the separate cage with three rats per cage. The treatment groups were given rat pellet containing N. sativa dose at 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 g/kg body weight which were considered as low, normal, and high dose for five weeks while control group fed with rat chow pellet without supplementation. At the end of 35 days, the rats were sacrificed to take the blood sample and to remove the kidney organ for toxicity evaluation. Statistical analyses were done through one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant difference in serum urea of treatment groups compared with the control group. The results showed a significant decline in serum creatinine of high dose of Nigella sativa  treated  compared with low dose treated and control groups (p

  1. Renal injury, nephrolithiasis and Nigella sativa: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence and prevalence of kidney stone is increasing worldwide. After the first recurrence the risk of subsequent relapses is higher and the time period between relapses is shortened. Urinary stones can be severely painful and make a huge economic burden. The stone disease may increase the vulnerability of patients to other diseases such as renal failure. Medicinal herbs are rich sources of antioxidants which are increasingly consumed globally for their safety, efficacy and low price. Nigella sativa is a spice plant that is widely used for prevention and treatment of many ailments in Muslim countries and worldwide. This review aims at investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa on renal injury and stone formation. Materials and Method: The scientific resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched using key words such as: nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, kidney/renal stone, renal injury, renal failure, urinary retention and black seed, black cumin, Nigella sativa and thymoquinone.    Results: N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone showed positive effects in prevention or curing kidney stones and renal failure through various mechanism such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-eicosanoid and immunomodulatory effects. The putative candidate in many cases has been claimed to be thymoquinone but it seems that at least in part, particularly in kidney stones, the herbal melanin plays a role which requires further investigation to prove. Conclusion: N. sativa and its components are beneficial in prevention and curing of renal diseases including nephrolithiasis and renal damages.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankun Wang

    Full Text Available Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.

  3. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyehyun; Seo, Boyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Jo, Euna; Park, Jin-Kyoung; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848 bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854 bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales. PMID:26104156

  4. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR) and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the the...

  5. The relaxant effect of Nigella sativa on smooth muscles, its possible mechanisms and clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Keyhanmanesh; Zahra Gholamnezhad; Mohammad Hossien Boskabady

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a spice plant which has been traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Different therapeutic properties including the beneficial effects on asthma and dyspnea, digestive and gynecology disorders have been described for the seeds of N. sativa. There is evidence of the relaxant effects of this plant and some of its constituents on different types of smooth muscle including rabbit aorta, rabbit jejunum and trachea. The relaxant effect of N. sativa coul...

  6. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    OpenAIRE

    Shewmaker Christine K; Goldstein Elianna; Schroeder Jesara; Comai Luca; Beilstein Mark; Ditt Renata F; Hutcheon Carolyn; Nguyen Van Thu; De Rocher Jay; Kiser Jack

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD) 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE) 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the p...

  7. Redistribution of phosphorus in soil through cover crop roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Franchini

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate if cover crops can absorb P from the upper layers and transport it in their roots to subsoil layers. Samples of an Oxisol were placed in PVC columns. Super phosphate fertilizer was applied to the 0-10 cm soil surface layers. The cover crops tested were: Avena strigosa, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Pisum sativum subsp arvense, Pisum sativum, Vicia villosa, Vicia sativa, Lupinus angustifoliu, Lupinus albus, and Triticum aestivum. After a growth period of 80 days the cover crop shoots were cut off and the soil was divided into 10cm layers and the roots of each layer were washed out. The roots and shoots were analyzed separated for total P contribution to the soil. Considerable amount of P was present in the roots of cover crops. Vicia sativa contained more than 60% of total plant P in the roots. The contribution of Vicia sativa to soil P bellow the fertilized zone was about 7 kg ha-1. It thus appeared that there existed a possibility of P redistribution into the soil under no tillage by using cover crops in rotation with cash crops. Vicia sativa was the most efficient cover crop species as P carrier into the roots from superficial layer to lower layers.Em plantio direto o P acumula-se próximo da subsuperfície do solo. Devido a importância do P para o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular é benéfico a sua transferência da superfície para a subsuperfície do solo. O objetivo foi avaliar se as plantas de cobertura do solo podem absorver P na superfície e transferi-la através das raízes para a subsuperfície do solo. Amostras de um latossolo com baixo teor de P disponível foram transferidas para colunas de PVC. Superfosfato triplo foi aplicado na camada de 0 a 10 cm de profundidade. Avaliaram-se as seguintes plantas de cobertura: Avena strigosa, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Pisum sativum subsp arvense, Pisum sativum, Vicia villosa, Vicia sativa, Lupinus angustifoliu, Lupinus albus, e Triticum

  8. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normando Villafañe Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.

  9. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluzzo Rinaldi José Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.

  10. Allelopathic effects on the germination of soybean seeds (Glycine max L.Merrill/ Efeitos alelopáticos sobre a germinação de sementes de soja (Glycine max L.Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the effect of natural substances found in root exsudates of other crops on the gemination of soybean seeds. Two experiments were accomplished. For the first experiment wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cale (Triticum sp., corn (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, and black oat (Avena strigosa, that were placed to germinate, in paper rolls, in BOD at 25°C. These seeds were discarded and the papers were reused for germination of soybean seeds, using as solution-test root exsudates, and as control distilled water to humidify the paper. For the second experiment, aqueous extract of above-ground part of black oat (Avena strigosa was used to humidify the paper where the soy seeds were placed to germinate, in BOD at 25oC. Allelopatic effects alelopáticos of the root exsudates were verified on the percentage of germination of the soybean seeds, but it was not verified effect on the time and medium speed of germination. It was observed negative interference of black oat extract on the time and medium speed of soybean seeds germination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de substâncias naturais encontrados em exsudados radiculares de outras culturas, sobre a geminação da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro, sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum, triticale (Triticum sp., milho (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, e aveia preta (Avena strigosa, foram colocadas para germinar, em rolos de papel, em BOD a 25°C. Estas sementes foram descartadas e os papéis reutilizados para germinação de sementes de soja, utilizando como solução-teste exsudados radiculares, e como controle apenas água destilada para umedecer os papéis. Para o segundo experimento, foi utilizado extrato aquoso da parte área de aveia preta (Avena strigosa, como umidificante do papel, onde posteriormente as sementes de soja foram colocadas para germinar, em BOD a 25oC. Constataram-se efeitos alelopáticos dos exudados

  11. Effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on Cyclosporine Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Ahad; Mohd Raish; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Hesham M. Korashy; Al-Kharfy, Khalid M.; Mohd Aftab Alam; Al-Suwayeh, S. A.; Iqbal Muzaffar; Al-Jenoobi, F. I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in rabbits. Two groups of animals were treated separately with Nigella sativa (200 mg/kg p.o.) or Lepidium sativum (150 mg/kg p.o.) for eight consecutive days. On the 8th day, cyclosporine (30 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to each group one hour after herbal treatment. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4....

  12. Primary human monocyte differentiation regulated by Nigella sativa pressed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Mahaya C; Mohamed Azman S; Hamid Shahrul S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxidized low density lipoprotein plays an important role in development of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The study was focused on regulation of primary human monocyte growth and CD11b expression in presence of Nigella sativa oil. Methods Primary human monocytes were isolated from whole blood and grown at 37°C and 5% CO2 saturation for five days prior to treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The cells were plated and washed before treatment with ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) as positive ...

  13. ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON BENINCASA HISPIDA AND NIGELLA SATIVA OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Lubna Tahir; Benazir Chand; Salma Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Fixed oil of seeds of Benincasa hispida and Nigella sativa was found active against various resistant pathogens of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed against S.aureus (24mm) for Nigella sativa but when 1:1 combination of both the plants was used, good activity against all the tested pathogens i.e., M. luteus, E. coli, S. aureus, P. multocida, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis (20.31 to 18.61mm) was observed proving seeds as a strong candidat...

  14. Competition between Medicago sativa and Dactylis glomerata in mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ROTAR

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available The higs yield obtained from mixte culture of Medicago sativa and Dactylis glomerata in favourable cultivating conditions, show the superiority of this mixture in obtaining rich and constant yields. Our experiment has in view the relations established between the two species sown at different intervals on land gradually fertilized by nitrogen. The intraspecific competition for the nourishing space manifests itself with stronger intensity in the case of small distances and decreases as they increase. The presence of mineral nitrogen in the soil, for long periods, increases the competitive capacity of cocksfoot, its absence favours Medicago sativa.

  15. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  16. Cadmium and chromium concentrations in six forage species irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were investigated in six different forage species, i.e., Trifolium alexandrium, Cichorium intybus, Avena sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Brassica campestris and Medicago sativa, irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water. The Cd levels of the forages irrigated with different water treatments in this study were greater than the tolerance level for grazing livestock reported in the literature. Thus, the Cd levels in the six plant species found in the current study showed high potential threat for livestock consuming these forages. Similarly, high levels of Cr in the six forages were observed with sewage water treatment only. However, in the present investigation, Cr concentration of forages was below the toxic level. Therefore, there was no threat of Cr toxicity for animals being reared on these forages. (author)

  17. The Genus Pithomyces in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. O. Marasas

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given of South African isolates of  Pithomyces sacchari (Speg. M. B. Ellis, Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt. M. B. Ellis and  Pithomyces karoo  Marasas & Schumann, sp. nov.  P. sacchari and P. chartarum were isolated from Medicago sativa L. seed.  P. chartarum was also isolated from dead leaves of Lolium perenne L. and  Sporobolus capensis (Willd. Kunth. plants from artificial pastures in the eastern Cape Province.  P. karoo was isolated from stems of Gnidia polycephala (C.A. Mey. Gilg and  Rhigozum trichotomum Burch, from the Karoo, Cape Province and from Avena sativa L. stubble collected in the Orange Free State.

  18. ESTUDOS NUTRICIONAIS COM ARROZ (Oryza sativa, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo LAM-SÁNCHEZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Estudos com arroz (Oryza sativa, L. foram realizados a fim de determinar a variabilidade do teor de proteína em coleções de cultivares e a possibilidade de utilizar as camadas periféricas do grão na alimentação humana. Foram analisadas 626 linhagens e cultivares de arroz que mostraram uma variação quanto ao teor de proteína de 4.00 a 14.31 g/100 g de amostra. Para se extrair as camadas periféricas do grão, foi desenvolvida uma máquina experimental, que removia as camadas superficiais dos grãos de arroz integral (inteiros somente com a casca removida. Verificou-se que a quantidade de proteína do grão diminui de fora para dentro. O resíduo, que era constituído de grande parte de restos de endosperma com um teor protéico menor mas incluía o embrião, que é a primeira estrutura a se deslocar de grão no beneficiamento e contém proteínas, vitaminas, sais minerais e lípides, tinha um bom valor nutritivo. Desenvolveu-se também uma fórmula para alimentação infantil a partir da mistura de leite de vaca com arroz, com composição semelhante à do leite materno, a ser utilizada sob a forma de bebida ou mingau. Formulações com 40%-20% arroz + 60%-80% leite de vaca proporcionaram valores de Coeficiente de Eficiência Protéica (2,39 e 2,38, respectivamente que não diferiam estatisticamente do valor de 2,43 obtido na fórmula com 100% de leite de vaca. Seus preços foram 59% e 65% do obtido para o leite de vaca integral. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Arroz; qualidade do grão; proteína; camadas periféricas; misturas arroz-leite; nutrição humana.

  19. Genetic Isolation, Divergence And Gene Flow In O. sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge about the structure and evolutionary history of naturally occurring variation in crops and their wild relatives provides insights into the complex process of domestication and new opportunities for utilizing novel alleles in crop improvement. Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is co...

  20. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in

  1. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in th

  2. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2010-08-01

    Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies. PMID:20694927

  3. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds after plasma treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Brasov: Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.). s. 251-251 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment /13./ OPTIM 2012. 24.05.-26.05.2012, Brasov] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cannabis sativa L. * plasma treatment Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  4. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-385. ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

  5. WATER USE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION COEFFICIENTS FOR CAMELINA SATIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water use characteristics of Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop, were evaluated in an irrigation experiment in Maricopa, Arizona. Camelina (cv. Robinson) was grown between November 2006 and April 2007 in plots, each 10 by 17 m. Thirty-two of the field plots were replicated in a randomized block de...

  6. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina Modification of fertility by agronomic practices on the soil in Famatina, La Rioja, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normando Villafañe Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.The study was carried out with garlic (Allium sativum L. cropped in a sandy loam soil in Famatina, La Rioja Argentine. Strips of soil were used with the following soil treatments: T1, a 2-year period with no fertilizers or manure after one year without cropping; T2, a 2-year period with chemical fertilizers (CF preceded by garlic.; T3, combined use of CF and 23 t ha-1 of goat feces for a 1-year period preceded by oats (Avena sativa L.; T4 pooled CF and 23 t ha-1 of goat feces for a 2-year period preceded by oats; T5 a 1-year period with CF came after an oat crop of two years; and T6, use of CF following

  7. Introducción de cultivos de cobertura en la rotación soja-maíz: efecto sobre algunas propiedades del suelo Inclusion of cover crops in a soybean-corn rotation: effect on some soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Beatriz Restovich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco limosos de la Pampa Ondulada bajo siembra directa (SD con predominio de soja y, secundariamente maíz, registran una progresiva disminución de su fertilidad física y química. La introducción de cultivos de cobertura (CC en sistemas agrícolas cada vez menos diversificados podría constituir una herramienta agronómica para mitigar esta degradación edáfica. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: 1 evaluar el efecto de diferentes CC sobre algunas propiedades del suelo (porosidad, distribución de tamaño de poros, estabilidad estructural, densidad aparente, carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, carbono lábil y 2 analizar la evolución de las propiedades edáficas durante la introducción de CC en la secuencia soja-maíz bajo SD. En 2005, se instaló un ensayo sobre un Argiudol típico (franco limoso con diferentes especies de ciclo otoño-invernal, utilizadas como CC. Las especies fueron: cebada forrajera (Hordeum vulgare L., ray grass (Lolium multiflorum L., avena (Avena sativa L., cebadilla (Brumus unioloides L., vicia (Vicia sativa L., colza (Brassica napus L., nabo forrajero (Raphanus sativus L., una consociación de vicia y avena y un testigo sin CC. Los cambios en las propiedades edáficas producidos durante la introducción de CC fueron: aumento de la macroporosidad y de su estabilidad y aumento del COS y de su fracción lábil. Estos cambios fueron de mediana a baja magnitud, se registraron principalmente próximos a la superficie (0-5 cm, estuvieron asociados a los momentos en los que se realizaron aportes importantes de C y fueron fáciles de revertir en asociación con períodos de lluvias intensas. El efecto acumulado de la rotación mostró mayor aporte de COS al sistema en presencia de CC. De los CC probados, se destacó el nabo forrajero como generador de porosidad y la avena como estabilizadora del sistema poroso.Silt loam soils of the Rolling Pampas cultivated with soybean and, secondarily, corn under no

  8. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G; Parkin, Isobel A P

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome structure of C. sativa surprisingly mirrors those of economically important amphidiploid Brassica crop species from lineage II as well as wheat and cotton. The three genomes of C. sativa show no evidence of fractionation bias and limited expression-level bias, both characteristics commonly associated with polyploid evolution. The highly undifferentiated polyploid genome of C. sativa presents significant consequences for breeding and genetic manipulation of this industrial oil crop. PMID:24759634

  9. Genetic Variation of Host Populations of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ping; DU Yu-zhou; HE Ya-ting; ZHENG Fu-shan; LU Zi-qiang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ (mtDNA-COI) gene and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA-ITS1) gene, isolated from five artificial populations of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera:Agromyzidae), were sequenced and compared, to analyze their genetic variation. Analysis of the mtDNA-CO1 gene showed that a low genetic variation was detected among the five populations and only five variable sites were found in the nucleotide sequences. Most of the observed variations that occurred within the populations were because of nucleotide transitions, whereas, the interpopulation variation was because of the differences in haplotype frequencies occurring among the host populations. Analysis of the rDNA-ITS1 gene revealed a small diversity in the five host populations. The trend of genetic differentiation in the host populations was consistent with the preference of L. sativae to the plant hosts.

  10. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status. PMID:26156861

  11. Toxicity Effect of Nigella Sativa on the Liver Function of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Hafanizam Bin Hassan; Latiffah Abdul Latiff; Saadat Parhizkar; Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Nigella sativa powder on the liver function which was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes and through histopathological examination of liver tissue. Methods: Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were allotted randomly to four groups including: control (taking normal diet); low dose (supplemented with 0.01 g/kg/day Nigella sativa); normal dose (supplemented with 0.1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa) and high dose (supplemente...

  12. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat Parhizkar; Latiffah Latiff; Ali Parsa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third...

  13. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E.; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J.; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E.; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G; Parkin, Isobel A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome ...

  14. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, J.; Mujić, I.; Nikolić, G.; S Vidović; A Mujić

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Conten...

  15. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle M.; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metab...

  16. Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle M.; Jean-Francois eHausman; Gea eGuerriero

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fibre since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibres. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metab...

  17. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    OpenAIRE

    Zuardi A.W.; Crippa J.A.S.; Hallak J.E.C.; Moreira F.A.; Guimarães F.S.

    2006-01-01

    A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxi...

  18. THE EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L. ON INTRACTABLE PEDIATRIC SEIZURES

    OpenAIRE

    J Akhondian; Parsa, A; H. RAKHSHANDE

    2009-01-01

    Background:Despite availability and administration of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) nearly 15% of childhood epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment; in traditional medicine however Nigella sativa L. (Black seed) has been known for its anticonvulsant effects.Materials and Methods:In this double-blind clinical trial conducted on children with refractory epilepsy we administered the aqueous extract of black seed as an adjunct therapy and compared the effects with those of a placebo. The ...

  19. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinica...

  20. PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF NIGELLA SATIVA - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Saha Rajsekhar; Bhupendar Kuldeep

    2011-01-01

    The importance of natural flora is well known by the scientific community. The medicinal plant gifted by nature have by explored by the humans to find out there respective values in the medical field. Times to time there have been report regarding the medicinal plants having huge possibilities for use. In the above article a similar kind of plant have been described, which have been reported of having many medicinal uses. The plant Nigella sativa have been reported to have significant activit...

  1. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M.; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Pur...

  2. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca2+ is known to cause opening of anima...

  3. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Honório Káthia Maria; Arroio Agnaldo; Silva Albérico Borges Ferreira da

    2006-01-01

    Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action ...

  4. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz.)

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Maria; Petersen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz.) is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials...

  5. THE EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L. ON INTRACTABLE PEDIATRIC SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AKHONDIAN MD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Despite availability and administration of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs nearly 15% of childhood epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment; in traditional medicine however Nigella sativa L. (Black seed has been known for its anticonvulsant effects.Materials and Methods:In this double-blind clinical trial conducted on children with refractory epilepsy we administered the aqueous extract of black seed as an adjunct therapy and compared the effects with those of a placebo. The study was performed between Sep 2003 and Nov 2004. The subjects received either extract or placebo for a period of four weeks and between these two periods for two weeks they received only their pre-existing anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs.Results:The mean frequency of seizures decreased significantly during treatment with extract, (p-value =0/007.Conclusion:It can be concluded that the water extract of Nigella sativa L. has antiepileptic effects in children with refractory seizures that do not respond to known AEDS.keywords:Nigella sativa, Intractable seizures, Children

  6. Tracking alien chromosome in sativa background by genomic in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to look into the genomic constitution of monosomic alien -addition line derived from O. sativa x O. brachyantha. Biotin label genomic DNA from O. brachyantha was used as probe. The probe hybridized to the brachyantha chromosome. No detectable hybridization signal was observed on sativa chromosomes. This differential painting of chromosome enables us to unequivocally discriminate brachyantha chromosome from those of sativa. Results showed the usefulness of GISH in the identification of a single alien chromosome in the sativa background. (author)

  7. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa Therapeutical aspects of compounds of the plant Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Káthia Maria Honório; Agnaldo Arroio; Albérico Borges Ferreira da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action ...

  8. Macrophomina phaseolina: density and longevity of microsclerotia in soybean root tissues and free on the soil, and competitive saprophytic ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In field experiments, the density of Macrophomina phaseolina microsclerotia in root tissues of naturally colonized soybean cultivars was quantified. The density of free sclerotia on the soil was determined for plots of crop rotation (soybean-corn and soybean monoculture soon after soybean harvest. M. phaseolina natural infection was also determined for the roots of weeds grown in the experimental area. To verify the ability of M. phaseolina to colonize dead substrates, senesced stem segments from the main plant species representing the agricultural system of southern Brazil were exposed on naturally infested soil for 30 and 60 days. To quantify the sclerotia, the methodology of Cloud and Rupe (1991 and Mengistu et al. (2007 was employed. Sclerotium density, assessed based on colony forming units (CFU, ranged from 156 to 1,108/g root tissue. Sclerotium longevity, also assessed according to CFU, was 157 days for the rotation and 163 days for the monoculture system. M. phaseolina did not colonize saprophytically any dead stem segment of Avena strigosa,Avena sativa,Hordeum vulgare,Brassica napus,Gossypium hirsutum,Secale cereale,Helianthus annus,Triticosecalerimpaui, and Triticum aestivum. Mp was isolated from infected root tissues of Amaranthus viridis,Bidens pilosa,Cardiospermum halicacabum,Euphorbia heterophylla,Ipomoea sp., and Richardia brasiliensis. The survival mechanisms of M. phaseolina studied in this paper met the microsclerotium longevity in soybean root tissues, free on the soil, as well as asymptomatic colonization of weeds.

  9. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  10. Changes in activity of lysine decarboxylase in winter triticale in response to grain aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempruch, C; Leszczyński, B; Wójcicka, Agnieszka; Makosz, M; Matok, H; Chrzanowski, G

    2010-12-01

    Changes in lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity caused by Sitobion avenae (F.) feeding on two winter triticale cultivars (cvs) were studied. The aphid fecundity and values of intrinsic rate of natural increase showed that cv Witon was less susceptible to S. avenae than cv Tornado. The grain aphid feeding on more susceptible triticale caused a decrease in the LDC activity, with exceptions of root tissues after two weeks of the feeding. In case of less susceptible cv Witon reduction of the LDC activity was observed only during initial period of S. avenae feeding. Later the aphid infestation induced activity of the LDC within tissues of cv Witon. PMID:21112841

  11. Effect of dietary inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) on performance and some blood metabolites of Japanese quail

    OpenAIRE

    Navid Hosseini Mansoub; Mahmoud Pooryousef Myandoab

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) powder on performance and serum composition of Japanese quails. One week old three hundreds Japanese quails were divided into 4 groups (of three replicates each) in a randomized design. G1 is the control group that did not receive any herbal planet, G2 group was fed the control diet + 2% of Alfalfa powder, G3 group was fed the cont...

  12. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-10C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  13. POLLINATION EVENTS IN NIGELLA SATIVA L. (BLACK CUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetana Mukherjee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollination events in Nigella sativa Family: Ranunculaceae; common name: black cumin; significant plant species for therapeutic uses and possessing spice yielding property has been studied in relation to floral morphology, consequences of pollination types on reproductive parameters, types of visitors (Apis dorsata Fabr. – honeybees; Coccinella transversalis Fabr. - lady bug, Danaux plexippus L. - butterfly and Colletes succinctus L. - wasp and flower color changes from bud to blooming stage. Honeybees are the predominant pollinators. Pollination is of ‘generalized type’. The study has provided insight on the effective mode of pollination in the species maximizing seed yield.

  14. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attass, Safia A; Zahran, Fat'heya M; Turkistany, Shereen A

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  15. EKSTRAKCIJA I ANALIZA KONDENZIRANIH TANINA CASTANEA SATIVA MIIL.

    OpenAIRE

    J Živković; I Mujić; Nikolić, G.; S Vidović; Mujić, A.

    2009-01-01

    Proantocijanidini, poznati kao kondenzirani tanini su jako rasprostranjeni u drvenastim biljkama, a pronađeni su i u hrani. Castanea sativa Mill. se dosta koristi za različite namjene, međutim malo je poznat njegov potencijal i moguća primjena u dijeti i terapiji. Dijelovi kestena kao što su; cijeli plod, srž ploda, vanjska smeđa kora ploda, crvena unutrašnja kora ploda, list, resa, ježura, kao i nova i stara kora drveta su ekstrahirani primjenom 50% etanola kao ekstragensa. Sadržaj ukupni...

  16. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  17. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  18. Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs by fingerprint strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOQUAZHOU; GUOFANHONG; 等

    1995-01-01

    We described the construction of BAC contigs of the genome of a indica variety of Oryza sativa.Guang Lu Ai 4. An entire representative(Sixfold coverage of rice chromosomes)and genetically stable BAC library of rice genome constructed in this lab has been systematically analysed by restriction enzyme fragmentation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.And all the images thus obtained were subject to image-processing,which consisted of preliminary location of bands,cooperative tracking of lanes by correlation of adjacent bads.a precise densitometric pass,alignment at the marker bands with the standard,optional interactive editing,and normalization of the accepted bands.The contigs were generated based on the Computer Software specially designed for genome mapping.The number of contigs with 600 kb in length on average was 464.of contigs with 1000kb in length on average was 107; of contigs with 1500 kb in length on average was Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs.23.Therefor,all the contigs we have obtained ampunted up to 420 megabases in length.Considering the size of rice genome(430 megabased),the contigs generated in this lab have covered nearly 98% of the rice genome.We are now in the process of mapping the contigs to chromosomes.

  19. Succession of crops in fitossanidade and crop productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Sucessão de culturas na fitossanidade e produtividade da cultura da batata (Solanum tuberosum L. Suceción de culturas na fitosanidad y productividad de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilsom dos Santos Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the experimental area of Department of Agronomy, campus Cedeteg of the State University Center West, Guarapuava - PR. It aimed to evaluate the productivity and classification of tubers and the severity and incidence of scab on the potato crop in succession crops of vetch (Vicia sativa L., oat (Avena strigosa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., radish (Raphanus sativus L. and fallow area. It was observed that the productivity and the diameter of the tubers were not affected by treatments. The cultivation of oat as predecessor increases the severity of common scab (Streptomyces spp, and fallow and culture of vetch as predecessor caused an increase in severity of silver scab (Helminthosporium solani Dur. e Mont..A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em área experimental do departamento de Agronomia no campus Cedeteg da Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste, Guarapuava (PR. O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e a classificação dos tubérculos e a severidade e incidência de Sarna sobre a cultura da batata em sucessão às culturas da ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L., aveia preta (Avena strigosa L., trigo (Triticum aestivum L., nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. e área de pousio. Observou-se que a produtividade e o diâmetro dos tubérculos não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O cultivo de aveia preta como antecessora aumenta a severidade da Sarna Comum (Streptomyces spp., e pousio e a cultura da ervilhaca como antecessor ocasionou aumento da severidade da Sarna Prateada (Helminthosporium solani Dur. e Mont..
    Pesquisa realizada em el compo experimental del Departamento de agronomia del Campus Cedeteg de la Universidad Estadual del Centro Oeste de Guarapuava (PR, Brasil. Su objetivo fue evaluar la productividad, clasificar los tubérculos y verificar la severidad de la ocurrencia de Sarna sobre

  20. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. PMID:26945773

  1. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Parhizkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments wasconducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment, various extracts of N. sativa (second experimentand some of its ingredients (third experiment on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control, distilled water or olive oil (negative control, treatment groups  (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment, (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment. Results: The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p

  2. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Latiff, Latiffah Abdul; Parsa, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control), distilled water or olive oil (negative control), treatment groups (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment), (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment) and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment). Results: The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p<0.05) in different experiments. Conclusion: The finding indicated the probable beneficial role for N. sativa in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and possibility of using N. sativa as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post menopause in human. PMID:27247926

  3. Influences of nitrogen fertilization on the evolution of CO2 and yield in oat in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol), of Nariño department of Colombia Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de CO2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de Chimangual (Andisol), departamento de Nariño - Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Menjivar Juan; Gálviz Carmen; Silva Amanda

    2007-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and yield of oat crop in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol) of Nariño department of Colombia was mesasured. The experiment was designed using a factorial design arranged in a CBD. The three N sources consisted of: potassium nitrate, 13%N, ammonium sulfate 21%N and colacteos 27%N (a local nitrogen fertilizer). Also, three doses (25,75 y 150 kg N ha-1) and three application times were used: at sowing time, total at 45 days an fractional,...

  4. Effect of Fixed Oil of Nigella Sativa on Male Fertility in Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Samir Bashandy

    2007-01-01

    High plasma level of cholesterol or triglycerides was associated with poor semen quality and direct adverse effects on testicular function that may lead to male infertility. The effect of fixed oil of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) on male fertility in normal and hyperlipidemic rats was studied. Induction of hyperlipidemia was done by feeding rats on a diet containing 1% cholesterol, 2% sheep fat and 0.5% cholic acid for 2 months. Oil of N. sativa was orally given (0.5mL/rat) for 2 months daily t...

  5. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak; Abdul Majid Mohamed; Noor Hashida Hashim; Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n ...

  6. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-07-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 - 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost. PMID:24031271

  7. Panax Kullanımına Bağlı Gelişen İki Akut Koroner Sendrom Olgusu : Gizli ve Büyük Tehlike

    OpenAIRE

    Uğurlu, Yavuz; Ergül, Elif; Karadağ, Zakir; Bostan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Aterosklerotik kardiyovasküler hastalıklar günümüzde epidemik hale gelmiştir. Morbidite ve mortalitenin en sık nedenleridir. Son yıllarda, Tribulus terrestris (TT), Avena sativa (AS) ve Panax Ginseng (PG) içeren bitkisel karışımlar koroner arter hastaları tarafından sık olarak kullanılmaktadır. Bu yazıda, bilinen koroner arter hastalığı olmasına rağmen, ilaçlarını bırakıp bitkisel karışım kullanan ve akut koroner sendrom gelişen iki olgu sunuldu.

  8. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in Finnish cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka, E-mail: tuukka.turtiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Kostiainen, Eila, E-mail: eila.kostiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja, E-mail: anja.hallikainen@evira.f [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 {mu}Sv per year, respectively.

  9. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

    OpenAIRE

    Bertan Ivandro; Silva Giovani Olegário da; Valério Igor Pires; Floss Elmar Luíz; Lorencetti Claudir; Vieira Eduardo Alano; Coimbra Jefferson Luís Meireles; Carvalho Fernando Irajá Félix de; Oliveira Antônio Costa de; Benin Giovani

    2005-01-01

    Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L.) foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966). A presença de significância para anos, genótip...

  10. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados Adaptability and stability in oat in stratified environments

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Benin; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Antônio Costa de Oliveira; Claudir Lorencetti; Eduardo Alano Vieira; Jefferson Luís Meireles Coimbra; Igor Pires Valério; Elmar Luíz Floss; Ivandro Bertan; Giovani Olegário da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L.) foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966). A presença de significância para anos, genótip...

  11. Formulation and characterization of a nutritional pumpkin-based whey beverages, enriched with oatmeal and passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Valencia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect on the addition of oatmeal (Avena sativa and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis in the content of fiber, calcium, iron, phosphorus and A vitamin in beverage formulation based on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, milk and whey, was determined. The beverages undergone significant changes during the storage time, the pH decreased as the acidity showed a slight increase. The coordinates of CIELAB (L *, a * and b * were located in quadrant 1 indicating a clear tendency to yellow caused by the presence of carotenoids from the pumpkin and passion fruit. Based on the sensory analysis it was selected best treatment who was higher in 3 of the 4 parameters evaluated. This sample also presented a pseudoplastic behavior with a consistency index of 3.57 Pa.s0.24 and a shelf life of 9 days

  12. Comparison of the lipid composition of oat root and coleoptile plasma membranes: lack of short-term change in response to auxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, R. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The total lipid composition of plasma membranes (PM), isolated by the phase partitioning method from two different oat (Avena sativa L.) tissues, the root and coleoptile, was compared. In general, the PM lipid composition was not conserved between these two organs of the oat seedling. Oat roots contained 50 mole percent phospholipid, 25 mole percent glycolipid, and 25 mole percent free sterol, whereas comparable amounts in the coleoptile were 42, 39, and 19 mole percent, respectively. Individual lipid components within each lipid class also showed large variations between the two tissues. Maximum specific ATPase activity in the root PM was more than double the activity in the coleoptile. Treatment of coleoptile with auxin for 1 hour resulted in no detectable changes in PM lipids or extractable ATPase activity. Differences in the PM lipid composition between the two tissues that may define the limits of ATPase activity are discussed.

  13. Produção de matéria seca de forragem e acúmulo de nutrientes em pastagem anual de inverno tratada com esterco líquido de suínos Forage dry matter production and nutrient uptake of a hibernal pasture under application of pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Joice Mari Assmann; João Alfredo Braida; Luís César Cassol; Emanuelle Cavazini Magiero; Claudia Manteli; Ederson Griz

    2009-01-01

    O Esterco líquido de suínos (ELS) pode ser usado como fertilizante orgânico, mas seu uso incorreto pode contaminar o solo e os mananciais de água. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de nutrientes ao solo, através do ELS, sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS) e o acúmulo de nutrientes de uma pastagem de aveia branca+azevém (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum). Um experimento foi realizado de 2004 a 2006, no campo experimental da UTFPR, em Pato Branco, Paraná, Brasil. O sol...

  14. EVALUACIÓN ECONÓMICA DE SISTEMAS DE RECRÍA-ENGORDA CON GANADO HEREFORD PARA LA PRECORDILLERA ANDINA DE LA VIII REGIÓN Economic evaluation of beef cattle production systems with Hereford cattle in the Andean foothills of the VIII Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron económicamente tres sistemas de recría-engorda para la precordillera andina basados en trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum y suplementación invernal con heno (TS; trébol subterráneo y suplementación invernal con heno y avena grano (TC, y trébol subterráneo en mezcla con trébol encarnado (Trifolium incarnatum, trébol subterráneo con festuca (Festuca arundinacea y alfalfa (Medicago sativa más suplementación invernal con heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense y avena (Avena sativa grano (VE. Se utilizaron terneros Hereford enteros de 197 kg PV inicial y 6,3 meses de edad promedio, saliendo de los sistemas con 385 kg PV promedio entre los 14 y 16 meses de edad. Los sistemas se proyectaron a tamaños de 25, 50 y 200 ha de praderas. La estructura de costos consideró costos variables (CV y fijos (CF. Los precios utilizados correspondieron a abril de 2001. La rentabilidad sin CF varió entre 17,1% en TS y 23,4%, en VE. Al incluir el CF la rentabilidad disminuyó en todos los sistemas con valores que fluctuaron entre 1,2 y 18,5% en TS y VE, respectivamente. La rentabilidad de los sistemas según tamaño varió entre -0,1% en sistema TS/predio 25 ha, único con rentabilidad negativa, y 19,17% en la combinación sistema VE/predio 200 ha. Los indicadores económicos fueron mayores en los sistemas TC y VE. Se presentó una mayor influencia del CF en la rentabilidad de los predios de tamaños menores. El sistema VE resultó siempre con margen neto positivo cuando se sensibilizó por precio de compra de terneros, precio de venta de toritos, costo de alimentación y porcentaje de mortalidad de terneros.Three beef cattle production systems were economically evaluated for the Andean foothills based on subterraneum clover (Trifolium subterraneum and hay supplementation during winter (TS; subterraneum clover with winter supplementation of hay and oats (TC; and subterraneum clover in a mix with crimson clover (Trifolium

  15. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp. were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1. The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost. The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  16. Transfer of alien genes by means of induced translocation in oats and other crop species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the best sources of resistance to mildew, which is the most important disease of the oat crop in the United Kingdom, occur in related weed species. The mildew resistance found in a genotype of the tetraploid species Avena barbata has been transferred into the germ plasm of the cultivated hexaploid species A. sativa by means of an induced translocation. The procedures adopted to isolate the desirable translocation and to determine its breeding behaviour are described. A number of alien genes have been transferred into wheat by means of induced translocations and genetic induction, but their successful introduction into commercial varieties has been limited. In this paper, the use and limitations of alien transfers as breeding material are discussed. (author)

  17. Action de I'AlA sur la teneur en azote total et protéinique des graines de céréales cultivées à different niveau de la capacité capillaire en eau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available L'action de I'AIA sur la teneur en azote total et en azote protéinique des graines du Triticum vulgare, d'Hordeum vulgare et d'Avena sativa cultivés a 30%, 60% et 90% de la capacité capillaire en eau du sable a tété étudiée au cours de trois ans (1969, 1970, 1971. La teneur en g-protéines totales liée au rendement des graines de céréales examinees a été plus élevée dans les conditions de sécheresse (30% de la capacite capillaire en eau à la suite d'un traitement auxinique. La teneur (% en azote total et proteinique ne semble pas etre tellement modifiee dans les graines de cereales à la suite d'un traitement auxinique.

  18. The Effect of New Thiophene-Derived Aminophosphonic Derivatives on Growth of Terrestrial Plants: A Seedling Emergence and Growth Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowski, Jarosław; Malinowski, Zbigniew; Matusiak, Agnieszka; Morawska, Marta; Rogacz, Diana; Rychter, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize selected thiophene-derived aminophosphonic systems and evaluate the phytotoxicity of newly obtained products according to the OECD 208 Guideline. Seven new thiophene-derived N-substituted dimethyl aminomethylphosphonic acid esters 2a-h were synthesized by the addition of an appropriate phosphite to azomethine bond of starting Schiff bases 1a-h, and NMR spectroscopic properties of aminophosphonates were investigated. These eight compounds were analyzed in regard to their phytotoxicity towards two plants, radish (Raphanus sativus) and oat (Avena sativa). On the basis of the obtained results, it was found that tested aminophosphonates 2a-h showed an ecotoxicological impact against selected plants, albeit to various degrees. PMID:27248990

  19. Persistência biologica de ametryn, diuron e oxyfluorfen no solo Biological persistence of ametryn, diuron, and oxyfluorfen in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Antonio Peñaherrera-Colina; Itamar Ferreira de Souza; Luiz Roberto Guimarães Guilherme; Júlio Sílvio de Sousa Bueno Filho

    2005-01-01

    Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a persistência biológica de herbicidas de pré-emergência em condições de casa-de-vegetação utilizando a aveia (Avena sativa L.) como planta teste. O experimento foi instalado na Estação Experimental Boliche, Província de Guayas, Equador entre outubro e dezembro de 2002. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial (3 x 4 x 4 + 1), envolvendo aplicações de três herbicidas (ametryn a 2,0 kg ha-1...

  20. Protein synthesis and auxin-induced growth: inhibitor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, G.T.; Cleland, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    We have compared the effects of cycloheximide (CHI) and two other rapid and effective inhibitors of protein synthesis, pactamycin and 2-(4-methyl-2,6-dinitroanilino)-N-methyl proprionamide (MDMP), on protein synthesis, respiration, auxin-induced growth and H/sup +/-excretion of Avena sativa L. coleoptiles. All three compounds inhibit protein synthesis without affecting respiration. The effectiveness of the inhibitors against H/sup +/-excretion and growth correlates with their ability to inhibit protein synthesis. Both CHI and MDMP inhibit auxin-induced H/sup +/-excretion after a latent period of 5 to 8 min, and inhibit growth after a 8 to 10 min lag. These results support the idea that continued protein synthesis is required in the initial stages of the growth-promoting action of auxin.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12022-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 260 9e-68 (A7ZR12) RecName: Full=Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating]; ... 260 9e-68 U28377_2( U28377 |pid:none) Escherichia...260 9e-68 CU928162_3278( CU928162 |pid:none) Escherichia coli ED1a chromosom... 260 9e-68 (B1XEJ0) RecName: Full=Glycine dehydrogena...94( BA000030 |pid:none) Streptomyces avermitilis MA-468... 251 3e-65 (A5VV25) RecName: Full=Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylat...7068 ) 1093018423377 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-30-02-01-1... 52 4e-16 5 ( U11693 ) Avena sativa victorin bind.... 35 7.9 >(Q54KM7) RecName: Full=Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating], mitochondrial; EC=1.4.4.2; AltName

  2. Allelopathic interference of Populus deltoides with some winter season crops

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harminder; Kohli, Ravinder; Batish, Daizy

    2001-01-01

    Interférence allélopathique de Populus deltoides avec quelques cultures d'hiver. On a étudié dans deux groupes de champs du Punjab (Inde du Nord) les performances des cultures d'hiver suivantes associées avec des allées de Populus deltoides : Triticum aestivum, Lens culinaris, Phaseolus mungo, Avena sativa, Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica juncea et Helianthus annuus. Dans l'un des groupes le sol d'origine a été conservé (S$_{\\rm p}$), tandis que dans l'autre il a été remplacé par un sol prél...

  3. Efficiency of application of instantaneous radiation of seeds by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of application of instantaneous (impulse) radiation of seeds of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and oat (Avena sativa) by plasma was analyzed. Research results showed that presowing treatment of seeds with instantaneous helium radiation in course of 0,01 seconds (the total duration of seed treatment with plasmatron ion source impulses – one second). In course of the practical experiments there was proved possibility of application impulse radiation technologies in modern agricultural production. Seed germination capacity exceeded the control variants on 14%. Results of influence of applied irradiation on length of sprouts, length of roots and their germinating ability were presented. Irradiation efficiency developed in course of plant vegetation. In accordance with research results and accumulated experimental material on presowing seed treatment with impulses of low temperature helium plasma could make it possible to obtain yields with higher capacity and quality with the minimal expenses for seed treatment

  4. Studies on methodology for vegetal bio indicators in bioremediation areas contaminated with petroleum wastes; Estudos sobre metodologia para bioindicadores vegetais em areas de biorremediacao contaminadas com residuos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Castro, Rodrigo Azevedo; Krenczynski, Michele Cristine; Goncalves, Claudia Martins; Souza, Sergio Luiz de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Grube, Karl; Coelho, Jorge Ibirajara Evangelista [PETROBRAS, PR (Brazil). REPAR

    1998-07-01

    The present work has as it main objective the development of bioindicator methodology for use of soil biorremediation criteria and environmental assessment evaluation upon the actual soil biorremediation status quantification. In order to do so morphophysiological aspects of Avena sativa and Barbarea verna, were determinated under greenhouse conditions for a dilution series of contaminated soil with the non contaminated one. A quantification scale model was proposed report the based on the statistical analysis for the defined morphophisyological parameters. Therefore, it has possible to quantigicate phytoxicity and construct phytotoxicity curves for the contaminated soil dilution series. It was possible to conclude that the developed methodology can be used as a criteria of soil actual biorremediation status. (author)

  5. Radiological aspects of choice of a system of cultivation of sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with different degree of humidity on lands of Mogilev region contaminated with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented data about the influence of technological factors on entry of 137Cs into plant products (grain and green mass). In course of the study there were analyzed the following variants of soil cultivation: moldboard plowing; subsurface chisel soil tillage; subsurface surface soil tillage; minimal tillage. There were presented data on specific activity of 137Cs in plant product samples of oat (Avena sativa) grain; field pea (Pisum arvense L.) and oat mixture grain and green mass; wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain. There were determined the main principles of influence of cultivation systems of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil with different degree of humidity on transition of 137Cs into plants depending on the degree of soil and crop humidity. On the automorphic soil there was revealed a tendency of increased transition of 137Cs into grain and green mass after application of subsurface surface soil tillage system

  6. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Nigella sativa L. Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Suresh Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the bacterial pathogens are resistant to existing synthetic antibacterial agents demanding an increasing effort to seek effective phytochemicals as antibacterial agents against such pathogens. Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seeds play an important role in folk medicine and some of its major constituents are reported to be pharmacologically active. In this present work, black cumin seed extracts were obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 and conventional soxtec extraction using various organic solvents. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were investigated by the agar dilution method against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus F 4810 and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722 and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 108 and Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 859. SCCO2-1 (120 bar/40ºC extract showed effective growth inhibition than conventional solvent extracts against all the tested bacteria. Further the antibacterial principle present in the extract was isolated and characterized found to be thymoquinone.

  8. Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L As A Promising Forage In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L or Lucerne is a perennial herbaceous legume with superior forage quality. It is the most important forage crop in the world and it was the first domesticated forage crop. Alfalfa is able to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria with N production 7.85 – 10.37 g/m2. Its rooting system can reach 4.5 m that allows it to escape drought. Forage production can reach 15.48 tons of dry matter per ha/year and containing 18.0 – 29.1 % crude protein. Plants can live 3 to 12 years depending on climatic conditions and crop varieties. However, alfalfa is not a tropical plant, thus it has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The problem of alfalfa cultivation are high pest attacks and competition with weeds. Therefore, alfalfa cultivation requires attention and good management to obtain optimum yield.

  9. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  10. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

    2010-01-01

    Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `Pūriņi' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

  11. [Co-crystallization of cucumber concentrate (Cucumis sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A; Beristain, C I

    1998-09-01

    A sucrose syrup of 70 degrees Brix was concentrated until a concentration greater than 95 degrees Brix was attained. It was studied the effect of concentration (20, 25 and 35 degrees Brix) on the physical properties of the cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) granules. Moisture content, solubility, and density were determined. The best results were found for the concentrated at 30 degrees Brix. Lemon juice was added to the concentrated to decrease pH from 5.5 to 4.0 to improve flavor and to avoid growth of molds and yeast. No significant differences in the higroscopicity were found between both pH (s). Sensory evaluation shows that 30 judges of 45 preferred the sample made with the co-crystallizate containing lemon juice. PMID:9951539

  12. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins. PMID:16600295

  13. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  14. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Bastante, J; Ortega-Román, C; Pinzi, S; Lara-Raya, F R; Leiva-Candia, D E; Dorado, M P

    2015-06-01

    The main drawbacks of biodiesel production are high reaction temperatures, stirring and time. These could be alleviated by aiding transesterification with alternative energy sources, i.e. ultrasound (US). In this study, biodiesel was obtained from Camelina sativa oil, aided with an ultrasonic probe (20kHz, 70% duty cycle, 50% amplitude). Design of experiments included the combination of sonication and agitation cycles, w/wo heating (50°C). To gain knowledge about the implications of the proposed methodology, conventional transesterification was optimized, resulting in higher needs on catalyst concentration and reaction time, compared to the proposed reaction. Although FAME content met EN 14103 standard, FAME yields were lower than those provided by US-assisted transesterification. Energy consumption measurements showed that ultrasound assisted transesterification required lower energy, temperature, catalyst and reaction time. PMID:25768413

  15. Furanocoumarins in Pastinaca sativa L. in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Gomółka, E

    2000-08-01

    Callus cultures of Pastinaca sativa L. (parsnip), Apiaceae, were cultivated on variants of Linsmaier-Skoog's medium, containing varying quantities (0.1-10.0 mg/l) of phytohormones: NAA-BAP and IBA-BAP which allowed to obtain 1.5-3-fold fresh biomass growth during 6-week subcultures. HPLC analyses showed that tissues cultured in vitro produced psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin and umbelliferone which are well known metabolites in plants growing under natural conditions. Total content of coumarins depended on the nature and quantity of phytohormones present in the medium, and ranged from 115.7 to 408.5 mg/100 g of the dry weight, isopimpinellin being the metabolite which dominated quantitatively (maximum content of 238.9 mg/100 g). Psoralen was also accumulated in callus tissues at considerable amounts (maximum content of 108.8 mg/100 g). This metabolite dominated in vegetative plant parts that have been analysed in our study (leaves, stems, roots) but its contents were lower than in the material from in vitro culture (48.9 mg/100 g 10.6 mg/100 g and 14.9 mg/100 g, respectively). Imperatorin was not detected in callus tissues although it dominated in the analysed fruits of the studied plant (200.0 mg/100 g). The best of the tested media in respect of promoting tissue biosynthetic capabilities was that which contained 3 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BAP. The studies showed that in vitro cultures of Pastinaca sativa L. can be a convenient model to study the biosynthesis of furanocoumarins and also a potential rich source of these compounds, particularly isopimpinellin. PMID:10989843

  16. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of some phenolic compounds especially thymoquinone (TQ, which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a comprehensive study of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant on induced neurotoxicity.

  17. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds. PMID:27097439

  18. Optimized analysis and quantification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds by reverse-phase liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-of-pleasure or false flax (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) presscake contains three relatively unique glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl) nonylglucosinolate)glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decylglucosinolate), and 11-(methylsulfinyl)undecylglucosinolate. Using defatted seed material...

  19. COMPARACIÓN DE ENSILAJE DE TRIGO Y DE MAÍZ EN LA ENGORDA INVERNAL DE NOVILLOS Comparison of wheat and maize silage in winter finishing of steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rojas G.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante 72 días de la temporada invernal de 1998, se utilizaron 24 novillos Normando de 20 a 21 meses de edad y 385 kg de peso vivo (PV promedio, con el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta animal al consumo de ensilaje de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cosechado en dos estados vegetativos, en comparación a ensilaje de maíz (Zea mays L.. Los tratamientos fueron T1: ensilaje de maíz; T2: ensilaje de trigo grano lechoso harinoso; y T3: ensilaje de trigo grano harinoso suave a duro. La alimentación estuvo constituída por la mezcla de ensilaje con concentrados, en la relación 62,5: 37,5, respectivamente. Los concentrados se formularon para cada ensilaje, con grano de avena (Avena sativa L., lupino blanco (Lupinus albus L., urea y sales minerales, de forma que la oferta de alimentos fuera aproximadamente isoproteica para niveles de 13%. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. El consumo de alimentos y los incrementos de PV del T3 fueron significativamente mayores (P 0,05. Se concluye que el ensilaje de trigo, especialmente en el estado de grano harinoso suave a duro, puede reemplazar al ensilaje de maíz, con menos de 30% de MS, en raciones de engorda de novillos, sin afectar los incrementos de PV.During 72 days of the winter season of 1998, twenty-four Normando steers, 20 to 21 months of age and 385 kg average liveweight, were fattened in order to evaluate animal response to feeding of whole wheat (Triticum aestivum L. silage in comparison to maize (Zea mays L. silage. Treatments were T1: maize silage; T2: wheat silage at milky starchy stage; and T3: wheat silage at soft or hard starchy stage. The feed was composed of a mixture of silage and concentrates in a 62.5: 37.5 ratio, respectively. The concentrates were formulated with oats (Avena sativa L. and white lupines (Lupinus albus L., urea and minerals in order to obtain an approximately isoproteic ration with 13% crude protein. The experimental design was a

  20. Cultivos de cobertura: efectos sobre la macroporosidad y la estabilidad estructural de un suelo franco-limoso Cover crops: effects on soil macroporosity and soil structural stability in a silt loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Varela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco-limosos manejados con siembra directa a menudo poseen porosidad estructural baja e inestable. Con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad de los cultivos de cobertura (CC de mejorar la porosidad y estabilidad estructural de estos suelos se llevaron a cabo experimentos de campo y de invernáculo. Ambos tuvieron tratamientos con y sin CC (avena, Avena sativa L., en rotación con soja (Glicine max L. Merr.. Luego de los CC se midieron densidad aparente (DA, el índice de inestabilidad estructural (IE y en el ensayo de invernáculo además, se midió la evolución de la distribución de tamaño de poros (DTP. En ambos ensayos la introducción de CC no disminuyó la DA, aunque incrementó la estabilidad del suelo (PNo- till (NT silt loam topsoils have often a low and unstable structural porosity. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of cover crops (CC of improving the structural porosity and stability of silt loam soils under NT. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out on a silt loam soil (Typic Argiudoll with and without CC (oat, Avena sativa L. in crop sequences with soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.. Soil bulk density (DA and aggregate instability index (IE were measured after the CC in both experiments. In the greenhouse experiment, soil pore size distribution (DTP was measured. The use of CC did not change DA, but soil IE was significantly lower in crop sequences with CC (P < 0.05 both under field and greenhouse conditions. Stability increases were likely due to the effect of CC residues and root mass. No differences in DTP were found between treatments, although a significant effect of sampling date was observed (P<0.05. Changes in DTP were due to significant increases in mesopore (517.5% and macropore (52.7% volumes. Such changes occurred in all the treatments, probably due to the soil wetting-drying cycles. The results found in this study agree with other studies carried out on silt loams in the

  1. Mycorrhizal Propagule Persistence in a Succession of Cereals in a Disturbed and Undisturbed Andisol Fertilized with Two Nitrogen Sources Persistencia de Propágulos Micorrícicos en una Sucesión de Cereales en un Andisol Disturbado y no Disturbado, Fertilizado con Dos Fuentes de Nitrógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cornejo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF form symbiosis with plant roots, improving its establishment, nutrition, and tolerance to adverse soil conditions. In annual crop rotations, some aspects such as the type of N fertilizer and tillage system used can affect the AMF propagule density and its functionality in the following crop. To analyze the effect of the agronomic practices previously mentioned on the persistence and density of AMF propagules, a study in a succession of cereals was carried out. For this, soil previously cropped with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and fertilized with urea (NH4+ or sodium nitrate (NO3- was disturbed in each case by simulating conventional tillage (CT or maintained without disturbing, simulating no-tillage (NT. It was then cultivated with oat (Avena sativa L. using the same N sources. Higher densities of AMF active mycelium and colonized root length in the NT soil were observed (76 and 497% higher than in CT soil, respectively, P Los hongos micorrícico-arbusculares (AMF forman simbiosis con las raíces de las plantas, favoreciendo su establecimiento, nutrición y tolerancia a condiciones adversas del suelo. En rotaciones de cultivos anuales algunos aspectos como el tipo de fertilizante nitrogenado utilizado y el sistema de labranza pueden afectar la densidad de propágulos de AMF y su funcionalidad en el cultivo siguiente. Para analizar el efecto de las prácticas agronómicas previamente mencionadas sobre la persistencia y densidad de los propágulos de AMF, se realizó un estudio en microcosmos simulando una rotación de cereales. Para esto, suelo previamente cultivado con trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y fertilizado con urea (NH4+ o nitrato de sodio (NO3- fue, en cada caso, disturbado simulando una labranza convencional (CT o mantenido sin disturbar simulando cero labranza (NT y cultivado con avena (Avena sativa L., utilizando las mismas fuentes de N. Se observaron mayores densidades de micelio activo de AMF y

  2. Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds ...

  3. Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lalitha Priyanka Dwarampudi; Dhanabal Palaniswamy; Muruganantham Nithyanantham; Raghu, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screeni...

  4. Gastroprotective effects of Nigella Sativa oil on the formation of stress gastritis in hypothyroidal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Sater, Khaled A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hypothyroidism on the development of acute cold restraint stress gastritis in rats and protective effect of Nigella sativa at the beginning of the acute cold restraint stress. 60 rats were randomly divided into six groups; the control (groups I), surgically thyroidectomized group (group II), acute cold restraint stressed group (group III), surgically thyroidectomized plus stressed group (group IV), Nigella sativa oil group (group V) and surgi...

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. at the contaminated fluvisol

    OpenAIRE

    Jakšić Snežana P.; Vučković Savo M.; Vasiljević Sanja; Grahovac Nada; Popović Vera; Šunjka Dragana B.; Dozet Gordana K.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, heavy metals concentrations increased in some agricultural areas due to the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals (As, Cr, Ni and Pb) in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. grown on fluvisol, in order to obtain information on safety of these nutrients. The total content of Pb, As, Cr and Ni in the samples of fluvisol was above the maximum allowable amount. The content of heavy metals in Medicago sativa ...

  6. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; El-Din M. Gaafar, Alaa; El Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration i...

  7. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  8. De novo assembly and characterization of Camelina sativa transcriptome by paired-end sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chao; Liu, Xuan; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofuels extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have recently been used successfully as environmentally friendly jet-fuel to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Camelina sativa is genetically very close to Arabidopsis thaliana, and both are members of the Brassicaceae. Although public databases are currently available for some members of the Brassicaceae, such as A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa, there are no public Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) or ge...

  9. Silagem de grãos úmidos de milho e de sorgo e níveis protéicos sobre desempenho e características da carcaça de novilhos superprecoces High moisture silage corn and sorghum grain and protein levels on steers' carcass performance and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciniro Costa

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados grãos úmidos de milho e de sorgo ensilados sobre o desempenho, a carcaça e a qualidade da carne de bovinos em dietas com dois níveis protéicos (PB. Foram utilizados 64 novilhos, com peso médio de 293,5 kg. O delineamento foi feito com blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial de tratamentos 2x2, sendo dois níveis protéicos (14 ou 17% e dois grãos (milho ou sorgo, totalizando 4 tratamentos. As dietas continham grãos úmidos de milho ou grãos úmidos de sorgo ensilados, soja extrusada, milho triturado, uréia, feno de aveia (Avena sativa, suplemento mineral e monensina. Ao final de 162 dias, os animais foram abatidos, sendo avaliadas a carcaça e a qualidade da carne. Houve maior rendimento de carcaça para animais terminados com silagem de sorgo úmido (P High moisture corn or sorghum silage on the performance, carcass and meat quality of steers receiving two protein levels were evaluated. Sixty-four steers were used with 293.5 kg as average weight. Experimental design was randomized blocks with 2x2 factorial arrangement: two protein levels (14% or 17% and two grains (corn or sorghum, adding 4 treatments. Diets contained high moisture corn or sorghum silage, soybean, cracked corn, urea, oat hay (Avena sativa, mineral supplement and monensin. At the end of 162 days, the animals were slaughtered and then carcass and meat quality were evaluated. There was higher dressing for the animals receiving sorghum silage (p < 0.05. Animals receiving 17% protein and high moisture sorghum resulted in higher ether-extract in the meat (p=0.05. High moisture sorghum improved the carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  10. Digestibilidade de dietas a base de grão úmido de milho ou de sorgo ensilados Digestibility of high moisture corn or sorghum grain silage in diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Antonio Lencioni Titto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Digestibilidade in vivo de dietas com sorgo úmido substituindo milho úmido foi estudada em 12 fêmeas bovinas. O delineamento, inteiramente casualizado, conteve três tratamentos, sendo a substituição do milho pelo sorgo úmido, nos níveis de 0, 50 e 100%. As dietas continham grão úmido de milho ou sorgo, soja, uréia, feno de aveia (Avena sativa sp., minerais e monensina. Foi avaliada a degradabilidade in situ do milho e sorgo nos processamentos de moagem, quebra e ensilagem. Não houve diferença na digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta, fibra bruta, fibra detergente neutro e extrato etéreo. Houve efeito linear negativo (P In vivo digestibility of diets with high moisture sorghum substituting corn was studied in 12 female bovines. Experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments, substituting high moisture corn by sorghum at 0, 50 and 100% levels. Diets contained high moisture corn or sorghum, soybean, urea, oat hay (Avena sativa sp., minerals and monensin. In situ degradability of corn and sorghum in cracking, grinding and silage processes was evaluated. There was no difference in apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and ethereal extract. Negative lineal effect was observed (P < 0,05 for apparent digestibility of starch with sorghum inclusion. Processing interacted with grain when effective degradation of dry matter was concerned (P < 0,01. Corn had the highest degradation in high moisture silage; the worst degradation occurred with cracked; an intermediate degradation occurred in grinding (P < 0,01. Degradation in silage was similar as that of cracked degradation in sorghum; it was worst in grinding (P < 0,01.

  11. Implicações da aplicação de fungicida na adaptabilidade e estabilidade de rendimento de grãos em aveia branca Implications of fungicide application to adaptability and stability of grain yield in oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir Lorencetti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa L., testados em 13 ambientes, foram submetidos à análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização de fungicida nestes parâmetros, através do modelo de regressão segmentado de CRUZ et al. (1989. A aplicação de fungicida afetou os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1, responsividade (b1+b2 e estabilidade (, indicando que as estimativas devam ser realizadas em separado nos ambientes com e sem fungicida. Além disso, o uso de fungicida proporcionou efeito favorável sobre a estabilidade de rendimento de grãos, sendo que quatro genótipos testados mostraram ser estáveis (UPF 19, UPF 20, OR-3 e OR-4, enquanto que na ausência de fungicida todos os genótipos revelaram instabilidade de rendimento de grãos. Entretanto, nenhuma cultivar testada evidenciou características de genótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.Twenty oat genotypes (Avena sativa L. tested in thirteen environments were submitted to adaptability and stability analyses aiming at evaluating the effects of fungicide utilization following the segmented regression model of CRUZ et al. (1989. Fungicide application affected the parameters of adaptability (b1, responsiveness (b1 + b² and stability ( indicating that estimatives must be performed individually in environments with and without fungicide. Fungicide application had a favorable effect on the stability of grain yield, inasmuch as four of the tested genotypes were shown to be stable (UPF 19, UPF 20, OR-3 e OR-4; however, all genotypes revealed instability of grain yield in the absence of fungicide. No tested cultivar showed characteristics of the ideal genotype, as predicted by the adopted model.

  12. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  13. Toxicity Effect of Nigella Sativa on the Liver Function of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafanizam Bin Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Nigella sativa powder on the liver function which was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes and through histopathological examination of liver tissue. Methods: Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were allotted randomly to four groups including: control (taking normal diet; low dose (supplemented with 0.01 g/kg/day Nigella sativa; normal dose (supplemented with 0.1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa and high dose (supplemented with 1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa. All of supplements administered in powder form mixed with rats’ pellet for 28 days. To assess liver toxicity, liver enzymes measurement and histological study were done at the end of supplementation. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST between treatment groups. Histopathological study showed very minimal and mild changes in fatty degeneration in normal and high doses of Nigella sativa treated group. Inflammation and necrosis were absent. Conclusion: The study showed that supplementation of Nigella sativa up to the dose of 1 g/kg supplemented for a period of 28 days resulted no changes in liver enzymes level and did not cause any toxicity effect on the liver function.

  14. Immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on rat splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Three different concentrations of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) ethanolic extract, thymoquinone (TQ), dexamethasone, and saline were examined to see whether they had any effects on cell viability, proliferation, and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion in non-stimulated, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concavaline A (Con A)-stimulated splenocytes. In PHA and Con A-stimulated splenocytes, cell viability and proliferation were increased and Con A shifted cytokine profile towards Th2 balance. Dexamethasone treatment showed a suppression in viability, IFNγ and IL-4 secretion in non-stimulated and stimulated splenocytes. Extract and TQ reduced the viability and inhibited the proliferation of stimulated and non-stimulated splenocytes concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of N. sativa (1000 mg/ml) and TQ (5 and 10 mg/ml) reduced the secretion of IL-4 in stimulated cells. Two higher concentrations of N. sativa had decreased IFNγ secretion in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells. In non-stimulated cells, only the highest and in Con A-stimulated cells, all TQ concentrations had inhibited IFNγ secretion. The highest concentration of N. sativa increased IFNγ/IL-4 ratio in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells while higher concentrations of TQ only had the same effect on stimulated cells. N. sativa and TQ showed cytotoxic inhibitory effect on rat splenocytes and on Th1/Th2 cytokines concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of extract and TQ increased cytokines balance in Th1/Th2. PMID:26342766

  15. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Fayyad, Muneera W

    2015-09-01

    Many herbal products are now used as remedies to treat various infectious and non-infectious conditions. Even though the use of herbs and natural products is much more evident in the Eastern world, their use in Western cultures is continuously increasing. Although the immunomodulatory effects of some herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of many herbs and various spices is relatively scarce. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Nigella sativa, also known as black seed or black cumin, and its major active ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ). This review article focuses on analyzing in vitro and in vivo experimental findings that were reported with regard to the ability of N. sativa and TQ to modulate inflammation, cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses, and Th1/Th2 paradigm. The reported capability of N. sativa to augment the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against cancer cells is also emphasized. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of N. sativa and TQ are highlighted. Moreover, the signal transduction pathways implicated in the immunoregulatory functions of N. sativa and TQ are underscored. Experimental evidence suggests that N. sativa extracts and TQ can potentially be employed in the development of effective therapeutic agents towards the regulation of immune reactions implicated in various infectious and non-infectious conditions including different types of allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. PMID:26117430

  16. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations. PMID:27247919

  17. Performance and emission of CI engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Camelina sativa as a potential source of alternative fuel. ► Neat camelina sativa oil as a fuel for CI engine. ► The engine performance and emissions of CI engine fuelled with neat camelina sativa oil. ► Comparison of rate of heat release for camelina sativa oil and diesel oil. - Abstract: The paper describes the results of the tests of CI Perkins 1104C-44 engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil. The engine was not especially calibrated for fuelling with the vegetable fuel. During the test the engine performance and emissions were analysed. For comparison the same speed characteristic was examined for standard fuelling of the engine with diesel oil. In order to understand the engine performance and emission the mass fraction burnt and the rate of heat release was calculated and compared for the same energy provided to the engine cylinder with the injected fuels. The results show that there is possible to receive relatively good engine performance for fuelling the engine with camelina sativa oil but there is a need to change the calibration parameters of the engine fuel system when the engine is fuelled with this fuel.

  18. Effects of nigella sativa supplementation on blood parameters and anthropometric indices in adults: A systematic review on clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Mohtashami; Mohammad Hasan Entezari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and several studies have been performed in the last decades to reveal the effects of it on different medical disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. We evaluated the effects of N. sativa supplementation on lipid profiles, glycemic control, blood pressure (BP), and some anthropometric indices in humans. Materials and Methods: A search on published studies was done by using databases includ...

  19. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Patrício Macedo; Cecília Kosmann; José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2013-01-01

    Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa) were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizur...

  20. Antibacterial effect of Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa L. oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecgel, Umit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of five different oils from Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa used in foods mainly for their flavour, preservation and natural therapies were screened for their antibacterial effects at 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % concentrations using the agar diffusion method against twenty four pathogenic, spoilage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. All tested oils showed antibacterial activity against all the bacteria used in the assay. The oils at 2.0 % concentration were more effective than of the other concentrations. The most sensitive bacterium against all of the oil concentrations was Aeromonas hydrophila, while the most resistant was Yersinia enterocolitica. Generally, lactic acid bacteria had more resistance than pathogenic and spoilage bacteria against black cumin oils. Consequently, black cumin oil may be used as an antimicrobial agent in food products to prevent spoilage.Se ensayaron un total de cinco aceites diferentes de comino negro turco ( Nigella sativa L., que se utilizan habitualmente en alimentos para darles sabor, ayudar a la conservación o por sus efectos terapéuticos, para estudiar sus propiedades antimicrobianas a concentraciones de 0.5 %, 1.0 %, y 2 %. Para ello se utilizó el método de difusión en agar, frente a veinticuatro microorganismos patógenos, causantes de alteraciones o bacterias ácido lácticas (LAB. Todos los aceites ensayados mostraron actividad antimicrobiana contra todos los microorganismos ensayados, siendo las concentraciones del 2 % las concentraciones más eficaces. Aeromonas hydrophyla fue el microorganismo mas sensible a todas las concentraciones mientras que Yersinia enterocolitica fue la más resistente. Generalmente las bacterias acido lácticas tuvieron más resistencia que los gérmenes patógenos y las bacterias que causan alteraciones. En consecuencia, el aceite de comino negro turco se puede utilizar como agente antimicrobiano en productos alimenticios para evitar su alteración.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extracts during germination on central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Hayatul; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Salman, Mohammad Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn. which has many acclaimed medicinal properties is an indigenous herbaceous plant and belongs to the Ranunculaceae family, which grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Pakistan and India. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of N. sativa seed extracts of different germination phases on the central nervous system (CNS) responses in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Anxiolytic, locomotor activity of extracts (1 g/kg of body weight) was evaluated in both stressed and unstressed animal models and antiepileptic effect was evaluated by maximal electroshock seizure model keeping diazepam (20 mg/kg) as a positive control. Antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swim test and tail suspension test keeping imipramine (15 mg/kg) as a positive control. Results: All tested extracts of N. sativa during different phases of germination (especially 5th day germination phase) showed significant (P < 0.001) anxiolytic effect in comparison to control. Diazepam reduced locomotor activity in control (unstressed) rats but did not show affect in stressed rats while N. sativa extracts from germination phases significantly (P < 0.001) reduced locomotor activity in unstressed as well as stressed animals. All the extracts of N. sativa from different germination phases exhibited significant (P < 0.001) reduction in various phases of epileptic seizure on comparison with the reference standard (diazepam). During antidepressant test, N. sativa extracts exhibited a slight reduction in the immobility of rats. Conclusion: During germination, especially in 5th day germination extract, N. sativa showed significant CNS depressant activity as compared to whole seeds that possibly may be due higher content of secondary metabolites produced during germination. PMID:26109765

  2. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both. PMID:26126326

  3. Herbicidal treatments for control of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, M

    1977-01-01

    In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267. PMID:585583

  4. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz.

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    Scheliga, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz. is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials is of particular interest due to the high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. For the establishment of camelina as a crop in agricultural crop rotation systems weed control should not be disregarded despite the rather good competitive ability against weeds. Based on greenhouse experiments a field trial in 2015 with different herbicide strategies was carried out. Besides Butisan Top (metazachlor + quinmerac, Devrinol FL (napropamide and Stomp Aqua (pendimethalin and also Betasana SC (phenmedipham has been tested in various amounts and combinations. Using assessments to weed density and herbicide tolerance different herbicide strategies were compared with each other. Though, it is difficult to find a compromise between satisfactory herbicidal effect and a slight injury to the crop plant. The herbicide selection, the application rate and the combination of different herbicides have an effect on the crop. To confirm the data obtained further tests are necessary.

  5. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

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    Zuardi A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  6. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. PMID:26189495

  7. Monitoring homologous recombination in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we describe a system to assay homologous recombination during the complete life cycle of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice plants were transformed with two copies of non-functional GUS reporter overlap fragments as recombination substrate. Recombination was observed in all plant organs examined, from the seed stage until the flowering stage of somatic plant development. Embryogenic cells exhibited the highest recombination ability with an average of 3 x 10-5 recombination events per genome, which is about 10-fold of that observed in root cells, and two orders of that observed in leaf cells. Histological analysis revealed that recombination events occurred in diverse cell types, but preferentially in cells with small size. Examples of this included embryogenic cells in callus, phloem cells in the leaf vein, and cells located in the root apical meristem. Steady state RNA analysis revealed that the expression levels of rice Rad51 homologs are positively correlated with increased recombination rates in embryogenic calli, roots and anthers. Finally, radiation treatment of plantlets from distinct recombination lines increased the recombination frequency to different extents. These results showed that homologous recombination frequency can be effectively measured in rice using a transgene reporter assay. This system will facilitate the study of DNA damage signaling and homologous recombination in rice, a model monocot.

  8. Monitoring homologous recombination in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhuanying; Tang Li [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Li Meiru [South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Chen Lei; Xu Jie [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Wu Goujiang [South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Hongqing, E-mail: hqli@scnu.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2010-09-10

    Here we describe a system to assay homologous recombination during the complete life cycle of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice plants were transformed with two copies of non-functional GUS reporter overlap fragments as recombination substrate. Recombination was observed in all plant organs examined, from the seed stage until the flowering stage of somatic plant development. Embryogenic cells exhibited the highest recombination ability with an average of 3 x 10{sup -5} recombination events per genome, which is about 10-fold of that observed in root cells, and two orders of that observed in leaf cells. Histological analysis revealed that recombination events occurred in diverse cell types, but preferentially in cells with small size. Examples of this included embryogenic cells in callus, phloem cells in the leaf vein, and cells located in the root apical meristem. Steady state RNA analysis revealed that the expression levels of rice Rad51 homologs are positively correlated with increased recombination rates in embryogenic calli, roots and anthers. Finally, radiation treatment of plantlets from distinct recombination lines increased the recombination frequency to different extents. These results showed that homologous recombination frequency can be effectively measured in rice using a transgene reporter assay. This system will facilitate the study of DNA damage signaling and homologous recombination in rice, a model monocot.

  9. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safwat A; Ross, Samir A; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2015-09-01

    Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. variety. Structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and GC-MS. These minor compounds include four hexahydrocannabinols, four tetrahydrocannabinols, and one hydroxylated cannabinol, namely 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 7-oxo-9α-hydroxyhexa-hydrocannabinol, 10α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 10aR-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-THC aldehyde A, 8-oxo-Δ(9)-THC, 10aα-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(8)-THC, 9α-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(6a,10a)-THC, and 1'S-hydroxycannabinol, respectively. The latter compound showed moderate anti-MRSa (IC50 10.0 μg/mL), moderate antileishmanial (IC50 14.0 μg/mL) and mild antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 clone) and P. falciparum (W2 clone) with IC50 values of 3.4 and 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26093324

  10. Induction of mutants in Cannabis Sativa L. by γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the mutations induced in a well known cultivar of fibre hemp belonging to the species Cannabis sativa in order to obtain new phenotypic characters that could unequivocally differentiate it from drug hemp. Two new dioecious hemp cultivars, characterized by clear morphological markers and low (≤0.2%)Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, have been obtained by mutagenesis of seeds irradiated with 60Co γ rays(optimum dose 300-350 Gy) and selection of the segregant progenies. These new cultivars, named red petiole (exhibiting anthocyanin leaf petioles) and yellow apex (exhibiting yellow distal leaflets), have been compared with varieties C.S., carmagnola and fibranova by growing them in three different areas (centre-north and south) of Italy. These agronomical trials highlighted the good performance of both new cultivars as for yield in dry matter and in fibre, not significantly different from the results of carmagnola. Besides, the new cultivars showed THC contents (0.09 and 0.17%) lower than the threshold set by the E.U. (0.2%). (Author)

  11. The WRKY Gene Family in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian A. Ross; Yue Liu; Qingxi J. Shen

    2007-01-01

    WRKYgenes encode transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of various biological processes. These zinc-finger proteins, especially those members mediating stress responses, are uniquely expanded in plants. To facilitate the study of the evolutionary history and functions of this supergene family, we performed an exhaustive search for WRKY genes using HMMER and a Hidden Markov Model that was specifically trained for rice. This work resulted in a comprehensive list of WRKY gene models in Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and L. ssp. japonica. Mapping of these genes to individual chromosomes facilitated elimination of the redundant, leading to the identification of 98 WRKY genes in japonica and 102 in indica rice. These genes were further categorized according to the number and structure of their zinc-finger domains. Based on a phylogenetic tree of the conserved WRKY domains and the graphic display of WRKY loci on corresponding indica and japonica chromosomes, we identified possible WRKY gene duplications within, and losses between the two closely related rice subspecies. Also reviewed are the roles of WRKY genes in disease resistance and responses to salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, seed development and germination mediated by gibberellins, other developmental processes including senescence, and responses to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid in rice and other plants. The signaling pathways mediating WRKY gene expression are also discussed.

  12. Isolation and culture of protoplast from leaves of Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witool Chaipakdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings after in vitro germination for 25, 30, 40 and 50 days. The leaves were stripped and incubated in various combinations of cellulase and pectinase. Protoplasts were cultured on MS medium containing various kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators in different culture systems including liquid media, hanging, drop culture and solid media. Results revealed that the highest number of viable protoplasts, 14.1x105 cells per gram of fresh weight, was obtained from 30 day-old leaves of lettuce seedlings and isolated by using 2% cellulase in combination with 1% pectinase. Liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA promoted the highest cell division up to 17.67%. First division of protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture and microcolony formation occurred at the 4th week after culturing. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  13. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

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    Shewmaker Christine K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the presence of three copies of both FAD2 and FAE1 as well as LFY, a known single copy gene in other species. All three copies of both CsFAD2 and CsFAE1 are expressed in developing seeds, and sequence alignments show that previously described conserved sites are present, suggesting that all three copies of both genes could be functional. The regions downstream of CsFAD2 and upstream of CsFAE1 demonstrate co-linearity with the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, three expressed haplotypes were observed for six predicted single-copy genes in 454 sequencing analysis and results from flow cytometry indicate that the DNA content of C. sativa is approximately three-fold that of diploid Camelina relatives. Phylogenetic analyses further support a history of duplication and indicate that C. sativa and C. microcarpa might share a parental genome. Conclusions There is compelling evidence for triplication of the C. sativa genome, including a larger chromosome number and three-fold larger measured genome size than other Camelina relatives, three isolated copies of FAD2, FAE1, and the KCS17-FAE1 intergenic region, and three expressed haplotypes observed for six predicted single-copy genes. Based on these results, we propose that C. sativa be considered an allohexaploid. The characterization of fatty acid synthesis pathway genes will allow for the future manipulation of oil composition of this emerging biofuel crop; however, targeted manipulations of oil composition and general

  14. Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Shafiq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies.

  15. Safety evaluation of Phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa, on pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Salarinia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The possible toxicity of drugs in pregnancy should be tested before their use in pregnant patients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa (N. sativa, which is already in clinical use for vaginal fungal infection. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated intravaginal with physiological saline (vehicle or phytovagex pessary in the first half of their pregnancy (days 1 to 10 of gestation. Duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns were recorded after parturition. Also, cytotoxicity of N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract was tested against ovary Cho cells.  Results: The phytovagex had no significant effect on the duration of pregnancy, number of newborns, weight of neonates, and percent of stillbirth. No deformity or general behavioral abnormality was observed in neonates monitored for 30 days after birth. N. sativa extract had no significant effect on the viability of ovary cells at the concentrations of 12.5-200 µg/mL. Conclusion: Results of this animal study showed that phytovagex has no overall effect on the duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns. Also, its active agent, N. sativa, does not induce any cytotoxic effect on ovary cells.

  16. Antifungal effects of Zataria multiflora and Nigella sativa extracts against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghim Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. Recentstudies suggest that the side effects of herbal drugs with significant therapeutic effectsare far less than chemical drugs. This study was therefore, conducted to examineantifungal activities of Zataria multif lora and Nigella sativa extracts on C. albicans.Methods: Powders of Z. multif lora and N. sativa were macerated with ethanol 70% and evaporatedat 38˚C by rotary evaporator. The suspension of C. albicans was prepared according to McFarlandat a concentration of approximately 0.5-2.5 × 10CFU/ml. Testing was performed according tomicrobroth dilution in 96-well micro-dilution plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC,MIC50%, MIC90% and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were separately evaluated bycounting the fungal colonies for Z. multif lora and N. sativa.Results: The measured values of MIC, MIC50%, MIC90% and MFC of Z. multiflora on the C.albicans were 0.13, 0.38, 0.74 and 1.03 mg/ml, and those of N. sativa were 10, 27.7, 52.3 and 72.3 mg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The results indicate that both Zataria multiflora and Nigella sativa extracts are effectiveagainst Candida albicans, but the former species has the highest antifungal activity. If the clinicaltrials confirm the results of this study, Z. multiflora, as a new antifungal agent by replacing chemicaldrugs can be used to develop antifungal medicinal herbs.

  17. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Husain, Asif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Siddique, Nasir Ali; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-05-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant. PMID:23646296

  18. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microsc

  19. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of volatile oil extract of Nigella sativa seeds by chemically induced seizure model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmatanzeem Bepari

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The N. sativa seeds showed anticonvulsant activity in pentylenetetrazole induced seizure model of epilepsy. This study showed that volatile oil of N. sativa seeds potentiated the effect of sodium valproate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1300-1307

  20. Identification of Intergeneric Hybrid Plants Between Oryza sativa and O. minuta via GISH and RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shun-wu; CHEN Bao-tang; TAO Ai-lin; ZHANG Duan-pin

    2003-01-01

    To transfer desirable resistance traits from O. minuta to O. sativa, intergeneric hybrid plants between O. sativa (AA, 2n=2X=24) and O. minuta (BBCC, 2n=4X=48) were produced by embryo rescue after sexual cross. Morphological observation and chromosome counts indicated their hybrid status (ABC, 2n =3X=36). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was further applied to confirm the parentage of the chromosomes of F1 hybrids. Chromosomes of O. minuta and O. sativa were distinguishable in the hybrids in different fluorescence colors. GISH indicated that A and BC chromosomes were not randomly assembled in a cell.RAPD profiles unequivocally revealed their hybrids with double parent patterns. The results of blast tests showed that the hybrids had obtained disease resistance from O. minuta, and had a level of susceptibility between the parents.

  1. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on experimental toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Rasha F; El-Hadidy, Wessam; Elachy, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoon. It is most commonly treated by pyrimethamine (PYR); however, this was intolerable by many patients. The aim of this study was to assess therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) alone and combined with pyrimethamine (PYR) compared to a previous combination of clindamycin (CLN) and (PYR). One hundred Albino mice were used in the current study and were equally divided into five groups: normal (I), infected untreated control (II); infected, treated with NSO-only (III); infected, treated with NSO + PYR (IV); and infected, treated with CLN + PYR (V). The virulent RH Toxoplasma strain was used in infection survival rates estimation, impression smears from liver and spleen, and histopathological and ultrastructural studies were done. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Interferon-γ and specific IgM were also measured in sera by ELISA. Results showed that NSO alone has no direct anti-Toxoplasma effect, whereas its combination with PYR produced potent effect that is comparable to CLN + PYR. It significantly increased the survival rate and decreased the parasite density and pathological insult in both liver and spleen. Also, significant increase in interferon-γ level denotes stimulation of cellular immunity. NSO + PYR combination markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of Toxoplasma infected mice compared to the infected untreated ones and to CLN/PYR. In conclusion, although NSO, if administered alone, has significant immunostimulant and antioxidant properties, it failed to decrease tachyzoite counts. Combination of NSO and PYR had synergistic effect in treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26446086

  2. Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Mechoulam, Raphael; Drucker-Colín, René

    2006-08-01

    Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two major constituents of Cannabis sativa. Delta(9)-THC modulates sleep, but no clear evidence on the role of CBD is available. In order to determine the effects of CBD on sleep, it was administered intracerebroventricular (icv) in a dose of 10 microg/5 microl at the beginning of either the lights-on or the lights-off period. We found that CBD administered during the lights-on period increased wakefulness (W) and decreased rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). No changes on sleep were observed during the dark phase. Icv injections of CBD (10 microg/5microl) induced an enhancement of c-Fos expression in waking-related brain areas such as hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD). Microdialysis in unanesthetized rats was carried out to characterize the effects of icv administration of CBD (10 microg/5 microl) on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) within the nucleus accumbens. CBD induced an increase in DA release. Finally, in order to test if the waking properties of CBD could be blocked by the sleep-inducing endocannabinoid anandamide (ANA), animals received ANA (10 microg/2.5 microl, icv) followed 15 min later by CBD (10 microg/2.5 microl). Results showed that the waking properties of CBD were not blocked by ANA. In conclusion, we found that CBD modulates waking via activation of neurons in the hypothalamus and DRD. Both regions are apparently involved in the generation of alertness. Also, CBD increases DA levels as measured by microdialysis and HPLC procedures. Since CBD induces alertness, it might be of therapeutic value in sleep disorders such as excessive somnolence. PMID:16844117

  3. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenes and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented. PMID:26870049

  4. Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle M Andre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fibre since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibres. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e. cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented.

  5. Transesterification of camelina sativa oil with supercritical alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transesterification of camelina oil under supercritical methanol/ethanol and 1-butanol mixture conditions. • Chemical composition of fatty acid methyl esters, ethyl esters and butyl esters. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on biodiesel yields. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on physical properties of biodiesel products. - Abstract: The transesterification of camelina sativa oil with methanol–1-butanol, and ethanol–1-butanol alcohol mixtures under supercritical conditions have been studied in order to maximize biodiesel yield and improve biodiesel quality. The influence of the variation of the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol and ethanol–1-butanol from 1:0, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, to 0:1 on the yield of free fatty methyl esters/free fatty ethanol esters–free fatty acid butyl esters, the composition of the biodiesel blend mixtures, and the physical properties of the biodiesel have been investigated at the reaction temperature of 290 °C, reaction time of 30 min, and the initial reaction pressure of 500 psi. A maximum yield of 86.14 wt% for free fatty acid methyl esters–free fatty acid butyl esters with the optimum cold property can be obtained at the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol of 0.5–0.9. Also, a maximum yield of 85.60 wt% for free fatty ethyl esters–free fatty butyl esters with the lowest pour point can be achieved at the molar ratio of ethanol–1-butanol in the range of 0.5–0.7

  6. Lipid analysis of developing Camelina sativa seeds and cultured embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Mike; Martin, Tina M; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-10-01

    Camelina sativa is a cultivated oilseed rich in triacylglycerols containing oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic and eicosenoic acids. As it holds promise as a model species, its lipid synthesis was characterized in vivo and in culture. Lipid accumulates at a maximum rate of about 26 μg/day/seed (11.5 mg lipid/day/g fresh seed weight), a rate comparable with other oilseeds. Noteworthy is a late stage surge in α-linolenic acid accumulation. Small amounts of unusual epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids are also present in the triacylglycerols. These include 15,16-epoxy- and 15-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids and homologous series of ω7-hydroxy-alk-ω9-enoic and ω9/10-hydroxy-alkanoic acids. Mid-maturation embryos cultured in vitro have growth and lipid deposition rates and fatty acid compositions that closely match that of seeds, but extended culture periods allow these rates to rise and surpass those observed in planta. Optimized thin layer chromatography systems for characterization of labeled products from acetate or glycerol labeling are described. Glycerol label is only found in acylglycerols, largely as the intact glyceryl backbone, but acetate can label acyl groups and sterols, the latter to a much higher relative specific activity. This presumably occurs because mevalonic acid precursor is derived from the non-plastid pool of acetyl-CoA that is also the source for malonyl-CoA to drive FAE1-dependent chain elongation. Particular attention has been paid to the separation of sterols and diacylglycerols, and to hydrogenation of triacylglycerols to simplify their analysis. These improved methods will allow more accurate analyses of the fluxes of lipid metabolism in cultured plant embryos. PMID:26262674

  7. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  8. N-glycan transition of the early developmental stage in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Risa; Hirotsu, Naoki; Miyanishi, Nobumitsu

    2016-08-26

    N-Glycosylation is one of the post-translational modifications. In animals, N-glycans linked to proteins function in cell-cell recognition, sorting, transport, and other biological phenomena. However, in plants, N-glycan-mediated biological functions remain obscure. In a previous study, we showed that the main type of N-glycan transition is from the paucimannosidic to complex type before and after germination in Oryza sativa, suggesting that transitions of N-glycan, including those of glycoproteins and glycosyltransferases, are closely associated with plant growth. To further elucidate the relationship between N-glycan structure and plant growth, we analyzed the structures of N-glycans expressed in O. sativa seedlings grown under light conditions and performed comparative analyses of the structures in the shoot and root. The analyses show that fundamental N-glycan structures are common to the shoot and root, whereas paucimannosidic-type N-glycans dramatically decreased in the root grown under light conditions. Further, to investigate the effects of light on N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings, we analyzed N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings grown in the dark. Understandably, N-glycan expression in the root was almost unaffected by light. However, despite a marked difference in phenotype, N-glycan expression in the shoot was also unaffected by light. This result suggests that the shoot and root of O. sativa have different glycoproteins and distinct N-glycan synthetic systems. Thus, we propose that the N-glycan synthetic system of the O. sativa shoot is almost unaffected by light conditions and that many photosynthesis-related proteins are not modified by N-glycans. PMID:27320861

  9. Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae Control by Nigella sativa, Thyme and Spinosad Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawky Mohamed Aboelhadid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study.Methods: The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or ab­solute ethyl alcohol only, 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions, 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions, and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions. The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials.Results: The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% con­centration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations ≥10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2 % to 100% by concentration ≥5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic prepa­rations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10–20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol resulted in no mortality. All differences were sta­tistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ≥10% and alcoholic ≥5% and in spinosad (aqueous≥25%. The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%.Conclusion: Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20% that could achieve the highest lethal (100% effect in shortest time (12 hours. Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae.

  10. Allelopathic effects of Medicago sativa L. and Vicia cracca L. leaf and root extracts on weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Onur

    2007-05-15

    In this study, the allelopathic potential of different concentration (5, 25 and 50%) of M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root extracts were evaluated on germination and radicle length of four weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Lolium perenne L., Ipomoea hederacea L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) in laboratory condition. As a result, germination and radicle length of all species were reduced by the extract from M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root at different percentage. Increasing the water extract concentrations from 5 to 50% of test plants parts significantly increased the inhibition of all weed species germination and radicle length. PMID:19086510

  11. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E. [ed.] [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

    1998-06-01

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

  12. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Taşar; Ahmet Özer Şehirli; Ömer Yiğiner; Selami Süleymanoğlu; Meral Yüksel; Berrak Yeğen; Göksel Şener

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH). RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C) in Wistar albino rats (n= 8), while sham rats (n= 8) had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP) were recorded at...

  13. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en lactuca sativa cultivar white boston

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López; Ana María García Hoyos; Felipe Andrés Romero Perdomo; Ruth Rebeca Bonilla Buitrago

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonTítulo en ingles: Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria phosate solubilizing  Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonResumen:  En las últimas décadas, la agricultura colombiana se ha visto afectada por la reducción de la productividad en las zonas hortícolas, el incremento de los costos de producción y la dependencia del uso de productos químicos...

  14. Isolation of Cannabinoids from the plant Cannabis sativa and its potential anticancer activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq A.L.; Reyaz A.L

    2012-01-01

    The plant leaves were identified as Cannabis sativa L. The cannabniods were extracted by aqueous extract found a total yield of 3.8g while as acetone extract 4.8g. The protein content in crude extract of Cannabis sativa L for aqeous extract found 112μg/ml and for acetone extract 160μg/ml. The molecular weight of protein by SDS PGAGE found to be 70KDa. The HPLC intension percentage for aqueous was 11 while for acetone extract it found 25. The actone extract exhibited more anticancer activity a...

  15. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a con...

  16. Cannabis sativa and the endogenous cannabinoid system: therapeutic potential for appetite regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrimond, Jonathan Andrew; Mercier, Marion Simone; Whalley, Ben; Williams, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The herb Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) has been used in China and on the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years as a medicine. However, since it was brought to the U.K. and then the rest of the western world in the late 19th century, its use has been a source of controversy. Indeed, its psychotropic side effects are well reported but only relatively recently has scientific endeavour begun to find valuable uses for either the whole plant or its individual components. Here...

  17. A neurotoxicidade da Cannabis sativa e suas repercussões sobre a morfologia do tecido cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara da Silva Santos; Marcelo Coertjens

    2014-01-01

    Para a compreensão das repercussões psicológicas e comportamentais verificadas em usuários de Cannabis sativa, experimentos têm sido desenvolvidos analisando a relação entre a intensidade do uso da droga e biomarcadores de lesão e inflamação. Dessa forma, este estudo teve como objetivo realizar pesquisa bibliográfica, relacionando marcadores bioquímicos de neurotoxicidade e suas repercussões sobre a morfologia do tecido cerebral em usuários de Cannabis sativa, durante a exposição ao ∆9-THC po...

  18. Isolation of Cannabinoids from the plant Cannabis sativa and its potential anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq. A. L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant leaves were identified as Cannabis sativa L. The cannabniods were extracted by aqueous extract found a total yield of 3.8g while as acetone extract 4.8g. The protein content in crude extract of Cannabis sativa L for aqeous extract found 112μg/ml and for acetone extract 160μg/ml. The molecular weight of protein by SDS PGAGE found to be 70KDa. The HPLC intension percentage for aqueous was 11 while for acetone extract it found 25. The actone extract exhibited more anticancer activity against HT29, MCF7 and SF-26 Cells

  19. Cannabis sativa and the endogenous cannabinoid system: therapeutic potential for appetite regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrimond, Jonathan A.; Mercier, Marion S.; Whalley, Benjamin J.; Williams, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    The herb Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) has been used in China and on the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years as a medicine. However, since it was brought to the UK and then the rest of the western world in the late 19th century, its use has been a source of controversy. Indeed, its psychotropic side effects are well reported but only relatively recently has scientific endeavour begun to find valuable uses for either the whole plant or its individual components. Here, we discuss evidence ...

  20. Daugiakomponenčių Camelina sativa ir rapso metilesterio biodegalų palyginamieji tyrimai

    OpenAIRE

    Justas Žaglinskis; Paulius Rapalis; Vygintas Daukšys

    2012-01-01

    Straipsnyje pateikiami RRME biodegalų palyginamųjų motorinių bandymų, kurie buvo atlikti dyzeliniame variklyje VALMET 320 DMG, rezultatai. Įvertinti variklio energetiniai (ηe, be) ir ekologiniai rodikliai (CO2, CO, NOX, HC, SM). Atliktų naujų biodegalų motoriniai tyrimų rezultatai rodo, kad naujų Camelina sativa biodegalų savybės nenusileidžia standartizuotiems rapso metilesterio biodegalų savybėms. Lyginant su mineraliniu dyzelinu, naudojant Camelina sativa biodegalų mišinius VME ir ZME, ski...

  1. A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition and Antithrombotic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the regular consumption of vegetables. Eruca sativa Mill., commonly known as rocket, is a leafy vegetable that has anti-inflammatory activity. However, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities have not been described. Methods: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL, was evaluated on human platelets: (i P-selectin expression by flow cytometry; (ii platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; (iii IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 release; and (iv activation of NF-κB and PKA by western blot. Furthermore, (v antithrombotic activity (200 mg/kg and (vi bleeding time in murine models were evaluated. Results: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 induced by ADP was inhibited by Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract. Furthermore, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract inhibited NF-κB activation. Finally, in murine models, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. Conclusion: Eruca sativa Mill. presents antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity.

  2. A review of Neuropharmacology Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Main Component, Thymoquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Soheila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of drug effect on nervous system. In the last few years, different natural plants and their active constituents have been used in neurological therapy. The availability, lower price, and less toxic effects of herbal medicines compared with synthetic agents make them as simple and excellent choice in the treatment of nervous diseases. Nigella sativa, which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. In traditional and modern medicines several beneficial properties have been attributed to N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone (TQ). In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the neuropharmacological aspects of N. sativa and TQ have been introduced. Results of these studies showed that N. sativa and TQ have several properties including anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-ischemic, analgesic, antipsychotic, and memory enhancer. Furthermore, its protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and multiple sclerosis have been discussed. Although there are many studies indicating the beneficial actions of this plant in nervous system, the number of research projects relating to the human reports is rare. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27169925

  3. Protective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds and oil against columnaris disease in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2016-06-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is currently the most frequently reported bacterial disease affecting farm-raised channel catfish in the USA. Common treatments against the disease include the use of medicated feed that has led to emergent antibiotic resistant strains of F. columnare. Nigella sativa (Black cumin) is a medicinal herb commonly used by many cultures as a natural remedy for numerous disorders. Recently, we have discovered the antibacterial activity of N. sativa and its oil extract against F. columnare. In this study, we showed N. sativa oil (NSO) strongly inhibited the growth of all of the strains of F. columnare tested and yielded significantly larger zones of inhibition than those produced by oxytetracyclin. We tested the protective effect against columnaris disease in vivo by incorporating NSO (5%) or N. sativa seeds (NSS) (5%) into fish feeds. Fishes (Ictalurus punctatus and Danio rerio) fed amended diets displayed significantly lower mortality than those fed control diets. Per cent mortalities in control groups ranged from 77% to 44% and from 70% to 18% in zebrafish and channel catfish, respectively. A dose study using different NSS concentrations showed that 5% NSS offered the most protection against columnaris disease in channel catfish. PMID:26265495

  4. Effect of UV irradiation and Nigella sativa protective role on the mice liver tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV irradiation on liver tissues of mice before and after feeding on the Nigella sativa L. for 4 and 7 days were investigated by following the variations in their infrared spectral features. The results showed that the exposure of experimental animals to UV radiations causes considerable changes in both proteins and PO2 contents in the liver and the extent of changes depends on the energy of the source and time exposure. It was found that feeding of Nigella sativa L. during exposure for 4 days causes no significant effect on the UV induced changes in the liver tissues, while feeding for 7 days reduces the extent of the UV induced changes. Histological findings denoted that UV-Radiation causes different grades of damage in liver cells depending on the duration and type of radiation. Alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds protected liver cells from being subjected to the degenerative changes. The present work investigates the possibility of applying Nigella sativa as a natural biological substance for curative purpose after UV radiation damage

  5. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its constituent (thymoquinone): a review on antimicrobial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Forouzanfar; Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa seeds have wide therapeutic effects and have been reported to have significant effects against many ailments such as skin diseases, jaundice, gastrointestinal problems, anorexia, conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, intrinsic hemorrhage, paralysis, amenorrhea, anorexia, asthma, cough, bronchitis, headache, fever, influenza and eczema. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the most active constituent and has different beneficial properties. Focus on antimicrobial...

  6. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of volatile compounds from industrial Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Da Porto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This study investigated the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE to recovery  volatile compounds from the inflorescences of a fiber type Cannabis sativa L. cultivar. The results show that ultrasonic treatment not longer than 5 min allows to obtain an enhanced concentration of terpenes in comparison with maceration. Instead, an ultrasonic treatment longer than 5 min increased  the concentration of δ-9-tetraidrocannabinol (THC. A preliminary screening of cannabis inflorescences scent was performed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS avoiding the chemical modification and artifact formation that can occur in conventional methods . Industrial relevance. Inflorescences of fiber type Cannabis sativa cultivars are generally considered waste parts for fiber industry, although the inflorescences’ volatiles are pleasant to the human sensory system. Cannabis scent originate from volatile monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes . Traditionally, the recovery of floral fragrances from plants is by water distillation (hydro-distillation or steam distillation to produce essential oils. However, these techniques take at least several hours and require the application of heating, which can produce the degradation of thermo labile compounds present in the starting plant material. Ultrasound-assisted extraction can be use as alternative method to extract aroma compounds from inflorescences of fiber type  Cannabis sativa. The extracts so obtained could be used as ingredients for perfumes (cosmetic industry or flavorings for beverages (food industry.Keywords. Ultrasound; Extraction; Cannabis sativa L.; terpenes; THC; HS-SPME

  7. Biological nitrogen fixation by lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) in acid soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, J.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Growth of lucerne( Medicago sativa L.) is poor in soils with values of pH-H2O below 6. This is often due to nitrogen deficiency, resulting from a hampered performance of the symbiosis withRhizobium meliloti. This thesis deals with the factors affecting biological nitrogen fixat

  8. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Mégarbane, Bruno; Rezaee, Ramin; Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Ranunculacea) has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone. PMID:27247918

  9. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Shakeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa (Ranunculacea has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone.

  10. Analysis of the temporal variation of radiation balance components in arid rice (Oryza sativa L.) culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time variation of measured radiation balance components in a cultived rice area (Oryza sativa L.) under arid conditions in the Brazil central-west region was analysed. The relation between global solar radiation, radiation balance, reflected radiation and terrestrial effective radiation in three different stages of the culture development: vegetative stage; blooming and maturation, was determined. (M.C.K.)

  11. Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)-induced photosensitization in goats and horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa is a European biennial weed that was inadvertently introduced and has subsequently spread through many parts of North America. Though it is generally considered a nuisance as it displaces beneficial forages. It has also been sporadically associated with photosensitiza...

  12. Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) oil as a biofuels feedstock: Golden opportunity or false hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) is a promising sustainable alternative energy crop belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family with several favorable agronomic characteristics that has potential to significantly enhance domestic biofuels production. With high seed oil content as well as high yield of ...

  13. REACTION OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) CULTIVARS TO PENETRATION AND INFECTION BY CURVULARIA TUBERCULATA AND C. ORYZAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolates of Curvularia species were collected from weedy Cyperaceae species and are being evaluated as possible biocontrol agents of sedge weeds in rice (Oryza sativa). Curvularia species have been reported from rice; thus cultivars of rice were tested to determine rice seedling responses to these ...

  14. Rapid separation of seed glucosinolates from Camelina sativa by thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Russo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A thin layer chromatography (TLC method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of glucosinolates extracted from Camelina sativa. This procedure resolves the same long-chain glucosinolates as high-performance liquid chromatography but increases simultaneous sample size to 18. The TLC method saves time and solvent, and can be applied to screening of Camelina.

  15. Exploring the Potential Use of Camelina sativa as a Biofuel crop for Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Tapas Chandra

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of using Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. To establish it as a potential biofuel crop in Nevada, C. sativa seeds were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and twenty-five randomly selected lines of an M3 generation EMS population were evaluated for fatty acid composition. Increased variation in fatty acid composition was observed when compared with the control, wildtype cultivar. Most importantly, lines demonstrated putative decreases in relative linolenic acid content, a desirable outcome for biodiesel quality. To select the best variety of C. sativa for local production, an analysis of oil content, germination rate, 1000 seed weight was performed among different varieties and significant differences in seed quality was observed. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativa was performed using 454 pyrosequencing to characterize expressed genes in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and developing seeds of mature plants subjected to drought, cold and high salinity stress Some contig assemblies corresponding to stress-inducible gene and genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were observed in this study.

  16. Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State: Detection, seed transmission, and chemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  17. Rapid separation of seed glucosinolates from Camelina sativa by thin layer chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Russo; Remo Reggiani

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography (TLC) method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of glucosinolates extracted from Camelina sativa. This procedure resolves the same long-chain glucosinolates as high-performance liquid chromatography but increases simultaneous sample size to 18. The TLC method saves time and solvent, and can be applied to screening of Camelina.

  18. Use of Harvested Rice (Oryza Sativa) Fields for Diazinon Runoff Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In landscapes defined by intensive agriculture, management practices are often needed to abate effects of potential non-point source pollution. Innovative research focuses on using rice (Oryza sativa), a wetland cereal crop, for pesticide mitigation both pre- and post-harvest. Because rice fields ...

  19. Desempenho de forrageiras hibernais sob distintos níveis de luminosidade Performance of hibernal forages under distinct brightness levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os possíveis efeitos da restrição de luminosidade, obtida com distintas densidades de árvores de Pinnus taeda, sobre a produção e qualidade de: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Comum, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L. cv. Fapa 2, azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Comum, trigo (Triticum aestivum L. duplo propósito cv. BRS Tarumã e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa L.. Avaliaram-se três níveis de luminosidade: a sol aberto (sem presença de árvores de Pinnus taeda, 30% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento entre árvores de 15 × 3 m, com 222 árvores/ha e 60% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento de 9 × 3 m, com 370 árvores/ha. Foram realizadas avaliações da produção de forragem, da composição química e dos componentes estruturais das plantas, do potencial hídrico das plantas, da umidade do solo, das variáveis microclimáticas e da produção de acículas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos completos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. O azevém foi a espécie mais produtiva em todos os níveis de luminosidade, embora a ervilhaca tenha apresentado a menor redução de produção quando sombreada. Houve maior potencial hídrico nas plantas e maior umidade no solo nos ambientes sombreados, mesmo assim, a produção de forragem reduziu significativamente no sombreamento mais intenso (81%. A composição química e os componentes estruturais de todas as forrageiras estudadas também são afetados pelo aumento da restrição luminosa.Possible effects of brightness restriction, obtained by different Pinnus taeda tree densities, on the production and quality of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common, white oat (Avena sativa L. cv. FAPA 2, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Common, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. dual purpose BRS Tarumã were studied. It was evaluated three brightness levels: 1 - full sunlight with

  20. ESTRATEGIAS DE PRODUCCIÓN PARA MAXIMIZAR EL MÁRGEN BRUTO EN UN SISTEMA TRADICIONAL GANADO-CULTIVO DEL SECANO DE LA IX REGIÓN Production strategies to maximize the gross margin on a traditional crop-livestock system of the dryland of the IX Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Catrileo S.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Basado en un sistema real de producción de ganado y cultivos, se desarrolló un modelo de programación lineal para evaluar y maximizar márgenes brutos del sistema. El sistema real evaluado durante 4 temporadas en INIA-Carillanca (38º 35’ lat. S., 70º 50’ long. O., consideró una superficie total de 15 hectáreas y una rotación de cultivos con avena (Avena sativa, lupino (Lupinus angustifolius, trigo (Triticum aestivum y dos años de praderas de ballica italiana (Lolium multiflorum y trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense. Novillos Hereford de 7-9 meses de edad fueron integrados al sistema con el objeto de terminarlos a pastoreo, con 16-18 meses de edad y 390-400 kg de peso vivo. La matriz del modelo considera 27 variables de decisión y 30 restricciones. La producción de materia seca de la pradera (input representó la base de la alimentación del ganado. La ganancia diaria de peso de los novillos fue simulada a través de ecuaciones que consideran el peso vivo, la disponibilidad de materia seca y el contenido energético de la pradera. Los resultados del modelo permiten examinar diferentes opciones. Para un sistema de 15 ha el máximo margen bruto fue M$ 1.843 con una combinación fija de 3 ha de cada cultivo y 27 novillos. Al considerar una asignación libre de los cultivos, el margen bruto aumentó a M$ 2.672 e incluyó 49 novillos en 10 ha de praderas, 2,7 ha de lupino y 0,88 ha de avena. En ambas situaciones, los animales fueron el principal contribuyente económico del sistema.Based on a real crop-livestock production system, a linear programming model was developed to evaluate and maximize gross margins of the system. The real system evaluated over 4 seasons at the Carillanca Research Center, IX Region, considered a total surface of 15 ha, and a crop rotation with oats (Avena sativa, lupines (Lupinus angustifolius, wheat (Triticum aestivum and two years of pasture with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and red clover (Trifolium

  1. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P≤ 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P≤ 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P≤ 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P≤ 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P≤ 0.01) and abdominal fat (P≤ 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P≤ 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P ≤0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P≤ 0.01, P≤0.05, and P≤0

  2. The effectiveness of Nigella sativa seed extract in inhibiting Candida albicans on heat cured acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoem EH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia has a variety of plants that can be used for medicines. One of the medicinal plants is Nigella sativa. Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes, both as medicinal herb and as medicinal oil. It contains saponin and atsiri oils that have antifungal, antimicrobial and antibacterial effects. Nigella sativa has been suggested as denture cleansers since it can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin. Purpose: The aim of this research is to know the effectiveness of Nigella sativa seed extract in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin. Methods: Eighteen acrylic samples were divided into three groups. Group I was control group, only contaminated with C. albicans without immersing in any solution. Group II was acrylic sample immersed in sterile aquades for one hour. Group III was acrylic sample immersed in Nigella sativa seed extract for one hour. Results: There were significant differences of C. albicans (p < 0.05 among the three groups. The number of Candida albicans was significantly higher in Group I, while that in group II was lower than that in group I, and that in group III was the lowest. Conclusion: Nigella sativa seed extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin.Latar belakang: Indonesia memiliki berbagai tanaman yang dapat dipakai sebagai obat, salah satu tanaman tersebut adalah jinten hitam (Nigella sativa. Pada beberapa negara jinten hitam telah digunakan untuk berbagai tujuan, baik sebagai obat herbal maupun sebagai minyak. kandungan jinten hitam adalah saponin dan minyak atsiri yang mempunyai efek anti jamur dan anti mikroba. Jinten hitam disarankan sebagai pilihan pembersih gigi tiruan yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans (C. albicans pada resin akrilik heat cured. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efektivitas dari ekstrak biji jinten hitam dalam menghambat pertumbuhan

  3. SB-ATR FTIR Spectroscopic Monitoring of Free Fatty Acids in Commercially Available Nigella sativa (Kalonji) Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFA) in Nigella sativa (N. sativa) commercial and seed oil were determined using single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Gravimetrical mixing was done by adding 0.1–40% oleic acids in neutralized N. sativa oil containing 0.1% FFA. FTIR spectroscopy technique and partial least square (PLS) calibration were used to detect the absorption region of carbonyl (C=O) which is in the range of 1690–1727 cm−1. The results of P...

  4. Effects of Nigella sativa L. on Lipid Peroxidation and Reduced Glutathione Levels in Erythrocytes of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Tuluce, Yasin; Ozkol, Halil; Sogut, Bunyamin; Celik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of Nigella sativa L. on reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde, MDA) in erythrocytes of broiler chickens. We used 100 Ross 308 chickens and they were equally divided into four groups namely control, 0.5 %, 1 % and 1.5 % containing Nigella sativa L. The control group received control broiler fattening feed whereas, the treatments groups were fed by the feed containing 0.5 %, 1 % and 1.5 % grinded Nigella sativa L. seeds...

  5. Nigella sativa oil for the control of irradiation induced disorders in serum protein components of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of whole body gamma irradiation at the dose level 7 Gy delivered as shot dose or cumulative doses, on the electrophoretic pattern of serum protein components, was studied in male albino rats subjected to Nigella sativa treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of serum proteins of irradiated rats showed significant increases in percentages of some fractions of high molecular weights. Administration of nigella sativa oil before radiation exposure resulted in detectable radioprotective effect. Radiation protection effect exerted by nigella sativa oil prior to cumulative doses was more pronounced than that in case of one shot dose

  6. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

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    Nur Taşar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  7. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  8. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products. PMID:25081105

  9. Use of conditioning in the production of black and white oat hay using two cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate the dehydration curves, chemical composition, and occurrence of fungi in white oat hay (Avena sativa L. cv. Guapa BRS and black oat hay (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common at two cutting heights. Dehydration curves were studied under a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using split plots in time, considering two types of oats (white and black, two cutting heights (10 and 20 cm, and 17 sampling times (0, 4, 19, 24, 28, 43, 47, 52, 67, 71, 76, 91, 95, 100, 115, 129, and 124 hours after harvesting with five replicates. For the chemical composition and occurrence of fungi, the experimental design comprised randomized blocks in a factorial 2 × 2 split-plot in time with two types of oats, two cutting heights, and three assessment periods: before cutting, during baling, and after 30 days of storage, with five replicates. The hay obtained by cutting of the black and white oats at heights of 10 and 20 cm showed similar dehydration curves. The crude protein values were higher in white oats only at the time of cutting (141.5 g/kg. The black oats showed lower nutritional quality, with higher levels of ADF and lignin. There was no effect of cutting height on the chemical composition, but the cutting height interfered with the production of dry matter and residue after cutting, with cutting at 10 cm leading to higher dry matter production and at 20 cm to increased waste production. The cutting heights of the oats interfere directly with the dry matter production and post-harvest residue without changing the chemical composition of the hay.

  10. Population Structure and Genotype-Phenotype Associations in a Collection of Oat Landraces and Historic Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Louisa R; Michael Bonman, J; Chao, Shiaoman; Admassu Yimer, B; Bockelman, Harold; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent, with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace) was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color, and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) resistance, days to anthesis, and growth habit (winter/spring). In addition, two novel loci were identified for

  11. Population Structure and Genotype–Phenotype Associations in a Collection of Oat Landraces and Historic Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Louisa R.; Michael Bonman, J.; Chao, Shiaoman; Admassu Yimer, B.; Bockelman, Harold; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent, with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace) was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color, and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) resistance, days to anthesis, and growth habit (winter/spring). In addition, two novel loci were identified for

  12. Methodical characterization of rice ( Oryza sativa bran oil from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood, Zahid

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The hexane-extracted oil content of four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa viz. Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati, bran was ranged 14.70-19.10 %. Other physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oils were as follow: Iodine value 112.40, 109.80, 105.1 and 103.70; refractive index ( 40 °C 1.4650, 1.4680, 1.4657 and 1.4660; density ( 40 °C 0.919, 0.913, 0.909 and 0.911; saponification value 183, 177, 186 and 190; unsaponifiable matter 6.15, 5.60, 4.98 and 5.40 % respectively. Tocopherols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 284.00, 175.12, 180.42, 300.06; 83.40, 98.70, 120.70, 90.60; 75.16, 57.20, 39.32, 83.00 mg/kg respectively. The contents of tocotrienols ( α, γ and δ in the oils were: 120.30, 106.00, 95.20, 135.74; 196.00, 125.00, 210.0, 276.41; 72.50, 20.00, 39.30, 64.00 mg/kg respectively. The amount of γ - Oryzanol in the investigated oils was ranged 415.12-802.05 The induction periods (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 °C of the crude oils were 6.81, 5.99, 6.39 and 7.40 h respectively. The major sterol fractions of the oils consisted of campesterol ranged (10.10-19.20%, stigmasterol (14.00-19.28 %, b -sitosterol (49.30-58.20 %, and D5 ,avenasterol (8.14-13.05 %. The investigated varieties ( Super Kernel, 386, 385 and Basmati of rice bran oil were found to contain high levels of oleic acid 42.67, 38.59, 40.68 and 36.78 % followed by linoleic and palmitic acids 31.58, 33.80, 28.70, 30.51 and 17.00, 14.88, 19.63, 20.00 % respectively. The contents of myristic, stearic and arachidic acids was 1.50, 2.02, 4.28, 1.00; 2.64, 2.87, 4.02, 7.48; and 1.28, 3.00, 1.00, 1.00 % respectively. A number of parameters of the investigated rice bran oils indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical rice bran and some other vegetable oils, reported in the literature. The results of the present analysis as compared with those of different vegetable oils demonstrated rice bran to be a potential oil source and thus could be useful

  13. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  14. Physiologische Grundlagen der Akkumulation von
    Schwermetallionen beim Faserhanf (Cannabis sativa L.) und das Nutzungspotential bei der Phytoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostwald, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Im Rahmen der Arbeit sollte die Akkumulation von Schwermetallen sowie deren Einfluss auf die Synthese von Phytochelatinen in Faserhanfpflanzen - bzw. Zellkulturen (Cannabis sativa L.) untersucht und mit anderen Pflanzen oder Zellkulturen verglichen werden. Zudem sollte die Einsatzfähigkeit von Faserhanf zur Remediation schwermetallbelasteter Böden bewertet und Nutzungsmöglichkeiten für das geerntete Pflanzenmaterial aufgezeigt werden. Pflanzliche Kalluskulturen von Hanf (Cannabis sativa L...

  15. The enhancing effects of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on fertility potential, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rostam Ghorbani; Namdar Yousofvand; Rahmatollah Parandin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The task force on plants for fertility regulation in men continued with its program to identify novel prototypes in plants alleged to have fertility regulating properties. Nigella Sativa seeds are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and treatment of many ailments. Objective: To evaluated the role of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility potential, Pituitary-testicular axis hormones and Testosteron...

  16. Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been...

  17. In vitro and in vivo study of the antibacterial effects of Nigella sativa methanol extract in dairy cow mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Rakhshandeh; Nassser Vahdati-Mashhadian; Mehrangiz khajekaramadini

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nigella Sativa (N. Sativa) seeds were used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The seed extracts and oil of this plant have shown various pharmacological properties including antimicrobial actions. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial effects of methanol extract of the seeds against pathogenic bacteria causing mastitis in cows have been investigated. Materials and methods: in in vivo experiments, 10 cows with mastitis were treated by...

  18. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the extracts of Berberis vulgaris and Nigella sativa against Leishmania tropica

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Mahmoudvand; Fariba Sharififar; Monireh Sezavar Rahmat; Razieh Tavakoli; Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki; Sareh Jahanbakhsh; Iraj Sharifi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance underlines the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the ethanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris fruits and chloroform extract of Nigella sativa seeds against Leishmania tropica. Methods: In this study, antileishmanial activity of B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts...

  19. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, ...

  20. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Youjun; Yu Laura; Yung Ka-Fu; Leung Dennis YC; Sun Feng; Lim Boon L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded ...

  1. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA FIJACIÓN BIOLÓGICA DE NITRÓGENO EN LEGUMINOSAS FORRAJERAS MEDIANTE LA METODOLOGÍA DEL 15N Estimation of biological nitrogen fixation in forage legumes using a 15N labeling methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campillo R.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la contribución de la fijación biológica de N2 (FBN en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras, trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L., trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense L., trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L. y alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., con y sin inoculación específica de rhizobio, mediante la metodología isotópica del Valor A, empleando tres gramíneas, avena (Avena sativa L., ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. y festuca (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. como cultivos de referencia. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un andisol (Typic fulvudand, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, IX Región, Chile, durante tres temporadas. Las dosis aplicadas de N correspondieron a 10 kg ha-1 como sulfato de amonio (10% átomos exceso 15N para las especies leguminosas y de 30 kg ha-1 como sulfato de amonio (5% átomos exceso 15N para las gramíneas de referencia. En las muestras de material vegetal se analizó N total (Kjeldahl y 15N (espectrometría de emisión óptica. Los tres cultivos de referencia mostraron estimaciones similares de la FBN en las leguminosas. La capacidad de FBN alcanzó el 90% en todas las temporadas y para todas las leguminosas. No se encontró efecto significativo respecto a la inoculación con rhizobium, excepto en alfalfa y sólo en la primera temporada. La cantidad de N fijado en todas las temporadas fue alta y con todas las leguminosas, variando entre 60 y 770 kg ha-1 año-1, para trébol subterráneo y alfalfa, respectivamente, ratificando la gran eficiencia del mecanismo de FBN en las leguminosas forrajeras en estudio.The contribution of biological nitrogen N2 fixation (FBN in four forage legumes: white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L., subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., with and without specific rhizobium inoculation, was evaluated by the A value isotope technique, using three

  2. The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituents in Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Kabir, Nurul; Abbas, Ghulam; Draman, Suhaimi; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2016-01-01

    The loss of the ability for learning and memory is a prominent feature of dementia, which affects millions of individuals all over the world, due to either neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. Although a lot of information is known about the pathology involved, treatment remains elusive at best. The Black Seed of Nigella sativa has been historically and religiously used for thousands of years for preventing and treating many different kinds of diseases. This review article looks at Nigella sativa and its potential role in facilitating learning and memory. The possible use of this seed's extract or compounds isolated from it, such as thymoquinone, for treating damaged brain neural tissue is discussed. The evidence presented in this paper appears to be supporting the hypothesis that this plant and/or its bioactive constituents can enhance learning and memory in health and disease in animals and humans. PMID:27022403

  3. Investigation on the lubrication properties of biodiesel made of Camelina Sativa and Lard esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreivaitis, Raimondas; Padgurskas, Juozas [Aleksandras Stulginskis Univ., Kaunas (Lithuania). Inst. of Power and Transport Machinery; Gumbyte, Milda [Aleksandras Stulginskis Univ., Kaunas (Lithuania). Inst. of Environment and Ecology

    2013-06-01

    The ethyl esters can be produced from renewable resources while methyl esters have petroleum based methyl part. Camelina Sativa is the potential source of oilseeds. The oil has similar properties as that of rapeseed oil. Animal fats are cheap raw material and there esters were suggested as a fuel for diesel engine by many authors. The objective of this study would be the lubrication properties of ethyl esters made of Camelina Sativa and Lard. The lubrication properties investigated using High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) method. The wear scar diameter represents the lubrication properties. The observed lubrication results are compared with lubrication properties of conventional diesel fuel obtained from manufacturer ''ORLEN Lietuva'' Lithuania. The results show that mixtures of diesel and biodiesel improve the lubrication properties. (orig.)

  4. The transfer RNA genes in Oryza sativa L.ssp.indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希胤; 史晓黎; 郝柏林

    2002-01-01

    The availability of the draft genome sequence of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica has made it possible to study the rice tRNA genes. A total of 596 tRNA genes, including 3 selenocysteine tRNA genes and one suppressor tRNA gene are identified in 127551 rice contigs. There are 45 species of tRNA genes and the revised wobble hypothesis proposed by Guthrie and Abelson is perfectly obeyed. The relationship between codon usage and the number of corresponding tRNA genes is discussed. Redundancy may exist in the present list of tRNA genes and novel ones may be found in the future. A set of 33 tRNA genes is discovered in the complete chloroplast genome of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica. These tRNA genes are identical to those in ssp. japonica identified by us independently from the origional annotation.

  5. Data for global lysine-acetylation analysis in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yehui; Zhang, Kai; Cheng, Zhongyi; Wang, Guo-Liang; Liu, Wende

    2016-06-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops for human consumption and is a staple food for over half of the world׳s population (Yu et al., 2002) [1]. A systematic identification of the lysine acetylome was performed by our research (Xiong et al., 2016) [2]. Rice plant samples were collected from 5 weeks old seedlings (Oryza sativa, Nipponbare). After the trypsin digestion and immunoaffinity precipitation, LC-MS/MS approach was used to identify acetylated peptides. After the collected MS/MS data procession and GO annotation, the InterProScan was used to annotate protein domain. Subcellular localization of the identified acetylated proteins was predicted by WoLF PSORT. The KEGG pathway database was used to annotate identified acetylated protein interactions, reactions, and relations. The data, supplied in this article, are related to "A comprehensive catalog of the lysine-acetylation targets in rice (O. sativa) based on proteomic analyses" by Xiong et al. (2016) [2]. PMID:26977447

  6. Cancer chemopreventive potential of volatile oil from black cumin seeds, Nigella sativa L., in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Elsayed I.

    2010-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a herbal plant of the Ranunculaceae family that has been widely used for various medicinal and nutritional purposes. Volatile oil extracts along with its major constituents, such as thymoquinone, have recently attracted considerable attention for their antioxidant, immunoprotective and antitumor properties. The present study was conducted to assess the chemopreventive potential of crude oils in N. sativa on tumor formation using a well-established rat multi-organ...

  7. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Londo, Jason P.; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Schaal, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world’s most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice’s domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may rep...

  8. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential [1]. In Europe, Portugal is a leading producer of this nut, along with Italy, and the conservation of the chestnut’s properties is essential, especially for export [2]. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as a conservation technique by the Eu...

  9. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential. In Europe, Portugal is one of the leading producers of this nut, and its conservation is essential. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as post-harvest technique by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The alternati...

  10. Postavení konopí (Cannabis sativa) v ochraně rostlin

    OpenAIRE

    HRDLIČKOVÁ, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is a useful fibre, oil and energy plant that could be replace lot of synthetic row materials, whose production pollutes the environment. The aim of this work was to summarize the information about the occurrence of pets, diseases and weeds in the hemp stand and the possibilities of protection against them, together with information about the competitive and allelopathic characteristics of hemp and possibilities of hemp utilization in the plant protection. Though the spectrum o...

  11. Pemanfaatan Jerami Padi (Oryza sativa L.) sebagai Bahan Baku Pembuatan Karboksimetil Selulosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Irma Fitri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Paddy straw (Oryza sativa L.) is agricultural waste which can be used as the source of cellulose since it contains 36 % of cellulose. Carboxymeythyl cellulose is a linear polymear cellulose ether and anionic compoud. Objective: To make carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from paddy straw and to compare the CMC characteristic of paddy straw with commercial CMC. Method: Carboxymethyl cellulose of paddy straw (KSJP) was made by processing delignifacation in order to obtain a-cellulos...

  12. Heterologous Expression of AtWRKY57 Confers Drought Tolerance in Oryza sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yanjuan; Qiu, Yuping; Hu, Yanru; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is a severe environmental factor that greatly restricts plant distribution and crop production. Recently, we have found that overexpressing AtWRKY57 enhanced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we further reported that the Arabidopsis WRKY57 transcription factor was able to confer drought tolerance to transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic rice was resulted from the lower water loss rates, cell death, malondiald...

  13. Regeneration of foreign genes co-transformed plants of Medicago sativa L by Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕德扬; 曹学远; 唐顺学; 田霞

    2000-01-01

    Gene encoding sulphur amino acid-rich protein (HNP) and rol genes were transferred into Medicago sativa L (alfalfa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumafeciens. Regeneration of trans-genie plants was induced successfully from hairy root tissue of cotyledon in alfalfa. Cotyledon tissues were an ideally transformed recipient. There was a negative correlation between age of hairy roots and embryogenesis frequency in alfalfa. Production of co-transformed plants with greater yield and super quality was important for development of new alfalfa varieties.

  14. Regeneration of foreign genes co-transformed plants of Medicago sativa L by Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gene encoding sulphur amino acid-rich protein (HNP) and rol genes were transferred into Medicago sativa L (alfalfa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumafeciens. Regeneration of transgenic plants was induced successfully from hairy root tissue of cotyledon in alfalfa. Cotyledon tissues were an ideally transformed recipient. There was a negative correlation between age of hairy roots and embryogenesis frequency in alfalfa. Production of co-transformed plants with greater yield and super quality was important for development of new alfalfa varieties.

  15. Comparative gene expression profiles between heterotic and non-heterotic hybrids of tetraploid Medicago sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuehui; Wei, Yanling; Nettleton, Dan; Brummer, E. Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis. Results We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa) genotypes and their t...

  16. Radioprotection by macerated extract of Nigella sativa in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reelma Velho-Pereira; Kumar, A.; Pandey, B. N.; Mishra, K. P.; Aarti G Jagtap

    2012-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to study the effect of a macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds in normal as well as in tumour bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage to normal tissues. This was done to mimic the clinical setting where in, normal tissues of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy are exposed to the deleterious effects of radiation. The protection of cellular DNA was analysed in peripheral blood leucocytes of whole body irradiated mice following pretre...

  17. Ameliorating effects of two extracts of Nigella sativa in middle cerebral artery occluded rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Akhtar; Aliyu Muhammad Maikiyo; Razia Khanam; Mohd Mujeeb; Mohd Aqil; Abul Kalam Najmi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Nigella sativa (400 mg/kg, orally) for 7 days were administered and evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats. Materials and Methods: Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h. After 24 h of ischemia, grip strength, locomotor activity tests were performed in the surgically operated animals. After behavioral tests, animals were immedi...

  18. Nigella sativa L. Seed Extract Modulates the Neurotransmitter Amino Acids Release in Cultured Neurons In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek El-Naggar; María Pilar Gómez-Serranillos; Olga María Palomino; Carmen Arce; María Emilia Carretero

    2010-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (NS) has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of NS dry methanolic extract on cultured cortical neurons and its influence on neurotransmitter release, as well as the presence of excitatory (glutamate and aspartate) and inhibitory amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid—GABA—and glycine) in NS extract. Cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to different times and concentrations of NS dry methanolic extract and...

  19. Comparing Nigella sativa Oil and Fish Oil in Treatment of Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza; Khalili, Ali; Rokhafrooz, Darioush

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the autoimmune skin diseases that destroy the melanocytes of the skin. Moreover, its prevalence varies in different countries and regions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Nigella sativa and fish oil on vitiligo lesions of the patients referred to a dermatology clinic. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double blind clinical trial was conducted in the dermatology clinic of the Imam Khomeini Hospital Ahvaz, Iran, from June to De...

  20. Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa Against Diabetic Complications on The Liver in White Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar Ayoub Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the work: The effect of diabetes on the liver is associated with histological changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological changes following administration of nigella sativa (NS) in the streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male white rats (n=36), weighing (180–230 g) were taken for this study. The animals were divided into 3 groups: 1- Normal control group. 2- Diabetic group. 3- Diabetic group treated by ...

  1. The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituents in Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak; Nurul Kabir; Ghulam Abbas; Suhaimi Draman; Noor Hashida Hashim; Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli

    2016-01-01

    The loss of the ability for learning and memory is a prominent feature of dementia, which affects millions of individuals all over the world, due to either neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. Although a lot of information is known about the pathology involved, treatment remains elusive at best. The Black Seed of Nigella sativa has been historically and religiously used for thousands of years for preventing and treating many different kinds of diseases. This review article looks at Nig...

  2. The Study Of The Insecticidal Effect Of Nigella Sativa Essential Oil Against Tuta Absoluta Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Benchouikh Adil; Allam Tarik; Abderrahim Kribii; Khadija Ounine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To contribute to the development of an integrated strategy of pests associated with the tomato crop the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Nigella sativa was evaluated on larvae of Tuta absoluta which is considered the most destructive insect in the production of tomato Solanum lycopersicum and which causes serious damages in invaded areas. Rearing larvae of Tuta absoluta and the testing of toxicity were conducted in laboratory conditions in petri dishes at a temperature ...

  3. Detection of the Antibacterial Effect of Nigella Sativa Ground Seeds with Water

    OpenAIRE

    Bakathir, Hussein Ahmed; Abbas, Nageeb Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Nigella Sativa (NS) seeds have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries both as herbs and its oil. In Islam it is regarded as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine included in the medicine of prophet Mohammed. Huge number of studies have been carried out in recent years on the pharmacological effects of these seeds and also the possible relationship with their constituents. A number of these investigations emphasized the antimicrobial effect of them by using different extracts. ...

  4. Produksi bioethanol dari jerami padi (Oryza sativa) melalui hidrolisis asan dan fermentasi dengan Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    SRI KUSUMASTUTI HAYUNINGTYAS; SUNARTO; SITI LUSI ARUM SARI

    2014-01-01

    Hayuningtyas SK, Sunarto, Sari SLA. 2013. The production of bioethanol from rice straw (Oryza sativa) by acid hydrolysis and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioteknologi 11: 1-4. Bioethanol is one of the alternative fuels that are considered more environmentally friendly. Bioethanol can be obtained from material that contains cellulose, such as rice straw. This study aimed to determine the optimum fermentation time to product bioethanol from rice straw hydrolysis and measured of b...

  5. Favorable impact of Nigella sativa seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Huda Kaatabi; Bamosa, Abdullah O.; Lebda, Fatma M.; Al Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-Sultan, Ali I.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: The atherogenic pattern of dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly discussed. We have recently reported a hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa (NS) seeds in patients with type 2 DM. In this study we sought to assess the impact of NS seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients and Method: A total of 94 patients with type 2 DM were recruited and divided into 3 dose groups. Capsules containing NS were administered ora...

  6. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  7. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Casal; Sara Cunha; José Alberto Pereira; Rebeca Cruz; Paula Baptista

    2012-01-01

    The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing...

  8. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  9. [Effect of outer space factors on lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzgodina, L V; Maksimova, E N; Akatov, Iu A; Kaminskaia, E V; Marennyĭ, A M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm2 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity. PMID:2329764

  10. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our...

  11. Levels of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zerihun, Agalu; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Debebe, Ayalew; Mehari, Bewketu

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa L. is one of the illicit drug bearing plants. Cannabis products are the most widely trafficked drugs worldwide. The highest levels of cannabis production in the world take place in the African continent. A small volume of cannabis is produced in rural areas of Ethiopia, of which a small portion is exported to neighboring countries and the majority is consumed at home. The literature survey revealed that there is no report on the metal contents in cannabis cultivated...

  12. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J.; Linthorst, Huub J. M.; Robert Verpoorte

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants...

  13. Enhancement of metal(loid)s phytoextraction by Cannabis sativa L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2012), s. 631-641. ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : phytoextraction * chelate * glutathione * Cannabis sativa L. * metal Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012 http://www.isfae.org/scientficjournal/2012/issue1/pdf/environment/e0.pdf

  14. Využitie Trichodermy harzanium pri pestovaní technickej konopy (Cannabis sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabeľ, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to detect possible positive and negative effects of the massive inoculation of the symbiotic soil organisms for the industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). The experiment was carried out on the research stations of the Czech University of Life Sciences Červený újezd . The first area was inoculated with the fungus Trichoderma harzanium and the other serves as a control. The data analysis showed that the selected symbiotic fungus in this particular application c...

  15. Untersuchungen zur entzündungshemmenden Wirkung von Cannabis sativa L.- Extrakten im Modell der Gewebekulturen

    OpenAIRE

    Nadig, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    In this study, which is a part of a project of the European Union, the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts of Cannabis sativa L. with a very low content of THC, were examined. Three varying extracts of cannabis were studied by the use of different cell models (microglia, chondrocytes, SK-N-H cells and monocytes) and their effects were analysed by enzymes immuno assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. The proteins of interest were prostaglandin E2, cyclooxyg...

  16. Obsah kanabinoidů v konopí setém (Cannabis sativa) a legislativa

    OpenAIRE

    PRAVDOVÁ, Martina

    2011-01-01

    These days hemp is a the most discussed plant in the whole world because of the content of compounds with psychotropic effects. Utilization of Cannabis sativa as a crop is universal (a fibre, food, oil and energy crop) and appreciated mainly from ecological point of view. This work summarizes information about cannabinoid characteristics, about their interspecific and intraspecific variability in hemp, possibilities of cannabionoid application in medicine, risks of their abuse as a drug, summ...

  17. Obsah kanabidiolu v konopí setém (Cannabis sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    BOUDOVÁ, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a crop that people have grown for a lot of years ago. It is amazing by its almost versatile use, whether in medicine, food, industry and power engineering. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the content of cannabidiol in different parts of hemp and the possibility of using these parts as a source of the compound. Morphologically distinct varieties - Bialobrzeskie and Finola were selected for the experiment. The Cannabidiol content was determined by high performan...

  18. Propagation through alginate encapsulation of axillary buds of Cannabis sativa L. — an important medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Mahmoud A. ElSohly

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is an important medicinal plant well known for its pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Because of allogamous nature of this species, it is difficult to maintain its potency and efficacy if grown from the seeds. Therefore, chemical profile-based screening, selection of high yielding elite clones and their propagation using biotechnological tools is the most suitable way to maintain their genetic lines. In this regard, we report a simple and efficient method ...

  19. Economic evaluation of hemp (Cannabis sativa) grown for energy purposes (briquettes)

    OpenAIRE

    Pernikářová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of fossil fuels and their environmental risks have brought to the foreground energy crops as a possible source of bioenergy. Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has been suggested for production of solid biofuels (briquettes) due to good physic – mechanical properties as well as positive energy and combustion characteristics. Production costs and revenue play significant role in decision of producer which crop to cultivate. As no similar publication has not been published yet, the ...

  20. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, N; H.R Zakeri; G Amin ansafi; A. Shafiee; Sarkhail, P.; Heshmat, R; H Sereshti; B Larijani

    2010-01-01

    "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa) seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic wo...