WorldWideScience

Sample records for avaliacao da microbiota

  1. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  2. Avaliacao da Relacao entre a Doenca Hepatica Nao Gordurosa e CAD utilizando TCMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Efe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Alguns fatores de risco para a aterosclerose são acompanhados pela doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA. Desejamos usar a tomografia computadorizada multi-fatias (TCMF como a técnica para encontrar relação entre a DHGNA e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Objetivo: A relação entre a DHGNA e a DAC foi investigada através de TCMF. Métodos: Um total de 372 indivíduos com ou sem sintomas cardíacos, que foram submetidos à angiografia por TCMF, foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença da DHGNA. Os segmentos arteriais coronarianos foram avaliados visualmente via angiografia por TCMF. Com base no grau de estenose arterial coronariana, aqueles com placas ausentes ou mínimas foram considerados como normais, enquanto aqueles que apresentavam estenose de menos do que 50% e no mínimo uma placa foram considerados como portadores da doença arterial coronariana não obstrutiva (não-obsDAC. Os pacientes que apresentaram no mínimo uma placa e estenose arterial coronariana de 50% ou mais foram considerados como portadores de doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (obsDAC. A DHGNA foi determinada de acordo com o protocolo de TCMF, utilizando a densidade hepática. Resultados: De acordo com a densidade hepática, o número de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (grupo 1 foi de 204 (149 homens, 54,8% e com fígado normal (grupos 2 foi de 168 (95 homens, 45.2%. Houve 50 (24,5% não-obsDAC e 57 (27,9% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 1, e 39 (23,2% não-obsDAC e 23 (13,7% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 2. Conclusões: O presente estudo utilizando TCMF demonstrou que a frequência da doença arterial coronariana em pacientes com NAFDL foi significativamente superior do que nos pacientes em NAFDL.

  3. Avaliacao da seguranca de diferentes doses de suplementos de acido folico em mulheres do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quenia dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a distribuição da ingestão de ácido fólico e a segurança de diferentes doses de suplementos em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados de consumo a partir de dois dias não consecutivos de registro alimentar de 6.837 mulheres em idade reprodutiva (19 a 40 anos participantes do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, módulo da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Médias e percentis de consumo habitual de folato natural e ácido fólico foram estimados utilizando o método do National Cancer Institute . Cinco cenários foram simulados somando-se diferentes doses diárias de fortificação (400 mcg, 500 mcg, 600 mcg, 700 mcg e 800 mcg ao ácido fólico oriundo dos alimentos consumidos pelas mulheres. Comparou-se o total de ácido fólico (dieta + suplemento com o nível máximo de ingestão tolerável (UL = 1.000 mcg para definir a dose segura de suplementação. RESULTADOS Mulheres com ingestão habitual de ácido fólico acima do nível máximo de ingestão tolerável foram observadas para doses de suplemento de 800 mcg (7,0% das mulheres. Abaixo desse valor, qualquer dose de suplementação mostrou-se segura. CONCLUSÕES O uso de suplementos de até 700 mcg de ácido fólico mostrou-se seguro.

  4. Isolamento e identificação da microbiota periodontal de cães da raça Pastor Alemão Isolate and identify of periodontal microbiota of German Shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Afonso da Silva Bitencourt Braga

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota indígena gengival de cães não está totalmente descrita, sendo sua identificação uma etapa importante no estabelecimento da etiopatogenia e terapia da doença periodontal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar e identificar a microbiota periodontal de cães da raça Pastor Alemão, considerando sítios saudáveis e com doença periodontal. Foram utilizados 29 cães, com idade variando de três a seis anos, sendo analisados espécimes clínicos de sítios periodontais saudáveis de 12 cães e sítios com periodontite de outros 17. Foram isoladas 672 amostras microbianas, com predomínio dos gêneros Pasteurella, Staphylococcus, Porphyromonas e Fusobacterium. A microbiota dos sítios saudáveis equiparou-se à dos sítios doentes, tratando-se de uma microbiota indígena. A microbiota dos sítios doentes apresentou-se aumentada em relação a dos sítios saudáveis, indicando mudança do ambiente do sítio periodontal.The indigenous gingival microbiota of dogs is not totally described, although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify the periodontal microbiota of German Shepherd dogs from healthy and with periodontal desease sites. Twenty nine German Shepherd dogs from three to six years of age were used in this study. Clinical specimens were analysed from healthy periodontal sites of 12 dogs and sites presenting gingivitis of 17 dogs. A total amount of 672 microbial samples, were isolated where the predominant genera were Pasteurella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacterium spp. The microbiological population of the affected sites was similar to the healthy sites, consisting on an indigenous microbiota. The microbiota on the affecteded sites was higher in number than on the healthy sites, showing change in the environment of the periodontal sites.

  5. Leitura rapida do KDIGO 2012: Diretrizes para avaliacao e manuseio da doenca renal cronica na pratica clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores desta "leitura rápida" apresentam os dados que consideraram mais relevantes na versão 2012 do KDIGO referente à avaliação e manuseio da doença renal crônica. Não se trata da opinião dos autores, mas sim de uma apresentação mais concisa das diretrizes, que podem ser úteis na prática clínica.

  6. Isolamento e identificação da microbiota periodontal de cães da raça Pastor Alemão Isolate and identify of periodontal microbiota of German Shepherd dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Afonso da Silva Bitencourt Braga; Cleusa Maria Faria Resende; Ana Cristina Nogueira Rodrigues Pestana; Luiz Semeão Carmo; José Eustáquio Costa; Luiz Antonio Franco Silva; Lílian Nery de Assis; Larissa de Assis Lima; Luiz de Macedo Farias; Maria Auxiliadora Roque Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    A microbiota indígena gengival de cães não está totalmente descrita, sendo sua identificação uma etapa importante no estabelecimento da etiopatogenia e terapia da doença periodontal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar e identificar a microbiota periodontal de cães da raça Pastor Alemão, considerando sítios saudáveis e com doença periodontal. Foram utilizados 29 cães, com idade variando de três a seis anos, sendo analisados espécimes clínicos de sítios periodontais saudáveis de 12 cães e sít...

  7. Microbiota bacteriana da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea Bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of donor corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Xavier dos Santos Araújo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Quantificar e qualificar a microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea segundo a interferência do intervalo de tempo entre o óbito e a colheita do espécime conjuntival, a causa do óbito e a idade do doador e avaliar a atividade biocida de determinados antibióticos aos microrganismos isolados. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro e março de 1994 foram colhidos espécimes da conjuntiva de 242 olhos de doadores de córnea. O material transportado em meio de Stuart foi semeado em ágares sangue, chocolate, sangue azida, MacConkey e caldo tioglicolato. Foi registrada a idade do doador, hora e causa do óbito. A atividade biocida dos antibióticos foi avaliada pela metodologia de Kirby e Bauer. A análise estatística utilizou os testes do qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de cultura positiva da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea foi de 91,7%. A mediana da idade dos doadores foi de 62 anos e do intervalo de tempo entre o óbito e a colheita do espécime foi de 4,2 horas. A causa mais freqüente de óbito foi doença cardiovascular (26,4%. Não houve diferença significante entre a cultura positiva e as variáveis estudadas. A vancomicina inibiu 100% das cepas de bactérias Gram-positivas e a sensibilidade dos bacilos Gram-negativos à gentamicina variou de 36,7% a 92,3%. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo revelou freqüência elevada de cultura positiva da conjuntiva de doadores de córneas. Staphylococcus coagulase negativo foi a espécie com maior número de isolamentos positivos. Não foi encontrada associação entre os fatores de risco avaliados e cultura positiva. Os antibióticos tiveram atividade biocida variável sobre os Gram-negativos e 100% dos Gram-positivos foram sensíveis à vancomicina.PURPOSE: To identify and qualify bacterial organisms in conjunctival tissue of donor corneas. To correlate the frequency of positive cultures with donor age, cause of death, and time from death to collection of

  8. Microbiota conjuntival de cães sadios da cidade de Araçatuba (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Alexandre Lima de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar os microrganismos da conjuntiva ocular de cães clinicamente sadios na região de Araçatuba (SP, no verão e no inverno. Métodos: Foram utilizados quarenta cães, machos e fêmeas, com idade variando entre 2 e 5 anos. Após limpeza ocular com água tratada, foram realizadas colheitas de material do saco conjuntival inferior com auxílio de "swabs" estéreis, para posterior isolamento e identificação de bactérias aeróbicas, anaeróbicas e fungos. Resultados: As bactérias de maior ocorrência foram o Staphylococcus aureus e o Staphylococcus beta-haemolyticus. O fungo de maior ocorrência foi Penicilium sp. Conclusão: Pôde-se concluir que houve variação da microbiota conjuntival normal em função da estação do ano. Dos microrganismos isolados, o único que apresentou diferença estatística significativa quanto à incidência sazonal foi o Staphylococcus beta-haemolyticus, que foi isolado apenas no inverno.

  9. Interferência da microbiota autóctone do queijo coalho sobre Staphylococcus coagulase positiva Interference of autochthonous microbiota of curd cheese on Staphylococcus coagulase positive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Feitosa Machado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Níveis elevados de contaminantes microbiológicos, comumente encontrados em alimentos de origem animal e ambientes de processamento de alimentos, são aptos de impedir o crescimento de patógenos nestes produtos. Em alguns contextos onde bactérias ácido láticas (BAL constituem a microbiota dominante, como nos produtos lácteos, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP colonizam, persistem e produzem intoxicação alimentar. Com o objetivo de verificar a possível interferência da microbiota encontrada no queijo Coalho sobre a presença de SCP, 64 amostras provenientes de 16 laticínios foram submetidas a análises microbiológicas para determinar os níveis de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM, BAL e SCP. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a microbiota autóctone das amostras analisadas não gerou condições inadequadas ao crescimento, desenvolvimento e isolamento de SCP, uma vez que este patógeno foi detectado mesmo nas amostras que apresentaram altos níveis de contagens de MAM e BAL.High levels of microbial contamination, commonly found in animal origin foods and food processing environments, are able to hinder the growth in these products. In some contexts where lactic acid bacteria (LAB are the normal dominant microbiota, such as in fermented food, Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP colonises, persists and produces food poisoning. With the aim of verifying the interference of autochthonous microbiota encountered in Curd cheese over the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, 64 samples from 16 dairy were submitted to microbiological analysis to determine the levels of Microorganisms aerobes mesophilics (MAM, LAB and SCP. The results showed that the indigenous microbiota of the samples did not lead to inadequate growth, development and isolation of SCP, since this pathogen was detected even in samples with high levels of counts of AM and BAL.

  10. Avaliacao da espessura medio-intimal em pacientes com doenca renal cronica nao dialitica: estudo prospectivo de 24 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gaspar Marcos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento da espessura média-intimal (EMI avaliada por ultrassom é um preditor de risco cardiovascular na população geral. Porém, em pacientes com doença renal crônica nos estágios iniciais, essa associação ainda não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação EMI com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e mortalidade em pacientes nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica. Métodos: A análise post hoc de uma coorte de pacientes nos estágios 2-4 da DRC. Foram avaliados dados laboratoriais, ultrassom da artéria carótida e tomografia coronariana no início do estudo e a ocorrência de óbito, em seguimento por 24 meses. Resultados: Um total de 117 pacientes (57 ± 11 anos, 61% sexo masculino foram avaliados. A taxa de filtração glomerular foi 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% dos pacientes eram hipertensos, 23% diabéticos e 27% obesos. Calcificação arterial coronariana esteve presente em 48% dos pacientes, sendo mais prevalente em pacientes nos estágios mais avançados da DRC (p = 0,02. EMI foi 0,6 mm (0,4-0,7 mm. Comparado aos pacientes com EMI < 0,6mm, aqueles com EMI ≥ 0,6 mm eram mais velhos (p = 0,001, apresentavam maior prevalência do sexo masculino (p = 0,001, menor taxa de filtração glomerular (p = 0,01 e maior proporção de pacientes com calcificação (p = 0,001. Não foi observada relação entre a espessura média-intimal e a ocorrência de evento cardiovascular e óbito. Conclusão: A espessura médio-intimal em pacientes DRC se associou à calcificação coronariana, mas não à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e óbito, em um seguimento de 24 meses.

  11. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach

  12. Análise da diversidade da microbiota intestinal de ratos submetidos à ressecção da valva ileocecal e criação de esfíncter artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Aparecida Barra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar através de biologia molecular a diversidade da microbiota da junção ileocecal antes e após a ressecção da válvula ileocecal e reconstrução do trânsito com e sem a criação de "neoesfíncter". MÉTODOS: Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo A (n=7 com ressecção da válvula ileocecal e anastomose ileocólica término-terminal em plano único, e Grupo B (n=7 com ressecção da válvula ileocecal e anastomose ileocólica término-terminal em plano único e confecção do esfíncter artificial. Reoperados com 20 dias coletou-se novamente conteúdo intraluminar do íleo e do cólon. Das amostras coletadas, extraiu-se DNA para reação de PCR-DGGE. Os padrões de bandas eletroforéticas , gerados na reação, foram submetidos ao programa Bionumerics para análise da similaridade e da diversidade da microbiota. RESULTADOS: a diversidade da microbiota foi maior e em mais amostras do íleo do que as do cólon. O grupo com a válvula apresentou os maiores valores e variações no cólon de 2,11 a 2,93. Em três animais de cada grupo estabeleceu-se comparação da similaridade e não se assemelharam ao controle. CONCLUSÃO: a ressecção da válvula ileocecal levou à mudanças da microbiota ileal e, com a criação de novo esfíncter, as variações foram maiores.

  13. Normal microbiota of the perialveolar region of incisors of rats Microbiota normal da região perialveolar de incisivos em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R.G. Araújo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificou-se a microbiota normal da região peri-alveolar de incisivos em 72 ratos Wistar, com 70-90 dias de idade e 280-330g de peso. As bactérias foram coletadas com suabes embebidos em solução salina. Do material depositado em tubo contendo 460µl de Brain Heart Infusion e diluído em 1:10, retirou-se 1µl para semeadura em placas de Petri. O crescimento médio foi 1,4x10(6 ± 2,6x10(5UFC/ml. Segundo a ordem das freqüências, as bactérias encontradas foram: Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus viridans, Corynebacterium sp., Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Serratia liquefaciens. De todas as bactérias isoladas, as Gram-positivas e as Gram-negativas compreenderam 91,2% e 8,8%, respectivamente. Dentre as Gram-positivas, a mais freqüente foi Bacillus sp.(31,2% e a menos, Staphylococcus saprophyticcus (3,0%. Quanto às bactérias Gram-negativas, a mais encontrada foi Escherichia coli (50,1% e a menos, Serratia liquefaciens (6,2%.

  14. Microbiota bacteriana aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of cornea donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fontana Lorenzini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a microbiota bacteriana aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea e seu padrão de suscetibilidade a antibióticos; verificar o número de córneas utilizadas para transplante e a média de tempo de preservação em solução preservante com gentamicina e estreptomicina; traçar o perfil dos doadores e receptores de córnea. MÉTODOS: Espécimes clínicos foram colhidos de saco inferior da conjuntiva de ambos os olhos, de 40 doadores de córnea. As amostras foram inoculadas em ágar sangue azida, ágar chocolate e ágar MacConkey e o antibiograma foi realizado pelo método de Kirby-Bauer. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de cultura positiva da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea foi de 72,5%, sendo que Gram-positivos totalizaram 81,6% e apenas 18,4% das amostras foram identificadas como Gram-negativos. Vancomicina inibiu 100% dos Gram-positivos, ao passo que a sensibilidade dos Gram-negativos à gentamicina foi de 53,8% e à estreptomicina foi de 30%. O sexo masculino predominou entre os doadores e receptores, a média de tempo entre o óbito e a enucleação foi de 2h e a de preservação em solução preservante com gentamicina e estreptomicina foi de 7 dias. Neoplasia e mais de uma causa associada foram as causas de óbito mais freqüentes. O ceratocone foi a principal indicação para transplante (51,7%. CONCLUSÕES: Staphylococcus coagulase negativo foi o microrganismo com o maior número de isolamentos, apresentando sensibilidade variada aos antimicrobianos. A quantidade de córneas utilizadas para transplante foi bastante inferior em relação ao total de captações. O perfil dos doadores e receptores de córnea mostrou-se heterogêneo para grande parte das variáveis analisadas.PURPOSE: To determine aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of cornea donors and its patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics; verify the number of corneas used for transplant and the average time of preservation in solutions with

  15. Análise da diversidade da microbiota intestinal de ratos submetidos à ressecção da valva ileocecal e criação de esfíncter artificial Analysis of the diversity of the intestinal microbiota of rats subjected to resection of the ileocecalvalve and creation of artificial sphincter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Aparecida Barra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar através de biologia molecular a diversidade da microbiota da junção ileocecal antes e após a ressecção da válvula ileocecal e reconstrução do trânsito com e sem a criação de "neoesfíncter". MÉTODOS: Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo A (n=7 com ressecção da válvula ileocecal e anastomose ileocólica término-terminal em plano único, e Grupo B (n=7 com ressecção da válvula ileocecal e anastomose ileocólica término-terminal em plano único e confecção do esfíncter artificial. Reoperados com 20 dias coletou-se novamente conteúdo intraluminar do íleo e do cólon. Das amostras coletadas, extraiu-se DNA para reação de PCR-DGGE. Os padrões de bandas eletroforéticas , gerados na reação, foram submetidos ao programa Bionumerics para análise da similaridade e da diversidade da microbiota. RESULTADOS: a diversidade da microbiota foi maior e em mais amostras do íleo do que as do cólon. O grupo com a válvula apresentou os maiores valores e variações no cólon de 2,11 a 2,93. Em três animais de cada grupo estabeleceu-se comparação da similaridade e não se assemelharam ao controle. CONCLUSÃO: a ressecção da válvula ileocecal levou à mudanças da microbiota ileal e, com a criação de novo esfíncter, as variações foram maiores.OBJECTIVE: To analyze, through molecular biology, the diversity of the intestinal microbiota before and after resection of the ileocecal junction and reconstruction of intestinal transit with and without the creation of a neosphincter. METHODS: Fourteen Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Group A (n = 7, submitted to resection of the ileocecal valve and end-to-end, single-layer ileocolic anastomosis; and Group B (n = 7 with resection of the ileocecal valve and end-to-end, single-layer ileocolic anastomosis followed by construction of an artificial sphincter. Intraluminal contents were collected from both groups. The animals were reoperated 20

  16. Impactos da aplicação de biossólidos na microbiota de solos tropicais Impacts of biosolids amendments on the microbiota of tropical soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rodrigues Lambais

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de biossólidos de Estações de Tratamento de Esgotos (ETEs em solos agrícolas e florestais tem sido uma das práticas alternativas preconizadas para a reciclagem desses resíduos orgânicos. No entanto, alguns biossólidos de ETEs podem conter metais e, ou, xenobiontes que poderiam afetar a microbiota. Neste trabalho, os impactos da aplicação de biossólidos das ETEs de Barueri e Franca (SP, com alta e baixa concentração de metais, respectivamente, na microbiota de um solo argiloso (Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico típico e um arenoso (Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico foram determinados em condições de microcosmos. Imediatamente após a adição de diferentes doses de biossólidos ao solo, e depois de 4, 8, 16, 32 e 64 dias de incubação, a respiração basal (RB, C na biomassa microbiana (CB, quociente metabólico (qCO2 e relação CB/C-orgânico do solo (CB/Corg foram avaliados. No geral, a RB foi maior nos solos com maiores quantidades de biossólidos, sendo os maiores acréscimos verificados logo após a aplicação dos biossólidos. No solo arenoso, decréscimos significativos do CB foram observados nos tratamentos com as doses mais elevadas de biossólidos. O qCO2 foi maior nos solos com doses mais elevadas de biossólidos, mas diminuiu com o aumento do período de incubação. Independentemente do tipo de solo, CB/Corg foi maior nos solos que não receberam biossólidos, em relação aos solos que receberam biossólidos ricos em metais. A relação CB/Corg nos solos tratados com biossólidos ricos em metais diminuiu significativamente entre 4 e 16 dias de incubação, não sofrendo alterações posteriormente. Esses dados indicam que a aplicação de biossólidos nos solos analisados, independentemente do teor de metais, pode causar um estresse transiente na comunidade microbiana, dependendo da dose aplicada, e que alterações na estrutura das comunidades microbianas podem estar ocorrendo.The amendment of

  17. Solubilização Potencial de Fosfatos Mediada pela Microbiota Rizosférica de Eucalipto Cultivado em Topossequência Típica da Zona da Mata Mineira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marcos Massenssini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de fosfatos naturais, aliado ao adequado manejo de microrganismos do solo solubilizadores de fosfato, é uma alternativa para reduzir os custos da adubação fosfatada. No entanto, ambas as práticas requerem a avaliação prévia do potencial da microbiota rizosférica em solubilizar fontes de P pouco reativas em condições de campo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial da microbiota do solo de solubilizar os fosfatos de Ca, Fe, Al, além dos fosfatos naturais de Araxá e Catalão em amostras de solo rizosférico e não rizosférico de plantio do hibrido Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla, localizados em três pontos de uma topossequência típica da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. Adicionalmente, avaliou-se a atividade de fosfatases ácidas e alcalinas sob as mesmas condições experimentais. A microbiota rizosférica das plantas do topo e da baixada apresentou maior potencial de solubilização de fosfato de Ca (5.745,09 e 6.452,80 μg de P, respectivamente, enquanto o solo da encosta não apresentou diferenças entre as fontes inorgânicas testadas. O fosfato de Catalão foi a fonte de fosfato natural com maior potencial de solubilização (1.209,71 μg de P pela microbiota do solo nas condições avaliadas. O pH final do meio de cultura correlacionou-se negativamente com os valores de P solubilizado, indicando que a acidificação do ambiente foi um dos mecanismos de solubilização utilizados pela microbiota rizosférica in vitro. A atividade das fosfatases ácida e alcalina foi maior na rizosfera de plantas do topo, área com maior teor de matéria orgânica. Não foi observada correlação clara entre o potencial de solubilização de fosfato ou a atividade das fosfatases com o diâmetro médio à altura do peito das árvores do plantio. Este estudo demonstra o efeito da topografia no potencial de solubilização da microbiota do solo, que é influenciada positivamente pelo teor de matéria orgânica do solo.

  18. Identificação da microbiota fúngica de ambientes considerados assépticos Identification of the fungic microbiota isolated in areas considered aseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabete Sbrogio de Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se isolar e identificar a microbiota fúngica em ambientes considerados assépticos, através de exposições com meios de cultivo adequados, em três épocas distintas do ano, antes e imediatamente após as manobras técnicas realizadas em três áreas de trabalho: ambiente aberto, ambiente fechado sem filtração de ar e ambiente fechado com filtração de ar, utilizadas em produção de imunobiológicos. Os meios ágar-Sabouraud e ágar-soja, enriquecidos com 0,2% de extrato de levedura e sem cloranfenicol, foram estudados quanto à sua eficácia no isolamento de bolores e leveduras, considerando-se o número de colônias desenvolvidas e a freqüência dos diversos fungos isolados. Isolaram-se 67 espécimens, sendo 64 fungos filamentosos (bolores e três leveduras. Dos bolores, 54 pertenciam a 22 gêneros da divisão Deuteromycota, famílias Moniliaceae e Dematiaceae, cinco amostras filamentosas foram incluídas na ordem Agonomycetales (Mycelia Sterilia, e uma amostra foi classificada na divisão Deuteromycota, ordem Sphaeropsidales, classe Coelomycetes. Da divisão Zygomycota, ordem Mucorales, família Mucoraceae, um único mucoráceo foi identificado até gênero. As três leveduras pertenciam também à divisão Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti, família Cryptococcaceae, e foram identificadas como sendo duas Rhodotorula rubra e uma Torulopsis candida. Comprovou-se que o número de colônias isoladas aumentou após a realização das monobras técnicas e que a filtração de ar através de filtros tipo HEPA, reduzindo o número de colônias isoladas nos ambientes fechados, aumenta a segurança do trabalho; comumente é recomendada para áreas de atividade técnica cujos resultados satisfatórios estão diretamente relacionados com uma baixa incidência de contaminantes.The isolation and identification of the fungic microbiota present in areas considered aseptic (open and/or restricted, with or without air filtration (HEPA filters

  19. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  20. Avaliação da capacidade probiótica de uma linhagem de Ruminococcus gnavus da microbiota fecal de seres humanos contra Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Barbosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Probióticos são microrganismos utilizados com o propósito de beneficiar a saúde do hospedeiro, seja na prevenção ou tratamento de doenças. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar uma cultura de Ruminococcus gnavus quanto ao seu efeito probiótico frente a um alvo patogênico in vivo por meio de avaliação histopatológica e perfil de hidrofobicidade da parede celular. A linhagem de R. gnavus foi isolada da microbiota fecal dominante de um adulto sadio. Uma amostra padrão de Clostridium perfringens foi utilizada como patógeno para o desafio por via oral de camundongos previamente monoassociados com R. gnavus. Camundongos suíços NIH isentos de germes foram usados como modelo animal. Nos resultados dos testes de adesão da superfície celular do microrganismo estudado, ficou constatado que a espécie R. gnavus possui uma parede celular mais hidrofóbica e ácida, sinalizando boa probabilidade de adesão ao epitélio intestinal. A análise histológica demonstrou que a monoassociação com R. gnavus não promoveu nenhuma alteração morfológica dos órgãos analisados (intestinos, baço e fígado, e apresentou efeito protetor, constatado no ceco e no fígado de camundongos gnotobióticos. Em suma, os resultados reforçam que R. gnavus possui características protetoras desejáveis no que tange a elaboração de futuros probióticos.

  1. Estudo da microbiota fúngica da conjuntiva ocular em portadores de hanseníase e seus comunicantes Study of ocular fungal microbiota in patients with Hansen's disease and in individuals who deal with them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procópio Miguel dos Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a microbiota fúngica de pacientes portadores de hanseníase residentes no hospital-colônia e seus comunicantes. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados por meio da cultura em meio de ágar-Saboraud-dextrose, o material do fórnice conjuntival, de sessenta e um pacientes portadores de hanseníase, residentes no hospital-colônia de Goiânia e 25 indivíduos que residiam ou trabalhavam com os referidos pacientes, no mínimo há cinco anos. RESULTADOS: Nos portadores de hanseníase foram isolados fungos da conjuntiva de 12 pacientes (19,67%, sendo o gênero Candida o mais isolado, e no grupo controle de 5 indivíduos (20%, em que o gênero mais isolado foi Penicillium spp. CONCLUSÃO: Candida foi o gênero predominante na flora conjuntival dos portadores de hanseníase: fato que poderia ser explicado pela imunodeficiência celular que estes pacientes apresentam, além do olho seco e uso prolongado de antibiótico.PURPOSE: To study the conjunctival fungal flora of patients with leprosy who live in the colony hospital and of those who deal with "Hansen" patients. METHODS: Sixty-one eyes (61 patiets with Hansen's disease and twenty-five heathy eyes (25 individuals of individuals who deal with patients were investigated. RESULTS: Conjunctival fungi growth occurred in 19.67% and 20% of the patients and healthy individuals, respectively. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 regarding fungi percentage of fungi isolated from the conjunctiva between both groups. Candida ssp was the most frequent fungus isolated from the conjunctiva of patients with Hansen's disease, whereas Penicillium spp was the most frequent fungus isolated from the group of people who deal with these patients. CONCLUSION: The most frequent yeast isolated from conjunctival samples of leprosy patients was Candida, which could be explained by cellular immunodeficiency of these patients, associated with dry eye and the prolonged use of antibiotics.

  2. Avaliação da microbiota bacteriana do queijo de coalho artesanal produzido na região Agreste do estado de Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, R. A.; P.A. Bismara; R.B. Moura; J.L. Lima Filho; A.L.F. Porto; M.T.H. Cavalcanti

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica e o perfil ácido-láctico do queijo de coalho artesanal. Todas as amostras de queijo apresentaram coliformes totais, termotolerantes e presença de Escherichia coli, porém com os valores dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente no país. O perfil ácido-láctico estudado mostrou uma microbiota heterogênea, constituída por lactobacilos, lactococos, estreptococos e enterococos, confirmadas as espécies Enterococcus faeca...

  3. Isolation of Candida spp from vaginal microbiota of healthy canine females during estrous cycle Isolamento de Candida spp da microbiota vaginal de fêmeas caninas hígidas durante o ciclo estral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Brum Cleff

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the skin, genital and gastrointestinal tracts, and other mucosa in mammalians. Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals. Yeast isolation from vaginal mucus is frequent in women, especially of Candida genus. In canine females, however, studies about vaginal fungal microbiota are rare and the connection with estrous cycle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate yeast 5 of Candida genus from healthy canine females and identify the isolated species, establishing their connection with estrous cycle phases. Two hundred twenty-four samples taken from vaginal mucus of 14 canine females were analyzed in this study. Candida spp was observed in 83 (37% from these samples; nine samples were taken in proestrus, 14 in oestrus, 31 in dioestrus, 24 in anoestrus and five samples were obtained during pregnancy. Candida parapsilosis the most frequently isolated specie (21.7%, followed by C. guillermondii (8.4%, C. kefir (6% and C. albicans (4.8%. We concluded that Candida spp is a commion component of healthy canine females' vaginal microbiota, and isolation varies according to the estrous cycle phase.As leveduras são organismos comensais da pele, trato genital e gastrointestinal, e de outras mucosas de mamíferos. O gênero Candida vem sendo isolado freqüentemente de animais domésticos e silvestres. O isolamento de Candida spp da mucosa vaginal de mulheres é freqüente, porém na espécie canina são escassos os estudos referentes à microbiota fúngica vaginal, especialmente do gênero candida, não se tendo conhecimento de sua relação com o ciclo reprodutivo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo isolar leveduras do gênero Candida em fêmeas caninas hígidas e identificar as espécies isoladas, relacionando-as com as diferentes fases do ciclo estral. Foram analisadas 224 amostras obtidas da mucosa vaginal de 14 fêmeas caninas. Candida spp foi observada em 83 (37

  4. Modificação da microbiota associada às lesões peridentárias da "cara inchada" em bezerros transferidos para área indene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutra Iveraldo S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Observações sobre a epizootiologia da "cara inchada" dos bovinos (CI indicam que animais clinicamente positivos se recuperam espontâneamente quando transferidos para área indene. No presente estudo, 13 bovinos com lesões peridentárias progressivas da "cara inchada" foram transferidos para área indene com a finalidade de se verificar a evolução clínica da doença e a composição da microbiota da bolsa peridentária em duas situações distintas: (1 nas lesões progressivas e (2 quando da recuperação clínica. O estudo bacteriológico semi-quantitativo e qualitativo foi realizado tendo como referência a percentagem de Bacteroides pigmentados de negro presentes nos cultivos. Nas lesões progressivas a percentagem média destes microrganismos foi de 71,3%. Após 4 a 7 meses da transferência os animais se recuperaram espontaneamente, observando-se uma melhora na condição nutricional, desaparecimento do abaulamento facial e do odor fétido bucal e cicatrização com epitelização das lesões peridentárias. Na avaliação da composição da micro-biota das bolsas peridentárias dos bezerros quando clinicamente recuperados, este mesmo grupo de micorganismos representou em média 1,7%. Os resultados revelaram a ocorrência de uma predominância de Bacteroides pigmentados de negro nas lesões peridentárias progressivas da "cara inchada"e sua remissão quantitativa percentual após a recuperação clínica dos animais, consubstanciando as evidências de sua natureza infecciosa primária.

  5. Evaluation of home-made teas efficiency from medicinal plants used on childish diarrhea treatment; Avaliacao da eficacia de chas caseiros de plantas medicinais utilizados no tratamento da diarreia infantil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Magda Moreira; Silva, Maria Jose de Sousa Ferreira da [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, Claudia de; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this work is to verify whether the home-made teas form Brazilian plants, used for control of childish diarrhea have been efficient reaching the composition recommended by World Health Organizations (WHO). This work has been carried out using the neutron activation analysis and the TRIGA MARK I reactor, the IPR-R1, in the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  7. Comparison of wildlife and captivity rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus microbiota Comparação da microbiota de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus terrificus de vida-livre e cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui S. Ferreira Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated and compared the aerobic microbiota from the oral cavity, cloaca and venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes, recently caught from the wild and kept under quarantine (WQ, individual captivity (IC and collective captivity (CC. Antimicrobial drug effectiveness on isolated agents also was assayed. From group I, II and III were isolated, respectively, 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% and 21 (42.86% microorganisms from the cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% and 25 (51.02% microorganisms from the oral cavity; and, 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% and 3 (6.12% microorganisms from venom. The most frequent bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii, with sensitivity to amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, sulfazotrin and tobramycin. Snakes kept in semi-open captivity exhibited the fewest microorganisms in oral cavities, perhaps due to the environment in captivity, with different temperature gradients, running water, absence of daily handling, circulating air, possibility of moving around, daily cleaning, and sunlight access.Este estudo avaliou e comparou a microflora aeróbica da cavidade oral, cloaca e veneno de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus recém-capturadas da natureza e mantidas sob quarentena (WQ, mantidas em cativeiro coletivo (CC e em cativeiro individual (IC. A eficácia de drogas antimicrobianas de agentes isolados foi também avaliada. Foram isolados microorganismos dos grupos I, II e III respectivamente: 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% e 21 (42.86% da cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% e 25 (51.02% da cavidade oral, e finalmente 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% e 3 (6.12% do veneno. As bactérias mais frequentes foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris e Morganella morganii, com sensibilidade para amikacina, gentamicina, norfloxacina, sulfazotrina e tobramicina. Serpentes mantidas no cativeiro semi-aberto mostraram menor número de agentes infecciosos em cavidade oral, talvez devido ao ambiente de cativeiro com diferentes

  8. Influência da freqüência de coitos vaginais e da prática de duchas higiênicas sobre o equilíbrio da microbiota vaginal Influence of frequency of vaginal intercourses and the use of doushing on vaginal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Giraldo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar se alta freqüência de coitos vaginais e o uso de duchas higiênicas interferem com a microbiota vaginal. MÉTODOS: noventa e sete mulheres atendidas em centro de saúde localizado em zona de prostituição na cidade de Campinas foram avaliadas em estudo prospectivo de corte transversal. A anamnese determinou as freqüências de coitos vaginais e do uso de duchas higiênicas nas 44 profissionais do sexo e nas 53 não-profissionais do sexo estudadas. O conteúdo vaginal foi coletado com swab estéril de Dacron, da parede vaginal direita, e disposto em duas lâminas de vidro. A microbiota vaginal foi estudada em microscopia óptica com lente de imersão em esfregaço corado pela técnica de Gram. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste exato de Fisher. As mulheres profissionais e não profissionais do sexo apresentaram, respectivamente, média de idade de 24,9 (± 6,4 e 31,5 (± 9,7 anos, hábito de fumar em 52,2 e 24,5%, prática do uso de lubrificantes vaginais em 56,8 e 0% e prática de uso de condom em 100 e 41,5% dos casos respectivamente. RESULTADOS: apenas 1,8% das mulheres do grupo controle tinham sete ou mais relações sexuais por semana, em evidente contraste com as profissionais do sexo (97,7%. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto à raça, escolaridade e paridade. A vaginose bacteriana e a flora vaginal anormal foram mais observadas nas profissionais do sexo do que no grupo controle (p=0,02 e 0,001 e associou-se à alta freqüência (sete ou mais vezes de coitos vaginais semanais (p=0,04 e 0,001. O diagnóstico de vaginose citolítica foi mais freqüente nas mulheres não-profissionais do sexo (p=0,04 e com menor freqüência de relações sexuais (p=0,04. O uso de duchas higiênicas foi mais comum nas profissionais do sexo (p=0,002. Entretanto, esta prática não esteve associada aos distúrbios da microbiota vaginal e nem à presença de vulvovagintes. CONCLUSÕES: profissionais do sexo com sete ou mais

  9. Conjunto mínimo de parâmetros para avaliação da microbiota do solo e da fixação biológica do nitrogênio pela soja Minimal set of parameters for evaluation soil microbiota and biological nitrogen fixation in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinei Aparecida de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e validar um conjunto mínimo de parâmetros para o monitoramento, em campo, da microbiota do solo e da fixação biológica do N2 (FBN pela soja. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em áreas de plantios comerciais (safra 2002/2003 e experimentais (safra 2004/2005, em blocos ao acaso. O C e o N da biomassa microbiana (CBM e NBM mostraram-se adequados para a avaliação quantitativa da microbiota do solo e ambos os parâmetros foram correlacionados significativamente, portanto, apenas um deles precisa ser determinado. Foram obtidas correlações positivas e significativas entre a massa da parte aérea seca das plantas (MPAS e o CBM e o NBM. A análise do DNA total do solo por eletroforese em géis desnaturantes (DGGE detectou alterações qualitativas na microbiota do solo, relacionadas à homogeneidade da área e a diferenças entre tratamentos, áreas e coletas. A massa de nódulos secos (MNS foi o melhor parâmetro para a avaliação da nodulação. Correlações significativas foram constatadas entre a MPAS e o N total acumulado na parte aérea (NTPA. Resultados semelhantes foram observados entre a MPAS e o N de ureídos (NTU. O monitoramento da FBN pela soja pode ser realizado apenas pela determinação da MNS e da MPAS.The objective of this work was to evaluate and validate a minimum set of parameters capable of monitoring, under field conditions, soil microbes and/or the biological N2 fixation process with the soybean crop. The field trials were performed in commercial fields (2002/2003 and experimental areas (2004/2004, with complete randomized blocks design. Microbial biomass C (MBC and N (MBN were adequate for the quantitative evaluation of soil microbes; the parameters were significantly correlated therefore the determination of only one of them is sufficient. Positive and significant correlations were also obtained between the parameters of shoot dry weight (SDW and MBC and MBN. The analysis of total

  10. Alterações da microbiota conjuntival e palpebral após uso tópico de lomefloxacina e tobramicina na cirurgia de catarata e cirurgia refrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfling - Lima Ana Luisa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações da microbiota conjuntival e palpebral após o uso tópico de colírios de lomefloxacina ou tobramicina a 0,3% no preparo de pacientes a serem submetidos à cirurgia de catarata e cirurgia refrativa e avaliar a sensibilidade das bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva e pálpebra a estes antibióticos. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo de análise da microbiota conjuntival e palpebral de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata e cirurgia refrativa (PRK ou LASIK. O estudo da microbiota conjuntival e palpebral foi realizado antes das cirurgias, sem uso de agentes para profilaxia, no período pós-operatório durante o uso de profilaxia, e após a suspensão dos antibióticos. Resultados: O uso tópico de tobramicina e lomefloxacina reduziu o número de colheitas positivas na conjuntiva e pálpebra nos indivíduos submetidos à cirurgia de catarata e cirurgia refrativa. Em ambos os grupos de pacientes ocorreu maior resistência dos microrganismos à tobramicina. No grupo submetido à cirurgia de catarata, pacientes tratados profilaticamente com tobramicina tiveram uma recuperação da microbiota mais lenta após a suspensão do antibiótico do que com a lomefloxacina, ocorrendo o oposto no grupo submetido à cirurgia refrativa. Conclusão: Tanto a lomefloxacina quanto a tobramicina foram eficazes em diminuir o número de culturas positivas da conjuntiva e da pálpebra enquanto estavam sendo administrados, sendo esta diminuição mais acentuada na conjuntiva. Houve maior resistência à tobramicina na maioria das colheitas realizadas. A lomefloxacina apresentou número menor de bactérias resistentes do que a tobramicina durante o uso da antibioticoterapia tópica profilática. O uso de antibiótico reduziu o número de amostras positivas.

  11. Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama (60Co na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L., Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, Camomila (Matricaria recutita L., Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile. A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25% produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40% produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6 UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5 UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g.The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli, and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile. The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial

  12. Microbiota bacteriana da conjuntiva no pré-operatório de injeção intravítrea de antiangiogênico por degeneração macular relacionada à idade comparada com a de cirurgia de catarata Preoperative conjunctival bacterial microbiota of antiangiogenic intravitreous injection for age-related macular degeneration compared to cataract surgery preoperative microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Diniz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a microbiota bacteriana da conjuntiva e perfil de antibiograma no pré-operatório de injeção intravítrea de antiangiogênico por degeneração macular relacionada à idade, comparando com a de pacientes no pré-operatório de cirurgia de catarata. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo transversal, observacional, tipo série de casos. Foram constituídos dois grupos: grupo I (degeneração macular com 26 olhos de 26 pacientes (12 homens/14 mulheres com média de idades de 69,2 ± 11,5 anos; grupo II (catarata com 27 olhos de 27 pacientes (9 homens/18 mulheres com média de idades de 67,6 ± 7,9 anos. Os grupos foram homogêneos em relação à idade (p=0,538 e ao sexo (p=0,787. Foi realizada coleta de secreção do fundo de saco inferior da conjuntiva, através de "swab", e imediatamente colocado em tubo contendo meio líquido BHI ("brain heart infusion". As amostras foram processadas conforme técnicas laboratoriais padrão e realizado antibiograma de cada colônia isolada. Resultados: Houve crescimento de 26 colônias bacterianas no grupo I, com 2 olhos não apresentando crescimento e 30 colônias no grupo II. Houve maior frequência de bactérias Gram positivas nos dois grupos: 23/26 colônias (88,4% no grupo I e 29/30 colônias (96,7% no grupo II, com predomínio de Staphylococcus aureus em ambos os grupos, com 16 amostras (61,5% e 17 (56,7%, respectivamente. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa foi a segunda bactéria mais identificada, com 19,2% no grupo I e 20,0% no grupo II. Nenhuma diferença de frequência entre os grupos alcançou significância estatística. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante nas sensibilidades das bactérias aos antibióticos testados entre os dois grupos. Conclusões: Não houve diferença na distribuição das bactérias e no perfil de antibiograma da microbiota conjuntival de pacientes no pré-operatório de injeção intravítrea por degeneração macular, comparada a de

  13. Microbiota bacteriana e citologia da região traqueobrônquica de bezerros no período neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. Benesi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As broncopneumonias são afecções importantes na pecuária mundial, representando uma das principais causas de mortalidade de bezerros nos primeiros meses de vida. As medidas preventivas e terapêuticas adotadas geralmente são baseadas em resultados de estudos internacionais, não se conhecendo as bactérias implicadas nos quadros pneumônicos em animais criados no Brasil. Aliado a isso, no primeiro mês de vida, os bezerros demonstram imaturidade do sistema imune, o que tem sido pouco estudado em quadros pneumônicos. Desta maneira, objetivou-se estudar as broncopneumonias em bezerros neonatos, identificando bactérias do trato respiratório posterior de bezerros sadios e com pneumonias naturalmente adquiridas, bem como analisar citologicamente a resposta pulmonar frente a estes patógenos. Para isso amostras de lavado do trato respiratório foram colhidas por traqueocentese durante o primeiro mês de vida dos animais. Verificou-se que não houve diferença na microbiota traqueobrônquica de bezerros sadios em relação aos doentes, discordando dos relatos da literatura internacional, sendo constituída principalmente por: Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa e enterobactérias, permitindo inferir que as medidas profiláticas e terapêuticas adotadas internacionalmente possam não ser tão efetivas para as criações brasileiras. Observou-se também que bezerros neonatos têm uma proporção aproximada de 1:1 de macrófagos e neutrófilos na região traqueobrônquica quando saudáveis, atingindo uma relação aproximada de 1:3 durante os quadros de broncopneumonias, sendo estes perfis provavelmente característicos da idade, período conhecido pela imaturidade do sistema imune e agravado por fatores de manejo que favoreçam uma maior inalação de agentes bacterianos.

  14. ESTUDO QUALI-QUANTITATIVO DA MICROBIOTA ANAERÓBIA EM AMOSTRAS DE QUEIJOS PROVOLONE, PARMESÃO E PRATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Soares Nicolau

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve o propósito de quantificar, isolar e identificar as bactérias mais freqüentes em amostras de queijos provolone, parmesão e prato, consideradas estufadas e normais, assim como determinar o pH e os níveis de nitrito e nitrato. Foram analisadas 120 amostras, compostas de queijo provolone (62, parmesão (36 e prato (22, produzidas em queijarias do Estado de Goiás e Minas Gerais. Nas amostras de queijos provolone, parmesão e prato, consideradas estufadas, foram isolados e identificados com maior freqüência o Clostridium butyricum e o Streptococcus intermedius, enquanto nas consideradas normais as espécies mais freqüentes foram o Streptococcus intermedius, o Actinomyces israelli e o Actinomyces naeslundii. Em relação à quantificação das bactérias anaeróbias, não houve diferença significativa entre as amostras consideradas estufadas e normais. Os valores médios de pH, independentemente da condição do queijo, normal ou estufado, não apresentaram grandes variações, sendo a determinação considerada ineficaz para formar juízo a respeito do estufamento tardio dos queijos. As amostras consideradas estufadas não apresentaram nitrato e/ou nitrito, entretanto algumas normais mostraram-se positivas para a presença de nitrato e/ou nitrito, sendo a média de 2,06 ppm. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Estufamento tardio, queijo, Clostridium butyricum, microbiologia.

  15. Application of molecular fingerprinting for analysis of a PAH-contaminated soil microbiota growing in the presence of complex PAHs = Aplicação de técnica molecular para análise da microbiota de solo contaminado em misturas complexas de HPAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Serrano Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs constitute a group of priority pollutants which are present at high concentrations in the soils of many industrial contaminated sites. Pollution by these compounds may stimulate growth of organisms able to live in these environments causing changes in the structure of the microbial community due to some cooperative process of metabolization of toxic compounds. A long-term PAH-contaminated soil was stored for several years and used to analyze the native microbiota regarding their ability to grow on pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, as well as in mixtures of LMW- and HMW-PAHs. Molecular profiles of the microbial community was assessed by PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene, and the number of bands observed in DGGE analyses was interpreted as dominant microbial members into the bacterial community. Results of PAH-contaminated soil microorganisms showed different profiles in the degradative dynamics when some nutrients were added. Predominant species may play a significative role while growing and surviving on PAHs, and some other metabolically active species have emerged to interact themselves in a cooperative catabolism of PAHs.Os hidrocarbonetos poliaromáticos (HPAs são considerados poluentes prioritários presentes em expressiva concentração no solo contaminado com derivados de petróleo. A poluição por esses compostos estimula o crescimento de microrganismos capazes de sobreviverem nestes ambientes contaminados, causando alterações na estrutura da comunidade microbiana do solo pelo processo de cooperação metabólica entre as populações. Um solo contaminado por um longo período de tempo foi coletado de uma área industrial (Port Melbourne, Austrália e utilizado para análise da capacidade da comunidade microbiana em crescer em HPAs isolados e/ou em misturas como únicas fontes de carbono e energia. Os perfis moleculares foram obtidos por PCR-DGGE do fragmento da subunidade 16S do DNA ribossomal, sendo o n

  16. Quality evaluation of image segmentation of brain magnetic resonance for mapping and functional analysis; Avaliacao da qualidade de segmentacao de imagens de ressonancia magnetica cerebral para mapeamento e analise funcional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, F.K.; Canova, C.V.; Marques da Silva, A.M. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Nucleo de Pesquisas em Imagens Medicas (NIMed)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of the brain structure segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRI) through a comparison between automatic and semiautomatic volumetric segmentation techniques. T1-weighed volumetric acquired stacks of MRI head images from Centro de Diagnostico por Imagens at the Hospital Sao Lucas da PUCRS were used in this study. In the semi-automatic segmentation technique were applied procedures like pre-processing and region-growing using Image J software. The automatic method of volume segmentation was carried through by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), a statistical analysis tool written for software MATLAB. The automatic method of volumetric segmentation had better performance in time. However the quality of image that the half-automatic segmentation presents a better detailing, but it required longer image processing time. The best method to be used, whether automatic or semi-automatic, depends on the region of interest. (author)

  17. Thermal hydraulic evaluation for an experimental facility to investigate pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in CDTN/CNEN; Avaliacao termo-hidraulica da montagem experimental de choque termico pressurizado do CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Elcio T.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Aronne, Ivam D.; Terra, Jose L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the work presented in this paper is to provide necessary thermal hydraulics information to the design of an experimental installation to investigate the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) to be implemented at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN). The envisaged installation has a test section that represents, in a small scale, a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. This test section will be heated and then exposed to a PTS in order to evaluate the appearance and development of cracks. To verify the behavior of the temperatures of the pressure vessel after a sudden flood through the annulus, calculations were made using the RELAP5/MOD 3.2.2 gamma code. Different outer radiuses were studied for the annular region. The results showed that the smaller annulus spacing (20 mm) anticipates the wetting of the surface and produces a higher cooling of the external surface, which stays completely wet for a longer time. (author)

  18. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc; Avaliacao da solubilidade em liquido pulmonar simulado dos metais presentes no rejeito gerado por uma industria metalurgica de zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O, and willemite - Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f{sub r} = 2.082 days; f{sub r} = 0.09 days; f{sub r} = 0.37 days; f{sub r} = 0.332 days ad f{sub r} = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f{sub r} = 146.95 days; f{sub r} = 63 days; f{sub r} = 86.64 days; f{sub r} = 79.66 days and f{sub r} = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in

  19. Atividade respiratória da microbiota e conteúdo de glicose em resposta à adição de fósforo em solo de Cerrado Respiratory activity of soil microbiota and glucose content in response to phosphorus addition in Cerrado soil- Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adão de Siqueira Ferreira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A atividade metabólica dos microrganismos é um dos principais processos reguladores das transformações de nutrientes no solo. No entanto, a atividade microbiana do solo é influenciada por fatores como a disponibilidade de nutrientes, incluindo o P. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da adição de P (de 50 a 500 mg kg-1 de P no solo na atividade respiratória da microbiota e nos teores de glicose extra e intracelular em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico fase Cerrado. As amostras de solo foram avaliadas quanto ao C liberado (C-CO2 pela atividade microbiana; pelo C orgânico total e pela glicose extra e intracelular. Durante o período de incubação (31 dias, a adição de P aumentou a atividade respiratória diária de 6,30 para 23,59 (mg kg-1 dia-1 de C-CO2 no solo, quando comparado com o controle. No entanto, a relação entre C-CO2 liberado por dia, por unidade de P adicionado, diminuiu, mostrando uma redução da eficiência na utilização do P adicionado. O teor de glicose extracelular no solo foi menor do que o encontrado intracelularmente. Ao final de 31 dias de incubação, o teor de glicose intracelular reduziu-se em decorrência da adição de P no solo, sugerindo maior consumo de glicose pelos microrganismos nas condições de adição do nutriente. Houve correlação negativa (r= -0,98, p Metabolic activity of microorganisms is one of the main processes of control on the nutrient transformation in soil. However, the activity of the soil microbiota is affected by various factors such as the available nutrients, including phosphorus. The present work had as objective to show an approach of the effect of phosphorus addition (50 to 500 mg kg-1 P of dry soil on the respiratory response of soil microbiota and the amount of extra and intracellular glucose in typic acrustox of Cerrado.The following analyses were carried: amount of C-CO2 evolved; total organic carbon e; extra and intracellular glucose in soil. During the

  20. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in broiler chicken feed; Efeitos da radiacao gama sobre microbiota fungica e micotoxinas encontradas em racao de frangos de corte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica Mattos dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)

  2. Avaliação da microbiota ocular em pacientes com disfunção do filme lacrimal Evaluation of conjunctival flora in patients with tear film dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Megumi Tomimatsu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a microbiota conjuntival em olhos com disfunção do filme lacrimal, e a modificação desta microbiota após a colocação de plug de silicone no canalículo inferior. MÉTODOS: Série de casos intervencionais não comparativos para avaliar 68 olhos de 41 pacientes com disfunção do filme lacrimal, durante o período de 2002 a 2007, na Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à colheita de amostras de raspado conjuntival de fundo-de-saco inferior para cultivo em Brain heart infusion broth. Os vinte e dois pacientes submetidos à colocação de plug de silicone repetiram a colheita de raspado conjuntival um mês após o procedimento. RESULTADOS: Dos 68 olhos avaliados, 47 apresentaram crescimento bacteriano nas amostras colhidas. Nove diferentes espécies de bactérias foram identificadas: Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em 66,66%, Staphylococcus aureus em 13,72%, Corynebacterium sp em 5,86%, Enterobacter aerogenes em 3,92%, Streptococcus hemolítico do grupo viridans em 1,96%, Serratia sp em 1,96%, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans spp em 1,96%, Corynebacterium xerosis em 1,96%, e Proteus mirabilis em 1,96%. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais frequentemente isolado tanto antes quanto após o plug de silicone. A sensibilidade do SCN à Oxacilina antes da colocação do plug era de 87,50%, e, após, de 73,68%. CONCLUSÃO: A microbiota em olhos com disfunção do filme lacrimal é bastante semelhante à encontrada em olhos normais. A resistência de SCN à Oxacilina foi um pouco maior após o implante do plug de silicone.PURPOSE: To evaluate conjunctival microbiota in eyes with tear film dysfunction and its modification after punctal occlusion with silicone plug. METHODS: Non comparative interventional case series study to evaluate 68 eyes of 41 patients with tear film dysfunction, from 2002 to 2007, followed in Federal University of Sao Paulo. Samples for culture were all

  3. Efeitos da parede de levedura em dieta úmida na microbiota fecal, na produção de gás e na morfologia intestinal de gatos adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Aquino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os efeitos do extrato de levedura (EPL em dietas úmidas sobre a microbiota fecal, a produção de gás e a morfologia intestinal de gatos adultos. Foram utilizados 20 gatos adultos, de ambos os sexos, distribuídos ao acaso em quatro tratamentos: 1 dieta comercial úmida (controle; 2 controle + 0,2% de extrato de levedura em matéria seca; 3 controle + 0,4%; e 4 controle + 0,6%. Foram realizadas a microbiologia fecal, a avaliação da morfologia intestinal por meio de exames radiográficos, ultrassonográficos e de colonoscopia, bem como a biópsia para histologia intestinal. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (p>0,05 para contagem de bactérias do ácido lático e de clostrídio sulfito redutor, área de gás em alças intestinais (avaliação radiográfica, espessura da parede do cólon (ultrassonografia intestinal e contagem de colonócitos/células caliciformes (histologia. Por meio da colonoscopia, notaram-se alterações em características de mucosa em animais submetidos ao tratamento 4. Conclui-se que a adição de até 0,6% de EPL não teve efeito sobre os parâmetros avaliados, mas novos estudos são necessários para compreender os mecanismos de ação e os efeitos desse aditivo para gatos domésticos.

  4. Efeito da suplementação orgânica sobre a toxidez do fungicida clorotalonil na microbiota do solo Effect of organic amendment on the toxicity of chlorothalonil fungicide on soil microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Faria Vieira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação do solo com material orgânico (aveia nas proporções de 0, 7,5 e 15 g kg-1, sobre a toxidez do fungicida clorotalonil (0, 12 e 48 µg de i.a. g-1 de solo, na microbiota do solo. As avaliações ocorridas aos 11 e 26 dias após esta aplicação demonstraram que, embora tenha ocorrido uma recuperação do carbono da biomassa microbiana, as doses de aveia utilizadas ainda não foram suficientes para inibir o efeito adverso do fungicida. Os resultados de comprimento de hifas vivas demonstraram que não foi possível recuperar a população fúngica do solo na maior dose do fungicida.The effect of soil amendment with organic matter (Avena sativa on the proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 g kg-1 on the toxicity of chlorothalonil fungicide (0, 12 and 48 µg of active ingredient per gram of soil on the soil microflora was evaluated. The microbial biomass and the living hyphal length was measured at 11 and 26 days after application. Although the organic matter promotes a recuperation of the carbon of the microbial biomass, the oat doses used were not sufficient to inhibit completely the toxic effect of chlorothalonil. The results of living hyphal length demonstrated that it was not possible to recuperate the soil fungi population at the higher fungicide dose.

  5. METODOLOGIA DE SUPERFÍCIE DE RESPOSTA PARA AVALIAR O EFEITO DA CARBONATAÇÃO SOBRE A MICROBIOTA E VISCOSIDADE DO LEITE CRU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Ayumi Shirai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da carbonatação sobre a multiplicação de microrganismos e da viscosidade do leite cru durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Foi aplicado um planejamento fatorial 23 completo onde avaliou-se o efeito das variáveis pH (5,8 a 6,4, tempo (0 a 10 dias e temperatura (5 a 10°C de armazenamento do leite carbonatado sobre as respostas psicrotróficos, psicrotróficos proteolíticos, mesófilos e viscosidade. Os resultados mostraram que após 10 dias, a carbonatação em pH 5,8 inibiu a multiplicação de todos os microrganismos pesquisados independente da temperatura de armazenamento. A viscosidade não foi alterada logo após a carbonatação, mas durante a estocagem refrigerada houve elevação nos valores desta propriedade. Os modelos de superfície de resposta foram adequados para predizer a contagem de mesófilos e psicrotróficos e medida da viscosidade, pois a falta de ajuste não foi significativa e o coeficiente de determinação (R2 foi maior que 0,95.

  6. Eficácia de um regime de administração de antibióticos tópicos na redução da microbiota conjuntival de pacientes sadios com catarata senil The efficacy of topical antibiotics in reducing conjunctival microbiota of healthy patients with senile cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Corrêa Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar as bactérias que compõem a microbiota conjuntival de pacientes sadios com catarata senil, a susceptibilidade delas aos antibióticos testados e a eficácia de um regime de administração de antibióticos tópicos na redução dessa microbiota. MÉTODOS: Coorte prospectiva, não-randomizada, de 40 olhos de 40 pacientes divididos em 4 grupos de 10 pacientes cada, que utilizaram diferentes antibióticos tópicos (tobramicina, ciprofloxacino e gatifloxacino. Foram realizadas culturas de material conjuntival antes do uso dos medicamentos e 15, 30 e 60 minutos após o uso dos mesmos. Foram realizados testes de resistência bacteriana das bactérias isoladas e comparação da redução do crescimento bacteriano pela análise do número de unidade formadoras de colônias (UFC. RESULTADOS: Houve crescimento bacteriano em 92,5% dos pacientes. O estafilococo coagulase negativo foi a bactéria mais comumente encontrada (50% dos casos, seguido pelo Staphylococcus Aureus (23% e pelas bactérias gram negativas (26%. Das bactérias isoladas, 81,8% foram sensíveis a todos os antibióticos utilizados no estudo. Houve cinco casos de resistência ao ciprofloxacino e à tobramicina e dois de resistência ao gatifloxacino. Em todos os grupos houve diminuição do número de pacientes com cultura positiva em relação ao momento zero e em relação ao placebo. CONCLUSÃO: As bactérias gram-positivas, especialmente o estafilococo coagulase negativo, foram os microrganismos mais encontrados na conjuntiva normal dos pacientes estudados. As bactérias isoladas mostraram alta taxa de susceptibilidade aos antibióticos testados. O regime de uso desses antibióticos diminuiu o número de unidades formadoras de colônias em relação ao grupo controle, embora sem significância estatística na maioria dos casos.PURPOSE: To evaluate the conjunctival bacterial flora of healthy patients and its antibiotic resistance pattern and determine the effective

  7. Prevalência da microbiota no trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes do campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram dissecados o trato digestivo de 245 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis originários da Gruta da Lapinha, Município de Lagoa Santa, MG, formando 7 grupos de 35 flebotomíneos. Das 8 espécies de bactérias isoladas houve uma predominância de bactérias Gram negativas (BGN pertencentes ao grupo de não fermentadoras de açúcar das seguintes espécies: Acinetobacter lowffii, Stenotrophomonas maltophhilia, Pseudomonas putida e Flavimonas orizihabitans. No grupo das fermentadoras tivemos: Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella ozaenae. No grupo dos Gram positivos foram identificados Bacillus thuringiensis e Staphylococcus spp.

  8. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market; Avaliacao da microbiota fungica e da presenca de micotoxinas em amostras de plantas medicinais irradiadas adquiridas no comercio varejista e atacadista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-07-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a {sup 60}Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  9. Gut Microbiota: The Brain Peacekeeper

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota–gut–brain axis and the role of microbiota as a “peacekeeper” in the brain health. Here, we review recent discoveries on...

  10. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  11. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds; Avaliacao da radiomarcacao da anexina A5 com tecnecio-99m: influencia do metodo de marcacao nas propriedades fisico-quimicas e biologicas do composto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several {sup 99}mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O]{sup +3}, [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc{identical_to}N]+2 and [Tc(CO{sub 3})]{sup +1}. In this study, we evaluated the influence of {sup 99}mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc{identical_to}N]{sup +2} core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of {sup 99}mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl{sub 2} and PDTA to obtain the intermediate {sup 99}mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O]{sup +3} core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the {sup 99}mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound

  12. A microbiota da carcaça e da carne ovina tratada com ácido acético, embalada a vácuo e maturada por 48 dias

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos Elayne C. de; Zapata Jorge F. F.; Figueiredo Evânia A. de; Castelo Branco Maria A. A.; Borges Ângela S.

    2002-01-01

    Foi avaliada a carga de bactérias mesófilas e coliformes totais e fecais na superfície da carcaça ovina após 12 horas do abate. Posteriormente, a carne foi cortada em fatias de aproximadamente 3cm de espessura, imersas por um minuto em ácido acético 1% ou em água, embaladas individualmente a vácuo e armazenadas a 1°C. Nos dias 3,13, 23, 33 e 48 de maturação as carnes foram analisadas para bactérias mesófilas e psicrotróficas, mofos e leveduras, coliformes totais e fecais, salmonela e clostríd...

  13. A microbiota da carcaça e da carne ovina tratada com ácido acético, embalada a vácuo e maturada por 48 dias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Elayne C. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a carga de bactérias mesófilas e coliformes totais e fecais na superfície da carcaça ovina após 12 horas do abate. Posteriormente, a carne foi cortada em fatias de aproximadamente 3cm de espessura, imersas por um minuto em ácido acético 1% ou em água, embaladas individualmente a vácuo e armazenadas a 1°C. Nos dias 3,13, 23, 33 e 48 de maturação as carnes foram analisadas para bactérias mesófilas e psicrotróficas, mofos e leveduras, coliformes totais e fecais, salmonela e clostrídios sulfito-redutores. As contagens de bactérias mesófilas e psicrotróficas foram menores (p<0,05 nas carnes tratadas com ácido acético que nas não tratadas nos dias 13 e 23 e nos dias 3 e 13 de maturação, respectivamente. A contagem de mofos e leveduras foi menor (p<0,05, nas carnes tratadas em relação às não tratadas, apenas nos dias 13 e 23 de maturação. Após 3 dias de maturação as carnes tratadas mostraram menores (p<0,05 contagens de coliformes fecais e totais que as não tratadas. As carnes apresentaram presença de salmonela com 3, 13 e 23 dias de maturação mais não com 33 e 48. Não foi detectada presença de clostrídios sulfito-redutores durante todo o período de maturação. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento com ácido e as condições de maturação utilizadas neste experimento mantêm baixas contagens de microrganismos mesófilos, psicrotróficos, mofos e leveduras e coliformes por 13 dias. Durante este período, porém, inibição do crescimento de salmonelas somente foi detectada após 33 dias de maturação da carne ovina.

  14. Diet, Gut Microbiota and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Li and Chuanxian Wei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that alteration of gut microbiota ('dysbiosis' can lead to a number of diseases, including obesity, which affects a large population in the world and is now a global health issue. The mechanisms of gut microbiota-mediated obesity are just being explored and characterized in recent years. It has been suggested that dysbiosis of gut microbiota contributes to obesity development mainly in three ways: affecting energy harvest, altering host gene expression, and triggering chronic inflammation. Among the factors that determine and influence gut microbiota composition, diet is one of the best characterized in human and animal studies, and has been long linked with weight gain or loss. In this review, we will discuss recent advances of mechanisms through which gut microbiota dysbiosis leads to obesity. We will further discuss the underlying causes of obesity-related gut microbiota, highlighting dietary effects.

  15. Avaliacao neuropsicologica de idosos praticantes de capoeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Miranda Petry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo procura contribuir com uma relação pouco explorada no meio acadêmico: capoeira, cognição e envelhecimento. Relacionando estudos sobre funções executivas e a capoeira, busca-se investigar a interligação desta arte e as funções executivas. Estas se referem a desempenhos de comportamentos complexos (memória de trabalho, flexibilidade mental, tomada de decisão e a memória léxico-semântica. OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de funções executivas em idosas praticantes de capoeira e idosas não praticantes de exercício físico. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal que coletou as informações de cada participante apenas uma vez. Serão comparados dois grupos: 1 grupo de idosos praticantes de capoeira e 2 idosos que não fazem exercício físico. Para seleção e caracterização dos grupos utilizaram-se: questionário sociodemográfico, aspectos gerais de saúde e escala de hábitos de leitura e escrita, mini-exame de estado mental (MEEM e escala de depressão de Yesavage (GDS-30. Para avaliar o desempenho das funções executivas foi realizado o teste de trilhas e as tarefas de fluência verbal. Para análise estatística dos dados será utilizado o teste de Shapiro-Wilk para normatização dos dados. O teste de t de Student e o teste U de Mann Whitney serão usados para comparar duas médias de amostras independentes. Utilizou-se a improvisação, a ação, a tomada de decisão, o equilíbrio e as noções de espaço, tempo, ritmo, música, e a compreensão do jogo da capoeira como intervenção devido à possível utilização dos processos executivos nessa arte. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa nos testes realizados. Porém houve superioridade nos testes de fluência verbal e testes de trilha A e B, sendo maior em B no grupo de capoeira do que no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A prática de capoeira tem uma tendência em contribuir para a melhora das funções executivas, embora os

  16. The Gut Microbiota of Wild Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Weldon, L; Abolins, S; Lenzi, L.; Bourne, C; Riley, EM; Viney, M

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota profoundly affects the biology of its host. The composition of the microbiota is dynamic and is affected by both host genetic and many environmental effects. The gut microbiota of laboratory mice has been studied extensively, which has uncovered many of the effects that the microbiota can have. This work has also shown that the environments of different research institutions can affect the mouse microbiota. There has been relatively limited study of the microbiota of wild m...

  17. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kyu Yeon Hur; Myung-Shik Lee

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or...

  18. Hot topics in gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Doré, Joël; Simrén, Magnus; Buttle, Lisa; Guarner, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The study of gut microbiota is a rapidly moving field of research, and the impact of gut microbial communities on human health is widely perceived as one of the most exciting advancements in biomedicine in recent years. The gut microbiota plays a key role in digestion, metabolism and immune function, and has widespread impact beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the biodiversity of the gut microbiota are associated with far reaching consequences on host health and development. Furthe...

  19. Gastrointestinal function development and microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mauro, Antonio; Neu, Josef; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Francesco; Martinelli, Domenico; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Indrio, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of post-natal gastrointestinal functions of the host. Recent advances in our capability to identify microbes and their function offer exciting opportunities to evaluate the complex cross talk between microbiota, intestinal barrier, immune system and the gut-brain axis. This review summarizes these interactions in the early colonization of gastrointestinal tract with a major focus on the role of intestinal microbiota in the p...

  20. Probiotics and microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-06-02

    Accumulated evidence, corroborated by a new systematic review by Kristensen et al. (Genome Med 8:52, 2016), suggests that probiotics do not significantly impact the fecal microbiota composition of healthy subjects. Nevertheless, physiological benefits have been associated with probiotic consumption by healthy people. Some studies have suggested that probiotics may impact the function of colonizing microbes, although this needs to be further studied. An alternative hypothesis is that probiotics may promote homeostasis of the gut microbiota, rather than change its composition. This hypothesis warrants investigation as a possible mechanism for how probiotics may benefit healthy people.Please see related article: http://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13073-016-0300-5 .

  1. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  2. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  3. Feline gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Hooda, Seema; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2012-06-01

    The close relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and its host has an impact on the health status of an animal that reaches beyond the GI tract. A balanced microbiome stimulates the immune system, aids in the competitive exclusion of transient pathogens and provides nutritional benefits to the host. With recent rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology, molecular approaches have become the routinely used tools for ecological studies of the feline microbiome, and have revealed a highly diverse and complex intestinal ecosystem in the feline GI tract. The major bacterial groups are similar to those found in other mammals, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constituting more than 99% of intestinal microbiota. Several nutritional studies have demonstrated that the feline microbiota can be modulated by the amount of soluble fibers (i.e., prebiotics) and macronutrients (i.e., protein content) in the diet. Initial clinical studies have suggested the presence of a dysbiosis in feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently, metagenomic approaches have attempted to characterize the microbial gene pool. However, more studies are needed to describe the phylogenetic and functional changes in the intestinal microbiome in disease states and in response to environmental and dietary modulations. This paper reviews recent studies cataloging the microbial phylotypes in the GI tract of cats.

  4. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  5. Microbiota do megaesôfago e carcinogênese Megaesophagus microbiota and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Pajecki; Bruno Zilberstein; Manoel Armando Azevedo dos Santos; Alina Guimarães Quintanilha; Ivan Cecconello; Joaquim Gama-Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O risco de desenvolvimento de carcinoma esofágico em portadores de megaesôfago é 33 vezes superior ao da população em geral. Possível explicação para este fenômeno poderia estar relacionada à produção de compostos N-nitrosos na luz do órgão, a partir da transformação de nitratos da dieta em nitritos, mediada por bactérias em suspensão no líquido de estase e com o contato crônico destes carcinógenos com a mucosa esofágica. OBJETIVO: Analisar a microbiota esofágica em pacientes port...

  6. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  7. Infecção do trato urinário relacionada com a utilização do catéter vesical de demora: resultados da bacteriúria e da microbiota estudadas Urinary tract infection related to the use of catheter-delay bladder: results of bacteriuria and microbiota studied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Leão e Souza Neto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o momento do início da bacteriúria e o germe mais freqüentemente relacionado à infecção urinária nos pacientes submetidos à sondagem vesical de demora. MÉTODO: No período de setembro de 2003 a outubro de 2004, foram avaliados os pacientes com 13 anos ou mais, submetidos à operações eletivas com cateterismo vesical de demora. Na inserção do cateter foi colhida a primeira amostra de urina, denominada Amostra 1, e outras seqüencialmente a cada 12 horas. Estas foram analisadas quanto a bacteriúria, leucocitúria, e cultura. A infecção do trato urinário foi definida como a presença de 100.000 unidades formadoras de colônias ou mais, após o isolamento da mesma bactéria ou fungo em culturas de urina de amostras distintas, desde a inserção até a remoção do cateter urinário; a leucocitúria como contagem de leucócitos igual ou superior a 10.000 leucócitos/mm³; e bacteriúria como presença de bactéria de uma única espécie na amostra analisada. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 63 pacientes, 46 sexo masculino (73% e 17 sexo feminino (27%. Apenas três deles apresentaram leucocitúria na primeira coleta. Nas Amostras 1 houve variação de 1.000 a 20.000 leucócitos/mm³, todas com cultura negativa. O número de amostras variou de 1 a 8 (84h após a realização do cateterismo vesical. As leucocitúrias nas amostras finais variaram de 1.000 a 204.000 leucócitos/mm³, todas com urocultura e bacteriúria negativa. 62 pacientes (98,4% utilizaram antibioticoterapia de curta duração para o sítio cirúrgico. CONCLUSÃO: Até 84h - 3,5 dias - não houve Infecção em nenhuma das amostras coletadas e cultivadas. A antibioticoterapia de curta duração pode ter contribuído para o resultado observado.BACKGROUND: To evaluate the moment of the beginning of bacteriuria and the most frequently germ related to the urinary infection in patients submitted to delayed vesical catheterization. METHODS: During

  8. Substratum-Associated Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Paula C; Liess, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    This review of literature on substratumassociated microbiota from 2014 highlights topics on benthic algae and bacteria from a range of aquatic environments, but focuses on freshwater habitats. Advances in pollution and toxin detection, assessment methods, and applications of new technologies are highlighted as are updates in taxonomy and systematics. Aspects of general ecology, water quality, nutrient cycling, trophic interactions, land use changes, biofuels, biofouling, and environmental challenges such as climate change, pollutants, tar sands and fracking, oil spills and nuisance blooms are presented. PMID:26420102

  9. Substratum-Associated Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Paula C; Deininger, Anne; Liess, Antonia

    2016-10-01

    This survey of literature on substratum associated microbiota from 2015 highlights research findings associated with benthic algae and bacteria from a variety of aquatic environments, but primarily freshwaters. It focuses on topics of interest to the Water Environment Federation along with those of current emerging interest such as global change, oil spills, and environmental contaminants like pharmaceutical compounds, microplastics, nanoparticles and organic pollutants. Other interesting findings briefly covered include areas of general ecology, nutrient cycling, trophic interactions, water quality, nuisance and invasive species, bioindicators, and bioremediation. PMID:27620106

  10. Gut Microbiota and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Molin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing inflammation are described. The review focuses on human trials with probiotics and does not include in vitro studies and animal experimental models. The applications of probiotics considered are systemic immune-modulation, the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and radiation-induced enteritis. When the major genomic differences between different types of probiotics are taken into account, it is to be expected that the human body can respond differently to the different species and strains of probiotics. This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics.

  11. Influência de frações da parede celular de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) sobre os índices séricos de glicose e lipídios, microbiota intestinal e produção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV) de cadeias curtas de ratos em crescimento Influence of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell wall fractions on serum indexes of glucose and lipids, intestinal microbiota and production of short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) in growing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Saula Goulart Chaud; Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri; Eduardo Vicente; Neusely da Silva; Adriana Barreto Alves; José Alvaro Ribeiro de Mattos

    2007-01-01

    Os índices séricos de glicose e lipídios, a microbiota intestinal e a produção de ácidos graxos voláteis de cadeias curtas (AGV) foram determinados em ratos Wistar submetidos às dietas: padrão (AIN-P), padrão modificada (AIN-M) e às dietas contendo frações de parede celular de levedura: glicana insolúvel (GI), manana (M) e glicana mais manana (G+M), como única fonte de fibra alimentar. O fracionamento da parede celular (PC) foi realizado por processos físicos e químicos de extração, centrifug...

  12. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images; A teoria da decisao na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessa, Patricia Silva

    2001-10-01

    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  13. Diet, microbiota, and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Hakan; Tözün, Nurdan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world causing nearly 500,000 deaths every year. In addition to genetic background, environmental factors including diet and lifestyle are accepted as major contributors to adenoma and CRC development. Lifestyle factors include high BMI, obesity, and reduced physical activity. Growing interest and accumulating data on human microbiota implicate that host-microbe interplay has an important role in the development of metabolic, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases. Findings from recent studies suggest that colon cancer risk is determined by the interaction between diet and gut microbiota. Dietary changes affect gut microbiota and conversely microbiota mediates the generation of dietary factors triggering colon cancer. Identification of the microbial communities associated with carcinogenesis is of crucial importance. Nowadays, with the evolvement of culture-independent molecular techniques, it has become possible to identify main bacterial species in healthy individuals, inflammatory conditions, and CRC. Some recent studies have shown the differences in intestinal microbiota between colon cancer patients and healthy individuals. Animal studies have provided a better understanding of interaction between pathobionts and symbionts in the development of colon cancer. There is no single causative organism identified in CRC; however, there is strong evidence that reduction of protective bacteria, increase in some bacteria (ie, fusobacterium members; Bacteroides/Prevotella), and age-related changes in microbiota have an impact on adenoma or cancer development. Future studies will enable us to understand procarcinogenic and anticarcinogenic mechanisms and give insights to rational manipulation of the microbiota with prebiotics, probiotics, or dietary modifications. PMID:25291132

  14. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  15. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    the already well-defined community state types. In addition, we showed that for most women the vaginal microbiota at week 24 of pregnancy is similar to the microbiota twelve weeks later at week 36. The manuscript also contains a novel description of how mothers’ vaginal microbiota has affected the microbiota.......g. Streptococcus and Moraxella) become increasingly dominant. By defining the core microbiota for each infant, the manuscript shows that 69% of the microbiota, three months after birth, represent bacteria that were present at both one week and one month after birth. Lastly, the manuscript describes how...... the microbiota can be separated into five distinct pneumotypes: four having a single dominating genus and one without a common defining genus. The last manuscript, Manuscript III, compares the microbiota descriptions obtained by classical identification using culturing and high throughput sequencing of amplified...

  16. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2013-01-01

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND) as opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Neverth...

  17. Intestinal Microbiota Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Xing Liu; Hai-Tao Niu; Shu-Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This review aimed to summarize the relationship between intestinal microbiota metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to propose a novel CVD therapeutic target.Data Sources:This study was based on data obtained from PubMed and EMBASE up to June 30,2015.Articles were selected using the following search temps:"Intestinal microbiota","trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)","trimethylamine (TMA)","cardiovascular",and "atherosclerosis".Study Selection:Studies were eligible if they present information on intestinal microbiota metabolism and atherosclerosis.Studies on TMA-containing nutrients were also included.Results:A new CVD risk factor,TMAO,was recently identified.It has been observed that several TMA-containing compounds may be catabolized by specific intestinal microbiota,resulting in TMA release.TMA is subsequently converted to TMAO in the liver.Several preliminary studies have linked TMAO to CVD,particularly atherosclerosis;however,the details of this relationship remain unclear.Conclusions:Intestinal microbiota metabolism is associated with atherosclerosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target with respect to CVD management.

  18. Digestive tract microbiota in healthy volunteers Microbiota no trato digestivo em voluntários saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zilberstein

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to standardize the methods of sample collection of mucus from the digestive tract and to determine the microbiota in healthy volunteers from Brazil, collecting samples from the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum. METHODS: Microbiota of selected healthy volunteers from the oral cavity (n=10, the esophagus (n=10, the upper digestive tract (n=20, and the lower digestive tract (n=24 were evaluated through distinct collection methods. Collection methods took into account the different sites, using basic scraping and swabbing techniques, stimulated saliva from the oral cavity, irrigation-aspiration with sterile catheters especially designed for the esophagus, a probe especially designed for upper digestive tract, and a special catheter for the lower digestive tract. RESULTS: (i Mixed microbiota were identified in the oral cavity, predominantly Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic cocci; (ii transitional flora mainly in the esophagus; (iii Veillonella sp, Lactobacillus sp, and Clostridium sp in the stomach and duodenum; (iv in the jejunum and upper ileum, we observed Bacteroides sp, Proteus sp, and Staphylococcus sp, in addition to Veillonella sp; (v in the colon, the presence of "nonpathogenic" anaerobic bacteria Veillonella sp (average 10(5 UFC indicates the existence of a low oxidation-reduction potential environment, which suggests the possibility of adoption of these bacteria as biological markers of total digestive tract health. CONCLUSIONS: The collection methods were efficient in obtaining adequate samples from each segment of the total digestive tract to reveal the normal microbiota. These procedures are safe and easily reproducible for microbiological studies.OBJETIVO: Padronizar os métodos de coleta do muco do trato digestivo e determinar a microbiota, em voluntários saudáveis no Brasil, coletando amostras da boca, esôfago, estômago, duodeno, jejunos e íleo, c

  19. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne;

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for the health of the host. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of a moderate diet shift from Average Danish Diet to New Nordic Diet on...... the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio (P/B), we were able to detect...... significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes influence microbiota response to a dietary...

  20. Microbiota conjuntival em pacientes com alergia ocular Conjunctival microbiota in patients with ocular allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mattoso Libório

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de portadores de alergia ocular e comparar a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 133 pacientes no período de abril a junho de 2001 divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo A foi composto de 63 portadores de conjuntivite alérgica (sem uso de medicação e o grupo B de 70 pacientes do ambulatório geral (controle. Foram coletadas amostras do fundo de saco conjuntival do olho direito de todos os pacientes e o material foi semeado em meios sólidos de cultura (ágar sangue, chocolate e Sabouraud. RESULTADOS: No grupo A, 30 culturas (47,7% foram positivas e no grupo B, 6 (8,6%. Sete bactérias foram isoladas no grupo A e 4 no B. A análise estatística revelou associação significante entre a positividade dos cultivos e conjuntivite alérgica. CONCLUSÃO: Microbiota bacteriana foi mais freqüentemente encontrada nos pacientes com alergia ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate de presence of conjunctival aerobic microbiota in patients with ocular allergy as compared to a control group. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated from April to June 2001 and divided into 2 groups. Sixty-three patients with allergic conjunctivitis (without medication were in group A and 70 patients from the general outpatient clinic were in group B (control group. Samples from the conjunctival sac of the right eye were collected and cultured in solid media (blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. RESULTS: In group A, 30 cultures (47.7% were positive and 6 (8.6% in group B. Seven bacteria were isolated from group A and 4 from group B. Statistical analysis revealed significant association between positive cultures and allergic conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: Bacterial microbiota was more frequently found in patients with ocular allergy.

  1. Metagenomic Surveys of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shubhra Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota of higher vertebrates is host-specific. The number and diversity of the organisms residing within the gut ecosystem are defined by physiological and environmental factors, such as host genotype, habitat, and diet. Recently, culture-independent sequencing techniques have added a new dimension to the study of gut microbiota and the challenge to analyze the large volume of sequencing data is increasingly addressed by the development of novel computational tools and methods. Interestingly, gut microbiota maintains a constant relative abundance at operational taxonomic unit (OTU levels and altered bacterial abundance has been associated with complex diseases such as symptomatic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as an important field of research in order to ultimately achieve better health. In addition, there is a spontaneous, non-linear, and dynamic interaction among different bacterial species residing in the gut. Thus, predicting the influence of perturbed microbe–microbe interaction network on health can aid in developing novel therapeutics. Here, we summarize the population abundance of gut microbiota and its variation in different clinical states, computational tools available to analyze the pyrosequencing data, and gut microbe–microbe interaction networks.

  2. Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

  3. Metagenomic Surveys of Gut Microbiota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahul Shubhra Mandal; Sudipto Saha; Santasabuj Das

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota of higher vertebrates is host-specific. The number and diversity of the organisms residing within the gut ecosystem are defined by physiological and environmental factors, such as host genotype, habitat, and diet. Recently, culture-independent sequencing techniques have added a new dimension to the study of gut microbiota and the challenge to analyze the large volume of sequencing data is increasingly addressed by the development of novel computational tools and methods. Interestingly, gut microbiota maintains a constant relative abundance at operational tax-onomic unit (OTU) levels and altered bacterial abundance has been associated with complex diseases such as symptomatic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as an important field of research in order to ulti-mately achieve better health. In addition, there is a spontaneous, non-linear, and dynamic interac-tion among different bacterial species residing in the gut. Thus, predicting the influence of perturbed microbe–microbe interaction network on health can aid in developing novel therapeutics. Here, we summarize the population abundance of gut microbiota and its variation in different clinical states, computational tools available to analyze the pyrosequencing data, and gut microbe–microbe inter-action networks.

  4. Intestinal microbiota, diet and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Susan E; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2014-02-01

    The human intestine is colonised by 10¹³ to 10¹⁴ micro-organisms, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although highly stable over time, the composition and activities of the microbiota may be influenced by a number of factors including age, diet and antibiotic treatment. Although perturbations in the composition or functions of the microbiota are linked to inflammatory and metabolic disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity), it is unclear at this point whether these changes are a symptom of the disease or a contributing factor. A better knowledge of the mechanisms through which changes in microbiota composition (dysbiosis) promote disease states is needed to improve our understanding of the causal relationship between the gut microbiota and disease. While evidence of the preventive and therapeutic effects of probiotic strains on diarrhoeal illness and other intestinal conditions is promising, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have raised the question of whether non-viable probiotic strains can confer health benefits on the host by influencing the immune system. As the potential health effect of these non-viable bacteria depends on whether the mechanism of this effect is dependent on viability, future research needs to consider each probiotic strain on a case-by-case basis. The present review provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the human gut microbiota, the factors influencing its composition and the role of probiotics as a therapeutic modality in the treatment and prevention of diseases and/or restoration of human health. PMID:23931069

  5. Influência de frações da parede celular de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae sobre os índices séricos de glicose e lipídios, microbiota intestinal e produção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV de cadeias curtas de ratos em crescimento Influence of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall fractions on serum indexes of glucose and lipids, intestinal microbiota and production of short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA in growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saula Goulart Chaud

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os índices séricos de glicose e lipídios, a microbiota intestinal e a produção de ácidos graxos voláteis de cadeias curtas (AGV foram determinados em ratos Wistar submetidos às dietas: padrão (AIN-P, padrão modificada (AIN-M e às dietas contendo frações de parede celular de levedura: glicana insolúvel (GI, manana (M e glicana mais manana (G+M, como única fonte de fibra alimentar. O fracionamento da parede celular (PC foi realizado por processos físicos e químicos de extração, centrifugação e secagem em "spray dryer". Os índices séricos foram dosados através de "kits" comerciais. A microbiota e a produção de AGV foram determinadas nos conteúdos intestinais, incluindo cólon, ceco e reto. Considerando os níveis de colesterol no tempo (T0 e no tempo 28 (T28, as dietas AIN-P, AIN-M e M apresentaram efeito hipocolesterolêmico, tendo em vista que a composição das dietas eram de natureza hipercolesterolêmica. Em relação à glicose sérica, no tempo (T0 observou-se uma elevação geral da glicemia, sugerindo um efeito hiperglicêmico das dietas estudadas. A dieta G+M foi a que apresentou valores significantemente mais elevados de lipídios séricos no tempo T14, e os níveis mais baixos foram observados na dieta M e na dieta GI no T14 e nas dietas AIN-M e AIN-P. A dieta AIN-P foi a que apresentou valor significantemente mais elevado de triacilgliceróis nos tempos T14 e T28. Os níveis mais baixos nos tempos T14 foram constatados para as dietas G+M e GI e no tempo T28 para as dietas AIN-M e M. De um modo geral, não houve modificações significativas na microbiota intestinal dos animais em nenhuma das dietas. Dentre os AGV, o ácido acético foi o predominante, seguido do propiônico e do butírico, em todas as dietas estudadas.The blood serum indexes of glucose and lipids, the intestinal microbiota and the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA were determined in Wistar rats which were fed a standard (AIN-P diet, a

  6. Imaging assessment of osteitis pubis; Avaliacao por imagem da osteite pubica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Ferreira, Ana Paula Alves; Leite, Ana Rachel Albuquerque de Moura; Guido, Daniela Araujo; Rodrigues, Rogeria Nobre [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: ce@cidbh.com.br; Araujo, Rodrigo Otavio Dias [Minas Tenis Clube, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Fisioterapia

    2005-10-15

    Objective: to assess the physiopathological aspects of osteitis pubis and the findings seen on imaging methods, emphasizing the usefulness of Flamingo view radiographs and the diagnostic aspects of Magnetic resonance images. Material and Method: magnetic resonance images of ten patients (eight of them professional athletes) referring symptoms in the inguinal regional were retrospectively evaluated. For some of these patients Flaming view radiographs were performed. Results: in all studied patients magnetic resonance imaging was the only diagnostic method capable of showing the different phases os osteitis pubis, from acute cases with pubic bone marrow edematous changes to chronic cases with involvement of other pelvic joints. Flamingo view radiographs were performed in six patients and three of them were diagnosed with vertical pubis symphyseal instability greater than 2 mm of vertical displacement. This diagnosis was confirmed by instability tests using orthopedic manoeuvres. Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging was the most helpful method for the diagnosis of different phases of osteitis pubis whereas conventional X-ray was inconclusive in the initial phases. Flamingo view radiographs were extremely important to show vertical instability of the pubic symphysis, which in combination with osteitis pubis can be the cause of failure of nonoperative treatment. (author)

  7. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: annarocha@yahoo.com, E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  8. Advances tomographic in evaluation of middle ear; Avancos tomograficos na avaliacao da orelha media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Mayara Alves Pinheiro dos; Ledo, Mirelle D& #x27; arc Frota; Ribeiro, Marcio Duarte, E-mail: may_anjos@yahoo.com.br [Fundacao Bahiana para o Desenvolvimento das Ciencias, Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography has a key role in the study of hearing, since through it can be evaluated structures not seen by otoscope. In many clinical situations the diagnosis through this test proves limited, being fundamental examination of the associated image reconstructions: multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and volume-rendering technique. The ossicular chain is a complex formed by the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes, situated in the middle ear; it is difficult to view them in orthogonals planes. This review article intends to demonstrate the importance of post-processing the image of the ossicular chain for a better representation of the anatomy and possible diseases. Reformatting of images helps, significantly, to a better visualization of these structures as related congenital malformations, vascular abnormalities, inflammatory conditions, neoplasia and traumas. (author)

  9. Quality evaluation of blood irradiation process;Avaliacao da qualidade do processo de irradiacao de hemocomponentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, R.E.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (DDI/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem. Coordenadoria de Fisica e Higiene das Radiacoes

    2009-07-01

    An adverse reaction in blood transfusion is the graft versus host disease (GVHD). This disease affects immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patients where transfused T cells proliferate and initiate a host's immune system reaction. Blood gamma irradiation is the most efficient way to inhibit lymphocyte T blastic transformation and mitotic activity and it is the most effective method to combat this disorder. However, there is no fast and effective system to analyze the dose distribution in the irradiation process and guarantee that the absorbed doses are in agreement with FDA recommendations. This study aims to establish a periodic quality control of the gammacell irradiators using radiochromic films properly calibrated. The quality control is simply and effective to combat GVHD as well as is useful to detect mechanical fails at rotation set system through the dose uniformity analysis. It was possible to verify the uniformity ranged from -72.38% to 106.33% and some blood bag received doses not compatible with recommended international threshold. (author)

  10. MRI evaluation of fetal vitality and maturity; Avaliacao da vitalidade e maturidade fetal pela ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Salete J.F. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Secaf, Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Magalhaes, Alvaro Cebrian A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Dept. de Radiologia

    1995-05-01

    Assessment of fetal vitality is an essential part of feto-maternal medicine. In clinical practice, this is carried out by investigation of the fetal growth pattern and biochemical or biophysical tests of fetal heath. MRI has the ability of characterizing different soft tissues and is the only technique that can display in the uterus the process of physiological myelinization and may well present a noninvasive method to determine lung maturity. MRI is more powerful technique allowing more detailed visualization of the fetal brain, better images can be obtained of areas such as posterior fossa. The major advantage of MRI over imaging modalities is the potential for biochemical and metabolic studies and it will make an important contribution to obstetric research. (author)., 10 refs., 7 figs p.

  11. Integrity assessment of pipelines - additional remarks; Avaliacao da integridade de dutos - observacoes adicionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis F.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios. Exploracao e Producao

    2005-07-01

    Integrity assessment of pipelines is part of a process that aims to enhance the operating safety of pipelines. During this task, questions related to the interpretation of inspection reports and the way of regarding the impact of several parameters on the pipeline integrity normally come up. In order to satisfactorily answer such questions, the integrity assessment team must be able to suitably approach different subjects such as corrosion control and monitoring, assessment of metal loss and geometric anomalies, and third party activities. This paper presents additional remarks on some of these questions based on the integrity assessment of almost fifty pipelines that has been done at PETROBRAS/E and P Bahia over the past eight years. (author)

  12. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne;

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND) as...... opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio...... (P/B), we were able to detect significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes...

  13. The gut microbiota and metabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, T; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota has been studied for more than a century. However, of nonculture-based techniques exploiting next-generation sequencing for analysing the microbiota, development has renewed research within the field during the past decade. The observation that the gut microbiota......, as an environmental factor, contributes to adiposity has further increased interest in the field. The human microbiota is affected by the diet, and macronutrients serve as substrates for many microbially produced metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that may modulate host metabolism. Obesity......-producing bacteria might be causally linked to type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery, which promotes long-term weight loss and diabetes remission, alters the gut microbiota in both mice and humans. Furthermore, by transferring the microbiota from postbariatric surgery patients to mice, it has been demonstrated...

  14. Microbiota disbiosis is associated with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguang eGao; Bomin eGuo; Renyuan eGao; Qingchao eZhu; Huanlong eQin

    2015-01-01

    The dysbiosis of the human intestinal microbiota is linked to sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The present study was designed to investigate the gut microbiota distribution features in CRC patients. We performed pyrosequencing based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region to investigate microbiota of the cancerous tissue and adjacent noncancerous normal tissue in proximal and distal CRC samples. The results revealed that the microbial structures of the CRC patients and healthy individuals...

  15. Microbiota disbiosis is associated with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiguang; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Renyuan; Zhu, Qingchao; Qin, Huanlong

    2015-01-01

    The dysbiosis of the human intestinal microbiota is linked to sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The present study was designed to investigate the gut microbiota distribution features in CRC patients. We performed pyrosequencing based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region to investigate microbiota of the cancerous tissue and adjacent non-cancerous normal tissue in proximal and distal CRC samples. The results revealed that the microbial structures of the CRC patients and healthy individual...

  16. Deviations in human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is associated with many diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. Potential clinical impact of imbalance in the intestinal microbiota suggests need for new standardised diagnostic methods to facilitate...... microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish......, and potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70...

  17. Human Microbiota and Ophthalmic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Louise J.; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The human ocular surface, consisting of the cornea and conjunctiva, is colonized by an expansive, diverse microbial community. Molecular-based methods, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, has allowed for more comprehensive and precise identification of the species composition of the ocular surface microbiota compared to traditional culture-based methods. Evidence suggests that the normal microbiota plays a protective immunological role in preventing the proliferation of pathogenic species and thus, alterations in the homeostatic microbiome may be linked to ophthalmic pathologies. Further investigation of the ocular surface microbiome, as well as the microbiome of other areas of the body such as the oral mucosa and gut, and their role in the pathophysiology of diseases is a significant, emerging field of research, and may someday enable the development of novel probiotic approaches for the treatment and prevention of ophthalmic diseases.

  18. Clostridium difficile and the microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Seekatz, Anna M.; Young, Vincent B.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading health care–associated illness. Both human and animal models have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota’s capability of providing colonization resistance against C. difficile. Risk factors for disease development include antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota, leading to the loss of colonization resistance and subsequent CDI. Identification of the specific microbes capable of restoring this function remains elusive. F...

  19. Gut Microbiota and Extreme Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Elena; Franceschi, Claudio; Rampelli, Simone; Severgnini, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Turroni, Silvia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Quercia, Sara; Scurti, Maria; Monti, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The study of the extreme limits of human lifespan may allow a better understanding of how human beings can escape, delay, or survive the most frequent age-related causes of morbidity, a peculiarity shown by long-living individuals. Longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, environment, and stochasticity concur to determine the chance to reach 100 or more years of age [1]. Because of its impact on human metabolism and immunology, the gut microbiome has been proposed as a possible determinant of healthy aging [2, 3]. Indeed, the preservation of host-microbes homeostasis can counteract inflammaging [4], intestinal permeability [5], and decline in bone and cognitive health [6, 7]. Aiming at deepening our knowledge on the relationship between the gut microbiota and a long-living host, we provide for the first time the phylogenetic microbiota analysis of semi-supercentenarians, i.e., 105-109 years old, in comparison to adults, elderly, and centenarians, thus reconstructing the longest available human microbiota trajectory along aging. We highlighted the presence of a core microbiota of highly occurring, symbiotic bacterial taxa (mostly belonging to the dominant Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidaceae families), with a cumulative abundance decreasing along with age. Aging is characterized by an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in their co-occurrence network. These features are maintained in longevity and extreme longevity, but peculiarities emerged, especially in semi-supercentenarians, describing changes that, even accommodating opportunistic and allochthonous bacteria, might possibly support health maintenance during aging, such as an enrichment and/or higher prevalence of health-associated groups (e.g., Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Christensenellaceae). PMID:27185560

  20. Microbial enzymatic activity and thermal effect in a tropical soil treated with organic materials Atividade enzimática da microbiota e efeito térmico em solo tropical tratado com compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cenciani

    2008-12-01

    solo (método fumigação-extração e o efeito exotérmico total. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial cinco tratamentos x sete amostragens com 5 repetições. Os compostos orgânicos promoveram oscilações no carbono microbiano (mg C g-1 solo, na atividade das enzimas celulase (µg glicose g-1 solo 24 h-1, protease (mg Tyr g-1 solo 2 h-1 e urease (mg NH4+-N g-1 solo 2 h-1 e no efeito térmico total (J g-1 solo, na seguinte ordem decrescente: (1 CM - 21.47; 655.90; 49.68; 24.55; 477.90; (2 BA - 12.98; 367.70; 32.76; 10.66; 426.29; (3 FR - 11.60; 273.40; 18.77; 19.35; 368.00; (4 HM - 11.77; 261.00; 17.05; 9.02; 202.79; (5 controle. Correlações foram obtidas entre o carbono microbiano e as enzimas celulase e protease (r = 0.54; p < 0.001, e entre o efeito exotérmico e a protease (r = 0.34; p < 0.005. A atividade de enzimas esteve diretamente relacionada à microbiota do solo, refletindo, dessa forma, no efeito térmico total.

  1. Investigation of bacterial microbiota and risk factors in dogs with external ocular diseases from Bandeirantes, Paraná State, BrazilInvestigação da microbiota bacteriana e associações de risco em cães com afecções oculares externas atendidos em Bandeirantes, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Garcia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of the bacterial etiology of the external ocular diseases and sensitivity to antimicrobials, 38 dogs with external ocular diseases, unilateral or bilateral, and 120 dogs without ocular diseases (control group, were studied between 08/2008 and 07/2009 in the Veterinary Hospital of North Paraná State University, Brazil. The collected samples of the inferior conjunctival sac were incubated at 37ºC in an aerobic environment, in blood agar and MacConkey agar, for 120 hours. After the presumptive identification, the bacterial species were identified by the systems APISTAPH (bio- Merieux, Incorporation, API 20 STREP (bio-Merieux, Incorporation and BACTRAY (Laborclin, Ltd. and incubated in Mueller-Hinton agar with antimicrobials disks, for sensitivity determination. For the risk factors, the owners answered a questionnaire with epidemiological variables. There was microorganism growth in 46 (73.02% samples, with isolation of one microorganism in 42 samples and two microorganisms in four. Gram-positive bacteria corresponded to 76% of the isolated, Gramnegative 20% and yeasts fungi 4%. Staphylococcus spp totalized 66% of isolated, with S. aureus (24% and S. intermedius (24% the most prevalent. With the exception of S. intermedius (91.67% and S. epidermidis (66.67%, the isolated bacterial species presented 100% resistance to the sulfonamide. The S. aureus isolated presented 91,67% sensitivity to chloranphenicol, tobramycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and the same percentile of resistance to tetracycline. The S. intermedius presented 100% sensitivity to amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid and 91,67% to gentamicin and 75% resistance to tetracycline and ceftriaxone. The associations of risk for external ocular diseases were clinical returns (OR=59,50, 7,29Para a determinação da etiologia bacteriana das afecções oculares externas e perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos, 38 cães com doenças oculares externas, unilaterais ou

  2. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflam...

  3. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  4. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members,

  5. Microbiota biodiversity in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Comito, Donatella; Cascio, Antonio; Romano, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a significant role in human health and energy balance, and provides protection against disease states. An altered balance between microbiota and its host (dysbiosis) would appear to contribute to the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). CD and UC are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tes.

  6. Evaluation of skin dose in tomographic radiographs of temporomandibular joint; Avaliacao da dose pele em radiografias tomograficas da articulacao tempromandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.B.; Chaves, F.C.; Rocha, F.E.F.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Khoury, H.J. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: khoury@elogica.com.br

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin entrance dose, in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunctions submitted to computerized tomography. For this purpose, in a private medical establishment, in the city of Recife-Pe/Br, 40 patients were evaluated, in according to radiation doses received in eyes, thyroid and TMJ regions. The value found for eye region range from 0.004 to 0.125 mGy, for thyroid range from 0.002 to 0.113 mGy and for TMJ range from 0.112 to 0.541 mGy.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial activity of curcumin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimalarica de compostos derivados da curcumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Patricia Ramos; Miguel, Fabio Balbino; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Couri, Mara Rubia Costa [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Oliveira, Michael Eder de; Ferreira, Vanessa Viana; Guimaraes, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Lima, Aline Brito de; Barbosa, Camila de Souza; Oliveira, Mariana Amorim de; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla, E-mail: varotti@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; and others

    2014-05-15

    ne of the main challenges in the development of new antimalarial drugs is to achieve a viable lead candidate with good pharmacokinetic properties. Curcumin has a broad range of biological activities, including antimalarial activity. Herein, we report the antimalarial activity of six curcumin derivatives (6-12) and an initial analysis of their pharmacokinetic properties. Five compounds have demonstrated potent activity against the P. falciparum in vitro (IC{sub 50} values ranging from 1.7 to 15.2 μg mL{sup -1}), with moderate or low cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line. The substitution of the carbonyl group in 6 by a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone group (to afford 11) increases the Selective Index. These preliminary results indicate curcumin derivatives as potential antimalarial compounds. (author)

  8. The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidy, Sahar; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also

  9. ESTUDO DA MICROBIOTA OCULAR COMO MONITOR DO 2-1 FOSFATO DISSÓDICO DE BETAMETASONA E DO FOSFATO DISSÓDICO/ACETATO DE DEXAMETASONA, EM CÃES QUE RECEBERAM TRANSPLANTES COM CÓRNEAS DE SUÍNOS OCULAR MICROBIAL POPULATION AS A 2-1 BETAMETHASONE DISSODIC FOSPHATE AND DISSODIC FOSPHATE/ACETATE DEXAMETHASONE MONITOR IN SWINE CORNEA TRANSPLANTED DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvaldo Eurides

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram utilizados dez cães, sem raça definida, com peso médio de 10kg, selecionados no Centro de Zoonoses da Prefeitura de Goiânia. Após examinados e considerados sadios, foram numerados de 11 a 20 na respectiva coleira. Cada cão, a seu tempo, teve implantada no olho esquerdo córnea de suíno, este abatido no frigorífico Casa de Banha Caçula. A córnea foi conservada em câmara úmida pelo período máximo de seis horas. Cada animal antes da cirurgia recebeu 4mg de fosfato dissódico/acetato de dexametasona, por via intramuscular, e uma gota de fosfato dissódico de betametasona/sulfato de gentamicina. A medicação foi mantida até o seu sacrifício. De cada cão colheu-se no dia 0, antes da cirurgia, uma amostra do fórnice superior do olho esquerdo, com zaragatoa estéril e imediatamente embebida em água peptonada 0,1%, para os testes das bactérias aeróbicas e fungos. Cada teste foi repetido nas amostras colhidas no 7°, 14°, 21° e 28° dias, após o enxerto e comparado ao do dia 0. Das 39 amostras obtidas do saco conjuntival encontrou-se a prevalência do Staphylococcus epidermidis (12,8%, que, nas amostras iniciais, foram contaminação de colheita, pois não se manifestaram nas amostras do 28° dia, sugerindo a eficiência do antibiótico de escolha.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Microbiota; corticosteróides; xenotransplantes; córnea; canino; suíno.

    Ten mixed breed dogs, with a 10 kg average weight, were selected at Centro de Zoonoses de Goiânia. After being examined and considered healthy, the dogs were enumerated from 11 to 20 on their collars. Each animal had swine cornea implanted into the left eye. The swine cornea was obtained at Casa de Banha Caçula, a

  10. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Obin, Martin S; Zhao, Liping

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. In this review we discuss molecular and cell biological mechanisms by which the microbiota participate in host functions that impact the development and maintenance of the obese state, including host ingestive behavior, energy harvest, energy expenditure and fat storage. We additionally explore the diverse signaling pathways that regulate gut permeability and bacterial translocation to the host and how these are altered in the obese state to promote the systemic inflammation ("metabolic endotoxemia") that is a hallmark of obesity and its complications. Fundamental to our discussions is the concept of "crosstalk", i.e., the biochemical exchange between host and microbiota that maintains the metabolic health of the superorganism and whose dysregulation is a hallmark of the obese state. Differences in community composition, functional genes and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota appear to distinguish lean vs obese individuals, suggesting that gut 'dysbiosis' contributes to the development of obesity and/or its complications. The current challenge is to determine the relative importance of obesity-associated compositional and functional changes in the microbiota and to identify the relevant taxa and functional gene modules that promote leanness and metabolic health. As diet appears to play a predominant role in shaping the microbiota and promoting obesity-associated dysbiosis, parallel initiatives are required to elucidate dietary patterns and diet components (e.g., prebiotics, probiotics) that promote healthy gut microbiota. How the microbiota promotes human health and disease is a rich area of investigation that is likely to generate

  11. Gut microbiota and the development of obesity La microbiota intestinal y el desarrollo de la obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Boroni Moreira; T. Fiche Salles Teixeira; M.ª do C. Gouveia Peluzio; R. de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. Results and discussion: The gut microbiota is important for norma...

  12. Microbiota at the crossroads of autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamriz, Oded; Mizrahi, Hila; Werbner, Michal; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Avni, Orly; Koren, Omry

    2016-09-01

    Autoimmune diseases have a multifactorial etiology including genetic and environmental factors. Recently, there has been increased appreciation of the critical involvement of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, although in many cases, the cause and the consequence are not easy to distinguish. Here, we suggest that many of the known cues affecting the function of the immune system, such as genetics, gender, pregnancy and diet, which are consequently involved in autoimmunity, exert their effects by influencing, at least in part, the microbiota composition and activity. This, in turn, modulates the immune response in a way that increases the risk for autoimmunity in predisposed individuals. We further discuss current microbiota-based therapies.

  13. Intestinal microbiota pathogenesis and fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Yang, Yun-Sheng; Chen, Ye; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Gang; Peng, Li-Hua

    2014-10-28

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The pathogenesis of IBD involves inappropriate ongoing activation of the mucosal immune system driven by abnormal intestinal microbiota in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there are still no definitive microbial pathogens linked to the onset of IBD. The composition and function of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites are indeed disturbed in IBD patients. The special alterations of gut microbiota associated with IBD remain to be evaluated. The microbial interactions and host-microbe immune interactions are still not clarified. Limitations of present probiotic products in IBD are mainly due to modest clinical efficacy, few available strains and no standardized administration. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may restore intestinal microbial homeostasis, and preliminary data have shown the clinical efficacy of FMT on refractory IBD or IBD combined with Clostridium difficile infection. Additionally, synthetic microbiota transplantation with the defined composition of fecal microbiota is also a promising therapeutic approach for IBD. However, FMT-related barriers, including the mechanism of restoring gut microbiota, standardized donor screening, fecal material preparation and administration, and long-term safety should be resolved. The role of intestinal microbiota and FMT in IBD should be further investigated by metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses combined with germ-free/human flora-associated animals and chemostat gut models.

  14. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  15. Microbiota, Intestinal Immunity, and Mouse Bustle

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglov, A.; Nedospasov, S.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA.

  16. [First part: the intestinal microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract contains a large number of commensal (non pathogenic) and pathogenic microbial species that have co-evolved with the human genome and differ in composition and function based on their location, as well as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and diet of their host and we can in fact consider the human body as a mix of human and bacterial cells. It is now evident that the large intestine is much more than an organ for waste material and absorption of water, salts and drugs, and indeed has a very important impact on human health, for a major part related to the specific composition of the complex microbial community in the colon. In man, the large gut receives material from the ileum which has already been digested and the contents are then mixed and retained for 6-12 hours in the caecum and right colon. Thus, the large intestine is an open system, with nutrients flowing in the caecum, and bacteria, their metabolic products, and undigested foodstuffs being excreted as faeces. The anaerobic brakdown of carbohydrate and protein by bacteria is known conventionally as fermentation. In man the major end products are the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate, butirate, the gases H2 and CO2, ammonia, amines, phenols and energy, which the bacteria use for growth and the maintenance of cellular function. The microbiota is also an important factor in the development of the immune response. The interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and resident microbiota is well balanced in healthy individuals, but its breakdown can lead to intestinal and extraintestinal disease. PMID:27362717

  17. Gut Microbiota: Its Role in Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Rahul; Saraswat, Vivek A.; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, a key factor in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), is predominantly derived from urea breakdown by urease producing large intestinal bacteria and from small intestine and kidneys, where the enzyme glutaminases releases ammonia from circulating glutamine. Non-culture techniques like pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid are used to characterize fecal microbiota. Fecal microbiota in patients with cirrhosis have been shown to alter with increasing Chil...

  18. Helminth colonization is associated with increased diversity of the gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ching Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths colonize more than 1.5 billion people worldwide, yet little is known about how they interact with bacterial communities in the gut microbiota. Differences in the gut microbiota between individuals living in developed and developing countries may be partly due to the presence of helminths, since they predominantly infect individuals from developing countries, such as the indigenous communities in Malaysia we examine in this work. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from the fecal microbiota of 51 people from two villages in Malaysia, of which 36 (70.6% were infected by helminths. The 16S rRNA V4 region was sequenced at an average of nineteen thousand sequences per samples. Helminth-colonized individuals had greater species richness and number of observed OTUs with enrichment of Paraprevotellaceae, especially with Trichuris infection. We developed a new approach of combining centered log-ratio (clr transformation for OTU relative abundances with sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA to enable more robust predictions of OTU interrelationships. These results suggest that helminths may have an impact on the diversity, bacterial community structure and function of the gut microbiota.

  19. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. PMID:26208530

  20. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-01

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

  1. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) faecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Biancani, Barbara; Furlati, Stefano; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Consolandi, Clarissa; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Cetaceans have evolved from herbivorous terrestrial artiodactyls closely related to ruminants and hippopotamuses. Delphinidae, a family included in this order, represent an extreme and successful re-adaptation of mammalian physiology to the marine habitat and piscivorous diet. The anatomical aspects of Delphinidae success are well understood, whereas some physiological aspects of their environmental fitness are less defined, such as the gut microbiota composition and its adaptation to their dietary niche. Here, we explored the faecal microbiota structure of nine adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and one breast-fed calf living in a controlled environment. According to our findings, dolphins possess a unique microbiota profile within the Mammalia class, highly resembling that of carnivorous marine fishes. The breast-fed calf showed a distinctive compositional structure of the gut microbial ecosystem, which partially overlaps with the mother's milk microbiota. Taken together, our data indicate that in dolphins the adaptation to the marine niche and piscivorous diet involved the convergence of their gut microbiota structure with that of marine fishes, overcoming the gut microbiota phylogenetic inertia previously described in terrestrial mammalians. PMID:26960390

  2. Avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa da microbiota do solo e da fixação biológica do nitrogênio pela soja Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of soil microbes and biological nitrogen fixation in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinei Aparecida de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir, para as condições edafoclimáticas do Brasil, níveis aceitáveis de dispersão de alguns parâmetros biológicos, utilizados em estudos de impacto ambiental de novas tecnologias usadas na cultura da soja. Dois ensaios com soja convencional e transgênica foram conduzidos em 11 municípios de seis estados e no Distrito Federal; os parâmetros avaliados foram: carbono e nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana, respiração basal e quociente metabólico microbiano, eletroforese do DNA do solo em géis desnaturantes (DGGE, fixação biológica do nitrogênio, população de rizóbios, número e massa de nódulos secos, ocupação dos nódulos pelas estirpes de Bradyrhizobium, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, nitrogênio total e nitrogênio como ureídos na parte aérea. A variabilidade temporal de: carbono e nitrogênio, da biomassa microbiana, da respiração basal e do quociente metabólico microbiano foi adequada, e o coeficiente de variação máximo aceitável foi estimado em 35%. A homogeneidade entre repetições, tratamentos e coletas foi confirmada por DGGE. Em solos pobres em nitrogênio, os parâmetros de massa de nódulos e massa da parte aérea, com coeficiente de variação máximo de 33 e 18%, respectivamente, foram adequados para avaliar a fixação biológica do N, que contribuiu com 72 a 88% do nitrogênio total da parte aérea.The objective oh this work was to define, for edaphoclimatic conditions of Brazil, acceptable levels of dispersion of some biological parameters, used in studies of environmental impact due to the adoption of new technologies with the soybean crop. Two experiments were performed in eleven counties, in six states and in the Federal District, with conventional and transgenic soybean. Evaluated parameters were: carbon and nitrogen of the microbial biomass, microbial respiration, microbial metabolic quotient, electrophoresis of soil DNA in denaturating gradient gel

  3. Evaluation of the thermoluminescent detector answers of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti and micro LiF:Mg,Ti in photon clinical beams dosimetry using water simulator; Avaliacao da resposta de detectores termoluminescentes de CaSO4:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti e microLiF:Mg,Ti na dosimetria de feixes clinicos de fotons utilizando simulador de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Luciana C.; Veneziani, Glauco R.; Campos, Leticia L., E-mail: lmatsushima@usp.b, E-mail: veneziani@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (GMR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes; Sakuraba, Roberto K.; Cruz, Jose C. da, E-mail: rsakuraba@einstein.b, E-mail: jccruz@einstein.b [Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital Albert Einstein (HAE)

    2011-10-26

    This paper perform the comparative study of thermoluminescent answer of calcium sulfate dosemeter doped with dysprosium (DaSO{sub 4}:Dy) produced by the IPEN, Sao Paulo, with answer of lithium fluoride dosemeters doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg, Ti) in the dosimetry of clinical beams of photons (6 and 15 MV) by using water simulator object. Dose-answer curves were obtained for gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in the air and in conditions of electronic equilibrium (plate of PMMA), and clinical photons of CLINAC model 2100C accelerators of the two evaluated hospitals: Hospital das Clinicas of the Faculty of Medicine of Sao Paulo university and Hospital Albert Einstein. It was also evaluated the sensitivity and reproduction of the three dosemeters

  4. The Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyburz, Andreas; Müller, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is required for optimal digestion of foods, for the development of resistance against pathogens (termed colonization resistance), for the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and for local as well as systemic immune homeostasis. Certain constituents of the GI tract microbiota are widely recognized as critical regulators and modulators of their host's immune response. These include bacterial members of the microbiota as well as parasitic nematodes. Immune regulation by immunomodulatory members of the GI microbiota primarily serves to subvert host antimicrobial immune defenses and promote persistent colonization, but as a side effect may prevent or suppress immunological disorders resulting from inappropriate responses to harmless antigens, such as allergy, colitis or autoimmunity. Many of the best understood GI-resident immunomodulatory species have co-evolved with their mammalian hosts for tens of thousands of years and masterfully manipulate host immune responses. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological evidence for the role of the GI tract microbiota as a whole, and of specific members, in protection against allergic and other immunological disorders. We then focus on the mechanistic basis of microbial immunomodulation, which is presented using several well-understood paradigmatic examples, that is, helminths, Helicobacter pylori, Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. In a final chapter, we highlight past and ongoing attempts at harnessing the immunomodulatory properties of GI microbiota species and their secreted products for intervention studies and describe the promises and limitations of these experimental approaches. The effects of pro- and prebiotics, bacterial lysates, as well as of fecal microbiota transplantation are presented and compared. PMID:27028536

  5. Gut microbiota and hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Radha K

    2013-06-01

    There is a strong relationship between liver and gut; while the portal venous system receives blood from the gut, and its contents may affect liver functions, liver in turn, affects intestinal functions through bile secretion. There is robust evidence that the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is linked to alterations in gut microbiota and their by-products such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles, endotoxins, etc. In the setting of intestinal barrier and immune dysfunction, these by-products are involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis including HE and systemic inflammation plays an important role. Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics may exhibit efficacy in the treatment of HE by modulating the gut flora. They improve derangement in flora by decreasing the counts of pathogenic bacteria and thus improving the endotoxemia, HE and the liver disease. Current evidence suggest that the trials evaluating the role of probiotics in the treatment of HE are of not high quality and all trials had high risk of bias and high risk of random errors. Therefore, the use of probiotics for patients with HE cannot be currently recommended. Further RCTs are required. This review summarizes the main literature findings about the relationships between gut flora and HE, both in terms of the pathogenesis and the treatment of HE.

  6. Obesity and its associated disease: A role for microbiota?

    OpenAIRE

    Tehrani, Ali Bonakdar; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Gewirtz, Andrew; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of the obesity and its related metabolic diseases. Avariety of factors including diet, genetic background, environment and host innate and adaptive immune responses define an individual’s gut microbiota. In this review we outline potential mechanisms by which gut microbiota can contribute to the development of obesity focusing on specific processes such as microbial energy extraction, microbiota induced-inflammation and regulati...

  7. Molecular Insight into Gut Microbiota and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohao Wu; Bing He; Jin Liu; Hui Feng; Yinghui Ma; Defang Li; Baosheng Guo; Chao Liang; Lei Dang; Luyao Wang; Jing Tian; Hailong Zhu; Lianbo Xiao; Cheng Lu; Aiping Lu

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorder. Gut microbiota play an important role in the etiology of RA. With the considerable progress made in next-generation sequencing techniques, the identified gut microbiota difference between RA patients and healthy individuals provides an updated overview of the association between gut microbiota and RA. We reviewed the reported correlation and underlying molecular mechanisms among gut microbiota, the immune system, ...

  8. Role of gut microbiota in maternal glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yushi; 毛雨詩

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in daily biological reactions. It is proved that many metabolic diseases are accompanied with pattern change of gut microbiota and pregnancy is also a process with gut microbiota remodeling. Besides, serum IGF-1 level is increased during pregnancy, but the source of increased IGF-1 remains unclear. So far, there is a paper that explored the gut microbiota in pregnant women. However, the diet of pregnant women was not unified in the study, which might hav...

  9. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection modifies gut microbiota under different dietary conditions in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakel eArrazuria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP the causative agent of paratuberculosis, produces a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. It has been recently suggested that MAP infection may be associated with dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in ruminants. Since diet is one of the key factors affecting the balance of microbial populations in the digestive tract, we intended to evaluate the effect of MAP infection in a rabbit model fed a regular or high fiber diet during challenge. The composition of microbiota of the cecal content and the sacculus rotundus was studied in 20 New Zealand white female rabbits. The extracted DNA was subjected to paired-end Illumina sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene for microbiota analysis. Microbial richness (Chao1 in the cecal content was significantly increased by MAP infection in regular diet rabbits (p = 0.0043 and marginally increased (p = 0.0503 in the high fiber group. Analysis of beta-diversity showed that MAP infection produces deeper changes in the microbiota of sacculus rotundus than in the cecal content. A lower abundance of Proteobacteria in the cecal content of infected animals fed the high fiber diet and also lower abundance of Bacteroidetes in the sacculus rotundus of infected animals fed the regular diet were observed. Based on OPLS-DA analysis, we observed that some bacteria repeatedly appear positively associated with infection in different samples under different diets (families Dehalobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Mogibacteriaceae; genus Anaerofustis. The same phenomenon was observed with some of the bacteria negatively associated with MAP infection (genera Anaerostipes and Coprobacillus. However, other groups of bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae family and ML615J-28 order were positively associated with infection in some circumstances and negatively associated with infection in others.Data demonstrate that MAP

  10. Microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang; Forsythe, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Changes in gut microbiota can modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in altered brain functioning, and suggesting the existence of a microbiota gut-brain axis. Diet can also change the profile of gut microbiota and, thereby, behavior. Effects of bacteria on the nervous system cannot be disassociated from effects on the immune system since the two are in constant bidirectional communication. While the composition of the gut microbiota varies greatly among individuals, alterations to the balance and content of common gut microbes may affect the production of molecules such as neurotransmitters, e.g., gamma amino butyric acid, and the products of fermentation, e.g., the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Short chain fatty acids, which are pleomorphic, especially butyrate, positively influence host metabolism by promoting glucose and energy homeostasis, regulating immune responses and epithelial cell growth, and promoting the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the future, the composition, diversity, and function of specific probiotics, coupled with similar, more detailed knowledge about gut microbiota, will potentially help in developing more effective diet- and drug-based therapies. PMID:26175487

  11. Microbiota disbiosis is associated with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguang eGao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The dysbiosis of the human intestinal microbiota is linked to sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC. The present study was designed to investigate the gut microbiota distribution features in CRC patients. We performed pyrosequencing based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region to investigate microbiota of the cancerous tissue and adjacent noncancerous normal tissue in proximal and distal CRC samples. The results revealed that the microbial structures of the CRC patients and healthy individuals differed significantly. Firmicutes and Fusobacteria were over-represented whereas Proteobacteria was under-represented in CRC patients. In addition, Lactococcus and Fusobacterium exhibited a relatively higher abundance while Pseudomonas and Escherichia-Shigella was reduced in cancerous tissues compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues. Meanwhile, the overall microbial structures of proximal and distal colon cancerous tissues were similar; but certain potential pro-oncogenic pathogens were different. These results suggested that the mucosa-associated microbiota is dynamically associated with CRC, which may provide evidences for microbiota-associated diagnostic, prognostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies for CRC.

  12. The Intestinal Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Yehuda; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent and the best studied functional gastrointestinal disorder. The etiology and the pathogenesis of IBS are still not clear; however, recent studies have implicated a role for alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Epidemiological observations have demonstrated that the development of IBS symptoms is often preceded by a disruption of the individual's normal intestinal microbiota, and microbiological studies have demonstrated compositional differences in the intestinal microbiota between patients with IBS patients and healthy controls. In addition, animal studies and a few recent human clinical studies have demonstrated that compositional changes in the intestinal microbiota in IBS are associated with relevant abnormal gastrointestinal and brain-gut axis functions that are often observed in patients with IBS. This article discusses points of interest from the current research on the microbiota-gut-brain interactions in IBS and highlights the relevance of the emerging data to our understanding of the disorder and the clinical implications for patients' care. PMID:26447966

  13. Intestinal microbiota: its role in digestive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Fernandez, Luis M; Lasa, Juan S; Man, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    It is now well known that intestinal microbiota exerts not only several physiological functions, but has also been implied in the mechanisms of many conditions, both intestinal and extraintestinal. These advances, to the best of our knowledge, have been made possible by the development of new ways of studying gut flora. Metagenomics, the study of genetic material taken directly from environmental samples, avoiding individual culture, has become an excellent tool to study the human microbiota. Therefore, it has demonstrated an association between an altered intestinal microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome, perhaps the most extensively studied conditions associated with this particular subject. However, microbiota has a potential role in the development of other diseases; their manifestations are not confined to the intestine only. In this article, an extensive updated review is conducted on the role intestinal microbiota has in health and in different diseases. Focus is made on the following conditions: inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, hepatic encephalopathy, and obesity. PMID:24921207

  14. Gut microbiota and probiotics in colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanmin; Michelle Luo, T; Jobin, Christian; Young, Howard A

    2011-10-28

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and abundant microbial community reaching as high as 10(13)-10(14) microorganisms in the colon. This endogenous microbiota forms a symbiotic relationship with their eukaryotic host and this close partnership helps maintain homeostasis by performing essential and non-redundant tasks (e.g. nutrition/energy and, immune system balance, pathogen exclusion). Although this relationship is essential and beneficial to the host, various events (e.g. infection, diet, stress, inflammation) may impact microbial composition, leading to the formation of a dysbiotic microbiota, further impacting on health and disease states. For example, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively termed inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), have been associated with the establishment of a dysbiotic microbiota. In addition, extra-intestinal disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome are also associated with the development of a dysbiotic microbiota. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in harnessing the power of the microbiome and modulating its composition as a means to alleviate intestinal pathologies/disorders and maintain health status. In this review, we will discuss the emerging relationship between the microbiota and development of colorectal cancer as well as present evidence that microbial manipulation (probiotic, prebiotic) impacts disease development. PMID:21741763

  15. Diet, the human gut microbiota, and IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary D; Bushmanc, Frederic D; Lewis, James D

    2013-12-01

    The human gut contains a vast number of microorganisms known collectively as the "gut microbiota". Despite its importance in maintaining the health of the host, growing evidence suggests the gut microbiota may also be an important factor in the pathogenesis of various diseases, a number of which have shown a rapid increase in incidence over the past few decades. Factors including age, genetics, and diet may influence microbiota composition. We used diet inventories and 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize fecal samples from 98 individuals. Fecal communities clustered into previously described enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Enterotypes were associated with long-term diets, particularly protein and animal fat (Bacteroides) vs. simple carbohydrates (Prevotella). Although the distinction of enterotypes as either discrete clusters or a continuum will require additional investigation, numerous studies have demonstrated the co-exclusion of the closely related Prevotellaceae and Bacteroides genera in the gut microbiota of healthy human subjects where Prevotella appears to be a discriminatory taxon for residence in more agrarian societies. Ultimately, the impact of diet on the human gut microbiota may be an important environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of disease states that show a rapidly increasing incidence in industrialized nations such as the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). PMID:23548695

  16. Regulation of body fat mass by the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schéle, Erik; Grahnemo, Louise; Anesten, Fredrik;

    2016-01-01

    New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries...

  17. Relationship between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokhan; Cipe; Ufuk; Oguz; Idiz; Deniz; Firat; Huseyin; Bektasoglu

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract hosts a complexand vast microbial community with up to 1011-1012 microorganisms colonizing the colon. The gut microbiota has a serious effect on homeostasis and pathogenesis through a number of mechanisms. In recent years, the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and sporadic colorectal cancer has attracted much scientific interest. Mechanisms underlying colonic carcinogenesis include the conversion of procarcinogenic diet-related factors to carcinogens and the stimulation of procarcinogenic signaling pathways in luminal epithelial cells. Understanding each of these mechanisms will facilitate future studies, leading to the development of novel strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the relationship between colorectal cancer and the intestinal microbiota.

  18. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Carding

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of both intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Intestinal disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and coeliac disease, while extra-intestinal disorders include allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.In many of these conditions, the mechanisms leading to disease development involves the pivotal mutualistic relationship between the colonic microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host immune system. The establishment of a ‘healthy’ relationship early in life appears to be critical to maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Whilst we do not yet have a clear understanding of what constitutes a ‘healthy’ colonic microbiota, a picture is emerging from many recent studies identifying particular bacterial species associated with a healthy microbiota. In particular, the bacterial species residing within the mucus layer of the colon, either through direct contact with host cells, or through indirect communication via bacterial metabolites, may influence whether host cellular homeostasis is maintained or whether inflammatory mechanisms are triggered. In addition to inflammation, there is some evidence that perturbations in the gut microbiota is involved with the development of colorectal cancer. In this case, dysbiosis may not be the most important factor, rather the products of interaction between diet and the microbiome. High-protein diets are thought to result in the production of carcinogenic metabolites from the colonic microbiota that may result in the induction of neoplasia in the colonic epithelium.Ever more sensitive metabolomics methodologies reveal a suite of small molecules produced in the microbiome which mimic or act as neurosignallers or neurotransmitters. Coupled with evidence that probiotic interventions may alter psychological endpoints in both humans and in

  19. Obesity and NAFLD: the role of bacteria and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    There are trillions of microorganisms in the human intestine collectively called gut microbiota. Obesity may be affected by the gut microbiota through energy harvesting and fat storage by the bacteria. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is also responsible for endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and its consequences including obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Relationship between gut microbiota and NAFLD is also dependent on altered choline and bile acid metabolism and endogenous alcohol production by gut bacteria. Further evidence linking gut microbiota with obesity and NAFLD comes from studies showing usefulness of probiotics in animals and patients with NAFLD. This article reviews the relationship among gut microbiota, obesity, and NAFLD.

  20. Microbiota: In Health and in Sickness, From Birth to Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Salih; Uyar, Yunus; Karaca, Serkan; Yazar, Süleyman

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms colonize tissues and organs such as the skin and gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems. These microorganisms are generally called as "human microbiota". Human microbiota mostly consists of commensal microorganisms. The commensal microorganisms located on and in the human body are bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and parasites. The microbiota genome is 100 times bigger in size than the human genome. Although the human genome is stationary, microbial genome has a compatible flexible variability during human life. As well as 2-year-old child and newborn, adult and adolescent, the elderly and pregnant woman have a different microbiota. Microbiota and the microbiota genome can be changed by personal and household diet, antibiotic use, mode of delivery, and hygiene within days or even hours, depending on such as these factors. The human immune system and microbiota grow up, develop, and mature as childhood friends by playing with each other from birth to death. Association between microbiota and human is not just related to childhood-it continues with health and disease, until death separates them. This review focused on the roles of microbiota in parasitology, autoimmune diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer treatment in detail. In addition, inflammatory and immunoregulatory roles of microbiota on the intestinal immune system and how innate and adaptive immune systems regulate microbiota and its content were explained. PMID:27594291

  1. Microbiota aeróbia conjuntival nas conjuntivites adenovirais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Eliane Mayumi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudar a microbiota aeróbica conjuntival em pacientes com quadro clínico de conjuntivite viral aguda. Método: Trinta pacientes entre 18 e 40 anos portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral e 30 pacientes sem a doença foram submetidos à colheita de material da conjuntiva para cultura. Os portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral foram submetidos ao exame até 3 dias após o início dos sintomas. As culturas foram realizadas utilizando-se os meios de ágar-sangue e ágar-chocolate. Pacientes em uso de medicação tópica ou sistêmica, usuários de lentes de contato e aqueles com doença ocular prévia ou doença sistêmica foram excluídos. Resultados: Houve positividade significantemente maior das culturas de conjuntiva nos pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral (33,3%, sendo Haemophylus influenzae em 50% e Streptococcus pneumoniae em 50% quando comparados ao grupo controle (6,6% - Staphylococcus coagulase negativo. O grupo de pacientes com conjuntivite e que apresentaram culturas positivas, não diferiu em nenhum dos critérios clínicos analisados do grupo com culturas negativas. Conclusão: Pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral apresentaram maior freqüência de exames de cultura de amostra de conjuntiva positivas quando comparados aos controles normais. Os pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral com cultura positiva apresentaram evolução clínica semelhante aos pacientes com cultura negativa. Os agentes isolados na microbiota conjuntival no grupo com conjuntivite foram diferentes do observado no grupo normal. Porém o resultado das culturas não apresentou correlação com a evolução clínica.

  2. Technical economic evaluation for electricity generation from biomass generation; Avaliacao tecnico-economica da conversao da biomassa em eletricidade utilizando tecnologia da gaseificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: Cristinasales@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: ruben@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: esl43@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas microturbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells. The power range for electricity generation is considered between 50 kW and 3 MW. The paper shows the sensibility analysis about fuel price, investment, electric energy tax and O and M costs, and the calculation are realized in excel. The results are presented in graphs having indicated the behavior of the economic indicators in function of the variation of the costs of each parameter reducing and increasing in up to 50% of the calculated value. (author)

  3. Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry; Avaliacao da densidade da madeira de Gmelina arborea pela aplicacao da densitometria de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roque, Roger Moya [Instituto Tecnologico da Costa Rica, Cartago (Costa Rica). Centro de Investigacao em Integracao Bosque-Industria. Dept. de Engenharia Florestal]. E-mail: rmoya@itcr.ac.cr; Tomazello, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail: mtomazel@esalq.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

  4. Human gut microbiota: repertoire and variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Million, Matthieu; Hugon, Perrine; Armougom, Fabrice; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    The composition of human gut microbiota and their relationship with the host and, consequently, with human health and disease, presents several challenges to microbiologists. Originally dominated by culture-dependent methods for exploring this ecosystem, the advent of molecular tools has revolutionized our ability to investigate these relationships. However, many biases that have led to contradictory results have been identified. Microbial culturomics, a recent concept based on a use of several culture conditions with identification by MALDI-TOF followed by the genome sequencing of the new species cultured had allowed a complementarity with metagenomics. Culturomics allowed to isolate 31 new bacterial species, the largest human virus, the largest bacteria, and the largest Archaea from human. Moreover, some members of this ecosystem, such as Eukaryotes, giant viruses, Archaea, and Planctomycetes, have been neglected by the majority of studies. In addition, numerous factors, such as age, geographic provenance, dietary habits, antibiotics, or probiotics, can influence the composition of the microbiota. Finally, in addition to the countless biases associated with the study techniques, a considerable limitation to the interpretation of studies of human gut microbiota is associated with funding sources and transparency disclosures. In the future, studies independent of food industry funding and using complementary methods from a broad range of both culture-based and molecular tools will increase our knowledge of the repertoire of this complex ecosystem and host-microbiota mutualism.

  5. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, L.P.; Bouter, K.E.C.; Vos, de W.M.; Borody, T.J.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal conditio

  6. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-12-23

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  7. Functional Expression of Dental Plaque Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Norman Peterson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota’s transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

  8. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  9. Human gut microbiota: repertoire and variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe eLagier

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition of human gut microbiota and their relationship with the host and, consequently, with human health and disease, presents several challenges to microbiologists. Originally dominated by culture-dependent methods for exploring this ecosystem, the advent of molecular tools has revolutionized our ability to investigate these relationships. However, many biases that have led to contradictory results have been identified. Microbial culturomics, a recent concept based on a use of several culture conditions with identification by MALDI-TOF followed by the genome sequencing of the new species cultured had allowed a complementarity with metagenomics. Culturomics allowed to isolate 31 new bacterial species the largest human virus, the largest bacteria, and the largest Archaea from human. Moreover, some members of this ecosystem, such as Eukaryotes, giant viruses, Archaea and Planctomycetes, have been neglected by the majority of studies. In addition, numerous factors, such as age, geographic provenance, dietary habits, antibiotics or probiotics, can influence the composition of the microbiota. Finally, in addition to the countless biases associated with the study techniques, a considerable limitation to the interpretation of studies of human gut microbiota is associated with funding sources and transparency disclosures. In the future, studies independent of food industry funding and using complementary methods from a broad range of both culture-based and molecular tools will increase our knowledge of the repertoire of this complex ecosystem and host-microbiota mutualism.

  10. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  11. Gut Microbiota, Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and related disorders such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes has vastly increased throughout the world. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective suggesting that our microbiota might be involved in the development of these disorders. This represents an area of scientific need, opportunity and challenge. The insights gleaned should help to address several pressing global health problems. CONTENT: Our bowels have two major roles: the digestion and absorption of nutrients and the maintenance of a barrier against the external environment. They fulfill these functions in the context of, and with the help from, tens of trillions of resident microbes, known as the gut microbiota. Studies have demonstrated that obesity and metabolic syndrome may be associated with profound microbiotal changes, and the induction of a metabolic syndrome phenotype through fecal transplants corroborates the important role of the microbiota in this disease. Dietary composition and caloric intake appear to swiftly regulate intestinal microbial composition and function. SUMMARY: The interaction of the intestinal microbial world with its host, and its mutual regulation, will become one of the important topics of biomedical research and will provide us with further insights at the interface of microbiota, metabolism, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. A better understanding of the interaction between certain diets and the human gut microbiome should help to develop new guidelines for feeding humans at various time points in their life, help to improve global human health, and establish ways to prevent or treat various food-related diseases. KEYWORDS: gut microbiota, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes.

  12. Microbiota do megaesôfago e carcinogênese Megaesophagus microbiota and carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Pajecki

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O risco de desenvolvimento de carcinoma esofágico em portadores de megaesôfago é 33 vezes superior ao da população em geral. Possível explicação para este fenômeno poderia estar relacionada à produção de compostos N-nitrosos na luz do órgão, a partir da transformação de nitratos da dieta em nitritos, mediada por bactérias em suspensão no líquido de estase e com o contato crônico destes carcinógenos com a mucosa esofágica. OBJETIVO: Analisar a microbiota esofágica em pacientes portadores de megaesôfago de etiologia chagásica, com especial atenção para a presença de bactérias com capacidade de redução de nitratos. CASUÍSTICA: Foram estudados prospectivamente 15 pacientes portadores de megaesôfago chagásico com idades variando de 28 a 73 anos, sendo 9 do sexo feminino e 6 do sexo masculino, que foram divididos em 3 grupos iguais de 5, de acordo com o grau de dilatação do esôfago, segundo a classificação de Rezende et al. (Grau I, Grau II e Grau III. MÉTODO: A coleta do líquido de estase para estudo microbiológico era realizada através de sonda de Levine nº 14, que era passada pela boca, por dentro de uma cânula de intubação orotraqueal nº 7,5, mantendo-se sua extremidade escondida, a fim de evitar sua contaminação. RESULTADOS: Foram obtidas 93,3% de culturas positivas com grande variedade de microrganismos e predomínio de aeróbios Gram-positivos e anaeróbios. As concentrações de microrganismos foram tanto maiores, quanto maior o grau de dilatação do esôfago. Entre os microrganismos encontrados, o Staphylococcus sp, Corynebacterium sp, Peptostreptococcus sp e a Veillonella sp foram aqueles identificados como tendo a capacidade de redução de nitratos a nitritos. CONCLUSÃO: No megaesôfago chagásico há bactérias na luz do órgão com capacidade de redução de nitratos da dieta, passo importante na produção de compostos N-nitrosos.BACKGROUND: The risk of development of

  13. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota. PMID:24627584

  14. Microbiota dynamics in patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis and is responsible for a large and increasing fraction of hospital-acquired infections. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is an alternate treatment option for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI refractory to antibiotic therapy. It has recently been discussed favorably in the clinical and scientific communities and is receiving increasing public attention. However, short- and long-term health consequences of FMT remain a concern, as the effects of the transplanted microbiota on the patient remain unknown. To shed light on microbial events associated with RCDI and treatment by FMT, we performed fecal microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of 14 pairs of healthy donors and RCDI patients treated successfully by FMT. Post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples collected up to one year after FMT were studied longitudinally, including one post-FMT patient with antibiotic-associated relapse three months after FMT. This analysis allowed us not only to confirm prior reports that RCDI is associated with reduced diversity and compositional changes in the fecal microbiota, but also to characterize previously undocumented post-FMT microbiota dynamics. Members of the Streptococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, or Enterobacteriaceae were significantly increased and putative butyrate producers, such as Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were significantly reduced in samples from RCDI patients before FMT as compared to post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples. RCDI patient samples showed more case-specific variations than post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples. However, none of the bacterial groups were invariably associated with RCDI or successful treatment by FMT. Overall microbiota compositions in post-FMT patients, specifically abundances of the above-mentioned Firmicutes, continued to change for at least 16 weeks after FMT, suggesting that

  15. Variability of the Sheep Lung Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven; Pollock, Jolinda; Tennant, Peter; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequencing technologies have recently facilitated the characterization of bacterial communities present in lungs during health and disease. However, there is currently a dearth of information concerning the variability of such data in health both between and within subjects. This study seeks to examine such variability using healthy adult sheep as our model system. Protected specimen brush samples were collected from three spatially disparate segmental bronchi of six adult sheep (age, 20 months) on three occasions (day 0, 1 month, and 3 months). To further explore the spatial variability of the microbiotas, more-extensive brushing samples (n = 16) and a throat swab were taken from a separate sheep. The V2 and V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced via Illumina MiSeq. DNA sequences were analyzed using the mothur software package. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacterial DNA. Some sheep lungs contained dramatically different bacterial communities at different sampling sites, whereas in others, airway microbiotas appeared similar across the lung. In our spatial variability study, we observed clustering related to the depth within the lung from which samples were taken. Lung depth refers to increasing distance from the glottis, progressing in a caudal direction. We conclude that both host influence and local factors have impacts on the composition of the sheep lung microbiota. IMPORTANCE Until recently, it was assumed that the lungs were a sterile environment which was colonized by microbes only during disease. However, recent studies using sequencing technologies have found that there is a small population of bacteria which exists in the lung during health, referred to as the “lung microbiota.” In this study, we characterize the variability of the lung microbiotas of healthy sheep. Sheep not only are economically important animals but also are often used as large animal models of human

  16. Transfer of Intestinal Microbiota From Lean Donors Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, A.; Nood, van E.; Holleman, F.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We studied the effects of infusing intestinal microbiota from lean donors to male recipients with metabolic syndrome on the recipients' microbiota composition and glucose metabolism. Subjects were assigned rando

  17. The role of gut microbiota in human metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Vrieze, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis supports the hypothesis that gut microbiota can be viewed as an ‘exteriorised organ’ that contributes to energy metabolism and the modulation of our immune system. Following Koch’s postulates, it has now been shown that gut microbiota are associated with metabolic disease and that these microbiota can be isolated from a diseased organism (e.g. visceral adipose tissue). The third postulate and ultimate proof of causality have to come from trials showing beneficial effects of treatm...

  18. Microbiota-Immune System Interaction: An Uneasy Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Salzman, Nita H.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 100 trillion microbes colonize human beings, with the majority of organisms residing in the intestines. This microbiota impacts host nutrition, protection, and gut development. Alterations in microbiota composition are associated with susceptibility to various infectious and inflammatory gut diseases. The mucosal surface is not a static barrier that simply prevents microbial invasion but a critical interface for microbiota-immune system interactions. Recent work suggests that dyn...

  19. Dynamics of the surgical microbiota along the cardiothoracic surgery pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Romano-Bertrand, Sara; Frapier, Jean-Marc; Calvet, Brigitte; Colson, Pascal; Albat, Bernard; Parer, Sylvie; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Human skin associated microbiota are increasingly described by culture-independent methods that showed an unexpected diversity with variation correlated with several pathologies. A role of microbiota disequilibrium in infection occurrence is hypothesized, particularly in surgical site infections. We study the diversities of operative site microbiota and its dynamics during surgical pathway of patients undergoing coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG). Pre-, per-, and post-operative samples were...

  20. Citrobacter rodentium: infection, inflammation and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Keeney, Kristie M; Crepin, Valerie F; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Finlay, B Brett; Frankel, Gad

    2014-09-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a mucosal pathogen of mice that shares several pathogenic mechanisms with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which are two clinically important human gastrointestinal pathogens. Thus, C. rodentium has long been used as a model to understand the molecular basis of EPEC and EHEC infection in vivo. In this Review, we discuss recent studies in which C. rodentium has been used to study mucosal immunology, including the deregulation of intestinal inflammatory responses during bacteria-induced colitis and the role of the intestinal microbiota in mediating resistance to colonization by enteric pathogens. These insights should help to elucidate the roles of mucosal inflammatory responses and the microbiota in the virulence of enteric pathogens.

  1. Microbiota and mucosal immunity in amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M Colombo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We know that animals live in a world dominated by bacteria. In the last twenty years we have learned that microbes are essential regulators of mucosal immunity. Bacterias, archeas and viruses influence different aspects of mucosal development and function. Yet the literature mainly covers findings obtained in mammals. In this review, we focus on two major themes that emerge from the comparative analysis of mammals and amphibians. These themes concern: i the structure and functions of lymphoid organs and immune cells in amphibians, with a focus on the gut mucosal immune system; and ii the characteristics of the amphibian microbiota and its influence on mucosal immunity. Lastly, we propose to use Xenopus tadpoles as an alternative small animal model to improve the fundamental knowledge on immunological functions of gut microbiota.

  2. Diabetes, periodontitis, and the subgingival microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Ohlrich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been associated with increased severity of periodontal disease for many years. More recently, the impact of periodontal disease on glycaemic control has been investigated. The role of the oral microbiota in this two-way relationship is at this stage unknown. Further studies, of a longitudinal nature and investigating a wider array of bacterial species, are required in order to conclusively determine if there is a difference in the oral microbiota of diabetics and non-diabetics and whether this difference accounts, on the one hand, for the increased severity of periodontal disease and on the other for the poorer glycaemic control seen in diabetics.

  3. [Research progress of fecal microbiota transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ting; Tang, Tongyu

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal microbial ecosystem is the most complex and the largest micro-ecosystem of the mammals. The use of antibiotics can lead to a lot of major changes of the flora, making the intestinal flora damaged and impacted, even developing Clostridium difficile infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a special organ transplant therapy, which can rebuild the intestinal flora, has raised the clinical concerns. It has been used in the refractory Clostridium difficile, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and some non-intestinal diseases related to the metabolic disorders. But this method of treatment has not become a normal treatment, and many clinicians and patients can not accept it. This paper reviews relevant literature in terms of origin, indications, mechanism, production process, current situation and future research, and provide a reference for the clinical application of the treatment of fecal microbiota transplantation. PMID:26211780

  4. Oral microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fåk, Frida; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bergström, Göran;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that the microbiota may be considered as an environmental factor that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Periodontal disease has been associated with cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and inflammation in the periodontium is suggested...... patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis we performed pyrosequencing of the oral microbiota of 92 individuals including patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis and control individuals without carotid plaques or previous stroke or myocardial infarction. RESULTS......: The overall microbial structure was similar in controls and atherosclerosis patients, but patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis had higher relative abundance of Anaeroglobus (mean 0.040% (SD 0.049)) than the control group (0.010% (SD 0.028)) (P = 0.03). Using linear regression analysis, we found...

  5. Host Selection of Microbiota via Differential Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Kirstie; Schluter, Jonas; Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Smith, Adrian L; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-04-13

    The host epithelium is the critical interface with microbial communities, but the mechanisms by which the host regulates these communities are poorly understood. Here we develop the hypothesis that hosts use differential adhesion to select for and against particular members of their microbiota. We use an established computational, individual-based model to study the impact of host factors that regulate adhesion at the epithelial surface. Our simulations predict that host-mediated adhesion can increase the competitive advantage of microbes and create ecological refugia for slow-growing species. We show how positive selection via adhesion can be transformed into negative selection if the host secretes large quantities of a matrix such as mucus. Our work predicts that adhesion is a powerful mechanism for both positive and negative selection within the microbiota. We discuss molecules-mucus glycans and IgA-that affect microbe adhesion and identify testable predictions of the adhesion-as-selection model. PMID:27053168

  6. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C;

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity...... for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications...

  7. Human gut microbiota: repertoire and variations

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe eLagier; Matthieu eMillion; Perrine eHugon; Fabrice eArmougom; Didier eRaoult

    2012-01-01

    The composition of human gut microbiota and their relationship with the host and, consequently, with human health and disease, presents several challenges to microbiologists. Originally dominated by culture-dependent methods for exploring this ecosystem, the advent of molecular tools has revolutionized our ability to investigate these relationships. However, many biases that have led to contradictory results have been identified. Microbial culturomics, a recent concept based on a use of sever...

  8. Human gut microbiota : repertoire and variations

    OpenAIRE

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Million, Matthieu; Hugon, Perrine; Armougom, Fabrice; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    The composition of human gut microbiota and their relationship with the host and, consequently, with human health and disease, presents several challenges to microbiologists. Originally dominated by culture-dependent methods for exploring this ecosystem, the advent of molecular tools has revolutionized our ability to investigate these relationships. However, many biases that have led to contradictory results have been identified. Microbial culturomics, a recent concept based on a use of sever...

  9. Gut microbiota: its role in hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rahul; Saraswat, Vivek A; Dhiman, Radha K

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia, a key factor in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), is predominantly derived from urea breakdown by urease producing large intestinal bacteria and from small intestine and kidneys, where the enzyme glutaminases releases ammonia from circulating glutamine. Non-culture techniques like pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid are used to characterize fecal microbiota. Fecal microbiota in patients with cirrhosis have been shown to alter with increasing Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and Model for End stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, and with development of covert or overt HE. Cirrhosis dysbiosis ratio (CDR), the ratio of autochthonous/good bacteria (e.g. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Clostridiales) to non-autochthonous/pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae), is significantly higher in controls and patients with compensated cirrhosis than patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Although their stool microbiota do not differ, sigmoid colonic mucosal microbiota in liver cirrhosis patients with and without HE, are different. Linkage of pathogenic colonic mucosal bacteria with poor cognition and inflammation suggests that important processes at the mucosal interface, such as bacterial translocation and immune dysfunction, are involved in the pathogenesis of HE. Fecal microbiome composition does not change significantly when HE is treated with lactulose or when HE recurs after lactulose withdrawal. Despite improving cognition and endotoxemia as well as shifting positive correlation of pathogenic bacteria with metabolites, linked to ammonia, aromatic amino acids and oxidative stress, to a negative correlation, rifaximin changes gut microbiome composition only modestly. These observations suggest that the beneficial effects of lactulose and rifaximin could be associated with a change in microbial metabolic function as well as an improvement in dysbiosis. PMID:26041954

  10. The role of microbiota in hepatic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmohan S. Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), which consists of minimal (MHE) and overt (OHE) stages, is a model for impaired gut-liver-brain axis in cirrhosis. Microbiota changes in both stages have been associated with impaired cognition, endotoxemia, and inflammation. There is dysbiosis (reduced autochthonous taxa [Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiales XIV] and increased Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae) with disease progression. In MHE, there is an increased abundance of Streptococcus...

  11. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease

    OpenAIRE

    Carding, Simon; Verbeke, Kristin; Vipond, Daniel T.; Corfe, Bernard M; Owen, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of both intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Intestinal disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and coeliac disease, while extra-intestinal disorders include allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.In many of these conditions, the mechanisms leading to disease development involves the pivotal mutualistic relationship be...

  12. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans and independently of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the me...

  13. Human gut microbiota: does diet matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maukonen, Johanna; Saarela, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The human oro-gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex system, consisting of oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus, which all together with the accessory digestive organs constitute the digestive system. The function of the digestive system is to break down dietary constituents into small molecules and then absorb these for subsequent distribution throughout the body. Besides digestion and carbohydrate metabolism, the indigenous microbiota has an important influence on host physiological, nutritional and immunological processes, and commensal bacteria are able to modulate the expression of host genes that regulate diverse and fundamental physiological functions. The main external factors that can affect the composition of the microbial community in generally healthy adults include major dietary changes and antibiotic therapy. Changes in some selected bacterial groups have been observed due to controlled changes to the normal diet e.g. high-protein diet, high-fat diet, prebiotics, probiotics and polyphenols. More specifically, changes in the type and quantity of non-digestible carbohydrates in the human diet influence both the metabolic products formed in the lower regions of the GI tract and the bacterial populations detected in faeces. The interactions between dietary factors, gut microbiota and host metabolism are increasingly demonstrated to be important for maintaining homeostasis and health. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarise the effect of diet, and especially dietary interventions, on the human gut microbiota. Furthermore, the most important confounding factors (methodologies used and intrinsic human factors) in relation to gut microbiota analyses are elucidated. PMID:25156389

  14. The gut microbiota and obesity: from correlation to causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping

    2013-09-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked with chronic diseases such as obesity in humans. However, the demonstration of causality between constituents of the microbiota and specific diseases remains an important challenge in the field. In this Opinion article, using Koch's postulates as a conceptual framework, I explore the chain of causation from alterations in the gut microbiota, particularly of the endotoxin-producing members, to the development of obesity in both rodents and humans. I then propose a strategy for identifying the causative agents of obesity in the human microbiota through a combination of microbiome-wide association studies, mechanistic analysis of host responses and the reproduction of diseases in gnotobiotic animals.

  15. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  16. Evaluation of the asphaltenes macromolecules stabilization by alkylbenzenes compounds; Avaliacao da estabilizacao de macromoleculas asfaltenicas por compostos alquilbenzenicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Mansur, C.R.E.; Lucas, E.F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br; geiza@ima.ufrj.br; Gonzalez, G. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: gaspar@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The asphaltene deposition is a problem that affects oil production, transportation and storage. Some researches about asphaltene stabilization have been made in order to avoid its flocculation and deposition. In this work, the performance of four alkylbenzene compounds as asphaltene stabilizer was evaluated. The additive were tested in two different concentrations: 5000 and 10000 mg/L. Cardanol, polycardanol, polystyrene and polystyrene sulfonade were used as additive. The study was carried out by asphaltene precipitation in a solvent mixture (toluene and heptane), since that the asphaltene solubility in these solvents are different. The best results were obtained by using cardanol, at 5000 mg/L. (author)

  17. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  18. Evaluation of radioiodinetherapy protocol for patients with Plummer disease; Avaliacao do protocolo da radioiodoterapia para pacientes com doenca de Plummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Keyla Mary Cavalheiro; Antonio Filho, Joao; Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: keylamcm@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The disease Plummer (DP) is generated by the thyroid cells that function autonomously, independent the rest of the organ parenchyma. The DP presents a prevalence of 1% to 9%, higher in regions with iodine deficiency, affecting six women for every man. The study was conducted at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) from {sup 99m}Tc data capture and mass existing in the thyroid records of 54 patients with PD who underwent radioiodine therapy with fixed activities 1110 megabecquerels (MBq) from 2004 to 2008. For capitation of {sup 99m}Tc from a group of 22 patients were used 5 ml syringes, measured by a Capintec CRC-7 model activimeter, having scintigraphy after 20 minutes and results in a region of interest. Mass evaluation was based on method of palpation of the thyroid, considering the mass standard. It is observed that 68.2% of patients received more activity than needed, 31.8% were less active, and none received activity in accordance with your needs. There was a statistically significant difference (p <0.05) between the fixed activities and activities computed for all patients, according to Chi-square test for independence with 21 degrees of freedom. The cure rate of a group of 32 patients was 75% after one year of follow-up. It is suggested that the RIT is preceded by an assessment of the maximum percentage of uptake and thyroid mass.

  19. Competencies evaluation of the petroleum industry local suppliers; Avaliacao de competencias dos fornecedores locais da industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzani, Bianca Santos; Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mail: bianca@ige.unicamp.br; furtado@ige.unicamp.br

    2003-07-01

    This article presents a research proposition that focuses on competencies evaluation of the local suppliers of goods and services in the petroleum industry. Because of the new context created by the opening of the petroleum market the suppliers to face a new competition environment, exposed to the foreign suppliers that operate in a higher production scale and have great financial and technological capacities. This justifies the development of the current study because the final diagnosis will help the studied companies in their decision process by the divulgation of their weaknesses and potentialities, which will motivate an improvement in the sector. In this paper, we include technological, organizational and relational competencies. Moreover, some of the main contributions of the literature about these topics are presented, including Lall, Kim, Figueiredo, Furtado, Munier, etc. (author)

  20. Secondary network distribution evaluation system using genetic algorithms; Sistema de avaliacao da rede secundaria de distribuicao utilizando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Alexandre Augusto Angelo de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: alexandre.souza@copel.com; Neves Junior, Flavio; Lopes, Heitor Silverio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: neves@cpgei.cefetpr.br; hslopes@cpgei.cefetpr.br

    2006-10-15

    Abstract: This work aims at evaluating the performance of an evolutionary approach of Pareto's Optimization for a multi objective optimization problem. The purpose of the method is to generate a solution not dominated to determine an appropriate configuration for a circuit of the secondary network. The method considers values of supply voltage evaluated through the simulation of a power flow, as well as cost criteria for the proposed solution. For the determination of the best configuration of the circuit, replacement of cables and changes of the phases of consumers are evaluated, aiming at an improvement of voltage level of the circuit in analysis. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  3. Evaluation of elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais (MG); Avaliacao da composicao elementar de argilas de Campos Gerais (MG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao P.M.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jpmm0697@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous applications given to clays including oil and water adsorbent, ceramic, whitening of beverages, porcelain, waste treatment, organic carrier molecules in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, support for catalysts. In the pharmaceutical industry, the clays are used as excipients, diluents, desiccants, emulsifiers, to mask undesirable flavors, isotonic agent such as charger and delivery of active substances. These characteristics have contributed to the expansion of the search for applications of clay minerals in the cosmetic industry. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais, Minas Gerais, with a view to their applicability in the production of cosmetics. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th,U, Yb and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis and radionuclide activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was verified that the activity concentration of radionuclides was in the same concentration as the global average, indicating that these samples do not present a risk of increased radiation exposure. The concentration of most elements determined is less than or equal to the overall mean concentrations, indicated by the values of Continental Upper Crust. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  5. Evaluation of {sup 7}Be fallout spatial variability; Avaliacao da variabilidade espacial do fallout do {sup 7}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Victor Meriguetti

    2011-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide beryllium-7 (Be) is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic particle reactions and is being used as a tracer for soil erosion and climatic processes research. After the production, {sup 7}Be bonds to aerosol particles in the atmosphere and is deposited on the soil surface with other radionuclide species by rainfall. Because of the high adsorption on soil particles and its short half-life of 53.2 days, this radionuclide follows of the erosion process and can be used as a tracer to evaluate the sediment transport that occurs during a single rain event or short period of rain events. A key assumption for the erosion evaluation through this radiotracer is the uniformity of the spatial distribution of the {sup 7}Be fallout. The {sup 7}Be method was elaborated recently and due to its few applications, some assumptions related to the method were not yet properly investigated yet, and the hypothesis of {sup 7}Be fallout uniformity needs to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 7}Be fallout spatial distribution through the rain water {sup 7}Be activity analysis of the first five millimeters of single rain events. The rain water was sampled using twelve collectors distributed on an experimental area of about 300 m2 , located in the campus of Sao Paulo University, Piracicaba. The {sup 7}Be activities were measured using a 53% efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer from the Radioisotope laboratory of CENA. The {sup 7}Be activities in rain water varied from 0.26 to 1.81 Sq.L{sup -}1, with the highest values in summer and lowest in spring. In each one of the 5 single events, the spatial variability of {sup 7}Se activity in rain water was high, showing the high randomness of the fallout spatial distribution. A simulation using the {sup 7}Be spatial variability values obtained here and {sup 7}Se average reference inventories taken from the literature was performed determining the lowest detectable erosion rate estimated by {sup 7}Be model. The importance of taking a representative number of samples to determine the average reference {sup 7}Se inventory was verified, which is essential to improve the precision of the soil redistribution rate estimates. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the image quality in computed tomography: different phantoms; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem na tomografia computadorizada: diferentes fantomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Vinicius C.; Delduck, Romulo S.; Kodlulovich, Simone [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Larissa C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia. Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory; Mecca, Fernando A. [National Institute of Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Silva, Humberto O. [Copa D' Or Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Rede Labs D' Or

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the simulators provided by the CT manufactures and Catphan's Phantom with the American College of Radiology (ACR) computed tomography phantom. The image evaluation followed the protocols established by the manufactures of the phantoms. For slice thickness evaluation, the maximum percentage difference was 9% between the phantoms ACR and Siemens. In CT number accuracy test, the measurements of CT number of water showed a difference of 10 HU between the CT simulators. Comparing the uniformity results, the discrepancy was 11% and 55% for Siemens and Philips respectively in relation to the result obtained with the ACR phantom. The result of low contrast was the same for all phantoms. The MTF50 and MTF10 obtained with Siemens phantom was 4 and 8 pl/mm. For Catphan, 6 and 7 pl/mm. Results demonstrate that the ACR simulator was the most comprehensive and flexible to be used in several scanner models. Some simulators did not present all image quality indicators to perform a complete test. (author)

  7. Evaluation of biostimulation in clay soil contaminated by petroleum; Avaliacao da bioestimulacao em solos argilosos contaminados com petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Sandro J.; Cammarota, Magali C.; Freire, Denize D.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica. Lab. de Tecnologia Ambiental]. E-mail: baptista@eq.ufrj.br; denize@eq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    Biostimulation has been used as a technic in order to increase the microbial activity adding inorganic nutrients and/or terminal electron acceptor in the contaminated place. The main goal of this work was evaluate how each inorganic nutrient could help the biodegradation at a given petroleum contaminated clay soil. At first, the work was designed to investigate the optimal relation between C:N:P that could influence the best organic matter removal (OMR) in aerobic bioreactors with 50 ml during 30 days. It was noticed that when one worked with 35 mg KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}/100 g soil, without adding nitrogen source, the OMR was 35%. Furthermore, it was noticed that the highest concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus was a limiting factor for microbial degradation and this resulted in the lowest OMR. At second, it was designed in aerobic bioreactor with 500 ml for 45 days and worked with the optimal concentrations of added phosphorus from the last stage. Although the assays have focused that nitrogen was not necessary to add to the soil, it was worked with 2,5 g (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}/100 g soil. The OMR was 46%, Oil and Grease removal was around 38% and TPH removal was around 45%. (author)

  8. Evaluation of welding by MIG in martensitic stainless steel; Avaliacao da soldagem pelo processo MIG em aco inoxidavel martensitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Mariano, N.A.; Marinho, D.H.C. Marinho, E-mail: neideaparecidamariano@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work evaluated structure's characterization and mechanical properties after the welding process of the stainless steel CA6NM. The employed welding process was the metal active gas with tubular wire. The control of the thermal cycle in the welding process has fundamental importance regarding the properties of the welded joint, particularly in the thermally affected zone. The mechanical properties were appraised through impact resistance tests and the hardness and microstructure through metallographic characterization and Ray-X diffraction. The parameters and the process of welding used promoted the hardness and toughness appropriate to the applications of the steel. Welding energy's control becomes an essential factor that can affect the temperature of carbide precipitation and the nucleation of the retained austenite in the in the region of the in the thermally affected zone. (author)

  9. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em residencia construida com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo

    2008-07-01

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb e {sup 40}K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. The results of {sup 40}K were lower than 81 Bq kg{sup -1}. The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y{sup -1} for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy{sup -1} for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy{sup -1} for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy{sup -1}, an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  10. Evaluation of measurement methods for diffuse solar radiation; Avaliacao de metodos de medicao da radiacao solar difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Escobedo, Joao Francisco; Almeida Frisina, Valeria de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais

    1998-07-01

    The evaluation results from measuring methods of the diffuse solar radiation, disc and shadow ring are described compared to the method by difference between the global radiation and the direct radiation projected in a horizontal plane. The disc method is dependent on the diffuse radiation anisotropy, with an average relative deviation around 7.1% with percentages according to the sky cover; 11.56% for open sky days; 4.8% for partly cloudy days and 2.43% for cloudy days. The shadow ring method is also sky cover dependent with an average relative deviation 8.0% ranging from 8.99% for open sky days; 7.70% for partly cloudy and 2.5% for cloudy days. (author)

  11. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans, and independent of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics influence microbiota would facilitate the use of probiotics for both dietary management and reduction in risk of specific diseases. The development of high throughput sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic approaches to study the human microbiome. These efforts are starting to generate an inventory of bacterial taxons and functional features bound to particular health or disease status that allow inferring aspects of the microbiome's function. In the future, this information will allow the rational design of dietary interventions aimed to improve consumer's health via modulation of the microbiota.

  12. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans, and independent of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics influence microbiota would facilitate the use of probiotics for both dietary management and reduction in risk of specific diseases. The development of high throughput sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic approaches to study the human microbiome. These efforts are starting to generate an inventory of bacterial taxons and functional features bound to particular health or disease status that allow inferring aspects of the microbiome's function. In the future, this information will allow the rational design of dietary interventions aimed to improve consumer's health via modulation of the microbiota. PMID:23990820

  13. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species. PMID:27263010

  14. Breast milk, microbiota, and intestinal immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W Allan; Iyengar, Rajashri Shuba

    2015-01-01

    Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full-term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial stimulation. Breast milk stimulates the proliferation of a well-balanced and diverse microbiota, which initially influences a switch from an intrauterine TH2 predominant to a TH1/TH2 balanced response and with activation of T-regulatory cells by breast milk-stimulated specific organisms (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides). As an example of its effect, oligosaccharides in breast milk are fermented by colonic bacteria producing an acid milieu for bacterial proliferation. In addition, short-chain fatty acids in breast milk activate receptors on T-reg cells and bacterial genes, which preferentially mediate intestinal tight junction expression and anti-inflammation. Other components of breast milk (defensins, lactoferrin, etc.) inhibit pathogens and further contribute to microbiota composition. The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes) later in life through a balanced initial immune response, underscoring the necessity of breastfeeding as the first source of nutrition. PMID:25310762

  15. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Collado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans, and independent of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics influence microbiota would facilitate the use of probiotics for both dietary management and reduction in risk of specific diseases. The development of high throughput sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic approaches to study the human microbiome. These efforts are starting to generate an inventory of bacterial taxons and functional features bound to particular health or disease status that allow inferring aspects of the microbiome's function. In the future, this information will allow the rational design of dietary interventions aimed to improve consumer's health via modulation of the microbiota.

  16. Gut microbiota and the development of obesity La microbiota intestinal y el desarrollo de la obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Boroni Moreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. Results and discussion: The gut microbiota is important for normal physiology of the host. However, differences in their composition may have different impacts on host metabolism. It has been shown that obese and lean subjects present different microbiota composition profile. These differences in microbiota composition may contribute to weight imbalance and impaired metabolism. The evidences from animal models suggest that it is possible that the microbiota of obese subjects has higher capacity to harvest energy from the diet providing substrates that can activate lipogenic pathways. In addition, microorganisms can also influence the activity of lipoprotein lipase interfering in the accumulation of triglycerides in the adipose tissue. The interaction of gut microbiota with the endocannabinoid system provides a route through which intestinal permeability can be altered. Increased intestinal permeability allows the entrance of endotoxins to the circulation, which are related to the induction of inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. The impact of the proposed mechanisms for humans still needs further investigations. However, the fact that gut microbiota can be modulated through dietary components highlights the importance to study how fatty acids, carbohydrates, micronutrients, prebiotics, and probiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and the management of obesity. Gut microbiota seems to be an important and promising target in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disturbances in

  17. Manipulating the gut microbiota to maintain health and treat disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Scott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intestinal microbiota composition varies between healthy and diseased individuals for numerous diseases. Although any cause or effect relationship between the alterations in the gut microbiota and disease is not always clear, targeting the intestinal microbiota might offer new possibilities for prevention and/or treatment of disease. Objective: Here we review some examples of manipulating the intestinal microbiota by prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbial transplants. Results: Prebiotics are best known for their ability to increase the number of bifidobacteria. However, specific prebiotics could potentially also stimulate other species they can also stimulate other species associated with health, like Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminococcus bromii, the Roseburia/Enterococcus rectale group, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Probiotics have beneficial health effects for different diseases and digestive symptoms. These effects can be due to the direct effect of the probiotic bacterium or its products itself, as well as effects of the probiotic on the resident microbiota. Probiotics can influence the microbiota composition as well as the activity of the resident microbiota. Fecal microbial transplants are a drastic intervention in the gut microbiota, aiming for total replacement of one microbiota by another. With numerous successful studies related to antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection, the potential of fecal microbial transplants to treat other diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders is under investigation. Conclusions: Improved knowledge on the specific role of gut microbiota in prevention and treatment of disease will help more targeted manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. Further studies are necessary to see the (long term effects for health of these interventions.

  18. Unraveling piglet gut microbiota dynamics in response to feed additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Gutierrez, O.N.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: GI tract, microbiota, pig, PITChip, weaning The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of pigs is colonized by a dense and metabolically active microbiota, comprising mainly bacteria, that have not only a commensal but a symbiotic (beneficial for both) relationship with the host. These bacteria are

  19. Data Mining of Lung Microbiota in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Wang, Jianwei; Qin, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    The major therapeutic strategy used to treat exacerbated cystic fibrosis (CF) is antibiotic treatment. As this approach easily generates antibiotic-resistant strains of opportunistic bacteria, optimized antibiotic therapies are required to effectively control chronic and recurrent bacterial infections in CF patients. A promising future for the proper use of antibiotics is the management of lung microbiota. However, the impact of antibiotic treatments on CF microbiota and vice versa is not fully understood. This study analyzed 718 sputum samples from 18 previous studies to identify differences between CF and uninfected lung microbiota and to evaluate the effects of antibiotic treatments on exacerbated CF microbiota. A reference-based OTU (operational taxonomic unit) picking method was used to combine analyses of data generated using different protocols and platforms. Findings show that CF microbiota had greater richness and lower diversity in the community structure than uninfected control (NIC) microbiota. Specifically, CF microbiota showed higher levels of opportunistic bacteria and dramatically lower levels of commensal bacteria. Antibiotic treatment affected exacerbated CF microbiota notably but only transiently during the treatment period. Limited decrease of the dominant opportunistic bacteria and a dramatic decrease of commensal bacteria were observed during the antibiotic treatment for CF exacerbation. Simultaneously, low abundance opportunistic bacteria were thriving after the antibiotic treatment. The inefficiency of the current antibiotic treatment against major opportunistic bacteria and the detrimental effects on commensal bacteria indicate that the current empiric antibiotic treatment on CF exacerbation should be reevaluated and optimized. PMID:27741283

  20. Effect of diet on the intestinal microbiota and its activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    AB Purpose of review: To summarize and discuss recent findings concerning diet-microbiota-health relations. Recent findings: Mouse and other model animal studies have provided detailed insight into host-microbiota interactions, but cannot be extrapolated easily to humans that have different dietary

  1. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenburg, Justin L; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that obesity and associated metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, are intimately linked to diet. However, the gut microbiota has also become a focus for research at the intersection of diet and metabolic health. Mechanisms that link the gut microbiota with obesity...

  2. Metagenomics of the Mucosal Microbiota of European Eels

    OpenAIRE

    Carda Diéguez, Miguel; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez Valera, Francisco; Amaro González, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    European eels are an economically important and threatened species that are prone to rapid collapse in farm conditions. Using metagenomics, we show that the eel mucosal microbiota has specific features distinguishing it from the surrounding aquatic community. This is a first step in dissecting the resident microbiota of this critical barrier that may have implications for maintenance of healthy eel populations.

  3. Microbiota restoration : natural and supplemented recovery of human microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Gregor; Younes, Jessica A.; Van der Mei, Henny C.; Gloor, Gregory B.; Knight, Rob; Busscher, Henk J.

    2011-01-01

    In a healthy host, a balance exists between members of the microbiota, such that potential pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms can be found in apparent harmony. During infection, this balance can become disturbed, leading to often dramatic changes in the composition of the microbiota. For most b

  4. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, TT; Kirkeby Nielsen, LP; Poulsen, Knud;

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the m...

  5. The Colonization Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Tilapia Larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giatsis, C.; Sipkema, D.; Smidt, H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an e

  6. Rectal swabs for analysis of the intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries E Budding

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies.

  7. Impact of Diet on Human Intestinal Microbiota and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Our intestinal microbiota is involved in the breakdown and bioconversion of dietary and host components that are not degraded and taken up by our own digestive system. The end products generated by our microbiota fuel our enterocytes and support growth but also have signaling functions that generate

  8. Deep sequencing of the vaginal microbiota of women with HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); A.D. Fernandes (Andrew); J.M. Macklaim (Jean); R.J. Dickson (Russell); J. Changalucha (John); G.B. Gloor (Gregory); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Women living with HIV and co-infected with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are at higher risk for transmitting HIV to a partner or newborn. It is poorly understood which bacterial communities constitute BV or the normal vaginal microbiota among this population and how the microbiota

  9. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

  10. Mining microbiota signatures in human intestinal tract metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tims, S.

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is shaped by host genotype, early life imprinting, lifestyle and diet. Moreover, specific dietary components, such as prebiotics and probiotics, can have pronounced effects on the microbiota composition and functioning. The work presented in this thesis focused on studying the hum

  11. Metagenomics and development of the gut microbiota in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallès, Y.; Gosalbes, M. J.; de Vries, Lisbeth Elvira;

    2012-01-01

    , the gastrointestinal tract microbiota is often exposed to antibiotics, and may be an important reservoir of resistant strains and of transferable resistance genes from early infancy. We are investigating by means of diverse metagenomic approaches several areas of microbiota development in infants, including...

  12. Microbiota, Disease, and Back to Health: A Metastable Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Richard; Powrie, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the commensal microbiota have been observed in many complex diseases. Understanding the basis for these changes, how they relate to disease risk or activity, and the mechanisms by which the symbiotic state of colonization resistance and host homeostasis is restored is critical for future therapies aimed at manipulating the microbiota. PMID:22674557

  13. Community and genomic analysis of the human small intestine microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.

    2013-01-01

      Our intestinal tract is densely populated by different microbes, collectively called microbiota, of which the majority are bacteria. Research focusing on the intestinal microbiota often use fecal samples as a representative of the bacteria that inhabit the end of the large intestine. These s

  14. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Allen, Katrina J; Vuillermin, Peter; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models. In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention.

  15. Interactions between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumler, Andreas J; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2016-07-01

    The microbiome has an important role in human health. Changes in the microbiota can confer resistance to or promote infection by pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotics have a profound impact on the microbiota that alters the nutritional landscape of the gut and can lead to the expansion of pathogenic populations. Pathogenic bacteria exploit microbiota-derived sources of carbon and nitrogen as nutrients and regulatory signals to promote their own growth and virulence. By eliciting inflammation, these bacteria alter the intestinal environment and use unique systems for respiration and metal acquisition to drive their expansion. Unravelling the interactions between the microbiota, the host and pathogenic bacteria will produce strategies for manipulating the microbiota against infectious diseases. PMID:27383983

  16. Immune-microbiota interactions in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in host physiology and pathophysiology in health and disease. One of the major mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influences the host is through its interactions with and effects on the host immune system. In this review, we discuss the reciprocal interactions between the host immune system and the gut microbiota, with a particular focus on individual microbes that impact the host through dramatic and specific interactions with the adaptive immune system. We highlight the idea that the presence or absence of specific immunologically important members of the microbiota can determine disease susceptibility and propose that the identification and characterization of these bacteria in humans will eventually allow us to elucidate the role of microbiota composition in human disease. PMID:26141651

  17. Microbiota-induced obesity requires farnesoid X receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parséus, Ava; Sommer, Nina; Sommer, Felix;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota has been implicated as an environmental factor that modulates obesity, and recent evidence suggests that microbiota-mediated changes in bile acid profiles and signalling through the bile acid nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) contribute to impaired host...... metabolism. Here we investigated if the gut microbiota modulates obesity and associated phenotypes through FXR. DESIGN: We fed germ-free (GF) and conventionally raised (CONV-R) wild-type and Fxr-/- mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. We monitored weight gain and glucose metabolism and analysed the gut...... steatosis and expression of genes involved in lipid uptake. By transferring the caecal microbiota from HFD-fed Fxr-/- and wild-type mice into GF mice, we showed that the obesity phenotype was transferable. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the gut microbiota promotes diet-induced obesity and associated...

  18. Gut Microbiotas and Host Evolution: Scaling Up Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding of species evolution is undergoing restructuring. It is well accepted that host-symbiont coevolution is responsible for fundamental aspects of biology. However, the emerging importance of plant- and animal-associated microbiotas to their hosts suggests a scale of coevolutionary interactions many-fold greater than previously considered. This review builds on current understanding of symbionts and their contributions to host evolution to evaluate recent data demonstrating similar contributions of gut microbiotas. It further considers a multilayered model for microbiota to account for emerging themes in host-microbiota interactions. Drawing on the structure of bacterial genomes, this model distinguishes between a host-adapted core microbiota, and a flexible, environmentally modulated microbial pool, differing in constraints on their maintenance and in their contributions to host adaptation. PMID:27039196

  19. The subgingival periodontal microbiota of the aging mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, Magda; Teles, Flavia; Teles, Ricardo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Faveri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the increase in prevalence and severity of periodontitis in older adults, including shifts in the periodontal microbiota. However, the actual impact of aging on the composition of subgingival biofilms remains unclear. In the present article, we provide an overview of the composition of the subgingival biofilm in older adults and the potential effects of age on the oral microbiome. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (i) the oral microbiota of an aging mouth; (ii) the effects of age and time on the human oral microbiome; (iii) the potential impact of inflammaging and immunosenescence in the host-oral microbiota interactions; and (iv) the relationship of the aging oral microbiota and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we present analyses of data compiled from large clinical studies that evaluated the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy subjects and patients with periodontitis from a wide age spectrum (20-83 years of age). PMID:27501490

  20. Interactions between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumler, Andreas J; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2016-07-06

    The microbiome has an important role in human health. Changes in the microbiota can confer resistance to or promote infection by pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotics have a profound impact on the microbiota that alters the nutritional landscape of the gut and can lead to the expansion of pathogenic populations. Pathogenic bacteria exploit microbiota-derived sources of carbon and nitrogen as nutrients and regulatory signals to promote their own growth and virulence. By eliciting inflammation, these bacteria alter the intestinal environment and use unique systems for respiration and metal acquisition to drive their expansion. Unravelling the interactions between the microbiota, the host and pathogenic bacteria will produce strategies for manipulating the microbiota against infectious diseases.

  1. Cultivating healthy growth and nutrition through the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sathish; Blanton, Laura V; Frese, Steven A; Charbonneau, Mark; Mills, David A; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2015-03-26

    Microbiota assembly is perturbed in children with undernutrition, resulting in persistent microbiota immaturity that is not rescued by current nutritional interventions. Evidence is accumulating that this immaturity is causally related to the pathogenesis of undernutrition and its lingering sequelae. Preclinical models in which human gut communities are replicated in gnotobiotic mice have provided an opportunity to identify and predict the effects of different dietary ingredients on microbiota structure, expressed functions, and host biology. This capacity sets the stage for proof-of-concept tests designed to deliberately shape the developmental trajectory and configurations of microbiota in children representing different geographies, cultural traditions, and states of health. Developing these capabilities for microbial stewardship is timely given the global health burden of childhood undernutrition, the effects of changing eating practices brought about by globalization, and the realization that affordable nutritious foods need to be developed to enhance our capacity to cultivate healthier microbiota in populations at risk for poor nutrition. PMID:25815983

  2. Effect of diet on the human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain

    The gut microbiota plays an important role for humans in both health and disease. It is therefore important to understand how and to what extent choice of diet may influence the microbial community and the effects this has on the host. The variation in the normal human gut microbiota may however...... impede the discovery of correlations between dietary changes and compositional shifts in the microbiota by masking such effects. Although specific functional food ingredients, such as prebiotics, are known to have measurable effects on e.g. abundance of bifidobacteria, it is nevertheless clear...... that induced shifts in gut microbiota show large inter-individual variations. It thus seems plausible that knowing the microbiota composition could facilitate predictions as to how the community will react to dietary interventions thus moving towards some degree of personalised dietary recommendations. During...

  3. Repertoire of intensive care unit pneumonia microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Bousbia

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs. During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls. Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥ 98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77 ± 2.93. Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented.

  4. Gut Microbiota and Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarala, Outi

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system has a key role in the development of autoimmune diabetes, and factors that control the gut immune system are also regulators of beta-cell autoimmunity. Gut microbiota modulate the function of the gut immune system by their effect on the innate immune system, such as the intestinal epithelial cells and dendritic cells, and on the adaptive immune system, in particular intestinal T cells. Due to the immunological link between gut and pancreas, e.g. the shared lymphocyte hom...

  5. Cultivable oral microbiota of domestic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D. R.; Wilson, M.; Buckley, C. M. F.; Spratt, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaques of nine dogs and a sample of pooled saliva from five other dogs and were then identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among 339 isolates, 84 different phylotypes belonging to 37 genera were identified. Approximately half of the phylotypes were identified to the species level, and 28% of these were considered members of the indigenous oral microbiota of humans. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the remaining 44 phylotypes were not represe...

  6. Molecular Tools for Investigating the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Christophe

    The “microbial world within us” (Zoetendal et al., 2006) is populated by a complex society of indigenous microorganisms that feature different “ethnic” populations. Those microbial cells thriving within us are estimated to outnumber human body cells by a factor of ten to one. Insights into the relation between the intestinal microbial community and its host have been gained through gnotobiology. Indeed, the influence of the gut microbiota upon human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition has been inferred by comparing gnotoxenic and axenic murine models (Hooper et al., 1998, 2002, 2003; Hooper and Gordon, 2001).

  7. The commensal microbiota drives immune homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire eArrieta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For millions of years, microbes have coexisted with eukaryotic cells at the mucosal surfaces of vertebrates in a complex, yet usually harmonious symbiosis. An ever-expanding number of reports describe how eliminating or shifting the intestinal microbiota has profound effects on the development and functionality of the mucosal and systemic immune systems. Here, we examine some of the mechanisms by which bacterial signals affect immune homeostasis. Focusing on the strategies that microbes use to keep our immune system healthy, as opposed to trying to correct the immune imbalances caused by dysbiosis, may prove to be a more astute and efficient way of treating immune-mediated disease.

  8. The gut microbiota and host health

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesi, Julian R.; David H Adams; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D A; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed N.; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Thomas, Linda V.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Hart, Ailsa

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new 'omic' technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial community, revealing it to be comparable in influence to a new organ in the body and offering the possibility of a new route for therapeutic intervention. Moreover, it might be more accurate to think ...

  9. Manipulation of the Gut Microbiota Reveals Role in Colon Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackular, Joseph P.; Baxter, Nielson T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is growing evidence that individuals with colonic adenomas and carcinomas harbor a distinct microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbiota may allow the outgrowth of bacterial populations that induce genomic mutations or exacerbate tumor-promoting inflammation. In addition, it is likely that the loss of key bacterial populations may result in the loss of protective functions that are normally provided by the microbiota. We explored the role of the gut microbiota in colon tumorigenesis by using an inflammation-based murine model. We observed that perturbing the microbiota with different combinations of antibiotics reduced the number of tumors at the end of the model. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we successfully modeled the number of tumors that developed over the course of the model on the basis of the initial composition of the microbiota. The timing of antibiotic treatment was an important determinant of tumor outcome, as colon tumorigenesis was arrested by the use of antibiotics during the early inflammation period of the murine model. Together, these results indicate that it is possible to predict colon tumorigenesis on the basis of the composition of the microbiota and that altering the gut microbiota can alter the course of tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE Mounting evidence indicates that alterations to the gut microbiota, the complex community of bacteria that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract, are strongly associated with the development of colorectal cancer. We used antibiotic perturbations to a murine model of inflammation-driven colon cancer to generate eight starting communities that resulted in various severities of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we were able to quantitatively predict the final number of tumors on the basis of the initial composition of the gut microbiota. These results further bolster the evidence that the gut microbiota is involved in mediating the development of colorectal cancer. As a final proof of

  10. MICROBIOTA CÉRVICO-VAGINAL DURANTE O FINAL DE GESTAÇÃO E PUERPÉRIO EM VACAS GIROLANDO

    OpenAIRE

    Benedito Dias de Oliveira Filho; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Maria Lúcia Gambarini; Alexandro Aluísio Rocha; Frederico Araújo Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar as alterações presentes na microbiota cérvico-vaginal durante o final da gestação e o puerpério em vacas da raça Girolando. Para isso, no período compreendido entre27 dias antes do parto e 58 dias após, foram realizados 117 cultivos bacteriológicos, oriundos de material colhido da região cérvico-vaginal a intervalos de 14 dias, com exceção do período compreendido entre o dia zero (parto) e o dia 2. Foram obtidos 101 isolamentos, constat...

  11. How to Manipulate the Microbiota: Prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J; Michel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, human nutrition has evolved from the definition of our nutritional needs and the identification of ways to meet them, to the identification of food components that can optimise our physiological and psychological functions. This development, which aims to ensure the welfare, health and reduced susceptibility to disease during life, gave birth to the concept of "functional foods". In this context, there is an increasing interest in the physiological effects induced by the dense and diverse microbiota which inhabits the human colon and whose development depends on the fermentation of undigested food residues. Thus, much research aims at identifying ways to guide these impacts in order to benefit the health of the host. It is in this context that the concept of "prebiotics" was developed in the 1990s. Since then, prebiotics have stimulated extensive work in order to clarify their definition, their nature and their physiological properties in accordance with the evolution of knowledge on the intestinal microbiota. However many questions remain open about their specificities, their mechanism(s) of action and therefore the relevance of their current categorisation. PMID:27161355

  12. The Intestinal Microbiota in Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Woting

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut bacteria exert beneficial and harmful effects in metabolic diseases as deduced from the comparison of germfree and conventional mice and from fecal transplantation studies. Compositional microbial changes in diseased subjects have been linked to adiposity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Promotion of an increased expression of intestinal nutrient transporters or a modified lipid and bile acid metabolism by the intestinal microbiota could result in an increased nutrient absorption by the host. The degradation of dietary fiber and the subsequent fermentation of monosaccharides to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA is one of the most controversially discussed mechanisms of how gut bacteria impact host physiology. Fibers reduce the energy density of the diet, and the resulting SCFA promote intestinal gluconeogenesis, incretin formation and subsequently satiety. However, SCFA also deliver energy to the host and support liponeogenesis. Thus far, there is little knowledge on bacterial species that promote or prevent metabolic disease. Clostridium ramosum and Enterococcus cloacae were demonstrated to promote obesity in gnotobiotic mouse models, whereas bifidobacteria and Akkermansia muciniphila were associated with favorable phenotypes in conventional mice, especially when oligofructose was fed. How diet modulates the gut microbiota towards a beneficial or harmful composition needs further research. Gnotobiotic animals are a valuable tool to elucidate mechanisms underlying diet–host–microbe interactions.

  13. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  14. Predictive modeling of gingivitis severity and susceptibility via oral microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi; Li, Rui; Zeng, Xiaowei; He, Tao; Zhao, Helen; Chang, Alice; Bo, Cunpei; Chen, Jie; Yang, Fang; Knight, Rob; Liu, Jiquan; Davis, Catherine; Xu, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Predictive modeling of human disease based on the microbiota holds great potential yet remains challenging. Here, 50 adults underwent controlled transitions from naturally occurring gingivitis, to healthy gingivae (baseline), and to experimental gingivitis (EG). In diseased plaque microbiota, 27 bacterial genera changed in relative abundance and functional genes including 33 flagellar biosynthesis-related groups were enriched. Plaque microbiota structure exhibited a continuous gradient along the first principal component, reflecting transition from healthy to diseased states, which correlated with Mazza Gingival Index. We identified two host types with distinct gingivitis sensitivity. Our proposed microbial indices of gingivitis classified host types with 74% reliability, and, when tested on another 41-member cohort, distinguished healthy from diseased individuals with 95% accuracy. Furthermore, the state of the microbiota in naturally occurring gingivitis predicted the microbiota state and severity of subsequent EG (but not the state of the microbiota during the healthy baseline period). Because the effect of disease is greater than interpersonal variation in plaque, in contrast to the gut, plaque microbiota may provide advantages in predictive modeling of oral diseases.

  15. Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjie; Qi, Yane; Yang, Xuefei; Zhao, Lihui; Wen, Shu; Liu, Yinhui; Tang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is difficult to treat PCOS because of its complex etiology and pathogenesis. Here, we characterized the roles of gut microbiota on the pathogenesis and treatments in letrozole (a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor) induced PCOS rat model. Changes in estrous cycles, hormonal levels, ovarian morphology and gut microbiota by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR were determined. The results showed that PCOS rats displayed abnormal estrous cycles with increasing androgen biosynthesis and exhibited multiple large cysts with diminished granulosa layers in ovarian tissues. Meanwhile, the composition of gut microbiota in letrozole-treated rats was different from that in the controls. Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus and Clostridium were lower while Prevotella was higher in PCOS rats when compared with control rats. After treating PCOS rats with Lactobacillus and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy rats, it was found that the estrous cycles were improved in all 8 rats in FMT group, and in 6 of the 8 rats in Lactobacillus transplantation group with decreasing androgen biosynthesis. Their ovarian morphologies normalized. The composition of gut microbiota restored in both FMT and Lactobacillus treated groups with increasing of Lactobacillus and Clostridium, and decreasing of Prevotella. These results indicated that dysbiosis of gut microbiota was associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. Microbiota interventions through FMT and Lactobacillus transplantation were beneficial for the treatments of PCOS rats. PMID:27093642

  16. Metabolic Interaction of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Jong Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a barrier, gut commensal microbiota can protect against potential pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Crosstalk between gut microbes and immune cells promotes human intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of many human metabolic disorders like obesity, hepatic steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Certain microbes, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, are lower in T2D patients. The transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear. H. pylori in the human stomach cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancers. H. pylori infection also induces insulin resistance and has been defined as a predisposing factor to T2D development. Gastric and fecal microbiota may have been changed in H. pylori-infected persons and mice to promote gastric inflammation and specific diseases. However, the interaction of H. pylori and gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism also remains unknown. Further studies aim to identify the H. pylori-microbiota-host metabolism axis and to test if H. pylori eradication or modification of gut microbiota can improve the control of human metabolic disorders.

  17. The role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Aafke W F; Kersten, Sander

    2015-08-01

    The global prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities has increased considerably over the past decades. In addition to an increase in food consumption and a reduction in physical activity, growing evidence implicates the microorganisms in our gastrointestinal tract, referred to as the gut microbiota, in obesity and related metabolic disturbances. The composition of the gut microbiota can fluctuate markedly within an individual and between individuals. Changes in gut microbial composition may be unfavorable and predispose an individual to disease. Studies in mice that are germ free, mice that are cohoused, and mice that are treated with antibiotics have provided some evidence that changes in gut microbiota may causally contribute to metabolic disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed and explored that may mediate the effects of the gut microbiota on metabolic disorders. In this review, we carefully analyze the literature on the connection between the gut microbiota and metabolic health, with a focus on studies demonstrating a causal relation and clarifying potential underlying mechanisms. Despite a growing appreciation for a role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health, more experimental evidence is needed to substantiate a cause-and-effect relationship. If a clear causal relationship between the gut microbiota and metabolic health can be established, dietary interventions can be targeted toward improving gut microbial composition in the prevention and perhaps even the treatment of metabolic diseases.

  18. Metabolic Interaction of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jong; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2016-01-01

    As a barrier, gut commensal microbiota can protect against potential pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Crosstalk between gut microbes and immune cells promotes human intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of many human metabolic disorders like obesity, hepatic steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Certain microbes, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, are lower in T2D patients. The transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear. H. pylori in the human stomach cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancers. H. pylori infection also induces insulin resistance and has been defined as a predisposing factor to T2D development. Gastric and fecal microbiota may have been changed in H. pylori-infected persons and mice to promote gastric inflammation and specific diseases. However, the interaction of H. pylori and gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism also remains unknown. Further studies aim to identify the H. pylori-microbiota-host metabolism axis and to test if H. pylori eradication or modification of gut microbiota can improve the control of human metabolic disorders.

  19. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Emotion Regulation, and Gut Microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukudo, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is defined as a representative functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain and/or abdominal discomfort associated with abnormal bowel movement. Gut microbiota are related to the pathophysiology of IBS. In the field of IBS, post-infectious etiology, stress-induced alteration of microbiota, increased mucosal permeability, bacterial overgrowth, disease-specific microbiota, microbial products, and brain-gut interactions are being investigated. In some individuals, IBS develops after recovery from acute gastroenteritis known as post-infectious IBS. Gut microbiota in IBS patients differ from those in healthy individuals, and the profiles of gut microbiota in IBS patients also vary among IBS patients with constipation, diarrhea, and mixed subtypes. In Japan, gut microbiota in IBS patients also differ from those observed in healthy individuals, and organic acid by-products observed in the patients correlated with symptoms, quality of life, and alexithymia. Further research on gut microbiota in IBS patients is warranted. PMID:27279158

  20. Diet, microbiota, and dysbiosis: a 'recipe' for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipperla, Kishore; O'Keefe, Stephen J

    2016-04-20

    The food we consume feeds not only us, but also a vast and diverse community of microbiota within our gastrointestinal tract. In a process of symbiotic co-evolution, the gut microbiota became essential for the maintenance of the health and integrity of our colon. The advent of next-generation DNA sequencing technology and metabolic profiling have, in the recent years, revealed the remarkable complexity of microbial diversity and function, and that the microbiota produce a wide variety of bioactive products that are not only active at the mucosal surface, but also absorbed and circulated throughout the body, influencing distant organ health and function. As a result, several microbiota compositional patterns and their associations with both health and disease states have been identified. Importantly, a disturbed microbiota-host relationship, termed dysbiosis, is now recognized to be the root cause for a growing list of diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). There is mounting in vitro and in vivo evidence to suggest that diet selects for the microbiota composition and several health promoting and deleterious effects of diet are, in fact, mediated by the microbiota. Recent findings of the feasibility of dietary fiber to boost the colonic microbial synthesis of anti-proliferative and counter carcinogenic metabolites, particularly butyrate, underscores the prerequisite of dietary modification as a key measure to curb the pandemic of CRC in westernized countries. Better understanding of the diet-microbiota interplay and large-scale studies to evaluate the efficacy of dietary modification and gut microbiota modulation in reversing dysbiosis and restoring health could offer novel preventative and/or therapeutic strategies against westernized diseases, which are now considered the chief threat to public health. PMID:26840037

  1. Microbiota cérvico-vaginal de ovelhas mestiças e sua susceptibilidade aos antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice F. Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A criação de ovinos tem se desenvolvido nas últimas décadas, entretanto ainda são escassas informações sobre a composição e potencial patogênico da microbiota cérvico-vaginal de ovelhas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer os microrganismos constituintes da microbiota cérvico-vaginal de ovelhas, bem como sua susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Foram realizadas coletas em 60 animais sadios, pertencentes a rebanhos de Petrolina e região. Foi realizado o isolamento bacteriano em ágar sangue e ágar MacConkey, sendo os microrganismos identificados de acordo com características morfológicas, tintoriais e bioquímicas. As amostras foram submetidas ao teste de difusão em disco para determinar o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos: sulfametazina, enrofloxacina, doxiciclina, tetraciclina, penicilina, amoxicilina, cefalotina e lincomicina. Foram obtidos 94 isolados, sendo constatada uma maior frequência de Staphylococcus spp. (32,97%, Escherichia coli e Micrococcus spp., sendo observado ainda, isolados de Acinetobacter spp., Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. e Streptococcus spp. Os isolados apresentaram alta sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados sendo observado o menor percentual de sensibilidade para lincomicina. A presença de microrganismos oportunistas de potencial patogênico, na microbiota, como Staphylococcus spp e Escherichia coli, remete a uma análise criteriosa em relação ao diagnóstico de infecções genitais. Os isolados bacterianos obtidos neste estudo são sensíveis à maioria dos grupos de drogas antimicrobianas testadas, demonstrando o potencial de utilização desses princípios ativos, além da disponibilidade de escolha, visto a ausência de multirresistência.

  2. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Justin L; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that obesity and associated metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, are intimately linked to diet. However, the gut microbiota has also become a focus for research at the intersection of diet and metabolic health. Mechanisms that link the gut microbiota with obesity are coming to light through a powerful combination of translation-focused animal models and studies in humans. A body of knowledge is accumulating that points to the gut microbiota as a mediator of dietary impact on the host metabolic status. Efforts are focusing on the establishment of causal relationships in people and the prospect of therapeutic interventions such as personalized nutrition. PMID:27383980

  3. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Justin L; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-07-06

    It is widely accepted that obesity and associated metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, are intimately linked to diet. However, the gut microbiota has also become a focus for research at the intersection of diet and metabolic health. Mechanisms that link the gut microbiota with obesity are coming to light through a powerful combination of translation-focused animal models and studies in humans. A body of knowledge is accumulating that points to the gut microbiota as a mediator of dietary impact on the host metabolic status. Efforts are focusing on the establishment of causal relationships in people and the prospect of therapeutic interventions such as personalized nutrition.

  4. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...... and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  5. The Gut Microbiota in Host Metabolism and Pathogen Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak

    in relation to pathogen challenges and host metabolism. Paper I: Parasitic worms (helminth) including Trichuris (whipworms) have evolved to live, sideby- side with the gut microbiota, inside the gastrointestinal tract of its mammalian host. With ~500 million Trichuris trichiura infected people worldwide......, knowledge about the consequences of such pathogenic infections are valuable. We investigated which effects Trichuris muris infection has on the gut microbiota composition and immune response in mice. Chronic infection with T. muris resulted in major changes in the gut microbiota composition in parallel...

  6. Microbiota intestinal en la salud y en la enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Arce, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    La microbiota intestinal, formada por más de 100 billones de organismos, es el ecosistema más complejo y densamente poblado que coloniza el cuerpo humano. El conocimiento sobre el papel de la microbiota y su relación de beneficio mutuo con el huésped ha aumentado notablemente gracias al reciente desarrollo de las tecnologías de secuenciación del ADN de nueva generación y la metagenómica. La colonización del intestino comienza en el nacimiento y la microbiota está expuesta a constantes modific...

  7. Principles of DNA-Based Gut Microbiota Assessment and Therapeutic Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Pecere, Silvia; Ianiro, Gianluca; Masucci, Luca; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a process by which the normal gastrointestinal microbiota is restored, has demonstrated extraordinary cure rates for Clostridium difficile infection and low recurrence. The community of microorganisms within the human gut (or microbiota) is critical to health status and functions; therefore, together with the rise of FMT, the gastrointestinal microbiota has emerged as a 'virtual' organ with a level of complexity comparable to that of any other organ system and capable to compete with powerful known antibiotics for the treatment of several disorders. Although treatment protocols, donor selection, stool preparation and delivery methods varied widely, with a few reports following an identical protocol, FMT has diffused to other areas where the alterations of the gut microbiota ecology (or dysbiosis) have been theorized to play a causative role, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), among several other extra-intestinal disorders (i.e. metabolic syndrome and obesity, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular diseases). FMT can be relatively simple to perform, but a number of challenges need to be overcome before this procedure is widely accepted in clinical practice, and currently, there is no consensus between the various gastrointestinal organizations and societies regarding the FMT procedure. In this article, we describe the modern high-throughput sequencing techniques to characterize the composition of gut microbiota and the potential for therapeutics by manipulating microbiota with FMT in several gastrointestinal disorders (C. difficile-associated diarrhea, IBD and IBS), with a look on the potential future directions of FMT.

  8. Microbiota Dynamics in Patients Treated with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yang; Garg, Shashank; Girotra, Mohit; Maddox, Cynthia; von Rosenvinge, Erik C.; Dutta, Anand; Dutta, Sudhir; Fricke, W. Florian

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis and is responsible for a large and increasing fraction of hospital-acquired infections. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an alternate treatment option for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI) refractory to antibiotic therapy. It has recently been discussed favorably in the clinical and scientific communities and is receiving increasing public attention. However, short- and long-term health co...

  9. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography; Desenvolvimento de objetos de teste para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM format, the software {sup O}BJ{sub I}QJeduced{sup ,} version 3.0, was used. It was developed by the team of Prof.. Dr. Nicholas Marshall at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. The results were very promising, leaving opened the possibility of future work as the optimization of the correction factors and uncertainties for the dosimeters as well as the applicability of the test objects in evaluating the image quality of digital systems across the country. (author)

  10. Use of different simulators to quality evaluation of image quality in digital mammography; Utilizacao de diferentes simuladores na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Leslie S.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: leslie@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Luis A.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com, E-mail: cea71@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the digital images were acquired with different exposure simulators to evaluate the quality of the image, noting the tumor mass detection, microcalcification fiber and representing regions of interest during mammography. The technical parameters of exposure depends on the thickness and composition of the breast, thus affecting the dose and image quality. The simulators were used: ACR, SBP 1054, BREAST PHANTOM CIRS and for evaluation of image quality, as well as measures kerma incident on the entrance surface (Ki) and calculating the mean glandular dose (MGD)

  11. Evaluation of mechanical conditions of turbomachineries for spectral signature of vibration and neural networks; Avaliacao da condicao mecanica de turbomaquinas pela assinatura espectral da vibracao e redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adejoro, Samuel T.; Lopes, Tiago A.P.; Rebello, Joao M.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia]. E-mail: samuel@peno.coppe.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    The condition monitoring of machinery generally considers the vibration signature as the main parameter to be measured and is one of the bases of predictive maintenance . The mechanical condition/integrity evaluation can be performed by comparing the measured spectrum to a reference spectrum and is based on the premise that usually exist spectral characteristics that identifies the fault. Nine typical faults are considered and the automation of the capability to interpret the vibration data is a field for the application of artificial neural networks. This article presents a comparative study for three types of neural networks: MLP, fuzzy-MLP and SOM for turbomachinery mechanical faults classification. The mean standards for the faults were obtained from available literature and random changes were introduced in order to establish the training data for the neural networks. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail: rcruz@uea.edu.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  13. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images; Avaliacao da atenuacao da radiacao X por meio de imagens radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon S.C., E-mail: ramon@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.co [Faculdade de Tecnologia Camoes (FATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gabriel Pinto de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  14. Density evaluation by computerized tomography in plain soils over different manipulation systems; Avaliacao da densidade pelo metodo da tomografia computadorizada de um planossolo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, Alceu [Lavras Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia do Solo; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Instrumentacao Agropecuaria (CNPDIA)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this paper is the evaluation of a plain soil density in different culture systems determined by X ray computerized tomography.It was observed a larger variation in densities in soils profiles analysed. The identification of layers is better utilising computerized tomography than others technic 1 fig.

  15. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser; Avaliacao da alteracao morfologica da superficie cimentaria irradiada com laser de diodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of the increase of temperature during radiation, and probably followed by a new scraping and root polishing with conventional instruments in an attempt to obtain a smoother and more homogeneous root surface. (author)

  17. Quality evaluation of Argentina onion irradiated, transported and stored; Avaliacao da qualidade da cebola argentina irradiada, transportada e armazenada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J.M.M.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Blumer, L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1995-12-31

    Onion bulbs of the Valenciana Sintetica 14 variety from Argentina were irradiated with a dose of 60 Gy gamma rays at 30-40 days after harvest. Treated and control lots (40 bags of 20 Kg each) were send by road to Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, and stored up to 180 days in a warehouse at 20-28{sup 0} C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 100%. Monthly quality control was done by physical and sensorial analysis. Radiation treatment reduced the weight loss of the bulbs and increased the percentage of marketable bulbs without affecting its sensorial properties. (author). 4 refs, 8 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of gels obtained from acetylation of chitosan in heterogeneous medium; Avaliacao de geis obtidos a partir da acetilacao da quitosana em meio heterogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosangela Balaban; Silva, Dayse Luzia Pinheiro da; Costa, Marta [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: balaban@digi.com.br; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Quimica, Tecnologia Farmaceutica e de Alimentos; Ruiz, Naira Machado da Silva [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Chitosan was acetylated during 2, 5 and 10 h and physical gels were obtained at different polymer concentrations in N,N-dimethylacetamide containing 5% of LiCl. Acetylation was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR, and degrees of acetylation in the range of 0.82-0.91 were determined by NMR. The O-acetylation degree (0.12-0.15) was exclusively determined by a volumetric method. Rheological studies showed that the storage modulus values were smaller for the more acetylated samples and increased with the temperature and the polymer concentration. All the gels presented storage modulus superior to loss modulus, evidencing more elastic than viscous characteristics. The results obtained in this work suggest a gelation process based on a balance between O and N-acetylation and intermolecular bonds. (author)

  19. Evaluation of imaging methods in the diagnosis of urolithiasis: review of the literature; Avaliacao dos metodos de imagem no diagnostico da urolitiase: revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa de; Silva, Luciana Costa; Santos, Jovita Lane Soares; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: rmcfreitas@ig.com.br

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare helical computed tomography with imaging studies currently used to evaluate patients with acute low back pain. In addition, we briefly review the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. The literature published in the last 30 years was reviewed, and the following methods were discussed: plain abdominal radiographs, intravenous pyelography, ultrasound of the urinary tract, and helical computed tomography. Helical computed tomography showed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting urolithiasis, virtually showing all stones, except in patients receiving indinavir. The accuracy of plain abdominal radiographs associated with ultrasound was similar to helical computed tomography, although the latter showed superiority as an isolated method. Data from literature suggest that whenever helical computed tomography is available, it is helpful in the evaluation of low back pain and also allows differential diagnosis between conditions that mimic the symptoms of urolithiasis.(author)

  20. Radiographic evaluation of adenoidal size in children: methods of measurement and parameters of normality; Avaliacao radiografica da adenoide em criancas: metodos de mensuracao e parametros da normalidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires de [Centro de Assistencia Integral a Saude da Mulher (CAISM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com; Queiroz, Suelio Marinho de [Tomovale, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Baracat, Emilio Carlos Elias [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Pediatria; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia

    2004-12-01

    Radiograph of the nasopharynx is still the most commonly used imaging method to investigate the adenoidal tissue. Due to the variety and complexity of proposed methods to measure the adenoid size, some radiologists prefer subjective evaluation, which can, however, be imprecise and inaccurate. We review and describe several methods to determine the adenoid size, taking into account the practicity, accuracy and precision with the aim of pointing out the best methods to be applied in daily routine practice. (author)

  1. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and Eldorado. (author)

  2. Ganoderma lucidum reduces obesity in mice by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Lu, Chia-Chen; Martel, Jan; Ko, Yun-Fei; Ojcius, David M; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Wu, Tsung-Ru; Chen, Yi-Yuan Margaret; Young, John D; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2015-06-23

    Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine with putative anti-diabetic effects. Here, we show that a water extract of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium (WEGL) reduces body weight, inflammation and insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Our data indicate that WEGL not only reverses HFD-induced gut dysbiosis-as indicated by the decreased Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratios and endotoxin-bearing Proteobacteria levels-but also maintains intestinal barrier integrity and reduces metabolic endotoxemia. The anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects are transmissible via horizontal faeces transfer from WEGL-treated mice to HFD-fed mice. We further show that high molecular weight polysaccharides (>300 kDa) isolated from the WEGL extract produce similar anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects. Our results indicate that G. lucidum and its high molecular weight polysaccharides may be used as prebiotic agents to prevent gut dysbiosis and obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese individuals.

  3. Role of root microbiota in plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Andrzej; Poole, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The growing human population requires increasing amounts of food, but modern agriculture has limited possibilities for increasing yields. New crop varieties may be bred to have increased yields and be more resistant to environmental stress and pests. However, they still require fertilization to supplement essential nutrients that are normally limited in the soil. Soil microorganisms present an opportunity to reduce the requirement for inorganic fertilization in agriculture. Microorganisms, due to their enormous genetic pool, are also a potential source of biochemical reactions that recycle essential nutrients for plant growth. Microbes that associate with plants can be considered to be part of the plant's pan-genome. Therefore, it is essential for us to understand microbial community structure and their 'metagenome' and how it is influenced by different soil types and crop varieties. In the future we may be able to modify and better utilize the soil microbiota potential for promoting plant growth. PMID:25908654

  4. Microbiota, oral microbiome, and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dominique S; Izard, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Only 30% of patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer survive 1 year after the diagnosis. Progress in understanding the causes of pancreatic cancer has been made, including solidifying the associations with obesity and diabetes, and a proportion of cases should be preventable through lifestyle modifications. Unfortunately, identifying reliable biomarkers of early pancreatic cancer has been extremely challenging, and no effective screening modality is currently available for this devastating form of cancer. Recent data suggest that the microbiota may play a role in the disease process, but many questions remain. Future studies focusing on the human microbiome, both etiologically and as a marker of disease susceptibility, should shed light on how to better tackle prevention, early detection, and treatment of this highly fatal disease.

  5. Obesity, inflammation, and the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Amanda J; West, Nicholas P; Cripps, Allan W

    2015-03-01

    As the prevalence of obesity and associated disease continues to rise and concerns for the spiralling economic and social costs also escalate, innovative management strategies beyond primary prevention and traditional lifestyle interventions are urgently needed. The biological basis of disease is one avenue for further exploration in this context. Several key inflammatory markers have been consistently associated with both obesity and risk of adverse outcomes in obesity-associated diseases, which suggests that a persistent, low-grade, inflammatory response is a potentially modifiable risk factor. In this Review, we provide evidence supporting perturbation of the intestinal microbiota and changes in intestinal permeability as potential triggers of inflammation in obesity. Further characterisation of the mechanisms underpinning the triggers of such inflammatory responses in overweight and obese individuals could offer unique opportunities for intervention strategies to help ameliorate the risk of obesity-associated disease.

  6. Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Caitlin A; Garrett, Wendy S

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cancer is largely considered to be a disease of genetic and environmental factors, increasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota (the microorganisms associated with the human body) in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting tumor growth and spread. Herein, we discuss both human data from meta'omics analyses and data from mechanistic studies in cell culture and animal models that support specific bacterial agents as potentiators of tumorigenesis-including Fusobacterium nucleatum, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, and colibactin-producing Escherichia coli. Further, we consider how microbes can be used in diagnosing colorectal cancer and manipulating the tumor environment to encourage better patient outcomes in response to immunotherapy treatments. PMID:27607555

  7. Role of root microbiota in plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Andrzej; Poole, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The growing human population requires increasing amounts of food, but modern agriculture has limited possibilities for increasing yields. New crop varieties may be bred to have increased yields and be more resistant to environmental stress and pests. However, they still require fertilization to supplement essential nutrients that are normally limited in the soil. Soil microorganisms present an opportunity to reduce the requirement for inorganic fertilization in agriculture. Microorganisms, due to their enormous genetic pool, are also a potential source of biochemical reactions that recycle essential nutrients for plant growth. Microbes that associate with plants can be considered to be part of the plant's pan-genome. Therefore, it is essential for us to understand microbial community structure and their 'metagenome' and how it is influenced by different soil types and crop varieties. In the future we may be able to modify and better utilize the soil microbiota potential for promoting plant growth.

  8. Intestinal microbiota transplant - current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyszyn, Jarosław Jerzy; Radomski, Marek; Leszczyszyn, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such as production of short-chain fatty acids or components of the inflammatory cascade, caused by changes in microbiome diversity, variability and richness have been observed among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The published clinical results are encouraging, but still there is huge demand for FMT controlled clinical trials.

  9. Dynamics of the Microbiota in Response to Host Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzer, C.; Gerber, G.K.; Roeselers, G.; Delaney, M.; DuBois, A.; Liu, Q.; Belavusava, V.; Yeliseyev, V.; Houseman, A.; Onderdonk, A.; Cavanaugh, C.; Bry, L.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of the microbiota are important for discovering changes in microbial communities that affect the host. The complexity of these ecosystems requires rigorous integrated experimental and computational methods to identify temporal signatures that promote physiologic or pathophysiolo

  10. Dynamics of the microbiota in response to host infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzer, C.; Gerber, G.K.; Roeselers, G.; Delaney, M.; DuBois, A.; Liu, Q.; Belavusava, V.; Yeliseyev, V.; Houseman, A.; Onderdonk, A.; Cavanaugh, C.; Bry, L.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of the microbiota are important for discovering changes in microbial communities that affect the host. The complexity of these ecosystems requires rigorous integrated experimental and computational methods to identify temporal signatures that promote physiologic or pathophysiolo

  11. Antibiotic-Induced Changes in the Intestinal Microbiota and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Simone; Taur, Ying; Pamer, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    The gut microbiota is a key player in many physiological and pathological processes occurring in humans. Recent investigations suggest that the efficacy of some clinical approaches depends on the action of commensal bacteria. Antibiotics are invaluable weapons to fight infectious diseases. However, by altering the composition and functions of the microbiota, they can also produce long-lasting deleterious effects for the host. The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens raises concerns about the common, and at times inappropriate, use of antimicrobial agents. Here we review the most recently discovered connections between host pathophysiology, microbiota, and antibiotics highlighting technological platforms, mechanistic insights, and clinical strategies to enhance resistance to diseases by preserving the beneficial functions of the microbiota. PMID:27178527

  12. Different Flavonoids Can Shape Unique Gut Microbiota Profile In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiacheng; Chen, Long; Xue, Bin; Liu, Qianyue; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2016-09-01

    The impact of flavonoids has been discussed on the relative viability of bacterial groups in human microbiota. This study was aimed to compare the modulation of various flavonoids, including quercetin, catechin and puerarin, on gut microbiota culture in vitro, and analyze the interactions between bacterial species using fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as carbon source under the stress of flavonoids. Three plant flavonoids, quercetin, catechin, and puerarin, were added into multispecies culture to ferment for 24 h, respectively. The bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons were sequenced, and the composition of microbiota community was analyzed. The results revealed that the tested flavonoids, quercetin, catechin, and puerarin, presented different activities of regulating gut microbiota; flavonoid aglycones, but not glycosides, may inhibit growth of certain species. Quercetin and catechin shaped unique biological webs. Bifidobacterium spp. was the center of the biological web constructed in this study.

  13. Gut Microbiota: Association with NAFLD and Metabolic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic expression of metabolic syndrome, being frequently associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Recent lines of evidence have demonstrated a role of gut microbiota in insulin resistance, obesity, and associated metabolic disturbances, raising the interest in its relationship with NAFLD pathogenesis. Therefore, intestinal microbiota has emerged as a potential factor involved in NAFLD, through different pathways, including its influence in energy storage, lipid and choline metabolism, ethanol production, immune balance, and inflammation. The main objective of this review is to address the pathogenic association of gut microbiota to NAFLD. This comprehension may allow the development of integrated strategies to modulate intestinal microbiota in order to treat NAFLD.

  14. Changes in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota at Pulmonary Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmody, Lisa A.; Zhao, Jiangchao; Schloss, Patrick D.; Petrosino, Joseph F; Murray, Susan; Young, Vincent B.; Li, Jun Z.; LiPuma, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: In persons with cystic fibrosis (CF), repeated exacerbations of pulmonary symptoms are associated with a progressive decline in lung function. Changes in the airway microbiota around the time of exacerbations are not well understood.

  15. Gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Usami, Makoto; Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamashita, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has the capacity to produce a diverse range of compounds that play a major role in regulating the activity of distal organs and the liver is strategically positioned downstream of the gut. Gut microbiota linked compounds such as short chain fatty acids, bile acids, choline metabolites, indole derivatives, vitamins, polyamines, lipids, neurotransmitters and neuroactive compounds, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones have many biological functions. This review foc...

  16. The Interplay between the Intestinal Microbiota and the Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Yuk Man Kevin; Nair, Lekha; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between commensal microbes and their hosts has been studied for many years. Commensal microorganisms are known to have a significant role in regulating the physiology of their hosts and preventing pathogenic infections while the hosts’ immune system is important in determining the composition of the microbiota. More recently, specific effects of the intestinal microbiota on the local and distal immune systems have been uncovered with important consequences for health and dise...

  17. Fatty acids from diet and microbiota regulate energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Alcock; Lin, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    A high-fat diet and elevated levels of free fatty acids are known risk factors for metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and visceral obesity. Although these disease associations are well established, it is unclear how different dietary fats change the risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Here, we review emerging evidence that insulin resistance and fat storage are linked to changes in the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function, in turn, are highly ...

  18. Intestinal microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease: Friend of foe?

    OpenAIRE

    Fava, Francesca; Danese, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises from disruption of immune tolerance to the gut commensal microbiota, leading to chronic intestinal inflammation and mucosal damage in genetically predisposed hosts. In healthy individuals the intestinal microbiota have a symbiotic relationship with the host organism and possess important and unique functions, including a metabolic function (i.e. digestion of dietary compounds and xenobiotics, fermentation of undigestible carbohydrates with production of...

  19. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host’s metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acid...

  20. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacteri...

  1. The nonfermentable dietary fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modulates intestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Laura M.; Cho, Ilseung; Young, Scott A.; Anderson, W. H. Kerr; Waters, Bartholomew J.; Hung, Shao-Ching; Gao, Zhan; Mahana, Douglas; Bihan, Monika; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Methé, Barbara A.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Diet influences host metabolism and intestinal microbiota; however, detailed understanding of this tripartite interaction is limited. To determine whether the nonfermentable fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could alter the intestinal microbiota and whether such changes correlated with metabolic improvements, C57B/L6 mice were normalized to a high-fat diet (HFD), then either maintained on HFD (control), or switched to HFD supplemented with 10% HPMC, or a low-fat diet (LFD). Compared ...

  2. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Sara eQuercia; Marco eCandela; Cristina eGiuliani; Silvia eTurroni; Donata eLuiselli; Simone eRampelli; Patrizia eBrigidi; Claudio eFranceschi; Maria Giulia eBacalini; Paolo eGaragnani; Chiara ePirazzini

    2014-01-01

    Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The gut microbiota continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily varia...

  3. Diet strongly influences the gut microbiota of surgeonfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Miyake, Sou

    2015-01-20

    Intestinal tracts are among the most densely populated microbial ecosystems. Gut microbiota and their influence on the host have been well characterized in terrestrial vertebrates but much less so in fish. This is especially true for coral reef fishes, which are among the most abundant groups of vertebrates on earth. Surgeonfishes (family: Acanthuridae) are part of a large and diverse family of reef fish that display a wide range of feeding behaviours, which in turn has a strong impact on the reef ecology. Here, we studied the composition of the gut microbiota of nine surgeonfish and three nonsurgeonfish species from the Red Sea. High-throughput pyrosequencing results showed that members of the phylum Firmicutes, especially of the genus Epulopiscium, were dominant in the gut microbiota of seven surgeonfishes. Even so, there were large inter- and intraspecies differences in the diversity of surgeonfish microbiota. Replicates of the same host species shared only a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), although these accounted for most of the sequences. There was a statistically significant correlation between the phylogeny of the host and their gut microbiota, but the two were not completely congruent. Notably, the gut microbiota of three nonsurgeonfish species clustered with some surgeonfish species. The microbiota of the macro- and microalgavores was distinct, while the microbiota of the others (carnivores, omnivores and detritivores) seemed to be transient and dynamic. Despite some anomalies, both host phylogeny and diet were important drivers for the intestinal microbial community structure of surgeonfishes from the Red Sea. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Host lifestyle affects human microbiota on daily timescales

    OpenAIRE

    David, Lawrence A; Materna, Arne C.; Friedman, Jonathan; Campos-Baptista, Maria I; Blackburn, Matthew C.; Perrotta, Allison; Erdman, Susan E; Eric J Alm

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbance to human microbiota may underlie several pathologies. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of how lifestyle affects the dynamics of human-associated microbial communities. Results Here, we link over 10,000 longitudinal measurements of human wellness and action to the daily gut and salivary microbiota dynamics of two individuals over the course of one year. These time series show overall microbial communities to be stable for months. However, rare events in each su...

  5. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Loan Anh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes, cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism. Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  6. The colonization dynamics of the gut microbiota in tilapia larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Giatsis

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that share a common environment. In this study we characterized and quantified the spatio-temporal variation in the gut microbiota of tilapia larvae, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS or active suspension tanks (AS. Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. However, when individuals were reared in replicate RAS, gut microbiota differed significantly. The highest variation was observed between individuals reared in different types of system (RAS vs. AS. Our data suggest that under experimental conditions in which the roles of deterministic and stochastic factors have not been precisely determined, compositional replication of the microbial communities of an ecosystem is not predictable.

  7. The colonization dynamics of the gut microbiota in tilapia larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; Verreth, Johan; Verdegem, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that share a common environment. In this study we characterized and quantified the spatio-temporal variation in the gut microbiota of tilapia larvae, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) or active suspension tanks (AS). Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. However, when individuals were reared in replicate RAS, gut microbiota differed significantly. The highest variation was observed between individuals reared in different types of system (RAS vs. AS). Our data suggest that under experimental conditions in which the roles of deterministic and stochastic factors have not been precisely determined, compositional replication of the microbial communities of an ecosystem is not predictable. PMID:25072852

  8. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  9. Galacto-oligosaccharides attenuate renal injury with microbiota modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Satoshi U; Ohse, Takamoto; Jo-Watanabe, Airi; Shigehisa, Akira; Kawakami, Koji; Matsuki, Takahiro; Chonan, Osamu; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2014-07-01

    Tubulointerstitial injury is central to the progression of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have revealed that one of the most investigated uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate (IS), caused tubulointerstitial injury through oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Because indole, the precursor of IS, is synthesized from dietary tryptophan by the gut microbiota, we hypothesized that the intervention targeting the gut microbiota in kidney disease with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) would attenuate renal injury. After 2 weeks of GOS administration for 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) or sham-operated (Sham) rats, cecal indole and serum IS were measured, renal injury was evaluated, and the effects of GOS on the gut microbiota were examined using pyrosequencing methods. Cecal indole and serum IS were significantly decreased and renal injury was improved with decreased infiltrating macrophages in GOS-treated Nx rats. The expression levels of ER stress markers and apoptosis were significantly increased in the Nx rats and decreased with GOS. The microbiota analysis indicated that GOS significantly increased three bacterial families and decreased five families in the Nx rats. In addition, the analysis also revealed that the bacterial family Clostridiaceae was significantly increased in the Nx rats compared with the Sham rats and decreased with GOS. Taken altogether, our data show that GOS decreased cecal indole and serum IS, attenuated renal injury, and modified the gut microbiota in the Nx rats, and that the gut microbiota were altered in kidney disease. GOS could be a novel therapeutic agent to protect against renal injury.

  10. The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday C. Ghoshal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, once thought to be a purely psychosomatic disease, has advanced considerably and low-grade inflammation and changes in the gut microbiota now feature as potentially important. The human gut harbours a huge microbial ecosystem, which is equipped to perform a variety of functions such as digestion of food, metabolism of drugs, detoxification of toxic compounds, production of essential vitamins, prevention of attachment of pathogenic bacteria to the gut wall, and maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. A subset of patients with IBS may have a quantitative increase in bacteria in the small bowel (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Qualitative changes in gut microbiota have also been associated with IBS. Targeting the gut microbiota using probiotics and antibiotics has emerged as a potentially effective approach to the treatment of this, hitherto enigmatic, functional bowel disorder. The gut microbiota in health, quantitative and qualitative microbiota changes, and therapeutic manipulations targeting the microbiota in patients with IBS are reviewed in this paper.

  11. Role of Gut Microbiota in Early Infant Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wall

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Early colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract is crucial for the overall health of the infant, and establishment and maintenance of non-pathogenic intestinal microbiota may reduce several neonatal inflammatory conditions. Much effort has therefore been devoted to manipulation of the composition of the microbiota through 1 the role of early infant nutrition, particularly breast milk, and supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics that positively influence the enteric microbiota by selectively promoting growth of beneficial bacteria and 2 oral administration of probiotic bacteria which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. While the complex microbiota of the adult is difficult to change in the long-term, there is greater impact of the diet on infant microbiota as this is not as stable as in adults. Decreasing excessive use of antibiotics and increasing the use of pre- and probiotics have shown to be beneficial in the prevention of several important infant diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and atopic eczema as well as improvement of short and long-term health. This review addresses how the composition of the gut microbiota becomes established in early life, its relevance to infant health, and dietary means by which it can be manipulated.

  12. Gut microbiota, immunity and disease: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M Kosiewicz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Our immune system has evolved to recognize and eradicate pathogenic microbes. However, we have a symbiotic relationship with multiple species of bacteria that occupy the gut and comprise the natural commensal flora or microbiota. The microbiota is critically important for the breakdown of nutrients, and also assists in preventing colonization by potentially pathogenic bacteria. In addition, the gut commensal bacteria appears to be critical for the development of an optimally functioning immune system. Various studies have shown that individual species of the microbiota can induce very different types of immune cells (e.g., Th17 cells, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and responses, suggesting that the composition of the microbiota can have an important influence on the immune response. Although the microbiota resides in the gut, it appears to have a significant impact on the systemic immune response. Indeed, specific gut commensal bacteria have been shown to affect disease development in organs other than the gut, and depending on the species, have been found to have a wide range of effects on diseases from induction and exacerbation to inhibition and protection. In this review, we will focus on the role that the gut microbiota plays in the development and progression of inflammatory/autoimmune disease, and we will also touch upon its role in allergy and cancer.

  13. Digestive tract microbiota in healthy volunteers Microbiota no trato digestivo em voluntários saudáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Zilberstein; Alina G Quintanilha; Santos, Manoel A A; Denis Pajecki; Eduardo G Moura; Paulo Roberto Arruda Alves; Fauze Maluf Filho; João Ary Ubriaco de Souza; Joaquim Gama-Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to standardize the methods of sample collection of mucus from the digestive tract and to determine the microbiota in healthy volunteers from Brazil, collecting samples from the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum. METHODS: Microbiota of selected healthy volunteers from the oral cavity (n=10), the esophagus (n=10), the upper digestive tract (n=20), and the lower digestive tract (n=24) were evaluated through distinct collecti...

  14. Gut Microbiota: Modulate its Complexity to Restore the Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Mearin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota to health is becoming more widely appreciated. The range of commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals and in patients with a variety of digestive diseases is under active investigation, and evidence is accumulating to suggest that both the diversity and balance of bacterial species are important for health. Disturbance of the balance of microorganisms – dysbiosis – is associated with obesity and a variety of diseases. Restoring the balance by modulating the microbiota through diet, probiotics, or drugs is now being developed as a potential treatment for digestive diseases. Rifaximin has been shown to increase levels of beneficial bacterial species without perturbing the overall composition of the microbiota in patients with a variety of digestive diseases, making it a ‘eubiotic’ rather than an antibiotic. Rifaximin has demonstrated clinical benefit in the treatment of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, where changes in the colonic microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Modulating the microbiota is also a promising treatment for some types of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS that have been linked to an overgrowth of coliform and Aeromonas species in the small intestine. Rifaximin has demonstrated efficacy in relieving symptoms and reducing relapses in diarrhoeal IBS in the TARGET-1, 2, and 3 trials, without reducing microbial diversity or increasing antimicrobial resistance. While many aspects of the balance of gut microbiota in disease are not yet fully understood, the new understanding of rifaximin as a modulator of gut microbiota may open up new treatment options in digestive disease.

  15. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  16. Selective inbreeding does not increase gut microbiota similarity in BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Wanyong; Stradiotto, Damiano; Krych, Lukasz;

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases in mouse models are under strong impact from the gut microbiota. Therefore increased interindividual gut microbiota similarity may be seen as a way to reduce group sizes in mouse experiments. The composition of the gut microbiota is to a high extent defined by genetics, and it...... is known that selecting siblings as mothers even in inbred colonies may increase the gut microbiota similarity among the mice with 3-4%. We therefore hypothesized that selective breeding of mice aiming at a high similarity in the gut microbiota would increase the interindividual similarity of the gut...... microbiota. BALB/cCrl mice were, however, found to have a mean heterozygosity of only 0.8% in their genome, and selection of breeders with a high similarity in the gut microbiota for three generations did not change the overall gut microbiota similarity, which was 66% in the P generation and 66%, 64% and 63...

  17. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, Lena K; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment.

  18. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej;

    2016-01-01

    esters were not affected by the gut microbiota. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated by the gut microbiota in mice fed lard and were expressed at a low level in mice fed fish oil independent of microbial status. In summary, we show that gut microbiota......The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene...... of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl...

  19. Human intestinal microbiota composition is associated with local and systemic inflammation in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdam, F.J.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Jonge, de C.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Erbil, R.; Greve, J.W.; Buurman, W.A.; Vos, de W.M.; Rensen, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intestinal microbiota have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity, but the mechanism remains elusive. The relationship between microbiota composition, intestinal permeability, and inflammation in nonobese and obese subjects was investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fecal m

  20. Imbalance of Fecal Microbiota at Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Juan Qi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that gut microbiota was associated with the development of T1DM by affecting the autoimmunity, and the results suggested a potential therapy for T1DM via modulating the gut microbiota.

  1. ANTAGONISM AGAINST VIBRIO CHOLERAE BY BACTERIAL DIFFUSIBLE COMPOUND IN THE FECAL MICROBIOTA OF RODENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Helena da Silva

    1998-09-01

    experimento separado quando ratos Wistar foram alimentados com uma ração deficiente em proteína a freqüência de halo diminuiu drasticamente. Três morfologias de colonias aparentemente distintas foram isoladas da microbiota fecal dominante: uma bactéria anaeróbia facultativa (ANF e duas anaeróbias estritas (ANS. O teste inibitório ex vivo mostrou halo ao redor das fezes de camundongos isentos de germes monoassociados com a bactéria ANF ou uma das bactérias ANS mas não para os animais isentos de germes. Após desafio oral de todos os grupos com o V. cholerae, barreiras permissiva e drástica foram observadas em camundongos associados com as bactérias ANF e ANS, respectivamente. As bactérias ANF e uma ANS usadas em monoassociação nos desafios in vivo foram identificadas como Escherichia coli e Streptococcus intermedius, respectivamente. O potente antagonismo demostrado pela microbiota intestinal de ratos contra V. cholerae parece devido, em parte, a compostos difusíveis e este fenômeno depende aparentemente da idade, de espécie e da nutrição do animal. Esses dados preliminares sugerem também que este antagonismo seja devido a mais de um componente bacteriano num instante dado.

  2. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  3. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The gut bacterial microbiome, particularly its role in disease and inflammation, has gained international attention with the successful use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. This success has led to studies exploring the role of FMT in other conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal system that have multifactorial etiologies. A shift in gut microbial composition in genetically susceptible individuals, an altered immune system, and environmental factors are all hypothesized to have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. While numerous case reports and cohort studies have described the use of FMT in patients with IBD over the last 2 decades, the development of new sequencing techniques and results from 2 recent randomized, controlled trials have allowed for a better understanding of the relationship between the microbiome and the human host. However, despite these efforts, knowledge remains limited and the role of FMT in the management of IBD remains uncertain. Further investigation is necessary before FMT joins the current armamentarium of treatment options in clinical practice. PMID:27493597

  4. Vaginal Microbiota and the Use of Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cribby

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human vagina is inhabited by a range of microbes from a pool of over 50 species. Lactobacilli are the most common, particularly in healthy women. The microbiota can change composition rapidly, for reasons that are not fully clear. This can lead to infection or to a state in which organisms with pathogenic potential coexist with other commensals. The most common urogenital infection in premenopausal women is bacterial vaginosis (BV, a condition characterized by a depletion of lactobacilli population and the presence of Gram-negative anaerobes, or in some cases Gram-positive cocci, and aerobic pathogens. Treatment of BV traditionally involves the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin, however, the recurrence rate remains high, and this treatment is not designed to restore the lactobacilli. In vitro studies have shown that Lactobacillus strains can disrupt BV and yeast biofilms and inhibit the growth of urogenital pathogens. The use of probiotics to populate the vagina and prevent or treat infection has been considered for some time, but only quite recently have data emerged to show efficacy, including supplementation of antimicrobial treatment to improve cure rates and prevent recurrences.

  5. Role of Gut Microbiota in Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David A; Paik, Yong-Han; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Many lines of research have established a relationship between the gut microbiome and patients with liver disease. For example, patients with cirrhosis have increased bacteremia, increased blood levels of lipopolysaccharide, and increased intestinal permeability. Patients with cirrhosis have bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine. Selective intestinal decontamination with antibiotics is beneficial for patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In experimental models of chronic liver injury with fibrosis, several toll-like receptors (TLR) are required to make mice sensitive to liver fibrosis. The presumed ligand for the TLRs are bacterial products derived from the gut microbiome, and TLR knockout mice are resistant to liver inflammation and fibrosis. We and others have characterized the association between preclinical models of liver disease in mice with the microbial diversity in their gut microbiome. In each model, including intragastric alcohol, bile duct ligation, chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), administration, and genetic obesity, there is a significant change in the gut microbiome from normal control mice. However, there is not a single clear bacterial strain or pattern that distinguish mice with liver injury from controlled mice. So how can the gut microbiota affect liver disease? We can identify at least 6 changes that would result in liver injury, inflammation, and/or fibrosis. These include: (1) changes in caloric yield of diet; (2) regulation of gut permeability to release bacterial products; (3) modulation of choline metabolism; (4) production of endogenous ethanol; (5) regulation of bile acid metabolism; and (6) regulation in lipid metabolism.

  6. Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nur

    2014-11-28

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations.

  7. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity: New insights

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Ross, Paul R; Shanahan, Fergus; O’Toole, Paul W; Cotter, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity develops from a prolonged imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the relatively recent discovery that the composition and function of the gut microbiota impacts on obesity has lead to an explosion of interest in what is now a distinct research field. Here, research relating to the links between the gut microbiota, diet and obesity will be reviewed under five major headings: (1) the gut microbiota of lean and obese animals, (2) the composition of the gut microbiota...

  8. Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mi-Young; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hojun

    2014-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota is regarded as one of the major factors involved in the control of body weight. The antiobesity effects of ginseng and its main constituents have been demonstrated, but the effects on gut microbiota are still unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of ginseng on gut microbiota, 10 obese middle-aged Korean women took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk and assessment of body composition parameters, metabolic biomarkers, and gut microbiota composition was performed usin...

  9. Intestinal microbiota composition in fishes is influenced by host ecology and environment

    OpenAIRE

    WONG, SANDI; Rawls, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The digestive tracts of vertebrates are colonized by complex assemblages of micro-organisms, collectively called the gut microbiota. Recent studies have revealed important contributions of gut microbiota to vertebrate health and disease, stimulating intense interest in understanding how gut microbial communities are assembled and how they impact host fitness (Sekirov et al. 2010). Although all vertebrates harbour a gut microbiota, current information on microbiota compositio...

  10. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Schuijt, T. J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Scicluna, B.P.; Melo, E; Roelofs, J.J.; Boer, de, J.W.; Hoogendijk, A.J.; Beer, de, VHJ Vincent; De Vos; Belzer, C.; Poll, van der, T.; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. DESIGN: We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice ...

  11. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Motoi Tamura; Chigusa Hoshi; Sachiko Hori

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0....

  12. Composition and temporal stability of the gut microbiota in older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Ian B Jeffery; Lynch, Denise B.; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    The composition and function of the human gut microbiota has been linked to health and disease. We previously identified correlations between habitual diet, microbiota composition gradients and health gradients in an unstratified cohort of 178 elderly subjects. To refine our understanding of diet–microbiota associations and differential taxon abundance, we adapted an iterative bi-clustering algorithm (iterative binary bclustering of gene sets (iBBiG)) and applied it to microbiota composition ...

  13. Exploring flavour-producing core microbiota in multispecies solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    Zong-Min Wang; Zhen-Ming Lu; Jin-Song Shi; Zheng-Hong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Multispecies solid-state fermentation (MSSF), a natural fermentation process driven by reproducible microbiota, is an important technique to produce traditional fermented foods. Flavours, skeleton of fermented foods, was mostly produced by microbiota in food ecosystem. However, the association between microbiota and flavours and flavour-producing core microbiota are still poorly understood. Here, acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was taken as a typical case of MSSF....

  14. Gut Microbiota and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Insights on Mechanism and Application of Metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Xuyun He; Guang Ji; Wei Jia; Houkai Li

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota are intricately involved in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. In the current review, we discuss the role of gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD by focusing on the mechanisms of gut microbiota-mediated host energy metabolism, insulin resistance, regulation of bile acids and choline metabolism, as well as gut microbiota-targeted therapy. We also discuss the applic...

  15. Contribution of diet to the composition of the human gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Daniela; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Fåk, Frida; Flint, Harry J.; Nyman, Margareta; Saarela, Maria; Watzl, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In the human gut, millions of bacteria contribute to the microbiota, whose composition is specific for every individual. Although we are just at the very beginning of understanding the microbiota concept, we already know that the composition of the microbiota has a profound impact on human health. A key factor in determining gut microbiota composition is diet. Preliminary evidence suggests that dietary patterns are associated with distinct combinations of bacteria in the intestine, also calle...

  16. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, Volker; Draganov, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based interventions, our basic understanding of microbiota variation on a population level a...

  17. Novel perspectives on therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, Justin L; Caminero, Alberto; Verdu, Elena F

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to the maintenance of health and, when disrupted, may drive gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal disease. This can occur through direct pathways such as interaction with the epithelial barrier and mucosal immune system or indirectly via production of metabolites. There is no current curative therapy for chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, which are complex multifactorial disorders involving genetic predisposition, and environmental triggers. Therapies are directed to suppress inflammation rather than the driver, and these approaches are not devoid of adverse effects. Therefore, there is great interest in modulation of the gut microbiota to provide protection from disease. Interventions that modulate the microbiota include diet, probiotics and more recently the emergence of experimental therapies such as fecal microbiota transplant or phage therapy. Emerging data indicate that certain bacteria can induce protective immune responses and enhance intestinal barrier function, which could be potential therapeutic targets. However, mechanistic links and specific therapeutic recommendations are still lacking. Here we provide a pathophysiological overview of potential therapeutic applications of the gut microbiota. PMID:27366225

  18. Pathophysiological role of host microbiota in the development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Virchenko, Oleksandr; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana

    2016-04-23

    Overweight and obesity increase the risk for a number of diseases, namely, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, premature death, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as well as different types of cancer. Approximately 1.7 billion people in the world suffer from being overweight, most notably in developed countries. Current research efforts have focused on host and environmental factors that may affect energy balance. It was hypothesized that a microbiota profile specific to an obese host with increased energy-yielding behavior may exist. Consequently, the gut microbiota is becoming of significant research interest in relation to obesity in an attempt to better understand the aetiology of obesity and to develop new methods of its prevention and treatment. Alteration of microbiota composition may stimulate development of obesity and other metabolic diseases via several mechanisms: increasing gut permeability with subsequent metabolic inflammation; increasing energy harvest from the diet; impairing short-chain fatty acids synthesis; and altering bile acids metabolism and FXR/TGR5 signaling. Prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to the health of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with obesity through their effects on mechanisms that control food intake, body weight, gut microbiota and inflammatory processes.

  19. Microbiota-based treatments in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hotaik; Kim, Seung Woo; Hong, Meegun; Suk, Ki Tae

    2016-08-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consumption of alcohol leads to increased gut permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and enteric dysbiosis. These factors contribute to the increased translocation of microbial products to the liver via the portal tract. Subsequently, bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in association with the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway, induce a gamut of damaging immune responses in the hepatic milieu. Because of the close association between deleterious inflammation and ALD-induced microbiota imbalance, therapeutic approaches that seek to reestablish gut homeostasis should be considered in the treatment of alcoholic patients. To this end, a number of preliminary studies on probiotics have confirmed their effectiveness in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and improving liver function in the context of ALD. In addition, there have been few studies linking the administration of prebiotics and antibiotics with reduction of alcohol-induced liver damage. Because these preliminary results are promising, large-scale randomized studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of these microbiota-based treatments on the gut flora and associated immune responses, in addition to exploring questions about optimal delivery. Finally, fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be an effective method of modulating gut microbiota and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic option for ALD. PMID:27547010

  20. Differences in Gut Microbiota Between Atopic and Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drell, Tiina; Larionova, Anneli; Voor, Tiia; Simm, Jaak; Julge, Kaja; Heilman, Kaire; Tillmann, Vallo; Štšepetova, Jelena; Sepp, Epp

    2015-08-01

    Although gut microbiota has been studied relatively extensively in the context of allergic diseases, there have been several contradictions between these studies. By applying high-throughput sequencing, we aimed to analyze the differences in gut microbiota between atopic and healthy children at 5 and 12 years of age. 51 stool samples were collected from 14 atopic and 15 healthy children and analyzed with 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. At the ages of 5 and 12 years, Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Dialister dominated gut microbiota in both atopic and healthy groups of children. Children in the atopic group had lower abundance and prevalence of Akkermansia in gut microbiota than their healthy counterparts. Thus, the composition of gut microbiota does not seem to be significantly different between atopic and healthy children, but lower abundance and prevalence of Akkermansia indicate that this bacterium may accompany or play a role in IgE-mediated atopic diseases. PMID:25869237

  1. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Cooper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control.

  2. Interspecific variations in the faecal microbiota of Procellariiform seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Krause, Lutz; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of gut microbiota in vertebrates (especially mammals), there is no information available on the microbiota of seabirds. Procellariiformes are long-lived seabirds that consume a diet high in lipids and are characterised by their ability to produce and store large amount of stomach oils through the partial digestion of prey (with the exception of the Pelecanoididae). Examining the faecal microbiota of three Procellariiform species (short-tailed shearwater, common diving petrel and fairy prion) provided a unique opportunity to not only characterise the gastrointestinal (GI) microbial composition of seabirds but to also examine the influence of stomach oils on the microbial community. The results indicated that Procellariiform seabirds host a highly diverse community of faecal microorganisms, dominated by three phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) and that each species has its own species-specific GI microbiota. In addition, significant differences were observed in the microbial communities of oil-producing and non-oil-producing seabirds. This study is the first whole-community examination and classification of the faecal microbiota of Procellariiform seabirds. PMID:24684257

  3. Intestinal microbiota and diet in IBS: causes, consequences, or epiphenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; Jonkers, Daisy M; Salonen, Anne; Hanevik, Kurt; Raes, Jeroen; Jalanka, Jonna; de Vos, Willem M; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Golic, Natasa; Enck, Paul; Philippou, Elena; Iraqi, Fuad A; Clarke, Gerard; Spiller, Robin C; Penders, John

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous functional disorder with a multifactorial etiology that involves the interplay of both host and environmental factors. Among environmental factors relevant for IBS etiology, the diet stands out given that the majority of IBS patients report their symptoms to be triggered by meals or specific foods. The diet provides substrates for microbial fermentation, and, as the composition of the intestinal microbiota is disturbed in IBS patients, the link between diet, microbiota composition, and microbial fermentation products might have an essential role in IBS etiology. In this review, we summarize current evidence regarding the impact of diet and the intestinal microbiota on IBS symptoms, as well as the reported interactions between diet and the microbiota composition. On the basis of the existing data, we suggest pathways (mechanisms) by which diet components, via the microbial fermentation, could trigger IBS symptoms. Finally, this review provides recommendations for future studies that would enable elucidation of the role of diet and microbiota and how these factors may be (inter)related in the pathophysiology of IBS. PMID:25623659

  4. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diet and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a severe liver disease that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity and its related insulin-resistance state. Evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in energy storage and the subsequent development of obesity and some of its related diseases is now well established. More recently, a new role of gut microbiota has emerged in NAFLD. The gut microbiota is involved in gut permeability, low-grade inflammation and immune balance, it modulates dietary choline metabolism, regulates bile acid metabolism and produces endogenous ethanol. All of these factors are molecular mechanisms by which the microbiota can induce NAFLD or its progression toward overt non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Modification of the gut microbiota composition and/or its biochemical capacity by specific dietary or pharmacological interventions may advantageously affect host metabolism. Large-scale intervention trials, investigating the potential benefit of prebiotics and probiotics in improving cardiometabolic health in high-risk populations, are fervently awaited.

  5. High fat diet drives obesity regardless the composition of gut microbiota in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabot, Sylvie; Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Berger, Bernard; Moine, Déborah; Krause, Lutz; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruneau, Aurélia; Gérard, Philippe; Siddharth, Jay; Lauber, Christian L.; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is involved in many aspects of host physiology but its role in body weight and glucose metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied the compositional changes of gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity mice that were conventionally raised or received microbiota transplantation. In conventional mice, the diversity of the faecal microbiota was weakly associated with 1st week weight gain but transferring the microbiota of mice with contrasting weight gain to germfree mice did not change obesity development or feed efficiency of recipients regardless whether the microbiota was taken before or after 10 weeks high fat (HF) feeding. Interestingly, HF-induced glucose intolerance was influenced by microbiota inoculation and improved glucose tolerance was associated with a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. Transplantation of Bacteroidetes rich microbiota compared to a control microbiota ameliorated glucose intolerance caused by HF feeding. Altogether, our results demonstrate that gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and the abundance of Bacteroidetes significantly modulates HF-induced glucose intolerance but has limited impact on obesity in mice. Our results suggest that gut microbiota is a part of complex aetiology of insulin resistance syndrome, individual microbiota composition may cause phenotypic variation associated with HF feeding in mice. PMID:27577172

  6. Severity of atopic disease inversely correlates with intestinal microbiota diversity and butyrate-producing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Nermes, M.; Isolauri, E.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Satokari, R.

    2015-01-01

    The reports on atopic diseases and microbiota in early childhood remain contradictory and both decreased and increased microbiota diversity have been associated with atopic eczema. In this study, the intestinal microbiota signatures associated with the severity of eczema in 6-month-old infants were

  7. Aberrant gut microbiota composition at the onset of type 1 diabetes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Fuentes, Susana; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Honkanen, Hanna; de Vos, Willem M.; Welling, Gjalt; Hyoty, Heikki; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Recent studies indicate that an aberrant gut microbiota is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes, yet little is known about the microbiota in children who have diabetes at an early age. To this end, the microbiota of children aged 1-5 years with new-onset type 1 diabetes

  8. High fat diet drives obesity regardless the composition of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabot, Sylvie; Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Berger, Bernard; Moine, Déborah; Krause, Lutz; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruneau, Aurélia; Gérard, Philippe; Siddharth, Jay; Lauber, Christian L; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is involved in many aspects of host physiology but its role in body weight and glucose metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied the compositional changes of gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity mice that were conventionally raised or received microbiota transplantation. In conventional mice, the diversity of the faecal microbiota was weakly associated with 1(st) week weight gain but transferring the microbiota of mice with contrasting weight gain to germfree mice did not change obesity development or feed efficiency of recipients regardless whether the microbiota was taken before or after 10 weeks high fat (HF) feeding. Interestingly, HF-induced glucose intolerance was influenced by microbiota inoculation and improved glucose tolerance was associated with a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. Transplantation of Bacteroidetes rich microbiota compared to a control microbiota ameliorated glucose intolerance caused by HF feeding. Altogether, our results demonstrate that gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and the abundance of Bacteroidetes significantly modulates HF-induced glucose intolerance but has limited impact on obesity in mice. Our results suggest that gut microbiota is a part of complex aetiology of insulin resistance syndrome, individual microbiota composition may cause phenotypic variation associated with HF feeding in mice. PMID:27577172

  9. Transferring the blues : Depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, John R; Borre, Yuliya; O' Brien, Ciaran; Patterson, Elaine; El Aidy, Sahar; Deane, Jennifer; Kennedy, Paul J; Beers, Sasja; Scott, Karen; Moloney, Gerard; Hoban, Alan E; Scott, Lucinda; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, func

  10. The microbiota in adaptive immune homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kenya; Littman, Dan R

    2016-07-01

    In the mucosa, the immune system's T cells and B cells have position-specific phenotypes and functions that are influenced by the microbiota. These cells play pivotal parts in the maintenance of immune homeostasis by suppressing responses to harmless antigens and by enforcing the integrity of the barrier functions of the gut mucosa. Imbalances in the gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis, can trigger several immune disorders through the activity of T cells that are both near to and distant from the site of their induction. Elucidation of the mechanisms that distinguish between homeostatic and pathogenic microbiota-host interactions could identify therapeutic targets for preventing or modulating inflammatory diseases and for boosting the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27383982

  11. Modulation of immune development and function by intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Agnieszka M; Srinivasan, Naren; Maloy, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    The immune system must constantly monitor the gastrointestinal tract for the presence of pathogens while tolerating trillions of commensal microbiota. It is clear that intestinal microbiota actively modulate the immune system to maintain a mutually beneficial relation, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are not fully understood. Recent advances have begun to shed light on the cellular and molecular factors involved, revealing that a range of microbiota derivatives can influence host immune functions by targeting various cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells, mononuclear phagocytes, innate lymphoid cells, and B and T lymphocytes. Here, we review these findings, highlighting open questions and important challenges to overcome in translating this knowledge into new therapies for intestinal and systemic immune disorders. PMID:25172617

  12. Diet-Intestinal Microbiota Axis in Osteoarthritis: A Possible Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yusheng; Luo, Wei; Deng, Zhenhan; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota is highly involved in host physiology and pathology through activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common form of arthritis characterized by articular cartilage destruction and osteophyte formation. Although various person-level risk factors, such as age, sex, and obesity, have been proposed for the pathogenesis of OA, the underlying links between these person-level factors and OA are still enigmatic. Based on the current understanding in the crosstalk between intestinal microbiota and these risk factors, intestinal microbiota could be considered as a major hidden risk factor that provides a unifying mechanism to explain the involvement of these person-level risk factors in OA. PMID:27610004

  13. The gut microbiota in human energy homeostasis and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Knight, Rob; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies of rodents suggest that the gut microbiota populations are sensitive to genetic and environmental influences, and can produce or influence afferent signals that directly or indirectly impinge on energy homeostatic systems affecting both energy balance (weight gain or loss) and energy stores. Fecal transplants from obese and lean human, and from mouse donors to gnotobiotic mice, result in adoption of the donor somatotype by the formerly germ-free rodents. Thus, the microbiota is certainly implicated in the development of obesity, adiposity-related comorbidities, and the response to interventions designed to achieve sustained weight reduction in mice. More studies are needed to determine whether the microbiota plays a similarly potent role in human body-weight regulation and obesity.

  14. Characterization of the normal microbiota of the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-12-01

    The ocular surface is continually exposed to the environment and as a consequence to different types of microbes, but whether there is a normal microbiota of the ocular surface remains unresolved. Using traditional microbial culture techniques has shown that Contact lenses have also been cultured, and they yield similar microbial types. Microbes can be isolated from the ocular surface almost immediately after birth. The advent of molecular techniques for microbial identification based on 16S rRNA sequencing has opened up the possibility of determining whether there are non-cultivable microbes that can colonise the ocular surface. Additionally, use of these techniques with cross-sectional and longitudinal studies may help to understand whether the ocular surface harbours its own unique microbiota, or whether the microbiota are only transiently present.

  15. Resurrecting the intestinal microbiota to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamer, Eric G

    2016-04-29

    The intestinal microbiota, which is composed of diverse populations of commensal bacterial species, provides resistance against colonization and invasion by pathogens. Antibiotic treatment can damage the intestinal microbiota and, paradoxically, increase susceptibility to infections. Reestablishing microbiota-mediated colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment could markedly reduce infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ongoing studies are identifying commensal bacterial species that can be developed into next-generation probiotics to reestablish or enhance colonization resistance. These live medicines are at various stages of discovery, testing, and production and are being subjected to existing regulatory gauntlets for eventual introduction into clinical practice. The development of next-generation probiotics to reestablish colonization resistance and eliminate potential pathogens from the gut is warranted and will reduce health care-associated infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:27126035

  16. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eQuercia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The gut microbiota continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations in diet or specific host physiological and immunological needs at different ages. On the other hand, the microbiota plasticity was strategic to face changes in lifestyle and dietary habits along the course of the recent evolutionary history, that has driven the passage from Paleolithic hunter-gathering societies to Neolithic agricultural farmers to modern Westernized societies.

  17. Therapeutic implications of manipulating and mining the microbiota.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-09-01

    The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a health asset but occasionally is a contributor to the pathogenesis of both gastrointestinal and certain extra-intestinal disorders. This is driving research interest, the pace of which has been greatly facilitated by new molecular technologies for studying mixed microbial populations, including the non-cultivable sector. In addition, it appears that elements of a modern lifestyle such as diet, domestic hygiene, urbanization, antibiotic usage and family size, may represent proxy markers of environmental influence on the composition of the microbiota colonizing the host in early life. While manipulation of the microbiota has become a therapeutic strategy in certain clinical disorders, the prospect of mining host-microbe-dietary interactions for novel drug discovery may become an even more intriguing reality.

  18. Galacto‐oligosaccharides attenuate renal injury with microbiota modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Satoshi U.; Ohse, Takamoto; Jo‐Watanabe, Airi; Shigehisa, Akira; Kawakami, Koji; Matsuki, Takahiro; Chonan, Osamu; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Tubulointerstitial injury is central to the progression of end‐stage renal disease. Recent studies have revealed that one of the most investigated uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate (IS), caused tubulointerstitial injury through oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Because indole, the precursor of IS, is synthesized from dietary tryptophan by the gut microbiota, we hypothesized that the intervention targeting the gut microbiota in kidney disease with galacto‐oligosaccharides (GOS) would attenuate renal injury. After 2 weeks of GOS administration for 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) or sham‐operated (Sham) rats, cecal indole and serum IS were measured, renal injury was evaluated, and the effects of GOS on the gut microbiota were examined using pyrosequencing methods. Cecal indole and serum IS were significantly decreased and renal injury was improved with decreased infiltrating macrophages in GOS‐treated Nx rats. The expression levels of ER stress markers and apoptosis were significantly increased in the Nx rats and decreased with GOS. The microbiota analysis indicated that GOS significantly increased three bacterial families and decreased five families in the Nx rats. In addition, the analysis also revealed that the bacterial family Clostridiaceae was significantly increased in the Nx rats compared with the Sham rats and decreased with GOS. Taken altogether, our data show that GOS decreased cecal indole and serum IS, attenuated renal injury, and modified the gut microbiota in the Nx rats, and that the gut microbiota were altered in kidney disease. GOS could be a novel therapeutic agent to protect against renal injury. PMID:24994892

  19. Biomassa e atividade microbianas do solo sob influência de chumbo e da rizosfera da soja micorrizada Soil microbial biomass and activity under the influence of lead addition and mycorrhizal soybean rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Adrián López de Andrade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de chumbo (Pb ao solo na biomassa e atividade microbianas do solo sob influência da rizosfera de soja micorrizada. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 4x2x2 utilizando-se 0, 150, 300 e 600 mg dm-3 de Pb, inoculação ou não do fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA, Glomus macrocarpum, e duas épocas de amostragem - florescimento e maturação da soja. Avaliaram-se o C da biomassa microbiana, a liberação de CO2 do solo e a atividade de três enzimas, desidrogenase, fosfatase alcalina e arilssulfatase. O Pb afetou negativamente o C da biomassa e a atividade da microbiota rizosférica, ocorrendo interação entre a presença de propágulos de FMA e o estádio de desenvolvimento da planta. A atividade da fosfatase alcalina foi a mais afetada pelas altas concentrações de Pb adicionadas ao solo, com redução de 60% na sua atividade, mostrando-se um indicador sensível do estresse metabólico da comunidade microbiana do solo causado pelo excesso de chumbo. A micorrização da soja influenciou de forma direta a microbiota rizosférica, resultando em maior atividade e biomassa, principalmente no estádio de maturação da soja. A microbiota do solo apresentou sintomas de estresse decorrentes da adição de chumbo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of lead addition on soil microbial biomass and activity under the influence of the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal soybean. The experimental design was completely randomized and arranged in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, using 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg dm-3, inoculation or not of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF Glomus macrocarpum and two sampling periods: soybean flowering and maturity. Microbial biomass C, soil respiration and the activity of three soil enzymes (deshydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and arilsulphatase were determined. The most affected enzyme

  20. Microbiota and Neurological Disorders: A Gut Feeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Walter H; Faller, Douglas V; Harpp, David N; Kanara, Iphigenia; Pernokas, Julie; Powers, Whitney R; Steliou, Kosta

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, noncommunicable diseases have surpassed infectious diseases as the principal cause of sickness and death, worldwide. Trillions of commensal microbes live in and on our body, and constitute the human microbiome. The vast majority of these microorganisms are maternally derived and live in the gut, where they perform functions essential to our health and survival, including: digesting food, activating certain drugs, producing short-chain fatty acids (which help to modulate gene expression by inhibiting the deacetylation of histone proteins), generating anti-inflammatory substances, and playing a fundamental role in the induction, training, and function of our immune system. Among the many roles the microbiome ultimately plays, it mitigates against untoward effects from our exposure to the environment by forming a biotic shield between us and the outside world. The importance of physical activity coupled with a balanced and healthy diet in the maintenance of our well-being has been recognized since antiquity. However, it is only recently that characterization of the host-microbiome intermetabolic and crosstalk pathways has come to the forefront in studying therapeutic design. As reviewed in this report, synthetic biology shows potential in developing microorganisms for correcting pathogenic dysbiosis (gut microbiota-host maladaptation), although this has yet to be proven. However, the development and use of small molecule drugs have a long and successful history in the clinic, with small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors representing one relevant example already approved to treat cancer and other disorders. Moreover, preclinical research suggests that epigenetic treatment of neurological conditions holds significant promise. With the mouth being an extension of the digestive tract, it presents a readily accessible diagnostic site for the early detection of potential unhealthy pathogens resident in the gut. Taken together, the data outlined

  1. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Microbiota and Neurological Disorders: A Gut Feeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Walter H; Faller, Douglas V; Harpp, David N; Kanara, Iphigenia; Pernokas, Julie; Powers, Whitney R; Steliou, Kosta

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, noncommunicable diseases have surpassed infectious diseases as the principal cause of sickness and death, worldwide. Trillions of commensal microbes live in and on our body, and constitute the human microbiome. The vast majority of these microorganisms are maternally derived and live in the gut, where they perform functions essential to our health and survival, including: digesting food, activating certain drugs, producing short-chain fatty acids (which help to modulate gene expression by inhibiting the deacetylation of histone proteins), generating anti-inflammatory substances, and playing a fundamental role in the induction, training, and function of our immune system. Among the many roles the microbiome ultimately plays, it mitigates against untoward effects from our exposure to the environment by forming a biotic shield between us and the outside world. The importance of physical activity coupled with a balanced and healthy diet in the maintenance of our well-being has been recognized since antiquity. However, it is only recently that characterization of the host-microbiome intermetabolic and crosstalk pathways has come to the forefront in studying therapeutic design. As reviewed in this report, synthetic biology shows potential in developing microorganisms for correcting pathogenic dysbiosis (gut microbiota-host maladaptation), although this has yet to be proven. However, the development and use of small molecule drugs have a long and successful history in the clinic, with small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors representing one relevant example already approved to treat cancer and other disorders. Moreover, preclinical research suggests that epigenetic treatment of neurological conditions holds significant promise. With the mouth being an extension of the digestive tract, it presents a readily accessible diagnostic site for the early detection of potential unhealthy pathogens resident in the gut. Taken together, the data outlined

  3. Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries before and after Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, A.C.R.; Kent, R.L.; Holgerson, P. Lif; Hughes, C. V.; Loo, C. Y.; Kanasi, E.; Chalmers, N. I.; Johansson, I.

    2011-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) is difficult to treat successfully. This study aimed to characterize the microbiota of severe ECC and evaluate whether baseline or follow-up microbiotas are associated with new lesions post-treatment. Plaque samples from 2- to 6-year-old children were analyzed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray and by PCR for selected taxa. Severe-ECC children were monitored for 12 months post-therapy. By microarray, species associated with severe-ECC (n = 53) compared with car...

  4. Role of the Microbiota and Antibiotics in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Tabibian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is an idiopathic, progressive, cholestatic liver disease with considerable morbidity and mortality and no established pharmacotherapy. In addition to the long-recognized association between PSC and inflammatory bowel disease, several lines of preclinical and clinical evidence implicate the microbiota in the etiopathogenesis of PSC. Here we provide a concise review of these data which, taken together, support further investigation of the role of the microbiota and antibiotics in PSC as potential avenues toward elucidating safe and effective pharmacotherapy for patients afflicted by this illness.

  5. The diet-microbiota-metabolite axis regulates the host physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Takahashi, Daisuke; Hase, Koji

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and cancer. Food ingredients are considered a major determinant of gut microbial composition, as exemplified by high-fat diet-induced dysbiosis that can affect host physiology. Accumulating studies show that microbial metabolites are key regulators of the intestinal epithelial barrier and gut immunity. In particular, short-chain fatty acids produced by bacterial fermentation of indigestible polysaccharides have profound impacts on host physiology beyond the gut. In this review, we describe the influences of the diet-microbiota-metabolite axis on host physiology, and especially on the immune and metabolic systems. PMID:26970281

  6. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  7. Microbiota and immunity: from preclinical data to clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Giannetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota is composed of 1013-1014 microorganisms, with at least 100 times as many genes as our genome, the microbiome. Its composition is specific for each individual, changes among individuals and also shows an intra-individual variability during life. Although the gastrointestinal microbial communities of adults are often believed to be stable, there is evidence that, even though at lower rates than in childhood, they change with time, and effects of this variability on health have not been determined yet. The interaction between microbiota and environment is close and widely demonstrated. Gut flora composition is deeply influenced by a number of factors, including diet, age, medications, illness, stress and lifestyle. Intestinal microflora has protective, metabolic and trophic functions. Commensal microbiota can deeply influence the development of the gut mucosal immune system, modulating the maturation of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and preventing exogenous pathogen intrusion, by stimulation of the immune system and by direct interaction with pathogenic bacteria. The increasing amount of preclinical studies regarding the interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system and the multiple observations of altered microbiota in human diseases have paved the way for a number of clinical trials aimed at verifying the potential benefits deriving from the manipulation of the microbial ensemble. Several probiotic bacteria have been assessed for their potential applicability in human diseases, albeit with different levels of success. In conclusion, the gut microbiota codevelops with the immune system beginning at birth. The development of the microbiota and its interactions with the cellular populations of the bowel provide a substantial contribution to shaping the structure and dynamic operations of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Manipulation of the microbiota, particularly through the administration of

  8. The human intestinal microbiota and its relationship to energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckhed, Fredrik; Ley, Ruth E.; Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Jeffrey I Gordon

    2006-01-01

    The human gut microbiota can be pictured as a microbial organ placed within a host organ: it is composed of different cell lineages that have the capacity to communicate with one another and with the host. One major function of the microbiota is to degrade complex and otherwise indigestible components of the diet, such as polysaccharides. This process results in production of short-chain fatty acids that are readily absorbed and used as an energy source by the host. Studies in gnotobiotic mou...

  9. Diet-Microbiota Interactions and Their Implications for Healthy Living

    OpenAIRE

    Ian B Jeffery; Paul W O'Toole

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large contribution of the gut microbiota to this effect. As well as providing basic nutritional requirements, the long-term diet of an animal modifies its gut microbiota. In adults, diets that have a high proportion of fruit and vegetables and a low consumptio...

  10. Phylogeny, culturing, and metagenomics of the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alan W; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2014-05-01

    The human intestinal tract is colonised by a complex community of microbes, which can have major impacts on host health. Recent research on the gut microbiota has largely been driven by the advent of modern sequence-based techniques, such as metagenomics. Although these are powerful and valuable tools, they have limitations. Traditional culturing and phylogeny can mitigate some of these limitations, either by expanding reference databases or by assigning functionality to specific microbial lineages. As such, culture and phylogeny will continue to have crucially important roles in human microbiota research, and will be required for the development of novel therapeutics.

  11. The gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyndt, Bettina Merete; Redrobe, Paul; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina;

    The gut microbiota has major impact on the individual. Here we show that the gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia. The gut microbiota were changed in the group treated subchronic with PCP, and restoration coincided with normalisation...... of memory performance in lister hooded rats. Furthermore the individual gut microbiota correlated to the individual behavior abserved in the tests conducted. In conclusion results show an influence of the gut microbiota on behavior in this model, and therefore it might be relavant to include the information...... from the gut in analyses of studies using this model in the future....

  12. Comparison of the Distal Gut Microbiota from People and Animals in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Richard J; Bruce, Kenneth D.; Claire Jenkins; J. Russell Stothard; Lilly Ajarova; Lawrence Mugisha; Viney, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a key role in the maintenance of healthy gut function as well as many other aspects of health. High-throughput sequence analyses have revealed the composition of the gut microbiota, showing that there is a core signature to the human gut microbiota, as well as variation in its composition between people. The gut microbiota of animals is also being investigated. We are interested in the relationship between bacterial taxa of the human gut microbiota and those in the gu...

  13. [Role of Neuromediators in the Functioning of the Human Microbiota: "Business Talks" among Microorganisms and the Microbiota-Host Dialogue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleskin, A V; El'-registan, G I; Shenderov, B A

    2016-01-01

    Current concepts concerning social behavior of the microorganisms inhabiting human gastrointestinal tract, as well as their role in the formation of integrated supracellular structures and in intercellular communication in the host-microbiota system are reviewed. Analysis of the literature data and the results obtained by the authors indicate an important role of neuromediators (biogenic amines, amino acids, peptides, and nitric oxide) in the intra- and interspecies microbial communication, as well as in the microbiota-host dialogue. The role of this dialogue for human health, its effect on human psyche and social behavior, and the possibility of construction of probiotic preparations with a goal-directed neurochemical effect are discussed.

  14. Can we prevent obesity-related metabolic diseases by dietary modulation of the gut microbiota?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut...... microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic...... diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity...

  15. Does whole grain consumption alter gut microbiota and satiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Both individual whole grain cereals and interventions with combined whole grain cereals were considered. Possible links between the fermentation of non-digestible c...

  16. Tummy Time: The Infant Microbiota-IgA Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Tyler A; Palm, Noah W

    2016-07-13

    Dirty diapers do not often come to mind when thinking about cutting-edge biomedical research. However, in a recent Nature paper, Planer et al. (2016) report results from a longitudinal study examining gut microbiota maturation and corresponding intestinal immune responses in healthy twin pairs over the first 3 years of life. PMID:27414495

  17. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections. PMID:26758298

  18. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-02-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific variations of the GI microbiota of four penguin species: the king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguin. The qPCR results indicated that there were significant differences in the abundance of the major phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. A total of 132,340, 18,336, 6324, and 4826 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from fecal samples collected from king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguins, respectively. A total of 13 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria dominating the composition; however, there were major differences in the relative abundance of the phyla. In addition, this study documented the presence of known human pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Veillonella, Erysipelotrichaceae, Neisseria, and Mycoplasma. However, their role in disease in penguins remains unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of the GI microbiota of penguins.

  19. The gut microbiota in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi eGkouskou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestine and the intestinal immune system have evolved through a symbiotic homeostasis under which a highly diverse microbial flora is maintained in the gastrointestinal tract while pathogenic bacteria are recognized and eliminated. Disruption of the balance between the immune system and the gut microbiota results in the development of multiple pathologies in humans. Inflammatory bowel diseases have been associated with alterations in the composition of intestinal flora but whether these changes are causal or result of inflammation is still under dispute. Various chemical and genetic models of inflammatory bowel diseases have been developed and utilized to elucidate the complex relationship between intestinal epithelium, immune system and the gut microbiota. In this review we describe some of the most commonly used mouse models of colitis and Crohn’s disease and summarize the current knowledge of how changes in microbiota composition may affect intestinal disease pathogenesis. The pursuit of gut-microbiota interactions will no doubt continue to provide invaluable insight into the complex biology of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  20. Diet-Microbiota Interactions and Their Implications for Healthy Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large contribution of the gut microbiota to this effect. As well as providing basic nutritional requirements, the long-term diet of an animal modifies its gut microbiota. In adults, diets that have a high proportion of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of meat are associated with a highly diverse microbiota and are defined by a greater abundance of Prevotella compared to Bacteroides, while the reverse is associated with a diet that contains a low proportion of plant-based foods. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly clear that the effect of the microbial ecology of the gut goes beyond the local gut immune system and is implicated in immune-related disorders, such as IBS, diabetes and inflamm-ageing. In this review, we investigate the evidence that a balanced diet leads to a balanced, diverse microbiota with significant consequences for healthy ageing by focusing on conditions of interest.

  1. Glucose modulates Drosophila longevity and immunity independent of the microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenza, Anthony; Hutchinson, Jaclyn; Campbell, Shelagh D.; Hazes, Bart; Foley, Edan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The acquisition of nutrients is essential for maintenance of metabolic processes in all organisms. Nutritional imbalance contributes to myriad metabolic disorders that include malnutrition, diabetes and even cancer. Recently, the importance of macronutrient ratio of food has emerged as a critical factor to determine health outcomes. Here we show that individual modifications to a completely defined diet markedly impact multiple aspects of organism wellbeing in Drosophila melanogaster. Through a longitudinal survey of several diets we demonstrate that increased levels of dietary glucose significantly improve longevity and immunity in adult Drosophila. Our metagenomic studies show that relative macronutrient levels not only influence the host, but also have a profound impact on microbiota composition. However, we found that elevated dietary glucose extended the lifespan of adult flies even when raised in a germ-free environment. Furthermore, when challenged with a chronic enteric infection, flies fed a diet with added glucose had increased survival times even in the absence of an intact microbiota. Thus, in contrast to known links between the microbiota and animal health, our findings uncover a novel microbiota-independent response to diet that impacts host wellbeing. As dietary responses are highly conserved in animals, we believe our results offer a general understanding of the association between glucose metabolism and animal health. PMID:26794610

  2. Modulation of mice fecal microbiota by administration of casein glycomacropeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsen Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Casein glycomacropeptide (GMP is known to promote the in vitro growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. In this paper, we used conven- tional culture techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH techniques to investigate the effect of casein GMP on mice fecal microbiota. The population structure of the intestinal microbiota, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Enterococcus, coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae, was tested and compared. After consecutive administration of casein GMP for 15 days, numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria increased significantly (P<0.01, numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and Coliforms decreased significantly (P<0.05 while no significant changes were observed for Enterococcus. The detection limits of FISH technique were significantly lower (P<0.01 than the traditional culture method. These results suggested that consumption of casein GMP had a prebiotic effect on male BALB/c mice. Casein GMP helped establish a healthier intestinal microbiota. Additionally, FISH was proved to be a rapid and relatively low-cost detection method that can be used to further our understanding of human intestinal microbiota.

  3. Host Genetic and Environmental Effects on Mouse Cecum Microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, James H [ORNL; Foster, Carmen M [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Campbell, Alisha G [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Wymore, Ann [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gut harbors complex and variable microbial communities, across both host phylogenetic space and conspecific individuals. A synergy of host genetic and environmental factors shape these communities and account for their variability, but their individual contributions and the selective pressures involved are still not well understood. We employed barcoded pyrosequencing of V1-2 and V4 regions of bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the effects of host genetics and environment on cecum assemblages in 10 genetically distinct, inbred mouse strains. Eight of these strains are the foundation of the Collaborative Cross (CC), a panel of mice derived from a genetically diverse set of inbred founder strains, designed specifically for complex trait analysis. Diversity of gut microbiota was characterized by complementing phylogenetic and distance-based, sequence-clustering approaches. Significant correlations were found between the mouse strains and their gut microbiota, reflected by distinct bacterial communities. Cohabitation and litter had a reduced, although detectable effect, and the microbiota response to these factors varied by strain. We identified bacterial phylotypes that appear to be discriminative and strain-specific to each mouse line used. Cohabitation of different strains of mice revealed an interaction of host genetic and environmental factors in shaping gut bacterial consortia, in which bacterial communities became more similar but retained strain specificity. This study provides a baseline analysis of intestinal bacterial communities in the eight CC progenitor strains and will be linked to integrated host genotype, phenotype and microbiota research on the resulting CC panel.

  4. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  5. The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Andreas Friis; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Stjernholm, Theresa;

    2016-01-01

    associated with obesity. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search for literature available before October 2015 in the PubMed and Scopus databases, focusing on the interplay between the gut microbiota, childhood obesity, and metabolism. RESULTS: The review discusses the potential role of the bacterial...

  6. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota. PMID:26997344

  7. Incorporation of therapeutically modified bacteria into gut microbiota inhibits obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongyi; Guo, Lilu; Zhang, Yongqin; Walzem, Rosemary L; Pendergast, Julie S; Printz, Richard L; Morris, Lindsey C; Matafonova, Elena; Stien, Xavier; Kang, Li; Coulon, Denis; McGuinness, Owen P; Niswender, Kevin D; Davies, Sean S

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, are widespread in Westernized nations. Gut microbiota composition is a contributing factor to the susceptibility of an individual to the development of these disorders; therefore, altering a person's microbiota may ameliorate disease. One potential microbiome-altering strategy is the incorporation of modified bacteria that express therapeutic factors into the gut microbiota. For example, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are precursors to the N-acylethanolamide (NAE) family of lipids, which are synthesized in the small intestine in response to feeding and reduce food intake and obesity. Here, we demonstrated that administration of engineered NAPE-expressing E. coli Nissle 1917 bacteria in drinking water for 8 weeks reduced the levels of obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice that received modified bacteria had dramatically lower food intake, adiposity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis compared with mice receiving standard water or control bacteria. The protective effects conferred by NAPE-expressing bacteria persisted for at least 4 weeks after their removal from the drinking water. Moreover, administration of NAPE-expressing bacteria to TallyHo mice, a polygenic mouse model of obesity, inhibited weight gain. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of appropriately modified bacteria into the gut microbiota has potential as an effective strategy to inhibit the development of metabolic disorders.

  8. Gut microbiota and obesity: lessons from the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Patrice D

    2013-07-01

    The distal gut harbours microbial communities that outnumber our own eukaryotic cells. The contribution of the gut microbiota to the development of several diseases (e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, steatosis, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases) is becoming clear, although the causality remains to be proven in humans. Global changes in the gut microbiota have been observed by a number of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, and while the latter have mostly included 16S ribosomal RNA gene analyses, more recent studies have utilized DNA sequencing of whole-microbial communities. Altogether, these high-throughput methods have facilitated the identification of novel candidate bacteria and, most importantly, metabolic functions that might be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review discusses the association between specific taxa and obesity, together with the techniques that are used to characterize the gut microbiota in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent results are discussed in the framework of the interactions between gut microbiota and host metabolism.

  9. Diet, Microbiota, Obesity, and NAFLD: A Dangerous Quartet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Verdelho Machado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of the gut-liver-adipose tissue axis has become evident. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the hepatic disease of a systemic metabolic disorder that radiates from energy-surplus induced adiposopathy. The gut microbiota has tremendous influences in our whole-body metabolism, and is crucial for our well-being and health. Microorganisms precede humans in more than 400 million years and our guest flora evolved with us in order to help us face aggressor microorganisms, to help us maximize the energy that can be extracted from nutrients, and to produce essential nutrients/vitamins that we are not equipped to produce. However, our gut microbiota can be disturbed, dysbiota, and become itself a source of stress and injury. Dysbiota may adversely impact metabolism and immune responses favoring obesity and obesity-related disorders such as insulin resistance/diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In this review, we will summarize the latest evidence of the role of microbiota/dysbiota in diet-induced obesity and NAFLD, as well as the potential therapeutic role of targeting the microbiota in this set.

  10. Diet, Microbiota, Obesity, and NAFLD: A Dangerous Quartet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Verdelho; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the importance of the gut-liver-adipose tissue axis has become evident. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic disease of a systemic metabolic disorder that radiates from energy-surplus induced adiposopathy. The gut microbiota has tremendous influences in our whole-body metabolism, and is crucial for our well-being and health. Microorganisms precede humans in more than 400 million years and our guest flora evolved with us in order to help us face aggressor microorganisms, to help us maximize the energy that can be extracted from nutrients, and to produce essential nutrients/vitamins that we are not equipped to produce. However, our gut microbiota can be disturbed, dysbiota, and become itself a source of stress and injury. Dysbiota may adversely impact metabolism and immune responses favoring obesity and obesity-related disorders such as insulin resistance/diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In this review, we will summarize the latest evidence of the role of microbiota/dysbiota in diet-induced obesity and NAFLD, as well as the potential therapeutic role of targeting the microbiota in this set. PMID:27043550

  11. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  12. The bovine milk microbiota: insights and perspectives from -omics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, M F; Tanca, A; Uzzau, S; Oikonomou, G; Bicalho, R C; Moroni, P

    2016-07-19

    Recent significant progress in culture-independent techniques, together with the parallel development of -omics technologies and data analysis capabilities, have led to a new perception of the milk microbiota as a complex microbial community with great diversity and multifaceted biological roles, living in an environment that was until recently believed to be sterile. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest findings on the milk microbiota in dairy cows, with a focus on the role it plays in bovine physiology and health. Following an introduction on microbial communities and the importance of their study, we present an overview of the -omics methods currently available for their characterization, and outline the potential offered by a systems biology approach encompassing metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metametabolomics. Then, we review the recent discoveries on the dairy cow milk microbiome enabled by the application of -omics approaches. Learning from studies in humans and in the mouse model, and after a description of the endogenous route hypothesis, we discuss the role of the milk microbiota in the physiology and health of both the mother and the offspring, and report how it can be changed by farming practices and during infection. In conclusion, we shortly outline the impact of the milk microbiota on the quality of milk and of dairy products. PMID:27216801

  13. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific variations of the GI microbiota of four penguin species: the king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguin. The qPCR results indicated that there were significant differences in the abundance of the major phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. A total of 132,340, 18,336, 6324, and 4826 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from fecal samples collected from king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguins, respectively. A total of 13 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria dominating the composition; however, there were major differences in the relative abundance of the phyla. In addition, this study documented the presence of known human pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Veillonella, Erysipelotrichaceae, Neisseria, and Mycoplasma. However, their role in disease in penguins remains unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of the GI microbiota of penguins. PMID:23349094

  14. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S

    2013-06-01

    Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23435630

  15. Is chronic plaque psoriasis triggered by microbiota in the skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, L; Baker, B S; Powles, A V; Fahlen, A; Engstrand, L

    2013-07-01

    There is a known association between psoriasis and Crohn disease (CD). Patients with CD are five times more likely to develop psoriasis, and, conversely, patients with psoriasis are more likely to develop CD. Many gastroenterologists now accept that CD results from a breakdown of immune tolerance to the microbiota of the intestine in genetically susceptible individuals. The microbiota of the skin have recently been investigated in psoriasis. Firmicutes was the most common phylum, and Streptococcus the most common genus identified. Beta-haemolytic streptococci have been implicated in both guttate and chronic plaque psoriasis. Furthermore, the innate immune system has been shown to be activated in psoriasis, and many of the genes associated with the disease are concerned with the signalling pathways of the innate immune system, notably interleukin-23 and nuclear factor κB. Patients with psoriasis also have an increased incidence of periodontitis, a disease thought to be due to an abnormal response to normal oral commensals. Based on the similarities between CD and psoriasis, we propose that psoriasis is due to a breakdown of immune tolerance to the microbiota of the skin. In support of this hypothesis we provide evidence for microbiota in the skin, activation of the innate immune system, and genetic abnormalities involving the innate immune system.

  16. The human gastrointestinal microbiota - An unexplored frontier for pharmaceutical discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.; Bouwman, J.; Venema, K.; Montijn, R.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbors microorganisms (the microbiota) of vast phylogentic, genomic, and metabolic diversity, and recent years have seen a rapid development in the techniques for studying these complex microbial ecosystems. It is increasingly apparent that the GIT microbi

  17. Altered composition of gut microbiota in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yuichi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

      Manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. Some researchers have been focusing on intestinal microbiota which is thought to be one of the environmental factors that may enhance the development of RA. The advancement of culture-independent, high throughput microbial DNA sequencing had enabled us to understand the interplay between intestinal microbiota and host immune systems. In this study, we have reviewed the previous findings in animal and human studies with respect to the role of intestinal microbiota in RA. Mouse models of arthritis have demonstrated that gut microbiota plays a critical role in the disease development. K/BxN and IL-1 receptor-antagonist knock-out mice did not develop disease in germ free condition, however, colonization of particular intestinal bacteria was sufficient to induce arthritis. Moreover, the dysbiosis was observed in the human RA patients from United States, China and Finland. Thus, we believe that endeavors to improve the dysbiosis would serve as a novel therapeutic or preventive strategy in RA patients. PMID:27181236

  18. Another Reason to Thank Mom: Gestational Effects of Microbiota Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth

    2016-04-13

    Microbial colonization after birth profoundly affects development of the host. In a recent paper, Gomez de Agüero et al. (2016) reveal a new aspect of ontogeny influenced by the microbiota: the impact of gestational gut bacterial metabolites on early immune maturation of the neonatal intestine. PMID:27078061

  19. Effects of specific carbohydrates on the intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lene; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.;

    The current screening study aimed at testing a set of well-characterized carbohydrates derived from pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from sugar beet for their specific effect on intestinal microbiotas derived from healthy people and from patients suffering from the inflammatory bowel disease...

  20. Microbial transformation from normal oral microbiota to acute endodontic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao William WL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endodontic infections are a leading cause of oro-facial pain and tooth loss in western countries, and may lead to severe life-threatening infections. These infections are polymicrobial with high bacterial diversity. Understanding the spatial transition of microbiota from normal oral cavities through the infected root canal to the acute periapical abscess can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of endodontic infections and lead to more effective treatment. We obtained samples from the oral cavity, infected root canal and periapical abscess of 8 patients (5 with localized and 3 with systemic infections. Microbial populations in these samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Bioinformatics tools and statistical tests with rigorous criteria were used to elucidate the spatial transition of the microbiota from normal to diseased sites. Results On average, 10,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. The microbial diversity in root canal and abscess samples was significantly lower than in the oral samples. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in oral cavities while Prevotella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in diseased samples. The microbiota community structures of root canal and abscess samples were, however, more similar to each other than to the oral cavity microbiota. Using rigorous criteria and novel bioinformatics tools, we found that Granulicatella adiacens, Eubacterium yurii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella salivae, Streptococcus mitis, and Atopobium rimae were over-represented in diseased samples. Conclusions We used a novel approach and high-throughput methodologies to characterize the microbiota associated normal and diseased oral sites in the same individuals.

  1. Potential applications of gut microbiota to control human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Ozgün Candan Onarman; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B; Svihus, Birger; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2013-11-01

    The microorganisms living in our gut have been a black box to us for a long time. However, with the recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, it is now possible to assess virtually all microorganisms in our gut including non-culturable ones. With the use of powerful bioinformatics tools to deal with multivariate analyses of huge amounts of data from metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, we now start to gain some important insights into these tiny gut inhabitants. Our knowledge is increasing about who they are, to some extent, what they do and how they affect our health. Gut microbiota have a broad spectrum of possible effects on health, from preventing serious diseases, improving immune system and gut health to stimulating the brain centers responsible for appetite and food intake control. Further, we may be on the verge of being capable of manipulating the gut microbiota by diet control to possibly improve our health. Diets consisting of different components that are fermentable by microbiota are substrates for different kinds of microbes in the gut. Thus, diet control can be used to favor the growth of some selected gut inhabitants. Nowadays, the gut microbiota is taken into account as a separate organ in human body and their activities and metabolites in gut have many physiological and neurological effects. In this mini-review, we discuss the diversity of gut microbiota, the technologies used to assess them, factors that affect microbial composition and metabolites that affect human physiology, and their potential applications in satiety control via the gut-brain axis.

  2. Human gut microbiota changes reveal the progression of glucose intolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Zhang

    Full Text Available To explore the relationship of gut microbiota with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM, we analyzed 121 subjects who were divided into 3 groups based on their glucose intolerance status: normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 44, prediabetes (Pre-DM; n = 64, or newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 13. Gut microbiota characterizations were determined with 16S rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing. T2DM-related dysbiosis was observed, including the separation of microbial communities and a change of alpha diversity between the different glucose intolerance statuses. To assess the correlation between metabolic parameters and microbiota diversity, clinical characteristics were also measured and a significant association between metabolic parameters (FPG, CRP and gut microbiota was found. In addition, a total of 28 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were found to be related to T2DM status by the Kruskal-Wallis H test, most of which were enriched in the T2DM group. Butyrate-producing bacteria (e.g. Akkermansia muciniphila ATCCBAA-835, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii L2-6 had a higher abundance in the NGT group than in the pre-DM group. At genus level, the abundance of Bacteroides in the T2DM group was only half that of the NGT and Pre-DM groups. Previously reported T2DM-related markers were also compared with the data in this study, and some inconsistencies were noted. We found that Verrucomicrobiae may be a potential marker of T2DM as it had a significantly lower abundance in both the pre-DM and T2DM groups. In conclusion, this research provides further evidence of the structural modulation of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of diabetes.

  3. Dynamics of the surgical microbiota along the cardiothoracic surgery pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eRomano-Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin associated microbiota are increasingly described by culture-independent methods that showed an unexpected diversity with variation correlated with several pathologies. A role of microbiota disequilibrium in infection occurrence is hypothesized, particularly in surgical site infections. We study the diversities of operative site microbiota and its dynamics during surgical pathway of patients undergoing coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG. Pre-, per- and post-operative samples were collected from 25 patients: skin before the surgery, superficially and deeply during the intervention, and healing tissues. Bacterial diversity was assessed by DNA fingerprint using 16S rRNA gene PCR and Temporal Temperature Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE. The diversity of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs at the surgical site was analyzed according to the stage of surgery.From all patients and samples, we identified 147 different OTUs belonging to the 6 phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Fusobacteria. High variations were observed among patients but common themes can be observed. The Firmicutes dominated quantitatively but were largely encompassed by the Proteobacteria regarding the OTUs diversity. The genera Propionibacterium and Staphylococcus predominated on the preoperative skin, whereas very diverse Proteobacteria appeared selected in peri-operative samples. The resilience in scar skin was partial with depletion in Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and increase of Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the thoracic operative site presents an unexpected bacterial diversity, which is partially common to skin microbiota but presents particular dynamics. We described a complex bacterial community that gathers pathobiontes and bacteria deemed to be environmental, opportunistic pathogens and non-pathogenic bacteria. These data stress to consider surgical microbiota as a pathobiome rather than a reservoir of individual

  4. Transferring the blues: Depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Borre, Yuliya; O' Brien, Ciaran; Patterson, Elaine; El Aidy, Sahar; Deane, Jennifer; Kennedy, Paul J; Beers, Sasja; Scott, Karen; Moloney, Gerard; Hoban, Alan E; Scott, Lucinda; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. The pathophysiology of depression involves neuroimmune-neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the extent to which changes in gut microbiota composition and function mediate the dysregulation of these pathways is unknown. Thirty four patients with major depression and 33 matched healthy controls were recruited. Cytokines, CRP, Salivary Cortisol and plasma Lipopolysaccharide binding protein were determined by ELISA. Plasma tryptophan and kynurenine were determined by HPLC. Fecal samples were collected for 16s rRNA sequencing. A Fecal Microbiota transplantation was prepared from a sub group of depressed patients and controls and transferred by oral gavage to a microbiota-deficient rat model. We demonstrate that depression is associated with decreased gut microbiota richness and diversity. Fecal microbiota transplantation from depressed patients to microbiota-depleted rats can induce behavioural and physiological features characteristic of depression in the recipient animals, including anhedonia and anxiety-like behaviours, as well as alterations in tryptophan metabolism. This suggests that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of features of depression and may provide a tractable target in the treatment and prevention of this disorder.

  5. Transferring the blues: Depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Borre, Yuliya; O' Brien, Ciaran; Patterson, Elaine; El Aidy, Sahar; Deane, Jennifer; Kennedy, Paul J; Beers, Sasja; Scott, Karen; Moloney, Gerard; Hoban, Alan E; Scott, Lucinda; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. The pathophysiology of depression involves neuroimmune-neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the extent to which changes in gut microbiota composition and function mediate the dysregulation of these pathways is unknown. Thirty four patients with major depression and 33 matched healthy controls were recruited. Cytokines, CRP, Salivary Cortisol and plasma Lipopolysaccharide binding protein were determined by ELISA. Plasma tryptophan and kynurenine were determined by HPLC. Fecal samples were collected for 16s rRNA sequencing. A Fecal Microbiota transplantation was prepared from a sub group of depressed patients and controls and transferred by oral gavage to a microbiota-deficient rat model. We demonstrate that depression is associated with decreased gut microbiota richness and diversity. Fecal microbiota transplantation from depressed patients to microbiota-depleted rats can induce behavioural and physiological features characteristic of depression in the recipient animals, including anhedonia and anxiety-like behaviours, as well as alterations in tryptophan metabolism. This suggests that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of features of depression and may provide a tractable target in the treatment and prevention of this disorder. PMID:27491067

  6. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota of ewes and cows reveals a unique microbiota with low levels of lactobacilli and near-neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human vaginal microbiota affect reproductive performance and perinatal health. Although a number of common reproductive disorders in livestock involve bacterial infection, very little is known about their normal vaginal microbiota. Therefore, we sought to determine the species composition of sheep a...

  7. Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows Nutrição, microbiota e doenças relacionadas à endotoxina em vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burim N. Ametaj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review article we present an overall summary of the role that high-grain/low forage diets have on rumen composition of microbiota and how changes in the diet affect the release of bacterial cell wall components that are toxic to the host. One of these toxic compounds is lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, data are provided that support the concept that endotoxin translocates into the blood circulation and show that rumen endotoxin is associated with multiple perturbations of blood variables related to carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. In addition, endotoxin induces a general, nonspecific immune response known as acute phase response. We also pinpoint the fact that high-grain diets are associated with distinct clusters of plasma metabolites and immune variables suggesting that changing cereal grain to forage ratio in the diet is very important for the health of dairy cattle. Furthermore, we provide information that support the concept that endotoxin is involved in multiple metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, milk fever, laminitis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and downer cow syndrome. More research is warranted to clarify the mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin contribute to development of metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. It is concluded that besides the aforementioned causal agents other compounds generated in the gastrointestinal tract such as lipoteichoic acid or methylated amines might be involved in the etiology of several metabolic diseases.Neste artigo de revisão é apresentado um resumo total do papel que a dieta de alto teor de grãos e baixo teor de forragem tem sobre a composição da microbiota do rúmen e como as mudanças na dieta afetam a liberação de componentes da parede celular bacteriana tóxicos ao hospedeiro. Um destes compostos tóxicos é um lipopolisacarídeo ou endotoxina, um componente da

  8. Gut Microbiota: From Fundamental Research to Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Bi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiota is a hot topic at present because increasing evidences demonstrate that it should be considered an organ based on its importance to human health. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is significantly related to many human disorders. In turn, correcting such imbalances and taking advantage of gut microbes are possible methods for alleviating or even curing host diseases. A recent study published in Cell indicated that inhibition of gut microbial production of trimethylamine(TMA specifically prevents atherosclerosis in vivo. Another study found that a diet supplemented with TMA N-oxide (TMAO increased the level of atherosclerosis in mice, which suggested TMAO might be a causative factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, direct inhibition of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO3, a hepatic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of TMA to TMAO, results in TMA accumulation and several unpleasant side effects. The small-molecule 3, 3-dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB, identified by Wang et al., reduces TMAO through non-lethal inhibition of microbial TMA formation in mice, even when fed a western diet, including high choline. DMB is a non-toxic compound found naturally in foods such as olive oil and red wine. Therefore, the risk of CVD could be reduced by some dietary habits (such as a Mediterranean diet, which might stem from changes in gut microbiota. Although the impact of DMB on microbial TMA has only been observed in mouse models, it provides a guideline for the treatment of CVD in humans by regulating gut microbes. There are many similar studies that target gut microbes to treat host disorders. For example, Sarkis’ group verified that a human commensal bacterium could improve autism spectrum disorder (ASD-related gastrointestinal deficits and behavioral abnormalities in mice, which indicated that microbiome-mediated therapies might be a safe and effective treatment for ASD. In addition, fecal microbiota transplantation, which has

  9. A key genetic factor for fucosyllactose utilization affects infant gut microbiota development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Takahiro; Yahagi, Kana; Mori, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hoshitaka; Hara, Taeko; Tajima, Saya; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yamada, Takuji; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota development influences infants' health and subsequent host physiology. However, the factors shaping the development of the microbiota remain poorly understood, and the mechanisms through which these factors affect gut metabolite profiles have not been extensively investigated. Here we analyse gut microbiota development of 27 infants during the first month of life. We find three distinct clusters that transition towards Bifidobacteriaceae-dominant microbiota. We observe considerable differences in human milk oligosaccharide utilization among infant bifidobacteria. Colonization of fucosyllactose (FL)-utilizing bifidobacteria is associated with altered metabolite profiles and microbiota compositions, which have been previously shown to affect infant health. Genome analysis of infants' bifidobacteria reveals an ABC transporter as a key genetic factor for FL utilization. Thus, the ability of bifidobacteria to utilize FL and the presence of FL in breast milk may affect the development of the gut microbiota in infants, and might ultimately have therapeutic implications. PMID:27340092

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future. PMID:26323514

  11. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  12. Gut microbiota and obesity: role in aetiology and potential therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Carthage P; Shanahan, Fergus

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is epidemic; chronic energy surplus is clearly important in obesity development but other factors are at play. Indigenous gut microbiota are implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of obesity and obesity-related disorders. Evidence from murine models initially suggested a role for the gut microbiota in weight regulation and the microbiota has been shown to contribute to the low grade inflammation that characterises obesity. The microbiota and its metabolites mediate some of the alterations of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, the endocannabinoid system, and bile acid metabolism, found in obesity-related disorders. Modulation of the gut microbiota is an attractive proposition for prevention or treatment of obesity, particularly as traditional measures have been sub-optimal.

  13. Anti-obesity effects of gut microbiota are associated with lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Cheng, Po-Ching; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rapidly becoming endemic in industrialized countries and continues to increase in developing countries worldwide. Obesity predisposes people to an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have described an association between obesity and certain gut microbiota, suggesting that gut microbiota might play a critical role in the development of obesity. Although probiotics have many beneficial health effects in humans and animals, attention has only recently been drawn to manipulating the gut microbiota, such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), to influence the development of obesity. In this review, we first describe the causes of obesity, including the genetic and environmental factors. We then describe the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity, and the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influence energy metabolism and inflammation in obesity. Lastly, we focus on the potential role of LAB in mediating the effects of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity.

  14. The Central Role of the Gut Microbiota in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The commensal microbiota is in constant interaction with the immune system, teaching immune cells to respond to antigens. Studies in mice have demonstrated that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters host immune cell homeostasis. Additionally, metagenomic-sequencing analysis has revealed alterations in intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and obesity. Perturbations in the microbiota composition result in a deficient immune response and impaired tolerance to commensal microorganisms. Due to altered microbiota composition which is associated to some inflammatory diseases, several strategies, such as the administration of probiotics, diet, and antibiotic usage, have been utilized to prevent or ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss recent evidence showing that the gut microbiota controls immune system function and onset, development, and resolution of some common inflammatory diseases.

  15. Prediction of Early Childhood Caries via Spatial-Temporal Variations of Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; Yang, Fang; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Amir, Amnon; Knight, Rob; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Microbiota-based prediction of chronic infections is promising yet not well established. Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common infection in children. Here we simultaneously tracked microbiota development at plaque and saliva in 50 4-year-old preschoolers for 2 years; children either stayed healthy, transitioned into cariogenesis, or experienced caries exacerbation. Caries onset delayed microbiota development, which is otherwise correlated with aging in healthy children. Both plaque and saliva microbiota are more correlated with changes in ECC severity (dmfs) during onset than progression. By distinguishing between aging- and disease-associated taxa and exploiting the distinct microbiota dynamics between onset and progression, we developed a model, Microbial Indicators of Caries, to diagnose ECC from healthy samples with 70% accuracy and predict, with 81% accuracy, future ECC onsets for samples clinically perceived as healthy. Thus, caries onset in apparently healthy teeth can be predicted using microbiota, when appropriately de-trended for age. PMID:26355216

  16. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in the Management of Metabolic Disorders: The Prospects and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Wahab, Mohd S.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota ma...

  17. The Reciprocal Interactions between Polyphenols and Gut Microbiota and Effects on Bioaccessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Tugba Ozdal; Sela, David A.; Jianbo Xiao; Dilek Boyacioglu; Fang Chen; Esra Capanoglu

    2016-01-01

    As of late, polyphenols have increasingly interested the scientific community due to their proposed health benefits. Much of this attention has focused on their bioavailability. Polyphenol–gut microbiota interactions should be considered to understand their biological functions. The dichotomy between the biotransformation of polyphenols into their metabolites by gut microbiota and the modulation of gut microbiota composition by polyphenols contributes to positive health outcomes. Although the...

  18. Systemic effects of gut microbiota and its relationship with disease and modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jolie TK; Chan, Godfrey CF; Li, James CB

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota makes up the majority of the human bacterial population, and although the gut microbiota resides in the intestines, it is able to exert systemic effects. Therefore, many diseases and conditions could be impacted by the gut microbiota when its composition is imbalanced, otherwise known as dysbiosis. However, apart from understanding the illnesses, we must also try to understand the intestinal flora itself to move forward and develop potential treatments.

  19. Targeting the Microbiota to Address Diet-Induced Obesity: A Time Dependent Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; O’Sullivan, Orla; Ross, R Paul; O’Toole, Paul W; Shanahan, Fergus; Cotter, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Links between the gut microbiota and host metabolism have provided new perspectives on obesity. We previously showed that the link between the microbiota and fat deposition is age- and time-dependent subject to microbial adaptation to diet over time. We also demonstrated reduced weight gain in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice through manipulation of the gut microbiota with vancomycin or with the bacteriocin-producing probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 (Bac+), with metabolic improvement ac...

  20. Role of the Gut Microbiota in the Development and Function of Lymphoid Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kamada, Nobuhiko; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Mammals are colonized by large numbers of microorganisms including trillions of bacteria, most of which live in the intestinal tract. These indigenous microorganisms that inhabit the body of humans and animals are referred collectively as the microbiota. Accumulating evidence indicates that the microbiota regulates the development and/or function of different types of immune cells in the intestine. For example, the microbiota drives homeostatic, pathogenic and regulatory T cell immune respons...

  1. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika Marie; Larsen, Christian Schiøth; Jakesevic, Maja; Rune, Ida; Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    2014-01-01

    Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize" the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gu...

  2. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    OpenAIRE

    John Molloy; Katrina Allen; Fiona Collier; Mimi L K Tang; Ward, Alister C.; Peter Vuillermin

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in earl...

  3. [Effects of Gut Microbiota on Stress Response and Behavioral Phenotype of the Host].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Nobuyuki

    2016-06-01

    Gut microbiota are involved in host patho-physiological functions; however, little is known about whether or not they can affect brain function. Several recent works including ours have shown that gut microbiota play a critical role in the determination of stress response and behavioral phenotype of the host. We here review recent advances in this area, i.e. the interaction between gut microbiota and the brain-gut axis, based on our series of experimental data. PMID:27279157

  4. The adult intestinal core microbiota is determined by analysis depth and health status

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, A.; Salojärvi, J.; Lahti, L.M.; De Vos

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput molecular methods are currently exploited to characterize the complex and highly individual intestinal microbiota in health and disease. Definition of the human intestinal core microbiota, i.e. the number and the identity of bacteria that are shared among different individuals, is currently one of the main research questions. Here we apply a high-throughput phylogenetic microarray, for a comprehensive and high-resolution microbiota analysis, and a novel computational approach ...

  5. Cohabitation in the intestine: interactions between helminth parasites, bacterial microbiota and host immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Lisa A.; Finlay, B. Brett; Rick M Maizels

    2015-01-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies have reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota, and conversely that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affects helminth colonisation and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human...

  6. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host....

  7. Changes in the Swine Gut Microbiota in Response to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Hongik; Park, Soo-Je

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of mammals is a complex ecosystem with distinct environments and comprises hundreds of different types of bacterial cells. The gut microbiota may play a critical role in the gut health of the host. We herein attempted to identify a microbiota shift that may be affected by porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). We observed significant differences in microbiota between the control and PED virus (PEDV)-infected groups at both the phylum and genus level. Most commensal bacter...

  8. Impact of Gut Microbiota on Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Luca; Giorgio, Valentina; Alberelli, Maria Adele; De Candia, Erica; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Grieco, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Gut microbiota has been recently established to have a contributory role in the development of cardiometabolic disorders, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Growing interest has focused on the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed the impact of gut microbiota on metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease risk, focusing on the newest findings in this field.

  9. Losing weight for a better health: role for the gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Maria Carlota; Everard, Amandine; Clément, Karine; Cani, Patrice D

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In recent years, there have been several reviews on gut microbiota, obesity and cardiometabolism summarizing interventions that may impact the gut microbiota and have beneficial effects on the host (some examples include [1–3]). In this review we discuss how the gut microbiota changes with weight loss (WL) interventions in relation to clinical and dietary parameters. We also evaluate available evidence on the heterogeneity of response to these interventions. Two import...

  10. Commensal microbiota stimulate systemic neutrophil migration through induction of Serum amyloid A

    OpenAIRE

    Kanther, Michelle; Tomkovich, Sarah; Sun, Xiaolun; Grosser, Melinda R.; Koo, Jaseol; Flynn, Edward J.; Jobin, Christian; Rawls, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils serve critical roles in inflammatory responses to infection and injury, and mechanisms governing their activity represent attractive targets for controlling inflammation. The commensal microbiota is known to regulate the activity of neutrophils and other leucocytes in the intestine, but the systemic impact of the microbiota on neutrophils remains unknown. Here we utilized in vivo imaging in gnotobiotic zebrafish to reveal diverse effects of microbiota colonization on systemic neut...

  11. No difference in small bowel microbiota between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Aldona Dlugosz; Björn Winckler; Elin Lundin; Katherina Zakikhany; Gunnar Sandström; Weimin Ye; Lars Engstrand; Greger Lindberg

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that colonic microbiota may exhibit important differences between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls. Less is known about the microbiota of the small bowel. We used massive parallel sequencing to explore the composition of small bowel mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with IBS and healthy controls. We analysed capsule biopsies from the jejunum of 35 patients (26 females) with IBS aged 18-(36)-57 years and 16 healthy voluntee...

  12. Influence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection on the composition of chicken cecal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Videnska, Petra; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Faldynova, Marcela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection of newly hatched chicks with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) results in an inflammatory response in the intestinal tract which may influence the composition of gut microbiota. In this study we were therefore interested whether S. Enteritidis induced inflammation results in changes in the cecal microbiota. To reach this aim, we compared the cecal microbiota of non-infected chickens and those infected by S. Enteritidis by pyrosequencing the V3/V4 va...

  13. Effect of Oral Administration of Metronidazole or Prednisolone on Fecal Microbiota in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    IGARASHI, Hirotaka; MAEDA, Shingo; OHNO, Koichi; Horigome, Ayako; Odamaki, Toshitaka; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal microbiota have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal disorders in dogs, including acute diarrhea and chronic enteropathy. Metronidazole and prednisolone are commonly prescribed for the treatment of these diseases; however, their effects on gastrointestinal microbiota have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of these drugs on the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs. Metronidazole was administered twice daily...

  14. The Impact of the Milk Glycobiome on the Neonate Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Alline R.; Barile, Daniela; Mark A Underwood; Mills, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Human milk is a complete source of nourishment for the infant. Exclusive breastfeeding not only sustains the infant’s development but also guides the proliferation of a protective intestinal microbiota. Among the many components of milk that modulate the infant gut microbiota, the milk glycans, which comprise free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, are increasingly recognized as drivers of microbiota development and overall gut health. These glycans may display pleiotropic func...

  15. Worms need microbes too: microbiota, health and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Cabreiro, Filipe; Gems, David

    2013-01-01

    Many animal species live in close association with commensal and symbiotic microbes (microbiota). Recent studies have revealed that the status of gastrointestinal tract microbiota can influence nutrition-related syndromes such as obesity and type-2 diabetes, and perhaps aging. These morbidities have a profound impact in terms of individual suffering, and are an increasing economic burden to modern societies. Several theories have been proposed for the influence of microbiota on host metabolis...

  16. Dynamics of the nasal microbiota in infancy: A prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mika, Moana; Mack, Ines; Korten, Insa Christina Severine; Qi, Weihong; Aebi, Susanne; Frey, Urs Peter; Latzin, Philipp; Hilty, Markus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the composition and dynamics of the upper respiratory tract microbiota in healthy infants is a prerequisite to investigate the role of the microbiota in patients with respiratory diseases. This is especially true in early life, when the immune system is in development. OBJECTIVE We sought to describe the dynamics of the upper respiratory tract microbiota in healthy infants within the first year of life. METHODS After exclusion of low-quality sample...

  17. Antibiotic Administration and Factors Influencing the Vaginal Microbiota during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    with a following increase in pH level can lead to an overgrowth of certain microbiota resulting in bacterial vaginosis or vaginal candidiasis. Humans are continuously exposed to a large amount of environmental factors providing a possible influence on their microbial ecology. Antibiotic administration is one......, and in women with a lower parity. These predictors for antibiotic administration may be used as general health indicators. In study II we analyzed the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on the commensal vaginal microbiota. Vaginal samples were cultured at 36th week of pregnancy and described...... treatment in pregnancy.A changed vaginal flora in pregnant women may lead to infections with potential morbidity to woman and fetus. In study III we studied the associations between exposure to cat and dog during pregnancy and the vaginal bacterial flora at 36th week of pregnancy, antibiotic usage, and self...

  18. Changes in vaginal microbiota following antimicrobial and probiotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M. Macklaim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The composition of the vaginal microbiota is known to be important for health. When infections occur, antimicrobial therapy is often poorly efficacious. Objective and design: We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize changes in the bacterial microbiota following oral antimicrobial and probiotic interventions. Results: While the bacterial vaginal profiles of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis were dominated by lactobacilli as in healthy women, and unchanged by therapy, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella, Atopobium, Sneathia, and Megasphaera dominated the vagina of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV, and treatment with tinidazole plus Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14+L. rhamnosus GR-1 resulted in an increased relative abundance of indigenous L. iners or L. crispatus. Conclusions: The ability to restore homeostasis provides a rationale for conjoint use of probiotics with antibiotic treatment of BV.

  19. Assessing the human gut microbiota in metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Tremaroli, Valentina; Nielsen, Jens; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2013-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that the gut microbiome complements our human genome with at least 100-fold more genes. In contrast to our Homo sapiens-derived genes, the microbiome is much more plastic, and its composition changes with age and diet, among other factors. An altered gut microbiota has been associated with several diseases, including obesity and diabetes, but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we discuss factors that affect the gut microbiome, how the gut microbiome may contribute to metabolic diseases, and how to study the gut microbiome. Next-generation sequencing and development of software packages have led to the development of large-scale sequencing efforts to catalog the human microbiome. Furthermore, the use of genetically engineered gnotobiotic mouse models may increase our understanding of mechanisms by which the gut microbiome modulates host metabolism. A combination of classical microbiology, sequencing, and animal experiments may provide further insights into how the gut microbiota affect host metabolism and physiology.

  20. Gut microbiota and probiotics in chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Claudia; Tiso, Angelo; Del Prete, Anna; Cariello, Rita; Tuccillo, Concetta; Cotticelli, Gaetano; Del Vecchio Blanco, Camillo; Loguercio, Carmelina

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong relationship between liver and gut: the portal system receives blood from the gut, and intestinal blood content activates liver functions. The liver, in turn, affects intestinal functions through bile secretion into the intestinal lumen. Alterations of intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of liver damage progression, in addition to direct injury resulting from different causal agents. Bacterial overgrowth, immune dysfunction, alteration of the luminal factors, and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis, such as infections, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and renal failure. Probiotics have been suggested as a useful integrative treatment of different types of chronic liver damage, for their ability to augment intestinal barrier function and prevent bacterial translocation. This review summarizes the main literature findings about the relationships between gut microbiota and chronic liver disease, both in the pathogenesis and in the treatment by probiotics of the liver damage. PMID:21163715

  1. Fecal microbiota transplantation: current clinical efficacy and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman KA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn A Bowman,1 Elizabeth K Broussard,2 Christina M Surawicz2 1Department of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT has gained mainstream attention with its remarkable efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI when there are no other effective therapies. Methods of selecting donors and routes of administration vary among studies, but there are now randomized controlled trials showing efficacy of FMT in treating RCDI. Ongoing trials of FMT for other disease such as inflammatory bowel disease are underway; this therapy should not be used for these conditions unless there is strong evidence for efficacy. Long-term safety data are sorely needed, as well as clarification of regulatory concerns. Keywords: fecal microbiota transplant, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, Clostridium difficile infection, microbiome, inflammatory bowel disease

  2. Conceptualizing Human Microbiota: From Multicelled Organ to Ecological Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Foxman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of a typical, healthy human contains 10 times as many cells as the human body and incorporates bacteria, viruses, archea, protozoans, and fungi. This diverse microbiome (the collective genomes of the microbial symbionts that inhabit a human host is essential for human functioning. We discuss the unstated assumptions and implications of current conceptualizations of human microbiota: (1 a single unit that interacts with the host and the external environment; a multicelled organ; (2 an assemblage of multiple taxa, but considered as a single unit in its interactions with the host; (3 an assemblage of multiple taxa, which each interacts with the host and the environment independently; and (4 a dynamic ecological community consisting of multiple taxa each potentially interacting with each other, the host, and the environment. Each conceptualization leads to different predictions, methodologies, and research strategies.

  3. The enteric microbiota in the pathogenesis and management of constipation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2011-02-01

    For centuries, fiber has been recommended on an empirical basis for the management of constipation; it has only been in recent decades that the mechanisms whereby fiber and related products may influence colonic function have begun to be elucidated. The interaction between fiber and the microbiota of the human colon appears to play a major role in generating the beneficial effects of fiber. The microbiota is also the target for the other therapeutic interventions discussed in this chapter: prebiotics and probiotics. While a scientific basis for a role for these approaches in the management of constipation continues to develop, evidence from high-quality clinical trials to support their use in daily practice continues to lag far behind. While benefits for fiber and, perhaps, for certain prebiotic and probiotic preparations in constipation appear to be extant there is a real need for large well-conducted clinical trials in this important area of human medicine.

  4. Obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra eCavalcante-Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signalling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome.

  5. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Sara; Candela, Marco; Giuliani, Cristina; Turroni, Silvia; Luiselli, Donata; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Franceschi, Claudio; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota (GM) is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The GM continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations in diet or specific host physiological and immunological needs at different ages. On the other hand, the microbiota plasticity was strategic to face changes in lifestyle and dietary habits along the course of the recent evolutionary history, that has driven the passage from Paleolithic hunter-gathering societies to Neolithic agricultural farmers to modern Westernized societies. PMID:25408692

  6. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of the Human Intestinal Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Aimee M.; Munck, Christian; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander;

    2011-01-01

    of this microbial community, its recalcitrance to standard cultivation, and the immense diversity of its encoded genes has necessitated the development of novel molecular, microbiological, and genomic tools. Functional metagenomics is one such culture-independent technique, used for decades to study environmental...... microorganisms, but relatively recently applied to the study of the human commensal microbiota. Metagenomic functional screens characterize the functional capacity of a microbial community, independent of identity to known genes, by subjecting the metagenome to functional assays in a genetically tractable host....... Here we highlight recent work applying this technique to study the functional diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and discuss how an approach combining high-throughput sequencing, cultivation, and metagenomic functional screens can improve our understanding of interactions between this complex...

  7. The skin microbiota: composition and function in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    protective function or its immunomodulatory properties. The skin microbiota of the face and upper back is dominated by species of the genera Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium. In particular, the species Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) predominately colonizes sebaceous areas. This species has several...... conflicting properties, some of which are mutualistic with potential beneficial effects for skin health while others are potentially harmful for the host, such as P. acnes’ pro-inflammatory activity. Analysis of the population structure of P. acnes highlighted its multiphyletic composition; together...... will discuss the evidence and counterevidence for the involvement of skin microbes in diseases such as acne vulgaris, progressive macular hypomelanosis as well as other skin disorders. The talk will also introduce the existing challenges to study the impact of our skin microbiota on our skin health as well...

  8. Gut Microbiota as Potential Orchestrators of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bennet, Sean M.P.; Öhman, Lena; Simrén, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota’s composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut mic...

  9. The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Friend or Foe?

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, Eamonn M. M.; Ng, Siew C.; Ujjala Ghoshal; Kok-Ann Gwee; Ghoshal, Uday C; Ratnakar Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), once thought to be a purely psychosomatic disease, has advanced considerably and low-grade inflammation and changes in the gut microbiota now feature as potentially important. The human gut harbours a huge microbial ecosystem, which is equipped to perform a variety of functions such as digestion of food, metabolism of drugs, detoxification of toxic compounds, production of essential vitamins, prevention of...

  10. The role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hsin-Jung; Wu, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Keeping a delicate balance in the immune system by eliminating invading pathogens, while still maintaining self-tolerance to avoid autoimmunity, is critical for the body’s health. The gut microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to its host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis. Moreover, it has recently become obvious that alterations of these gut microbial communities can cause immune dysregulation, leading to autoimmune disorders. He...

  11. Persistent hyperglycemia modulates gut immune function and microbiota in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Katsuya; Suzuki, Takeshi; Igarashi, Toru; Inoue, Kei; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Seki, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashige; Minamishima, Shizuka; Kosugi, Shizuko; Katori, Nobuyuki; Morisaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Since hyperglycemia-induced cellular dysfunction could be associated with alterations of the immune system, we tested the hypothesis that hyperglycemia augments the aberrant immune responses such as inflammation and differentiation of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and induces alterations of microbiota both under physiological and pathological conditions. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Control and Endotoxemia (lipopolysacch...

  12. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Panda

    Full Text Available From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002. At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016. Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04. The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  13. Correlations between Lumbricus terrestris survival and gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Rudi, Knut; Strætkvern, Knut Olav

    2012-01-01

    Background: The interplay between diet, gut bacteria and health still remain enigmatic. Here, we addressed this issue through the investigation of the effect of crystalline cellulose on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris gut microbiota composition and survival. Methods: Earthworm gut contents were analyzed after 14 days of feeding using a mixed 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach, in addition to direct measurements of cellulase activity. The survival of earthworms was followed each week for 17 ...

  14. Influence of Gut Microbiota on Subclinical Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno de Melo Carvalho; Mario Jose Abdalla Saad

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the main condition that is correlated with the appearance of insulin resistance, which is the major link among its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and several types of cancer. Obesity affects a large number of individuals worldwide; it degrades human health and quality of life. Here, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes, which is promote...

  15. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Loan Anh Nguyen; Sara Vieira-Silva; Adrian Liston; Jeroen Raes

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut m...

  16. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Vincent L.; Dennis L Kasper

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We...

  17. Intestinal microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease: Friend of foe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesca Fava; Silvio Danese

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises from disruption of immune tolerance to the gut commensal microbiota,leading to chronic intestinal inflammation and mucosal damage in genetically predisposed hosts. In healthy individuals the intestinal microbiota have a symbiotic relationship with the host organism and possess important and unique functions, including a metabolic function (i.e.digestion of dietary compounds and xenobiotics, fermentation of undigestible carbohydrates with production of short chain fatty acids), a mucosal barrier function (i.e. by inhibiting pathogen invasion and strengthening epithelial barrier integrity), and an immune modulatory function (i.e. mucosal immune system priming and maintenance of intestinal epithelium homeostasis). A fine balance regulates the mechanism that allows coexistence of mammals with their commensal bacteria.In IBD this mechanism of immune tolerance is impaired because of several potential causative factors. The gut microbiota composition and activity of IBD patients are abnormal, with a decreased prevalence of dominant members of the human commensal microbiota (i.e.Clostridium Ⅸa and Ⅳ groups, Bacteroides , bifidobacteria)and a concomitant increase in detrimental bacteria (i.e. sulphate-reducing bacteria, Escherichia coli ).The observed dysbiosis is concomitant with defective innate immunity and bacterial killing (i.e. reduced mucosal defensins and IgA, malfunctioning phagocytosis)and overaggressive adaptive immune response (due to ineffective regulatory T cells and antigen presenting cells), which are considered the basis of IBD pathogenesis.However, we still do not know how the interplay between these parameters causes the disease. Studies looking at gut microbial composition, epithelial integrity and mucosal immune markers in genotyped IBD populations are therefore warranted to shed light on this obscure pathogenesis.

  18. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible cau...

  19. Gut Microbiota: Modulate its Complexity to Restore the Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Fermín Mearin; Speakers Fermín Mearin; Antonio Gasbarrini; Peter Malfertheiner; Mark Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota to health is becoming more widely appreciated. The range of commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals and in patients with a variety of digestive diseases is under active investigation, and evidence is accumulating to suggest that both the diversity and balance of bacterial species are important for health. Disturbance of the balance of microorganisms – dysbiosis – is associated with obesity and a variety of diseases. Restoring the balance by modulat...

  20. Neuropeptides and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Curr...

  1. Interactions between dietary chicory, gut microbiota and immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haoyu

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides a better understanding of interactions between diet, gut microbiota, and immune responses to a specific dietary fiber source, chicory (Cichorium intybus L). This was achieved by examining the impact of chicory fiber on animal performance, digestibility, gut development, commensal bacteria community structure in small and large intestine, and follow-up reactions with specific immune components, cytoprotective heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and 72, in vivo and in vitro. T...

  2. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Quercia, Sara; Candela, Marco; Giuliani, Cristina; Turroni, Silvia; Luiselli, Donata; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Franceschi, Claudio; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota (GM) is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The GM continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations i...

  3. The bioremediation potential of marine sandy sediment microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Răzvan POPOVICIU

    2012-01-01

    The natural microbiota from marine sandy sediments on the Romanian sea coast was tested for resilience in case of hydrocarbon contamination, for estimating the number of (culturable) hydrocarbon and lipid oil-degrading microorganisms and for determining the influence of inorganic nitrate and phosphate nutrients on hydrocarbon spill bioremediation process, by microcosm experiments.Results show that hydrocarbon contamination affects the bacteriobenthos both in terms of cell numbers and composit...

  4. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker Mai; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based interventions, our basic understanding of microbiota variation on a population level and its dynamics within individuals is still rudimentary. Powerful new parallel sequence technologies combined with other efficient molecular microbiota analysis methods now allow for comprehensive analysis of microbiota composition in large human populations. Recent findings in the field strongly suggest that microbiota contributes to the development of obesity, atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancers. Through the ongoing National Institutes of Health Roadmap 'Human of the world, a large coordinated effort is currently underway to study how microbiota can impact human health. Translating findings from these studies into effective interventions that can improve health,possibly personalized based on an individuals existing microbiota, will be the task for the next decade(s).

  5. Targeting the microbiota to address diet-induced obesity: a time dependent challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan F Clarke

    Full Text Available Links between the gut microbiota and host metabolism have provided new perspectives on obesity. We previously showed that the link between the microbiota and fat deposition is age- and time-dependent subject to microbial adaptation to diet over time. We also demonstrated reduced weight gain in diet-induced obese (DIO mice through manipulation of the gut microbiota with vancomycin or with the bacteriocin-producing probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 (Bac(+, with metabolic improvement achieved in DIO mice in receipt of vancomycin. However, two phases of weight gain were observed with effects most marked early in the intervention phase. Here, we compare the gut microbial populations at the early relative to the late stages of intervention using a high throughput sequencing-based analysis to understand the temporal relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity. This reveals several differences in microbiota composition over the intervening period. Vancomycin dramatically altered the gut microbiota composition, relative to controls, at the early stages of intervention after which time some recovery was evident. It was also revealed that Bac(+ treatment initially resulted in the presence of significantly higher proportions of Peptococcaceae and significantly lower proportions of Rikenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae relative to the gut microbiota of L. salivarius UCC118 bacteriocin negative (Bac(- administered controls. These differences were no longer evident at the later time. The results highlight the resilience of the gut microbiota and suggest that interventions may need to be monitored and continually adjusted to ensure sustained modification of the gut microbiota.

  6. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J;

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control...... = 0.04). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies...... to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota....

  7. Gut Microbiota and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Insights on Mechanism and Application of Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyun He

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota are intricately involved in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. In the current review, we discuss the role of gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD by focusing on the mechanisms of gut microbiota-mediated host energy metabolism, insulin resistance, regulation of bile acids and choline metabolism, as well as gut microbiota-targeted therapy. We also discuss the application of a metabolomic approach to characterize gut microbial metabotypes in NAFLD.

  8. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the human microbiota changes with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariat D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of host health by providing energy, nutrients, and immunological protection. Applying current molecular methods is necessary to surmount the limitations of classical culturing techniques in order to obtain an accurate description of the microbiota composition. Results Here we report on the comparative assessment of human fecal microbiota from three age-groups: infants, adults and the elderly. We demonstrate that the human intestinal microbiota undergoes maturation from birth to adulthood and is further altered with ageing. The counts of major bacterial groups Clostridium leptum, Clostridium coccoides, Bacteroidetes, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR. By comparing species diversity profiles, we observed age-related changes in the human fecal microbiota. The microbiota of infants was generally characterized by low levels of total bacteria. C. leptum and C. coccoides species were highly represented in the microbiota of infants, while elderly subjects exhibited high levels of E. coli and Bacteroidetes. We observed that the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes evolves during different life stages. For infants, adults and elderly individuals we measured ratios of 0.4, 10.9 and 0.6, respectively. Conclusion In this work we have confirmed that qPCR is a powerful technique in studying the diverse and complex fecal microbiota. Our work demonstrates that the fecal microbiota composition evolves throughout life, from early childhood to old age.

  9. Starving our microbial self: the deleterious consequences of a diet deficient in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Erica D; Sonnenburg, Justin L

    2014-11-01

    The gut microbiota of a healthy person may not be equivalent to a healthy microbiota. It is possible that the Western microbiota is actually dysbiotic and predisposes individuals to a variety of diseases. The asymmetric plasticity between the relatively stable human genome and the more malleable gut microbiome suggests that incompatibilities between the two could rapidly arise. The Western lifestyle, which includes a diet low in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs), has selected for a microbiota with altered membership and functionality compared to those of groups living traditional lifestyles. Interactions between resident microbes and host leading to immune dysregulation may explain several diseases that share inflammation as a common basis. The low-MAC Western diet results in poor production of gut microbiota-generated short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which attenuate inflammation through a variety of mechanisms in mouse models. Studies focused on modern and traditional societies, combined with animal models, are needed to characterize the connection between diet, microbiota composition, and function. Differentiating between an optimal microbiota, one that increases disease risk, and one that is causative or potentiates disease will be required to further understand both the etiology and possible treatments for health problems related to microbiota dysbiosis. PMID:25156449

  10. Potential role of gut microbiota and tissue barriers in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neurodegenerative diseases with pathophysiology that may be related to the gastrointestinal tract. It is well established that tissue barriers maintain homeostasis and health. Furthermore, gut microbiota may have an impact on brain activity through the gut-microbiota-brain axis under both physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge regarding the role of gut microbiota and tissue barriers in PD and ALS. To our knowledge, this is the first review of the key issues involving both the altered gut microbiota and impaired tissue barriers in the pathophysiology of PD and ALS. PMID:26381230

  11. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Molloy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  12. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Volker; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based interventions, our basic understanding of microbiota variation on a population level and its dynamics within individuals is still rudimentary. Powerful new parallel sequence technologies combined with other efficient molecular microbiota analysis methods now allow for comprehensive analysis of microbiota composition in large human populations. Recent findings in the field strongly suggest that microbiota contributes to the development of obesity, atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancers. Through the ongoing National Institutes of Health Roadmap 'Human Microbiome Project' and similar projects in other parts of the world, a large coordinated effort is currently underway to study how microbiota can impact human health. Translating findings from these studies into effective interventions that can improve health, possibly personalized based on an individuals existing microbiota, will be the task for the next decade(s). PMID:19115471

  13. Composition, variability, and temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota of the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Claesson, Marcus J

    2011-03-15

    Alterations in the human intestinal microbiota are linked to conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and obesity. The microbiota also undergoes substantial changes at the extremes of life, in infants and older people, the ramifications of which are still being explored. We applied pyrosequencing of over 40,000 16S rRNA gene V4 region amplicons per subject to characterize the fecal microbiota in 161 subjects aged 65 y and older and 9 younger control subjects. The microbiota of each individual subject constituted a unique profile that was separable from all others. In 68% of the individuals, the microbiota was dominated by phylum Bacteroides, with an average proportion of 57% across all 161 baseline samples. Phylum Firmicutes had an average proportion of 40%. The proportions of some phyla and genera associated with disease or health also varied dramatically, including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Faecalibacteria. The core microbiota of elderly subjects was distinct from that previously established for younger adults, with a greater proportion of Bacteroides spp. and distinct abundance patterns of Clostridium groups. Analyses of 26 fecal microbiota datasets from 3-month follow-up samples indicated that in 85% of the subjects, the microbiota composition was more like the corresponding time-0 sample than any other dataset. We conclude that the fecal microbiota of the elderly shows temporal stability over limited time in the majority of subjects but is characterized by unusual phylum proportions and extreme variability.

  14. Metabolism of Cholesterol and Bile Acids by the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gérard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex and diverse microbial community, whose collective genetic coding capacity vastly exceeds that of the human genome. As a consequence, the gut microbiota produces metabolites from a large range of molecules that host’s enzymes are not able to convert. Among these molecules, two main classes of steroids, cholesterol and bile acids, denote two different examples of bacterial metabolism in the gut. Therefore, cholesterol is mainly converted into coprostanol, a non absorbable sterol which is excreted in the feces. Moreover, this conversion occurs in a part of the human population only. Conversely, the primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are converted to over twenty different secondary bile acid metabolites by the gut microbiota. The main bile salt conversions, which appear in the gut of the whole human population, include deconjugation, oxidation and epimerization of hydroxyl groups at C3, C7 and C12, 7-dehydroxylation, esterification and desulfatation. If the metabolisms of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota are known for decades, their consequences on human health and disease are poorly understood and only start to be considered.

  15. A Survey of Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Dietary Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Dueñas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols present in a broad range of plant foods have been related to beneficial health effects. This review aims to update the current information about the modulation of the gut microbiota by dietary phenolic compounds, from a perspective based on the experimental approaches used. After referring to general aspects of gut microbiota and dietary polyphenols, studies related to this topic are presented according to their experimental design: batch culture fermentations, gastrointestinal simulators, animal model studies, and human intervention studies. In general, studies evidence that dietary polyphenols may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal health by preserving the gut microbial balance through the stimulation of the growth of beneficial bacteria (i.e., lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and the inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, exerting prebiotic-like effects. Combination of in vitro and in vivo models could help to understand the underlying mechanisms in the polyphenols-microbiota-host triangle and elucidate the implications of polyphenols on human health. From a technological point of view, supplementation with rich-polyphenolic stuffs (phenolic extracts, phenolic-enriched fractions, etc. could be an effective option to improve health benefits of functional foods such as the case of dairy fermented foods.

  16. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, Pdisease was less clear. A decision tree model based on the relative abundance of five bacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with disease status remains a question for future research.

  17. Microbiota-based Signature of Gingivitis Treatments: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi; Li, Zhen; He, Tao; Bo, Cunpei; Chang, Jinlan; Li, Lin; He, Yanyan; Liu, Jiquan; Charbonneau, Duane; Li, Rui; Xu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-induced gingivitis can be alleviated by various treatment regimens. To probe the impacts of various anti-gingivitis treatments on plaque microflora, here a double blinded, randomized controlled trial of 91 adults with moderate gingivitis was designed with two anti-gingivitis regimens: the brush-alone treatment and the brush-plus-rinse treatment. In the later group, more reduction in both Plaque Index (TMQHI) and Gingival Index (mean MGI) at Day 3, Day 11 and Day 27 was evident, and more dramatic changes were found between baseline and other time points for both supragingival plaque microbiota structure and salivary metabonomic profiles. A comparison of plaque microbiota changes was also performed between these two treatments and a third dataset where 50 subjects received regimen of dental scaling. Only Actinobaculum, TM7 and Leptotrichia were consistently reduced by all the three treatments, whereas the different microbial signatures of the three treatments during gingivitis relieve indicate distinct mechanisms of action. Our study suggests that microbiota based signatures can serve as a valuable approach for understanding and potentially comparing the modes of action for clinical treatments and oral-care products in the future. PMID:27094556

  18. Phylogenetic and Metabolic Tracking of Gut Microbiota during Perinatal Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Del Chierico

    Full Text Available The colonization and development of gut microbiota immediately after birth is highly variable and depends on several factors, such as delivery mode and modality of feeding during the first months of life. A cohort of 31 mother and neonate pairs, including 25 at-term caesarean (CS and 6 vaginally (V delivered neonates (DNs, were included in this study and 121 meconium/faecal samples were collected at days 1 through 30 following birth. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assessed in 69 stool samples by phylogenetic microarray HITChip and inter- and intra-individual distributions were established by inter-OTUs correlation matrices and OTUs co-occurrence or co-exclusion networks. 1H-NMR metabolites were determined in 70 stool samples, PCA analysis was performed on 55 CS DNs samples, and metabolome/OTUs co-correlations were assessed in 45 CS samples, providing an integrated map of the early microbiota OTUs-metabolome. A microbiota "core" of OTUs was identified that was independent of delivery mode and lactation stage, suggesting highly specialized communities that act as seminal colonizers of microbial networks. Correlations among OTUs, metabolites, and OTUs-metabolites revealed metabolic profiles associated with early microbial ecological dynamics, maturation of milk components, and host physiology.

  19. Carbon metabolism of the cryptoendolithic microbiota from the Antarctic desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, J. R.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    The carbon metabolism of the cryptoendolithic microbiota of sandstones from the Ross Desert of Antarctica was studied in situ and in vitro. Organic and inorganic carbon compounds were metabolized by the microbiota, with bicarbonate incorporation into community lipids occurring primarily in the light. Light intensity affected the photometabolism of carbon with a photosynthesis-intensity response optimum at about 200 to 300 micromoles of photons per m2 per s. Photosynthesis was also affected by temperature, with a minimum activity at -5 degrees C, an optimum activity at 15 degrees C, and complete inhibition at 35 degrees C, indicating that the cryptoendolithic community was psychrophilic. The primary source of CO2 for photosynthesis in situ was the atmosphere. CO2 may also be photometabolized by using the carbon produced from respiration within the endolithic community. Photosynthesis occurred maximally when the microbiota was wet with liquid water and to a lesser extent in a humid atmosphere. This simple microbial community, therefore, exists under extremes of water, light, and temperature stress which affect and control its metabolism.

  20. Metatranscriptomic approach to analyze the functional human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Gosalbes

    Full Text Available The human gut is the natural habitat for a large and dynamic bacterial community that has a great relevance for health. Metagenomics is increasing our knowledge of gene content as well as of functional and genetic variability in this microbiome. However, little is known about the active bacteria and their function(s in the gastrointestinal tract. We performed a metatranscriptomic study on ten healthy volunteers to elucidate the active members of the gut microbiome and their functionality under conditions of health. First, the microbial cDNAs obtained from each sample were sequenced using 454 technology. The analysis of 16S transcripts showed the phylogenetic structure of the active microbial community. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Rickenellaceae were the predominant families detected in the active microbiota. The characterization of mRNAs revealed a uniform functional pattern in healthy individuals. The main functional roles of the gut microbiota were carbohydrate metabolism, energy production and synthesis of cellular components. In contrast, housekeeping activities such as amino acid and lipid metabolism were underrepresented in the metatranscriptome. Our results provide new insights into the functionality of the complex gut microbiota in healthy individuals. In this RNA-based survey, we also detected small RNAs, which are important regulatory elements in prokaryotic physiology and pathogenicity.

  1. The gut microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Julian R; Adams, David H; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D A; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed Nabil; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M; Thomas, Linda V; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Hart, Ailsa

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new 'omic' technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial community, revealing it to be comparable in influence to a new organ in the body and offering the possibility of a new route for therapeutic intervention. Moreover, it might be more accurate to think of it like an immune system: a collection of cells that work in unison with the host and that can promote health but sometimes initiate disease. This review gives an update on the current knowledge in the area of gut disorders, in particular metabolic syndrome and obesity-related disease, liver disease, IBD and colorectal cancer. The potential of manipulating the gut microbiota in these disorders is assessed, with an examination of the latest and most relevant evidence relating to antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, polyphenols and faecal microbiota transplantation. PMID:26338727

  2. Changes in the Eye Microbiota Associated with Contact Lens Wearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakdong Shin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wearing contact lenses has been identified as a risk factor for the development of eye conditions such as giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis. We hypothesized that wearing contact lenses is associated with changes in the ocular microbiota. We compared the bacterial communities of the conjunctiva and skin under the eye from 58 subjects and analyzed samples from 20 subjects (9 lens wearers and 11 non-lens wearers taken at 3 time points using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing technique (V4 region; Illumina MiSeq. We found that using anesthetic eye drops before sampling decreases the detected ocular microbiota diversity. Compared to those from non-lens wearers, dry conjunctival swabs from lens wearers had more variable and skin-like bacterial community structures (UniFrac; P value = 3.0. The results indicate that wearing contact lenses alters the microbial structure of the ocular conjunctiva, making it more similar to that of the skin microbiota. Further research is needed to determine whether the microbiome structure provides less protection from ocular infections.

  3. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-08-23

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host.

  4. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-08-23

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host. PMID:27506800

  5. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G. White

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb. To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%, Proteobacteria (17% and Bacteriodetes (12% were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%, Prevotellaceae (12% and Veillonellacea (7% being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota.

  6. Mediterranean diet and faecal microbiota: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Díaz, I; Fernández-Navarro, T; Sánchez, B; Margolles, A; González, S

    2016-05-18

    Despite the existing evidence on the impact of olive oil and red wine on the intestinal microbiota, the effect of the global Mediterranean Diet (MD) has not been sufficiently studied. We explored the association between the adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, and its components, with faecal microbiota in a cohort of adults with non-declared pathology. This transversal study involved 31 adults without a previous diagnosis of cancer, autoimmune or digestive diseases. Based on the data obtained by means of an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the information existing in the literature, a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated. Dietary fibre was obtained from Marlett et al. tables and Phenol-Explorer Database was used for phenolic compounds intake. Quantification of microbial groups was performed by Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS). MDS was associated with a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes (p = 0.001), Prevotellacea (p = 0.002) and Prevotella (p = 0.003) and a lower concentration of Firmicutes (p = 0.003) and Lachnospiraceae (p = 0.045). Also, in subjects with MDS ≥ 4, higher concentrations of faecal propionate (p = 0.034) and butyrate (p = 0.018) were detected. These results confirm the complexity of the diet-microbiota interrelationship. PMID:27137178

  7. Gut microbiota, the pharmabiotics they produce and host health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Elaine; Cryan, John F; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Dinan, Timothy G; Stanton, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    A healthy gut microbiota plays many crucial functions in the host, being involved in the correct development and functioning of the immune system, assisting in the digestion of certain foods and in the production of health-beneficial bioactive metabolites or 'pharmabiotics'. These include bioactive lipids (including SCFA and conjugated linoleic acid) antimicrobials and exopolysaccharides in addition to nutrients, including vitamins B and K. Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota and reductions in microbial diversity are highlighted in many disease states, possibly rendering the host susceptible to infection and consequently negatively affecting innate immune function. Evidence is also emerging of microbially produced molecules with neuroactive functions that can have influences across the brain-gut axis. For example, γ-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, catecholamines and acetylcholine may modulate neural signalling within the enteric nervous system, when released in the intestinal lumen and consequently signal brain function and behaviour. Dietary supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics are the most widely used dietary adjuncts to modulate the gut microbiota. Furthermore, evidence is emerging of the interactions between administered microbes and dietary substrates, leading to the production of pharmabiotics, which may directly or indirectly positively influence human health. PMID:25196939

  8. Host microbiota modulates development of social preference in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Arentsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mounting evidence indicates that the indigenous gut microbiota exerts long-lasting programming effects on brain function and behaviour. Objective: In this study, we used the germ-free (GF mouse model, devoid of any microbiota throughout development, to assess the influence of the indigenous microbiota on social preference and repetitive behaviours (e.g. self-grooming. Methods and results: Using the three-chambered social approach task, we demonstrate that when adult GF mice were given a choice to spend time with a novel mouse or object, they spent significantly more time sniffing and interacting with the stimulus mouse compared to conventionally raised mice (specific pathogen-free, SPF. Time spent in repetitive self-grooming behaviour, however, did not differ between GF and SPF mice. Real-time PCR–based gene expression analysis of the amygdala, a key region that is part of the social brain network, revealed a significant reduction in the mRNA levels of total brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, BDNF exon I-, IV-, VI-, IX-containing transcripts, and NGFI-A (a signalling molecule downstream of BDNF in GF mice compared to SPF mice. Conclusion: These results suggest that differential regulation of BDNF exon transcripts in the amygdala by the indigenous microbes may contribute to the altered social development of GF mice.

  9. Understanding the Extent and Sources of Variation in Gut Microbiota Studies; a Prerequisite for Establishing Associations with Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Baer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans harbor distinct commensal microbiota at various anatomic sites. There has been renewed interest in the contributions of microbiota activities to human health and disease. The microbiota of the gut is the most complex of all anatomic sites in terms of total numbers of bacteria that interact closely with the mucosal immune system and contribute various functions to host physiology. Especially in the proximal large intestine a diverse microbiota ferments complex substrates such as dietary fiber and host mucins, but also metabolizes bile acids and phytoestrogens that reach the large intestine. It is now well established that microbiota composition differs between but over time also within individuals. However, a thorough understanding of the sources of variations in microbiota composition, which is an important requirement for large population based microbiota studies is lacking. Microbiota composition varies depending on what kind of sample is collected, most commonly stool samples, stool swabs or superficial rectal or intestinal biopsies, and the time of collection. Microbiota dynamics are affected by life style factors including diet and exercise that determine what nutrients reach the proximal colon and how fast these nutrients pass through (transit time. Here we review sample collection issues in gut microbiota studies and recent findings about dynamics in microbiota composition. We recommend standardizing human microbiota analysis methods to facilitate comparison and pooling between studies. Finally, we outline a need for prospective microbiota studies in large human cohorts.

  10. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Haro

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI. Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001. However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019 and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026 in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041. Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  11. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A.; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F.; Gómez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M.; Landa, Blanca B.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Clemente, José C.; López-Miranda, José

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI). Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001). However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019) and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026) in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041). Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:27228093

  12. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-07-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical industry. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the contribution of contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces in the measure of exposure rate of radioiodine therapy patients; Avaliacao da contribuicao da contaminacao de superficies do quarto terapeutico na medida da taxa de exposicao de pacientes de radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Rafael Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    The contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces is significant and the measures of patient exposure rate are held on the fourth dependencies, relevant questions are raised: the background radiation of the room stay high due to surface contamination, may interfere with the rate of patient exposure at the time of its release? The monitoring site is important to determine whether the patient will be released? The value of the deal activity and the clinical condition of the patient may increase the contamination, influencing the monitoring results? This paper aims to conduct a quantitative analysis of surface contamination of the contribution of therapeutic room at the time is monitored exposure rate from inpatient. Measurements were made regarding the hospitalization of 32 patients with different doses administered activity, age and of both genders. The measurements were performed in the therapeutic rooms at the hospital Brotherhood Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo. Exposure rate measurements were performed at the center of the room at 1 meter of the patient on the day of its release. After his release and prior to decontamination, measurements were performed at predetermined landmarks within the therapeutic room. The results revealed that on average background radiation, high due to surface contamination contributes only 2% of the patient dose rate. It can be considered that even with influence of contamination of surfaces, this is insignificant to determine if the patient may or may not be released. This study suggests that the site in which monitoring occurs exposure rate of the patient should not be decisive for liberation thereof. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the fuel rod integrity in PWR reactors from the spectrometric analysis of the primary coolant; Avaliacao da integridade de varetas combustiveis em reatores PWR a partir da analise espectrometrica da agua do primario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Iara Arraes

    1999-02-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the transport of fission products, from the fuel rod to the coolant of a PWR reactor. To achieve this purpose, several steps were followed. Firstly, it was presented a description of the fuel elements and the main mechanisms of fuel rod failure, indicating the most important nuclides and their transport mechanisms. Secondly, taking both the kinetic and diffusion models for the transport of fission products as a basis, a simple analytical and semi-empirical model was developed. This model was also based on theoretical considerations and measurements of coolant's activity, according to internationally adopted methodologies. Several factors are considered in the modelling procedures: intrinsic factors to the reactor itself, factors which depend on the reactor's operational mode, isotope characteristic factors, and factors which depend on the type of rod failure. The model was applied for different reactor's operational parameters in the presence of failed rods. The main conclusions drawn from the analysis of the model's output are relative to the variation on the coolant's water activity with the fuel burnup, the linear operation power and the primary purification rate and to the different behaviour of iodine and noble gases. The model was saturated from a certain failure size and showed to be unable to distinguish between a single big fail and many small ones. (author)

  15. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    Many developed countries have established a goal of self-sufficiency in food production, while many other obtain their principal foreign exchange through food exports. For these reasons, it is essential to eliminate losses in food products. It is no less important to prevent or combat food-transmitted diseases, principally across poultry and poultry derivatives, which play a major role in certain infections and is the focus of national public health goals in order to increase the international commerce. In tropical countries, perishable products represent the largest markets. The population lives in a constant battle against the deterioration of these foods. Such loss is enormous where the climate favors the proliferation of agents of decomposition and acceleration of putrification. Increasing the useful life of these perishable products will provide producers the option of commercializing them in low harvest season, thus achieving higher prices, and providing sensible growth to the agro-industrial market. Treatment of perishables with gamma radiation presently constitutes one of the most modern, safe, and efficient methods for increasing food preservation. The irradiation of foods can offer various special advantages such as: kill or sterilize pathogenic organisms in food, improving their quality and duration, reducing the level of toxics, slow or stop the aging of roots and tubers, disinfect products of animal and vegetable origin thus slowing their decomposition, increasing their shelf-life, and prolonging their conservation refrigeration. The practice of irradiating foods for the treatment of microorganisms has begun to gain momentum in Brazil, where roughly 25% of all food produced annually is lost to disease and insects activity, increased by lack of adequate storage treatments. Various countries have already adopted the method that, when practiced properly by qualified professionals, does not cause side effects other than the extension of useful life. In light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  16. Aspects of the Iea-R1 research reactor seismic evaluation; Aspectos da avaliacao sismica do reator de pesquisa IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Codes and standards for the seismic evaluation of the research reactor IEA-R1 are presented. An approach to define the design basis earthquake based on the local seismic map and on simplified analysis methods is proposed. The site seismic evaluation indicates that the design earthquake intensity is IV MM. Therefore, according to the used codes and standards, no buildings, systems, and components seismic analysis are required. (author)

  17. Assessment of activity of nitrate-reducing bacterial souring control; Avaliacao da atividade de bacterias redutoras de nitrato no controle de acidificacao de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Kally A. de; Cammarota, Magali C.; Servulo, Eliana F.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The effect of nitrate addition in relation to NRB concentration was evaluated on biogenic H{sub 2}S generation in anaerobic microcosms with produced water. A 2{sup k} factorial experimental design was performed by using as response variables nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup =}) consumption and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and sulfide (H{sub 2}S) production and as independent variables the SRB and NRB (10{sup 1} - 10{sup 7} MPN/mL) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (127.5 - 727.5 mg/L) initial concentrations. Each condition was carried out under incubation at 30 deg C during 7, 14 and 28 days. The lowest sulfide production (0.4 - 0.8 mg/L) was achieved for 10{sup 4} MPN/mL of SRB and NRB and 427.5 mg/L nitrate. Also, a reduction of sulfide generation was obtained by nitrate addition when low SRB and NRB concentrations were established. In such condition, the produced sulfide is rather dependent of nitrate concentration. The increase of the NRB concentration has not resulted in the reduction of sulfide production, even when higher nitrate concentrations were used. (author)

  18. Evaluation of radiation effects on dental enamel hardness and dental restorative materials; Avaliacao do efeito da irradiacao na dureza do esmalte dental e de materiais odontologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Protese

    2000-07-01

    This research presents the results of the microhardness of human dental enamel and of the following dental restorative materials: three dental porcelains - Ceramco II, Finesse and Noritake, and two resin restorative materials - Artglass and Targis, for materials submitted to different times of irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12}n cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} . The results obtained indicated that there is a decrease of the surface microhardness when the enamel is irradiated for 1 h and when dental materials are irradiated for 3 h. However, enamels irradiated for 30 min. did not show significant change of their surface hardness. Therefore, the selection of irradiation time is an important factor to be considered when irradiated teeth or dental materials are used in the investigations of their properties. (author)

  19. Environmental evaluation in the electric sector expansion planing: an strategic approach; Avaliacao ambiental no planejamento da expansao do setor eletrico: uma abordagem estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Silvia Helena [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: silviah@cepel.br; Medeiros, Alexandre [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lacorte, Ana; Aquino, Luiz C.S.; Farah, Pedro; Menezes, Paulo C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a resume of the methodology developed for the Socio Environmental Studies Committee - CTSA - of the CCPE, aiming the incorporation of the environment dimension in the expansion indicative planning of the electric sector. The first results of the partial application to the 2001-2010 planning cycle are also presented.

  20. Assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into biological samples by SAXS technique;Avaliacao das estrutras supramoleculares presentes em amostras biologicas atraves da tecnica de SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M., E-mail: andre_conceicao@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2009-07-01

    In this work was made an assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into human breast tissue normal and pathological samples, as well as into two types of animals samples (tendon chicken and pork fat) using the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The scattering profiles of the samples were determined at the momentum transfer range O.150nm{sup -1}<=5:q(=4pi.sin({theta}/2)/{lambda})<=8.500nm{sup -1}. In this range, it was possible identify structures corresponding to collagen fibrils (glandular tissue) and to triacylglycerides (adipose tissue) from the correlation between the information extracted from the human breast tissues scattering profiles and those extracted from animals samples. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  2. Evaluation of impact strength of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites; Avaliacao da resistencia mecanica sob impacto de nanocompositos de poliamida 6/argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Rene A.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Medeirosa, Vanessa da N., E-mail: rene@cct.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Nanocomposites of polymer/clay have had much attention in recent years, particularly those developed with layered silicates due to the need of engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and has been observed that they affect the crystalline behavior and the physical and mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites of polyamide 6 were obtained by the melt intercalation method, using a regional bentonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt in an amount of 3% by weight. XRD results showed that incorporation of salt among the layers of clay, making it organophilic and obtaining exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structures. The impact properties of the nanocomposites showed inferior in relation to pure polyamide, in other words, lost of toughness. (author)

  3. Quality of life evaluation of workers for diagnostic radiology services; Avaliacao da qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores de servicos de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ivani Martins

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of diagnostic radiology services workers at a hospital of Sao Paulo city. It aimed also to draw the profile of these workers identifying the variables, as its influence on their quality of life. A descriptive exploratory study with qualitative and quantitative approaches was carried out. The data were collected using the questionnaires: the abbreviated instrument for the assessment of the QOL, World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument bref (WHOQOL-bref) and a questionnaire including the social demographic variables, work conditions and the variables that express the lifestyle of individuals, both questionnaires self-applied. The sample was formed by 118 workers, among them: physicians, technologists/technicians in radiology, nurses, technicians and assistants in nursing, and others health professionals. The data analysis included descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and the use of a linear regression model. The reliability of the instrument for the studied sample was verified by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient ({alpha}). The WHOQOL-bref proved to be an adequate instrument, with a good level of internal consistency ({alpha}=0.884), being easily and quickly administrated for the evaluation of the QOL. The study provided an overview of the perception of quality of life of the studied group. (author)

  4. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: dagcortez@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  5. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: joelson_alves@ig.com.br; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  7. Biodegradation evaluation of recycled polyethylene doped with Moringa oleifera oil; Avaliacao da biodegradacao de filmes de polietileno reciclado dopados com oleo de Moringa oleifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Luciana A.; Novack, Katia M.; Melo, Tania M.S., E-mail: knovack@iceb.ufop.br [Dept. de Quimica (DEQUI) - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Chemical modifications and use of additives are some of the mainly ways to obtain polymer materials with especial properties. Vegetable oils incorporated to polymers preserve their structure while make possible a reduction of degradation rate. This work proposed the use of polyethylene, one of the most common polymer commodities, because of its low cost and wide application. In this project it was verified the possibility of making polymer materials with properties of a natural product through the incorporation of Moringa oleifera oil to recycled low density polyethylene (LDPEr) in different proportions. The films were buried for different times and their degradation was evaluated.) Samples were characterized by DSC, TGA and XRD. It was observed that samples doped with Moringa oil showed lower degradation time. (author)

  8. Evaluation of knee meniscus lesions using MRI - a comparative study of pulse sequences; Avaliacao da lesao meniscal por meio de ressonancia magnetica do joelho - estudo comparativo das sequencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Artur da Rocha C.; Vilela, Sonia de Aguiar; Turrini, Elisabeth; Lederman, Henrique M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    1997-05-01

    The frequency of knee disability after injuries has become higher, in this context meniscal lesions keep an important role. This study evaluated 34 MR exams using 1.5-T system (Signa; GE). In this group 26 had 4 sequences (5 acquisitions); 2 coronal (T1, MPGR), 3 sagittal (T1, T2, proton density). The aim of this study was to evaluate the MR pulse sequence`s reproducibility and observer variability. Two readers (A and B) reviewed the exams using the same criteria. The reader A reviewed all sequences for each patient; the reader B reviewed the individual sequences at random on two separate occasions, 6 months apart. The signal expression of meniscal lesion is more evident with T1 (short TR/short TE) sagittal; however, in this sequence the results were less consistent. The sagittal proton density (long TR/short TE) was very close to be the idea sequence: had good concordance among the readings of readers A and B. Kappa concordance test showed best result for sagittal proton density images (Kw = 0.84). (author) 47 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  10. Evaluation of occupational dose from the special procedures guided by fluoroscopy: cardiac catheterism; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional oriunda dos procedimentos especiais guiados por fluoroscopia: cateterismo cardiaco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amanda Juliene da

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose received by health professionals in the hemodynamic sector of a university hospital in Sao Paulo city. A self-applied questionnaire was used to delineate the profile of health professionals, taking into account sociodemographic variables and variables related to the work with ionizing radiation. The assessment of occupational doses was performed by consulting of the individual dose records of the institution database from 2000 to 2009. A total of 240 records was evaluated, corresponding to 38 active professionals (2009), divided in different professional category: physician, nurses, radiologic technologists and nursing assistants. The annual doses were compared with the limits established by national regulatory authorities. Based on the effective doses received and recorded during the studied period, experimental measures were performed with TL dosimeters in five physicians to evaluate the equivalent dose, in the left hand, during hemodynamic procedures. In addition, the radioprotection measures adopted by health professionals were verified. This study allowed delineating the profile of medical staff that integrates the hemodynamic service as well as knowing the distribution of their doses in relation to limits over the years. (author)

  11. Evaluation of radiosensitivity hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to gamma radiation; Avaliacao da radiossensibilidade de hemocitos de Biomphalaria glabrata expostos a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.R.S.; Amaral, A.J., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife-PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Silva, E.B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amancio, F.F.; Melo, A.M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2013-06-15

    The mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata have characteristics that allow them to be identified as an animal model ideal for monitoring areas exposed to chemical agents and physical. This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiation from Cobalt-60 in haemocytes present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata, with the goal of using these cells as indicators of the presence of radiation in aquatic environments. The mollusks were divided into five groups: one control and four subjected doses of 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of gamma radiation. After 48 hours of irradiation, the clam hemolymph was collected and slides were prepared and stained with Giemsa for analyses under a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, p <0.05. The results showed that the total number of cells after irradiation reduced compared to control except at a dose of 55 Gy. During data analysis, morphological changes were observed in haemocytes of mollusks subjected to doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy. These modifications consisted of nucleus bilobulated and nucleo plasmatic bridges. Another change was exclusively observed in the cellular exposure of 55 Gy, where hemocytes showed misshapen nuclei and cytoplasm vacuolisation, suggestive of apoptosis. It is concluded that hemocytes are sensitive to radiation and can be used as indicators of the presence of high doses of ionizing radiation in aquatic environments. (author)

  12. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  13. Weldability evaluation of special stainless steels for utilization in petroleum industry; Avaliacao da soldabilidade de acos inoxidaveis especiais a ser utilizados na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Paredes, Ramon S. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ramon@demec.ufpr.br; Borsato, Karin Soldatelli [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bernardini, Pedro Amadeo Nanneti [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Villanueva Aguila, Jaime [Universidade de Tarapaca (UTA), Arica (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    A weldability study of super austenitic stainless steel AISI 904L type 25 Ni. 20 Cr, with Mo, Cu and duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 additions is made. The higher mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels, when compared to other kinds of stainless steels, have increased the attention of different industrial areas. According to literature, AISI 904L stainless steel is sensitive to solidification and liquation cracking during welding. The main microstructural features, as well as mechanical properties of duplex stainless steels, can be modify when submitted to multiple thermal cycles , such as happen during welding process. Samples have been prepared and welded by two welding processes: coated electrodes and semi-automatic MIG. The objective was to evaluate the cracking sensitiveness of super austenitic steels . For duplex steels the aim was to research the welding process influence for tubular wire in the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 25 mm plate, which are considered of great thickness. In AISI 904L it has not been observed any solidification cracking in the structure in the two welding processes that were studied. However, cracking of liquation in the affected thermal zone has been observed. In duplex steels the use of different thermal cycles showed variation of delta ferrite in the structure of solidification and variation of ferrite grain size in the ZTA. The formation of nitrate and secondary austenitic was also observed, which results in a proportional hardness increase . The mechanical and microstructure characterization data of those two stainless steels are presented. (author)

  14. Contribution of ultrasonography and scintillography to the evaluation of parothyroid glands; Contribuicao da ultra-sonografia na avaliacao das glandulas paratireoideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craide, Rosany Helena [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Ultra-som; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Instituto do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Custodio, Melani Ribeiro; Jorgetti, Vanda [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Nefrologia; Oliveira, Ilka Regina S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Vermelho, Marli B.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Ultra-sonografia

    1999-02-01

    Sonography and scintilography are good methods for imaging the parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias. The diagnostic methods were correlated in order to determine the sensitivity of sonographic evaluation with that of scintigraphy in the preoperative examinations for hyperparathyroidism suspected on clinical groups. Scintigraphic examinations were obtained using technetium-9 9 m and technetium-99m-sestamibi as radionuclide agents. A group of 36 patients was evaluated with sonography 19 being correlated with sestamibi. Our results suggest that sonography yields a sensitivity of 77 and 78.5%in comparison with scintigraphy with technetium-99m and with technetium-99m-sestamibi, respectively. The sonographic limitations are ectopic glands, enlarged thyroid goiter and posteriorly displaced adenomas. (author)

  15. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil; Impacto de um programa de avaliacao da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira

    2002-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless ongoing action is needed to resolve the remaining problems and to increase the impact. The proposed method for public monitoring should be modified to evaluate primarily the quality of the final exam provided to the consumer. (author)

  16. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B., E-mail: rolivier@ipen.b, E-mail: nblima@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M., E-mail: anapaola@ipt.b, E-mail: mgoncalves@ipt.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {Psi} method. (author)

  17. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliacao da atividade antibacteriana de Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Leoncio M. de; Gois, Roberto W. da S.; Lemos, Telma L. G.; Arriaga, Angela M. C.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P., E-mail: gil@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias; Costa, Jose G.M. da; Rodrigues, Fabiola F.G. [Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Biologica

    2013-11-01

    The chemical investigation of the stems and branches of Macroptilium lathyroides led to the isolation of a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The extracts from the roots allowed the isolation of lasiodiplodin, a mixture of stigmast-4-en-6{beta}-ol-3-one and stigmast-4,22-dien-6{beta}-ol-3-one, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin, genistein and lupinalbin A. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their NMR data, including comparison of their spectral data with values described in the literature. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from stems, branches and roots was evaluated. This is the first report involving the chemical investigation of this species. (author)

  18. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats;Avaliacao de alteracoes morfologicas da pele apos lesao radioinduzida em ratos Wistar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cherley Borba Vieira de

    2010-07-01

    The cancer covers a heterogeneous group of more than 100 diseases with different etiology and prognosis. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities, aiming at the destruction of cancer cells, using ionizing radiation. One of the limiting factors of radiotherapy is that radiation promotes the death of tumor cells in addition to injure healthy tissue neighboring the tumor, and may cause their death. Irradiation of the skin, accidental or for therapeutic purposes can trigger many injuries culminating in fibrosis, which implies functional alteration of the body. The evaluation of morphological effects associated with skin irradiation becomes essential to develop more effective radiation strategies and decreased morbidity; and in case of accidents, proper handling of the victim.Evaluate radio-induced dermal changes using a Wistar rats model irradiated with 10, 40 and 60Gy. Male Wistar rats, aged approximately three months, were pre-anesthetized with midazolam and xylazine and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, shaved in the back, immobilized on polystyrene support in the prone position and irradiated with doses of 10, 40 and 60 Gy, with 4MeV nominal energy electron beams. The skin was irradiated in a 3cm{sup 2} field, and used 0.5cm of tissue equivalent material, to obtain a homogeneous dose distribution. After irradiation, the animals remained on constant evaluation, and the lesions were recorded photographically. The animals were divided into groups and were killed on the irradiation day, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 100 days after irradiation. The skin was fixed in 10% formaldehyde; the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red and immuno stained with antibody anti-TGF beta1. Another part of the tissue was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for scanning electron microscopy. It was observed macroscopically the appearance of skin lesions similar to burns on the entire irradiated area. The optical microscope verified the early development of lesions in the 5 days group. After 10 days of irradiation it was already possible to see evidences of epidermal healing under the crust formed by the lesion. At 15 days after irradiation the tissue beneath the lesion had reconstructed epidermis. It was also observed the characteristics of tissue healing. It was also seen a significant polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. After 25 days at the higher doses the lesions remained, which did not occur at the lower dose, where the irradiated area of the animals were already completely healed. After 100 days of irradiation at 40Gy dose the wound was healed with the emergence of a well defined healed tissue. At the 60Gy dose, the lesion persisted in some animals, and in those that healing occurred the epidermis was a hypertrophied (acanthosis). It was visualized a tissue with their morphological aspect completely mis characterized, where it's possible to view a necrotic tissue. The results of the scanning electron microscopy analysis corroborate with the in optical microscopy findings, where it's possible to visualize the distortion of collagen fibers at the higher dosages. The results indicate that the used doses induced an important skin inflammatory process, activating the immune system. This fact leads to an increase in the expression of TGF beta1, one of the responsible for the increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) by various cell types, mainly fibroblasts in injured tissues. Besides the increased expression of ECM, the TGF beta1 also promotes the inhibition of the degradation processes of the same. The intense expression of cytokines in irradiated skin can trigger the fibrosis process; consequently, affect the homeostasis of this organ due to the accumulation of ECM. (author)

  19. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail: Siche.J.R@gmail.com; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail: ortega@fea.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  20. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: miltonlavor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)