WorldWideScience

Sample records for avaliacao da dose

  1. Avaliacao da seguranca de diferentes doses de suplementos de acido folico em mulheres do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quenia dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a distribuição da ingestão de ácido fólico e a segurança de diferentes doses de suplementos em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados de consumo a partir de dois dias não consecutivos de registro alimentar de 6.837 mulheres em idade reprodutiva (19 a 40 anos participantes do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, módulo da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Médias e percentis de consumo habitual de folato natural e ácido fólico foram estimados utilizando o método do National Cancer Institute . Cinco cenários foram simulados somando-se diferentes doses diárias de fortificação (400 mcg, 500 mcg, 600 mcg, 700 mcg e 800 mcg ao ácido fólico oriundo dos alimentos consumidos pelas mulheres. Comparou-se o total de ácido fólico (dieta + suplemento com o nível máximo de ingestão tolerável (UL = 1.000 mcg para definir a dose segura de suplementação. RESULTADOS Mulheres com ingestão habitual de ácido fólico acima do nível máximo de ingestão tolerável foram observadas para doses de suplemento de 800 mcg (7,0% das mulheres. Abaixo desse valor, qualquer dose de suplementação mostrou-se segura. CONCLUSÕES O uso de suplementos de até 700 mcg de ácido fólico mostrou-se seguro.

  2. Evaluation of skin dose in tomographic radiographs of temporomandibular joint; Avaliacao da dose pele em radiografias tomograficas da articulacao tempromandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.B.; Chaves, F.C.; Rocha, F.E.F.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Khoury, H.J. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: khoury@elogica.com.br

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin entrance dose, in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunctions submitted to computerized tomography. For this purpose, in a private medical establishment, in the city of Recife-Pe/Br, 40 patients were evaluated, in according to radiation doses received in eyes, thyroid and TMJ regions. The value found for eye region range from 0.004 to 0.125 mGy, for thyroid range from 0.002 to 0.113 mGy and for TMJ range from 0.112 to 0.541 mGy.

  3. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: annarocha@yahoo.com, E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  5. Evaluation of occupational dose from the special procedures guided by fluoroscopy: cardiac catheterism; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional oriunda dos procedimentos especiais guiados por fluoroscopia: cateterismo cardiaco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amanda Juliene da

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose received by health professionals in the hemodynamic sector of a university hospital in Sao Paulo city. A self-applied questionnaire was used to delineate the profile of health professionals, taking into account sociodemographic variables and variables related to the work with ionizing radiation. The assessment of occupational doses was performed by consulting of the individual dose records of the institution database from 2000 to 2009. A total of 240 records was evaluated, corresponding to 38 active professionals (2009), divided in different professional category: physician, nurses, radiologic technologists and nursing assistants. The annual doses were compared with the limits established by national regulatory authorities. Based on the effective doses received and recorded during the studied period, experimental measures were performed with TL dosimeters in five physicians to evaluate the equivalent dose, in the left hand, during hemodynamic procedures. In addition, the radioprotection measures adopted by health professionals were verified. This study allowed delineating the profile of medical staff that integrates the hemodynamic service as well as knowing the distribution of their doses in relation to limits over the years. (author)

  6. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  7. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  8. Evaluation of variation of voltage (kV) absorbed dose in chest CT scans; Avaliacao da variacao da tensao (kV) na dose absorvida em varreduras de TC torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Bruna G.A.; Mourao, Arnaldo P., E-mail: brunabgam@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CENEB/CEFET-MG), Belo Horionte, MG, (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most important diagnostic techniques images today. The increasing utilization of CT implies a significant increase of population exposure to ionizing radiation. Optimization of practice aims to reduce doses to patients because the image quality is directly related to the diagnosis. You can decrease the amount of dose to the patient, and maintain the quality of the image. There are several parameters that can be manipulated in a CT scan and these parameters can be used to reduce the energy deposited in the patient. Based on this, we analyzed the variation of dose deposited in the lungs, breasts and thyroid, by varying the supply voltage of the tube. Scans of the thorax were performed following the protocol of routine chest with constant and variable current for the same applied voltage. Moreover, a female phantom was used and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100), model bat, were used to record the specific organ doses. Scans were performed on a GE CT scanner, model 64 Discovery channels. Higher doses were recorded for the voltage of 120 kV with 200 mAs in the lungs (22.46 mGy) and thyroid (32.22 mGy). For scans with automatic mAs, variable between 100 and 440, this same tension contributed to the higher doses. The best examination in terms of the dose that was used with automatic 80 kV mAs, whose lungs and thyroid received lower dose. For the best breast exam was 100 kV. Since the increase in the 80 kV to 100 kV no impact so much the dose deposited in the lungs, it can be concluded that lowering the applied voltage to 100 kV resulted in a reduction in the dose absorbed by the patient. These results can contribute to optimizing scans of the chest computed tomography.

  9. Study of the contribution of the different components of atmospheric cosmic radiation in dose received by the aircraft crew; Avaliacao da contribuicao dos diferentes componentes da radiacao cosmica atmosferica na dose em tripulacoes de aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marlon A.; Prado, Adriane C.M., E-mail: adriane.acm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marlon@ieav.cta.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The crews and aircraft passengers are exposed to atmospheric cosmic radiation. The flow of this radiation is modulated by the solar cycle and space weather, varying with the geomagnetic latitude and altitude. This paper presents a study of the contributions of radiation in total ambient dose equivalent of the crews depending on flight altitude up to 20 km, during maximum and minimum solar and in equatorial and polar regions. The results of calculations of the particle flows generated by the EXPACS and QARM codes are used. The particles evaluated that contributing significantly in the ambient dose equivalent are neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, alphas, photons, muons and charged pions. This review allows us to characterize the origin of the dose received by crews and also support a project of a dosimetric system suitable for this ionizing radiation field in aircraft and on the ground.

  10. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations; Avaliacao da protecao radiologica e da dose de entrada na pele em exames de odontologia pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Vasconcelos, Flavia Maria Nassar de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontopediatria; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-07-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  11. Study of the heterogeneity effects of lung in the evaluation of absorbed dose in radiotherapy; Estudo dos efeitos da heterogeneidade de pulmao na avaliacao da dose absorvida em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Luciana Tourinho

    2006-02-15

    The main objective of radiotherapy is to deliver the highest possible dose to the tumour, in order to destroy it, reducing as much as possible the doses to healthy tissues adjacent to the target volume. Therefore, it is necessary to do a planning of the treatment. The more complex is the treatment, the more difficult the planning will be, demanding computation sophisticated methods in its execution, in order to consider the heterogeneities present in the human body. Additionally, with the appearing of new radiotherapeutic techniques, that used irradiation fields of small area, for instance, the intensity modulated radiotherapy, the difficulties for the execution of a reliable treatment planning, became still larger. In this work it was studied the influence of the lung heterogeneity in the planning of the curves of percentage depth dose, PDP, obtained with the Eclipse{sup R} planning system for different sizes of irradiation fields, using the correction algorithms for heterogeneities available in the planning system: modified Batho, general Batho and equivalent tissue-air ratio. A thorax phantom, manufactured in acrylic, containing a region made of cork to simulate the lung tissue, was used. The PDP curves generated by the planning system were compared to those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and with the use of thermoluminescent, TL, dosimetry. It was verified that the algorithms used by the Eclipse{sup R} system for the correction of heterogeneity effects are not able to generate correct results for PDP curves in the case of small fields, occurring differences of up to 100%, when the 1x1 cm{sup 2} treatment field is considered. These differences can cause a considerable subdosage in the lung tissue, reducing the possibility of the patient cure. (author)

  12. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology;Analise preliminar das doses para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em exames radiograficos na radiologia veterinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  13. Evaluation of radioiodine therapy with fixed doses of 10 and 15 mCi in patients with Graves disease; Avaliacao da radioiodoterapia com doses fixas de 10 e 15 mCi em pacientes com doenca de Graves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadas, Viviane; Vilar, Lucio; Moura, Eliane; Brito, Ana; Castellar, Enio [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: vivi2207@ig.com.br

    2007-10-15

    The treatment options for the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease are antithyroid drugs, surgery and radioiodine, none of which is considered ideal, as they do not act directly on the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Radioiodine has been increasingly used as the treatment of choice because it is a safe and definitive therapy whose administration is very easy. Some authors prefer to administer higher doses in order to deliberately induce hypothyroidism, while others recommend lower doses that result in a lower incidence of hypothyroidism and a greater incidence of euthyroidism. There is no consensus for the optimal regimen of fixed doses to be used and this is the main focus of the present study, where doses of 10 and 15 mCi of {sup 131}I were compared. Among the 164 patients analyzed, 61 (37.2%) were submitted to 10 mCi and 103 (62.8%) to 15 mCi. In the longitudinal analysis it was observed that remission of the hyperthyroidism was statistically different in the sixth month (p < 0.001), being higher in the group that used the dose of 15 mCi, but similar in both groups at 12 and 24 months. It may be concluded that the administration of fixed doses of 10 and 15 mCi of {sup 131}I brought about a similar remission of the hyperthyroidism after 12 months of treatment. Moreover, the remission rate of the hyperthyroidism had no association with age, sex or previous therapy with antithyroid drugs. (author)

  14. Evaluation of occupational radiation dose in nuclear medicine: radiopharmaceutical administration to scintiscanning exams of myocardial perfusion; Avaliacao da dose de radiacao ocupacional em medicina nuclear: administracao de radiofarmacos em exames de cintilografria de perfusao miocardica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Cassio V., E-mail: cassiok@yahoo.com [Medicina Nuclear do Triangulo (MNT), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Michelin, Charlie A.; Jakubiak, Rosangela R., E-mail: charlie@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: requi@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lemes, Alyne O.; Silva, Juliana L.M., E-mail: alyne275@gmail.com, E-mail: jujumontesdocinho@gmail.com [Faculdade do Trabalho (FATRA), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    In nuclear medicine, workers directly involved in exams are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation. The procedure for administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient is one of the most critical times of exposure. In tests of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) administration of radiopharmaceutical repeats the steps of rest and cardiac stress. In this study, we used a Geiger -Mueller detector for measuring occupational radiation doses for during the administration of technetium- {sup 99m}- sestamibi in MPS tests. In the evaluation, discriminated the stages of examination and related professional experience time to doses measures at home. It were followed 110 procedures at home (55 conducted by professionals with over 5 years experience and 55 conducted by professionals with less than 1 year of experience) and 55 effort procedures. The results showed that the rest of the procedure time and dose are related to the experience of the worker. More experienced workers were faster (mean: 43 {+-} 16 vs 67 {+-} 25 seconds / procedure), and therefore received lower doses (mean 0.57 {+-} 0.16 versus 0.80 {+-} 0.24 {mu}Sv / procedure), both with statistical significance (p <0.001). In step effort, there were procedures lasting longer (mean: 19 {+-} 2 minutes / procedure), which resulted in higher doses (mean 3.0 {+-} 0.6 {mu}Sv / procedure)

  15. Quantification of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of patients exposed to gamma radiation for dose absorbed assessment; Quantificacao de micronucleos em linfocitos de pacientes expostas a radiacao gama para a avaliacao da dose absorvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafim da Silva

    2003-02-15

    Dose assessment in an important step to evaluate biological effects as a result of individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The use of cytogenetic dosimetry based on the quantification of micronuclei in lymphocytes is very important to complement physical dosimetry, since the measurement of absorbed dose cannot be always performed. In this research, the quantification of micronuclei was carried out in order to evaluate absorbed dose as a result of radiotherapy with {sup 60}Co, using peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer. For this purpose, an aliquot of whole blood from the individual patients was added in culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with fetal calf serum and phytohaemagglutinin. The culture was incubated for 44 hours. Henceforth, cytochalasin B was added to block the dividing lymphocytes in cytokinesis. The culture was returned to the incubator for further of 28 hours. Thus, cells were harvested, processed and analyzed. Values obtained considering micronuclei frequency after pelvis irradiation with absorption of 0,08 Gy and 1,8 Gy were, respectively, 0,0021 and 0,052. These results are in agreement with some recent researches that provided some standard values related to micronuclei frequency induced by gamma radiation exposure in different exposed areas for the human body. The results presented in this report emphasizes biological dosimetry as an important tool for dose assessment of either total or partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation, mainly in retrospective dose investigation. (author)

  16. Determination of absorbed dose in water: evaluation of dosimetric factors calibration sets used in radiotherapy; Determinacao da dose absorvida na agua: avaliacao dos fatores de calibracao de conjuntos dosimetricos de uso em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Fontana, Julia M.; Santos, Vitor H.P.; Nunes, Isabella P.F.; Okawabata, Francine S., E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencia

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a methodology for measuring the dose rate (cGy/min) in a telecobaltotherapy beam, looking emphasize the need for calibration of dosimetric set used and the importance of conducting periodic clinical megavoltage dosimetry of these beams. Two dosimetric set with their respective calibration factors were used. The correction parameters indicated in dosimetry protocols were determined by ionization chambers used. The difference between the value of the dose rate used in the calculation of the service routine and the values obtained in this work with both dosimetric sets proved to be less than 1.5%, and therefore satisfies the maximum recommended tolerance on quality control protocols for this type of therapeutic beam. (author)

  17. Dose assessment in pediatric computerized tomography; Avaliacao de doses em tomografia computadorizada pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarinho, Luisa Maria Auredine Lima

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work was the evaluation of radiation doses in paediatric computed tomography scans, considering the high doses usually involved and the absence of any previous evaluation in Brazil. Dose values were determined for skull and abdomen examinations, for different age ranges, by using the radiographic techniques routinely used in the clinical centers investigated. Measurements were done using pencil shape ionization chambers inserted in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantoms. These were compact phantoms of different diameters were specially designed and constructed for this work, which simulate different age ranges. Comparison of results with published values showed that doses were lower than the diagnostic reference levels established to adults exams by the European Commission. Nevertheless, doses in paediatric phantoms were higher than those obtained in adult phantoms. The paediatric dose values obtained in Hospitals A and B were lower than the reference level (DRL) adopted by SHIMPTON for different age ranges. In the range 0 - 0.5 year (neonatal), the values of DLP in Hospital B were 94 por cent superior to the DRL For the 10 years old children the values of CTDI{sub w} obtained were inferior in 89 por cent for skull and 83 por cent for abdomen examinations, compared to the values published by SHRIMPTON and WALL. Our measured CTDI{sub w} values were inferior to the values presented for SHRIMPTON and HUDA, for all the age ranges and types of examinations. It was observed that the normalized dose descriptors values in children in the neonatal range were always superior to the values of doses for the adult patient. In abdomen examinations, the difference was approximately 90% for the effective dose (E) and of 57%.for CTDI{sub w} . (author)

  18. Evaluation of doses in gastrointestinal fluoroscopy; Avaliacao de doses em fluoroscopia gastrointestinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canevaro, Lucia Viviana

    1995-04-15

    This work aims at the development of a methodology to measure radiation doses to patients and professionals (radiologists) in fluoroscopic gastrointestinal tract examinations. Also, it aims at the assessment of the performance of this type of medical x-ray equipment, from the radiation protection point of view at the Department of Radiology of the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro). This work was developed in order to identify the actual status and to set base lines as a reference for a quality control program. The calibration procedures of thermoluminescent dosimeters for radiodiagnosis quality beams are discussed and described here as well as its application in dose measurements, for patients and radiologists. The performance of two types of x-ray equipment (fluorescent screen and image intensifier) usually used to perform this examinations was evaluated through appropriate tests. Radiation protection features are also considered. Dose to radiologists at unprotected regions and to patients at several sample points were measured. A comparison of the measured doses given by both types of equipment was made. After further analysis, the necessity to look for methods that reduce unnecessary doses became evident. The high values obtained in some procedures using fluorescent screen make the use of this type of equipment unacceptable. With these results, we consider that Health Care authorities have the responsibility of replacing all fluorescent screen equipment and of establishing standards, and raising awareness the responsible staff. (author)

  19. Evaluation of radon and their daughters concentration and estimative of effective dose in a waste deposits at the ore treatment unity of INB/Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de radonio e seus filhos e estimativa de dose efetiva em um deposito de rejeitos na unidade de tratamento de minerios da INB/Caldas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Antunes, Marcos M.; Junior, Joao V.S.; Py Junior, Delcy A., E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b, E-mail: antunes@inb.gov.b, E-mail: Joao@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Pereira, Wagner S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Universidade Federal Fluminense (IB/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos

    2011-10-26

    This paper conducts a surveillance of radon and their short half-life daughters gas concentration, inside the warehouse due to these gas inhalation. The results showed that the average concentration inside the warehouse ix approximately 700 Bq/m{sup 3} and the effective dose of an IOE, related to that concentration would be 5.0 mSv/year, therefore being 4 times lower than the established limit of 20 mSv/year

  20. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  1. Dose and induction to cancer risk evaluation associated to use of X ray body scanners by transmission at airports; Avaliacao da dose e do risco de inducao ao cancer associados ao uso de escaneres corporais de raios X por transmissao em aeroportos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda; Aquino, Josilto Oliveira de, E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: josilto@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais. Div. de Aplicacoes Industriais; Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de, E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste (CAPI/UEZO), Campo Grande, RJ (Brazil). Colegiado da Area de Producao Industrial; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses the Monte Carlo MCNPX and the phantoms in male voxel and female voxel to evaluate the absorbed doses effective doses and the induction risk and the mortality due to cancer associated to exposures of individual submitted to X ray body scanners by transmission at various projections. The values of effective dose were calculated according to the recommended by the new ICRP 103 and the values of induction risks and mortality due to cancer were estimated through the document BEIR VII. (author)

  2. Evaluation of quality characteristics and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meats treated with different dose rates of ionizing radiation and use of antioxidants; Avaliacao de caracteristicas de qualidade e propriedades funcionais da carne mecanicamente separada de frango tratada com diferentes taxas de dose de radiacao ionizante e uso de antioxidantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula

    2012-07-01

    The Mechanically Deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used in traditional meat products, in greater proportion in those emulsified, replacing meat raw materials more expensive. The raw material can have high MDCM the microbial load, as a result of contamination during processing or failure during the evisceration. The irradiation process is accepted as one of the most effective technologies when compared to conventional techniques of preservation, to reduce contamination of pathogens and spoilage. However, little information is available about the use and effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation processing. Irradiation causes chemical changes in food, a major cause of deterioration of quality of raw or cooked meat products during refrigerated storage, frozen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation on the production of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), color, microbiological and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken added or without added antioxidants, during the cold storage and evaluation of functional properties. The results showed that among the tested dose rates using cobalt-60 source, dose rate of 4.04 kGy.h-1 was the best for processing MDCM. Furthermore, the use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to reduce lipid oxidation generated by irradiation of the samples, showed a synergistic effect to the processing with ionizing radiation in reduction of psychrotrophic bacteria count and contributed to a better sensory quality. The use of radiation in the processing FDMI did not adversely affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the occupational doses in the ward room of a public hospital of Sergipe, Brazil, during chest X-rays examination;Avaliacao das doses ocupacionais no leito da enfermaria durante exames radiograficos de torax em um hospital publico de Sergipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.S.; Maia, A.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (DF/UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Radiology is one of the main tools for medical diagnosis. The substantial growth in the number of radiological interventions is being accompanied by the interest with the patient, technical and clinical body's safety. The use of portable X rays equipment for medical diagnosis in hospitals is a common practice different types of examinations. At ward room, the chest radiography is one of the most requested. During this X ray examination, besides the technical team involved, in the room are also exposed to the scattered radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to quantify the kerma rates, in the air, at different distances of the equipment and to evaluate the doses received by the workers in the ward room of a public hospital. Besides, safe distances were determined for two radiography techniques. Different exams were evaluated and the typical parameters for performing the examination were determined. From that, the kerma rates were measured in the air using a chest phantom. By the results, it was possible to draw a dose map of a ward room of a public hospital of Sergipe. The knowledge of the dose maps allows the technical body to execute the radiological procedures in a safer way, minimizing the risks for them and for the general public. (author)

  4. Determination of the dose of gamma radiation sterilization for assessment of biological parameters of male Ceratitis capitada (Diptera: Tephritidae), tsl - Vienna 8 strain; Determinacao da dose de radiacao gama esterilizante pela avaliacao dos parametros biologicos de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), linhagem tsl - Vienna 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Aline Cristina Pereira da

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna-8, tsl (temperature sensitive lethal) strain of Ceratitis capitata, by presenting mutations that facilitate the mass rearing and release only of sterile males in the field, has been used in (Sterile Insect Technique) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that provides the highest level of sterility for Vienna-8, tsl males assessing their biological parameters that indicate the quality of sterile males to be released. Brown pupae (males) of the tsl strain were obtained from the mass rearing of the Food Irradiation and Radio entomology laboratory of CENA/USP, and they were irradiated (with gamma radiation - {sup 60}Co) 24 hours before the emergence at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy. The determination of the sterilizing dose was based on fertility of sexually mature females of the bisexual strain and not irradiated, mated with males of different treatments. Eggs were collected daily during 6 days, were counted and it was possible to estimate fecundity, and assess the hatching rate. The emergence and flight ability were determined by following the protocol of quality control manual for FAO/IAEA/USDA (2003). To assess the longevity under nutritional stress, the insects were kept a period of 48 h after emergence in the absence of water and food, and after this period, mortality was recorded. The size of the testes (left and right) was obtained by dissecting irradiated and non-irradiated males at the eighth day of life, and measure the testes in an ocular micrometer, considering the maximum length and width of each sample. To determine the sperm number was necessary to dissect the males and break their testicles. No difference was observed in emergence rate, flight ability and longevity of irradiated and non-irradiated males, nor in the fecundity of females mated with males of different treatments. The sterilizing dose that resulted in lower fertility of females was 120 Gy, with 1.5% hatching. Considering the parameters

  5. Performance evaluation of the QC-6PLUS quality control system in terms of photons and electrons absorbed doses to water; Avaliacao do desempenho do sistema de controle da qualidade QC-6Plus em termos de dose absorvida na agua para fotons e eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Flavia Cristina da Silva

    2004-06-15

    The quality of the treatment in radiotherapy depends on the necessary knowledge of the liberated dose in the tumor and of several other physical parameters and dosimetric that characterize the profile of the radiation field. Worrying about the reliability of some commercial equipment that aim at determining the main parameters of a radiation field in a practical way for daily checks in an institution with radiotherapy service, in this work a study of the performance of the quality assurance system, QC6-Plus manufactured by PTW-Freiburg for daily checks, was developed, in order to assure the use of this equipment with larger reliability level in the routine of quality assurance of the hospitals as well as to make possible its use in the Program of Regulatory Inspections of the Services of Radiotherapy of the Country accomplished by IRD/CNEN. The found results indicate that the system QC6-Plus is perfectly adapted and practical for relative measures of daily and weekly control of the main parameters of clinical beans in agreement with reference values recommended in TECDOC 1151. However for measurements of absolute dose it should not be used because, for beams of electrons the system does not present the necessary characteristics to execute this measure type in agreement with the reference protocol, TRS 398, and for photons of energy 15 MV presented a deviation in relation to the conventional method of absolute dosimetry of 7,7%, that it is a lot above the expected in agreement with TRS 398. (author)

  6. Assessment of the effects of inhibition of inflammatory cascades and exogenous supplementation of CXCL12 in hematopoiesis of experimental; Avaliacao dos efeitos da inibicao de cadeias inflamatorias e da suplementacao exogena de CXCL 12 na hematopoiese de modelos experimentais expostos a doses letais ou subletais de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Daniel Perez

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inhibition of the inflammatory chains governed by the action of interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma}) and the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in damage after radiation exposure to lethal dose (8 Gy) or moderate /severe dose (4 Gy) in hematopoietic tissues (spleen and bone marrow) of experimental models irradiated at these doses. Groups of isogenic C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to radiation (4 or 8 Gy) in whole-body exposures in a {sup 60}Co panoramic source. Similarly, were irradiated mice whose iNOS or IFN-{gamma} expression was absent or undetectable. Other groups received orally in all days of experiments an inhibitor of iNOS activity, aminoguanidine, or CXCL12, a primordial chemokine known as an haematopoiesis promoter intraperitoneally by days 0 to fourth after radiation events. Another groups received the two agents concomitantly. The animals were sacrificed on days second, fourth and eighth after irradiation, and fragments of the spleens and femurs were preserved for histology. Splenocytes and non-adherent cells from femoral bone marrow were removed and divided, providing aliquots for subsequent RT-PCR and cell suspensions suitable for flow cytometry experiments specific to the detection of the frequency of CD34+ cell populations. In same days of experiment, tail blood samples were collected for counting of peripheral red blood cells and platelets. The results showed that the absence of the production of interferon-gamma at the irradiated sites increases the survival and the amount of hematopoietic progenitor cells and that the absence of iNOS or its functional blockade reduces the extent of radioinduced damage in tested hematopoietic tissues. Furthermore, it was possible to observe that supplementing with synthetic CXCL12 increases the frequency of CD34{sup +} phenotype in the spleens of tested models, and that its effect seems to antagonize the inhibition of the production of NO by aminoguanidine. (author)

  7. Distribution of K, eU and Th and evaluation of annual radiation dose in the region of the Serra do Carambei Granite - PR; Distribuicao de K, eU e eTh e avaliacao da dose anual de radiacao na regiao do Granito Serra do Carambei - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, Luiz C., E-mail: luizcgodoy@brturbo.com.br [Departamento de Geociencias, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, Andre V.L., E-mail: andre@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Pesquisas Hidrogeologicas - LPH, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Santos, Leonardo J.C., E-mail: santos@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Biogeografia e Solos - LABS, Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco J.F., E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada - LPGA, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    is study was conducted in an area of 14 km in length oriented in the NNE direction by 7.3 km wide, covering the totality of the Serra do Carambei Granite and adjacent units. Located in the northern region of the Alagados dam, Parana State, this granite contains relatively high concentrations of K, eU and eTh, known since the 1970s through airborne and terrestrial gamma-ray spectrometry surveys. Recent radiochemical tests conducted on 61 samples of geological materials such as rocks (17 samples) and material of the weathering mantle and alluvial deposits (44 samples), confirmed the occurrence of radioactive anomalies in this granite, especially in thorium and uranium. The contents of K, eU and eTh obtained in gamma-ray spectrometry survey and radiochemical tests, converted to annual radiation dose (ARD), allowed to evaluate the intensity of natural radiation, whose levels relatively high in certain regions of the study area, can offer hazard to the local populations. The analysis and interpretation of data, as well the preparation of contour maps of K, eU and eTh were fundamental to understand the behavior and mobility of radionuclides in different environmental compartments of the area. (author)

  8. Evaluation of biochemical response on early prostate cancer: comparison between treatment with external beam radiation alone and in combination with high-dose rate conformal brachytherapy boost; Avaliacao da resposta bioquimica no cancer inicial de prostata: experiencia uninstitucional comparando teleterapia exclusiva ou associada a braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Douglas Guedes de; Chen, Michael Jenwei; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Maia, Maria Aparecida Conte; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Ferrigno, Robson; Salvajoli, Joao Victor [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radioterapia]. E-mail: dougepm@uol.com.br; Nishimoto, Ines Nobuko [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To compare the biochemical response in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy alone or in combination with conformal brachytherapy boost. Materials and methods: From November 1997 to January 2000, 74 patients received 45 Gy of pelvic external irradiation and four were treated with high dose rate iridium-192 conformal boost implants of 4 Gy each (BT). These were compared with 29 other patients treated with 45 Gy of pelvic external irradiation followed by a 24 Gy of bilateral ARC boost (RT) from October 1996 to February 2000. Some patients received neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Three-year actuarial biochemical control rates (BC3) and pretreatment biochemical response predictors such as prostate-specific antigen pretreatment (PSAi), Gleason score (GS) and clinical stage (CS), were evaluated. Results: Median follow-up was of 25 months for the RT group and 37 months for the BT group. BC3 was 51% versus 73% (p = 0.032) for RT and BT, respectively. Comparisons of biochemical control by treatment group stratified by PSAi showed that BC3 for RT versus BT was 85.7% versus 79.1% (p = 0.76) for PSAi {<=}10 ng/mL and 38% versus 68% (p = 0.023) for PSAi > 10 ng/mL, respectively. For patients with GS {<=} 6, BC3 was 37% versus 80% (p = 0.001) for RT versus BT and, for patients with GS > 6, BC3 was 78% versus 55% (p = 0.58) for RT versus BT, respectively. For patients with CS {<=} T2a, BC3 was 36% versus 74% (p 0.018) for RT versus BT and, for patients with CS > T2a, BC3 was 73% versus 69% (p 0.692) for RT versus BT, respectively. The relative risk of biochemical relapse was 2.3 (95% IC: 1.0-5.1) for patients in RT group compared to the BT group. When adjusted for PSAi and GS, the relative risk of biochemical relapse was 2.4 (95% IC: 1.0-5.7). Conclusion: The treatment modality was an independent prognostic factor for biochemical relapse, with a significant improvement in the biochemical control with BT

  9. Dose evaluation in special fluoroscopy procedures: Hysterosalpingography and Dacryocystography; Avaliacao de dose em procedimentos especiais de fluoroscopia: histerossalpingografia e dacriocistografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Cintya Carolina Barbosa

    2006-04-15

    The hysterosalpingography (HSG) and dacryocystography (DCG) are among the special fluoroscopy procedures. The HSG is a radiodiagnostic technique used to detect uterine and tubal pathologies and it is fundamental for the investigation of infertility. The DCG is a form of lacrimal system imaging, being important to show the level of obstruction, the presence of dilatation of the lacrimal sac, as well as alterations in nearby structures. At this research, the study of skin entrance dose was evaluated for these two special fluoroscopy procedures, besides the analyses of staff doses whose performs the exams. The exams of 22 HSG patients and 8 DCG patients were evaluated using TL-100 dosimeters attached on patient' skin at anatomical landmarks evolved on each exam. In the case of HSG, the results showed that skin entrance doses varied from 0.5 mGy to 73.4 mGy, with an average value of 22.1 mGy. The estimated uterus dose was 5.5 mGy, and 6.6 mGy was the average dose estimated to the ovaries. The patient' skin entrance dose undergoing to DCG examinations varied from 2.1 mGy to 10.6 mGy, and the average eye's dose was 6.1 mGy. The results of staff dose showed that, on HSG, the average dose on doctor's right hand was 4.3 mGy per examination. This value had to the fact that the physician introduces the contrast manually while all contrast exposures. In relation of DCG, the staff's dose values were nearby background radiation, evidencing that, inside of permitted limits, there is no risk for the physicians at this procedure. (author)

  10. Quality evaluation of blood irradiation process;Avaliacao da qualidade do processo de irradiacao de hemocomponentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, R.E.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (DDI/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem. Coordenadoria de Fisica e Higiene das Radiacoes

    2009-07-01

    An adverse reaction in blood transfusion is the graft versus host disease (GVHD). This disease affects immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patients where transfused T cells proliferate and initiate a host's immune system reaction. Blood gamma irradiation is the most efficient way to inhibit lymphocyte T blastic transformation and mitotic activity and it is the most effective method to combat this disorder. However, there is no fast and effective system to analyze the dose distribution in the irradiation process and guarantee that the absorbed doses are in agreement with FDA recommendations. This study aims to establish a periodic quality control of the gammacell irradiators using radiochromic films properly calibrated. The quality control is simply and effective to combat GVHD as well as is useful to detect mechanical fails at rotation set system through the dose uniformity analysis. It was possible to verify the uniformity ranged from -72.38% to 106.33% and some blood bag received doses not compatible with recommended international threshold. (author)

  11. Avaliacao da Relacao entre a Doenca Hepatica Nao Gordurosa e CAD utilizando TCMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Efe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Alguns fatores de risco para a aterosclerose são acompanhados pela doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA. Desejamos usar a tomografia computadorizada multi-fatias (TCMF como a técnica para encontrar relação entre a DHGNA e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Objetivo: A relação entre a DHGNA e a DAC foi investigada através de TCMF. Métodos: Um total de 372 indivíduos com ou sem sintomas cardíacos, que foram submetidos à angiografia por TCMF, foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença da DHGNA. Os segmentos arteriais coronarianos foram avaliados visualmente via angiografia por TCMF. Com base no grau de estenose arterial coronariana, aqueles com placas ausentes ou mínimas foram considerados como normais, enquanto aqueles que apresentavam estenose de menos do que 50% e no mínimo uma placa foram considerados como portadores da doença arterial coronariana não obstrutiva (não-obsDAC. Os pacientes que apresentaram no mínimo uma placa e estenose arterial coronariana de 50% ou mais foram considerados como portadores de doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (obsDAC. A DHGNA foi determinada de acordo com o protocolo de TCMF, utilizando a densidade hepática. Resultados: De acordo com a densidade hepática, o número de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (grupo 1 foi de 204 (149 homens, 54,8% e com fígado normal (grupos 2 foi de 168 (95 homens, 45.2%. Houve 50 (24,5% não-obsDAC e 57 (27,9% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 1, e 39 (23,2% não-obsDAC e 23 (13,7% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 2. Conclusões: O presente estudo utilizando TCMF demonstrou que a frequência da doença arterial coronariana em pacientes com NAFDL foi significativamente superior do que nos pacientes em NAFDL.

  12. Estudo e implementação de dosimetria com Mosfet em braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Tiago Nuno Ramos

    2010-01-01

    A dosimetria in vivo em braquiterapia, quando devidamente implementada, produz importantes beneficios, tais como a possibilidade de correccoes de fraccoes de dose, alertar para doses eventualmente excessivas em orgaos de risco, a avaliacao dose-efeito mais precisa, a deteccao de falhas e a comparacao de doses reais com doses planeadas. Estudos recentes mostram o uso de pequenos MOSFET em dosimetria in vivo de braquiterapia com incertezas totais de  8%. As dependencias com dose acumulada, ene...

  13. Leitura rapida do KDIGO 2012: Diretrizes para avaliacao e manuseio da doenca renal cronica na pratica clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores desta "leitura rápida" apresentam os dados que consideraram mais relevantes na versão 2012 do KDIGO referente à avaliação e manuseio da doença renal crônica. Não se trata da opinião dos autores, mas sim de uma apresentação mais concisa das diretrizes, que podem ser úteis na prática clínica.

  14. Avaliacao da espessura medio-intimal em pacientes com doenca renal cronica nao dialitica: estudo prospectivo de 24 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gaspar Marcos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento da espessura média-intimal (EMI avaliada por ultrassom é um preditor de risco cardiovascular na população geral. Porém, em pacientes com doença renal crônica nos estágios iniciais, essa associação ainda não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação EMI com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e mortalidade em pacientes nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica. Métodos: A análise post hoc de uma coorte de pacientes nos estágios 2-4 da DRC. Foram avaliados dados laboratoriais, ultrassom da artéria carótida e tomografia coronariana no início do estudo e a ocorrência de óbito, em seguimento por 24 meses. Resultados: Um total de 117 pacientes (57 ± 11 anos, 61% sexo masculino foram avaliados. A taxa de filtração glomerular foi 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% dos pacientes eram hipertensos, 23% diabéticos e 27% obesos. Calcificação arterial coronariana esteve presente em 48% dos pacientes, sendo mais prevalente em pacientes nos estágios mais avançados da DRC (p = 0,02. EMI foi 0,6 mm (0,4-0,7 mm. Comparado aos pacientes com EMI < 0,6mm, aqueles com EMI ≥ 0,6 mm eram mais velhos (p = 0,001, apresentavam maior prevalência do sexo masculino (p = 0,001, menor taxa de filtração glomerular (p = 0,01 e maior proporção de pacientes com calcificação (p = 0,001. Não foi observada relação entre a espessura média-intimal e a ocorrência de evento cardiovascular e óbito. Conclusão: A espessura médio-intimal em pacientes DRC se associou à calcificação coronariana, mas não à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e óbito, em um seguimento de 24 meses.

  15. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em residencia construida com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo

    2008-07-01

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb e {sup 40}K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. The results of {sup 40}K were lower than 81 Bq kg{sup -1}. The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y{sup -1} for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy{sup -1} for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy{sup -1} for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy{sup -1}, an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  16. Assessment of the dose-area product in fluoroscopy procedures of urinary tract; Avaliacao do produto dose-area em procedimentos de fluoroscopia do trato urinario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Ana Figueiredo; Khoury, Helen Jamil [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Drexler, Guenter [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas]|[GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. of Radiation Protection; Cavalcanti, Homero [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Diag Imagem

    2001-07-01

    In this work are presented the values of the dose-area product (DAP) in procedures of fluoroscopy of the urinary tract in a school hospital at Pernambuco - Brazil. It was used a Diamentor M2 of PTW to measure the doses of 36 exams of intravenous urography and 7 uretrocistography exams. The results showed that the values of DAP varied between 1,2 and 30,6 Gy.cm{sup 2}, for the exams of intravenous urography and from 2,3 to 11,9 Gy.cm{sup 2}, for the uretrocistography exams. (author)

  17. Use of different simulators to quality evaluation of image quality in digital mammography; Utilizacao de diferentes simuladores na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Leslie S.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: leslie@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Luis A.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com, E-mail: cea71@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the digital images were acquired with different exposure simulators to evaluate the quality of the image, noting the tumor mass detection, microcalcification fiber and representing regions of interest during mammography. The technical parameters of exposure depends on the thickness and composition of the breast, thus affecting the dose and image quality. The simulators were used: ACR, SBP 1054, BREAST PHANTOM CIRS and for evaluation of image quality, as well as measures kerma incident on the entrance surface (Ki) and calculating the mean glandular dose (MGD)

  18. Quality evaluation of Argentina onion irradiated, transported and stored; Avaliacao da qualidade da cebola argentina irradiada, transportada e armazenada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J.M.M.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Blumer, L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1995-12-31

    Onion bulbs of the Valenciana Sintetica 14 variety from Argentina were irradiated with a dose of 60 Gy gamma rays at 30-40 days after harvest. Treated and control lots (40 bags of 20 Kg each) were send by road to Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, and stored up to 180 days in a warehouse at 20-28{sup 0} C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 100%. Monthly quality control was done by physical and sensorial analysis. Radiation treatment reduced the weight loss of the bulbs and increased the percentage of marketable bulbs without affecting its sensorial properties. (author). 4 refs, 8 tabs.

  19. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach

  20. Evaluation of doses from radiodiagnostic procedures performed in veterinary medicine and assessing of the doses of secondary radiation in the medical staff and animal owners; Avaliacao das doses resultantes de procedimentos radiodiagnosticos realizados em medicina veterinaria e avaliacao das doses secundarias de radiacao espalhada no corpo clinico e nos proprietarios dos animais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneziani, Glauco Rogerio

    2012-07-01

    The primary goal in veterinary radiography is to produce radiographs of diagnostic quality on the first attempt. This goal serves three purposes: (1) to decrease radiation exposure to the patient and veterinary personnel; (2) to decrease the cost of the study for the client; and (3) to produce diagnostic data for rapid interpretation and treatment of the patient. This work aimed to determine the doses in dogs submitted to chest and abdomen X rays using the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. The radiation doses were assessed using thermoluminescent dosimeters of calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) and lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti). The obtained results indicate that is extremely important the assessment of radiation doses involved in veterinary diagnostic radiology procedures, to evaluate the delivered doses to the animals, to be used as a parameter in the individual monitoring of pet's owners, who assist the animal positioning, and to protect occupationally exposed workers at the Veterinary Radiology Clinics. (author)

  1. Evaluation of radiation doses on critical organs in the treatment of cancer of the cervix using HDR-brachytherapy; Avaliacao das doses em orgaos criticos no tratamento do cancer de colo uterino com braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Taciana; Jansem, Teresa [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Amaral, Ademir [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Cavalcanti, Homero; Vicente, Marcos [Centro de Radioterapia de Pernambuco (CERAPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    High dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is one type of treatment of the cervix carcinoma. During the planning for this therapy, especial attention is given to proximal normal organs such as bladder and rectum. In fact, due to their radiosensibility and localization, bladder and rectum are considered as critical organs. In this work we have studied the influence of the positioning of patient legs in the dose delivered to these critical organs in the treatment of cancer of the cervix using HDR-brachytherapy. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  3. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: miltonlavor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)

  4. Evaluation of radiosensitivity hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to gamma radiation; Avaliacao da radiossensibilidade de hemocitos de Biomphalaria glabrata expostos a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.R.S.; Amaral, A.J., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife-PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Silva, E.B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amancio, F.F.; Melo, A.M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2013-06-15

    The mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata have characteristics that allow them to be identified as an animal model ideal for monitoring areas exposed to chemical agents and physical. This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiation from Cobalt-60 in haemocytes present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata, with the goal of using these cells as indicators of the presence of radiation in aquatic environments. The mollusks were divided into five groups: one control and four subjected doses of 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of gamma radiation. After 48 hours of irradiation, the clam hemolymph was collected and slides were prepared and stained with Giemsa for analyses under a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, p <0.05. The results showed that the total number of cells after irradiation reduced compared to control except at a dose of 55 Gy. During data analysis, morphological changes were observed in haemocytes of mollusks subjected to doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy. These modifications consisted of nucleus bilobulated and nucleo plasmatic bridges. Another change was exclusively observed in the cellular exposure of 55 Gy, where hemocytes showed misshapen nuclei and cytoplasm vacuolisation, suggestive of apoptosis. It is concluded that hemocytes are sensitive to radiation and can be used as indicators of the presence of high doses of ionizing radiation in aquatic environments. (author)

  5. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats;Avaliacao de alteracoes morfologicas da pele apos lesao radioinduzida em ratos Wistar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cherley Borba Vieira de

    2010-07-01

    The cancer covers a heterogeneous group of more than 100 diseases with different etiology and prognosis. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities, aiming at the destruction of cancer cells, using ionizing radiation. One of the limiting factors of radiotherapy is that radiation promotes the death of tumor cells in addition to injure healthy tissue neighboring the tumor, and may cause their death. Irradiation of the skin, accidental or for therapeutic purposes can trigger many injuries culminating in fibrosis, which implies functional alteration of the body. The evaluation of morphological effects associated with skin irradiation becomes essential to develop more effective radiation strategies and decreased morbidity; and in case of accidents, proper handling of the victim.Evaluate radio-induced dermal changes using a Wistar rats model irradiated with 10, 40 and 60Gy. Male Wistar rats, aged approximately three months, were pre-anesthetized with midazolam and xylazine and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, shaved in the back, immobilized on polystyrene support in the prone position and irradiated with doses of 10, 40 and 60 Gy, with 4MeV nominal energy electron beams. The skin was irradiated in a 3cm{sup 2} field, and used 0.5cm of tissue equivalent material, to obtain a homogeneous dose distribution. After irradiation, the animals remained on constant evaluation, and the lesions were recorded photographically. The animals were divided into groups and were killed on the irradiation day, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 100 days after irradiation. The skin was fixed in 10% formaldehyde; the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red and immuno stained with antibody anti-TGF beta1. Another part of the tissue was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for scanning electron microscopy. It was observed macroscopically the appearance of skin lesions similar to burns on the entire

  6. Thoracic x-ray in pediatrics: entrance doses evaluation in the skin of the patients; Raios X de torax em pediatria: avaliacao de doses de entrada na pele dos pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Eliane; Borges, Jose C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Mota, Helvecio C.; Briquet, Claudia [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luis Antonio [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    The doses received by children in diagnostic radiology are an important concern on radiological protection due to the potential risk involved, however there is few information about the doses involved in the pediatric exams. This work evaluates the entrance skin doses in children chest examination (ESD), using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The doses presented a range from 0,01 mGy to 0,67 mGy. It was observed that for some age groups the evaluated doses were above the values recommended by European Community. (author)

  7. Kerma rate evaluation in the air in a room interventional cardiology; Avaliacao da taxa de Kerma no ar em uma sala de cardiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the number of interventional cardiology procedures is increasing. However, due to the long time of fluoroscopy in these procedures, care teams can receive high doses of radiation. The radiation scattered by the patient is not uniform, and their assessment is of utmost importance. This study aimed to estimate and map the kerma rate in the air at the time of the gonads, in an interventional cardiology room, seeking to optimize the dose absorbed by individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. For data collection, the room was divided into quadrants of 1m{sup 2}, totaling 40 collection points. The simulator was positioned so that its entry surface was located in the interventional reference point. Were chosen the conditions that simulate angiography and angioplasty procedures performed in the service. The data were obtained for height of 1 meter, gonad region. The results obtained for kerma rates in air, in quadrants, show that higher measured values was in the vicinity of the X-ray tube. Has been found that the medical staff are more exposed, because of its location during the procedure, around the table. The law of the inverse square distance of the farthest points of the X-ray tube were verified.

  8. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-07-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical

  9. Evaluation of the contribution of contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces in the measure of exposure rate of radioiodine therapy patients; Avaliacao da contribuicao da contaminacao de superficies do quarto terapeutico na medida da taxa de exposicao de pacientes de radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Rafael Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    The contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces is significant and the measures of patient exposure rate are held on the fourth dependencies, relevant questions are raised: the background radiation of the room stay high due to surface contamination, may interfere with the rate of patient exposure at the time of its release? The monitoring site is important to determine whether the patient will be released? The value of the deal activity and the clinical condition of the patient may increase the contamination, influencing the monitoring results? This paper aims to conduct a quantitative analysis of surface contamination of the contribution of therapeutic room at the time is monitored exposure rate from inpatient. Measurements were made regarding the hospitalization of 32 patients with different doses administered activity, age and of both genders. The measurements were performed in the therapeutic rooms at the hospital Brotherhood Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo. Exposure rate measurements were performed at the center of the room at 1 meter of the patient on the day of its release. After his release and prior to decontamination, measurements were performed at predetermined landmarks within the therapeutic room. The results revealed that on average background radiation, high due to surface contamination contributes only 2% of the patient dose rate. It can be considered that even with influence of contamination of surfaces, this is insignificant to determine if the patient may or may not be released. This study suggests that the site in which monitoring occurs exposure rate of the patient should not be decisive for liberation thereof. (author)

  10. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous

  11. Evaluation of X ray radiation doses in pediatric examinations of cranial computerized tomography based on optimization studies; Avaliacao das doses de radiacao X em exames pediatricos de tomografia computadorizada de cranio com base em estudos de otimizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daros, Kellen Adriana Curci

    2005-07-01

    This paper identifies the technical conditions for CT examination which offers lowest absorbed dose and to attend the manufacturer recommendations as far the spatial resolution is concerned. The paper evaluates the absorbed dose during cranial CT in up to 6 years children satisfying the technical condition recommended by the manufacturer and routine clinical conditions. The paper also established a quantitative relationship among the absorbed dose and its distribution in the cranial regions of pediatric patients up to 6 years old in a way to estimate the doses subject to optimized conditions

  12. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the inflammatory activity in chronic osteomyelitis. Contribution of the scintigraphy with polyclonal antibodies; Avaliacao de atividade inflamatoria em osteomielite cronica. Contribuicao da cintilografia com anticorpos policlonais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    1996-07-01

    Active chronic osteomyelitis or complicating osteomyelitis (superimposed on diseases that changes the normal bone structure fractures, post-surgery, prosthesis) can be difficult to diagnose by anatomic radiological imaging modalities, like plain radiograph and CT. These diseases frequently cause also increased bone remodeling, leading to nonspecific uptake of Tc-99m-bone scan agents and gallium-67. New radiopharmaceuticals with greater inflammation/infection avidity and specificity are being developed, including the nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) labeled with technetium-99. Tc-99m-IgG may be available as a ready to use kit, with no reported side effects, low patient absorbed radiation dose and low cost. The mechanism of IgG uptake at the inflammation site has not been fully elucidated yet. Specific (receptor linking, physico-chemical immunoglobulin properties) and nonspecific mechanisms (enhanced vascular permeability and macromolecular exudate) has been suggested. IgG scintigraphy results are affected by the isotope, labeling procedure adopted and characteristics of the inflammatory focus. Nineteen patients with suspected osteomyelitis (active chronic osteomyelitis or violated bone osteomyelitis) were studied by Tc-99m-IgG scintigraphy (directly labeled polyclonal immunoglobulin, Sandoglobuilina - Sandoz). All patients also underwent standard three-phase bone scintigraphy using methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-MDP), gallium-67 scintigraphy and plain radiographs. Infection was found in 8 sites. Sensitivity and specificity for Tc-99m-MDP, gallium-67 and Tc 99m-IgG scintigraphy were, respectively, 88 and 36%, 75 and 73%,88 and 82%. All patients with false positive IgG scintigraphies had previous surgery. Other current scintigraphic procedures used in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis are also reviewed. (author)

  14. Chemical and microbiological assessments of the multi mixture treated by gamma radiation; Avaliacao quimica e microbiologica da multimistura tratada por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cinthia Graciele

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the multi mixture have being used since the eighties as an alternative against severe infantile malnutrition of the poorest population. However, its use is still reason of controversies mainly due to: the presence of anti nutritional factors, the microbiological quality and the nutritional value. Considering the routine use of multi mixture in the region, this work aimed to evaluate samples of multi mixture were collected in the metropolitan area of the City of Belo Horizonte/MG for determining the anti nutritional factors (phytic and oxalic acids), the microbiological quality, the centesimal and mineral composition, and still the induced effect in these factors of the gamma radiation. For the analyses, the samples passed by the process of gamma irradiation at doses of: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and then were evaluated anti nutritional factors (phytic acid and oxalic), the microbiological quality (yeasts and molds, Salmonella, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, coliform to 45 deg C) to full percentage (moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and the efficiency of the method of Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance (EPR) in the detection of irradiated samples. The mineral composition of the samples was carried out by the irradiation by Neutronic Activation. The methods used were searched in literature. The obtained results suggest that the concentration of the phytic and oxalic acids can not be appropriated for the children with severe nutritional deficit and that it would be necessary additional control in their daily ingestion due to the absorption of essential minerals. In general the samples had presented acceptable microbiological quality for consumption, except by one of it. The data of the centesimal and mineral composition, in the usually recommended portions, showed lower concentration than recommended for children. Any significant alteration in phytic and oxalic acids as well as in the centesimal composition were detected

  15. Dose evaluation due to the effluent liberation by medical installations at city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao de doses devido a liberacao de efluentes por instalacoes medicas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Jane; Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: jshu@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares; Heilbron, Paulo F.L., E-mail: paulo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (COREJ/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Rejeitos; Crispim, Verginia R., E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper, the city of Rio de Janeiro was taken as a case study. It was processed deterministic and probabilistic simulations vor evaluation of the dose in two exposure sceneries, one of them referring to public members exposure and the other relative to exposure of sewage sanitary treatment plant workers. The results showed that at present the doses for inhabitants of the city and operators of treatment station are lower to dose limit established for the public, the approach presently in use in Brazil is not sufficient to accomplish whit international requirements and the regulation should be revised to be adopted specific values for each radionuclide

  16. Evaluation of the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) in dose calculation for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction; Avaliacao do Algoritmo Analitico Anisotropico (AAA) no calculo de dose para campos com fluencia nao uniforme considerando correcao de heterogeneidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornatto, P.; Funchal, M.; Bruning, F.; Toledo, H.; Lyra, J.; Fernandes, T.; Toledo, F.; Marciao, C., E-mail: pricila_bornatto@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Erasto Gaertner (LPCC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the calculation of dose distribution AAA (Varian Medical Systems) for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction. Five different phantoms were used with different density materials. These phantoms were scanned in the CT BrightSpeed (©GE Healthcare) upon the array of detectors MAPCHECK2 TM (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and irradiated in a linear accelerator 600 CD (Varian Medical Systems) 6MV and rate dose 400MU/min with isocentric setup. The fluences used were exported from IMRT plans, calculated by ECLIPSE™ planning system (Varian Medical Systems), and a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field to assess the heterogeneity correction for uniform fluence. The measured dose distribution was compared to the calculated by Gamma analysis with approval criteria of 3% / 3 mm and 10% threshold. The evaluation was performed using the software SNCPatient (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and considering absolute dose normalized at maximum. The phantoms best performers were those with low density materials, with an average of 99.2% approval. Already phantoms with plates of higher density material presented various fluences below 95% of the points approved. The average value reached 94.3%. It was observed a dependency between fluency and approved percentage points, whereas for the same fluency, 100% of the points have been approved in all phantoms. The approval criteria for IMRT plans recommended in most centers is 3% / 3mm with at least 95% of points approved, it can be concluded that, under these conditions, the IMRT plans with heterogeneity correction can be performed , however the quality control must be careful because the difficulty of the system to accurately predict the dose distribution in certain situations. (author)

  17. Evaluation exposure to the ionizing radiation of workers during the operation of first Brazilian uranium mine; Avaliacao da exposicao de trabalhadores a radiacao ionizante durante a operacao da primeira mina de uranio do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Oliveira, Sergio Q. de; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Silva, Ana Claudia A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Servico de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    The production of uranium in Brazil initiated, in industrial scale, in the year of 1982, in the Miner-Industrial Complex at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This paper analysed the data of 13410 individual historic of dose, registered along the years of work, bay the radioprotection service of installation. Descriptive statistics and frequency histograms based on dose historic, and the annual distribution doses and the accumulated doses were evaluated during the functioning period of the CIPC, and his adequacy to the in force legislation at the time of it operation

  18. Evaluation of failure modes of computerized planning phase of interstitial implants with high dose rate brachytherapy using HFMEA; Avaliacao dos modos de falha do planejamento computadorizado em implantes intersticiais com braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose usando HFMEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biazotto, Bruna; Tokarski, Marcio, E-mail: bruna@ceb.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Biomedica

    2014-08-15

    This paper evaluates the failure modes of the computerized planning step in interstitial implants with high dose rate brachytherapy. The prospective tool of risk management Health Care Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA) was used. Twelve subprocesses were identified, and 33 failure modes of which 21 justified new safety actions, and 9 of them were intolerable risks. The method proved itself useful in identifying failure modes, but laborious and subjective in their assessment. The main risks were due to human factors, which require training and commitment of management to their mitigation. (author)

  19. Evaluation of multiple scan average dose (MSAD) levels in computerized tomography in Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos niveis de dose media em cortes multiplos (MSAD) em tomografia computadorizada no estado de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Thessa C., E-mail: alonso@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vieira, Leandro de A.; Barbosa, Nayra V.; Oliveira, Jeyselaine R. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z. [Secretaria de Vigilancia Sanitaria de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Teogenes A. da [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2014-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) grows every year and is a diagnostic method that has revolutionized radiology with advances in procedures for obtaining image. However, the indiscriminate use of this method generates relatively high doses in patients. The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is a practical tool to promote the evaluation of existing protocols. The optimization and the periodic review of the protocols are important to balance the risk of radiation. The present study aims to conduct a survey of levels of MSAD of Minas Gerais following the procedures recommended by current Brazilian law. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the use of radiochromic films alongside of the ionization chamber and TLDs in measuring peripheral doses; Avaliacao do uso de filmes radiocromicos ao lado de camara de ionizacao e TLDs na mensuracao de doses perifericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboll, Danyel S.; Wolter, Brenda Von; Nascimento, Josiane Q., E-mail: soboll@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Viamonte, Alfredo; Alves, Victor G.L., E-mail: aviamonte@inca.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (PQRT/INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Qualidade em Radioterapia

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this work is to submit radiochromic films, thermoluminescent dosimeters and ionization chamber to identical situations irradiation, in order to assess their capabilities in measuring peripheral doses. The growing number of survivors of childhood cancer has created the need to investigate the cause of the sequelae of treatment. Measurements of peripheral radiation to the radiotherapy target region increment the knowledge of the subject and assist in the development of protection methods. As the periphery of the radiation spectrum is different from that in the beam, the energy independence supposedly provided in radiochromic films can overcome the energy dependence found of ionization and TLD chambers, in order to discard the necessity of correction of the values if films are used. In this work the three dosimeters were exposed to doses arising from the issuance of 6 MV beams, field 10 cm x 10 cm and 500 UM. The dosimeters were placed at 0, 10, 17.5 and 30 cm from the central ray, always under 5 cm of water. The results showed that the figures reported by the films have high average standard deviation and for more conclusive results is necessary to proceed with the radiations, employing more intense beams.

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina; Avaliacao dosimetrica de uma combinacao de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porcao distal da vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues [Real e Benemerita Sociedade Portuguesa de Beneficencia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia Estereotactica; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: handrade@hcnet.usp.br; Seraide, Rodrigo Migotto [Centro de Oncologia Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. Materials And Methods: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC); tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C); and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC). Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50), 100% (V100), 150% (V150) and 200% (V200) were compared. Results: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder). Conclusion: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina. (author)

  2. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  3. Evaluation of home-made teas efficiency from medicinal plants used on childish diarrhea treatment; Avaliacao da eficacia de chas caseiros de plantas medicinais utilizados no tratamento da diarreia infantil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Magda Moreira; Silva, Maria Jose de Sousa Ferreira da [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, Claudia de; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this work is to verify whether the home-made teas form Brazilian plants, used for control of childish diarrhea have been efficient reaching the composition recommended by World Health Organizations (WHO). This work has been carried out using the neutron activation analysis and the TRIGA MARK I reactor, the IPR-R1, in the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Mapping of isoexposure curves for evaluation of equivalent environmental doses for radiodiagnostic mobile equipment; Mapeamento de curvas de isoexposicao para avaliacao de equivalente de dose ambiente para equipamentos moveis de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelar, Alexandre, E-mail: abacelar@hcpa.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Setor de Fisica Medica e Radioprotecao; Andrade, Jose Rodrigo Mendes, E-mail: jose.andrade@santacasa.tche.b [Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Atencao a Saude e Qualidade de Vida; Fischer, Andreia Caroline Fischer da Silveira; Accurso, Andre; Hoff, Gabriela, E-mail: andreia.silveira.001@acad.pucrs.b, E-mail: andre.accurso@acad.pucrs.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC/RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Experimentacao e Simulacao Computacional em Fisica Medica

    2011-10-26

    This paper generates iso exposure curves in areas where the mobile radiodiagnostic equipment are used for evaluation of iso kerma map and the environment equivalent dose (H{sup *}(d)). It was used a Shimadzu mobile equipment and two Siemens, with non anthropomorphic scatter. The exposure was measured in a mesh of 4.20 x 4.20 square meter in steps of 30 cm, at half height from the scatterer. The calculation of H{sup *}(d) were estimated for a worker present in all the procedures in a period of 11 months, being considered 3.55 m As/examination and 44.5 procedures/month (adult UTI) and 3.16 m As/examination and 20.1 procedure/month (pediatric UTI), and 3.16 m As/examination and 20.1 procedure/month (pediatric UTI). It was observed that there exist points where the H{sup *}(d) was over the limit established for the free area inside the radius of 30 cm from the central beam of radiation in the case of pediatric UTI and 60 cm for adult UTI. The points localized 2.1 m from the center presented values lower than 25% of those limit

  5. Evaluation of the radioprotection state-of-the-art for nursing mothers and the recommendation for multidisciplinary teams; Avaliacao do estado da arte da radioprotecao para lactantes e elaboracao de recomendacoes para equipes multidisciplinares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de, E-mail: lirio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Related to the ionizing radiation exposure, the breast feed babies can be classified as individuals occupational y exposed and public individuals existing dose limits, and nonexisting limits. breast feeds are always considered as public individuals, independently of the category which women are classified. The contamination can occur by ingestion of mother warm milk on the cases of accidents involving mothers occupational y exposed, intake of radionuclides by inhalation, or ingestion, or when the mother are submitted to diagnostic procedures or therapeutics with radiopharmaceuticals, that can reach high concentrations in the milk which can cause significant absorbed doses for the children organs. Besides the internal dose, the close contact between the mother and the baby results in external doses. In Brazil, round 7 % of the diagnostic procedures use {sup 131}I or {sup 123}I, and 84 % are carry out by women. For {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl, it is necessary the definitive interruption of the breast feeding. This work proposes a study on the risk of children and babies breast feed in the country. A questionnaire was developed to be applied to interviews with doctors and nurses on public and private nuclear medicine services, for the evaluation of the procedures used with young women. After that, will be developed a brochure for multidisciplinary teams, presenting the basic concepts on internal dosimetry of the children and babies, allowing the precise prediction of interruption time of the maternal breast feed and, when applicable, the alternative methods for that period

  6. Mining adaptation to the radioprotection regulations: evaluation of the regulation CNEN-NN-4.01; Adaptacao da mineracao as normas de radioprotecao: avaliacao da Norma CNEN-NN-4.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Silva, Cleber Jabarra da; Campinhos, Gabriela Michalsky [Jabarra Servicos e Comercio de Radioprotecao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Consultoria em Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    This paper proposes a generic model of monitoring to be used in mining with uranium or thorium associated viewing to estimate the dose of workers for classification the mining in the specific question of worker exposure. Besides the monitoring model, a dosimetric model also is proposed. It is indicated some instruments and techniques used in individual and area monitoring, besides to point out the necessity of radioprotection supervisor specific in this area

  7. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade e remocao da cor de um efluente textil tratado com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-07-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  8. Evaluation of internal occupational exposure of workers from nuclear medicine services by aerosol analysis containing {sup 131}I; Avaliacao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em servicos de medicina nuclear atraves da analise de aerossois contendo {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao, E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Paula, Gustavo Affonso de [Escola SESC de Ensino Medio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the risk of internal occupational exposure associated with the incorporation of {sup 131}I via inhalation, in Nuclear Medicine Services, using aerosol analysis techniques. Occupationally Exposed Individuals (IOE) involved in handling this radionuclide are subject to chronic exposure, which can lead to an increase in the committed effective dose. Results obtained in preliminary studies indicate the occurrence of incorporation of {sup 131}I by workers involved in handling solutions for radioiodine therapy procedures. The evaluation was carried out in radiopharmacy lab (nuclear medicine service) of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After confirmed the presence of the radioisotope, by a qualitative assessment, it was determined an experimental arrangement for sample collection and were detected and quantitated the presence of steam {sup 131}I during routine work. The average concentration of activity obtained in this study was 3 Bq / m{sup 3}. This value is below of Derived Concentration in Air (DCA) of 8.4 x 10{sup 3} Bq of {sup 131}I / m{sup 3} corresponding to a committed effective dose of 1.76 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These results demonstrate that the studied area is safe in terms of internal exposure of workers. However, the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically reevaluated, since this type of exposure contributes to the increase of the individual effective doses. Based on the data obtained improvements were suggested in the exhaust system and the use of good work practices in order to optimize the exposures.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  10. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  11. Development of a methodology for doss assessment viewing the use of NORM on building materials; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para avaliacao de doses visando o uso de NORM em materiais de construcao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Fernando Costa de

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating the radiological impact on man of the residues of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) that potentially can be used for the construction of homes and roads. Residues of this type, which are being produced in great quantities by the Brazilian mining industry, are typically deposited in non-appropriated conditions such that they may have a long-time adverse impact on the environment, and hence on man. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the doses resulting from the use of NORM residues, thus allowing a preliminary analysis of the possibility to recycle the residues. The model was used to evaluate the external dose due gamma radiation, the dose to skin caused by beta radiation, and the internal dose due to inhalation of radon and its decay products. The model was verified by comparisons with results of other studies about doses due to gamma and beta radiation from finite and infinite radioactive sources, with relatively good agreement. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a comparison was made against experimental results for a house constructed in accordance with CNEN regulations using building materials containing NORM residues. Comparisons were made of the dose due to gamma radiation and the radon concentration in the internal environment. Finally, the methodology was used also to estimate the dose caused by gamma radiation from a road constructed in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, which made use of another NORM residue. (author)

  12. DOSES DE LODO DE ESGOTO SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DA GRAMA BERMUDA (Cynodon dactylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOBILE, Fabio Olivieri de

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Population growth occurred rapidly, resulting in cities with poor infrastructure on the sanitation sector. So, there was the introduction of sanitary treatment, causing difficulty in choosing alternatives for the proper disposal of sewage sludge, rich in essential nutrients for the plants. The experiment was conducted to determine the best dose of sewage sludge to Grass Cynodon dactylon. It was conducted in greenhouse in the University Center of Educational Foundation of Barretos-SP. The experimental design was a randomized block, with four replicates of six plots, four with the application of sewage sludge doses (50, 100, 150 and 200%, a portion with 0%, , and the last installment using only mineral fertilizer. A total of 20 experimental units. The doses which took sewage sludge were D50%: 0,12 g, D100%: 0,24 g, D150%: 0,48 g, D200%: 0,72 g. For mineral fertilizer the dose applied was DAD: 1, 5g. All vessels were treated with lime prior to incorporation of sewage sludge, the dosage used was 6,25 g (2.5 t ha-1 . Each vessel contained 5 kg of soil. Initially the growth of grasses occurred more rapidly, after 43 days all plants started to show significant reductions in plant height. With increasing doses of sewage sludge there was greater root development, and constancy in the shoot. The uptake of K by grasses was relatively minor, what makes it possible to conclude that the material has a lack for the referred element. O crescimento populacional ocorreu de forma rápida, resultando em cidades com pouca infra-estrutura em saneamento básico. Deste modo, surgiram estações de tratamento de esgoto e a dificuldade de alternativas para o descarte adequado do lodo de esgoto, rico em nutrientes essenciais para as plantas. O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a melhor dose de lodo de esgoto para grama Bermuda Cynodon dactylon. Conduzido em casa de vegetação no Centro Universitário da Fundação Educacional de Barretos-SP. O

  13. Radiation exposure evaluation of the professional working interventionist procedures in a hemodynamics service; Avaliacao da exposicao a radiacao dos profissionais que executam procedimentos intervencionistas em um servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Leonardo Peres

    2004-07-01

    An evaluation of the dose distribution received by all the workers involved on coronary angioplasty, arteriography, coronary angiography and mitral valvuloplasty procedures has been made in this work. For the measurements, LiF:Mg, Ti TLD(TLD 100) was used, located in seven different points on the worker's body: hands, knees, neck, forehead and thorax, inside and outside lead apron.) The measurements have been done for each hemo dynamical procedure, and the TLD calibrated in personal dose equivalent (H{sub p}(d)) operational quantity for 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm depth. Nurses and auxiliary doctors did not receive expressive dose values, indicating that the adopted radioprotection procedures seem to be appropriate and sufficient for them. However, the same is not true for the doctors direct in charge of the procedure. The results show the importance of the use of thyroid protections in these cases. This work discusses the main factors that cause occupational dose increase. From all interventionist hemo dynamical procedures analyzed, the dose values received by the doctors on coronary angioplasty procedures and coronary angiography were higher than the ones found on arteriography and mitral valvuloplasty. The higher dose values has been found for coronary angiography procedures in X-ray tools, that work with fluoroscopy on continuous mode and have been executed with brachial way, even in the eyes, hands, knees and thyroid, with or without shield. Multiplying these high dose values, measured in one procedure by the mean number of annual procedures made at the studied hospital by each doctor, the individual dose annual limits can be surpassed. Based on these estimations, some optimizations suggestions have been made and one discussion about the need of additional monitoring points is presented. Different algorithms have been used in order to estimate the effective dose, including a new proposal. The obtained results using the actual Radiodiagnostic Brazilian

  14. Dosimetric evaluation of the Fricke gel dosimeter using the spectrophotometric technique for application in electron and neutron dosimetry; Avaliacao dosimetrica da solucao Fricke gel usando a tecnica de espectrofotometria para aplicacao na dosimetria de eletrons e neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (GMR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes

    2011-07-01

    The main dosimetric characteristics of the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) solution were established for further application in the measurement of dose distribution of clinical electron fields. The dose-response curves of the FXG in a thermal neutron field were also evaluated for application in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and industrial electron fields. The standard reading technique was the spectrophotometry. For clinical fields the intra and inter-batch reproducibility of FXG solution are better than 1.4% and 5.1%, respectively. The optical response presents a linear behavior for doses ranging from 0.2 to 40 Gy independently of the electron energy and the dose rate in the studied ranges. Due to the effects of the FXG natural oxidation, the optimum elapsed time between FXG preparation and irradiation was established as 24h. The behavior of the dose-response curve does not change the obtained absorbance values relative to the non-irradiated dosimeter response during the studied period. The dose-response curve to industrial electron beam presented an exponential decreasing behavior. The optical response to thermal neutrons beam presented a linear behavior for the studied dose range. According to the obtained results to the different radiation fields studied it was not observed changes in the wavelength of the typical bands of the absorption spectrum radiation induced. Additional tests were performed with FXG solution to verify the viability and application of FXG dosimetry on intracavitary brachytherapy using digital photographic imaging. The excellent performance of the FXG dosimeter indicates that this dosimeter may be applied to tri-dimensional dose evaluation in radiotherapy treatments using electrons and neutron beams. (author)

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of the Fricke gel dosimeter using the spectrophotometric technique for application in electron and neutron dosimetry; Avaliacao dosimetrica da solucao Fricke gel usando a tecnica de espectrofotometria para aplicacao na dosimentria de eletrons e neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti

    2009-07-01

    In this work the main dosimetric characteristics of the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) solution were established for further application in the measurement of dose distribution of clinical electron fields. The dose-response curves of the FXG in a neutron field were also evaluated for the research in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and industrial electron fields. The standard reading technique was the spectrophotometric. For the clinical field, the intra and inter-batch reproducibility are better than 1.4% and 5.1 %, respectively, the response presents a linear behavior for doses ranging from 0.2 to 40 Gy independently of the energy and the dose rate in the studied ranges. Due to the effects of the FXG natural oxidation, the optimum elapsed time between FXG preparation and irradiation was established as 24h period and the behavior of the dose-response curve of the FXG using the variation in the absorbance relative to the non-irradiated dosimeter as a basis during the whole studied period were not altered. The dose-response to the industrial electron beam presented an exponential decreasing behavior and the neutron beam for research in BNCT presented a linear behavior for the complete studied dose range. According to the obtained results for the different types of radiation studied for the FXG, there was no change in the position of the characteristic bands of the absorption spectrum due to the interaction of these radiation types. Additional tests were performed to determine the digital photographic imaging of FXG analyses viability and the application of FXG dosimetry on intracavitary brachytherapy. The good performance of the FXG dosimeter in the tests that were carried out indicates that this dosimeter may be applied to the tri-dimensional dose evaluation in radiotherapic treatments using electrons and neutron beams. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the environmental equivalent dose rate using area monitors for neutrons in clinical linear accelerators; Avaliacao da taxa de equivalente de dose ambiente utilizando monitores de area para neutrons em aceleradores lineares clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da, E-mail: asalgado@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Neutron Laboratory of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute - IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, initiated studies on the process of calibration of neutron area monitors and the results of the measurements performed at radiotherapy treatment rooms, containing clinical accelerators

  17. Efetividade da aplicação do sulfato ferroso em doses semanais no Programa Saúde da Família em Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Matias Ferreira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se, neste artigo, a avaliação da efetividade de um projeto experimental de enfrentamento da anemia em crianças de 6 a 23 meses de idade, utilizando doses semanais de sulfato ferroso, através do Programa Saúde da Família em Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil. O Ministério da Saúde iniciou, em 1999, um programa de combate à anemia em cerca de 300 mil crianças de 512 municípios do Nordeste. Foram aplicados às crianças 50mg de ferro elementar por semana durante cerca de 24 semanas. Avaliaram-se, nesse estudo, 293 crianças de 6 a 23 meses de idade em zonas rural e urbana do Município de Caruaru. Antes do início da intervenção, a média da concentração de hemoglobina (dosada pelo método da cianometahemoglobina era de 10,1 (±0,98 g/dl e existiam 77,5% de crianças anêmicas. Após o tratamento, a média de hemoglobina elevou-se para 11,1 (±0,87 g/dl, enquanto ocorreu uma redução da anemia para 40,3%. A estratégia representa um instrumento promissor na redução da prevalência e no controle das formas graves de anemia em crianças.

  18. Resposta da soja e do eucalipto ao aumento da densidade do solo e a doses de fósforo Soybean and eucalyptus response to increased soil density and phosphorus doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Vitorino Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso agrícola e o manejo de solos de Cerrado frequentemente causam sua compactação, reduzindo sua porosidade e disponibilidade de água e nutrientes, com efeito negativo sobre o crescimento e o desenvolvimento das culturas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da densidade do solo e de doses de P no crescimento da soja e do eucalipto em solos com diferentes texturas: um Latossolo Vermelho (LV muito argiloso e outro Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA textura média. Em vasos plásticos de 1,8 L, com 1,6 dm³ de solo, foram testadas, para o LV, as densidades de 0,90, 1,10 e 1,30 kg dm-3 e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 mg dm-3 de P, e para o LVA, as densidades de 1,30, 1,50 e 1,70 kg dm-3 e as doses de 0, 75, 150, 300 e 600 mg dm-3 de P. As plantas de soja e de eucalipto foram colhidas 40 e 80 dias após a semeadura, respectivamente. Foram avaliadas: matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA e de raízes (MSR, acúmulo de P na MSPA (P-PA e MSR (P-R, nas duas espécies, e altura do eucalipto. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento da densidade do solo influenciou negativamente no crescimento da soja e do eucalipto, especialmente no solo LV e nas maiores doses de P; a resposta das plantas às doses de P aplicadas foi menor com o aumento da densidade do solo; e o aumento da densidade foi mais prejudicial ao crescimento do eucalipto - espécie mais eficiente na recuperação do P aplicado aos solos. De modo geral, o efeito negativo do aumento da densidade dos solos sobre a produção de MSPA das espécies, nas doses menores de P, é compensado quando as maiores doses de P são aplicadas.Agriculture and soil management in the Cerrado can cause soil compaction, resulting in decreased porosity and water and nutrient availability, with a negative impact on plant growth and development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil density and phosphorus doses (P on soybean and eucalyptus grown in two Cerrado oxisols with

  19. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation

  20. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  1. {sup 222} Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR); Avaliacao da exposicao ao {sup 222} Rn nas cavernas do Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The {sup 222}Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6607 Bq.m{sup -3} and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a{sup -1}. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a{sup -1} suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  2. Gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) effects on active substances and microbe burden of medicinal plants; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama (Co{sup 60}) sobre principios ativos e carga microbiana de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Agnol, L. [Herbarium Laboratorio Botanico Ltda, Colombo, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Garantia da Qualidade

    2001-04-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of radioactivity on active vegetal substances, samples of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller., fructus), Guarana (Paulinia cupana, Kunth, semen), Gingko (gingko biloba, L., folium), and Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum G. Forst, rhizoma), were treated with scaling doses (0 to 25 KGy) of gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}). The 'blind test' methodology was used. The active substances from each sample were analysed by qualitative and quantitative methods after radiation. There were no significant differences seen between the control sample (0 KGy) and the irradiated samples. Microbe contamination was significantly reduced, about 10000 CFU/g, with the initial 5 KGy dose. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce microbiologic contamination in medicinal plants. Before this procedure can be extended to other medicinal plants, more specific analytical methods are recommended to verify possible structural alterations in active vegetal molecules. (author)

  3. Assessment of occupational radiation protection conditions during power enhancement of the Angra-2 nuclear power plant; Avaliacao das condicoes de radioprotecao ocupacional durante a elevacao de potencia na Unidade 2 da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - Angra-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Eduardo M.; Rocha, Antonio Carlos S.; Ferreira, Paulo R.R.; Mouco, Charles Dickens C.L.; Godoy, Jose M.O.; Matta, Luiz E.S.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper intend to analyse the occupational radioprotection conditions of the Angra-2 nuclear power plant, from the startup up to reach 100% of the nominal power. To perform this work a group of dose rates measures was made including beta/gamma and neutron radiation, particulates and iodine monitoring, and surface contamination, during the whole process. These measures were made inside of the three main buildings: the reactor buildings (UJA - reactor core and UJB) and the Reactor Auxiliary Building (UKA). (author)

  4. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante nos aspectos microbiologicos, fisico-quimicos e sensoriais de sorvetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-06-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the response of thermoluminescent detectors in clinical beams dosimetry using different phantoms; Avaliacao da resposta de detectores termoluminescentes na dosimetria de feixes clinicos utilizando diferentes objetos simuladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Luciana Cardoso

    2010-07-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the three principal treatment modalities used in the treatment of malignant diseases such as cancer, the other two are chemotherapy and radiosurgery. In contrast to other medical specialties that rely mainly on the clinical knowledge and experience of medical specialists, radiotherapy, with its use of ionizing radiation in treatment of cancer, relies heavily on modern technology and the collaborative efforts of several professionals whose coordinated team approach greatly influences the outcome of the treatment. In the area of clinical dosimetry, an efficient and accurate calibration of the radiation beam ensures knowledge of the radiation dose delivered to the patient, allowing thus the success of radiotherapy. This study aims to compare the thermoluminescent response of calcium sulfate doped with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) dosimeters produced by IPEN (6 mm in diameter and 0,8 mm tick) with the response of lithium fluoride (3,15 x 3,15 x 0,9 mm{sup 3}) doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti) in dosimetry of clinical photons (6 and 15 MV) and electrons beams (6 and 9 MeV) using solid water (RMI-457), water and PMMA phantoms. Initially, the dose-response curves were obtained for irradiation in cobalt-60 gamma radiation source in air (PMMA plates) and under electronic equilibrium conditions and for clinical electrons and photons beams at depth of maximum dose. The sensitivities of the thermoluminescent dosimeters were also evaluated and the values of their reproducibilities and intrinsic efficiency were determined for the response to different types of phantoms and radiation energy. The obtained results indicate that the main advantage of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy dosimeters is the enhanced sensitivity to radiation doses measured for {sup 60}Co, photons and electrons beams, thus representing a viable alternative for application in dosimetry in the radiotherapy area. (author)

  6. Assessment of the occupational exposure of the workers involved in the {sup 123}I production at the IEN/CNEN-RJ; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional dos trabalhadores envolvidos na producao de {sup 123}I no IEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisco de

    2005-07-01

    {sup 123}I is a gamma emitter used for diagnosis in Nuclear Medicine. Since 1998 it is produced in the Institute of Nuclear Energy (IEN) and supplied to the Clinics and Hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The annual production is in the approximately of 0,74 TBq (20 Ci), which represents a risk of external and internal exposure to the workers involved in this activity. A survey of external doses in the period of 1994 to 2004 was carried out based on the individual registries available in the CONEXO Data Base operated by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). It was verified an increase of the external exposure associated to the production curve. However, the individual doses are all bellow the annual limits established by the regulatory board. On the other hand, the variation of doses among individuals involved in the same tasks suggests the possibility of optimization of procedures. Regarding internal exposure it was calculated a decision factor above 1mSv for the practice, which justifies the need for internal monitoring. An evaluation of the process based on the results of in vivo thyroid monitoring in the period of 2000 to 2004 was carried out to identify the steps which represent higher risk of internal exposure. The available data indicate that the laboratory of quality control is the critical step in terms of internal contamination. This conclusion can be justified by the high volatility of iodine which is manipulated in the form of a liquid open source during this step. With the aim of optimizing monitoring procedures for the control of occupationally exposed workers in the production of {sup 123}I, in vivo and in vitro bioassay methods were developed to identify and quantify internal contamination by such radionuclide, using the detection systems available at the Bioassay Laboratory and at the In Vivo Measurements Laboratory. The techniques developed present sensitivity compatible with the derived registry level associated

  7. Quality evaluation of image segmentation of brain magnetic resonance for mapping and functional analysis; Avaliacao da qualidade de segmentacao de imagens de ressonancia magnetica cerebral para mapeamento e analise funcional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, F.K.; Canova, C.V.; Marques da Silva, A.M. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Nucleo de Pesquisas em Imagens Medicas (NIMed)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of the brain structure segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRI) through a comparison between automatic and semiautomatic volumetric segmentation techniques. T1-weighed volumetric acquired stacks of MRI head images from Centro de Diagnostico por Imagens at the Hospital Sao Lucas da PUCRS were used in this study. In the semi-automatic segmentation technique were applied procedures like pre-processing and region-growing using Image J software. The automatic method of volume segmentation was carried through by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), a statistical analysis tool written for software MATLAB. The automatic method of volumetric segmentation had better performance in time. However the quality of image that the half-automatic segmentation presents a better detailing, but it required longer image processing time. The best method to be used, whether automatic or semi-automatic, depends on the region of interest. (author)

  8. Thermal hydraulic evaluation for an experimental facility to investigate pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in CDTN/CNEN; Avaliacao termo-hidraulica da montagem experimental de choque termico pressurizado do CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Elcio T.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Aronne, Ivam D.; Terra, Jose L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the work presented in this paper is to provide necessary thermal hydraulics information to the design of an experimental installation to investigate the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) to be implemented at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN). The envisaged installation has a test section that represents, in a small scale, a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. This test section will be heated and then exposed to a PTS in order to evaluate the appearance and development of cracks. To verify the behavior of the temperatures of the pressure vessel after a sudden flood through the annulus, calculations were made using the RELAP5/MOD 3.2.2 gamma code. Different outer radiuses were studied for the annular region. The results showed that the smaller annulus spacing (20 mm) anticipates the wetting of the surface and produces a higher cooling of the external surface, which stays completely wet for a longer time. (author)

  9. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao por feixe de eletrons na resistencia de embalagens a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella e Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2011-07-01

    }m). The structures of packaging were submitted to radiation doses between 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy, in one electron accelerator of 1,5 M and V, 25 mA and 37,5 kW, dose tax of 11,22 kGy / s, room temperature and air presence . Eight days, Two and Six months after irradiations, mechanical resistance experiment were accomplished to tension and elongating in rupture, sealing resistance and perforation resistance, all based in respective ASTM norms. The perforation experiment by insects were realized in an acclimatized room, where irradiated samples in doses of 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy were sealed containing 40 g of granola, 40 g of pasta and cereal bar in number of nine by experiment, and equally divided in three plastic screened boxes by studied dose. In each box 20 adults of each insect were added in for 60 days, when the packages were evaluated to verify possible perforations. The differences between the sample results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA (p<0.05). The results showed that concerning the perforation resistance by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais the polymeric structures evaluated showed low resistance by insects perforation before and after the treatment. BOPPmet/BOPP (50 {mu}m), PETmet/BOPP (32 {mu}m), PET/PP1 (72 {mu}m) and PET/PP2 (32 {mu}m) structures showed significant losses in mechanical properties studied. The BOPP/PP (50 {mu}m) showed the best set of answers in mechanical properties to the radiation treatment with electrons sheaf up to 10 kGy doses. Among the mechanical properties evaluated, sealing was the most affected by ionizing radiation, has shown, in general, increasing losses with radiation dose. (author)

  10. Gamma radiation effect on tocopherol content in natural and industrialized products and sensory evaluation; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre o conteudo de tocoferois em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliacao sensorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigallia

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin E content, the percentage of activity retention and the sensory characteristics were analyzed in samples of vitamin E rich foods: pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and a fortified powder formula irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. For the vitamin E determination (as -tocopherol equivalents) three different samples lots were employed using the colorimetric method standardized by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz of Sao Paulo. For sensory analysis, the Multiple Comparison or Control Difference Test was used for all products, comparing the irradiated samples to the non-irradiated controls and measuring the difference rate in total terms, concerning appearance, odor, texture and flavor, in a category scale of 9 points, ranging from 1 = no difference to 9 = extreme difference to the control. The experimental outline employed was that of randomized complete blocks design, in two consecutive sessions. The obtained data were submitted to variance analysis, ANOVA, and means comparison by Dunnett test, at 5% significance. The results show that there was no E vitamin loss in the pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and powder food samples, irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy doses. With regard to the sensory analysis, the 3 kGy gamma irradiation produced significant changes in the sensory properties of pecan nuts for the attributes: appearance, odor, texture and flavor. The 1 kGy dose did not cause a significant difference for these attributes. Concerning the sensory analysis of whole grain cookies and fortified powder food, significant differences were observed in all the irradiated products, although the difference grades were significantly low, compared to those of the non-irradiated samples, especially when 1 kGy dose was applied. (author)

  11. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em tecido osseo bovino por espectroscoia ATR-FTIR e analise dinamica-mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/{sub v1,v3}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  12. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nos teores de carotenoides, acido ascorbico e acucares do fruto Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Quimica, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Irradiacao de Alimentos], e-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, e-mail: jaquelinefisica@bol.com.br; Coelho, Maysa Joppert [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Engenharia Ambiental], e-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 {mu}g/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  13. Evaluation of radiochemistry purity and p H of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Pernambuco, Brazil; Avaliacao da pureza radioquimica e pH de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Poliane A.L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are cellular or molecular structures that have a radionuclide in its composition and they are used for diagnosing or treating diseases. The evaluation of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is essential to produce images with artifacts free, as well as avoid unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Since they are administered in humans is important and necessary that they undergo rigorous quality control. Due to this fact, the norm in ANVISA RDC 38/2008 declaring the mandatory completion of a minimum of tests in routine nuclear medicine services before human administration. (author)

  14. Parametric curve evaluation of a phototransistor used as detector in stereotactic radiosurgery X-ray beam; Avaliacao da curva parametrica de um fototransistor ao ser submetido a feixes de raios-X utilizados em radiocirurgia estereotaxica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Daniela Pontes A.; Santos, Luiz Antonio P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: lasantos@cnen.gov.br; Santos, Walter M. [Hospital Governador Joao Alves Filho, Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Setor de Fisica Medica]. E-mail: walradio@mail.com; Silva Junior, Eronides F. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: eron@ufpe.br

    2005-07-01

    Phototransistors have been widely used as detectors for low energy X-rays. However, when they are used in high energy X-rays fields like those generated from linear accelerators (linac), there is a certain loss of sensibility to the ionizing radiation. This damage is cumulative and irreversible. Thus, a correction factor must be applied to its response, which is proportional to the integrated dose. However, it is possible to estimate the correction factor by using the V x I parametric curve of the device. The aim of this work was to develop studies to evaluate and correlate the parametric response curve of a phototransistor with its loss of sensibility after irradiation. An Agilent 4155C semiconductor parameter analyzer was used to trace the parametric curve. X-rays were generated by a 14 MV Primus-Siemens linear accelerator. The results demonstrated that there is a correlation between the integrated dose applied to the phototransistor and the parametric response of the device. Studies are under way to determine how such behavior can provide information for the dosimetric planning in stereotactic radiosurgery. (author)

  15. Evaluation of area monitor response for neutrons in radiation field generated by a 15 MV clinic accelerator; Avaliacao da resposta dos monitores de area para neutrons em campo de radiacao gerado por um acelerador clinico de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)

  16. Valdose program: methodologies for dose assessment in internal contamination, 1997 census; Programma valdose: metodologie di valutazione della dose da contaminazione interna, censimento 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    Dose assessment in internal dosimetry needs computational and interpretative tools that allow carrying out, as a first step, an evaluation of intake on the base of bioassay measurements or WBC measurements, and as a second step, dose evaluation on the base of estimated intake. In the frame of the MIDIA Co-ordination (WBC operating in Italy), in the first months of 1997 a census on methodologies for dose evaluation in internal contamination has been proposed. A technical form has been sent to all the WBC Centres allowing an accurate description of modalities used in each centre. 9 out of 17 centres sent the answers to the technical form in time. In this paper all the forms filled in are reported. A careful comparative evaluation of the answers has been made both for routine monitoring and for special monitoring. The various radionuclides present in the Italian reality, calculation methodologies both for intake and dose, hypotheses adopted for date, path and modalities of contaminations are also presented. Proposals for conforming to the methodology in Italy after the introduction of the models following ICRP 60 publication that are the base of the Euratom 96/29 Directive are also discussed. [Italiano] La valutazione di dose in contaminazione interna necessita di strumenti interpretativi che permettano di effettuare in una prima la valutazione dell`intake sulla base delle misure dei campioni biologici o del corpo intero (WBC), ed in una seconda fase la valutazione della dose sulla base dell`intake. All`interno del coordinamento MIDIA dei WBC operanti in Italia e` stato proposto, nel primo trimestre del 1997, un censimento sulle metodologie di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna. Ai diversi centri e` stato inviato una scheda tecnica che, mediante un particolareggiato schema di domande, aiutava i diversi centri nella esposizione delle modalita` di valutazione di dose che ogni centro segue. 9 au 17 centri WBC operanti al momemnto in Italia hanno inviato la

  17. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc; Avaliacao da solubilidade em liquido pulmonar simulado dos metais presentes no rejeito gerado por uma industria metalurgica de zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O, and willemite - Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f{sub r} = 2.082 days; f{sub r} = 0.09 days; f{sub r} = 0.37 days; f{sub r} = 0.332 days ad f{sub r} = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f{sub r} = 146.95 days; f{sub r} = 63 days; f{sub r} = 86.64 days; f{sub r} = 79.66 days and f{sub r} = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in

  18. Influence of cyclophosphamide on the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution: experimental evaluation in BALB/cJ mice; Efeito da ciclofosfamida na biodistribuicao de radiofarmacos: avaliacao experimental em camundongos BALB/cJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ismar Pinto

    1996-11-01

    We study the influence of cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapeutic drug used in neoplastic treatments, on the biodistribution, in mouse, of some {sup 99m}Tc-labelled compounds used to get scintigraphic images. The cyclophosphamide was administered intravenously in female BALB/cJ mouse, in two distinct doses with an interval of 48 hours. Then, the radiopharmaceutical (150 k Hq) was administered by the same via one hour later. These animals were sacrificed, their organs were isolated and the activity was counted in a well counter. The percentage of activity in the organs was calculated by four methods: dividing the activity in each organ by the sum of activities in all organs, dividing the activity in each organ by the total activity injected in animal, dividing the result obtained in method by the mass of the specific organ. The results were compared with a set of animals not treated with the chemo therapeutical (control). (author). 87 refs., 5 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength

  20. Evaluation of the contamination risk by {sup 241}AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump; Avaliacao da contaminacao provocada por para-raios radioativos de americio-241 descartados em lixoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimally processed; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimamente processado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio

    2011-07-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to rethink their eating habits, consuming fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, therefore, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has high nutritional value, being rich in C vitamin especially, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Thus, along with papaya, passion fruit and pineapple, kiwi can be considered as an additional feature of C vitamin in the diet, or as a substitute for traditional citrus. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of gamma radiation on physical and chemical characteristics of kiwis minimally processed and stored under refrigeration, since this technology increases the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. The Kiwis was stripped, processed and cut into slices, stored in polyethylene bags of 10 cm squared and irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 1 and 2 kGy. A source of {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220, dose rate of 0.429 kGy/hour, in which each treatment had 5 replicates with 15 slices of kiwifruit per replicate. After irradiation the samples were stored in a climatic chamber at 6 degree C (near the temperature of commercial refrigerators). The following criteria were physical chemical analysis: pH, color, chlorophyll content, loss of weight, moisture, acidity and Brix. The analysis were done on 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 14{sup th} days after irradiation. The results indicated that gamma radiation did not induce deleterious changes in the physicochemical properties of the kiwi may be used for preservation of minimally processed kiwifruit. (author)

  2. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  3. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  4. Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. A clinical trial; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao laser de emissao vermelha em baixa intensidade na incorporacao de fluor no esmalte. Estudo clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Regina Keiko

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two maxillary central incisors of each volunteer to be biopsied were used and divided into 4 groups: group G{sub C} (control, which was untreated; group G{sub F} (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser ({lambda}= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm{sup 2}) with APF application after irradiation and group G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as G{sub LF}. The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results show a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups G{sub F}, G{sub LF} and G{sub FL} when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for G{sub LF} with respect to G{sub F}, there were no statistical differences among treated groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation used before APF could be employed in the clinical practice to prevent dental caries. (author)

  5. Development of methodology for evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I incorporated activities during lactation; Desenvolvimento de metodologia para avaliacao da atividade de {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 131}I em lactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Dantas, A.L.A.; Mesquita, S.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Oliveira, S.M.V., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2012-07-01

    Internal contamination of babies may occur for milk ingestion or inhalation of mothers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation with possible incorporation or mothers submitted to medical exposures during lactation. Radionuclide concentrations in the mother's milk may cause organ absorbed doses in the babies proportionally to the breast volumes. Milk analysis allow to determine activities ingested by the babies by determining the peak of mother's milk considering the decrease of the activity rate and the milk activities drunk at different time intervals. The work had the aim to develop simulators and methodology to evaluate {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I in lactation, in the following steps: to prepare standard solution of contaminated milk separately with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I; to build four breast simulators (600 g and 800 g) and respective calibration for two geometries (breast and whole-body) in the Whole-Body Counter Unit in Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The results demonstrated the system efficiency to determine {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I activities in breasts during the lactation period. The methodology for positioning in the 'breast geometry' seemed to be more efficient than the 'whole-body geometry' for different breast volumes. The experiment allows achieving better evaluation of internal dosimetry of mothers and their young children. (author)

  6. Tratamento da colite amebiana não disentérica com dose única de Teclozan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Huggins

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores trataram 30 pacientes portadores de colite amebiana não disentérica, de ambos os sexos (17 homens e 13 mulheres, com idades compreendidas entre 15 (dois casos a 55 anos (um doente, na Disciplina de Doenças Infecciosas. Parasitárias da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. A posologia administrada foi de 1.500 mg em dose única e os resultados avaliados pelas técnicas de Hoffman, raspado da mucosa retaí, retossigmoidoscopia (em 16 enfermos e exame direto com ou sem coloração pelo lugol, foram de 80% (24 doentes de cura clínica e laboratorial. Nenhuma manifestação colateral foi relatada petos pacientas e concluem os autores que o Teclozan administrado em nova posologia, representa valioso subsídio no tratamento da amebíase intestinal.

  7. Evaluation of the attenuation of the lead aprons with different lead equivalences for use in radiology services; Avaliacao da atenuacao de aventais plumbiferos com diferentes equivalencias de chumbo para uso em servicos de radiologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Juliana, E-mail: juliana.pimentel@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Borgonhi, William Mello, E-mail: borgonhi@gmail.com [Instituto Pro Universidade Canoense (IPUC), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Vanni, Stefania, E-mail: stevannni87@gmail.com [Assessoria em Fisica Medica (AFIM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work has the aim to evaluate the attenuation of personal protective gear of lead rubber with equivalence of 0.25 and 0.50 mmPb, the scattered radiation. It was used as a radiation emitter, a x-ray equipment brand GE® Model XR6000 with maximum voltage of 150 kVp, the maximum electric current of 630 mA. How spreader object was used a cylindrical acrylic simulator with measures 32 cm by 15 cm. To collect the measurements was used the ionizing chambers Fluke Biomedical® Victoreen® model 451B-DE-SI. The individual protective clothing evaluated were two rubber aprons with equivalence of 0.25 and 0.50 mmPb. To perform the experiment the simulator equipment was placed on the table aligned with the primary beam with focus-film distance of one meter. Were used as exposure parameters 85 kVp, 80 mA and 2.5 sec. Recordings were carried out at distances from 50 to 250 cm, ranging from 25 to 25 cm. For each distance were made four measures in the air and four measures with each VPI in front of the meter, checking the equivalent dose rate and tabling the values obtained. For aprons with equivalence 0,25mmPb average attenuation obtained was 94.05%, with standard deviation of 1.36. As for the aprons with 0,50mmPb the affected attenuation was 97.6%, with deviation of 0.75. From the results of this assessment, it is evident the importance of radiological protective clothing in the routines of individuals occupationally exposed to X-ray.

  8. Study of uptake and endocytosis of gamma rays-irradiated crotoxin by mice peritoneal macrophages; Avaliacao do mecanismo de captacao e endocitose de crotoxina submetida a acao da radiacao, por macrofagos peritoneais de camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardi, Bruno Andrade

    1999-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate the uptake and endocytosis of 2000 Gy {sup 60}Co irradiated crotoxin through mouse peritoneal macrophages, correlating with native one and another non related protein, the ovalbumin. Native (CTXN) or 2000 Gy {sup 60} Co {gamma}-rays (dose rate 540 Gy/hour) irradiated crotoxin (CTXI) or ovalbumin processed of same manner (OVAN - OVAI) were offered to mouse peritoneal macrophages and their uptake was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative in situ ELISA. The involvement of scavenger receptors (ScvR) was evaluated by using blockers drugs (Probuco-PBC or Dextran Sulfate - SD) or with nonspecific blocking using fetal calf serum (FBS). The morphology and viability of macrophages were preserved during the experiments. CTXI showed irradiation-induced aggregates and formation of oxidative changing were observed on this protein after gamma rays treatment. By immunohistochemistry we could observe heavy stained phagocytic vacuole on macrophages incubated with CTXI, as compared with CTXN. Quantitatively by in situ ELISA, the sema pattern was observed, displaying a 2-fold CTXI incorporation. In presence of PBC or SD we could find a significant decrease of CTXI uptake but not of CTXN. However the CTXN uptake was depressed by FBS, not observed with CTXI. OVA, after gamma rays treatment, underwent a high degradation suffering a potent incorporation and metabolism by macrophages, with a major uptake of OVAI in longer incubation (120 minutes). Gamma rays ({sup 60} Co) produced oxidative changes on CTX molecule, leading to a uptake by ScvR-mice peritoneal macrophages, suggesting that the relation antigen-presenting cells and gamma rays-modified proteins are responsible for the better immune response presented by irradiated antigens. (author)

  9. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Marcacao de Corynebacterium diphtheriae com Tecnecio-99m e avaliacao da capacidade de ligacao a fibronectina de plasma humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2004-04-15

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of {sup 99m}Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by {sup 99m}Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl{sub 2} bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl{sub 2} > 110 {mu}g/ml. Adherence levels of {sup 99m}Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 {mu}g/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% {+-} 1.2). Therefore, bacterial {sup 99m}Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  10. In vivo evaluation of Fe in the human skin and swins mice skin through the X-rays fluorescence technique; Avaliacao in vivo de Fe na pele humana e de camundongos swins atraves da tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevam, Marcelo

    2005-07-01

    Recent technological improvements allow the method of in vivo XRF to supply useful sensibility for diagnostics or monitoring in biomedical applications. In cases of hereditary sanguine disorders as the {beta}-Thalassaemia or a genetic disorder like Haemochromatosis, there is a high concentration of elements as Fe, Zn and Cu in the skin and internal organs, due to the treatment of those abnormalities or due to the own dysfunction caused by the disease. The levels of Fe related to the patient bearers of the {beta}-Thalassaemia are determined, at the moment, measuring a protein in the sanguine current, called ferritin. The monitoring of the protein is ineffective in several situations, such as when the patient suffers any disturbance of health. Nowadays, the main forms of measuring the levels of those metals through hepatic storage are the biopsy of the liver, that is invasive and potentially dangerous, presenting a rate of mortality of 0,1%, and through magnetic susceptibilities that employs a quantum superconductor, which is highly expensive and there are only three main world medical centers with this equipment. This work investigates the use of a Si PIN-diode detector and a 238Pu source (13 and 17 keV; 13%; 95.2 mCi; 86y) for the measurement of Fe skin levels compatible with those associated to the disease {beta}-Thalassaemia. XRF spectra were analyzed using a set of AXIL-WinQXAS programs elaborated and disseminated by the IAEA. The determination coefficient of the calibration model (sensitivity curve) was 0.97. Measurements on skin phantoms containing concentrations of Fe in the range from 15 to 150 parts per million (ppm), indicate that we are able to detect Fe at levels of the order of 13 ppm, using monitoring periods of 50 seconds and skin entrance dose less than 10 mSv. The literature reports skin Fe levels from 15.0 to 60.0 ppm in normal persons and from 70 to 150 ppm in thalassaemic patients. So, the employed methodology allows the in vivo measurement of

  11. Development of methodologies for internal exposure assessment due to the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}FDG; Desenvolvimento de metodologias para avaliacao da exposicao ocupational interna devido ao radiofarmaco {sup 18}FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de

    2013-07-01

    The production of {sup 18}F has increased in the last decade. It is produced basically for the synthesis of {sup 18}F- fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG), the main radiopharmaceutical used in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans. The growth in the frequency of these tests resulted in rise of the number of occupationally exposed individuals (OEI) to the radionuclide {sup 18}F as {sup 18}FDG, increasing thereby the probability of its accidental incorporation. This study aimed to implement optimized techniques for assessing internal exposures of individuals occupationally exposed through both in vivo and in vitro bioassay methods during production and handling of {sup 18}FDG at the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA), Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN). The in vivo monitoring was conducted at the Laboratorio de Dosimetria Interna, Divisao de Laboratorios Tecnico-Cientificos (DILAB). For this bioassay method, measurements were done with a 3x3' NaI(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to Genie 2000 software. The calibration of the system was performed with a brain phantom containing a standard liquid source of {sup 22}Na to simulate a contaminated individual. The calibration of the HPGe coaxial detector for in vitro monitoring was performed at the Laboratorio de Medidas de Atividade de Radionuclideos (DIPRA/CRCN-NE/CNEN) with a standard source of {sup 22}Na. Base on the calibration factors, it was possible to determine the minimum detectable activities (MDA) for the systems by using direct measurements and simulation of uncontaminated urine. Then, through the biokinetic models published by ICRP 106 and edited by the AIDE software (version 6.0), it was possible to estimate the minimum detectable effective dose (MDED), which evaluates the detection sensitivity of the techniques developed. The MDED was estimated for in vivo and in vitro measurements performed 2.4 hours after the occurrence of incorporation by ingestion, since

  12. Image quality and volume computed tomography air kerma index (C{sub vol}) evaluation in Recife; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem e do indice volumetrico de Kerma ar em tomografia computadorizada (C{sub vol}) em Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida

    2008-07-01

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is an important diagnostic imaging method, widely used. However, in spite of all the advantages and technologic advances within the CT scanners, the tomographic procedures result in high absorbed doses to patients. The main objective of this work was to perform a dosimetric study of CT scanners located at Recife and to evaluate the image quality on CT examinations in these equipment. The volume CT air kerma index (C{sub VOL}) and air kerma length product (P{sub KL,CT}) were estimated. These values were calculated using normalized weighted air kerma indexes in CT standard dosimetry phantoms ({sub n}C{sub W}), supplied by ImPACT group for several CT scanners, and the scan parameters of routine head, routine chest and hi-resolution chest CT exams performed at 20 institutions. The irradiation parameters of 15 adult patients for each CT procedure were registered at six participating centres, at which the phantom from the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation protocol was used for the image quality measurements. For routine head exams, the C{sub VOL} values varied between 12 and 58 mGy (at the posterior fossa) and 15 to 58 mGy (at the cerebrum) and the P{sub KL,CT}, from 150 to 750 mGy{center_dot}cm. The C{sub VOL} values for routine chest procedures varied from 3 to 26 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT}, between 120 and 460 mGy{center_dot}cm. In relation to Hi-resolution chest exams, C{sub VOL} values were from 1.0 to 2.7 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT} values varied between 24 and 67 mGy{center_dot}cm. The image quality evaluations results showed that almost all scanners presented at least one inadequacy. One of the equipment presented faults at 70% of the tests. With regard to the image noise, only two scanners presented acceptable results. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the volume CT air kerma index values are lower than the European reference levels. However, the image quality of these CT scanners does not attend the

  13. Evaluation of the potential application of 2-acetylpyridine N4- phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis; Avaliacao da potencial aplicacao de derivados de 2-acetilpiridina N-4 fenil tiossemicarbazonas em terapia e diagnostico oncologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio

    2013-08-01

    Despite the wide range of antineoplastic agents available, resistance of some types of cancer and toxicity to normal cells have been identified as the main causes of treatment failure and death. The lack of early and precise diagnosis is also responsible for reducing survival of cancer patients. In this context, the development of substances with low toxicity and therapeutic potential and/or diagnosis purpose, is the major tool in an attempt to increase the survival of patients and assure the safety and efficacy of treatment. Thiosemicarbazones (TSC) are a class of synthetic compounds that have several biological activities, including antitumor. Although several studies have shown the great potential of TSC as therapeutic and / or diagnostic agents, different chemical modifications performed on this class of molecules indicate new possibilities for applications and still require further studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential applicability of 2-acetylpyridine N-4-phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis. The results showed that all 13 TSC tested were cytotoxic to breast and glioblastoma tumor cell lines, presenting higher in vitro antitumor activity than etoposide, an antineoplastic and inhibitor of topoisomerase II frequently used for cancer therapy. The TSC that have halogen or nitro on ortho position showed higher antitumor activity in vitro than their isomers with halogen or nitro on meta or para position of the phenyl group. H2Ac4oFPh and H2Ac4oClPh compounds showed the highest antitumor activity among all tested compounds, with IC{sub 50} in nanomolar order. These TSC induced cell death by apoptosis and oxidative stress was responsible, at least in part, for this type of cell death. The 5 mg.kg{sup -1} H2Ac4oFPh dose, administered s.c., for 4 consecutive days, did not induce important toxicity; however, the same treatment protocol was not effective for tumor growth reduction in an animal model of brain

  14. Phorate e dietholate protegem o arroz da fitotoxicidade do clomazone em doses elevadas Phorate and dietholate act as safeners for rice against clomazone at high doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M Sanchotene

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O herbicida clomazone tem sua seletividade às plantas de arroz aumentada quando as sementes recebem o protetor dietholate. Sabendo que o dietholate atua sobre a atividade da enzima citocromo P-450 mono-oxigenase e que esta é responsável pela ativação do clomazone, buscam-se outros produtos que possam ser utilizados como protetores. Em vista disso, o objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o efeito protetor do dietholate e do phorate em função de doses de clomazone. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial. O fator A foi composto pelo tratamento de sementes com dietholate ou phorate, além de uma testemunha, que não recebeu protetor nas sementes. O fator B foi composto por oito doses de clomazone (0, 156, 312, 625, 1.250, 2.500, 5.000 e 10.000 g i.a. ha-1. Dezoito dias após a semeadura, foram avaliados a fitotoxicidade, o percentual de redução da estatura e a massa fresca e seca das plantas de arroz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise da variância, por meio da regressão não linear do tipo logístico. Houve diferença entre a testemunha sem protetor e os tratamentos de sementes com os protetores dietholate e phorate. Analisando as curvas de dose-resposta, verifica-se que, quando sementes do cultivar IRGA 417 foram tratadas com dietholate ou com phorate, ambos protegeram as plântulas de arroz do clomazone, ou seja, as plantas foram capazes de tolerar maiores doses de clomazone. Assim, há evidências de que os protetores de plantas dietholate e phorate atuam como inibidores da enzima citocromo P-450, impedindo que ela ative o clomazone nas plantas de arroz, proporcionando maior seletividade deste herbicida quando comparado à testemunha que não recebeu proteção.Selectivity of Clomazone for rice plants increases when seeds are treated with the safener dietholate. Considering that dietholate acts on the activity of the cytochrome P450 monooxigenase, and that this enzyme also

  15. Optimization of dose in computerized radiology exams of the hands; Otimizacao da dose em exames de radiologia computadorizada de mao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, Ana Luiza Menegatti; Alvarez, Matheus; Alves, Allan Felipe Fattori; Dela Rosa, Maria Eugenia; Miranda, Jose Ricardo de Arruda, E-mail: analuiza@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Pina, Diana Rodrigues de; Ribeiro, Sergio Marrone [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Fractures and dislocations of the hand are some of the most frequently encountered injuries of the musculoskeletal system traumas. To evaluate these lesions radiography is the investigation of choice, and is rarely needed the help of other images to establish the diagnosis and treatment. The image quality of the X-ray examination is therefore essential. In this study a homogeneous phantom hand was developed for use in the hand image optimization process. In this procedure were quantified for different tissue thicknesses which are an anthropomorphic hand phantom. To perform the classification and quantification of tissue was applied membership functions in histograms of CT scans. The same procedure was adopted for 30 retrospective examinations of patients in the Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu UNESP (HCFMB-UNESP). The homogeneous phantom built was used to calibrate the techniques used in clinical routine (RC). Such calibrated techniques were used to acquire images of anthropomorphic phantom. These images were analyzed by Visual Grading Method (VFA) by experienced radiologists in the area. The image with better grade in AGV and lower dose was chosen as the Gold Standard. The results showed concordance between the tissue thicknesses which constitute the anthropomorphic phantom and the sample evaluated patients, with variations between 12.63% and 6.48% for soft tissue and bone, respectively. The Gold Technical Standard compared with the technique normally used in the CR reduces dose charge 41.28% and 33.18% in the tube.

  16. Optimization of the therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I for thyroid differentiated carcinoma; Otimizacao da dose terapeutica com {sup 131}I para carcinoma diferenciado da tiroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Fabiana Farias de

    2002-09-01

    I-131 thyroid cancer therapy is based on the strategy of concentrating radioactive iodine in the thyroid tissue, to completetly eliminate thyroid tissue and functioning thyroid cancer metastases remaining after thyroidectomy. In Brazil, fixed activities of {sup 131} I generally are given, sometimes either delivering insufficient activities to ablate all of the remnants, or unnecessarily high activities, with patients remaining in the hospital for some period of time. This investigation proposes a protocol of individualized planning of ablative doses, based on individual patients metabolisms and measured thyroid remnant masses. Simulated thyroid remnants were fabricated in various forms, volumes and activities, and optimum image acquisition parameters were determined using Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography 9SPECT). Resultant images were evaluated, to determine the apparent volumes and the {sup 131} I concentrations. I-131 metabolism was studied in 9 patients who had undergone thyroidectomies. Their thyroid remnant masses were determined applying the same parameters used in SPECT simulation studies, and the optimum activity for their therapy was calculated and compared to the established fixed activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi), which would have normally been assigned. Background subtraction using the method of percent maximum counts, using a value of 67.5%, combined with scatter correction (triple energy window method), was shown to be optimum for SPECT quantification of volumes between 3-10 ml. Errors in the method were below 9% for sources with regular geometries and around 11% for sources with irregular geometries. In the patient studies, it was observed that 78% of patients could have received reduced activities of {sup 131} (from 0.8-3-2. GBq (20-87 nCi). In addition, 33% of these patients could have received low enough activities to have discharged from the hospital, using an individualized administration scheme. This could also have resulted in a dose

  17. Efeitos das isoflavonas em altas doses sobre o útero da rata Effects of high-dose isoflavones on rat uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Ferraz Carbonel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de altas doses de isoflavonas no útero de ratas adultas castradas. MÉTODOS: Ratas virgens ovariectomizadas (n = 40 foram tratadas por 30 dias consecutivos com veículo (GCtrl ou genisteína nas concentrações 42 (GES42, 125 (GES125 e 250 (GES250 µg/g de peso corporal ao dia. O extrato de soja e o veículo (propilenoglicol foram administrados por gavagem. Ao final do experimento, foi realizada dosagem sérica de 17 β-estradiol e progesterona, avaliou-se o peso dos animais e dos úteros e foi feito exame colpocitológico. Fragmentos do terço médio dos cornos uterinos foram fixados em formol a 10% e processados para inclusão em parafina para estudo histológico. Cortes de 5 µm de espessura foram corados pelo HE e destinados a estudo em microscopia de luz. Analisou-se a histomorfologia do endométrio, área endometrial, número e área ocupada pelas glândulas, assim como a concentração de eosinófilos presentes na lâmina própria. Os dados numéricos obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância complementada pelo teste de Tukey-Kramer (p GES125 do que nos outros grupos (GES250 > GES125 > GES42 = GCtrl; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of high-dose isoflavones on the uterus of castrated adult rats. METHODS: Adult, ovariectomized virgin rats (n = 40 were treated by gavage during 30 consecutive days with vehicle (propylene glycol, group GCtrl or different doses of genistein: 42 (group GES42, 125 (GES125, or 250 (GES250 µg/g body weight per day. Animals were killed, weighed, vaginal and uterine samples were taken for cytologic evaluation, and serum levels of 17 β-estradiol and progesterone were determined. The middle third of the uterine horns was dissected, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin inclusion; 5-µm thick sections were obtained and stained with HE for further histological study under light microscopy. The endometrial morphology and area, number and area of glands, and number

  18. Evaluation of seawater contamination with benzene, toluene and xylene in the Ubatuba north coast, SP region, and study of their removal by ionizing radiation; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua do mar por benzeno, tolueno e xileno na regiao de Ubatuba, litoral norte (SP) e estudo da degradacao destes compostos por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Kelly Cristina Santana de

    2006-07-01

    A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and low water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation. The studied region was Ubatuba region, SP, between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S of latitude and 45 deg 02'W and 45 deg 11'W of longitude, area of carry and output of petroleum, and samples were collected from November, 2003 to July, 2005. For BTX in seawater analysis, the Purge and Trap concentrator with FIDGC detector showed significantly higher sensibility than Head Space concentrator with MSGC detector. The minimal detected limits (MDL) obtained at FIDGC were of 0.50 {mu}g/L for benzene, 0.70 {mu}g/L for toluene, and 1.54 {mu}g/L for xylene, and the obtained experimental variability was 15%. While the concentrator type Headspace system with MS detector showed higher MLD, about of 9.30 mg/L for benzene, 8.50 mg/L for toluene, and 9.80 mg/L for xylene, and 10% of experimental variability. In the studied area the benzene concentration varied from 1.0 {mu}g/L to 2.0 {mu}g/L, the concentration of toluene varied from < 0.70 {mu}g/L to 3.24 {mu}g/L and the maximum value of xylene observed was of 2.92 {mu}g/L. The seawater samples contaminated with BTX standard and exposed to ionizing radiation using a source of {sup 60}Co, presented a removal from 10% to 40% of benzene at 20 kGy absorbed doses and concentration of 35.1 mg/L and 70.2 mg/L, respectively; from 20% to 60% of toluene removal with 15 kGy absorbed dose and from 20% to 80% of xylene with 15 kGy absorbed dose in similar concentrations. (author)

  19. Diagnóstico sorológico da brucelose bovina em animais adultos vacinados com dose reduzida da cepa 19 de Brucella abortus Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in adult herd vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 reduced dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Coelho Jardim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho avaliou-se o uso de dose reduzida da vacina produzida com a amostra 19 de Brucella abortus, em rebanho adulto negativo para a enfermidade, por meio de técnicas de diagnóstico sorológico preconizadas pelo Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose Animal e por um ensaio indireto de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA ID. A prova de fixação de complemento detectou 46,77% de positivos, o antígeno acidificado tamponado 67,74%, o 2-mercaptoetanol com soroaglutinação lenta 87,09% e o ELISA ID 100%. A dose reduzida interferiu no diagnóstico sorológico. Nenhuma das técnicas apresentou especificidade adequada para uso em rebanho nestas condições, até 3 meses após a vacinação.The study evaluated the use of a reduced dose of the Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine, in an adult herd negative for the disease, by serological diagnostic techniques, advocated by the Brazilian Program for Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Control and Eradication, and by an indirect ELISA. The complement fixation test detecteed 46.77% positives, the rose bengal test 67.74%, the mercaptoethanol with standard agglutination test 87.09% and the ELISA ID 100%. The reduced dose influenced the serological diagnosis. None of the techniques reached a suitable specificity for use in the herd under those conditions, up to 3 months after vaccination.

  20. EFEITO DA APLICAÇÃO DA URÉIA EM DIFERENTES DOSES E ÉPOCAS SOBRE UM HÍBRIDO DE MILHO PARA SILAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Rocha Athayde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn has a high potential in grain production in Brazil but some factors restrict the expression of maximum yield. The achievement of economically viable products, require an adequate mineral nutrition and nitrogen is the nutrient that modulates, with greater effect this production. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different doses and timing of urea application in coverage in the town of Bambuí-MG. The work was developed in the production sector of the Federal Institute of Minas Gerais - Campus Bambuí, in a Typic Dystrophic in crop year 2010/11. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots, with four N rates (100, 150, 200 and 250 kg N ha-1 in the plot and cover three different times (21, 28 and 35 days after planting in the sub plot with four replications. All applications were done manually and the N source used was urea (45% N. We checked that for the hybrid AG 1051, grown in the region of Bambuí for the production of silage by CFSEMG the recommended dose (1999 was sufficient to meet the nutritional demands of the hybrid and the estimated productivity gain, since there were no responses of the hybrid depending on the doses applied. In the parameters evaluated, the application time did not influence significantly the parameters evaluated, except at the time when it was applied a dose of 200 kg ha-1 where there was a greater increase in application performed at 28 days. A cultura do milho apresenta elevado potencial na produção de grãos, entretanto no Brasil alguns fatores restrigem a expressão da capacidade máxima de produtividade da cultura. A obtenção de produtividades economicamente viáveis, demandam uma nutrição mineral adequada e o nitrogênio é o nutriente que, modula, com maior efeito esta produção. O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar os efeitos de diferentes doses e época de aplicação de uréia em cobertura, no município de Bambuí-MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no setor de

  1. Lodo de esgoto e sistema radicular da pupunheira Sewage sludge doses and the root system of peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vinicio Armas Vega

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do lodo de esgoto sobre o sistema radicular da pupunheira foram estudados em experimento em campo, em blocos casualizados, instalado em Ubatuba (SP, em julho 2001, na densidade de 5.000 plantas ha-1. As doses de lodo de esgoto fresco (79,7 % de umidade utilizadas foram de 0, 38, 76 e 152 t ha-1, equivalentes a 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 de N. Os tratamentos foram aplicados no sulco de plantio, adicionando-se 15 g por planta de KCl como fonte de K. A análise do sistema radicular foi efetuada doze meses após, por meio de trado e de trincheiras e com o auxílio de fotos digitais. Detectou-se que o sistema radicular de pupunheiras com um ano de campo estava concentrado nas camadas superficiais (acima de 75 % nos primeiros 20 cm, assim como em distâncias de até 0,5 m da base da planta. O lodo de esgoto modificou positivamente a densidade do solo, alterando também favoravelmente a densidade das raízes. Houve aumento na biomassa radicular proporcional às doses de lodo de esgoto, existindo uma relação direta daquela com a fitomassa aérea. Doses de lodo equivalentes a 200 e 400 kg de N contribuíram para aprofundar o sistema radicular e proporcionaram maior quantidade relativa de raízes finas.The effects of sewage sludge doses on the root system of peach palm were studied in a field experiment, in randomized complete blocks, carried out in Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The trial was set up in July 2001, with a density of 5,000 plants ha-1. The sewage sludge doses (79.7 % water content were 0, 38, 76, and 152 t ha-1, which were equivalent to doses of 0, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 of N. The treatments were applied in the planting furrow, and every plant was provided with K by a dose of 15 g potassium chloride. The root system was analyzed one year after planting using soil auger and digging of trenches and with the help of digital images. It was concluded that the root system of one-year old peach palm was concentrated in the

  2. Uso de diferentes doses de manipueira na cultura da alface em substituição à adubação mineral Use of different doses of cassava wastewater in lettuce crop in substitution of mineral fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria de S. Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o efeito ocasionado pelo uso de diferentes doses de manipueira nas características agronômicas da alface em substituição à adubação mineral. O referido estudo foi desenvolvido em uma área pertencente ao Departamento de Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, no período de maio a agosto de 2010. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos compostos das seguintes doses: 0, 5, 15, 25, 45, 65 m³ ha-1 e cinco repetições. Utilizou-se a cultivar de alface Regina 2000, dispondo-se uma planta por vaso de 4 L. Foram avaliadas, em função das doses aplicadas, as seguintes características agronômicas da alface: área foliar, altura de planta, número de folhas, matéria fresca e matéria seca da alface. Ao final do experimento constatou-se que a dose de 45 m³ ha-1 foi a que propiciou maior ganho de altura de planta, área foliar e, consequentemente, também maior produção de matéria fresca e seca. Assim sendo, o uso da manipueira serviu como fonte de adubação para a cultura da alface, dependendo da dose aplicada.The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect on agronomic characteristics of the lettuce when using different doses of cassava wastewater instead of mineral fertilizer. This study was conducted at the Departamento de Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, from May to August 2010. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized blocks, with six treatments and five repetitions. Following doses were used: 0, 5, 15, 25, 45 and 65 m³ ha-1. The lettuce cultivar Regina 2000 was used (one plant per pot and leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, fresh leaf mass and dry leaf mass were evaluated for each dose of cassava wastewater. At the end of the experiment, the dose of 45 m³ ha-1 provided the best results by

  3. Tratamento da colite amebiana não disentérica com dose única de Teclozan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Huggins

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores trataram 30 pacientes portadores de colite amebiana não disentérica, de ambos os sexos (17 homens e 13 mulheres, com idades compreendidas entre 15 (dois casos a 55 anos (um doente, na Disciplina de Doenças Infecciosas. Parasitárias da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. A posologia administrada foi de 1.500 mg em dose única e os resultados avaliados pelas técnicas de Hoffman, raspado da mucosa retaí, retossigmoidoscopia (em 16 enfermos e exame direto com ou sem coloração pelo lugol, foram de 80% (24 doentes de cura clínica e laboratorial. Nenhuma manifestação colateral foi relatada petos pacientas e concluem os autores que o Teclozan administrado em nova posologia, representa valioso subsídio no tratamento da amebíase intestinal.The authors report their experience with Teclozan in the treatment of 30 patients with chronic intestinal amebiasis, administering a new dosage 1.500 mgm in a single oral dosa. After a follow-up in the 7th, 14th, and 30th days after the treatment, the para sito togical cure rate obtained was 80% (24 cases and no side-effects were observed. The authors concluded that the drug (Teclozine is a very safe and effective agent in the treatment of amebiasis.

  4. First Italian intercomparison on methodologies for dose assessment from internal contamination. Results and perspectives; Primo interconfronto italiano sulle metodiche di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna: risultati e prospettive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    In the frame of the MIDIA activities (coordination of whole body counters operating in Italy) an intercomparison on dose evaluation methods was promoted and carried out between October 1995 and March 1996 by 5 WBC centres. The main results related to the estimation of Intake and effective dose equivalent on the four case studies are reported. A comparison with European preliminary results is also presented. Finally perspectives related to the quality assurance of internal dosimetry estimates are indicated. [Italian] Vengono riportati i risultati delle valutazioni di Intake e di equivalente di dose nei centri MIDIA (coordinamento dei WBC operanti in Italia) per effettuare un interconfronto sui metodi di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna utilizzando casi di studio reperiti in ambiente europeo. Vengono indicate le prospettive per la valutazione della qualita' della stima di dose in dosimetria interna.

  5. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market; Avaliacao da microbiota fungica e da presenca de micotoxinas em amostras de plantas medicinais irradiadas adquiridas no comercio varejista e atacadista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-07-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a {sup 60}Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  6. Analysis of the perception of risk of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro using the risk evaluation system in radiotherapy (SEVRRA / FORUM); Analise da percepcao de risco de servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro usando o sistema de avaliacao de risco em radioterapia (SEVRRA/FORO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Adam de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    In this work it was possible to analyze the perception of risks associated with existing processes in the high-dose rate brachytherapy and teletherapy using linear accelerators of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, through the combined use of two proposed methods: FMECA and risk matrix, using a general analysis and other more specific ones. The database software (SEVRRA) was used to identify possible existing processes in radiotherapy services (brachytherapy and teletherapy) and to classify the sequence of events in risk levels. The risk levels were analyzed at each stage and sub-stage, present in the treatment of patients undergoing high dose rate gynecological intracavitary brachytherapy and teletherapy treatments with the use of linear accelerators applying electron or photon beams in order to establish recommendations to the risks of highest priority for each case. The results show that although the procedure of high dose rate brachytherapy be automated and less susceptible to errors or failures, daily, one can still find considerable amounts of processes with worrying levels of risk perception. The processes that are more subject to radiological accident risks was associated with procedures, for of which the majority of the failures record and planning step of the treatment. The controls analyzed showed low efficiency, warning of the need to seek and implement new more efficient controls in routine brachytherapy for each participant service. About teletherapy procedure it was found that most of the failures were related to the registration and planning of treatment and equipment stages. The controls analyzed to teletherapy showed a poor result with a first type of analysis performed by suggesting a new type of more appropriate analysis. With a second type of analysis, these controls could be better analyzed and showed an order of importance according to a percentage of efficiency. Controls such as 'Double-check', &apos

  7. Assessment of chloroquine single dose treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in Brazilian Amazon Cloroquina em dose simples no tratamento da malária por Plasmodium vivax na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Yecê das Neves Pinto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria regions of the Amazon basin have been characterized by difficult access and non-compliance of the patients to treatment. In an attempt to assess the schizonticide efficacy of chloroquine in a single dose of 600 mg, the authors realized a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 132 outpatients with vivax malaria. Patients were distributed into two groups: group CPLA, given chloroquine 600 mg (single dose on the first day of treatment, and two doses of placebo on second and third days. Group CHLO, given chloroquine 600 mg on first day and 450 mg on second and third day. Geometric means of the parasite density during the follow-up was similar in both groups. No differences were observed in the parasitological cure between the two groups (p = 0.442. There was clinical and parasitological efficacy in treatment of patients given a single-dose of chloroquine. This suggests that its restricted use could be indicated in remote areas of Brazilian Amazon Region, nevertheless the inadequate response of three patients indicates the need for further studies.As regiões malarígenas da Amazônia brasileira têm se caracterizado por dificuldades no acesso ao tratamento e não aceitação das drogas pelos doentes. Com objetivos de avaliar a eficácia da cloroquina em dose simples de 600 mg, os autores realizaram um ensaio clínico duplo cego, placebo controlado em 132 pacientes portadores de malária por P. vivax. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo CPLA que recebia 600 mg de cloroquina em dose simples no primeiro dia de tratamento e duas doses de placebo no segundo e terceiro dias de tratamento. Grupo CLO que recebia 600 mg de cloroquina no primeiro dia e 450 mg no segundo e terceiro dias. A média geométrica da densidade parasitária durante o seguimento foi similar em ambos os grupos. Não houve diferenças de cura parasitológica em ambos os grupos (p = 0,442. Observou-se eficácia clínica e parasitológica nos indivíduos que

  8. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects; Avaliacao da toxicidade e genotoxicidade dos corantes azo reativos Remazol Preto B e Remazol Alaranjado 3R e da eficacia da radiacao com feixe de eletrons na reducao da cor e efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-07-01

    assessed with the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia and the NOEC and OEC values of RPB dye (sulphatoethylsulphone) were 12.5 and 25 mg L-1, respectively. After hydrolysis of the dye (vinylsulphone and hydroxyethyl sulphone) was shown to increase the values obtained from the NOEC and OEC. There was no chronic effect for the R3AR dye and its chemical forms to C. dubia. The comet assay adapted to haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata was used to assess the genotoxicity of the dyes. The RPB dye was genotoxic at highest concentrations (1 and 2 g L-1), with quantitative values of DNA damage equal to 117 and 112 and the R3AR dye was not genotoxic. The use of radiation with electron beams have proven effective in removing the color dyes. With a dose of 10 kGy a reduction of 97.64% and 96.8% for R3AR and RPB, respectively, was achieved. Possibly, the color removal was mainly due to the interaction of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals generated in the radiolysis of water after the radiation beam of electrons. After radiation of the RPB dye a dose of 10 kGy reduced 59.52 % of the acute toxicity measured with Vibrio fischeri. For the other doses there was no significant reduction, as well as with Daphnia similis, where the values of EC50{sub 48h} obtained were smaller than the non-irradiated dye. The R3AR dye showed better decreased toxicity after radiation when compared with the RPB, with reductions of 82.95% (V. fischeri) and 71.26% (D. similis) with 10 kGy. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the quality of the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MIBI and its influence on image quality in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy; Avaliacao da qualidade do radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI e sua influencia na qualidade da imagem em cintilografia de perfusao do miocardio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Poliane Angelo de Lucena

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the quality of the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI radiopharmaceutical from different manufacturers, used in three nuclear medicine services (NMS) in Recife-PE, through labeling procedure of each service. It was observed their biodistribution by quantifying the activity present in the organs of interest (heart / liver), the influence and interference in image quality and in myocardial scintigraphy diagnosis exam. In these NMS (A, B and C) were done quality controls in the eluates of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators (radionuclidic, chemical and radiochemical purity and pH) and of the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI radiopharmaceutical (radiochemical purity and pH) used in myocardial scintigraphy exam. In the case of radiochemical purity (RCP), was used the thin layer chromatography technique; after the chromatographic ran on, the plates were analyzed both in the dose calibrator, and in scintillation camera of each NMS. The radiopharmaceutical biodistribution was evaluated through the activities present in the heart and liver images in 60 patients, using the technique of combined images counting. Five nuclear physicians analyzed 24 images through myocardial perfusion visual interpretation during stress, it was verified the agreement degree among them. The results of the quality control showed that all eluate samples were in agreement with the manufacturers in relation to radionuclidic purity and pH. In relation to chemical purity, 10% of the services samples B and C showed Al{sup +3} values above 10 ppm. In the RCP, it was observed that using the scintillation camera, only 22% of the samples would be discarded, while with dose calibrator would be 78%, indicating that the scintillation camera is more sensitive in chromatographic pale analysis. For the labeled radiopharmaceutical, the services B and C presented respectively one and three samples with RCP percentage below 90%. However, C service presented the lowest medium to liver/heart proportions, showing that this factor

  10. Clinical evaluation of the low intensity laser antialgic action of GaAlAs ({lambda}=785 nm) in the treatment of the temporomandibular disorders; Avaliacao clinica da acao antialgica do laser em baixa intensidade de arseneto de galio e aluminio ({lambda}=785 nm) no tratamento das disfuncoes da articulacao temporo-mandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanseverino, Nelly Tichauer Maluf

    2001-07-01

    The therapy with laser emitting low intensity has been currently used in the most diverse fields of medicine as therapeutic conduct for pain. It is a non invasive, painless, non-thermal and aseptic type therapy, without any collateral effects, having a good cost/benefit relationship. However, for the therapy with low-intensity laser to result in positive effects, a correct diagnosis is fundamental, as well as a protocol of adequate application. n odontology, the majority of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), present pain and limitations in the movements of the jaw. In this work, a GaAlAs laser emitting low intensity, was used, {lambda}=785 nm, in patients having a dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint with a complaint of pain. Twenty patients were divided into two groups. The group treated received laser therapy in the temporomandibular articulations and in the muscles affected. The dose applied was 45 J/cm{sup 2}, while the ten patients in the control group received 0 J/cm{sup 2}, in a total of nine applications, carried out three times a week, during three weeks. he evaluation of the patients was made through clinical examinations of manual palpation of the masseter, temporal, cervical, posterior neck and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and measurements of opening and laterality of the mouth. The results obtained showed a diminishing of the pain and an increase of the mandibular mobility in the patients treated, when compared to the control group. These results point to this therapy as being an important tool in the treatment of pain in patients with a dysfunction in the TMJ, indicating this therapeutic modality as a co-adjuvant in these treatments. (author)

  11. Doses e fontes de nitrogênio na produtividade do eucalipto e nas frações da matéria orgânica em solo da região do cerrado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Luiz de Jesus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da grande quantidade de N acumulada em plantações de eucalipto de alta produtividade, o aumento em volume do tronco em resposta à aplicação de N não tem sido expressivo nem consistente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de doses e fontes de N sobre o crescimento e o acúmulo de N em plantas de eucalipto, na serapilheira, além do impacto nas frações da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS. O experimento foi instalado em campo, no município de Itamarandiba-MG, em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, consistindo da aplicação em cobertura de doses (0, 60, 120 e 240 kg ha-1 e fontes de N distintas (sulfato de amônio e nitrato de amônio em clone de eucalipto (AEC1528®. O efeito dos tratamentos sobre o crescimento e acúmulo de N nas plantas foi avaliado aos 30 meses de idade, abatendo-se árvores com DAP médio e separando-as em lenho, casca, galhos e folhas, para determinação da produção de matéria seca e dos teores e conteúdos de nutrientes das plantas. Amostras de solo e de serapilheira foram coletadas para análises de nutrientes. Os teores de C e N total da matéria orgânica particulada (MOP e da matéria orgânica associada à fração mineral (MOAM foram determinados por espectrometria de massa de razão isotópica, após separação física da MOS. As análises estatísticas consistiram de análise de variância e de regressão. A aplicação de adubos nitrogenados promoveu aumento no crescimento volumétrico do tronco e na matéria seca da parte aérea. A dose de N como sulfato de amônio para obter 90 % da produção máxima foi de 74 kg ha-1, a qual resultou em incremento de 42,3 % no volume de tronco em relação à testemunha sem adubação nitrogenada. Na dose de 120 kg ha-1 de N, não houve diferença de resposta à aplicação de sulfato de amônio e nitrato de amônio. Não foram detectadas alterações nos estoques de C e N da MOS com a adubação nitrogenada. No entanto, houve aumento da

  12. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds; Avaliacao da radiomarcacao da anexina A5 com tecnecio-99m: influencia do metodo de marcacao nas propriedades fisico-quimicas e biologicas do composto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several {sup 99}mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O]{sup +3}, [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc{identical_to}N]+2 and [Tc(CO{sub 3})]{sup +1}. In this study, we evaluated the influence of {sup 99}mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc{identical_to}N]{sup +2} core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of {sup 99}mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl{sub 2} and PDTA to obtain the intermediate {sup 99}mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O]{sup +3} core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the {sup 99}mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound

  13. Evaluation of secular trend and the existence of cases of clusters of bladder cancer in Goiania: descriptive study population-based; Avaliacao da tendencia temporal e da existencia de casos de clusters de cancer de bexiga em Goiania: estudo descritivo de base populacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Gisele Guimaraes Daflon

    2008-07-01

    More than 20 years after the radiological accident with cesium-137 in the city of Goiania, there is still a feeling in local population that the number of cases of cancer in the city is growing up due to the past radiation exposure and that the number of people contaminated or exposed was higher than the number reported. The present study aims to evaluate the temporal trend and the space-time distribution of bladder cancer cases in Goiania from 1988 and 2003, taking into account that bladder cancer presents the highest risk coefficients per unit of radiation dose among solid cancers. The study population was composed of all incident cases of bladder cancer registered in the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Goiania, between 1988 and 2003.Temporal trend of bladder cancer incidence was analyzed by sex and age groups ( < 60 and {>=} 60 years of age) through polynomial regression using age standardized incidence rates of bladder cancer (world population). SaTscan was used to determine whether statistical significant geographic clusters of high incidence of bladder cancer cases can be located in the city. The results showed a significant increase of bladder cancer incidence rates in males of all ages (p= 0.025) and for age group higher or equal to 60 years old (p=O.022), and a stability in trends for female sex. In the space-time analysis, a cluster was identified, however without statistical significance (p=0.278) and its location has no relationship with the main focuses of contamination of the radiological accident in 1987. We concluded that, despite of the increase of incidence rates in males, this can be explained by the improvement in diagnostic procedures throughout time, being this increase still not perceived in females considering the small number of cases. As chance can not be ruled out as the explanation of the identified cluster, we do not suggest any further detailed investigation in this cluster, as the occurrence of cluster diseases in space can occur

  14. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation (N{sub 2}) contribution in several forage legumes and the transfer of N to associated grasses; Avaliacao da contribuicao da fixacao biologica de N{sub 2} em varias leguminosas forrageiras e transferencia de N para uma graminea consorciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.S.V.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to compare two different techniques for labelling the soil mineral nitrogen with {sup 15} N, for studies to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to forage legumes using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. The two techniques for labelling the soil were: incorporation a {sup 15} N labelled organic compost (slow release treatment), and split applications of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate. The evaluation of the techniques was through the quantification of BNF in the Itaguai Hybrid of Centrosema using two non-Na- fixing control plants (P. maximum K K-16 and Sorghum bicolor). The objective of experiment 2 was to quantify the contribution of BNF to forage legumes and the transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grasses in mixed swards again using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. This study was conducted on a red podzolic soil (Typic Hapludult), with 7 forage legumes and 3 grasses in monoculture, and 3 mixed swards of Brachiaria brizantha with the Centrosema hybrid, Galactia striata and Desmodium ovalifolium, respectively, with varying ratios of grass to legume (4:1 to 1:4). In order to quantify the BNF contributions to the legumes and the transfer of fixed N to the B. brizantha, the plots were amended 8 times with doses of 0.01 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate (12.5 atom % {sup 15} N) each 14 days, giving a total of 0.08 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N during the 97 days of the experiment. In monoculture the different forage legumes obtained the equivalent of between 43 and 100 kg N ha{sup -1} from BNF. Stylosanthes guianensis showed the greatest contributions from BNF at 100 Kg N ha{sup -1}. In mixed swards with Brachiaria brizantha the proportion of N derived from BNF in the three legumes studied (Centrosema hybrid, G. striata and D. ovalifolium) was significantly greater than when they were grown in monoculture. (author). 197 refs, 9 figs, 19 tabs.

  15. Dose estimation in CT exams of the abdomen based on values of DLP; Estimativa da dose em exames de tomografia de abdome com base nos valores de DLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuti, C.F.; Medeiros, R.B.; Salvadori, P.S.; Costa, D.M.C; D' lppolito, G., E-mail: kikuticf@gmail.com, E-mail: rbitelli2011@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Fisica e Higiene das Radiacoes. Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-10-01

    One of the challenges of multidetector computerized tomography is to minimize the risk of ionizing radiation using optimized protocols since higher doses are necessary to obtain high image quality. It was also noted that, due to the geometry in image acquisition using MDCT becomes necessary to estimate dose values consistent with the hypothesis clinically and with the specificities of the tomographic equipment. The aim of this study was to estimate the doses in abdomen exams from the data recorded on the MDCT console and dimensions obtained from DICOM images of patients undergoing different clinical protocols. Were collected, from the image DICOM of 101 exams, values of the dose length product (DLP) provided by Philips Health Care - Brilliance 64 equipment console, in order to relate them with the dose values obtained by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters ( TLD ) of CasSo{sub 4}:Mn placed on the surface of a cylindrical simulator abdomen acrylic manufactured under the technical - operational conditions for a typical abdomen exam. From the data obtained, it was possible to find a factor of 1.16 ( 5 % ) indicating that the DLP values Brilliance 64 console underestimate the doses and this should be used with correction factor to estimate the total dose of the patient. (author)

  16. Influência da dependência energética de dosímetros termoluminescentes na medida da dose na entrada da pele em procedimentos radiográficos Influence of thermoluminescent dosimeters energy dependence on the measurement of entrance skin dose in radiographic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Liane de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da dependência energética de materiais termoluminescentes na determinação da dose na entrada da pele de pacientes submetidos a exames radiográficos (radiologia geral, mamografia e radiologia odontológica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Três diferentes materiais termoluminescentes foram utilizados: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P e CaSO4:Dy. Estes materiais foram expostos a fontes padronizadas de radiação X e gama, e a feixes clínicos de raios X. RESULTADOS: As curvas de calibração e de dependência energética foram obtidas. Todos os materiais apresentaram resposta linear em função do kerma no ar. Com relação à dependência energética, as amostras de CaSO4:Dy e LiF:Mg,Ti mostraram maior variação da resposta termoluminescente em função da energia efetiva do feixe de radiação. CONCLUSÃO: Os materiais testados mostraram desempenho adequado para a detecção da radiação X em feixes padronizados e clínicos. Embora as amostras de CaSO4:Dy e LiF:Mg,Ti apresentem dependência energética significativa no intervalo de energia considerado, este materiais podem ser utilizados para medição da dose de entrada na pele se fatores de correção apropriados forem utilizados.OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of the energy dependence of thermoluminescent materials on the determination of entrance skin dose in patients submitted to conventional radiographic studies (general radiology, mammography and dental radiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different thermoluminescent materials were utilized: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and CaSO4:Dy. These materials were exposed to standardized sources of X and gamma radiation and clinical X-ray beams. RESULTS: Calibration and energy dependence curves were obtained. All the materials showed a linear response as a function of the air kerma. As far as energy dependence is concerned, the CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples showed the

  17. Acute toxicity of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul. root extract in mice: determination of both approximate and median lethal doses Toxicidade aguda de extrato de raízes de Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul. em camundongos: determinação da dose letal aproximada e da dose letal mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos da Cunha

    2008-12-01

    "mamacadela" e possui, na sua composição química, furocumarinas fotossensibilizantes. O principal uso terapêutico do BG é no tratamento do vitiligo, uma doença despigmentante da pele com prevalência de aproximadamente 1-2% da população mundial. Há um produto no mercado (Viticromin®, que é comercializado com tal finalidade, havendo poucos dados disponíveis acerca da toxicidade experimental, ao lado de eficácia clínica comprovada. Portanto, o desenvolvimento de estudos de toxicidade pré-clínica foi proposto (dose letal aproximada, DLA e dose letal mediana, DL50 para o exsudato da raiz de BG em animais de laboratório. Foram utilizados camundongos machos, albinos, pesando entre 25 e 30 g, em boas condições sanitárias, recebendo água e ração ad libitum. O pó de BG foi suspenso em solução salina 0,9% com 0,5% de cremofor e administrado p.o. (gavage e intraperitonealmente. A DL50 foi obtida através do método de regressão linear de Lichtfield & Wilcoxon (1949, utilizando um software de domínio público. Foram formados 6 grupos de 10 animais para cada via de administração, incluindo grupo controle, e o número de mortes foi observado durante 14 dias; o grupo controle recebeu uma emulsão de solução salina 0,9% com 0,5% de cremofor. Antes de estabelecer a DL50 e visando reduzir o número de animais utilizados, determinou-se a DLA, utilizando 1 animal por dose (a próxima dose 50% maior do que a dose anterior, até identificar a dose letal para 1 animal. Assim, a DLA p.o. foi de 3750 mg/kg e a DLA i.p., 2920 mg/kg. A DL50 p.o. foi de 3517,54 mg/kg e a DL50 i.p. foi 2871,76 mg/kg. O produto foi considerado possuir baixa toxicidade, considerando apenas uma dose neste ensaio de toxicidade aguda.

  18. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry; Determinacao das doses efetivas por ingestao de farinhas de cereais atraves da espectrometria de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-07-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of {sup 60}Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with {chi}{sup 2} tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of {sup 228}Th and {sup 40}K were 3.5 {+-} 0.4 and 1469 {+-} 17 Bq.kg{sup -1} for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and {sup 7}Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  19. Avaliação da atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária em cães que receberam gentamicina em dose terapêutica

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Fabiola Voznika

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: A gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária (GGT) é uma enzima encontrada nas células epiteliais com "borda em escova" do túbulo contorcido proximal renal. Esta enzima foi descrita em cães, eqüinos e ovinos, como indicador precoce de necrose tubular aguda, causada pelos aminoglicosídeos. Observou-se o aumento na atividade da GGT urinária, anterior a outros indicadores de lesão renal, como o aumento da uréia e creatinina sérica e a presença de sinais clínicos. Para a dosagem da atividade d...

  20. Índice SPAD no limbo foliar da batateira sob parcelamentos e doses de nitrogênio e potássio SPAD index in the leaves of potato under splitting and doses of nitrogen and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dias Cardoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a intensidade do verde no limbo foliar da batateira submetido a doses e parcelamentos de nitrogênio e potássio foi conduzido este experimento no município de Mucugê-BA. Foram utilizadas 3 doses de N e K (75% da dose recomendada; dose recomendada de acordo com a análise do solo; 125% da dose recomendada; e 5 épocas de aplicação (100% no plantio; 1/3 no plantio e 2/3 na tuberização; 50% no plantio e 50% na tuberização; 1/3 no plantio, 1/3 na tuberização e 1/3 25 dias após a tuberização; 1/4 no plantio, 1/4 na tuberização, 1/4 25 dias após a tuberização e 1/4 50 dias após a tuberização. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados tubérculos das cultivares Ágata, Monalisa e Vivaldi, uniformemente brotados, foram plantados em espaçamento 0,8 m x 0,3 m de acordo com o recomendado para a cultura. Foi medida, ao longo do ciclo, a intensidade do verde em folhas de batateira: 30; 55 e 80 dias após o plantio, utilizando-se o medidor indireto de clorofila SPAD-502. As doses de N e K não influenciaram no índice SPAD, nas cultivares de batata ao longo do ciclo. O índice SPAD pode ser usado como ferramenta para indicar a época mais correta de se fazer a colheita dos tubérculos de batata.With the purpose of assessing the leaf greenness of potato under application times and doses of nitrogen and potassium, this experiment was carried out in the municipality of Mucugê-BA.Three doses of N and K were used (75% of the recommended dose; the recommended dose according to soil analysis; 125% of the recommended dose. Five application times (100% upon planting; 1/3 upon planting and 2/3 upon tuberization; 50% upon planting and 50% upon tuberization; 1/3 upon planting, 1/3 upon tuberization and 1/3 25 days after tuberization; 1/4 upon planting, 1/4 upon tuberization, 1/4 25 days after tuberization and 1/4 50 days after

  1. Estudo comparativo do emprego da aprotinina em baixas doses X placebo, durante a circulação extracorpórea Comparative study of low-dose aprotinin x placebo during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos D. V. PONTES

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A aprotinina, um antifibrinolítico de natureza protéica, tem sido proposta pela literatura, no intuito de minimizar os efeitos adversos da circulação extracorpórea ao sistema fibrinolítico, permitindo assim uma hemostasia mais adequada. OBJETIVO: Estudar comparativamente o efeito da utilização profilática de baixas doses de aprotinina em pacientes submetidos à circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODO: Dezessete pacientes portadores de valvopatia mitral submetidos a correção cirúrgica utilizando-se circulação extracorpórea foram aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos: I (controle -- 9 pacientes nos quais foi administrado placebo no perfusato e a cada hora de CEC; II (aprotinina -- 8 pacientes nos quais foram administrados 30000 KIU/kg e 7500 KIU/kg de aprotinina adicionados ao volume do perfusato a cada hora de CEC. O volume total de sangramento pós-operatório nas primeiras 24 horas foi monitorado, assim como amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas após indução anestésica e após a neutralização da heparina com sulfato de protamina para que os seguintes parâmetros fossem avaliados: atividade de protrombina (AP, tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativado (TTPA, tempo de trombina (TT, dosagem de fibrinogênio, concentração de antitrombina III (ATIII, tempo de lise da euglobulina (TLE e dosagem do dímero --D (DDi. RESULTADOS: O volume médio total de sangramento nas primeiras 24 horas no grupo controle foi 690,67 ± 377,12, enquanto que no grupo da aprotinina em baixas doses foi de 248,75 ± 103,13 (p=0,0017. No quadro abaixo estão apresentados os resultados obtidos a partir das análises das amostras sangüíneas pré e pós-operatórias comparativas dos grupos controle (I e aprotinina (II. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização da aprotinina, em baixa dose, foi eficaz na redução do sangramento, assim na diminuição da fibrinólise.BACKGROUND: The use of aprotinin, a antifibrinolytic agent, has been shown to decrease

  2. Avaliacao neuropsicologica de idosos praticantes de capoeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Miranda Petry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo procura contribuir com uma relação pouco explorada no meio acadêmico: capoeira, cognição e envelhecimento. Relacionando estudos sobre funções executivas e a capoeira, busca-se investigar a interligação desta arte e as funções executivas. Estas se referem a desempenhos de comportamentos complexos (memória de trabalho, flexibilidade mental, tomada de decisão e a memória léxico-semântica. OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de funções executivas em idosas praticantes de capoeira e idosas não praticantes de exercício físico. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal que coletou as informações de cada participante apenas uma vez. Serão comparados dois grupos: 1 grupo de idosos praticantes de capoeira e 2 idosos que não fazem exercício físico. Para seleção e caracterização dos grupos utilizaram-se: questionário sociodemográfico, aspectos gerais de saúde e escala de hábitos de leitura e escrita, mini-exame de estado mental (MEEM e escala de depressão de Yesavage (GDS-30. Para avaliar o desempenho das funções executivas foi realizado o teste de trilhas e as tarefas de fluência verbal. Para análise estatística dos dados será utilizado o teste de Shapiro-Wilk para normatização dos dados. O teste de t de Student e o teste U de Mann Whitney serão usados para comparar duas médias de amostras independentes. Utilizou-se a improvisação, a ação, a tomada de decisão, o equilíbrio e as noções de espaço, tempo, ritmo, música, e a compreensão do jogo da capoeira como intervenção devido à possível utilização dos processos executivos nessa arte. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa nos testes realizados. Porém houve superioridade nos testes de fluência verbal e testes de trilha A e B, sendo maior em B no grupo de capoeira do que no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A prática de capoeira tem uma tendência em contribuir para a melhora das funções executivas, embora os

  3. Frações da matéria orgânica de Latossolo sob influência de doses de lodo de esgoto Organic matter fractions of an Oxisol under influence of sewage sludge doses

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuelle Mercês Barros Soares; Carlos Alberto Silva; Bruno de Oliveira Dias; Wagner Bettiol; Maísa Honório Belizário

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação contínua de doses crescentes de lodo de esgoto sobre os teores de carbono (C) associados à fração leve (C-FL) e à fração pesada (associado à areia - C-areia; associado ao silte - C-silte - e associado à argila - C-argila) de matéria orgânica em amostras de Latossolo. O experimento foi instalado em 1999, em Jaguariúna, SP, e os dados foram obtidos após a sexta aplicação de lodo de esgoto com doses acumuladas em base seca - 0, 30, 60, ...

  4. In vitro study of dose-response relationship of fluoride with dental enamel = Estudo in vitro da relação dose-resposta do fluoreto com esmalte dental

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Rodrigo Alex

    2007-01-01

    Modelos in vitro para avaliação da reatividade do fluoreto (F) devem apresentar resposta dose-efeito. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a relação dose-resposta do fluoreto presente em solução aquosa com o esmalte dental bovino. Cento e vinte blocos de esmalte bovino (5 × 5 × 2 mm), 60 hígidos e 60 com lesão artificial de cárie, foram submetidos durante 10 minutos à água destilada e deionizada (controle negativo) e soluções aquosas contendo 50, 100, 200 ou 400 μg F/mL. Cada grup...

  5. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros Danilo Gusmão de; Rodrigues Luís Roberto de Andrade; Favoretto Vanildo; Malheiros Euclides Braga; Herling Valdo Rodrigues; Ramos Allan Kardec Braga

    2002-01-01

    O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS) em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares) x 4 (doses de NPK), em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetiçõ...

  6. Efeito da dose de nitrogênio e de formulações de substratos na miniestaquia de Eucalyptus dunnii maiden Effect of the nitrogen dose and substrate formulations on the minicutting technique of Eucalyptus dunnii maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Scheidt da Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou determinar a influência de diferentes doses de nitrogênio e formulações de substratos na miniestaquia de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden. O minijardim clonal foi constituído de mudas com 90 dias de idade, em tubetes de 55 cm3, em substrato comercial à base de casca de pinus e vermiculita. As doses de N testadas foram de 0,2; 0,4; e 0,6 g L-1 (fonte utilizada: NH4NO3, em rega semanal com 10 mL da solução por tubete. Foram testadas cinco diferentes misturas com os seguintes substratos: substrato comercial à base de casca de pinus, vermiculita média, casca de arroz carbonizada e adubação incorporada. A sobrevivência das minicepas foi de 100% até a 10ª coleta, a partir da qual se observou pequena mortalidade (1 minicepa no tratamento 0,4 g L-1. As doses de N apresentaram relação direta com todas as características avaliadas, ou seja, quanto maior a dose de N, maiores os valores de produtividade das minicepas, sobrevivência das miniestacas e altura e diâmetro das mudas formadas. Os substratos apresentaram desempenho estatisticamente distinto na sobrevivência e formação das mudas (diâmetro do colo e altura e vigor vegetativo das mudas formadas. Pelos resultados, pode-se afirmar que o processo de miniestaquia de E. dunnii é influenciado pela fertirrigação nitrogenada e pelo substrato, sendo aconselhada a dose de 0,6 g L-1 e o substrato formado pela mistura de substrato comercial à base de casca de pinus e vermiculita + vermiculita média + casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1:1 + adubação incorporada.The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different nitrogen doses and substrate formulations on the minicutting technique of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden. The clonal minigarden of 90-day-old seedlings was cultivated in the commercial substrate of pine bark and vermiculite (tubes of 55 cm3. The dose test used a unique source (NH4NO3 in the following concentrations of N: 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 g L-1. Each

  7. High dose-rate brachytherapy as a treatment option in primary tracheal tumors Braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose como opção terapêutica nos tumores primários da traquéia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present experience with high dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy in the treatment of primary tracheal tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four patients with nonresected primary tracheal tumors are presented: 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea, 1 of recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 1 with recurrent plasmacytoma. All received brachytherapy, alone or as a boost for primary irradiation, in 3 or 4 fractions of 7.5 Gy, calculated at a depth of 1 cm. Follow-up was considered to start from the end of brachytherapy. RESULTS: Local control was achieved in all cases at the time of first bronchoscopic evaluation. Two patients with squamous cell carcinoma died at 6th and 33rd months after brachytherapy, respectively. The first had no evidence of disease, and the latter had local recurrence. The other 2 patients were alive after 64 and 110 months of follow-up, respectively, both with no evidence of disease. Tracheal stenosis developed in these 2 cases, 22 and 69 months after brachytherapy. Tracheal stent placement was needed only for the patient with an adenoid cystic carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Endobronchial high dose-rate brachytherapy may be used for tracheal tumors, even as a boost for external beam irradiation, or in recurrences. Local control in 3 out of 4 patients indicates that individual cases may benefit from the treatment. Long-term survival may also be expected, mainly for tumors with adenoid cystic histology.OBJETIVO: Apresentar a experiência do tratamento de 4 pacientes com tumores primários de traquéia, não operados, submetidos à braquiterapia endobrônquica de alta taxa de dose. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Dois casos de carcinoma espinocelular, uma recidiva de carcinoma adenóide cístico e uma recidiva de plasmocitoma primário da traquéia. Todos receberam braquiterapia endobrônquica, exclusiva ou como reforço de dose da radioterapia externa. Foram administradas 3 ou 4 frações de 7,5 Gy cada, calculados a 1 cm de

  8. Otimização da dose em exames de rotina em tomografia computadorizada: estudo de viabilidade em um Hospital Universitário Radiation dose optimization in routine computed tomography: a study of feasibility in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a viabilidade de redução da dose de radiação em protocolos de aquisição de imagens de tomografia helicoidal em um hospital universitário. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado levantamento de dose de radiação de protocolos de tomografia com objetos simuladores e câmara de ionização. Foram propostas variações de kVp e mAs, determinando-se a média de ruído. Protocolos com valores de ruído menores ou iguais a 1% foram submetidos à avaliação qualitativa de contraste e resolução espacial por três observadores. RESULTADOS: Foram realizados 22 testes de variações para o protocolo de crânio pediátrico, 26 para crânio adulto, 28 para abdome e 18 para tórax. A redução da dose conseguida variou entre 7,4-13% para protocolo de crânio pediátrico, 3,8-25% para crânio adulto, 9,6-34,3% para abdome e 6,4-12% para tórax. Notou-se também que a utilização de ferramentas de janelamento e zoom favoreceu o aceite das imagens pelos observadores. CONCLUSÃO: É possível reduzir os níveis de dose de radiação em até 34,4%, comparativamente aos protocolos utilizados na rotina, mantendo-se o ruído em níveis aceitáveis. O uso de ferramentas de manipulação digital das imagens possibilitou a aceitação de imagens com níveis maiores de ruído, favorecendo o processo de redução de dose de radiação.OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility of reducing radiation dose in protocols for acquisition of helical computed tomography images in a University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of radiation doses in computed tomography protocols was performed with phantoms and ionization chamber. Changes in kVp and mAs were proposed, determining the average noise. Protocols with noise values 1% were submitted to qualitative assessment of contrast and spatial resolution by three observers. RESULTS: Tests of variations were performed with 22 protocols for pediatric skulls, 26 for adult skulls, 28 for abdomen, and 18 for

  9. Effect of nitrogen doses on disease severity and watermelon yield Influência de doses de nitrogênio na severidade de doenças e na produtividade da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is an important step for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus production due to its influence over yield, fruit quality, and disease severity. Currently, the gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis can be taken as the most important watermelon diseases, since they impose severe impairment to the crop. Furthermore, studies focusing on plant responses to nitrogen fertilization regarding fruit yield and quality, and disease resistance are rare. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrogen doses on fruit yield and quality, and on disease prevalence in watermelon. Two experiments were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Tocantins, employing sprinkler irrigation, in an area previously used to grow watermelon. The experimental design was blocks at random, with five treatments (N doses, applied twice as side-dressing, in kg ha-1, as follows: T1= control treatment without N, T2= 20, T3= 40, T4= 80, and T5= 120, and four replications. Urea (45% N was used as the N source. In the first assay, the highest fruit yield and average weight were observed when 40 kg ha-1 of N were applied. The highest severity of the gummy stem blight was observed when the highest nitrogen doses were applied (80 and 120 kg ha-1. In the second assay, the highest severity levels of the gummy stem blight, as well as of mildew, were observed again when N doses were the highest (80 and 120 kg ha-1. The lowest severity levels for both diseases were observed in the control treatment.A adubação nitrogenada é importante para a cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus por afetar diretamente a produtividade, a qualidade dos frutos e a severidade de doenças. Atualmente, o crestamento gomoso (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis podem ser consideradas as doenças mais importantes da melancia devido aos prejuízos que podem causar na lavoura. Estudos envolvendo a aplicação de

  10. Severidade da mancha-marrom em trigo cultivado com diferentes formas de nitrogênio e doses de manganês Severity of spot blotch in wheat cultivated with different forms of nitrogen and manganese doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A fonte de N fornecido às culturas influencia algumas propriedades do solo como o pH, causando efeitos indiretos na disponibilidade e, consequentemente na absorção de nutrientes pela planta. Em relação ao Mn, que pode influenciar na susceptibilidade de plantas a doenças, pode haver alterações até mesmo nas relações patógeno-hospedeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de duas fontes de N e cinco doses de Mn na severidade da mancha-marrom em plantas de trigo, bem como na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e raízes, a absorção desses nutrientes pelas plantas e a disponibilidade do Mn no solo. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação e os tratamentos dispostos em um esquema fatorial (2 × 5, sendo duas fontes de N (amoniacal e nítrica e cinco doses de Mn (0; 2,5; 5,0; 10,0 e 20,0 mg dm-3, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizadas amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico em vasos contendo 2,2 dm³, com três plantas de trigo. Aos 45 dias após emergência (DAE, as plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de 10(5 mL-1 conídios de Bipolaris sorokiniana. Foram determinados o grau de severidade final da mancha-marrom, a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, e os teores foliares de N e Mn nas plantas de trigo, assim como a disponibilidade de Mn no solo. Verificou-se efeito das fontes de N e das doses de Mn apenas na severidade da mancha-marrom e nos teores de Mn no solo e nas folhas. Houve respostas quadráticas para os teores de Mn no solo e nas folhas e para a severidade da mancha-marrom no trigo. A fonte amoniacal [(NH42SO4] proporcionou maior disponibilidade do Mn no solo do que a fonte nítrica [Ca(NO32], que foi acompanhada de aumento do teor foliar de Mn na planta e de diminuição da severidade da mancha-marron em trigo.The nitrogen source applied to crops may alter some soil properties such as pH, resulting in changes in the

  11. Evaluation of the frequency of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genes related to the genome stability maintenance in individuals of the resident population from Monte Alegre, PA/Brazil municipality; Avaliacao da frequencia de polimorfismos nos genes XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) e XPD (Lys751Gln) relacionados a manutencao da estabilidade do genoma em individuos da populacao residente no municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Isabelle Magliano

    2010-07-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on Earth. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent, which can affect biological molecules, causing DNA damage and genomic instability. The cellular system of DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents. However, genes related to DNA repair may have their role committed when presenting a certain polymorphism. This study intended to analyze the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair XRCC1 (Arg39-9Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in a: population of the city of Monte Alegre, that resides in an area of high exposure to natural radioactivity. Samples of saliva were collected from individuals of the population of Monte Alegre, in which 40 samples were of male and 46 female. Through the use of RFLP (length polymorphism restriction fragment) the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous was determined for polymorphic genes. The XRCC1 gene had 65.4% of the presence of the allele 399Gln and XPD gene had 32.9% of the 751Gln allele. These values are similar to those found in previous studies for the XPD gene, whereas XRCC1 showed a frequency much higher than described in the literature. The. influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology for risk assessment of cancer in the population of Monte Alegre. (author)

  12. Avaliação do Efeito Analgésico da Cetamina em Doses Sub-Anestésicas no Controlo da Dor Perioperatória

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Leonor Campos Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Medicina Veterinária No presente estudo foi investigado o efeito analgésico adicional de uma infusão de cetamina em doses sub-anestésicas, em cadelas submetidas a ovariohisterectomia. Para o efeito foram utilizadas 20 cadelas hígidas aleatoriamente distribuídas em 2 grupos, grupo de controlo (CTR) n=10, e grupo de animais onde foi administrada a cetamina (CTM) n=10, estando o investigador cego aos procedimentos. Os animais foram pré-medicados com acepromazina (0,...

  13. EFEITO DO TEOR DE GORDURA, VÁCUO E DOSE DE RADIAÇÃO GAMA NA SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE Salmonella TYPHIMURIUM ATCC 14028 EM CARNE BOVINA MOÍDA RESFRIADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. COSTA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho avaliou a sobrevivência de Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 em carnes bovinas, moída crua e resfriada (2 ºC, através do tratamento com radiação gama (Co60, utilizando doses de 0; 1,5; 2,5 e 3,5 kGy. Além do fator dose de radiação foram avaliadas as influências do emprego de vácuo e de dois teores de gordura da carne bovina moída: baixo (2-4% e alto (11-13%, bem como a interação dos fatores, na redução ou eliminação da bactéria patogênica inoculada. Os resultados demonstraram que os teores de gordura da carne e o emprego de vácuo não influenciaram significativamente a sobrevivência da Salmonella. A dose de radiação gama influenciou a inativação de Salmonella de forma dose dependente até 2,5 kGy, com reduções de 4 ciclos logarítmicos. A dose de 2,5 kGy é suficiente para exercer um controle efetivo de Salmonella em carne bovina moída independentemente do seu teor de gordura e da presença de oxigênio.

  14. Evaluation of the thermoluminescent detector answers of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti and micro LiF:Mg,Ti in photon clinical beams dosimetry using water simulator; Avaliacao da resposta de detectores termoluminescentes de CaSO4:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti e microLiF:Mg,Ti na dosimetria de feixes clinicos de fotons utilizando simulador de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Luciana C.; Veneziani, Glauco R.; Campos, Leticia L., E-mail: lmatsushima@usp.b, E-mail: veneziani@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (GMR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes; Sakuraba, Roberto K.; Cruz, Jose C. da, E-mail: rsakuraba@einstein.b, E-mail: jccruz@einstein.b [Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital Albert Einstein (HAE)

    2011-10-26

    This paper perform the comparative study of thermoluminescent answer of calcium sulfate dosemeter doped with dysprosium (DaSO{sub 4}:Dy) produced by the IPEN, Sao Paulo, with answer of lithium fluoride dosemeters doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg, Ti) in the dosimetry of clinical beams of photons (6 and 15 MV) by using water simulator object. Dose-answer curves were obtained for gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in the air and in conditions of electronic equilibrium (plate of PMMA), and clinical photons of CLINAC model 2100C accelerators of the two evaluated hospitals: Hospital das Clinicas of the Faculty of Medicine of Sao Paulo university and Hospital Albert Einstein. It was also evaluated the sensitivity and reproduction of the three dosemeters

  15. Efeito de doses de potássio e da freqüência de irrigação na produção da alface-americana em ambiente protegido Effect of potassium doses and irrigation frequency in the production of the american lettuce in greenhouse condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Koetz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção da alface tipo americana em ambiente protegido, aliada ao emprego de práticas de manejo de irrigação e adubação, pode contribuir para o aumento da produtividade e expansão da cultura na região de Lavras - MG. Em uma estufa modelo capela, foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de freqüências de irrigação e de doses de potássio sobre a produtividade da alface-americana e a eficiência do uso da água. O experimento foi composto pelos seguintes tratamentos de turnos de rega: (P1 - irrigação diária; (P2 - irrigação de dois em dois dias; (P3 - irrigação de três em três dias, e (P4 - irrigação de quatro em quatro dias. Nas parcelas subdivididas, foram aplicadas quatro doses de cloreto de potássio, via fertirrigação: (D1 - 100 kg de KCl ha-1; (D2 - 150 kg de KCl ha-1; (D3 - 200 kg de KCl ha-1, e (D4 - 250 kg de KCl ha-1. As variáveis avaliadas foram a produtividade de alface e a eficiência do uso da água, ou seja, a produtividade por milímetro de água aplicado. Concluiu-se que a maior produtividade (44,06 t ha-1 foi obtida com 119,36 kg ha-1 de K2O; o manejo de irrigação para a cultura da alface-americana em ambiente protegido poderá ser realizado com intervalo entre irrigações de quatro dias, e com o aumento dos intervalos houve aumento da eficiência de uso da água de irrigação.The production of the American lettuce type in greenhouse conditions using irrigation and fertilization, may contribute for the yield increase and expansion of the culture in the region of Lavras - MG, Brazil. In a greenhouse model chapel was carried out an experiment with the objective of evaluating the effects of irrigation frequencies and potassium doses on the yield of the American lettuce and the water use efficiency. The experiment was composed by the following treatments of irrigation frequency: (P1 - daily irrigation; (P2 _ every other day irrigation; (P3 - three in three days irrigation, and

  16. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the {sup 60}Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais dos feijoes Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-07-01

    The effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} protein content, biological evaluation in rats (Food intake and Weight gain (in grams)), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  17. Interferência do intervalo de administração da droga sobre a nefrotoxicidade da gentamicina em ratos Influence of the dose regimen on the gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Cunha Rodrigues Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência renal aguda (IRA que apresenta índice de mortalidade em torno de 50%, pode ser definida como um abrupto declínio da filtração glomerular, resultante de isquemia ou toxicidade. A nefrotoxicidade por drogas é uma das etiologias mais freqüentes (27% e sugere-se que o intervalo de administração da droga pode interferir neste efeito colateral, entretanto o melhor regime de administração ainda não está bem estabelecido. Este conhecimento proporcionaria uma atuação mais direcionada de enfermagem na prevenção desta IRA hospitalar. Os resultados obtidos nesta pesquisa, indicam que a infusão única de gentamicina determina menor nefrotoxicidade, provavelmente devido à redução da sua concentração plasmática nas 24hs, diminuindo o acúmulo intracelular deste fármaco, um dos principais mecanismos celulares deste tipo de lesão. Este regime de tratamento mostra portanto vantagens quanto ao custo, efeito nefrotóxico e segurança quanto à eficácia terapêutica.The acute renal failure (ARF, that still presents a righ mortality rate (50% can be defined as an abrupt decline of the glomerular filtration, resultant of isquemic or toxicity event. The drugs nephrotoxicity is one of the most frequent cause (27% of ARF and it is suggested that the interval of administration of the drug can interfere in this side effect, however the best administration regimen is not very well established. This study evaluated the renal function of rats that received gentamicin (100mg/kg in one dose or in two doses (2x 50mg/kg,by intraperitoneal infusion. The results obtained in this research, indicated that the single infusion of gentamicin determined smaller nephrotoxicity by the reduction of serum concentration of this drug in 24 hours, decreasing the intracelular accumulation of this gentamicin, which is one of the main cellular mechanisms of this renal injury. The single dose treatment regime, otherwise, showes advantages not only related

  18. Análise da distribuição espacial de dose absorvida em próton terapia ocular Spatial distribution analysis of absorbed dose in ocular proton radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Tavares Christóvão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propõe-se avaliar os perfis de dose em profundidade e as distribuições espaciais de dose para protocolos de radioterapia ocular por prótons, a partir de simulações computacionais em código nuclear e modelo de olho discretizado em voxels. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As ferramentas computacionais empregadas foram o código Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking Toolkit e o SISCODES (Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia. O Geant4 é um pacote de software livre, utilizado para simular a passagem de partículas nucleares com carga elétrica através da matéria, pelo método de Monte Carlo. Foram executadas simulações computacionais reprodutivas de radioterapia por próton baseada em instalações pré-existentes. RESULTADOS: Os dados das simulações foram integrados ao modelo de olho através do código SISCODES, para geração das distribuições espaciais de doses. Perfis de dose em profundidade reproduzindo o pico de Bragg puro e modulado são apresentados. Importantes aspectos do planejamento radioterápico com prótons são abordados, como material absorvedor, modulação, dimensões do colimador, energia incidente do próton e produção de isodoses. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que a terapia por prótons, quando adequadamente modulada e direcionada, pode reproduzir condições ideais de deposição de dose em neoplasias oculares.OBJECTIVE: The present study proposes the evaluation of the depth-dose profiles and the spatial distribution of radiation dose for ocular proton beam radiotherapy protocols, based on computer simulations in nuclear codes and an eye model discretized into voxels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The employed computational tools were Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking Toolkit and SISCODES (Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia - Computer System for Dosimetry in Radiotherapy. Geant4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through the matter, based on Monte Carlo method. Computer simulations

  19. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on the quality of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Meer) cv. Smooth Cayenne minimally processed, storaged on differents temperatures and packages;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama na qualidade de abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L.) Meer) cv. Smooth Cayenne minimamente processado, armazenado em diferentes temperaturas e embalagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Daniela Terenzi Stuchi

    2006-07-01

    The present work aimed to verify the effects of gamma radiation (doses until 2 kGy), types of packages and temperatures of storage (5, 8 e 12 deg C) on the physicochemical characteristics, on the microbiological contamination and on the sensorial characteristics of pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' minimally processed. The fruits were selected, washed; peeled and cutted transverse and the slices cutted were cutted on two or for pieces. The pieces were immersed in chlorinated water (100 mg/L) for 3 minutes, flowing and package, irradiated and stored. According with the results obtained in thi present work it was concluded that bigger the temperature of storage more quickly were the browning of the fruits. The loss of fresh weight of pineapple was bigger in the packages of polystyrene comparing with PET package when both are covered with PVC film and smaller in the PET packages covered with the same material. Doses of gamma radiation until 2 kGy did not change the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' minimally processed. The microbiological growth on the pieces of the processed fruit was smaller on the biggest dose. All the samples were is in good conditions for the human consume. (author)

  20. High-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer: acute toxicity and biochemical behavior analysis; Braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose no tratamento do carcinoma da prostata: analise da toxicidade aguda e do comportamento bioquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Sergio Carlos Barros; Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Zuliani de; Cardoso, Herbeni; Tagawa, Eduardo Komai; Castelo, Roberto [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital Sao Joaquim. Servico de Radioterapia]. E-mail: estevesrt@uol.com.br; D' Imperio, Marcio [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital Sao Joaquim. Servico de Urologia

    2006-03-15

    Objective: this study focuses on the biochemical response of the following variables: prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value, Gleason scores, staging, the risk of the disease, and hormone therapy. Objective: in the period between February of 1998 and July of 2001, 46 patients with prostate cancer were treated with radiotherapy, in a combination of teletherapy and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The age ranged from 51 to 79 years (averaging 66.4 years). T1c stage was the most frequent one: 30 (65%). The Gleason score was below 7 in 78% of the patients. PSA ranged from 3.4 to 33.3, being below 10 in 39% of the cases. The average prostatic volume was 32.3 cc. Twenty-eight percent of the patients received hormone therapy. Teletherapy dose ranged from 45 to 50.4 Gy, associated to four fractions of 4 Gy of HDR brachytherapy. Results: the follow-up period varied from 6 to 43 months. Four patients missed the follow-up and four died (one due to the disease). Out of the 39 patients that were analyzed, 76% presented a less than 1.5 PSA. None of the analyzed variables were found to be of statistical significance (p > 0.05) regarding biochemical control. Conclusion: the use of HDR brachytherapy was found to be effective in the treatment of prostate cancer and, in this study, the variables considered as prognostic factors did not interfere in the biochemical control. (author)

  1. Produtividade da pimenta-do-reino em função de doses de esterco bovino Yield of black pepper submitted to different levels of cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora o estado da Paraíba tenha mostrado certa aptidão para o cultivo da pimenta-do-reino, sendo possível recomendá-la como alternativa de diversificação agrícola, não existe qualquer recomendação de adubação para a espécie. Este trabalho foi realizado na UFPB, em Areia, PB, e teve como objetivo avaliar genótipos de pimenta-do-reino adubados com doses crescentes de esterco bovino, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator representado pelas doses de esterco (0; 4; 8; 12 e 16 kg planta-1 e o segundo pelos genótipos (Bragantina, Iaçará e Cingapura, com quatro repetições. A pimenta-do-reino respondeu positivamente ao emprego de esterco bovino, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Areia. As máximas produções de pimenta verde por planta, dos genótipos Bragantina (1012 g, Iaçará (1269 g e Cingapura (627 g, foram obtidas com as doses estimadas de 7,3; 8,6 e 7,0 kg planta-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente. Para produção da pimenta seca, as doses estimadas em 6,5; 8,9 e 7,8 kg planta-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produções correspondendo a 358, 793 e 204 g planta-1 para os genótipos Bragantina, Iaçará e Cingapura, respectivamente.Although Paraíba State, has shown aptitude for black pepper cultivation, being possible to recommend it as an alternative for agricultural diversification in that area, no recommendation for black pepper crop fertilization exists. This research was conducted at the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia, Paraíba State, Brazil, to evaluate black pepper genotypes submitted to increasing levels of cattle manure. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with treatments in the factorial 5 x 3 scheme. The first factor was represented by cattle manure levels (0; 4; 8; 12; and 16 kg plant-1 and the second factor, by the black pepper genotypes (Iaçará, Cingapura and

  2. Frações da matéria orgânica de Latossolo sob influência de doses de lodo de esgoto Organic matter fractions of an Oxisol under influence of sewage sludge doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Mercês Barros Soares

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação contínua de doses crescentes de lodo de esgoto sobre os teores de carbono (C associados à fração leve (C-FL e à fração pesada (associado à areia - C-areia; associado ao silte - C-silte - e associado à argila - C-argila de matéria orgânica em amostras de Latossolo. O experimento foi instalado em 1999, em Jaguariúna, SP, e os dados foram obtidos após a sexta aplicação de lodo de esgoto com doses acumuladas em base seca - 0, 30, 60, 120 e 240 Mg ha-1 -, após seis cultivos subseqüentes de milho. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha, sem adição de lodo (L0; aplicação de lodo de esgoto para fornecer uma (L1, duas (L2, quatro (L4 e oito (L8 vezes a dose de nitrogênio requerida pelo milho. Como referência, foi amostrada uma área sob mata nativa, adjacente ao local do experimento. O acréscimo nas doses de lodo de esgoto aplicadas aumenta de modo linear os teores de C orgânico, C-silte e C-areia, e não interfere nos teores de C-argila. À medida que se aumenta a dose de lodo de esgoto até 120 Mg ha-1, há acréscimo no teor de C-FL no solo. Em relação ao C orgânico, os teores de C associado aos compartimentos avaliados de matéria orgânica do solo têm a seguinte ordem de contribuição: C-FLThe objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the continued application of increasing doses of sewage sludge on the contents of carbon (C associated to the light fraction (LFC and to the heavy fraction (sand C, siltC and clayC of soil organic matter, in Oxisol samples. The experiment was installed in 1999, in Jaguariúna, SP, Brazil. The data were obtained after the sixth sewage sludge (SS application, and six corn cultivation cycles with accumulated doses (dry base 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 Mg ha-1, and the treatments were: control, without sewage sludge addition (LO; application of sewage sludge to furnish one (L1, two (L2, four (L4, and eight (L8 times the N required

  3. In vitro study of dose-response relationship of fluoride with dental enamel = Estudo in vitro da relação dose-resposta do fluoreto com esmalte dental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur, Rodrigo Alex

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelos in vitro para avaliação da reatividade do fluoreto (F devem apresentar resposta dose-efeito. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a relação dose-resposta do fluoreto presente em solução aquosa com o esmalte dental bovino. Cento e vinte blocos de esmalte bovino (5 × 5 × 2 mm, 60 hígidos e 60 com lesão artificial de cárie, foram submetidos durante 10 minutos à água destilada e deionizada (controle negativo e soluções aquosas contendo 50, 100, 200 ou 400 μg F/mL. Cada grupo experimental recebeu 12 blocos hígidos e 12 blocos com lesão artificial de cárie. Duas camadas consecutivas de esmalte dental foram removidas de todos os blocos dentais por meio de ataque ácido e o fluoreto extraído foi determinado com eletrodo específico. Os resultados de fluoreto incorporado foram expressos em μg por g de esmalte removido, considerando a quantidade total das duas camadas. A incorporação de fluoreto pelo esmalte hígido mostrou uma relação dose-resposta linear (p = 0,0001, enquanto que os blocos com lesão de cárie mostraram relação polinomial quadrática (p < 0,0001. Os resultados sugerem que o modelo in vitro de reatividade empregado no presente estudo é apropriado para avaliar a relação doseresposta entre o fluoreto em solução aquosa e aquele incorporado pelo esmalte dental bovino hígido ou com lesão artificial de cárie

  4. Efeito da filtração adicional nas doses de radiação e na qualidade das imagens nos exames videofluoroscópicos Effect of additional filtration on radiation doses and image quality in videofluoroscopic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Melciades Barbosa Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da adição de filtros de alumínio (1 mm e cobre (0,4 mm na redução das doses efetivas de radiação e na qualidade das imagens em exames videofluoroscópicos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ao tubo de raios X adicionou-se câmara de ionização conectada a um eletrômetro para medir o produto kerma-área, com técnica de 65 kVp e 0,7 mA, sem e com adição dos filtros. Foi medida resolução espacial, a de baixo contraste e tons de cinza, utilizando os objetos de teste de Leeds. Quinze voluntários tiveram o produto kerma-área/minuto do estudo faríngeo comparados, dez com filtração e base e cinco com adição dos filtros associados. RESULTADOS: A adição dos filtros separados ou associados produziu expressiva redução do produto kerma-área, com ganho na qualidade das imagens videofluoroscópicas determinado pela maior separação dos tons de cinza e aumento da relação brilho/contraste da curva de cinza. CONCLUSÃO: A interposição adicional de filtros de alumínio e cobre, em especial quando associados, melhora a qualidade das imagens, com expressiva redução das doses de radiação necessárias à sua geração.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of thys study was to investigate the effect of the addition of aluminum (1 mm and copper (0.4 mm filters on effective radiation doses and image quality in videofluoroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ionization chamber coupled with an electrometer was added to x-ray tube to measure the kerma area product with 65 kV and 0.7 mA technique, without and with additional filtration. Low contrast, gray scale and spatial resolution were measured utilizing Leeds test objects. Fifteen volunteers underwent pharynx study, ten without and five with aluminum and cooper filters associated, and had the kerma area product/minute compared. RESULTS: The specified filters addition, either separated or associated, allowed an expressive decrease in kerma area product besides an actual improvement in the

  5. Growth and production of castor bean under different levels of irrigation water salinity and nitrogen dosesCrescimento e produção da mamoneira cultivada sob diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação e doses de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gomes Nobre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is a plant belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, and stands for the rusticity and adaptation to adverse conditions of climate and soil, for the fast growth, high production and considerable oil content in its seeds. In this context, this study we conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of irrigation water of salinity and nitrogen on the growth and yield of castor bean cv. BRS Energia. The experiment was conducted in lysimeters under field conditions, at the Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar, of Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. A complete randomized block design in a 5 x 5 factorial design with three replications. Treatments included a combination of five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4 and 4.4 dS m-1 and five doses of nitrogen (50, 75; 100, 125 and 150% of the recommended dose. The number of leaves, stem diameter, plant height, dry mass of stems and leaves, and fruit number in primary raceme of castor bean cv. BRS Energia were linearly and negatively affected by irrigation water salinity from 0.4 dS m-1, the dry mass of leaves and production of primary cluster are variables more sensitive to salt stress, increasing doses of nitrogen fertilization promoted at harvest, increase in dry weight of stem and leaves and number of fruit in primary cluster; applying increasing doses of nitrogen reduced the effect of salinity on stem diameter of castor bean cv. BRS Energia.A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é uma planta pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae que se destaca pela rusticidade e boa adaptação a condições adversas de clima e solo, apresentando rápido crescimento, elevada produção e considerável teor de óleo em suas sementes. Neste contexto, conduziuse esta pesquisa objetivando avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de diferentes concentrações salinas e doses de nitrogênio sobre o crescimento e a produção de

  6. Evaluation of immunity and protection induced in experimental models by soluble extract of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites irradiated by {sup 60}Co; Avaliacao da imunidade e protecao induzida em modelos experimentais por extrato soluvel de taquizoitos de Toxoplasma gondii irradiado por {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Andrea da

    2013-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis affects 1/3 of the human population and only a vaccine for veterinary use. Gamma radiation alters the proteins making them more immunogenic by oxidation and better antigen presentation in the absence of adjuvants. Radiate soluble extract of RH strain tachyzoites of T. gondii (AgTg), and evaluate its use as a vaccine in BALB/c. Doses below 500Gy not affected and destroyed 2000Gy doses above extract, whereas animals immunized with irradiated extract at 1000, 1500 and 2000Gy had more of specific IgG avidity , compared to native AgTg (p<0,05) . AgTg 1500GY the immunized animals had increased proliferation of splenocytes, phenotyped as CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and B-lymphocytes immunized animals compared to the native AgTg . Animals immunized by AgTg 1500GY after challenge with strain ME- 49 cystogenic showed lower number of brain cysts and greater survival after challenge with virulent RH. Ionizing radiation in extracts of T. gondii increases the immune response and immune memory in the absence of adjuvants. (author)

  7. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images; A teoria da decisao na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessa, Patricia Silva

    2001-10-01

    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the radio modifier effect of propolis on chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60-CO; Avaliacao do efeito radiomodificador da propolis em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO-K1) e em celulas tumorais de prostata (PC3), irradiadas com CO-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Geyza Spigoti

    2011-07-01

    In the last decades, it has been given a great interest to investigations concerning natural, effective, nontoxic compounds with radioprotective potential together with the increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them propolis, a resinous compound produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been considered quite promising, since it presents several advantageous biological characteristics, i. e., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and also free radical scavenging action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation. For this purpose, three interlinked parameters were analyzed: micronucleus induction, cell viability and clonogenic death. The choice of these parameters was justified by their biological significance, in addition to the fact that they are readily observable and measurable in irradiated cells. The cytogenetic data obtained showed a radioprotective effect of propolis (5-100 {mu}g/ml) in the induction of DNA damage for both cell lines, irradiated with doses of 1 - 4 Gy. The cytotoxicity assay, however, showed a prominent antiproliferative effect of propolis (50 - 400{mu}/ml) in PC3 cells irradiated with 5 G{gamma}. The survival curves obtained were adequately fitted by a linear-quadratic model, where the {alpha} coefficient was higher in CHO-K1 cells. Concerning the clonogenic capacity, PC3 cells were more radiosensitive than CHO-K1 cells at the higher doses of the survival curve. Propolis at the concentrations of 30 - 100 {mu}g/ml, did not influence the clonogenic potential of PC3 cells, since the survival curves, associated or not with propolis, were found similar, although the combined treatment in CHO-K1 cells exhibited a stimulating proliferative effect. The data

  9. Produção e qualidade da moranga híbrida em resposta a doses de nitrogênio Yield and quality of hybrid squash (pumpkin in response to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinalva W Pedrosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de doses de N na produção e qualidade da moranga hibrida cv. Tetsukabuto (Takaima F1 em experimento na EPAMIG Centro Oeste, Prudente de Morais (MG, de 25/08 a 03/12/2008. Foram avaliadas cinco doses de nitrogênio (0; 37,5; 75; 150; 300 kg ha-1, na forma de uréia, divididas em quatro aplicações (30% no plantio, 20% aos 20 dias, 30% aos 40 dias e 20% aos 60 dias após a emergência, num delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. As doses de N influenciaram significativamente as características avaliadas. O número de frutos aumentou de 2.498 ao ponto de máximo de 6.794 frutos ha-1 com a aplicação de 219 kg ha-1 de N. O diâmetro e a espessura da polpa do fruto aumentaram de 14,97 e 2,33 cm, até atingirem os pontos máximos de 17,74 e 2,80 cm nas doses de 171 e 128 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente. O teor de sólidos solúveis na polpa de frutos de moranga híbrida aumentou com o aumento das doses de N observando-se com a aplicação de 300 kg ha-1 de N teor de 8ºBrix. A produtividade de frutos foi também influenciada pelas doses de N estimando-se como valor máximo 11,55 t ha-1 de frutos com a aplicação de 300 kg ha-1 de N. A dose estimada de N relativa à máxima eficiência econômica foi obtida com a aplicação de 262 kg ha-1, considerando os preços de R$ 2,41 kg-1 de N e de R$ 560,00 t-1 de moranga.An experiment was carried out at EPAMIG Centro Oeste, Prudente de Morais, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from August 25 to December 2, 2008, to evaluate the effects of N rates on production and quality of hybrid squash cv. Tetsukabuto (Takaima F1. The treatments were five N rates (0, 37.5, 75, 150, 300 kg ha-1, as urea, split in four applications (30% at planting date, 20% at 20 days, 30% at 40 days and 20% at 60 days after emergence in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The N rates significantly affected the characteristics evaluated. The number of fruits

  10. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation {sup 60}Co effect on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of different cultivars of soybean grains (Glycine max (L.));Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais de diferentes cultivares de graos de soja Glycine max (L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Tais Carolina Franqueira de

    2006-07-01

    With the increase of the world population, creative strategies will be necessary to control food production. To achieve this challenge, new cultivars have been development, though different techniques and characteristics. To improve food conservation, a plant of methods can be used. The use of Cobalto-60 radiation is a secure and useful method to increase the life time of foods. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soybean, some alterations must be studied. This study has the objective to determinate this alterations caused by irradiation (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw and cooked grain of five different cultivars of soybean (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48), this study includes analysis of time cooking and hydratation, and chemical analysis of proximate composition, in vitro digestibility of proteins, percentage of deamidation , phenolics compounds, trypsin inhibitors and tannins. The amount of water absorbed by each grain varied from 14.00 to 16.66mL, and the time cooking varied from 119.67 to 291.33 minutes. The values found for ash were 4.90 to 6.08%, for protein from 21.23 to 36.99%, for fat from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble staple fibres from 1.37 to 4.03% and insoluble staple fibres from 15.97 to 18.87%. The deamidation percentage in the different samples varied of 17,34 to 57.79% and the digestibility in vitro from 84.45 to 89.11%. Inside of the anti nutritional factors, the total compounds phenolics varied from 3.9 to 9.7 mg/g, the units of trypsin inhibited from 24.75 to 57.53 UTI/g and the tannins from 0.02 to 0.32 mg/g. For the physical analyses it showed differences in the time of hydratation among them and the irradiation promoted reduction in the time, but not in the amount of absorbed water; in the cooking time it had reduction with the increase of the doses of radiation; the differences found in the proximate composition did not have influence with the irradiation, but with the different cultivars; for the digestibility

  11. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Leite

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento do blastóporo foi calculada a taxa de fertilização nas diferentes doses inseminantes. A porcentagem de fertilização aumentou de forma linear segundo a equação Ŷ =0,050 + 0,00000773X (R²=97,5, atingindo um platô em 84% na proporção de 102.486 espermatozoides/ovócito. Os embriões apresentaram segmentação meroblástica discoidal, típica de ovos telolécitos, com eclosão ocorrendo aos 357 horas-grau após a fertilização. Conclui-se que o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui obedece ao esperado para peixes com ovos telolécitos e recomenda-se o uso da dose inseminante de aproximadamente 100.000 espermatozoides/ovócito na rotina de fertilização artificial dessa espécie.

  12. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  13. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Diethyltoluamide (DEET) in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussels non-irradiated and irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Avaliacao da citotoxicidade do dietiltoluamida (DEET) em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) irradiados e nao irradiados com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela de Assis

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have identified the presence of several emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. The occurrence in different environmental matrices has been continuously reported, highlighting the need for toxicity studies. The DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the active ingredient used in most insect repellents, and is present in many commercially available formulations. Apart from chemical pollutants, aquatic organisms are subject to exposure of ionizing radiation from natural sources or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The present study evaluated the toxicity of DEET in organisms irradiated and non-irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, and the effects that radiation causes in lysosomes of hemocytes of Perna perna mussel. For this purpose, assays were performed to identify the acute toxicity of DEET concentration and the dose of gamma radiation able to cause mortality. Subsequently, cytotoxicity assays were carried out to assess the stability of the lysosomal membrane in organisms exposed to ionizing radiation and DEET. According to the results obtained in acute toxicity tests, the concentration of DEET that causes mortality of 50% exposed organisms (LC50) is 114,27 mg L{sup -1}, and the radiation dose that causes mortality (LD50) is 1068 Gy. In the cytotoxicity assays, the concentration of the non-observed effect (NOEC) for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms 0.0001 mg L-1 and observed effect concentration (LOEC) at concentrations above this. The IC25 (72h) for non-irradiated organisms was 0.0003 mg L-1 and IC50 (72h) was 0.0008 mg L{sup -1} for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms. Despite of the concentrations of effect found in this study were higher than in the environment, both measurements are in the same order of magnitude and should be also take into account the possible synergistic effects of DEET with other contaminants in the aquatic environment. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the ICRU operational magnitudes implantation for the photon radiation at the Angra I and Angra II nuclear power plants; Avaliacao da implantacao das grandezas operacionais do ICRU para a radiacao de fotons nas usinas nucleares Angra I e II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Ronaldo do Nascimento

    2006-07-01

    The measurements of photon radiation field intensity are usually performed by a radiation protection technician trained and having skill in using radiation rate meters. Nowadays, these measurements are reported on exposure quantity and used to protect exposed individuals against the radiation risks while executing their activities. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements - ICRU - defined the operational quantity ambient equivalent dose H{sup *}(10). This quantity is accepted by the scientific community as the best estimative of the protection quantity effective dose, which can not be directly measured. The operational quantity H{sup *}(10) was introduced in Brazilian rules by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN (2005a), although its adoption was conditioned to studies of convenience and applicability of implementation. The present work may contribute to these studies, as it presents the evaluation of H{sup *}(10)'s implementation at the Nuclear Central Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. The evaluation involved radiological tests - the energy dependence and angular dependence - applied to six types of photon radiation rate meters utilized at the CNAAA, with represent around 83% of the total number of rate meters in use by CNAAA. The result of this evaluation is favorable to the quantity H{sup *}(10)'s implementation. Suggestions are presented in order to update de rate meters and the technical and administrative procedures related to the Laboratory of Calibration of Rate Meters - LCMR, belonging to CNAAA. Thus, it could be possible to perform the calibration of the rate meters at the nuclear installation. The results obtained allows to carry out new evaluations of H{sup *}(10)'s implementation on installations that perform measurements with radiation rate meters on the practice of radiation protection, in order to adopt the H{sup *}(10) quantity in our country. (author)

  15. Comparative study on imaging quality in PET acquisition modes: validation of a protocol for reducing the radiation dose; Estudo comparativo da qualidade de imagem dos modos de aquisicao da PET: validacao de um protocolo para reduzir a dose de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Solange Amorim; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Medicina Nuclear; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem], e-mail: solange@einstein.br

    2009-03-15

    The present study is aimed at validating a 3D acquisition protocol for positron emission tomography as a replacement for the 2D mode, to reduce the radiation dose delivered to patients, without any loss in the quality of images. Materials and methods: The study comprised 27 simulations in a Discovery ST equipment with four-minute 2D acquisitions, and two-minute and four-minute 3D acquisitions, utilizing a chest phantom according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association protocol. Six spheres with different diameters were inserted into this phantom as a means for determining the images quality. The images were blindly reviewed by three experienced nuclear physicians who did not know the acquisition modes. Each observer attributed a score 1 when one of the spheres was not identified, or 2 for visible spheres. Results: The qualitative analysis based on generalized kappa coefficient demonstrated that the frequency of visible spheres was higher with four-minute 3D acquisitions (85%), with an also higher interobserver agreement (88.9%), generalized kappa = 0.725 [0.507;0.942]. Conclusion: The protocol with four-minute 3D acquisition with lower {sup 18}F-FDG activity can be utilized for patients with a biotype similar to the phantom, without any loss in the imaging quality. (author)

  16. Comparação da eficácia de doses iguais de acetaminofeno retal e oral em crianças Comparison of antipyretic effectiveness of equal doses of rectal and oral acetaminophen in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigha Akhavan Karbasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma dose de acetaminofeno oral e retal e avaliar a aceitabilidade do acetaminofeno retal, uma vez que o acetaminofeno oral e retal é amplamente usado como agente antipirético em crianças com febre e a eficiência comparativa dessas duas preparações não está bem estabelecida. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo de grupos paralelos, foram incluídas 60 crianças admitidas na emergência ou clínica ambulatorial pediátrica em um hospital terciário, com idade entre 6 meses e 6 anos e com temperatura retal acima de 39 °C. Os pacientes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de mesmo tamanho. O grupo 1 recebeu 15 mg/kg de acetaminofeno retal, e o grupo 2 recebeu a mesma dose oralmente. A temperatura foi registrada no tempo zero e 1 e 3 horas após administração da droga. RESULTADOS: No primeiro grupo, a redução média de temperatura, 1 e 3 horas após administração do acetaminofeno, foi de 1,07±0,16 (p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: As preparações oral e retal de acetaminofeno têm eficácia antipirética equivalente em crianças. A via retal mostrou ser tão aceitável quanto a oral entre os pais.OBJECTIVE: To compare a dose of oral and rectal acetaminophen and to evaluate acceptability of rectal acetaminophen, since oral and rectal acetaminophen is widely used as an antipyretic agent in febrile children and the comparative effectiveness of these two preparations is not well established. METHODS: In this prospective parallel group designed study, 60 children who presented to the emergency department or outpatient pediatric clinic at a tertiary hospital and aged from 6 months to 6 years with rectal temperature over 39 °C were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to two equal-sized groups. Group 1 received 15 mg/kg acetaminophen rectally and group 2 received the same dose orally. Temperature was recorded at baseline and 1 and 3 hours after drug administration. RESULTS: In the first group, mean decrease in

  17. Adsorption of reactive Remazol Red RB dye of aqueous solution using zeolite of the coal ash and evaluation of acute toxicity with Daphnia similis; Adsorcao de corante reativo Remazol Vermelho RB de solucao aquosa usando zeolita de cinzas de carvao e avaliacao da toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the capacity of zeolite synthesized from coal ash in the removal of Remazol Red dye aqueous solution was investigated by batch mode operation. The equilibrium was attained after 360 min of contact time. The adsorption rate followed the kinetic model of pseudo-second-order. The equilibrium data obtained fitted to Langmuir adsorption isotherm showing the adsorption capacity of up to 1.20mg g-1. The efficiency of adsorption was between 75 to 91% in the equilibrium time. In order to obtain the best conditions for removal of this dye, the influence of the following parameters was: initial concentration of the dye, pH of the aqueous solution, dose of adsorbent and temperature. The thermodynamic parameters were evaluated showing that the adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite is of a spontaneous nature. Experiments by adding NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were carried out to simulate the real conditions of the effluents from the dyeing bath and to evaluate the influence of these chemical compounds in the phenomenon of adsorption. The equilibrium data of adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite was achieved in a shorter time in the presence of increasing concentrations of salts in solution and an increase in adsorption capacity. The efficiency of the study was evaluated as a treatment for acute toxicity using Daphnia similis microcrustacean. (author)

  18. Gamma ({sup 60}CO) radiation effects on arcelin protein and evaluation of bean lineages against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae);Efeito da radiacao gama ({sup 60}CO) sobre a proteina arcelina e avaliacao de linhagens de feijoeiro a Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Ana Claudia Girardo

    2006-07-01

    The resistance of arcelin carrying seeds of bean lineages (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and the influence of gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) on the manifestation of arcelin resistance to Z. subfasciatus were verified. Laboratorial tests, in choice and non-choice tests, with wild specimens carrying Arc-1, Arc-2, Arc-3, Arc-4, Raz-56 and Raz-59 (with Arc-5 alleles) and commercial lineages as control IAC - Carioca and IAC - Arua were conducted. Statistical design was completely randomized, with five repetitions, with 10 g of grains from each lineage samples by portion. Attractiveness, oviposition, emergence, mortality, adults' weigh and longevity, developing period, sexual rate, seeds' weigh loss, infestation and fecundity (Z. subfasciatus) were observed. Gamma radiation doses irradiations, in general, haven't affected the resistance manifestation of lineages carrying arcelin protein variants against the Z. subfasciatus bean weevil, thus, joint application use of both control methods can be recommended. Raz-56 lineage showed high resistance of the antibiosis types and non-preference for oviposition and feeding to Z. subfasciatus, while Raz-59 showed antibiosis and non-preference for feeding, and both (Raz-56 and Raz-59) showed intermediate resistance to A. obtectus, against which lineage Arc-2 was the most harmful to its development, expressing non-preference to feeding and/or antibiosis. (author)

  19. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Determination of insemination dose and embryonic development in the artificial fertilization of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Leite

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento do blastóporo foi calculada a taxa de fertilização nas diferentes doses inseminantes. A porcentagem de fertilização aumentou de forma linear segundo a equação Ŷ =0,050 + 0,00000773X (R²=97,5, atingindo um platô em 84% na proporção de 102.486 espermatozoides/ovócito. Os embriões apresentaram segmentação meroblástica discoidal, típica de ovos telolécitos, com eclosão ocorrendo aos 357 horas-grau após a fertilização. Conclui-se que o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui obedece ao esperado para peixes com ovos telolécitos e recomenda-se o uso da dose inseminante de aproximadamente 100.000 espermatozoides/ovócito na rotina de fertilização artificial dessa espécie.The objective of this research was to determine the insemination dose for artificial fertilization and describe the embryonic development of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomun. The gametes were collected from induced breeding hormonally. An artificial fertilization was performed with different sperm/oocyte ratios of D1-50666, D2-75999, D3-101 332, 126 665-D4, D5-151 998 sperm/oocyte. Embryonic development was monitored through periodic stereoscopic observations until hatching. When embryos reached the blastopore closure stage, the rate of fertilization in different insemination doses was calculated. A regression equation was estimated to determine the ideal proportion of the gametes. The fertilization rate increased linearly according to the equation Ŷ = 0

  20. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in sera from 18 alcoholic carriers of "anti-HBc alone" and response to a single dose of hepatitis B vaccine Pesquisa de DNA do vírus da hepatite B no soro de 18 alcoolistas portadores de "anti-HBc isolado" e resposta a uma dose da vacina para hepatite B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Marques de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the possibility of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in alcoholics carriers of "anti-HBc alone", and to verify the behavior of this serological pattern after a single dose of hepatitis B vaccine, 18 alcoholics who had this serological profile were evaluated by the polymerase chain reaction method, and 17 of them were vaccined. All were negative for HBV DNA. Nine (52.9% of those vaccined had anamnestic response, mainly those with positive anti-HBe (8/10; 80%. "Anti-HBc alone" was compatible with low levels of anti-HBs in half of the patients, and probably with false positive results for anti-HBc in the others.Para avaliar a possibilidade de infecção oculta pelo vírus da hepatite B em alcoolistas com "anti-HBc isolado" e a resposta a uma dose da vacina para a hepatite B, 18 alcoolistas com este perfil sorológico foram avaliados pelo método de reação em cadeia da polimerase e 17 deles foram vacinados. Todos tiveram negativos os exames para o VHB DNA. Nove (52,9% dos vacinados tiveram resposta anamnéstica, principalmente aqueles com anti-HBe positivo (8/10; 80%. "Anti-HBc isolado" foi compatível com baixos títulos de anti-HBs em metade dos pacientes, e provavelmente com resultado falso-positivo para o anti-HBc nos demais.

  1. Evaluation of electron beam radiation effects in the incorporation of Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera Mart.) on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante por feixe de eletrons na incorporacao de fibra de Piacava (Attalea funifera Mart.) no copolimero de etileno e alcool vinilico (EVOH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Beatriz Ribeiro

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the contribution of ionizing radiation in the incorporation of piassava fibers (derived from wastes from broom factories) in the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), to obtain a composite material, {sup E}VOH-Piassava{sup ,} for packaging applications. The interest in this fiber is due to its inherent properties and morphology as well as being biodegradable. The EVOH composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of piassava fiber powder with a particle size equal to or less than 125 {mu}m, untreated or treated with 1% silane, were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. For carrying out the tensile tests and oxygen barrier of the materials obtained, films were produced from composite materials and EVOH resin was obtained using the process of flat extrusion. Samples of EVOH and the composites were irradiated using an electron accelerator, at doses from 0 to 500 kGy. The results of SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction of composites suggest a good fiber-matrix adhesion, which can be also confirmed by its higher tensile strength at break, compared to that of neat EVOH. The results showed that the incorporation of piassava fibers can promote better oxygen barrier compared to the neat EVOH, in conditions of high humidity. It was observed that, after irradiation, the EVOH film showed better oxygen barrier in high humidity condition, when compared to the non-irradiated EVOH under the same condition, indicating radiation as an effective treatment to improve oxygen barrier in the studied conditions. (author)

  2. Evaluation of mitomycin-C effect on biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid in BALB/C mice; Avaliacao do efeito da mitomicina-c na biodistribuicao do radiofarmaco acido dimercaptosuccinico marcado com tecnecio-99m em camundongos BALB/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Maria Luisa; Britto, Deise Mara de M.; Freitas, Rosimeire de S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica; Braga, Ana Cristina de S.; Bezerra, Roberto Jose A.C. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    1999-11-01

    The many desirable characteristics of technetium-99m have stimulated the development of labeling techniques for different molecular and cellular structures. It is accepted that a variety of factors such the drug chemotherapy can alter the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. The unknowledge of these factor may result in an unexpected behavior of the radiopharmaceuticals. Since patients on chemotherapeutic treatment can be submitted to a nuclear medicine procedure, we have studied in mice, the effect of mitomycin-C on the {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA used for kidney scintigraphy. Mitomycin-C is an antineoplastic agent obtained from Streptomyces caesptosus. The metabolism of this drug produces different toxic and inactive metabolites. Mitomycin-C 0.15 mg was administered in Balb/c female with an interval of 72 hours. After one hour of the last dose, 0.3 ml of 9{sup 9m}c-DMSA (7.4 MBq) were injected and after 0.5 h the animals were sacrificed. The organs were isolated and counted in a well counter. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) were calculated and statistical analysis were performed (Wilcoxon Test). The results have shown that the %ATI: has increased in stomach and uterus, has decreased in kidney and ovary; has not altered in pancreas, spleen, lung, heart, liver, thymus, thyroid, bone and brain. The increase of % ATI could be justified by the metabolic process or the therapeutical effect of mitomycin-C. As an effect of this drug is observed in the uptake of the {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA by the kidney, probably an alteration in the kidney scintigraphy is expected. However, the increase of %ATI of this radiopharmaceutical in other organs by the mitomycin-C could be evaluated carefully. (author) 12 ref., 2 tabs.

  3. Avaliação da característica de personalização dos medicamentos magistrais manipulados pelas farmácias comunitárias com Autorização Especial quanto à individualização da dose | Evaluation of the compounding formula of compounding medicines by community pharmacies with Special Authorization for dosage individualization

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Eduardo de Pontes; Helena Pereira da Silva Zamith

    2016-01-01

    A manipulação de medicamentos magistrais possui como objetivo fundamental o atendimento a necessidades individuais, configurando sua personalização, seja em termos da dose terapêutica, forma farmacêutica adequada para uso, ausência de insumos farmacêuticos para pacientes com histórico de intolerância, entre outras justificativas técnicas. O presente estudo avaliou a característica magistral, no que se refere à individualização da dose, das cápsulas de uso oral/monodroga contendo insumo farmac...

  4. Evaluation of conventional x-ray diagnostic equipment and radiological protection systems of hospitals and clinics installed in Recife city, Brazil; Avaliacao dos equipamentos de raios-X diagnostico convencionais e dos sistemas de protecao radiologica de clinicas e hospitais da cidade de Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Robson Silva

    1999-05-15

    Diagnostic radiology is the main contributor to the man-made exposure of general population. Since Quality Assurance (QA) programs ensure high quality diagnostic images with the lowest possible radiation dose to the patient, it has been recommended that all introduce QA programs for their radiological facilities. Consequently it is important to check the adequacy of equipment operating parameters in diagnostic radiography facilities, to ensure that a high quality of service is delivered. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the operating conditions of diagnostic units installed in Recife, Pernambuco. The study included 31 X-ray units from both public and private diagnostic services. The following parameters were evaluated: coincidence between the luminous and radiation fields; alignment of the radiation beam; agreement between the real and preset values of kVp and exposure time; filtration; half value lower (HVL); luminance of the view box; uniformity of the luminance; illuminance of the environment. The results showed that 20% of the equipment surveyed exhibited discrepancies between the luminous and radiation fields greater than 2% of the source to skin distance. The test of kilovoltage showed that 48% of the units do not fulfill the acceptability criteria, presenting discrepancies higher than {+-} 10% between the measured and preset values. The results of the accuracy of the timer indicated that 81% of the equipment surveyed present a discrepancy greater than {+-} 10% between the time selected in the control panel and actual exposure time.The test of the filtration shown that, in 20% of the equipment, this was inferior to 2,5 mm Al. The test of the luminance of view box shown that 96% of the equipment, shown a luminance lower of 2.000 cd/m{sup 2}. Related to the test of the uniformity of the luminance, 81 % of the equipment shown a variation of the uniformity higher then 10%. The test of the iluminancy of the environment shown that 61 % of the equipment

  5. Risk assessment of environmental exposure to mercury in the urban area of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State - Amazonian basin - Brazil; Avaliacao do risco potencial para a saude humana da exposicao ao mercurio na area urbana de Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso - Bacia Amazonica - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    1996-07-01

    Mercury contamination in the Amazon basin is a consequence of the intensive and extensive use of metallic Hg in gold mining activities which use the amalgamation process. Mercury vapor is the main form of Hg released in the Amazonian ecosystem. However, some studies have shown that enhanced biotransformation of inorganic mercury into organic Hg is occurring. These two forms of Hg have some properties in common but differ in toxicity and metabolic behavior. Knowledge of the fate and transport of Hg in the Amazon basin is especially important for the assessment of the extent of contamination, as well as the characterization of exposed groups. the present study attempts to evaluate the Hg exposure scenario as well as to assess the quantitative risk (from Hg emission) for workers in gold-dealers' shops and for the general population in the urban area of Alta Floresta. The way that are was populated and the regional and local economy history, particularly in connection with the commercialization of gold in the region, are important factors in the study of the exposure scenario in Alta Floresta. Assessment of exposure pathways has shown that the adult and infant populations of Alta Floresta are exposed to low dose levels of Hg. Fish consumed locally shows high concentrations of Hg, ranging from 0,5 to 3,6 mg/kg. However, due to the low consumption of fish by the general population this exposure pathway has little effect on the health of the general public. Fishermen and their families are those most at risk from Hg intoxication. Workers in gold shops are another critical group, in relation to exposure to Hg vapor. As for the infant population, above 4 years old, inhalation of Hg vapor is the main source of the exposure, one exception being to children of fishermen whose pattern of fish consumption is similar to their parents. These are the two groups at risk from fish ingestion. Infants between 1 and 4 years of age are the group most likely to suffer adverse effects

  6. Evaluation of chromosome aberration frequency instable in individual groups residents at the municipality of Monte Alegre, Para, Brazil, exposed to radon; Avaliacao da frequencia de aberracoes cromossomicas instaveis em grupos de individuos residentes no municipio de Monte Alegre - PA expostos diferencialmente ao radonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunes, Samira Nogarol

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Monte Alegre is a region that presents natural radiation high due to the presence of the radionuclide uranium ({sup 238}U) in its soil, which through its decay gives rise to element Rn, a gas. The radioactivity of the rocks has become a problem for the population of Monte Alegre, from the moment when the radioactive material began to be used in the construction of houses and paving of streets. Among all bio markers related to environmental exposures and its biological effects, the chromosomal aberrations are considered good bio markers as predictors of the risk of cancer. Studies suggest that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations may be related to the genetic instability individual and/or exposure to ionizing radiation. Our work aimed to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals in the region of high natural radioactivity in Monte Alegre-PA. As well as to correlate the cytogenetic analysis made in this study with the results of analysis of frequency of polymorphisms of genes of DNA repair carried out in another study that resulted in other dissertation. In accordance with the distribution of the data obtained in characterizing environmental radiological and in the calculation of dose, were chosen residents of homes with more and less exposure to radiation. The samples of peripheral blood of 85 individuals of the resident population of the region of Monte Alegre - PA were collected and examine provided two slides for individual was performed to verify the quality of the sample. Through this evaluation we decide that 33% of the material collected, or is, samples of 28 individuals were in suitable conditions for analysis of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. After the collections lymphocytes present in the sample were cultivated in accordance with the methodology proposed for obtaining of cells in metaphase. were analyzed 6,177 metaphases of 28 individuals among which were found dicentric chromosomes 4 and 19

  7. Characterization of the anti tumoral activity of the thiosemicarbazones derived from N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2acetylpyridine And 2-pyridinoformamide and its metal complex: evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical potential; Caracterizacao da atividade antitumoral das tiossemicarbazonas derivadas de N(4)-metil-toluil-2-acetilpiridina e 2-piridinoformamida e seus complexos metalicos: avaliacao do potencial radiofarmaceutico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Roberto Ornelas da

    2008-07-01

    -acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (Culac). The induced specific activity was found to be 5.55 MBq /mg. After irradiation Culac samples were analyzed by the absorption of infrared spectroscopy (IR) to assess the structural integrity. The irradiated compound kept its structural integrity. The maintenance of {sup 64}Culac biological activity was also evaluated by MTT assay on RT2 (wild p53), T98 (mutant p53), MCF-7 (wild p53) and CAE cells (wild p53). The results showed that {sup 64}Culac kept its potent anti tumoral activity against all treated cells presenting IC50 values at nanomolar range. {sup 64}Culac biodistribution studies after intravenous injection in mice bearing Erlich tumor implanted in the paw, showed significant uptake in the tumor paw (tumor/skeletal muscle ratio 6.55), 240 minutes after administration. Histopathological studies have shown mild hepatotoxicity 144 hours (6 days) after intravenous administration of 308 mg/kg of Culac. However, no lethality, behavioural, or feeding changes were observed at this dose. Our results demonstrate that the complex of copper-64 N(4)-ortho-toluyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone ({sup 64}Culac) is a promising radiopharmaceutical for detection of solid tumors by positron emission tomography (PET). (author)

  8. Comportamento de baixas doses de herbicidas na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L.) Merril): I - efeitos sobre o controle das plantas daninhas e parâmetros de produção da cultura Behavior of low-rates of herbicides in the soybean (Glycine max (L .) Merril) crop: I - effects on weed control and crop yield parameters

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Durigan; R. Victoria Filho

    1983-01-01

    Foi estudada a possibilidade de redução nas doses recomendadas de herbicidas, isolados ou em misturas, sem afetar a produção ou outras características desejáveis da planta, para o cultivar Santa Rosa em Solo Latossol Vermelho Escuro -fase arenosa. 0 experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, com vinte tratamentos e três repetições, testando-se a dose total recomendada e reduções de 25% e 50% dela, para trifluralin, alachlor e metribuzin, isolados e em misturas. As doses recomendadas foram ...

  9. Comportamento da dose glandular versus contraste do objeto em mamografia: determinação de formalismo semi-empírico para diferentes combinações alvo-filtro Behavior of subject contrast versus glandular dose in mammography: determination of a semi-empirical formalism for different target-filter combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da mudança no contraste do objeto, tempo de exposição e dose de radiação quando diferentes espessuras de filtração de molibdênio (Mo e ródio (Rh são empregadas em mamógrafos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se medidas da exposição na entrada da pele com uma câmara de ionização para diferentes espessuras para os filtros de Mo e Rh. Para determinar a dose glandular média foi utilizado simulador de BR12 (50% tecido adiposo e 50% tecido glandular de diferentes espessuras (4 cm e 8 cm. Energias na faixa de 24 kVp a 34 kVp foram empregadas e filmes Kodak MinR 2000 foram utilizados. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram dados de contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para diferentes espessuras de filtros adicionais e diferentes tensões. Esses dados indicaram aumento nos valores de contraste do objeto e tempo de exposição, com o aumento da espessura dos filtros. A dose glandular apresentou comportamento com diferentes tendências para cada caso analisado. Equações foram definidas para possibilitar a estimativa do contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para os casos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados possibilitaram a estimativa de equações que auxiliam na verificação do comportamento do contraste do objeto e da dose glandular para simuladores com espessura de 4 cm e 8 cm e para os filtros de Rh e Mo. Dessa forma, torna-se possível estimar a figura de mérito (razão entre o contraste do objeto e a dose glandular, podendo auxiliar na análise da relação risco-benefício dos casos estudados.OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to verify the effect of changes in subject contrast, exposure time and radiation dose when different thicknesses of molybdenum (Mo and rhodium (Rh filters are used in mammography equipments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Entrance skin exposure measurements were performed with an ionization chamber for different thicknesses of Mo and Rh filters

  10. Imaging assessment of osteitis pubis; Avaliacao por imagem da osteite pubica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Ferreira, Ana Paula Alves; Leite, Ana Rachel Albuquerque de Moura; Guido, Daniela Araujo; Rodrigues, Rogeria Nobre [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: ce@cidbh.com.br; Araujo, Rodrigo Otavio Dias [Minas Tenis Clube, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Fisioterapia

    2005-10-15

    Objective: to assess the physiopathological aspects of osteitis pubis and the findings seen on imaging methods, emphasizing the usefulness of Flamingo view radiographs and the diagnostic aspects of Magnetic resonance images. Material and Method: magnetic resonance images of ten patients (eight of them professional athletes) referring symptoms in the inguinal regional were retrospectively evaluated. For some of these patients Flaming view radiographs were performed. Results: in all studied patients magnetic resonance imaging was the only diagnostic method capable of showing the different phases os osteitis pubis, from acute cases with pubic bone marrow edematous changes to chronic cases with involvement of other pelvic joints. Flamingo view radiographs were performed in six patients and three of them were diagnosed with vertical pubis symphyseal instability greater than 2 mm of vertical displacement. This diagnosis was confirmed by instability tests using orthopedic manoeuvres. Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging was the most helpful method for the diagnosis of different phases of osteitis pubis whereas conventional X-ray was inconclusive in the initial phases. Flamingo view radiographs were extremely important to show vertical instability of the pubic symphysis, which in combination with osteitis pubis can be the cause of failure of nonoperative treatment. (author)

  11. Advances tomographic in evaluation of middle ear; Avancos tomograficos na avaliacao da orelha media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Mayara Alves Pinheiro dos; Ledo, Mirelle D& #x27; arc Frota; Ribeiro, Marcio Duarte, E-mail: may_anjos@yahoo.com.br [Fundacao Bahiana para o Desenvolvimento das Ciencias, Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography has a key role in the study of hearing, since through it can be evaluated structures not seen by otoscope. In many clinical situations the diagnosis through this test proves limited, being fundamental examination of the associated image reconstructions: multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and volume-rendering technique. The ossicular chain is a complex formed by the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes, situated in the middle ear; it is difficult to view them in orthogonals planes. This review article intends to demonstrate the importance of post-processing the image of the ossicular chain for a better representation of the anatomy and possible diseases. Reformatting of images helps, significantly, to a better visualization of these structures as related congenital malformations, vascular abnormalities, inflammatory conditions, neoplasia and traumas. (author)

  12. MRI evaluation of fetal vitality and maturity; Avaliacao da vitalidade e maturidade fetal pela ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Salete J.F. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Secaf, Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Magalhaes, Alvaro Cebrian A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Dept. de Radiologia

    1995-05-01

    Assessment of fetal vitality is an essential part of feto-maternal medicine. In clinical practice, this is carried out by investigation of the fetal growth pattern and biochemical or biophysical tests of fetal heath. MRI has the ability of characterizing different soft tissues and is the only technique that can display in the uterus the process of physiological myelinization and may well present a noninvasive method to determine lung maturity. MRI is more powerful technique allowing more detailed visualization of the fetal brain, better images can be obtained of areas such as posterior fossa. The major advantage of MRI over imaging modalities is the potential for biochemical and metabolic studies and it will make an important contribution to obstetric research. (author)., 10 refs., 7 figs p.

  13. Integrity assessment of pipelines - additional remarks; Avaliacao da integridade de dutos - observacoes adicionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis F.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios. Exploracao e Producao

    2005-07-01

    Integrity assessment of pipelines is part of a process that aims to enhance the operating safety of pipelines. During this task, questions related to the interpretation of inspection reports and the way of regarding the impact of several parameters on the pipeline integrity normally come up. In order to satisfactorily answer such questions, the integrity assessment team must be able to suitably approach different subjects such as corrosion control and monitoring, assessment of metal loss and geometric anomalies, and third party activities. This paper presents additional remarks on some of these questions based on the integrity assessment of almost fifty pipelines that has been done at PETROBRAS/E and P Bahia over the past eight years. (author)

  14. Dose estimative in operators during petroleum wells logging with nuclear wireless probes through computer modelling; Estimativa da dose em operadores durante procedimentos de perfilagem de pocos de petroleo com sondas wireless nucleares atraves de modelagem computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Lima, Inaya C.B., E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda, E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Paula L.F., E-mail: ferrucio@acd.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)., RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the absorbed dose and the effective dose on operators during the petroleum well logging with nuclear wireless that uses gamma radiation sources. To obtain the data, a typical scenery of a logging procedure will be simulated with MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulated logging probe was the Density Gamma Probe - TRISOND produced by Robertson Geolloging. The absorbed dose values were estimated through the anthropomorphic simulator in male voxel MAX. The effective dose values were obtained using the ICRP 103

  15. DIFERENTES DOSES DE BIOFERTILIZANTE PROVENIENTE DA DIGESTÃO ANAERÓBIA DE EFLUENTE DE PROCESSAMENTO DE MANDIOCA NO CULTIVO DE SOJA

    OpenAIRE

    Pessuti, Carlos Alexandre Alves; Hermes, Eliane; Neves, Andressa Caroline; Silva, Rafaela Pachega da; Penachio, Manoel; Zenatti, Dilcemara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    O biofertilizante proveniente da digestão anaeróbia do efluente da indústria de processamento de mandioca é rico em material orgânico, fornecendo elementos essenciais para o desenvolvimento da planta, como, nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. Adicionado ao solo promove a mineralização dos elementos que poderão ser absorvidos pelas plantas da mesma forma que os dos fertilizantes minerais, além de melhorar suas qualidades físicas, químicas e biológicas. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu no uso de e...

  16. Efetividade da aplicação do sulfato ferroso em doses semanais no Programa Saúde da Família em Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil Effectiveness of weekly iron sulfate in the Family Health Program in Caruaru, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Matias Ferreira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se, neste artigo, a avaliação da efetividade de um projeto experimental de enfrentamento da anemia em crianças de 6 a 23 meses de idade, utilizando doses semanais de sulfato ferroso, através do Programa Saúde da Família em Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil. O Ministério da Saúde iniciou, em 1999, um programa de combate à anemia em cerca de 300 mil crianças de 512 municípios do Nordeste. Foram aplicados às crianças 50mg de ferro elementar por semana durante cerca de 24 semanas. Avaliaram-se, nesse estudo, 293 crianças de 6 a 23 meses de idade em zonas rural e urbana do Município de Caruaru. Antes do início da intervenção, a média da concentração de hemoglobina (dosada pelo método da cianometahemoglobina era de 10,1 (±0,98 g/dl e existiam 77,5% de crianças anêmicas. Após o tratamento, a média de hemoglobina elevou-se para 11,1 (±0,87 g/dl, enquanto ocorreu uma redução da anemia para 40,3%. A estratégia representa um instrumento promissor na redução da prevalência e no controle das formas graves de anemia em crianças.This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experimental project for combating anemia in children ages 6-23 months using weekly doses of iron sulfate within the Family Health Program. In 1999, the Brazilian Ministry of Health began an experimental program to combat anemia in 300,000 children from 512 municipalities in the Northeast of the country. Children received a weekly dose of 50mg of elementary iron for approximately 24 weeks. Two hundred and ninety-three children ages 6-23 months from the urban and rural areas of the municipality of Caruaru in Pernambuco State were evaluated. Before the trial, mean hemoglobin was 10.1 (± 0.98 g/dl, and 77.5% of the children were anemic. Following treatment, mean hemoglobin rose to 11.1 (± 0.87 g/dl, while the prevalence of anemia fell to 40.3%. This strategy represents a promising tool to reduce prevalence and to control severe forms of anemia in children.

  17. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for {sup 60}Co: preliminary results; Validacao da curva dose-resposta do CRCN-NE para {sup 60}Co: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Neide, E-mail: july_cgm@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    2014-07-01

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to {sup 60}Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses.

  18. Efeito de doses de metribuzin no crescimento e na conversão da energia solar em plantas de soja (Glycine max (L . merrill Effect of metribuzin doses on the growth and solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a eficiência na conversão da energia solar foram estudados em soja (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivada em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin (0, 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1. O valor máximo da conversão da energia solar foi de 0,75%, para as plantas cultiva das na maior dose do herbicida. Os valores da conversão da energia solar média durante o ciclo da cultura foram 0,32 ; 0,31 ; 0,32 e 0,33%. em ordem crescente de dose do metribuzin. De modo geral, na fase vegetativa as plantas controle apresentaram valores inferiores em todos os valores de crescimento determinados, superando as tratadas com metribuzin somente na fase reprodutiva, mostrando que no período crítico de competição o dano causado pelas plantas daninhas é maior que a possível fitotoxicida de causada pelo metribuzin.Growth analysis and evaluation of solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill, Uberaba unver field conditions and four doses of metribuzin (0,0;0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were performed in this study. Maximum solar energy conversion was 0,75% for pla nts tre ate d wit h 1,05 kg i.a.ha -1 metribuzin. The aver age of solar energy conversion throughout the entire crop cycle were 0,32, 0,31 , 0,32 and 0,33% for the increasing metribuzin doses. In general, the control showed lower figures for all growth values studied than the treated during the vegetative phase. During the reproductive phase, however, they surpassed those tre ated with metribuzin, showing that in the critical period of competition weeds were more harmful than the phytotoxicity produced by metribuzin.

  19. The use of the eyes protection for dose reduction in CT scans of skull; O uso do protetor de olhos para reducao da dose varreduras de TC de cranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Arnaldo P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Teogenes A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Alonso, Thessa C., E-mail: alonso@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-11-01

    The technique for imaging the brain scans of the skull by computed tomography (CT) scanning is the volume bounded by the foramen magnum and the apex of the skull. The lenses are radiosensitive tissues and CT scans of the head deposited significant doses on them, since they are in the region of incidence of the primary beam of X-rays. Thus, the variation of the dose deposited in the crystalline skull CT scans for diagnostic imaging of the brain was investigated. Cranial scans were performed using the acquisition protocol routine with or without the use of bismuth to shield the eyes. To carry out the scans we used a male anthropomorphic phantom, Alderson Rando model and dosimeters (TLD-100) were used to record the doses. These TLDs were used to record specific doses internally to the phantom in specific organs (crystalline, pituitary, thyroid, spinal cord and breasts). The scans were performed on a GE machine, model 64 Discovery channels. The data obtained allowed to observe the variation of dose in organs. The highest dose was recorded in the lens (26,18 mGy), followed by spinal cord (17,79 mGy). Comparing the doses of the two scans it was significant variation in the crystal. Scan using bismuth shield generated smaller doses in the eyes and in the eyes occurred the higher dose reduction, about 37%. The results may contribute to spread a suitable procedure for the optimization of CT scans of the skull.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial activity of curcumin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimalarica de compostos derivados da curcumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Patricia Ramos; Miguel, Fabio Balbino; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Couri, Mara Rubia Costa [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Oliveira, Michael Eder de; Ferreira, Vanessa Viana; Guimaraes, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Lima, Aline Brito de; Barbosa, Camila de Souza; Oliveira, Mariana Amorim de; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla, E-mail: varotti@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; and others

    2014-05-15

    ne of the main challenges in the development of new antimalarial drugs is to achieve a viable lead candidate with good pharmacokinetic properties. Curcumin has a broad range of biological activities, including antimalarial activity. Herein, we report the antimalarial activity of six curcumin derivatives (6-12) and an initial analysis of their pharmacokinetic properties. Five compounds have demonstrated potent activity against the P. falciparum in vitro (IC{sub 50} values ranging from 1.7 to 15.2 μg mL{sup -1}), with moderate or low cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line. The substitution of the carbonyl group in 6 by a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone group (to afford 11) increases the Selective Index. These preliminary results indicate curcumin derivatives as potential antimalarial compounds. (author)

  1. Verificação do fator de calibração e indicador da qualidade do feixe de aceleradores lineares Verification of dose output and beam quality indicator in linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Penha Silva

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Um programa de garantia da qualidade é um pré-requisito obrigatório para a exatidão necessária em radioterapia. Este trabalho relata parte dos testes de rotina mensal do controle da qualidade dos aceleradores lineares do Instituto Nacional do Câncer, relativos à calibração dos feixes de fótons e elétrons, no período de dois anos. Os resultados foram comparados com as recomendações do protocolo AAPM TG-40. Na análise do fator de calibração para o feixe de fótons foi encontrado um desvio máximo de 12%; para o feixe de elétrons o maior desvio encontrado foi 10%. A flutuação observada no indicador da qualidade do feixe para os feixes de elétrons foi maior que para os feixes de fótons. Os resultados confirmam a importância de um programa de garantia da qualidade em um serviço de radioterapia, permitindo correções rápidas da dose administrada ao paciente.A quality assurance program is a mandatory prerequisite for obtaining the high level of accuracy required for radiotherapy. This paper reports the results of part of the routine quality control tests for linear accelerators at the National Cancer Institute, Brazil, performed monthly over a period of two years. These tests included dose output and beam quality indicator. The results were compared with the guidelines of the AAPM TG-40 protocol. The results for the photon beams have shown dose output variations of up to 12%; for electron beams, the largest deviation found was 10%. The fluctuations observed in the beam quality indicator for the electron beams were greater than for the photon beams. These results strongly emphasize the importance of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy services in order to allow prompt corrections of the dose delivered to the patient.

  2. Estudo comparativo da qualidade de imagem dos modos de aquisição da PET: validação de um protocolo para reduzir a dose de radiação Comparative study on imaging quality in PET acquisition modes: validation of a protocol for reducing the radiation dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Amorim Nogueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente experimento visa a validar um protocolo de aquisição em 3D na tomografia por emissão de pósitrons, em substituição ao modo 2D, de forma a reduzir a dose de radiação nos pacientes, sem perda da qualidade de imagens. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas 27 simulações em equipamento Discovery ST, nos modos 2D com quatro minutos de aquisição e 3D com dois e quatro minutos. Utilizou-se um simulador do protocolo da National Electrical Manufacturers Association. No interior deste simulador estão inseridas seis esferas com diferentes diâmetros para a determinação da qualidade de imagem. As aquisições foram comparadas por três médicos nucleares, sem que eles identificassem o modo de aquisição. Cada observador atribuiu o valor igual a 1 quando alguma esfera não foi identificada ou valor 2 para esferas visíveis. RESULTADOS: A análise qualitativa pelo kappa generalizado demonstrou que a frequência de esferas visíveis foi maior no modo 3D com quatro minutos (85% e a porcentagem de concordância também foi maior (88,9%, com kappa generalizado = 0,725 [0,507;0,942]. CONCLUSÃO: O modo 3D com quatro minutos de aquisição e com menores atividades de FDG-18F pode ser utilizado em pacientes com biótipo equivalente ao simulador, sem perda de qualidade de imagem.OBJECTIVE: The present study is aimed at validating a 3D acquisition protocol for positron emission tomography as a replacement for the 2D mode, to reduce the radiation dose delivered to patients, without any loss in the quality of images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 27 simulations in a Discovery ST equipment with four-minute 2D acquisitions, and two-minute and four-minute 3D acquisitions, utilizing a chest phantom according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association protocol. Six spheres with different diameters were inserted into this phantom as a means for determining the images quality. The images were blindly reviewed by three

  3. Resposta da cultura do milho a modos de aplicação e doses de fósforo, em adubação de manutenção

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Prado; F. M. Fernandes; C. G. Roque

    2001-01-01

    Os modos de adubação fosfatada mais estudados na cultura do milho são relacionados com a aplicação a lanço e a localizada no sulco de semeadura. No entanto, existe a possibilidade da aplicação intermediária, em sulco duplo, que pode aumentar a fração do solo fertilizada e a eficiência da adubação. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de modos de aplicação e de doses de fertilizante fosfatado em adubação de manutenção, foi realizado este presente trabalho em Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, na regiã...

  4. Caracterização da dose letal mínima por irradiação gama para Penicillium citrinum Characterization of minimum lethal dosis of gama irradiation to Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Norberg

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso das radiações ionizantes na destruição de microrganismos responsáveis pela deterioração de alimentos ou causadores de infecções ou toxinfecções alimentares, constituiu-se aplicação da energia nuclear, para fins verdadeiramente pacíficos. Penicillium citrinum é um fungo produtor de micotoxinas, responsáveis por intoxicações em humanos e animais que se utilizam de alimentos contaminados. Há escassez de informações sobre a resistência do P. citrinum à irradiação gama; assim esta pesquisa objetivou determinar a dose letal por irradiação gama para esse microrganismo. Foram irradiadas 76 suspensões, contendo aproximadamente 100.000 esporos por mililitro, com doses entre 0,2 e 2,2 KGy (KiloGray, sendo os sobreviventes re-irradiados com doses até 3,0 KGy. O fungo foi totalmente destruído com dose de 2,2 KGy. P. citrinum descendentes dos sobreviventes de 2,0 KGy, quando re-irradiados também foram totalmente destruídos com dose de 2,2 KGy. Observou-se um aumento da resistência às doses mais baixas em relação ao fungo não irradiadoThe use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microrganisms which cause food decay, and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. Penicillium citrinum is a fungus which produce mycotoxins responsible for intoxication in humans and animals as a result of eating contaminated food. There is little informations on the resistance of P. citrinum to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the lethal dose of gama radiation for these microrganisms. Seventy six suspensions containing approximately 100,000 spores/ml received a dose of radiation between 0.2 and 2.2 KGy (KiloGray, being one sample still alive re-irradiated with doses up to 3.0 KGy. The fungus were totally destroyed with a 2.2 KGy. Seventy six suspensions containing approximately 100,000 spores/ml received a dose of radiation between 0.2 and 2.2 KGy, being one sample still alive re

  5. Crescimento e teores de clorofila em mudas de bananeira em função da supressão do pseudocaule, de doses de nitrogênio e de boro Growth and chlorophyll content of banana suckers in function of pseudostem suppression and doses of nitrogen and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Esfrain Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a influência da eliminação da gema apical do rizoma e de doses de nitrogênio e boro, sobre a produção e o crescimento de mudas de bananeira. O experimento foi realizado no Centro de Formação de Tecnólogos da UFPB. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove plantas matrizes por parcela, sendo duas plantas úteis. Os fatores avaliados foram doses de N (0 a 240 g/planta e de B (0 a 2,2 g/planta combinados com a matriz experimental Composto Central de Box, originando nove combinações, arranjados fatorialmente com e sem eliminação da gema apical da planta matriz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. A supressão do pseudocaule da planta principal, com a eliminação da gema apical do rizoma aumentou o número de perfilhos, com maior crescimento, exceto do diâmetro do rizoma, o qual diminuiu. Os teores foliares de clorofila total e de B também foram diminuídos, nos perfilhos das bananeiras amputadas. Para a produção de mudas da bananeira ‘Pacovan’, recomenda-se a supressão do pseudocaule da planta principal, com eliminação da gema apical do rizoma e aplicação do N.The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the removal in the pseudostem with elimination of the meristem apical of the rhizome and doses of nitrogen and boron, about the production and growth of banana suckers. The experiment was carried out at Centro de Formação de Tecnólogos - UFPB, State of Paraíba. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four replications and nine mother plants for experimental unit, being two useful plants. The evaluated valued factors were doses of N (0 to 240 g plant-1 and of B (0 to 240 g plant-1 combined in agreement with the experimental matrix ‘Central Composite’, originating nine combinations, which were arranged factorially with suppression and without suppression of the pseudostem of the mother

  6. Comportamento de baixas doses de herbicidas na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merril: I - efeitos sobre o controle das plantas daninhas e parâmetros de produção da cultura Behavior of low-rates of herbicides in the soybean (Glycine max (L . Merril crop: I - effects on weed control and crop yield parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Durigan

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a possibilidade de redução nas doses recomendadas de herbicidas, isolados ou em misturas, sem afetar a produção ou outras características desejáveis da planta, para o cultivar Santa Rosa em Solo Latossol Vermelho Escuro -fase arenosa. 0 experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, com vinte tratamentos e três repetições, testando-se a dose total recomendada e reduções de 25% e 50% dela, para trifluralin, alachlor e metribuzin, isolados e em misturas. As doses recomendadas foram 0,86; 1,72 e 0,28 kg/ha de trifluralin, alachlor e metribuzin, respectivamente. As misturas com doses reduzidas, de tri-firalin + metribuzin (0,65 + 0,21 kg/ha e alachlor + metribuzin (1,44 4 0,21 kg/ha, apresentaram controle geral das plantas daninhas acima de 90% até o 60.º dia após a semeadura, sem apresentar fitotoxicidade ou efeitos deletérios sobre a nodulação da soja. O controle das plantas daninhas obtido com a redução de 25% nas doses destas misturas, foi equivalente ao da testemunha capinada e proporcionou valores similares nos teores de proteína, extrato etéreo e cinzas, peso de 100 grãos, número de grãos por vagem, altura da planta e altura da inserção da vagem mais baixa. As maiores produções de soja, obtidas com as misturas na dose total recomendada, foram estatisticamente iguais às obtidas com estes mesmos herbicidas aplicados com dose padrão reduzida em 25%. Desta forma, de acordo com as conveniências econômicas e ecológicas, sugere-se que a recomendação atual destes tratamentos seja feito com as doses reduzidas em 25%, nas condições de desenvolvimento da presente pesquisa.It was studied the feasibility of reducing there commended herbicide rate, single or in mixtures, without affecting the yield or other desirable plant features, for cultivar Santa Rosa in "Dark-Red Latossol -sandy phase". ' The trials was settled at randomized block design with treatments repplicated 3 times, testing the full recommended

  7. Dose rate range extension of the calibration of dosemeters at LNMRI, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Expansao da faixa de taxas de dose para a calibracao de instrumentos de medir radiacao no LNMRI, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, T.S.; Carlos, M.T.; Ramos, M.M.O., E-mail: tschirn@ird.gov.b, E-mail: marcia@ird.gov.b, E-mail: mmoramos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work has an objective the implantation of a experimental arrange for application of essays of instrument calibration for measurement of low dose rate, which measure rate less than 10 {mu}Sv/h

  8. Analysis of dose in heterogeneity adjuvant radiotherapy after surgical treatment of cases of breast cancer; Analise da heterogeneidade de dose em radioterapia adjuvante apos tratamento cirurgico de casos de cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechi, Bruna E.; Schwarz, Ana Paula, E-mail: anapaulaschwarz@yahoo.com.br [Centro Universitario Franciscano (UNIFRA), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Teston, Adriano; Rodrigues, Joanilso S. [Clinica de Radioterapia Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Assuming the systems planning radiotherapy recognize all body structures of the same density (d=1 g/cm³), variations in electron density within the irradiated area, as is the case of patients who undergo reconstruction mammary processes and use tissue expanders, may influence the dose distribution in the treatment and may produce heterogeneities which are not measured by changing its actual distribution into healthy tissues or in the target volume to be irradiated. Through the calculation of the algorithms' dose distribution of the XiO® planning system (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition e Clarkson), when using correction of heterogeneity between tissues of different densities, there was obtained a percentage ratio of dose increase in the structures of interest, and of the amount of absorbed dose by healthy organs adjacent to the target volume. (author)

  9. Incidência e severidade do "furo de bala" em folhas da ameixeira sob doses de nitrogênio e potássio Incidence and severity of 'shot hole' in plum´s leaves related into nitrogen and potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Tutida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção integrada (PI vem suprir uma demanda crescente de frutos de qualidade, garantir segurança alimentar, produção com qualidade ambiental e rastreabilidade. Na visão da PI, as práticas da adubação e do controle de doenças estão intimamente relacionadas; no entanto, tem sido negligenciadas e pouco estudadas, principalmente para a doença "furo de bala" (Wilsonomyces carpophilus em folhas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência e severidade dessa doença em doses combinadas de adubação com N e K em dois ciclos de cultivo comercial de ameixeira cv "Reubennel", no município de Araucária (PR. Foram utilizadas cinco doses de N (40, 80, 120, 160 e 200kg ha-1ano-1 e duas de K (55 e 110kg ha-1ano-1. Realizaram-se sete avaliações para incidência e severidade a cada 20 dias, no período de novembro/2004 a março/2005 e em data única em outubro/2005. Os dados da primeira safra foram integralizados no tempo, constituindo a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD da incidência e severidade, e os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pela teoria dos modelos lineares generalizados para dados longitudinais. A doença foi mais severa no segundo ano de avaliação, sendo observado o máximo de 0,70 e 2,25 para o primeiro e o segundo ano, respectivamente. A incidência e a severidade de "furo de bala" em folhas de ameixeira são superiores nas doses de 160 e 200kg ha-1ano-1 de nitrogênio. O potássio não interfere na incidência e severidade da doença devido ao seu elevado teor encontrado no solo e na planta.Integrated Production (IP can provide the growing demand for quality fruit, food safety, environmental protection, and product traceability. In IP, fertilization practices and disease control are viewed as being closely related. However, this linkage has been mostly ignored and few studies are available concerning the 'shot hole' phytopathogen (Wilsonomyces carpophilus in

  10. Eficiência do uso da água pelo maracujazeiro amarelo sob diferentes níveis de irrigação e doses de potássio Water use efficiency of the yellow passion fruit under differents irrigation levels and potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemício F. de Sousa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis de irrigação na eficiência do uso da água (EUA pelo maracujazeiro amarelo, associados com doses de potássio aplicadas via fertirrigação por gotejamento. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Areão da ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP (22º 42' 30"e 47º 38' 00'' W. Os níveis de irrigação foram determinados com base no balanço médio de entrada e saída de água em quatro lisímetros (L, equivalentes a 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 de L, respectivamente. As doses de K2O (kg planta-1 ano-1 foram: 0 (K0, 0,225 (K1, 0,450 (K2, 0,675 (K3 e 0,900 (K4. A EUA foi determinada pela relação entre a produtividade comercial (PC do maracujazeiro e os diferentes níveis de água (V. Os maiores (34,05 kg ha-1 L-1 e os menores (7,85 kg ha-1 L-1 valores de EUA pelo maracujazeiro, foram obtidos com os respectivos menores e maiores volumes de água aplicados. O aumento da água aplicada no maracujazeiro reduziu a EUA, enquanto o simples aumento da produtividade em função da quantidade de água aplicada não otimizou o recurso água. A EUA pelo maracujazeiro amarelo aumenta com a elevação das doses de potássio aplicadas via fertirrigação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of four irrigation levels on the water use efficiency (WUE of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg., combined with different potassium doses applied by drip fertirrigation. The experiment was conducted at Fazenda Areão of ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil (22º42'30"S and 47º 38' 00'' W. The irrigation levels were established with average water consumption in the four lysimeters (L, equivalent to 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 e 1.00 of L, respectively. The K2O doses (kg plant-1 year-1 were: 0 (K0, 0.225 (K1, 0.450 (K2, 0.675 (K3 e 0.900 (K4. The WUE was determinated by relation between the of commercial yield (CY of passion fruit for different potassium doses and water levels

  11. Biological effects in lymphocytes irradiated with {sup 99m}Tc: determination of the curve dose-response; Efeitos biologicos em linfocitos irradiados com {sup 99m}Tc: determinacao da curva dose-resposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Romero Marcilio Barros Matias de

    2002-08-01

    Biological dosimetry estimates the absorbed dose taking into account changes in biological parameters. The most used biological indicator of an exposition to ionizing radiation is the quantification of chromosomal aberrations of lymphocytes from irradiated individuals. The curves of dose versus induced biological effects, obtained through bionalyses, are used in used in retrospective evaluations of the dose, mainly in the case of accidents. In this research, a simple model for electrons and photons transports was idealized to simulate the irradiation of lymphocytes with {sup 99m} Tc, representing a system used for irradiation of blood cells. The objective of the work was to establish a curve of dose versus frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of human blood. For the irradiation of blood samples micro spheres of human serum of albumin (HSAM) market with {sup 99m} Tc were used, allowing the irradiation of blood with different administered activities of {sup 99m} Tc, making possible the study the cytogenetical effects as a function of such activities. The conditions of irradiation in vivo using HSAM spheres marked with {sup 99m} Tc were simulated with MCNP 4C (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code to obtain the dose-response curve. Soft tissue composition was employed to simulate blood tissue and the analyses of the curve of dose versus biological effect showed a linear quadratic response of the unstable chromosomal aberrations. As a result, the response of dose versus chromosomal aberrations of blood irradiation with {sup 99m} Tc was best fitted by the curve Y=(8,99 {+-}2,06) x 1-{sup -4} + (1,24 {+-}0,62) x 10{sup -2} D + (5,67 {+-} 0,64) x 10{sup -2} D{sup 2}. (author)

  12. Comparison of absorbed dose in the cervix carcinoma therapy by brachytherapy of high dose rate using the conventional planning and Monte Carlo simulation; Comparacao da dose absorvida no tratamento do cancer ginecologico por braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose utilizando o planejamento convencional do tratamento e simulacao de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aneli Oliveira da

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to compare the doses received for patients submitted to brachytherapy High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a method of treatment of the cervix carcinoma, performed in the planning system PLATO BPS with the doses obtained by Monte Carlo simulation using the radiation transport code MCNP 5 and one female anthropomorphic phantom based on voxel, the FAX. The implementation of HDR brachytherapy treatment for the cervix carcinoma consists of the insertion of an intrauterine probe and an intravaginal probe (ring or ovoid) and then two radiographs are obtained, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) to confirm the position of the applicators in the patient and to allow the treatment planning and the determination of the absorbed dose at points of interest: rectum, bladder, sigmoid and point A, which corresponds anatomically to the crossings of the uterine arteries with ureters The absorbed doses obtained with the code MCNP 5, with the exception of the absorbed dose in the rectum and sigmoid for the simulation considering a point source of {sup 192}Ir, are lower than the absorbed doses from PLATO BPS calculations because the MCNP 5 considers the chemical compositions and densities of FAX body, not considering the medium as water. When considering the Monte Carlo simulation for a source with dimensions equal to that used in the brachytherapy irradiator used in this study, the values of calculated absorbed dose to the bladder, to the rectum, to the right point A and to the left point A were respectively lower than those determined by the treatment planning system in 33.29, 5.01, 22.93 and 19.04%. These values are almost all larger than the maximum acceptable deviation between patient planned and administered doses (5 %). With regard to the rectum and bladder, which are organs that must be protected, the present results are in favor of the radiological protection of patients. The point A, that is on the isodose of 100%, used to tumor treatment, the results

  13. Acúmulo e repartição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva sob três doses de nutrientes minerais Dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants under three mineral nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nicasio Rodríguez Espínola

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o efeito de três doses de nutrientes minerais sobre o acúmulo e distribuição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva, híbrido Crispina. As plantas foram cultivadas em sacolas plásticas com 4,6kg de substrato composto por uma mistura de 40% de casca de arroz e 60% de solo, no interior de uma estufa de polietileno, na primavera de 1998 e no verão de 1999. Foi empregado um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 15 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três níveis múltiplos de uma dose padrão de nutrientes aplicada para cada planta, contendo N-P-K-Ca e Mg nas quantidades de 0,8-0,12-0,8-0,46-0,086g.pl-1, com 0,33m de solução de micronutrientes e 0,07m de quelato de ferro. Os níveis corresponderam às quantidades de 50%, 100% e 150% da dose padrão, denominados de tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, aplicados semanalmente através da fertirrigação em todas as plantas de uma mesma parcela. Determinou-se a matéria seca dos diferentes órgãos da parte aérea da planta a intervalos semanais. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos no acúmulo da matéria seca, nos dois experimentos. A maior fração foi alocada para os frutos, atingindo o valor mais elevado de 0,64 na primavera. Concluiu-se que a distribuição da matéria seca desse material vegetal não é constante, sofrendo interações com as variáveis do ambiente.It was determined the effect of three mineral nutrient levels on dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants, hybrid Crispina, grown inside a polyethylene greenhouse, in spring 1998 and in summer 1999. Planting was made in bags filled with 4.6kg of a substrate mixture composed by 40% rice husks and 60% soil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications and15 plants per plot. A reference nutrient dose was supplied weekly to each one of the plants, with the following composition

  14. Optimization on the dose versus noise in the image on protocols for computed tomography of pediatric head; Otimizacao da relacao dose versus ruido na imagem em protocolos de tomografia computadorizada de cranio pediatrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint' Yves, Thalis L.A.; Travassos, Paulo Cesar B.; Goncalves, Elicardo A.S.; Mecca A, Fernando; Silveira, Thiago B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fmecca@inca.gov.br, e-mail: thalis09@yahoo.com.br

    2010-03-15

    This article aims to establish protocols optimized for computed tomography of pediatric skull, to the Picker Q2000 tomography of the Instituto Nacional de Cancer, through the analysis of dose x noise on the image with the variation of values of mAs and kVp. We used a water phantom to measure the noise, a pencil type ionization chamber to measure the dose in the air and the Alderson Randon phantom for check the quality of the image. We found values of mAs and kVp that reduce the skin dose of the original protocol used in 35.9%, maintaining the same image quality at a safe diagnosis. (author)

  15. Proposal for dose measurement in the crystalline lens and thyroid in computerized tomography of paranasal sinuses; Proposta de medicao de dose no cristalino e na tireoide em exame de tomografia de seios da face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Ana Caroline; Machado Neto, Vicente, E-mail: ana.caroline91@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR/PPGEB), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Biomedica

    2014-07-01

    With the evolution of diagnostic imaging equipment, a computerized tomography (CT) has become one of the most used tests to assess pathologies affecting the paranasal sinuses. This work aims at presenting a method of obtaining measurements of dose in the eye lenses and thyroid, from the execution of CT of the paranasal sinuses protocol. Experimental procedure will be used in an object simulator (phantom) head and neck made with accessible materials and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) of LiF: Mg,Ti for the absorbed dose in the regions of interest, when exposed to radiation in a CT scanner 16 channels. After the dosimetric evaluation with phantom use, this methodology will be applied in vivo, or in patients with medical request for the examination and approval by the Ethics Committee. Thus, at the end of this survey protocols and actions aimed at reducing the absorbed dose in the eye lenses and thyroid without impairing the diagnostic image quality can be proposed. (author)

  16. Applicability of a prototype for determination of absorbed dose using brachytherapy equipment with Ir-192 sources; Aplicabilidade de um prototipo para determinacao da dose absorvida utilizando equipamentos de braquiterapia com fontes de IR-192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann; Almeida, Mayara Gabriella Oliveira de; Vieira, Rafaela Etelvina de Amorim; Silva, Waldecy Ananias da; Nascimento, Rizia Keila, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mayaradqf@hotmail.com, E-mail: rodriguesss@hootmail.com, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakeila@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work aims at the development and improvement of a device to perform the absolute dosimetry sources of Ir-192 using the Fricke solution contained in a flask. The Fricke solution used was prepared using amounts of ferrous ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sulfuric acid, diluted with water tri distilled pre-established in the literature. The spectrophotometer used was a UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Beckman DU-640 Counter) for measuring the optical density at wavelength 304 nm. The calculation for determining the radial dose takes into account the radial distance and the angle formed with the transverse axis of the source. As the results obtained can be seen that the states of Pernambuco, Ceara, Paraiba e Piaui are in accordance with the recommendations of international standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which considers not acceptable a difference greater than 5% of prescribed dose and measured dose.

  17. Análise da distribuição espacial de dose absorvida em próton terapia ocular Spatial distribution analysis of absorbed dose in ocular proton radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Marília Tavares Christóvão; Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro de Campos

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Propõe-se avaliar os perfis de dose em profundidade e as distribuições espaciais de dose para protocolos de radioterapia ocular por prótons, a partir de simulações computacionais em código nuclear e modelo de olho discretizado em voxels. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As ferramentas computacionais empregadas foram o código Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) Toolkit e o SISCODES (Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia). O Geant4 é um pacote de software livre, utilizado para simular ...

  18. Necrólise epidérmica tóxica secundária ao uso da citosina-arabinosídeo em dose intermediária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A necrólise epidérmica tóxica é afecção dermatológica secundária ao uso de drogas e corresponde à síndrome de Lyell, relacionada ao eritema multiforme e à síndrome de Stevens-Johnson. OBJETIVOS: Relatar um caso de necrólise epidérmica fatal secundária à citosina-arabinosídeo (Ara-C em dose intermediária. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, com 16 anos de idade, portadora de leucemia linfóide aguda - LLA-L1. Iniciou tratamento segundo o protocolo do Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento da Leucemia Infantil/85, alto risco. Na fase II da indução, após o uso de Ara-C na dose de 1,5g/m², intravenoso, 12/12h x três dias, desenvolveu múltiplas lesões cutâneas bolhosas, que aumentaram rapidamente por progressão das bordas. As bolhas continham secreção serosa, evoluíram para ulceração superficial central, com infecção secundária múltipla. Faleceu por septicemia, no 13º dia após o início do quadro dermatológico. CONCLUSÃO: O Ara-C tem sido relacionado a diversas manifestações de toxicidade dermatológica; no entanto, até o momento, não há relato de necrólise epidérmica tóxica, sendo este o primeiro caso da literatura.

  19. Determination of air kerma standard of high dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source; Determinacao da taxa de kerma no ar de referencia para {sup 192}Ir de alta taxa de dose para braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, E.J.; Alves, C.F.E.; Leite, S.P.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; David, M.G.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: cfealves@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Di Prinzio, R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed by the Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas and presently in use for determining of the air kerma standard of {sup 192}Ir high dose rate sources to calibrate well-type chambers. Uncertainty analysis involving the measurements procedure are presented. (author)

  20. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  1. Ionizing radiation dose control for workers in a nuclear plant working with unsealed sources; Controle da dose de radiacao ionizante para trabalhadores em uma instalacao radiativa com fontes nao seladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerulis, Eduardo

    2006-07-01

    With the liberation of the use of the nuclear energy for peaceful applications, International Commission Radiological Protection, ICRP, founded in 1928, created a system of protection of the undesirable doses of ionizing radiation in 1958. This has been received by workers, members of the public and environment and hence it became possible for the introduction of these applications. This protection system is adopted by the International Agency of Energy Atomic, IAEA, that publishes recommendations in safety series, 88 and by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, CNEN, which publishes these regulations. The international recommendations and national regulations were adapted and they need to be applied in this way. The present paper uses recommendations of the publication 75 from ICRP, of the publication 115 from 88 and regulations of the regulation NN 3.01 from CNEN to present, through radiological protection measures, the ionizing radiation dose control for workers in a nuclear plant that works in the research, production, division and packing of unsealed sources to be used in clinical applications. In that way it is possible to prevent appropriately the undesirable doses and to confirm the received doses. (author)

  2. Radiation dose estimation due Pb-210 incorporation in inhabitants from Recife/PE, Brazil; Estimacao da dose de radiacao por incorporacao de Pb-210 nos ossos de habitantes de Recife/Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, C.E.O.; Silva, E.B.; Santos Junior, J.A., E-mail: oliveiracosta@msn.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, C.M. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Matematica

    2013-08-15

    {sup 210}Pb is an element widely distributed in the environment and when it is ingested by humans through air, water and food can cause various diseases including cancer because it is deposited in bones. Studies about assessment of the dose due to incorporation of {sup 210}Pb using the urine samples of volunteers from Recife are scarce. Thus, the purpose of this research was to estimate the radiation dose in bones of inhabitants from Recife (PE-Brazil) by incorporation of this radionuclide. For this, the concentration of {sup 210}Pb present in urine samples was determinate from 11 healthy and nonsmoker subjects. The urine samples were collected for a period of 24 hours following the procedures adopted by Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. Pb-210 was separated by ion exchange resin technique. In this method, the {sup 210}Pb was precipitated in form of PbCrO{sub 4} followed by beta counting, which were conducted in a Canberra Tennelec S5E detector. To estimate radiation dose in bones it was adopted values of retention and excretion of activity from IAEA-37. Concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in the urine samples of inhabitants from Recife varied from 82 to 712 mBq.l{sup -1}. The maximum annual dose estimated in bones for individuals from Recife was about 2.15 nSv.y{sup -1}. This value is below from the recommended dose limit for member of the general public, which corresponding to 1 mSv.a{sup -1}, representing a negligible risk for the population studied. (author)

  3. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros; Luís Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues; Vanildo Favoretto; Euclides Braga Malheiros; Valdo Rodrigues Herling; Allan Kardec Braga Ramos

    2002-01-01

    O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS) em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares) x 4 (doses de NPK), em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetiçõ...

  4. Production and bromatologic composition of grass-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submitted to different sources and doses of acidity corrective / Produção e composição bromatológica da forragem do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submetidos a diferentes fontes e doses de corretivo de acidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maximino Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried in protected (greenhouse atmosphere, in University of Engineering, UNESP of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the objective of evaluating sources (limestone and calcium silicate slag and doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 times the recommended dose of corrective in the bromatologic composition, tillering and production of dry matter of the grass mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. The lineation was completely randomized design, with four repetitions. It was evaluated the tiller number, the production of dry matter, the gross protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The corrective influenced the tillering in almost all of the countings. The limestone provided larger production of dry matter in the doses of 1,5 and 2,0 times the recommended dose. The bromatologic composition of the forage was not influenced by the corrective and doses.O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido (estufa, na Faculdade de Engenharia, UNESP de Ilha Solteira, com o objetivo de avaliar fontes (calcário e escória silicatada e doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada de corretivos na composição bromatológica, perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliou-se o número de perfilhos, a produção de matéria seca e os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. Os corretivos influenciaram o perfilhamento em quase todas as contagens. O calcário proporcionou maior produção de matéria seca nas doses de 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada. A composição bromatológica da forragem não foi influenciada pelos corretivos e doses utilizadas.

  5. Clinical application of Chamomilla recutita in phlebitis: dose response curve study Aplicación clínica de la Chamomilla recutita en flebitis: estudio de la curva dosis-respuesta Aplicação clínica da Chamomilla recutita em flebites: estudo de curva dose-resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Elaine Diniz dos Reis

    2011-02-01

    la flebitis por medio de la utilización clínica de fitoterapéuticos.Neste estudo, buscou-se realizar o controle de qualidade da amostra de Chamomilla recutita, bem como estimar a dose ideal, para efeito anti-inflamatório, do infuso dos seus capítulos florais, em pacientes com flebite, decorrente de infusão intravenosa periférica de quimioterapia antineoplásica, e avaliar a toxicidade desse infuso em seres humanos. Trata-se de estudo experimental, do tipo curva dose-resposta, no qual foi analisada e comparada a eficácia terapêutica, quanto ao potencial anti-inflamatório, de diferentes doses do infuso da Chamomilla recutita, em 25 pacientes. O tempo de regressão da flebite foi menor para os grupos com concentração 2,5% (média=29,2h, desvio padrão=8,98 e 5% (média=38,8h, desvio padrão=17,47 e praticamente não se observou toxicidade local. Esta pesquisa contribui para a inovação da prática clínica em enfermagem, uma vez que sugere alternativa para o tratamento de flebites, por meio da utilização clínica de fitoterápicos.

  6. The influence of the patient's posture on organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by radiodiagnostic examinations; Influencia da postura do paciente na dose absorvida em orgaos e tecidos causada por exames radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, Vagner F.; Kramer, Richard; Khoury, Helen J.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O., E-mail: vagner.cassola@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Due to the gravitational force, organ positions and subcutaneous fat distribution change when a standing person lies down on her/his back, which is called 'supine posture'. Both postures, standing and supine, are very common in X-ray diagnosis, however, phantoms used for the simulation of patients for organ and tissue absorbed dose assessments normally represent humans either in standing or in supine posture. Consequently, the exposure scenario simulated sometimes does not match the real X-ray examination with respect to the patient's posture. Using standing and supine versions of mesh-based female and male adult phantoms, this study investigates the 'posture-effect' on organ and tissue absorbed doses for radiographs of the pelvis and the lumbar spine in order to find out if the errors from simulating the false posture are significant. (author)

  7. Disponibilidade de nitrato em solos brasileiros sob efeito da calagem e de fontes e doses de nitrogênio Nitrate availability in Brazilian soils under effect of liming and sources and amounts of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO SILVA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da calagem e de fontes e doses de N sobre a disponibilidade de nitrato, em amostras (020 cm de solos brasileiros. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos: um com cinco solos da Bahia e o outro com cinco solos de Minas Gerais. Os materiais de solo foram previamente umedecidos e incubados por sete dias, a 26°C, visando ativar a flora microbiana. Nas amostras de solo da Bahia, aplicou-se a uréia ou o sulfato de amônio nas concentrações de 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg de N por kg de solo e nas de Minas Gerais, foi avaliado o efeito da calagem sobre a nitrificação. Os materiais de solo foram incubados a 26°C por 15 dias. Independentemente da dose de N aplicada, auréia nitrificou mais rapidamente do que o sulfato de amônio. Na Areia Quartzosa não foi observada nitrificação líquida do Nsulfato de amônio, sendo constatada, porém, a oxidação do Nuréia. A calagem afetou a nitrificação, notando-se nos solos que receberam calcário maior disponibilidade de nitrato. A saturação por bases e o teor de matéria orgânica apresentaram, respectivamente, a melhor correlação com o nitrato formado e os teores de uréia presentes no solo ao término da incubação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of liming and sources and doses of nitrogen on nitrate availability in Brazilian soils. Two experiments were carried out: one with five soils from Bahia State and the other with five soils from Minas Gerais State. Soil samples were previously moistened and incubated at 26°C in order to activate the microorganism population. Soil samples from Bahia State were incubated with50, 100, 150 e 200 mg of N per kg of soil as ammonium sulfate or urea and in the Minas Gerais soils it was evaluated the effect of liming on nitrification. Soil samples were incubated at 26°C during 15 days. Urea nitrified faster than ammonium sulfate. The sandy soil did not exhibit net nitrification following ammonium application, but

  8. Development of methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power for low energy conversion electrons; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para estimativa da dose absorvida e do poder de freamento para eletrons de conversao de baixa energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of absorbed dose in the case of external and internalcontamination due to radionuclides is sometimes hard, because of the difficulties in the assessment of the absorbed dose caused by electrons with energy less than 100 KeV in mucous membrane. In this work, a methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power in VYNS (co-polymer of polivinyl chloride - acetate) absorbers, for the 62.5 KeV and 84-88 KeV energy {sup 109} Cd conversion electrons, working with a 4 {pi} proportional pressurized detector, is presented. In order to assure the reproducibility of measurement conditions, one of the detector halves has been used to obtain a spectrum of a thin {sup 109} Cd source, without absorber. The other half of the detector was used in concomitance to obtain spectra with different thicknesses if absorber. The absorbed energy was obtained subtracting each spectrum with absorber from the spectrum without absorber, which were stored in a microcomputer connected to signal processing systems by ACE type interface. The VYNS weight and thickness were evaluated using common radionuclide metrology procedures. As VYNS has characteristics similar to a tissue equivalent material, the results obtained are consistent with dosimetric concepts and have a good agreement with those of the literature. (author)

  9. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine; Estimativa da dose coletiva na populacao portuguesa devido a exames medicos de radiologia de diagnostico e de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico; Sousa, M. Carmen de [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Coimbra (Portugal); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana [Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saude de Coimbra (Portugal); Pascoal, Ana [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Kings Health Partners; Cardoso, Gabriela; Santos, Ana isabel [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada (Portugal); Lanca, Isabel [Administracao Regional de Saude, Coimbra (Portugal); Matela, Nuno [Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias. Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica; Janeiro, Luis [Escola superior de Saude da Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Patrick [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui [Medical Consult, SA, Lisboa (Portugal); Simaozinho, Paula [Administracao Regional de Saude, Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of Almost-Equal-To 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications.

  10. Correlação entre métodos de avaliação da qualidade da dose de diálise La correlación entre los métodos de evaluación de la calidad de la dosis de diálisis Comparison between two methods for evaluation of the dialysis dose quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Inoue

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a correlação entre o Kt/V calculado e o Kt/V-OCM. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, retrospectivo, com 14 pacientes submetidos a 106 hemodiálises com a máquina Fresenius 4008S, realizado numa Unidade de Terapia Intensiva para adultos, de um Hospital de Ensino do noroeste do Paraná, no período de novembro/2007 a abril/2008. RESULTADOS: Através do teste de Shapiro-Wilk, (p>0,05, foi constatado que não houve distribuição normal entre o "Kt/V calculado" e o "Kt/V da máquina". CONCLUSÃO: Pelo teste de Wilcoxon concluiu-se que houve diferença significativa (pOBJETIVO: Verificar la correlación entre el Kt/V calculado y el Kt/V-OCM. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, retrospectivo, con 14 pacientes sometidos a 106 hemodiálisis con la máquina Fresenius 4008S, realizado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos para adultos, de un Hospital Docente del noroeste del Paraná, en el período de noviembre/2007 a abril/2008. RESULTADOS: A través del test de Shapiro-Wilk, (p>0,05, se constató que no hubo distribución normal entre el "Kt/V calculado" y el "Kt/V de la máquina". Por el test de Wilcoxon hubo diferencia significativa (pPURPOSE: To compare calculated Kt/V and Kt/V-OCM methods of dialysis dose. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study with 14 patients who underwent 106 hemodialysis using Fresenius 4008S dialysis machine in the critical care unit of the "Noroeste Parana Teaching Hospital" from November 2007 to April 2008. RESULTS: Shapiro-Wilk test indicated that there was no normal distribution between the calculated Kt/V and the machine Kt/V (p>0.05. Wilcoxon test showed a statistically significant difference between the two measurements (p <.0001. CONCLUSION: There is a need for further studies that consider all factors involved with the online calculation of the urea depuration for the utilization of the Kt/V-OCM.

  11. Comparação da dose calculada entre a tomoterapia helicoidal e a arcoterapia de intensidade modulada em glioblastomas multiformes

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Cidália; Carvalho, Filipa; Sá, Ana Cravo; Coelho, Carina Marques; Monsanto, Fátima; Sacco, Vincenzo; Pereira, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo do estudo - Comparar a dose calculada nos órgãos de risco (OR’s) e no volume alvo de planeamento (PTV), entre a tomoterapia helicoidal (TH) e a arcoterapia de intensidade modulada (RapidArc®), em glioblastomas multiformes (GBM).

  12. Influência da dose e época de aplicação de um compostado na cultura de cebola biológica Compost rate and application timing effects on organic onion crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourão Isabel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo avaliou-se o crescimento e a produtividade da cultura da cebola no modo de produção biológico (MPB, na região NW de Portugal, com a aplicação ao solo de um compostado em diferentes épocas (à plantação e um mês antes da plantação, nas doses de 0, 20 e 40 t/ha, com e sem aplicação do fertilizante orgânico Monterra na dose de 2 t/ha à plantação. Avaliou-se a mesma cultura no modo de produção convencional (MPC, 150 kg N/ha. Realizaram-se 5 colheitas para quantificação do peso fresco e seco, diâmetro, firmeza, acidez total, pH e concentração de nutrientes do bolbo. A produtividade da cebola no MPB não aumentou significativamente com a antecipação na aplicação do compostado, nem com a aplicação do fertilizante Monterra, mas aumentou com a dose de aplicação de compostado ao solo, resultando numa produtividade média de 19,6 t/ha, 28,9 t/ha e 34,9 t/ha, respectivamente, para as doses de 0, 20 e 40 t/ha de compostado. As taxas aparentes de utilização do N orgânico do compostado aplicado à plantação sem Monterra, foram de 14,5% e 7,7%, respectivamente, para as doses de 20 e 40 t/ha. A utilização de 40 t/ha compostado contribuiu para alcançar produções de cebola próximas das obtidas no MPC (39,3 t/ha. Os bolbos produzidos no MPB revelaram uma tendência de maior firmeza, maior acidez e maiores teores de K, em comparação com o MPC.The response of organic onion to the application of increasing rates of composted animal manure (0, 20 and 40 t/ha and application timing (one month before planting and at planting, combined with a commercial organic fertilizer Monterra (2 t/ha, was evaluated at NW Portugal. At the site, a conventional onion experiment was also carried out, with 150 kg/ha of mineral N. Both crops were evaluated 5 times throughout the growing period to assess plant fresh and dry weights and bulb diameter, firmness, entitled total acidity, pH and nutrient content of the bulbs. The

  13. Produtividade da biomassa de melissa em função de intervalo de cortes e doses de nitrogênio Biomass production of Lemon balm as a result of cutting interval and nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André May

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Melissa officinalis tem crescido em importância econômica no setor produtivo de plantas medicinais, contudo o nível de informações agronômicas a cerca da espécie é limitado. Dessa forma, foi instalado um experimento visando avaliar a influência do intervalo de cortes e de doses de nitrogênio sobre a produção de biomassa dessa espécie. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, sendo os fatores estudados o intervalo de cortes (30; 42; 54 e 66 dias e dose de nitrogênio (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliadas a altura da planta e massa seca da parte aérea. Observou-se maior altura da planta para maior intervalo entre corte. Maiores rendimentos de massa seca foram observados com a aplicação de 180 kg ha-1 de N, havendo uma resposta linear para a produção de massa seca com a aplicação de N.Cultivation of Melissa officinalis is increasing in economic importance in the market of medicinal plants, although the level of agronomic information concerning the specie is limited. To achieve those objectives, a trial was carried out to study the influence of cutting intervals and nitrogen levels in biomass production. The experimental design was in blocks with three replications in a 4 x 4 factorial cheme: cutting intervals (30; 42; 54 and 66 days and nitrogen (0; 60; 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N. The characteristics of plant height and aerial part and accumulated dry mater were evaluated. Increasing the cutting intervals resulted in higher plants. The highest dry matter value was observed using 180 kg ha-1 of N, having a linear reply for the production of dry mass with the application of N.

  14. Use of the gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana nanica;Utilizacao da radiacao gama, na dose de 0,4kGy, na reducao da temperatura de armazenamento da banana nanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoel, Luciana, E-mail: luciana_manoel@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual Paulisa (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Vieites, Rogerio Lopes, E-mail: vieites@fca.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulisa (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the use of gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana 'Nanica'. The bananas 'Nanica' were harvested in the Arm Taperao, Brotas (SP) town, and sent to CBE (Companhia Brasileira de Esterilizacao-Cotia-SP) for irradiation and constitution of the following treatments: T1 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 16 +-1 deg C); T2 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 14 +-1 deg C); T3 (fruit irradiated ata 0,4 kGy and stored at 12+-1 deg C); T4 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 16+-1 deg C); T5 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 14+-1 deg C) and T6 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 12+-1 deg C). The fruits were stored in B.O.Ds. of the Agroindustrial Management and Technology Department, with a relative humidity of 80+-5%. The experiment was divided in two groups: control group (post harvest conservation and disease incidence) and parcel group (soluble solids and pulp/peel). The analyses were performed in intervals of five days during a period of 25 days. The experimental design employed was completely randomized (DIC) by applying a factor of 2 x 3 x 6 (irradiation x temperature x time). The Tukey test with 5% of probability was used for comparison between means. The storage temperature of the bananas 'Nanica' was not reduce by irradiation. (author)

  15. The effect of prophylactic dose of a low molecular weight heparin on skin wound healing of rats Efeito da dose profilática de heparina de baixo peso molecular na cicatrização de feridas na pele de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdamar Fuad Oken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of prophylactic dose of a low molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin, on skin wound healing of rats. METHODS: Forty rats were used for the study. Rats were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Experimental group received prophylactic dose of enoxaparin. Physiologic saline was administered to the control group. Parameters of wound healing of experimental and control groups were compared. For comparison of the groups in terms of fibrosis, vascularization, inflammation, epithelization, and tensile strength test (Newton. Mann-Whitney-U test was used because variables were categorical data (fibrosis, vascularization, inflammation and epithelization. Differences between groups were analyzed with independent samples t-test (tensile strength. Significance was set at pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito de dose profilática da heparina de baixo peso molecular, enoxaparina, na cicatrização de feridas na pele de ratos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos foram utilizados para o estudo. Ratos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente a dois grupos iguais. O grupo experimental recebeu profilática de enoxaparina. Solução salina fisiologica foi administrada ao grupo controle. Foram comparados parâmetros de cicatrização dos grupos experimental e controle.Os grupos foram comparados em termos de fibrose, vascularização, inflamação, epitelização e força tensil (teste de Newton. Foi realizado o teste de Mann-Whitney-U para variáveis com dados categóricos (fibrose, cicatrização, inflamação e epitelização. Diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas como amostras independentes pelo t-teste (força tensil. Significância foi fixada para p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: A ferida do grupo experimental apresentou força tensil diminuída significativamente (p < 0,001, o exame histopatológico revelou um significativo (p < 0,001 retardo na epitelização e diminuição na fibrose, cicatrização, inflamação (p < 0,001 no grupo experimental

  16. Radiolesão vascular como efeito deletério da braquiterapia intra-arterial com dose elevada de Samário-153 em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos Vascular radiolesion as a deleterious effect of high-dose-rate intraarterial brachytherapy with Samarium-153 in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Bertolim Précoma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar as alterações vasculares morfológicas e morfométricas induzidas pela braquiterapia com Samário-153 (153 Sm em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos, com doses elevadas. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 43 coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos, brancos, da raça New Zealand, e o total de 86 artérias ilíacas submetidas a lesão por balão de angioplastia. Divididos em três grupos: dois (GI irradiados com as doses de 15Gy (n=14 e 60Gy (n=36 e um grupo controle (n=36. Foram realizadas avaliação histológica morfométrica e análise histológica qualitativa para análise tecidual. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas uma redução significativa da neoproliferação intimal (NPI no GI 15 Gy (pOBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate vascular morphological and morphometric changes induced by brachytherapy with samarium-153 (Sm-153 at high doses in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: Forty-three New Zealand White hypercholesterolemic rabbits were analyzed, and the total of 86 iliac arteries underwent balloon angioplasty injury. The rabbits were divided into three different groups: two irradiation groups (IG assigned to 15 Gy (n=14 and 60 Gy (n=36 irradiation doses, respectively, and a control group (n = 36. Histomorphometric and qualitative histological analyses were performed for tissue evaluation. RESULTS: Significant reductions were found in neointimal proliferation (NIP (p< 0.0001, media area (MA (p<0.0001 and percent stenosis (p<0.0001 in the 15-Gy IG, compared to the other groups. The 60-Gy IG had the higher rate of NIP, increase in media and vessel areas (VA and percent stenosis. The 60-Gy IG also showed the greatest number of xanthomatous cells (60-Gy IG: 86.11% and 15-Gy IG: 14.29%, p<0.0001 and the highest amount of hyaline amorphous tissue (60-Gy IG:58.33% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0001 and vascular proliferation (60-Gy IG:30.56% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0221. No statistically significant differences were found

  17. Radiation doses from radiation sources of neutrons and photons by different computer calculation; Tecniche di calcolo di intensita` di dose da sorgenti di radiazione neutronica e fotonica con l`uso di codici basati su metodologie diverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F.; Lippolis, G.; Bruno, S.G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    In the present paper the calculation technique aspects of dose rate from neutron and photon radiation sources are covered with reference both to the basic theoretical modeling of the MERCURE-4, XSDRNPM-S and MCNP-3A codes and from practical point of view performing safety analyses of irradiation risk of two transportation casks. The input data set of these calculations -regarding the CEN 10/200 HLW container and dry PWR spent fuel assemblies shipping cask- is frequently commented as for as connecting points of input data and understanding theoretic background are concerned.

  18. Anisotropy measurement of {sup 192} Ir sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy; Medida da anisotropia de fontes de Ir-192 utilizadas em braquiterapia de altas taxa de dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Keli Cristina; Khoury, Helen J.; Luz, Lidia Cristina P. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the dose distribution around the Ir-192 source used in MicroSelectron-HDR remote after loader system. The measurements were made in air with the source stationary, positioned at the position 1, from the indexer of the microSelectron-HDR. Measurements were made using TLD and for radial distances of 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 cm, for values of the angle from 0 deg c to 360 deg C in steps of 15 deg C. (author)

  19. Produtividade e desenvolvimento da cana-planta e soca em função de doses e fontes de manganês

    OpenAIRE

    Cleiton Gredson Sabin Benett; Salatiér Buzetti; Katiane Santiago Silva; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho; Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia; Paulo Ricardo Maestrelo

    2011-01-01

    A cana-de-açúcar possui grande importância econômico-social e política para o Brasil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses e fontes de manganês nessa cultura. O experimento foi realizado no sítio Fujimoto, área administrada pela Destilaria Vale do Paraná S/A Álcool e Açúcar, no município de Suzanápolis, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, sendo cinco doses de Mn (0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; e 10,0 kg ha-1) e três fontes (qu...

  20. Produção de micélio externo por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e crescimento da soja em função de doses de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nogueira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Em uma associação entre duas espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs (Glomus intraradices ou Gigaspora margarita e soja (Glycine max L. Merrill cv. IAC-8, avaliaram-se a produção de massa de material seco da parte aérea (MSPA, a massa de material seco de vagens (MSV, a colonização radicular, a concentração de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn na parte aérea e vagens, além das estimativas do comprimento de micélio externo ativo (MEA e micélio externo total (MET. As plantas receberam cinco doses de fósforo (0, 25, 50, 100 e 200 mg kg-1 e as avaliações foram feitas em quatro épocas (15, 30, 60 e 90 dias. A inoculação da soja com G. margarita resultou em redução transitória de crescimento aos 60 dias, enquanto aumentos na MSPA devidos à inoculação com os FMAs foram mais evidentes aos 90 dias. A colonização radicular, a produção de MEA e de MET apresentaram relação negativa com o incremento das doses de P nos tratamentos com FMAs. A menor produção de MEA e a fase de crescimento lento mais prolongada observadas no tratamento com G. margarita podem ter colaborado para a redução do crescimento das plantas aos 60 dias. O comprimento de MEA produzido por G. intraradices aumentou com o tempo e diminuiu com o aumento das doses de P. Esses efeitos foram menos evidentes para G. margarita. As concentrações de Fe e Mn nas vagens aos 90 dias foram menores nos tratamentos inoculados com FMAs nas menores doses de P, nas quais foi observada maior colonização radicular.

  1. Image reality and organ dose in digital radiographic examinations of thorax of adult patients at Pato Branco, Parana state, Brazil; Qualidade da imagem e dose orgao em exames radiograficos digitais de torax de pacientes adultos em Pato Branco, PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunelli, Neuri A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Andrade, Marcos Ely A.; Lima, Luiz Felipe A.; Khoury, Helen J.; Kramer, Richard [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Tonet, Lisane [Policlinica Pato Branco, PR (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This study was performed with PA thorax examinations of adult patients performed with CR equipment in a clinic of Pato Branco, Parana state, Brazil. The values of K{sub a,E} were estimated from irradiation parameters and the yield of X ray tube. The absorbed doses in organs and tissues of patients, and the effective risks of cancer incidence were estimated by using the CALDose{sub X}-3.5 computer program. The image quality was evaluated base on criteria established by European Community. The third quartile of the K{sub a,}E estimated was 0.170 mGy, lower than the reference level established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The organs that presented the largest absorbed doses were: lungs (36+-16 micron Gy), kidneys (25+-14 micron Gy) and spleens (23.2+- micron Gy). The incidence of of cancer was of 0.098+-0.051 for case of 100,000 exposed persons. All the image evaluated obtained conformity over 85% of the european quality criteria

  2. Produtividade da biomassa de melissa em função de intervalo de cortes e doses de nitrogênio Biomass production of Lemon balm as a result of cutting interval and nitrogen levels

    OpenAIRE

    André May; Odair Alves Bovi; Laura V. Sacconi; Ariana G. Samra; Mariane Q Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    A espécie Melissa officinalis tem crescido em importância econômica no setor produtivo de plantas medicinais, contudo o nível de informações agronômicas a cerca da espécie é limitado. Dessa forma, foi instalado um experimento visando avaliar a influência do intervalo de cortes e de doses de nitrogênio sobre a produção de biomassa dessa espécie. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, sendo os fatores estudados o intervalo...

  3. Severidade da podridão-radicular de Rhizoctonia do feijoeiro influenciada pela calagem, e pelas fontes e doses de nitrogênio Severity of Rhizoctonia root rot in beans influenced by liming, nitrogen sources and rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Ávila Rodrigues

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da calagem e de doses e fontes de N na severidade da podridão-radicular de Rhizoctonia (PRR em feijoeiro em condições controladas. No primeiro ensaio, utilizaram-se as doses de 0, 1,75, 2,25, 2,75, 3,25 e 3,75 g de calcário dolomítico por quilograma de solo. No segundo ensaio, os tratamentos constituíram um fatorial 2x6, ou seja: duas fontes de N (sulfato de amônio e nitrato de sódio e seis doses de N (0, 11, 16, 21, 26 e 31 mg kg-1 de solo. A acidez do material de solo usado no segundo ensaio foi corrigida com 1,75 g de calcário por quilograma de solo. Foram colocados 16 g de grãos de arroz infestados por R. solani em cada vaso com 1 kg de material de solo. Utilizou-se, em ambos os ensaios, o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. A severidade da PRR foi avaliada 25 dias após a emergência das plantas, atribuindo-se nota para cada planta de acordo com o tamanho das lesões formadas no hipocótilo. Os dados obtidos foram usados para calcular o índice de doença (ID, %. Foram obtidas equações lineares significativas que permitiram descrever as relações entre a calagem e fontes de N com a severidade da PRR. Houve um acréscimo de 32% no ID, em virtude das doses crescentes de calcário. Após a calagem, a aplicação de sulfato de amônio reduziu em 22% o ID, enquanto o nitrato de sódio o aumentou em 18%, com relação ao controle.The objective of this study was to determine the effects of liming, nitrogen sources and rates on the severity of Rhizoctonia root rot (RRR in beans under controlled conditions. In the first experiment, the soil was amended with 0, 1.75, 2.25, 2.75, 3.25 and 3.75 g of dolomitic lime per kilogram of soil. In the second experiment, the soil was fertilized with 0, 11, 16, 21, 26 and 31 mg N kg-1 of soil, using ammonium sulfate and sodium nitrate as N sources. For the second experiment, soil acidity was adjusted by applying 1.75 g of dolomitic lime per kilogram of

  4. Produtividade e componentes de produção da soja adubada com diferentes doses de fósforo, potássio e zinco Yield and production components of soybean fertilized with different doses of phosphorus, potassium and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O correto incremento da produtividade agrícola deve estar aliado ao avanço tecnológico no conhecimento das exigências nutricionais de cada cultura, proporcionando, dessa forma, o correto uso de insumos na propriedade agrícola. Com o objetivo de estudar a resposta de plantas de soja ao zinco (Zn em relação a diferentes doses de fósforo (P e potássio (K, foi realizado este experimento no município de Palotina-PR. O solo foi classificado como Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 3x3, constituindo três formas de adubação com P2O5 e K2O: sem adubação, uma vez e duas vezes a recomendação de adubação pela análise de solo e três doses de Zn (0; 2 e 4 kg ha-1. Como fonte de nutrientes, foram utilizados fosfato bicálcico para P, cloreto de potássio para K e sulfato de zinco para Zn. As doses de Zn aplicadas não influenciaram, significativamente, a produtividade, não sendo justificada a sua suplementação na forma de adubação de base. Já a adubação com P2O5 e K2O provocou significativo aumento da produtividade e aumento do número de legumes por planta, com aumento das doses desses nutrientes no solo.The correct productivity increment must be allied to the technological advance in the knowledge of the nutritional requirements of each culture, thus allowing for the correct use of the inputs in the agricultural property. With the objective of studying the plants of soybean reply to zinc (Zn in relation to the different doses of phosphorus (P and potassium (K, this experiment was performed in the municipality of Palotina-PR. The soil was classified as typic hapludalf. The treatments were arranged in a 3x3 factorial scheme, constituting three fertilization forms with P2O5 e K2O: without fertilization, recommended dose and twice the recommended fertilization dose by the soil analysis and three Zn doses (0; 2 and 4 kg ha-1. Nutrient sources used were bicalcic phosphate for P

  5. Emprego de altas doses de amiodarona via oral na reversão da fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca High dose amiodarone for the reversion of atrial fibrillation during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Vieira da Costa Guaragna

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência no emprego de altas doses de amiodarona via oral (1800mg/d na reversão da fibrilação atrial (FA em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Analisados, retrospectivamente, 80 pacientes que apresentaram FA no pós operatório de cirurgia cardíaca, constituindo 2 grupos: grupo A com 28 pacientes em uso de amiodarona e grupo B recebendo digital, sendo que este grupo foi subdividido no grupo C com 21 pacientes onde foi associada amiodarona, quando não houvesse reversão da arritmia em 48h. As diferenças foram consideradas significativas para um valor de PPURPOSE: To report our experience using high dose oral amiodarone (1,800mg/day for the reversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm in patients submitted to cardiac surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 80 patients who had atrial fibrillation during the postoperative period after cardiac surgery, initially divided in two groups: group A, 28 patients that used amiodarone, and group B composed of patients receiving digoxin. The latter group was divided further in a third group (C, with 21 patients in which amiodarone was associated with digoxin if there was no reversion of the arrhythmia after 48 hours of treatment. The observed differences were considered significant at P<0.05. RESULTS: Atrial fibrillation occurred in 19.4% of the patients submitted to surgery, predominating in males, 60 to 69 years-old. In group A there was reversion to sinus rhythm in 78.6% of the cases. In group B digoxin succeeded in 60%, and in group C 90% of the patients reverted to sinus rhythm. CONCLUSION: High dose oral amiodarone, alone or combined to digoxin, can be safe and effective for the treatment of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.

  6. Produtividade, qualidade e estado nutricional da beterraba de mesa em função de doses de nitrogênio Yield, quality and nutritional status of table beet affected by nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A de Aquino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O N é fundamental para a produtividade e a qualidade das hortaliças, todavia há carência de informações sobre seu uso em beterraba de mesa. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade, a qualidade e o estado nutricional nitrogenado da beterraba em função do N aplicado. Foram utilizadas quatro doses de N (0; 100; 200 e 400 kg ha-1de N, no delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Aos 28 dias após o transplante (dat, avaliou-se o estado nutricional nitrogenado por meio do teor de N-NO-3 nas folhas e clorofilômetro (SPAD. Na colheita (56 dat, foram avaliados: área foliar, produção de massas fresca (MF e seca (MS e teores de N-NO-3 e N-total nas folhas e raizes tuberosas e de sólidos solúveis totais nas raizes tuberosas. Com o incremento das doses de N, observaram-se aumentos para todas as características avaliadas. Aos 28 dias após o transplantio, o teor de N-NO-3 e unidades SPAD, correspondentes a 95% da produção máxima foram, respectivamente, de 2.575 mg kg-1 de MS e 44,7 unidades SPAD. Considerando-se apenas os aspectos quantitativo e econômico da produtividade de raizes, a dose de máxima eficiência econômica é de 343 kg ha-1 de N; todavia, ao serem considerados os aspectos quantitativo e qualitativo, a dose recomendada é de 193 kg ha-1 de N.Nitrogen is a fundamental element for the yield and quality of vegetables, but there is little information about its application to table beet crop. This work aimed to evaluate the yield, quality and nutritional status of N of the table beet as affected by the rate of N. Four rates of nitrogen were applied (0; 100; 200 and 400 kg ha-1 N in a randomized block design with four replicates. 28 days after the transplant (dat, the nutritional N status was evaluated through the leaves content of NO-3-N and chlorophyll by the SPAD meter. At harvest (56 dat, the traits evaluated were: leaf area, yield of fresh (FW and dry weight (DW of storage roots and leaves

  7. Severidade da mela da soja causada por Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA em função de doses de potássio Severity of hte foliar blight of the soylean caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infunction of doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Basseto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Rhizoctonia solani pertencente ao grupo de anastomose 1 IA (AG-1 IA é um dos patógenos mais importantes afetando a cultura da soja no Brasil. Este fungo causa queima da folha e/ou mela em soja, para a qual medidas de manejo cultural são consideradas alternativas importantes para controle antes do estabelecimento da doença. Há evidências de que a adubação potássica diminui substancialmente a severidade dos sintomas de várias doenças da soja como a queima foliar (Cercospora kikuchii, a seca da haste e da vagem (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae e o cancro da haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis. Apesar das evidências do efeito do potássio no controle de várias doenças da soja, não há informação na literatura sobre o efeito desse nutriente no controle da mela. A hipótese testada foi que a mela da soja pode ser controlada através de incrementos na adubação potássica. De maneira geral, concluiu-se que, sob condições de casa de vegetação, o incremento de K no solo não resultou no controle da mela da soja. É necessário, entretanto, confirmar esta observação conduzindo-se experimentos sob condições de campo, podendo-se incluir a avaliação do efeito da doença sob aspectos da produção.The fungus Rhizoctonia solani, belonging to anastomosis group 1IA (AG-1 IA is one of the most important pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil. This fungus causes aerial or foliar blight of soybean, and cultural measures are thought as important choices for the control before the establishment of the disease. Based on evidences that potassium amendments can substantially reduce the severity of several soybean diseases such as Cercospora leaf blight (Cercospora kikuchii, pod and stem blight (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae and stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis. Despite all evidence, there is no information in the literature about the effect of potassium controlling the soybean foliar blight. The

  8. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) Determination of insemination dose and embryonic development in the artificial fertilization of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum)

    OpenAIRE

    L.V. Leite; M.A.P. Melo; F.C.E. Oliveira; J.P.S. Pinheiro; C.C. Campello; J.F. Nunes; C.S.B. Salmito-Vanderley

    2013-01-01

    Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento d...

  9. Curvas de dose-resposta de biótipos resistente e suscetível de Bidens pilosa L. aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffoleti Pedro Jacob

    2002-01-01

    A resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas é um fenômeno de ocorrência mundial, sendo caracterizada como uma redução na resposta de uma população a produtos químicos, em sua dose recomendada, como resultado de sua aplicação sucessiva. O número de casos de resistência registrados no Brasil tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos, porém poucos estudos científicos têm sido feitos para elucidar este fenômeno. Sendo assim, foram conduzidos experimentos com o objetivo de elaboração ...

  10. Stability of the response and dependence of the optical signal as function of dose rate of the alanine gel dosimeter for electron clinic beams; Estabilidade da resposta e dependencia do sinal optico em funcao da taxa de dose do dosimetro alanina gel para feixes clinicos de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: cfsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the stability of response and the dependence on the optical response of dose rate of the alanine gel solution developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, for possible future usage as 3D dosemeter in the medical area, as the area is lack of measure instrumentation for three dimension dose

  11. Avaliação da característica de personalização dos medicamentos magistrais manipulados pelas farmácias comunitárias com Autorização Especial quanto à individualização da dose | Evaluation of the compounding formula of compounding medicines by community pharmacies with Special Authorization for dosage individualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo de Pontes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A manipulação de medicamentos magistrais possui como objetivo fundamental o atendimento a necessidades individuais, configurando sua personalização, seja em termos da dose terapêutica, forma farmacêutica adequada para uso, ausência de insumos farmacêuticos para pacientes com histórico de intolerância, entre outras justificativas técnicas. O presente estudo avaliou a característica magistral, no que se refere à individualização da dose, das cápsulas de uso oral/monodroga contendo insumo farmacêutico ativo (IFA constante da Portaria SVS/MS nº 344/98, manipuladas pelas farmácias comunitárias de Nova Friburgo (RJ, por meio de pesquisa documental. Foram avaliados os registros do mês de novembro de 2006 dos livros de receituário das farmácias com Autorização Especial concedida pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA, totalizando 12.253 fórmulas; 22% deste total preenchiam os critérios de inclusão do estudo. Os resultados da investigação nos permitiram concluir que havia baixa frequência de medicamentos manipulados em doses individualizadas, somente 34%, em média, possuíam doses diferentes das doses padronizadas nas especialidades farmacêuticas disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, o que os descaracterizariam como medicamentos magistrais, personalizados. Nesse sentido, os resultados do estudo nos apontam para a necessidade de uma avaliação de risco criteriosa, que justifique a manipulação de medicamentos realmente magistrais. ============================================= The main purpose of compounding medicines is to meet individual needs, such as therapeutic dose, appropriate dosage forms, and absence of pharmaceutical ingredients for patients with a history of intolerance, among other technical reasons. This work analyzes, through documentary research, the compounding formula for dosage individualization of oral capsules/mono drug containing an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API, according to

  12. Doses de nitrogênio no acúmulo de nitrato e na produção da alface em hidroponia Nitrogen rates on nitrate accumulation and lettuce production in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica LA Pôrto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção da alface em hidroponia apresenta crescente expansão no Brasil, mas ainda ocorrem problemas de qualidade e risco de acúmulo de nitrato. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a produção da alface (cv. Elba e acúmulo de nitrato em hidroponia em função de níveis crescentes de N na solução nutritiva. Plantas de alface foram cultivadas em estufa telada da UFPB em Areia (PB, em solução nutritiva que continha níveis crescentes de N (11, 13, 15, 17, 19 e 21 mmol L-1 por 25 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas a produção total (PTT, produção comercial (PCM e os teores de nitrato na matéria fresca da raiz, caule e folhas da alface. Não foram verificados efeitos significativos do incremento dos níveis de N na solução sobre a PTT e PCM, sendo obtidos valores médios de 357,3 e 352,5 g/planta, respectivamente. A elevação dos níveis de N em solução resultou em incrementos nos teores de nitrato em todas as partes da alface, obtendo-se na dose máxima teores de 659, 623 e 615 mg kg-1 de matéria fresca, para raiz, caule e folhas, respectivamente. Os máximos teores foliares de nitrato obtidos se encontraram abaixo do limite de risco para saúde humana.Lettuce production in hydroponic system presents growing expansion in Brazil, but still there are problems of quality and risk of nitrate accumulation. This work was carried out to evaluate the lettuce production and nitrate accumulation in hydroponic system depending on the increasing levels of nitrogen in the nutrient solution. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil. The lettuce plants were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing levels of N (11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21 mmol L-1 during a 25-day period. An entirely randomized design with four replications was used. Plant total yield (PTT, plant commercial yield (PCM and nitrate contents in the fresh

  13. EFEITO DOSE-DEPENDENTE DA MALTODEXTRINA NA GLICEMIA E RESPOSTA CARDIOVASCULAR EM DIABÉTICOS TIPO 2 DURANTE EXERCÍCIO AERÓBICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Emannuel Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study investigated the effect of supplementation with different doses of maltodextrin. Before, during and after an exercise protocol with continuous loads predominantly aerobic blood glucose levels and cardiovascular variables in patients with T2DM. Materials and Methods: Six patients diagnosed with T2DM, aged between 40 and 60 years, were supplemented with different doses of carbohydrates (100 mg/kg, 1g/kg e 2g/kg, for 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 40% heart rate reserve (FCreserve evaluating cardiorespiratory parameters and blood glucose. We used the ANOVA, and considered significant value than p<0.05. Results: The results show a significant difference in blood glucose for the supplementation of 100 mg/kg of maltodextrin in relation to the group 1 g/Kg (32%, 66 mg/dL; p=0,03 and supplemented with 2g/kg (38%, 79 mg/dL; p=0,02 40 minutes during the exercise protocol at 40% of FCreserve and 10 minutes after exercise. Discussion: Supplementation with 100 mg/kg maltodextrin can be an effective strategy for preventing rebound hypoglycemia after physical exercise. Conclusion: Control of rebound hypoglycemia with 100 mg/kg of maltodextrin.

  14. Ensaio terapêutico com o pamoato de pirantel na ascaridíase e enterobíase em dose única: estudo da atividade sôbre demais helmintos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Dias Rodrigues

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam estudo de 90 pacientes medicados pelo Pamoato de Pirantel (Trans-1,4,5,6-Tetraidro-1-metil-1-2/2- (2-Tienil vinil/pirimidina. todos portadores de parasitoses intestinais, principalmente Ascaris lumbricoides e Enterobius vermicularis. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos; o primeiro, constituído de 25 pacientes, recebeu a dosagem de 5mg/kg, dose única, numa só tomada e neste grupo apenas se estudou a atividade terapêutica na ascaridiase e enterobiase. No segundo grupo, de 65 pacientes, empregou-se a dose única de 10mg/kg numa só tomada e foi estudada, além da ação terapêutica na ascaridiase e enterobiase, possível atividade também sôbre outras helmintiases. Todos os pacientes após a medicação eram submetidos a 3 exames proctoparasitoscópicos de controle (no 7º, 15º, e 30º dia e nos casos prèviamente positivos para Enterobius vermicularis também se fêz controle no 7º e 15º dia pelo "Anal-swab". Comprovaram os autores no primeiro grupo, cura proctoparasitológica de 13 dos 18 casos de ascaridiase (72,2%; na enterobiase obtiveram cura de 61,5%, e na associação Ascaris-Enterobius obtiveram cura de 50,0% de ambos os parasitas, não havendo, entretanto, nenhum caso de falha total nos casos restantes. No segundo grupo, os resultados que obtiveram foram os seguintes: ascaridiase, 50 casos; curados, 40 (80,0%. Enterobiase, 22 casos; curados, 16 (72,7%. Necaturiase, 8 casos; curados, 5 (17,8%. Tricuríase, 41 casos; curados, 5 (12,1%. Estrongiloidiase, 5 casos; curado, 1 caso (20,0%. Associação Enterobius-Ascaris, 14 casos; cura total de ambos os parasitas em 10 casos (71,4%; 4 casos com cura parcial de um ou do outro parasita, não havendo falha total em nenhum caso. Empregaram comprimidos contendo 100 e 300mg da substância ativa, e forma liquida contendo 10mg da substância ativa por cm³. Efeitos colaterais reduzidos em número e em intensidade; o primeiro grupo 12,0% dos casos (epigastralgia

  15. Épocas de plantio e doses de nitrogênio e potássio na produtividade e armazenamento da cebola Nitrogen and potassium levels on the onion yield and storage with different planting times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de épocas de plantio e doses de nitrogênio e potássio sobre a produtividade e armazenamento de cebola, cultivar Texas Grano 502 PRR. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos de março a novembro de 2001, e de agosto de 2001 a março de 2002. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas com fatorial 4x3. Nas parcelas ficaram as épocas de plantio (março e agosto e nas subparcelas o fatorial compreendendo quatro doses de N (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 e três doses de K2O (0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1, com três repetições. O plantio de março apresentou maior produtividade comercial (66,5 Mg ha-1 comparativamente ao de agosto (41,4 Mg ha-1. Na ausência da adubação potássica e na dose de 90 kg ha-1 de K2O, verificaram-se incrementos lineares na produtividade comercial de acordo com a adubação nitrogenada, enquanto na dose 180 kg ha-1 de K2O, a adubação nitrogenada apresentou comportamento quadrático, com ponto de mínima produtividade na dose de 23,5 kg ha-1 de N. Quanto à produtividade não-comercial, o plantio de março alcançou 6,0 Mg ha-1, enquanto o de agosto alcançou 5,4 Mg ha-1. Observaram-se efeitos significativos de N e K e da interação para perda de massa de bulbos aos 40 e 80 dias após cura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different planting times and nitrogen and potassium levels on onion yield and postharvest storage, cultivar Texas Grano 502 PRR. Two trials were carried out from March to November 2001 and from August 2001 to March 2002, in Brazilian Northeast. A randomized complete block design with split-plot in a 4x3 factorial scheme was used. The plots consisted of planting dates (March and August and the subplots of the factorial involving four levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 and three levels of potassium (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 K2O with three replications. The March planting showed higher commercial yield (66

  16. Enzymatic activity of granulations tissues under low doses of radiation. Biochemical analysis in rats; Estudo da atividade enzimatica em tecidos de granulacao de ratos submetidos a baixas doses de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosoni, Guilherme Monteiro [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico e Cirurgia; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Cury, Jaime Aparecido [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Estomatologia

    1994-12-31

    This paper was designed to investigate in the rat subcutaneous sponge-induced granulation tissue under low doses of X-ray, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, 5`nucleotide phosphodiesterase and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes. One hundred and fourteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups, as follows: Group I as control, Group II that received single 7,14 R in split-dosis immediately after sponge-implantation at the third and fifth days postoperatively. Biopsies were taken after 7, 11, 14, 21 and 28 days and the activity of the three enzymes was determined. The results have shown that in Group II alkaline phosphatase had higher activity in the 14th day of tissue evolution when compared to Groups I and III . The 5`nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in Group I was similar in all days checked, although in Group II the enzyme showed higher activity in 7th day and lower in 21st. In Group III the activity was higher after 14 and 7 days and lower after 28 and 21 days. There was no observation of changing in adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity when the three groups were compared. (author) 28 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum)

    OpenAIRE

    L.V. Leite; M.A.P. Melo; F.C.E. Oliveira; J.P.S. Pinheiro; C.C. Campello; J.F. Nunes; C.S.B. Salmito-Vanderley

    2013-01-01

    Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento d...

  18. Technical economic evaluation for electricity generation from biomass generation; Avaliacao tecnico-economica da conversao da biomassa em eletricidade utilizando tecnologia da gaseificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: Cristinasales@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: ruben@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: esl43@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas microturbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells. The power range for electricity generation is considered between 50 kW and 3 MW. The paper shows the sensibility analysis about fuel price, investment, electric energy tax and O and M costs, and the calculation are realized in excel. The results are presented in graphs having indicated the behavior of the economic indicators in function of the variation of the costs of each parameter reducing and increasing in up to 50% of the calculated value. (author)

  19. Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry; Avaliacao da densidade da madeira de Gmelina arborea pela aplicacao da densitometria de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roque, Roger Moya [Instituto Tecnologico da Costa Rica, Cartago (Costa Rica). Centro de Investigacao em Integracao Bosque-Industria. Dept. de Engenharia Florestal]. E-mail: rmoya@itcr.ac.cr; Tomazello, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail: mtomazel@esalq.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

  20. Prevention of preeclampsia with low-dose aspirin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the main randomized controlled trials Revisando a prevenção da pré-eclâmpsia com aspirina em baixa dose: uma revisão sistemática dos principais estudos randomizados controlados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ruano

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose aspirin in the prevention of preeclampsia in low-risk and high-risk women. We identified randomized clinical trials of the use of low-dose aspirin to prevent preeclampsia through the PUBMED search engine, and through the Cochran Library database. Twenty-two studies met our inclusion criteria, and were divided according to the studied population into 2 groups: trials with women at low risk for preeclampsia and trials with women at high risk. Effects were measured through the incidence of preeclampsia in women taking either placebo or aspirin, in studies where the relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated for both groups. A total of 33,598 women were studied, comprising 5 trials with 16,700 women at low-risk and 17 trials including 16,898 women at high risk. The incidence of preeclampsia was 3.75% (626/17,700, in the low-risk group, 9.01% (1,524/16,898 in the high-risk group, and 6.40% (2,150/33,598 overall. Low-dose aspirin had no statistically significantly effect on the incidence of preeclampsia in the low-risk group (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.81-1.11, but had a small beneficial effect in the high-risk group (RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79-0.96. Therefore, low-dose aspirin is mildly beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of preeclampsia in women at high risk of developing preeclampsia.Esta revisão busca reúne estudos sobre a eficácia da aspirina em baixas doses na prevenção da pré-eclâmpsia em pacientes de alto e baixo risco. Identificamos estudos clínicos randomizados controlados usando baixas doses de aspirina para prevenir a pré-eclâmpsia, publicados no MEDLINE. Vinte e dois estudos preencheram nossos critérios de inclusão. Dividimos os estudos de acordo com a população estudada em dois grupos: estudos com mulheres de baixo risco para pré-eclâmpsia e estudos com pacientes de alto risco. A principal medida de efeito foi a incidência de

  1. Utilização da fenilefrina para controle da pressão arterial em cesarianas eletivas: dose terapêutica versus profilática Utilización de la fenilefrina para el control de la presión arterial en cesáreas electivas: dosis terapéutica versus profiláctica Phenylephrine for blood pressure control in elective cesarean section: therapeutic versus prophylactic doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Nunes Pereira das Neves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia raquídea é utilizada com frequência em casos de cesariana e se algumas medidas profiláticas não forem adotadas a incidência de hipotensão arterial é superior a 80%. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da fenilefrina quando administrada terapêutica ou profilaticamente para a manutenção da pressão arterial em pacientes submetidas à anestesia raquídea para cesarianas eletivas. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 120 gestantes submetidas a cesarianas eletivas sob anestesia raquídea, alocadas aleatoriamente em três grupos iguais, conforme o regime de administração de fenilefrina. No Grupo 1, administrou-se fenilefrina em infusão contínua, em bomba de infusão, na dose de 0,15 µg.Kg-1.min-1 após a anestesia raquídea. No Grupo 2, foi administrada fenilefrina em dose única, de forma profilática, na dose de 50 µg após a anestesia raquídea e, no Grupo 3, fenilefrina em dose única de 50 µg em caso de hipotensão arterial definida como queda da PAS e/ou PAD de até 20% em relação à média dos valores basais. Avaliou-se a incidência de hipotensão arterial, náuseas, vômitos e do índice de Apgar. RESULTADOS: A incidência de hipotensão arterial foi significativamente maior no Grupo 3, ocorrendo em 85% das gestantes. Nos Grupos 1 e 2, ocorreu em 17,5% e 32,5% dos casos, respectivamente (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La raquianestesia se usa a menudo en casos de cesárea y si algunas medidas profilácticas no se adoptan, la incidencia de hipotensión arterial es superior al 80%. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la eficacia de la fenilefrina cuando se administra terapéutica o profilácticamente para el mantenimiento de la presión arterial en pacientes sometidas a la raquianestesia para cesáreas electivas. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron 120 gestantes sometidas a cesáreas electivas bajo raquianestesia, ubicadas aleatoriamente en tres grupos iguales, conforme al régimen de

  2. Crescimento da cebola em função de doses de nitrogênio, potássio e da população de plantas em semeadura direta Accumulation of dry mass in onion depending on nitrogen, potassium and plant population in direct sowing

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho; André May; Diego RQ Porto; José Carlos Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    O trabalho realizado em São José do Rio Pardo, de 07/03 a 08/08/04 teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio e de potássio e populações de plantas no acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea e do bulbo de duas cultivares de cebola. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições, com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 x 4 x 4: cultivares (Híbridos Optima e Superex), nitrogênio (0; 50; 100 e 150 kg ha-1 de N), potássio (0; 75; 150 e 225 kg ha...

  3. Segurança, imunogenicidade e eficácia protetora de duas doses da vacina RIX4414 contendo rotavírus atenuado de origem humana Safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of two doses of RIX4414 live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in healthy Brazilian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete C. Araujo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a segurança, imunogenicidade e eficácia de duas doses da vacina contra o rotavírus em lactentes brasileiros saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo randomizado, multicêntrico, duplo-cego e controlado por placebo no Brasil, México e Venezuela. Os lactentes receberam duas doses orais de vacina ou placebo aos 2 e 4 meses de idade, juntamente com as imunizações de rotina, exceto a vacina oral contra poliomielite (VOP. O presente estudo relata apenas os resultados obtidos em Belém, Brasil, onde o número de indivíduos por grupo e os títulos da vacina viral foram os seguintes: 194 (104,7 unidades formadoras de focos - UFF, 196 (10(5,2 UFF, 194 (10(5,8 UFF e 194 (placebo. A resposta de anticorpos anti-rotavírus (anti-RV foi avaliada em 307 indivíduos. A gravidade clínica dos episódios de gastroenterite (GE foi determinada através de um escore com 20 pontos, onde um valor > 11 foi considerado como GE grave. RESULTADOS: As taxas de sintomas gerais solicitados foram semelhantes tanto nos indivíduos que receberam a vacina como naqueles a quem se administrou placebo. Aos 2 meses após a segunda dose, ocorreu resposta em termos de IgA sérica para RV em 54,7 a 74,4% dos vacinados. Não houve interferência na imunogenicidade das vacinas de rotina. A eficácia da vacina contra qualquer gastroenterite por rotavírus (GERV foi de 63,5% (IC95% 20,8-84,4 para a maior concentração (10(5,8 UFF. A eficácia foi de 81,5% (IC95% 44,5-95,4 contra GERV grave. Em sua maior concentração (10(5,8 UFF, a RIX4414 conferiu uma proteção de 79,8% (IC95% 26,4-96,3 contra GERV grave causada pela amostra G9. CONCLUSÕES: A RIX4414 foi altamente imunogênica com baixa reatogenicidade, e não interferiu na resposta sérica à difteria, tétano, coqueluche, hepatite B e antígenos Hib. Duas doses da RIX4414 conferiram proteção significativa contra a GE grave causada pelo RV.OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety, immunogenicity and

  4. Effective dose evaluation of head and abdomen CT exams in adult patients at the Instituto de Radiologia of Faculdade de Medicina of University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Estimativa de dose efetiva em exames de tomografia de cranio e abdomen em pacientes adultos do Instituto de Radiologia da Faculdade de Medicina da USP (INRAD/FM/USP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nersissian, Denise Y.; Scolastici, Eric F.; Doro, Renato B.; Furquim, Tania A.C., E-mail: yanikian@if.usp.br, E-mail: ericfs@if.usp.br, E-mail: rbdoro@if.usp.br, E-mail: tfurquim@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear. Laboratorio de Dosimetria

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the effective dose from CTDI{sub vol} for exams of skull and abdomen in adult patients. Thereafter, measurements were taken of CTDI using an ionization chamber type pencil (Radcal Corportation, model 10 x 5 - 3CT) and cylindrical phantom of PMMA equivalent to regions of the skull (diameter = 16 cm) and abdomen (diameter = 32 cm). The results of effective dose for abdomen varied between 7,3 and 12,1 mSv and for skull between 1,4 and 5,0 mSv. Comparing with the literature data, for abdomen exams between 5 and 7 mSV and skull exams between 1 and 2 mSv, it is shown that it is possible to optimize these protocols, aiming to reduce the doses to patients.

  5. Uso da equação logística no estudo de dose-resposta de glyphosate e imazapyr por meio de bioensaios Logistic equation use in studying the dose-response of glyphosate and imazapyr by using bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adailson P. de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de bioensaios constitui uma das técnicas mais comuns de se avaliar o potencial de um herbicida e identificar e quantificar seus resíduos no solo ou na água. Nesses trabalhos, é fundamental conhecer os efeitos que algumas variáveis exercem sobre o material biológico e, quase sempre, é possível relacioná-las por meio de uma expressão matemática. Um dos problemas na obtenção das expressões consiste em encontrar aquela que melhor represente a relação doseresposta. O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo comparativo da equação logística (y=a/(1+(X/bc com as equações polinomiais normais de 1o, 2o e 3o graus. Na avaliação do modelo mais adequado para o estudo de doseresposta com o glyphosate e o imazapyr, foram considerados alguns critérios de ordem teórica e de aplicação prática, sendo possível concluir que: a a função logística apresenta a estimativa de seus parâmetros significativa para o herbicida imazapyr e de razão biológica justificável, para ambos os herbicidas; b as características de biomassa seca total (BST, da parte aérea (BSA, da raiz (BSR e do comprimento da raiz (CR são adequadas para estudos sobre a relação dose-resposta; c a estimativa do I50 é variável com a função e a característica avaliada; e d o tomateiro é mais sensível ao imazapyr.The bioassay use is one of the more common techniques for evaluating an herbicide potential as well as identifying and quantifying its residues in soil or in water. In these studies it is very important to know the effects exerted by some variables on the biological material and almost always it is possible to relate them by a mathematical expression. A problem in obtaining the expressions is to find that one which better represents the dose-response relation. This work presents a comparative study between the logistic equation [y=a/(1+(X/bc] and the normal polynomial equations of 1o, 2o and 3o degrees. In evaluating the more adequate model for the

  6. Developpement and characterization of an DL-Alanine Gel to be applied in the measurement of the dose distribution with the Spectrophotometry Technique; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de um gel alanima para aplicacao na medida da distribuicao da dose de radiacao usando a tecnica de espectrofotometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Erick Yukio

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a DL-Alanine, Fe-II based gel dosimeter to be applied in the dosimetry of the Co-60 gamma-radiation fields in the dose range of radiation therapy procedures. The aminoacid DL-Alanine is dissolved in an acid solution containing the Fe-II and added to the gel. A series of essays was performed with different chemicals and different procedures were made to evaluate the behavior of the obtained dosimetric gel as function of the time. The absorption spectra, before and after the irradiation, present maximum in 457 nm and 588 nm, respectively. These two peaks correspond to absorption wavelengths of the chemical species Fe-II and Fe-III, respectively, both species being in equilibrium. With the irradiation, the formation of the radicals that oxide the Fe-II into Fe-III occurs, altering the chemical balance of both species - hence the increase of the Fe-III - and causing the gel to change its tonality, in such a way that it is possible to determine the absorbed dose. In the analysis of the spectra and respective dose-response curves it was observed that the dosimetric gel shows linearity in dose range of 0.5 to 40 Gy. From the obtained linearity results, stability and lower detectable dose - 0,3 Gy - it is possible to conclude that the present DL-Alanine, Fe-II based dosimetric gel presents an excellent potential to the application to which it is proposed, namely, the determination of the dose fields in radiation therapy and its future application as a standard in the determination of these fields, in 3D, using the Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (author)

  7. Doses de potássio e cálcio no crescimento da planta, na produção e na qualidade de frutas do morangueiro em cultivo sem solo Potassium and calcium doses on plant growth, fruit yield and quality of strawberries in soilless cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de doses de potássio fornecido pela fertirrigação e de cálcio na parte aérea sobre o crescimento da planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutas do morangueiro em cultivo sem solo, plantas de morangueiro foram cultivadas com solução nutritiva contendo 9 (T1, 6 (T2, testemunha e 4,28mmol L-1 (T3 de K+ e com a solução testemunha (T2 suplementada uma vez por semana por pulverizações foliares de cálcio nas concentrações de 2,5 (T4 e 5g L-1 de CaCl2 (T5. O crescimento da planta foi reduzido no tratamento com a concentração de potássio mais elevada (T1, e o maior IAF foi obtido na dose mais elevada de CaCl2 (T5. A maior produção de frutas foi obtida em T2 e T3, a acidez (AT foi maior em T1, enquanto o teor de sólidos solúveis (SST e a relação SST/AT não diferiram significativamente entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o aumento da concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva diminui o crescimento, a produção e a qualidade das frutas de morango e que a aplicação de cálcio na parte aérea das plantas por meio do CaCl2 reduz a produção de frutas.In order to evaluate the effect of potassium doses supplied by fertigation and of calcium by foliar spray on plant growth, fruit yield and quality of soilless grown strawberries, plants were supplied with nutrient solutions at K+ concentrations of 9 (T1; 6 (T2, control and 4.28mmol L-1 (T3 and with the control nutrient solution (T2 supplemented once a week by spraying CaCl2 on shoot at concentrations of 2.5 (T4 and 5g L- 1 (T5. Plant growth was lower in the higher potassium concentration (T1 and the highest LAI was recorded in the higher CaCl2 dose (T5. Fruit yield was higher in T2 and T3, the titratable acidity (TA was higher in T1, while total soluble solids (TSS and the ratio TTS/TA did not differ among treatments. It was concluded that high potasium concentration in the nutrient solution reduces plant growth, fruit yield and quality and

  8. Evaluation of the asphaltenes macromolecules stabilization by alkylbenzenes compounds; Avaliacao da estabilizacao de macromoleculas asfaltenicas por compostos alquilbenzenicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Mansur, C.R.E.; Lucas, E.F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br; geiza@ima.ufrj.br; Gonzalez, G. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: gaspar@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The asphaltene deposition is a problem that affects oil production, transportation and storage. Some researches about asphaltene stabilization have been made in order to avoid its flocculation and deposition. In this work, the performance of four alkylbenzene compounds as asphaltene stabilizer was evaluated. The additive were tested in two different concentrations: 5000 and 10000 mg/L. Cardanol, polycardanol, polystyrene and polystyrene sulfonade were used as additive. The study was carried out by asphaltene precipitation in a solvent mixture (toluene and heptane), since that the asphaltene solubility in these solvents are different. The best results were obtained by using cardanol, at 5000 mg/L. (author)

  9. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  10. Evaluation of radioiodinetherapy protocol for patients with Plummer disease; Avaliacao do protocolo da radioiodoterapia para pacientes com doenca de Plummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Keyla Mary Cavalheiro; Antonio Filho, Joao; Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: keylamcm@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The disease Plummer (DP) is generated by the thyroid cells that function autonomously, independent the rest of the organ parenchyma. The DP presents a prevalence of 1% to 9%, higher in regions with iodine deficiency, affecting six women for every man. The study was conducted at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) from {sup 99m}Tc data capture and mass existing in the thyroid records of 54 patients with PD who underwent radioiodine therapy with fixed activities 1110 megabecquerels (MBq) from 2004 to 2008. For capitation of {sup 99m}Tc from a group of 22 patients were used 5 ml syringes, measured by a Capintec CRC-7 model activimeter, having scintigraphy after 20 minutes and results in a region of interest. Mass evaluation was based on method of palpation of the thyroid, considering the mass standard. It is observed that 68.2% of patients received more activity than needed, 31.8% were less active, and none received activity in accordance with your needs. There was a statistically significant difference (p <0.05) between the fixed activities and activities computed for all patients, according to Chi-square test for independence with 21 degrees of freedom. The cure rate of a group of 32 patients was 75% after one year of follow-up. It is suggested that the RIT is preceded by an assessment of the maximum percentage of uptake and thyroid mass.

  11. Competencies evaluation of the petroleum industry local suppliers; Avaliacao de competencias dos fornecedores locais da industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzani, Bianca Santos; Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mail: bianca@ige.unicamp.br; furtado@ige.unicamp.br

    2003-07-01

    This article presents a research proposition that focuses on competencies evaluation of the local suppliers of goods and services in the petroleum industry. Because of the new context created by the opening of the petroleum market the suppliers to face a new competition environment, exposed to the foreign suppliers that operate in a higher production scale and have great financial and technological capacities. This justifies the development of the current study because the final diagnosis will help the studied companies in their decision process by the divulgation of their weaknesses and potentialities, which will motivate an improvement in the sector. In this paper, we include technological, organizational and relational competencies. Moreover, some of the main contributions of the literature about these topics are presented, including Lall, Kim, Figueiredo, Furtado, Munier, etc. (author)

  12. Secondary network distribution evaluation system using genetic algorithms; Sistema de avaliacao da rede secundaria de distribuicao utilizando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Alexandre Augusto Angelo de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: alexandre.souza@copel.com; Neves Junior, Flavio; Lopes, Heitor Silverio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: neves@cpgei.cefetpr.br; hslopes@cpgei.cefetpr.br

    2006-10-15

    Abstract: This work aims at evaluating the performance of an evolutionary approach of Pareto's Optimization for a multi objective optimization problem. The purpose of the method is to generate a solution not dominated to determine an appropriate configuration for a circuit of the secondary network. The method considers values of supply voltage evaluated through the simulation of a power flow, as well as cost criteria for the proposed solution. For the determination of the best configuration of the circuit, replacement of cables and changes of the phases of consumers are evaluated, aiming at an improvement of voltage level of the circuit in analysis. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  15. Evaluation of elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais (MG); Avaliacao da composicao elementar de argilas de Campos Gerais (MG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao P.M.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jpmm0697@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous applications given to clays including oil and water adsorbent, ceramic, whitening of beverages, porcelain, waste treatment, organic carrier molecules in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, support for catalysts. In the pharmaceutical industry, the clays are used as excipients, diluents, desiccants, emulsifiers, to mask undesirable flavors, isotonic agent such as charger and delivery of active substances. These characteristics have contributed to the expansion of the search for applications of clay minerals in the cosmetic industry. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais, Minas Gerais, with a view to their applicability in the production of cosmetics. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th,U, Yb and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis and radionuclide activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was verified that the activity concentration of radionuclides was in the same concentration as the global average, indicating that these samples do not present a risk of increased radiation exposure. The concentration of most elements determined is less than or equal to the overall mean concentrations, indicated by the values of Continental Upper Crust. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  17. Evaluation of {sup 7}Be fallout spatial variability; Avaliacao da variabilidade espacial do fallout do {sup 7}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Victor Meriguetti

    2011-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide beryllium-7 (Be) is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic particle reactions and is being used as a tracer for soil erosion and climatic processes research. After the production, {sup 7}Be bonds to aerosol particles in the atmosphere and is deposited on the soil surface with other radionuclide species by rainfall. Because of the high adsorption on soil particles and its short half-life of 53.2 days, this radionuclide follows of the erosion process and can be used as a tracer to evaluate the sediment transport that occurs during a single rain event or short period of rain events. A key assumption for the erosion evaluation through this radiotracer is the uniformity of the spatial distribution of the {sup 7}Be fallout. The {sup 7}Be method was elaborated recently and due to its few applications, some assumptions related to the method were not yet properly investigated yet, and the hypothesis of {sup 7}Be fallout uniformity needs to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 7}Be fallout spatial distribution through the rain water {sup 7}Be activity analysis of the first five millimeters of single rain events. The rain water was sampled using twelve collectors distributed on an experimental area of about 300 m2 , located in the campus of Sao Paulo University, Piracicaba. The {sup 7}Be activities were measured using a 53% efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer from the Radioisotope laboratory of CENA. The {sup 7}Be activities in rain water varied from 0.26 to 1.81 Sq.L{sup -}1, with the highest values in summer and lowest in spring. In each one of the 5 single events, the spatial variability of {sup 7}Se activity in rain water was high, showing the high randomness of the fallout spatial distribution. A simulation using the {sup 7}Be spatial variability values obtained here and {sup 7}Se average reference inventories taken from the literature was performed determining the lowest detectable erosion rate estimated by {sup 7}Be model. The importance of taking a representative number of samples to determine the average reference {sup 7}Se inventory was verified, which is essential to improve the precision of the soil redistribution rate estimates. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the image quality in computed tomography: different phantoms; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem na tomografia computadorizada: diferentes fantomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Vinicius C.; Delduck, Romulo S.; Kodlulovich, Simone [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Larissa C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia. Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory; Mecca, Fernando A. [National Institute of Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Silva, Humberto O. [Copa D' Or Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Rede Labs D' Or

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the simulators provided by the CT manufactures and Catphan's Phantom with the American College of Radiology (ACR) computed tomography phantom. The image evaluation followed the protocols established by the manufactures of the phantoms. For slice thickness evaluation, the maximum percentage difference was 9% between the phantoms ACR and Siemens. In CT number accuracy test, the measurements of CT number of water showed a difference of 10 HU between the CT simulators. Comparing the uniformity results, the discrepancy was 11% and 55% for Siemens and Philips respectively in relation to the result obtained with the ACR phantom. The result of low contrast was the same for all phantoms. The MTF50 and MTF10 obtained with Siemens phantom was 4 and 8 pl/mm. For Catphan, 6 and 7 pl/mm. Results demonstrate that the ACR simulator was the most comprehensive and flexible to be used in several scanner models. Some simulators did not present all image quality indicators to perform a complete test. (author)

  19. Evaluation of biostimulation in clay soil contaminated by petroleum; Avaliacao da bioestimulacao em solos argilosos contaminados com petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Sandro J.; Cammarota, Magali C.; Freire, Denize D.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica. Lab. de Tecnologia Ambiental]. E-mail: baptista@eq.ufrj.br; denize@eq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    Biostimulation has been used as a technic in order to increase the microbial activity adding inorganic nutrients and/or terminal electron acceptor in the contaminated place. The main goal of this work was evaluate how each inorganic nutrient could help the biodegradation at a given petroleum contaminated clay soil. At first, the work was designed to investigate the optimal relation between C:N:P that could influence the best organic matter removal (OMR) in aerobic bioreactors with 50 ml during 30 days. It was noticed that when one worked with 35 mg KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}/100 g soil, without adding nitrogen source, the OMR was 35%. Furthermore, it was noticed that the highest concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus was a limiting factor for microbial degradation and this resulted in the lowest OMR. At second, it was designed in aerobic bioreactor with 500 ml for 45 days and worked with the optimal concentrations of added phosphorus from the last stage. Although the assays have focused that nitrogen was not necessary to add to the soil, it was worked with 2,5 g (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}/100 g soil. The OMR was 46%, Oil and Grease removal was around 38% and TPH removal was around 45%. (author)

  20. Evaluation of welding by MIG in martensitic stainless steel; Avaliacao da soldagem pelo processo MIG em aco inoxidavel martensitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Mariano, N.A.; Marinho, D.H.C. Marinho, E-mail: neideaparecidamariano@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work evaluated structure's characterization and mechanical properties after the welding process of the stainless steel CA6NM. The employed welding process was the metal active gas with tubular wire. The control of the thermal cycle in the welding process has fundamental importance regarding the properties of the welded joint, particularly in the thermally affected zone. The mechanical properties were appraised through impact resistance tests and the hardness and microstructure through metallographic characterization and Ray-X diffraction. The parameters and the process of welding used promoted the hardness and toughness appropriate to the applications of the steel. Welding energy's control becomes an essential factor that can affect the temperature of carbide precipitation and the nucleation of the retained austenite in the in the region of the in the thermally affected zone. (author)

  1. Evaluation of measurement methods for diffuse solar radiation; Avaliacao de metodos de medicao da radiacao solar difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Escobedo, Joao Francisco; Almeida Frisina, Valeria de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais

    1998-07-01

    The evaluation results from measuring methods of the diffuse solar radiation, disc and shadow ring are described compared to the method by difference between the global radiation and the direct radiation projected in a horizontal plane. The disc method is dependent on the diffuse radiation anisotropy, with an average relative deviation around 7.1% with percentages according to the sky cover; 11.56% for open sky days; 4.8% for partly cloudy days and 2.43% for cloudy days. The shadow ring method is also sky cover dependent with an average relative deviation 8.0% ranging from 8.99% for open sky days; 7.70% for partly cloudy and 2.5% for cloudy days. (author)

  2. Determinação da dose de radiação gama para reduzir a população de Salmonella spp em carne de frango Determination of gamma radiation doses to reduce Salmonella spp in chiken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de carne de frango contaminada com Salmonella é uma causa importante de salmonelose em todo o mundo. Essa doença transmitida por alimentos, é um problema de saúde pública e causa de perdas econômicas substanciais. O processo de irradiação é um método eficiente de conservação de alimentos por reduzir o número de microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes, sem que as características organolépticas e nutricionais do alimento sejam alteradas significativamente. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram determinar o valor D10 de Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, inoculada em sobrecoxas de frango, e recomendar uma dose de radiação para ser aplicada a esse alimento a fim de torná-lo seguro do ponto de vista microbiológico. O valor D10 foi calculado a partir da curva de sobreviventes dessa bactéria em sobrecoxas de frango, após terem sido expostas às doses de 0kGy; 0,1kGy; 0,2kGy; 0,3kGy; 0,5kGy; 0,6kGy; 0,7kGy e 0,8kGy. O valor D10 variou de 0,241kGy a 0,480kGy. Considerando o maior valor D10 e o maior nível de contaminação de Salmonella spp encontrado em sobrecoxas de frango - 0,4NMP/g - adquiridas em feiras livres da cidade de São Paulo, a dose de radiação gama recomendada para garantir a segurança do produto em relação à presença de Salmonella spp é de 3,8kGy.The consumption of chicken meat contaminated with Salmonella spp is an important cause of salmonellosis worldwide. This food-borne disease is a public health problem and causes substantial economical loss. Irradiation process is an effective method for food preservation because it causes no significant change in organoleptic and nutritional food characteristics and destroys pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. D10 values were calculated through the number of survivors for S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, inoculated in chicken thighs, after being irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation - 0.0kGy; 0.1kGy; 0.2kGy; 0.3kGy; 0.5kGy; 0.7kGy and 0.8kGy . D10

  3. Efeito de doses de torta de filtro e modo de aplicação sobre a produtividade e qualidade tecnológica da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar Effect of filter cake doses and methol of application on yield and technologycal quality of sugar cane ratoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Fávero de Fravet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A expansão do setor sucroalcooleiro aumenta áreas de plantio, assim como volumes de resíduos (como a torta de filtro que podem ser utilizados na agricultura como fonte de nutrientes, reduzindo a contaminação ambiental e os custos com adubação, entretanto, faltam informações sobre modos de aplicação. Nesse contexto, conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar doses de torta de filtro e modos de aplicação (superficial na linha e incorporado na entrelinha sobre as variáveis tecnológicas e produtividade da cana soca. O experimento foi instalado em soqueira de cana-de-açúcar (SP 81-3250, cultivada em solo de textura argilosa, localizado no município de Goianésia/GO. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso (DBC, com onze tratamentos e 5 repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 X 2 + 1 que correspondem a 5 doses crescentes de torta de filtro (0, 10, 20, 40 e 80 t ha-1, combinadas a 2 modos de aplicação (na linha superficial e na entre linha incorporada e um tratamento adicional correspondente à adubação mineral da Usina Jalles Machado S.A.. A aplicação de torta de filtro na cana-soca na dose de 70 t ha-1 proporcionou a maior produção de colmos de cana-de-açúcar, independentemente do modo de aplicação.The expansion of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. cultivation for the production of sugar or ethanol has increased cultivated land as well as the volume of residues (such as filter cake that may be used in agriculture as a nutrient source, reducing environmental contamination and fertilization costs. However, there is a lack of information about the best way of application. In this way, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the filter cake dose and the application method (on the ground in the row and incorporated between rows on the technological variables and ratoon yield. The experiment was installed on a sugar cane ratoon (SP 81-3250, cultivated in clay soil in the

  4. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air; Espectrometria gama aerea da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA): aspectos geoambientais e distribuicao da dose absorvida no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km{sup 2}. Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h{sup -1}), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  5. Determination of the optimal dose of benzocaine hydrochloride in anesthesia of tilápia (Oreochromis niloticusDeterminação da dose ótima de cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    procedimentos como: captura, biometria, marcação, transporte, exame físico, procedimentos cirúrgicos e manejo reprodutivo. Neste experimento, determinou-se a dose de cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus, com a realização de seis etapas com 240 peixes, sendo 40 peixes em cada etapa, em intervalo de dois meses. O peso médio e o (fator de condição alométrico das tilápias em cada etapa foram de: 25,64 (2,5635; 167,58 (2,8776; 286,12 (2,5719; 388,24 (2,4955; 518,19 (2,8933; 592,71 (2,6750, respectivamente. O fator de condição alométrico mostrou que os animais utilizados no experimento estavam em boas condições (P > 0,05. Em cada etapa, os peixes foram capturados e colocados em quatro recipientes contendo 5 litros de água com benzocaína diluída em 20 ml de etanol, nas concentrações de 100, 140, 180 e 220 mg/litro de água. O tempo de indução em segundos (TI foi registrado para cada peixe, e após a indução anestésica foi realizada a biometria no tempo fixo de 10 minutos. Após, os peixes foram transferidos para recipientes contendo 20 litros de água com renovação constante para avaliar o tempo de recuperação em segundos (TR. Em cada etapa, foi calculada a dose mínima de benzocaína através do LRP (Linear Response Plateu em um modelo que incluiu a dose de benzocaína (mg/l e tempo de indução em segundos. Os valores do LRP foram respectivamente: 146,60 e 67,45; 155,95 e 76,33; 160,45 e 87,42; 167,00 e 108,14; 165,87 e 174,03; 164,00 e 139,80. A dose ótima foi relacionada com o peso médio em cada fase resultando na equação: Dose = 149,65 + 0,03183 x peso, (r² = 0,73. Esta equação mostra que um aumento em 1g no peso corporal corresponde a 0,032 mg/l na dose de benzocaína.

  6. Padronização da dose de heparina sódica utilizada na cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea Standardization of the sodium heparin dose used in off-pump myocardial revascularization surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Glauco Lobo Filho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor uma metodologia de anticoagulação com heparina sódica monitorizada pelo Tempo de Coagulação Ativada (TCA nos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (RM sem circulação extracorpórea (CEC, que promova uma anticoagulação segura (TCA >200 segundos, utilizando uma dose inicial de 1mg heparina sódica/kg de peso. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes (30 homens e 10 mulheres, entre 41 e 85 anos, foram submetidos à cirurgia de RM sem CEC, utilizando uma dose inicial de 1mg heparina sódica/kg de peso. Dez minutos após a administração da droga, quando TCA > 200 segundos, iniciava-se a confecção das anastomoses coronarianas. Caso contrário, administrava-se 0,5mg/kg de heparina suplementar. Durante a cirurgia, a cada 30 minutos, novos valores de TCA foram obtidos. Concluídas as anastomoses coronarianas, a heparina foi revertida na proporção de 1:1 utilizando cloridrato de protamina. RESULTADOS: O valor médio de TCA dez minutos pós-heparinização foi de 372,2(+/-104,31 segundos, sem variação estatisticamente significante entre os sexos ou grupos etários (p>0,05. Os valores de TCA, 30 e 60 minutos pós-heparinização, mantiveram-se acima de 200 segundos. Aos 30 minutos, verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significante dos valores do TCA entre os sexos e diferentes idades (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate a methodology of anticoagulation during off pump coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS that promotes safe anticoagulation during the procedure (Activated Coagulation Time >200 seconds, using an initial dose of 1 mg of sodium heparin/kg weight. METHOD: 40 patients (30 men and 10 women, ages ranging from 41 to 85 years, were submitted to off pump CABS, using an initial sodium heparin dose of 1mg/kg of weight. Ten minutes after that drug was administered, if the ACT was > 200 seconds, we initiated the revascularization procedure. If not, we administered an additional of 0.5mg/kg heparin. During the

  7. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average

  8. Dose reduzida de clethodim no controle de papua na cultura da soja, em função da época de aplicação Reduced rate of clethodim for alexandergrass: control in soybeans as a function of application time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson G. Fleck

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento a campo em Eldorado do Sul, RS, no ano agrícola de 19 94 /9 5, para avaliar o controle de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea (Linck Hitchc., que ocorreu numa população média de 95 plantas/m2. Foi avaliado o herbicida clethodim à dose-plena (120g/ ha e à meia-dose (60g/ha. A cultivar de soja utilizada foi RS-7 Jacuí e usado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados aos 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias após a emergência da soja (DAE. Foram mantidas testemunhas capinadas, com operações iniciadas nas mesmas épocas de aplicação do herbicida, e uma testemunha infestada durante todo o ciclo da cultura. O controle foi avaliado visualmente, em três ocasiões, através de escala percentual. Os graus de controle de papua obtidos à dose-plena foram equivalentes entre si quando aplicado nas três primeiras épocas, com eficiência entre 95 e 98% na última avaliação. A meia-dose mostrou, para as três primeiras épocas de aplicação, resultados semelhantes aos de doseplena, porém em níveis um pouco inferiores, situando-se entre 85 e 95% o controle obtido na última avaliação. O controle do papuã foi mediano quando clethodim foi aplicado aos 35 DAE, tanto par a dose-plena quanto para meiadose. Quanto ao rendimento de grãos, não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os tratamentos em suas várias modalidades, embora todos tenham superado a testemunha infestada, com incrementos na produtividade de grãos entre 73 e 10 5% . O experimento permite concluir pela viabilidade da utilização de meiadose de clethodim para o controle de papua em soja, realizando as aplicações preferencialmente até a quarta semana após a emergência da cultura.A field trial was carried out in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 1994/95 growing season to evaluate Alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea (Linck Hitchc control, that occurred with na average population of 95

  9. Avaliação da eficácia e segurança da associação de budesonida e formoterol em dose fixa e cápsula única no tratamento de asma não controlada: ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, multicêntrico e controlado Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose, single-capsule budesonide-formoterol combination in uncontrolled asthma: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Stirbulov; Carlos Cezar Fritscher; Emilio Pizzichini; Márcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança da associação de budesonida e formoterol em dose fixa e cápsula única, em comparação ao uso de budesonida isolada em pacientes com asma não controlada. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, multicêntrico, de fase III, com grupos paralelos, comparando a eficácia de curto prazo e a segurança da formulação em pó de budesonida (400 µg) e formoterol (12 µg) com a formulação em pó de budesonida (400 µg) em 181 participantes com asma não totalmen...

  10. Estudo da circulação retrobulbar e do campo visual após dose única oral de citrato de sildenafil (Viagra® The effects of a single dose of sildenafil citrate (Viagra® on the retrobulbar circulation and visual field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Kurahashi

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar os efeitos na circulação retrobulbar e no campo visual de uma dose oral única de 100 mg de citrato de sildenafil (Viagra®. Métodos: Um estudo duplo-mascarado e controlado por placebo foi realizado em 10 voluntários do sexo masculino, com idade média de 27,7 + 5,68 anos. O olho direito de cada voluntário foi submetido aos exames de Doppler colorido de órbita e análise de campo visual por meio de perimetria computadorizada (Humphrey, programa 30-2, estratégia "Full Threshold" em 3 ocasiões: "baseline", 1 hora após placebo e 1 hora após 100 mg de sildenafil via oral. No campo visual, analisaram-se o limiar foveal e o "mean deviation" (MD nas 3 ocasiões. No Doppler colorido, medimos a velocidade sistólica máxima (VSM, a velocidade diastólica final (VDF e o índice de resistência (IR da artéria central da retina (ACR e da artéria oftálmica (AO nas 3 ocasiões. Resultados: A administração do sildenafil não alterou significativamente o limiar foveal e o "mean deviation" em relação ao "baseline" e ao placebo. Houve um aumento significativo da velocidade sistólica máxima e velocidade diastólica final na artéria oftálmica após a administração do citrato de sildenafil (pPurpose: To analyze the effects of 100 mg of sildenafil citrate (Viagra® on the retrobulbar circulation and visual field. Methods: A double masked, placebo controlled study was conducted in 10 males with a mean age of 27.7 + 5.68 years. The right eye of each volunteer underwent orbital color Doppler imaging and automated perimetry (Humphrey, program 30-2, Full-Threshold Strategy at 3 occasions: baseline, 1 hour after placebo and 1 hour after 100 mg of sildenafil. The foveal threshold and the mean deviation (MD were analyzed by automated perimetry on the three occasions. Color Doppler imaging allowed the measurement of the peak systolic velocity (PSV, end diastolic velocity (EDV and Pourcelot index (PI in the central retinal artery and

  11. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  12. Normalization of lymphocyte count after high ablative dose of I-131 in a patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia and secondary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: case report; Normalizacao da contagem de linfocitos apos dose ablativa de I-131 em um paciente com leucemia linfoide cronica e carcinoma papilifero da tireoide: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, Anneliese Rosmarie Gertrud Fischer; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Osawa, Akemi; Santos, Fabio Pires de Souza; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Campos Neto, Guilherme de Carvalho; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: afthom@einstein.br [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teles, Veronica Goes [Sociedade Brasileira de Diabetes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia who presented subsequently a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with metastases to regional lymph nodes. The patient was treated with surgical thyroidectomy with regional and cervical lymph node excision and radioiodine therapy (I-131). The protocolar control scintigraphy 4 days after the radioactive dose showed I-131 uptake in both axillae and even in the inguinal regions. PET/CT showed faint FDG-F-18 uptake in one lymph node of the left axilla. An ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy of this lymph node identified by I-131 SPECT/CT and FDG-F-18 PET/CT revealed lymphoma cells and was negative for thyroid tissue and thyroglobulin content. The sequential blood counts done routinely after radiation treatment showed a marked fall until return to normal values of leucocytes and lymphocytes (absolute and relative), which were still normal in the last control 19 months after the radioiodine administration. Chest computed tomography showed a decrease in size of axillary and paraaortic lymph nodes. By immunohistochemistry, cells of the lymphoid B lineage decreased from 52% before radioiodine therapy to 5% after the procedure. The authors speculate about a possible sodium iodide symporter expression by the cells of this lymphoma, similar to some other non-thyroid tumors, such as breast cancer cells. (author)

  13. Efeitos hemodinâmicos e renais da injeção de doses elevadas de clonidina no espaço peridural do cão Efectos hemodinámicos y renales de la inyección de dosis elevadas de clonidina en el espacio peridural del perro Hemodynamic and renal effects of high epidural clonidine doses in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Camargo Roso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Não existem estudos que relatem as repercussões renais determinadas pela injeção de doses elevadas de clonidina no espaço peridural. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos hemodinâmicos e renais determinados pela injeção de doses elevadas de clonidina no espaço peridural do cão. MÉTODO: Vinte animais anestesiados com tiopental sódico e fentanil foram distribuídos aleatoriamente e de forma duplamente encoberta em dois grupos: Grupo 1 ou placebo (n = 10, que recebeu 0,2 mL.kg-1 de solução fisiológica, e Grupo 2 ou clonidina (n = 10, que recebeu 0,2 mL.kg-1 de uma solução contendo 50 µg.mL-1 de clonidina, no espaço peridural. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros hemodinâmicos: freqüência cardíaca (FC: bat.min-1; pressão arterial média (PAM: mmHg; pressão da artéria pulmonar ocluida (PAOP: mmHg; débito cardíaco (DC: L.min-1; volume sistólico (VS: mL; também, os seguintes parâmetros da função renal foram avaliados: fluxo sangüíneo renal (FSR: mL.min-1; resistência vascular renal (RVR: mmHg.mL-1.min; volume urinário minuto (VUM: mL.min-1; depuração de creatinina (D Cr: mL.min-1; depuração de para-aminohipurato (D PAH: mL.min-1; fração de filtração (FF; depuração de sódio (D Na: mL.min-1; depuração de potássio (D K: mL.min-1; excreção fracionária de sódio (EF Na: %; excreção urinária de sódio (U NaV: µEq.min-1; excreção urinária de potássio (U K V: µEq.min-1. O experimento consistiu em três momentos de 20 minutos cada. Os dados foram coletados aos 10 minutos de cada momento e a diurese, no início e no final de cada momento. Ao término de M1, a clonidina ou a solução fisiológica foi administrada no espaço peridural. Após período de 20 minutos iniciou-se M2 e, em seguida, M3. RESULTADOS: A clonidina na dose de 10 µg.kg-1 no espaço peridural do cão promoveu alterações significativas, com diminuições da freqüência cardíaca e do d

  14. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography; Desenvolvimento de objetos de teste para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM format, the software {sup O}BJ{sub I}QJeduced{sup ,} version 3.0, was used. It was developed by the team of Prof.. Dr. Nicholas Marshall at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. The results were very promising, leaving opened the possibility of future work as the optimization of the correction factors and uncertainties for the dosimeters as well as the applicability of the test objects in evaluating the image quality of digital systems across the country. (author)

  15. Evaluation of mechanical conditions of turbomachineries for spectral signature of vibration and neural networks; Avaliacao da condicao mecanica de turbomaquinas pela assinatura espectral da vibracao e redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adejoro, Samuel T.; Lopes, Tiago A.P.; Rebello, Joao M.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia]. E-mail: samuel@peno.coppe.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    The condition monitoring of machinery generally considers the vibration signature as the main parameter to be measured and is one of the bases of predictive maintenance . The mechanical condition/integrity evaluation can be performed by comparing the measured spectrum to a reference spectrum and is based on the premise that usually exist spectral characteristics that identifies the fault. Nine typical faults are considered and the automation of the capability to interpret the vibration data is a field for the application of artificial neural networks. This article presents a comparative study for three types of neural networks: MLP, fuzzy-MLP and SOM for turbomachinery mechanical faults classification. The mean standards for the faults were obtained from available literature and random changes were introduced in order to establish the training data for the neural networks. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail: rcruz@uea.edu.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  17. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images; Avaliacao da atenuacao da radiacao X por meio de imagens radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon S.C., E-mail: ramon@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.co [Faculdade de Tecnologia Camoes (FATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gabriel Pinto de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  18. Density evaluation by computerized tomography in plain soils over different manipulation systems; Avaliacao da densidade pelo metodo da tomografia computadorizada de um planossolo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, Alceu [Lavras Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia do Solo; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Instrumentacao Agropecuaria (CNPDIA)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this paper is the evaluation of a plain soil density in different culture systems determined by X ray computerized tomography.It was observed a larger variation in densities in soils profiles analysed. The identification of layers is better utilising computerized tomography than others technic 1 fig.

  19. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser; Avaliacao da alteracao morfologica da superficie cimentaria irradiada com laser de diodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of the increase of temperature during radiation, and probably followed by a new scraping and root polishing with conventional instruments in an attempt to obtain a smoother and more homogeneous root surface. (author)

  1. Evaluation of gels obtained from acetylation of chitosan in heterogeneous medium; Avaliacao de geis obtidos a partir da acetilacao da quitosana em meio heterogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosangela Balaban; Silva, Dayse Luzia Pinheiro da; Costa, Marta [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: balaban@digi.com.br; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Quimica, Tecnologia Farmaceutica e de Alimentos; Ruiz, Naira Machado da Silva [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Chitosan was acetylated during 2, 5 and 10 h and physical gels were obtained at different polymer concentrations in N,N-dimethylacetamide containing 5% of LiCl. Acetylation was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR, and degrees of acetylation in the range of 0.82-0.91 were determined by NMR. The O-acetylation degree (0.12-0.15) was exclusively determined by a volumetric method. Rheological studies showed that the storage modulus values were smaller for the more acetylated samples and increased with the temperature and the polymer concentration. All the gels presented storage modulus superior to loss modulus, evidencing more elastic than viscous characteristics. The results obtained in this work suggest a gelation process based on a balance between O and N-acetylation and intermolecular bonds. (author)

  2. Evaluation of imaging methods in the diagnosis of urolithiasis: review of the literature; Avaliacao dos metodos de imagem no diagnostico da urolitiase: revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa de; Silva, Luciana Costa; Santos, Jovita Lane Soares; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: rmcfreitas@ig.com.br

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare helical computed tomography with imaging studies currently used to evaluate patients with acute low back pain. In addition, we briefly review the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. The literature published in the last 30 years was reviewed, and the following methods were discussed: plain abdominal radiographs, intravenous pyelography, ultrasound of the urinary tract, and helical computed tomography. Helical computed tomography showed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting urolithiasis, virtually showing all stones, except in patients receiving indinavir. The accuracy of plain abdominal radiographs associated with ultrasound was similar to helical computed tomography, although the latter showed superiority as an isolated method. Data from literature suggest that whenever helical computed tomography is available, it is helpful in the evaluation of low back pain and also allows differential diagnosis between conditions that mimic the symptoms of urolithiasis.(author)

  3. Radiographic evaluation of adenoidal size in children: methods of measurement and parameters of normality; Avaliacao radiografica da adenoide em criancas: metodos de mensuracao e parametros da normalidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires de [Centro de Assistencia Integral a Saude da Mulher (CAISM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com; Queiroz, Suelio Marinho de [Tomovale, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Baracat, Emilio Carlos Elias [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Pediatria; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia

    2004-12-01

    Radiograph of the nasopharynx is still the most commonly used imaging method to investigate the adenoidal tissue. Due to the variety and complexity of proposed methods to measure the adenoid size, some radiologists prefer subjective evaluation, which can, however, be imprecise and inaccurate. We review and describe several methods to determine the adenoid size, taking into account the practicity, accuracy and precision with the aim of pointing out the best methods to be applied in daily routine practice. (author)

  4. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and Eldorado. (author)

  5. Controllable dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  6. Patient Safety in Drug Therapy and the Influence of the Prescription in Dose Errors Seguridad del paciente en la terapéutica medicamentosa y la influencia de la prescripción médica en los errores de dosis Segurança do paciente na terapêutica medicamentosa e a influência da prescrição médica nos erros de dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Raphael Escobar Gimenes

    2010-12-01

    ineficiencia del tratamiento, comprometiendo así, la calidad de la asistencia prestada a los pacientes hospitalizados.Os objetivos foram analisar a redação da prescrição médica nos erros de doses, ocorridos em unidades de clínica médica de cinco hospitais brasileiros, e identificar as classes farmacológicas envolvidas nesses erros. Este é estudo descritivo que utilizou dados secundários, obtidos de pesquisa multicêntrica, realizada em 2005. A população foi composta por 1425 erros de medicação e a amostra por 215 erros de doses. Desses, 44,2% ocorreram no hospital E. Verificou-se presença de siglas e/ou abreviaturas em 96,3% das prescrições, ausência do registro do paciente em 54,4%, falta de posologia em 18,1% e omissão da data em 0,9%. Com relação ao tipo de medicamento, 16,8% eram broncodilatadores, 16,3% eram analgésicos, 12,1%, anti-hipertensivos e 8,4% eram antimicrobianos. A ausência da posologia nas prescrições pode favorecer a administração de doses erradas, resultando em ineficiência do tratamento, comprometendo a qualidade da assistência prestada aos pacientes hospitalizados.

  7. Terapia com inibidor da ECA com dosagens relativamente altas e risco de agravamento renal na insuficiência cardíaca crônica ACE-inhibitor therapy at relatively high doses and risk of renal worsening in chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato De Vecchis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O efeito renoprotetor dos inibidores da ECA vem sendo questionado no caso de diminuição do volume circulante efetivo, como na insuficiência cardíaca crônica direita ou biventricular. Objetivo: Detectar os preditores clínicos de agravamento renal na população de pacientes com ICC, caracterizado por dois tipos de regime de dosagem de inibidores da ECA. MÉTODOS: De acordo com um desenho de coorte retrospectiva, seguimos dois grupos de pacientes com ICC - tanto direita quanto biventricular -, todos na classe III da NYHA, tratados com inibidores da ECA (enalapril ou lisinopril, e com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE 10 mg por dia de enalapril ou lisinopril. A disfunção renal agravada (ARD foi definida pelo aumento de Cr > 30% com relação ao segmento basal. O modelo de risco proporcional de Cox foi utilizado para identificar os preditores da ARD entre as seguintes variáveis: os inibidores da ECA com "alta" dosagem, idade, FEVE basal, histórico de repetidas terapias intensivas com diuréticos de alça por via intravenosa (diurético intravenoso, diabete, Cr basal, histórico de hipertensão, pressão arterial sistólica BACKGROUND: Renoprotective effect of ACE-inhibitors has been questioned in case of decreased effective circulating volume, like in right or biventricular chronic heart failure. OBJECTIVE: To detect clinical predictors of renal worsening in CHF patient population characterized by two types of ACE-inhibitor dosing regimens. METHODS: According to a retrospective cohort design, we followed 2 groups of patients with CHF - whether right or biventricular -, all in III NYHA class treated with ACE-inhibitors (enalapril or lisinopril, and with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 10 mg per day of enalapril or lisinopril. Worsened renal failure (ARD was defined by Cr increase >30% from baseline. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the predictors of ARD among the following variables

  8. Brain tissue oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for the deleterious effect of a chronic high dose of estradiol on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats Dano oxidativo ao tecido cerebral como possível mecanismo de efeito deletério da alta dose crônica de estradiol no aprendizado e memória de ratas ooforectomizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimeh Khodabandehloo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to antioxidative effects, estrogens also exert pro-oxidative actions. The effect of chronic administration of a high dose of estradiol valerate on Morris water maze tasks and brain tissues oxidative damage was investigated. The Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were treated with estradiol valerate (4 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Escape latency and traveled path in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were significantly higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.01 and p≪0.001. In the probe trial, the animals of the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups spent lower time in Q1 compared to Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. In Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups, the brain tissue total thiol concentration was significantly lower, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. It is concluded that administration of high exogenous levels of estradiol impairs performance and enhances oxidative stress.Além dos efeitos antioxidantes, os estrógenos também têm ação pró-oxidativa. Foi investigado o efeito da administração crônica de alta dose de valereato de estradiol no desempenho do labirinto aquático de Morris e o dano oxidativo ao tecido cerebral. Os grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est foram tratados com valereato de estradiol (4 mg/kg por 12 semanas. O tempo de latência para escapada e o caminho percorrido foram significativamente maiores nos grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est em relação aos grupos Sham e OVX (p≪0,01 e p≪0,001. No estudo probe, os animais dos grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est levaram menos tempo no Q1 em comparação aos grupos Sham e OVX (p≪0,05 e p≪0,001. Nos grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est, a concentração total de tiol foi significativamente menor, enquanto a concentração de malondialdehydo (MDA for maior do que aquela dos grupos Sham e OVX (p≪0,05 e p≪0,001. Concluiu-se que a administração de altas doses de estradiol exógeno compromete o desempenho e aumenta o estresse oxidativo

  9. Efeitos de fontes e doses de silicato de cálcio no rendimento agrícola e na qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar, cultivar SP80-1816 Effects of sources and dosages of calcium silicate on yeld and quality of sugarcane, cultivar SP80-1816

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Melasipo Vilela Leite; Luiz Antônio de Bastos Andrade; Júlio César Garcia; Ivan Antônio dos Anjos

    2008-01-01

    Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da aplicação de diferentes fontes e doses de silicato de cálcio na cultura da cana-de-açúcar, cultivar SP80-1816, instalou-se um experimento num Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico, em área localizada no alambique João Mendes - "JM" (Sítio Vó Zirica), no Município de Perdões, Estado de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, esquema fatorial 3x3+1, sendo três fontes de silicato de cálcio (Siliférti...

  10. Different doses of exogenous surfactant for treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome in newborn rabbits Estudo dos efeitos de diferentes doses de surfactante exógeno para o tratamento da síndrome de aspiração de mecônio em coelhos recém-nascidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cesar Lyra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of 2 different doses of exogenous surfactant on pulmonary mechanics and on the regularity of pulmonary parenchyma inflation in newborn rabbits. METHOD: Newborn rabbits were submitted to tracheostomy and randomized into 4 study groups: the Control group did not receive any material inside the trachea; the MEC group was instilled with meconium, without surfactant treatment; the S100 and S200 groups were instilled with meconium and were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of exogenous surfactant (produced by Instituto Butantan respectively. Animals from the 4 groups were mechanically ventilated during a 25-minute period. Dynamic compliance, ventilatory pressure, tidal volume, and maximum lung volume (P-V curve were evaluated. Histological analysis was conducted using the mean linear intercept (Lm, and the lung tissue distortion index (SDI was derived from the standard deviation of the means of the Lm. One-way analysis of variance was used with a = 0.05. RESULTS: After 25 minutes of ventilation, dynamic compliance (mL/cm H2O · kg was 0.87 ± 0.07 (Control; 0.49 ± 0.04 (MEC*; 0.67 ± 0.06 (S100; and 0.67 ± 0.08 (S200, and ventilatory pressure (cm H2O was 9.0 ± 0.9 (Control; 16.5 ± 1.7 (MEC*; 12.4 ± 1.1 (S100; and 12.1 ± 1.5 (S200. Both treated groups had lower Lm values and more homogeneity in the lung parenchyma compared to the MEC group: SDI = 7.5 ± 1.9 (Control; 11.3 ± 2.5 (MEC*, 5.8 ± 1.9 (S100; and 6.7 ± 1.7 (S200 (*P OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos de duas diferentes doses de surfactante exógeno sobre a mecânica pulmonar e sobre a regularidade da expansão do parênquima pulmonar em coelhos recém-nascidos. MÉTODO: Coelhos recém-nascidos foram traqueostomizados e randomizados em quatro grupos de estudo: grupo-Controle, sem aspiração de mecônio; grupo MEC, com aspiração de mecônio e sem tratamento com surfactante exógeno; grupos S100 e S200, ambos com aspiração de mecônio e tratados

  11. Evaluation of conformal radiotherapy techniques through physics and biologic criteria; Avaliacao de tecnicas radioterapicas conformacionais utilizando criterios fisicos e biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Jonatas Carrero

    2012-07-01

    In the fight against cancer, different irradiation techniques have been developed based on technological advances and aiming to optimize the elimination of tumor cells with the lowest damage to healthy tissues. The radiotherapy planning goal is to establish irradiation technical parameters in order to achieve the prescribed dose distribution over the treatment volumes. While dose prescription is based on radiosensitivity of the irradiated tissues, the physical calculations on treatment planning take into account dosimetric parameters related to the radiation beam and the physical characteristics of the irradiated tissues. To incorporate tissue's radiosensitivity into radiotherapy planning calculations can help particularize treatments and establish criteria to compare and elect radiation techniques, contributing to the tumor control and the success of the treatment. Accordingly, biological models of cellular response to radiation have to be well established. This work aimed to study the applicability of using biological models in radiotherapy planning calculations to aid evaluating radiotherapy techniques. Tumor control probability (TCP) was studied for two formulations of the linear-quadratic model, with and without repopulation, as a function of planning parameters, as dose per fraction, and of radiobiological parameters, as the α/β ratio. Besides, the usage of biological criteria to compare radiotherapy techniques was tested using a prostate planning simulated with Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Afterwards, prostate planning for five patients from the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, using three different techniques were compared using the tumor control probability. In that order, dose matrices from the XiO treatment planning system were converted to TCP distributions and TCP-volume histograms. The studies performed allow the conclusions that radiobiological parameters can significantly influence tumor control

  12. Controle de plantas daninhas em arroz irrigado em função de doses de herbicidas pré-emergentes e início da irrigação Weed control in irrigated rice as a function of pre-emergence herbicide rates and irrigation start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do início da irrigação, associado a doses dos herbicidas penoxsulam e clomazone, no controle de plantas daninhas e rendimento de grãos da cultura do arroz. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados e parcelas subsubdivididas, com entradas de água (19, 24 e 29 dias após emergência e os herbicidas penoxsulam (18, 36, 54 e 72 g ha-1 e clomazone (300, 400, 500 e 600 g ha-1 aplicados em préemergência da cultura e das plantas daninhas. Os herbicidas penoxsulam, entre 18 e 72 g ha¹, e clomazone, entre 400 e 600 g ha-1, aplicados em pré-emergência na cultura do arroz irrigado, permitiram o início da irrigação até os 29 dias após emergência sem prejuízos no controle de plantas daninhas ou no rendimento de grãos da cultura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of two herbicides, penoxsulam and clomazone, as a function of rates and times of flooding on weed control and grain yield in rice. The trial was conducted in split-split plots and completely randomized block design, with irrigation start (19, 24 and 29 days after emergence, and two herbicides, penoxsulam (18, 36, 54 and 72 g ha-1 and clomazone (300, 400, 500 and 600 g ha-1 applied in pre-emergence of weeds and rice crop. Penoxsulam, between 18 and 72 g ha-1, and clomazone, between 400 and 600 g ha-1, applied in pre-emergence in rice crop, allowed irrigation start 29 days after emergence (DAE, without reductions in weed control or grain yield.

  13. Validade interna de ensaios terapêuticos em malária: análise de estudos de avaliação da emergência de resistência in vivo do Plasmodium vivax a doses padronizadas de primaquina Internal validity of clinical trials for Plasmodium vivax malaria treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Carmen Duarte

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistência parasitária pode ser definida como a habilidade da cepa parasitária de sobreviver e/ou multiplicar, a despeito da administração e absorção da medicação dada em doses iguais ou superiores àquelas usualmente recomendadas, porém dentro do limite de tolerância dos indivíduos. Assim sendo, o desenho de estudo ideal para monitorizar a emergência da resistência parasitária aos antimaláricos deveria utilizar controles históricos ou alguma informação prévia (baseline válida. Além disso, é fundamental que se tenha algum tipo de controle sobre os demais determinantes de falha terapêutica, não diretamente relacionados ao fenômeno biológico da resistência do parasita, os quais poderiam variar através do tempo e teriam potencial de distorcer a interpretação dos resultados de estudos dessa natureza. No presente artigo são feitas considerações sobre a validade interna de estudos que objetivam avaliar a emergência da resistência in vivo do Plasmodium vivax à doses padronizadas de primaquina usadas rotineiramente pelos serviços de saúde. Poucos foram os estudos que atentaram para a necessidade de controlar os determinantes externos da falha terapêutica, ou que se preocuparam em comparar os resultados encontrados com as taxas de cura historicamente observadas em uma dada região geográfica. Assim, recomenda-se que maior ênfase seja dada à validade interna (e limitações das conclusões de estudos dessa natureza.Parasite resistance can be defined as the ability of a parasite strain to survive and/or to multiply despite the administration and absorption of a drug given in doses equal or higher than those usually recommended, but within the limits of tolerance of the patients. Therefore, the ideal study design to be used to monitor emergence of parasite resistance would use historical controls or any valid baseline data. Moreover, it is desirable to have some control of remaining determinants of therapeutic

  14. Productivity and efficiency of nitrogen fertilization in maize under different levels of urea and NBPT-treated urea Produtividade e eficiência da adubação nitrogenada em milho sob doses de uréia comum e com NBPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of nitrogen fertilization is complex due to the various transformations of the nitrogen that occur in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, reducing the efficiency of the fertilization, productivity and the profit margin of the maize production areas. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of common urea and urea treat with NBPT [N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] on the productivity and efficiency of the nitrogen fertilization in maize, correlated with simple economic analysis. The design of the field experiment was in randomized complete blocks with six repetitions, in a 2 x 4 factorial outline, made up of by two sources of nitrogen (urea and NBPT-treated urea and four levels of nitrogen as top dressing (60, 120, 180 and 240 kg ha-1. The sources and applied nitrogen levels influenced the productivity and the leaf and grain nitrogen contents, while the production components (size and diameter of the ear, and percentage of straw and cob were not altered. The agronomic efficiency of the nitrogen fertilization decreased with the increase of the applied nitrogen levels. The highest gross profit margin in the maize culture is obtained with 180 kg ha-1 of nitrogen supplied in the NBPT-treated urea.O manejo da adubação nitrogenada é complexo em razão das diversas transformações do nitrogênio que ocorrem no sistema solo-planta-atmosfera, diminuindo a eficiência da adubação, produtividade e a margem de lucro das áreas de produção de milho. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de uréia comum e com NBPT [N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] na produtividade e eficiência da adubação nitrogenada na cultura do milho, correlacionado com análise econômica simples. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, constituídos por duas fontes de N (uréia comum e uréia tratada com NBPT e quatro doses de nitrog

  15. Dose and dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods are discussea of measuring dose rate or dose using a scintillation counte. A plastic scintillator based on polystyrene with PBD and POPOP activators and coated with ZnS(Ag) was chosen for the projected monitor. The scintillators were cylindrical and spherical in shape and of different sizes; black polypropylene tubes were chosen as the best case for the probs. For the counter with different plastic scintillators, the statistical error 2σ for natural background was determined. For determining the suitable thickness of the ZnS(Ag) layer the energy dependence of the counter was measured. Radioisotopes 137Cs, 241Am and 109Cd were chosen as radiation sources. The best suited ZnS(Ag) thickness was found to be 0.5 μm. Experiments were carried out to determine the directional dependence of the detector response and the signal to noise ratio. The temperature dependence of the detector response and its compensation were studied, as were the time stability and fatigue manifestations of the photomultiplier. The design of a laboratory prototype of a dose rate and dose monitor is described. Block diagrams are given of the various functional parts of the instrument. The designed instrument is easiiy portable, battery powered, measures dose rates from natural background in the range of five orders, i.e., 10-2 to 103 nGy/s, and allows to determine a dose of up to 10 mGy. Accouracy of measurement in the energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV is better than +-20%. (E.S.)

  16. Efeitos de espaçamentos entre linhas, épocas de aplicação e doses de imazamox no manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja The effects of row spacing, application times and rates of imazamox on weed management in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Melo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da combinação de espaçamentos entre linhas e épocas de aplicação e doses do herbicida imazamox sobre o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja, cultivar UFV-16. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8, com quatro repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu aos espaçamentos entre fileiras (30 e 60 cm, e o segundo, a modos de aplicação: aplicação única de imazamox nas doses de 30 e 40 g i.a. ha-1, nas épocas de pós-emergência antecipada (precoce ou pós-emergência inicial normalmente recomendada para as aplicações de herbicidas (padrão; aplicação seqüencial de imazamox nas doses de 15 + 15 e 20 + 20 g i.a. ha-1, sendo a primeira na época precoce e a segunda na época padrão; testemunha com capina; e testemunha sem capina. Nos dois espaçamentos, observou-se predominância da infestação de plantas daninhas do tipo dicotiledôneas. A aplicação de imazamox resultou em um controle muito bom ou ótimo (acima de 81% das plantas daninhas avaliadas, independentemente das doses, dos espaçamentos e das épocas de aplicação, apresentando potencial para ser usado no manejo das plantas daninhas na cultura da soja em aplicação única ou seqüencial, na época precoce ou padrão. Não houve influência dos tratamentos sobre altura das plantas, inserção da primeira vagem, peso de 100 sementes e produtividade da cultura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combining crop row spacing with herbicide application times on weed management in soybean, cultivar UFV-16. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with the treatments following a 2 x 8 factorial design, with four replications. The first factor corresponded to crop row spacing (30 and 60 cm and the second corresponded to types of application (imazamox rates at 30 and 40 g a.i. ha-1, sprayed in very early weed post-emergence (very

  17. Desfechos clínicos do tratamento de tuberculose utilizando o esquema básico recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil com comprimidos em dose fixa combinada na região metropolitana de Goiânia Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as taxas de cura, falência e abandono do tratamento da tuberculose com o esquema básico preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde (tratamento com rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida e etambutol por dois meses seguido de isoniazida e rifampicina por quatro meses utilizando comprimidos em dose fixa combinada em regime autoadministrado e descrever os eventos adversos e seus possíveis impactos nos desfechos do tratamento. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo utilizando dados coletados prospectivamente dos prontuários médicos de pacientes com tuberculose (idade > 18 anos tratados com o esquema básico em duas unidades básicas de saúde da região metropolitana de Goiânia, GO. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 40 pacientes com tuberculose. A taxa de cura foi de 67,5%, a taxa de abandono foi de 17,5%, e não ocorreram casos de falência. Nessa amostra, 19 pacientes (47% relataram reações adversas aos medicamentos. Essas foram leves e moderadas, respectivamente, em 87% e 13% dos casos. Em nenhum caso houve necessidade de mudança do esquema ou suspensão do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: A taxa de cura do esquema básico com o uso de comprimidos em dose fixa combinada sob regime autoadministrado foi semelhante às taxas históricas do esquema anterior. A taxa de abandono, na amostra estudada, foi muito acima da taxa preconizada como adequada (até 5%.OBJECTIVE: To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment, as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study based on prospective data obtained from the medical records of tuberculosis patients (> 18

  18. Resposta da aveia preta à aplicação de fósforo sob duas doses de nitrogênio em condições de casa-de-vegetação = Black oats’ response to the application phosphorus under two levels of nitrogen under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fósforo (P e de nitrogênio (N na aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb pode promover maior desenvolvimento e cobertura do solo quando cultivada em solos de baixa fertilidade. Desse modo, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de P e de N no desenvolvimento, no estado nutricional e na produção de massa seca da aveia preta. Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Unesp, no período de 27/10/2004 a 27/2/2005, em vasos com 5 dm3 de amostras de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2, em 3 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro doses de P (25; 75; 150 e 300 mg de P dm-3 e duas doses deN (100 e 300 mg dm-3. Após o 120 dias da semeadura, avaliou-se o desenvolvimento das plantas a partir da altura e do número de perfilhos e a produção de massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz por vaso. Determinaram-se o teor de P do solo e a concentração dos macronutrientes da parte aérea e da raiz. A aplicação de fósforo na dose de P de 200 mg dm-3, no tratamento com baixo teor do P, promoveu melhoria no estado nutricional e maior desenvolvimento da aveia preta. A alta dose de N (300 mg dm-3 prejudicou o desenvolvimento e a produção de massa seca da aveia preta. A maior produção de massa seca da aveia preta esteve associada à concentração de P no solo, próxima a 100 mg dm-3 e, na parte aérea, de 2,7 g kg-1 de P.The application of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N in the black oat (Avena strigosa Schieb can promote larger development and coverage when cultivated in low fertility soils. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the phosphorus and nitrogen application regarding the black oats’ development, nutritional value and production of dry matter. An experiment was conducted at Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterin

  19. Evaluation of protection measurements for urban environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Nascimento, Udilma; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: udilma@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Radioactive accidents has shown the necessity of a previous evaluation planning of exposure and directives for implementation of protection measurements. The description or measurements in the literature usually is associated to reduction of concentrations in the medium where they are applied. For verification the efficiency in dose reduction, it is necessary to proceed simulations. Through the development of data base on protection measurements, it was established basic sceneries, typically tropical as far the building type is concerned and the construction material. The program SIEM was used for simulation of contamination with {sup 137}Cs. The results indicates that generic solutions persuade not to and the decision make processes should be effectuated according to the real conditions of contamination and the use of affected area. For affected areas, two classification criteria were defined: (1) efficiency in reducing the dose in the first year; and (2) efficiency in dose reducing at long term

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of micro MOSFET detector;Avaliacao dosimetrica de um detector microMOSFET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, G.R.A.; Sales, C.P.; Santos, G.R.; Gialluisi, B.L.; Habtizreuter, A.B.; Rodrigues, L.N. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is a mMOSFET detector characterization in a photon beam. This characterization consisted in evaluate its stability, dose and dose rate response, energy dependence, influence on source-detector distance and field size. Other characteristics analyzed were the capacity to determine the percentage depth dose (PDD) in build-up region, and the influence in its reading due to cable irradiation and flat side irradiation. The PDD and the output factor obtained with the mMOSFET were compared with cylindrical ionization chamber (0,6 cm{sup 3}) measurements. A comparison between the calibration factors obtained for 6 and 15 MV showed a small energetic dependence. The device stability was reached after it was turned on for 30 min, being the maximum variation in the reading equal to 4% in the first 30 min and 2,3% later on. The dosimeter showed linearity in the dose range (25 to 700 cGy) and the data uncertainty was near 1,5%. The mMOSFET showed small dose rate dependence, with deviation of 0,2%. Irradiating the longest part of cable, no appreciable increase in the reading was observed. It was possible to verify the inverse square distance law with 3,4% of maximum error. The PDDs obtained were compared with measurements made with a cylindrical ionization chamber. The ratio of the readings in depths of 20 and 10 cm (PDD20,10) were analyzed, obtaining a difference of 0,5%. The differences between maximum depths were 1 mm. The comparison between the output factors measured with the obtained with the chamber had medium deviation of the 1,8%. After the mMOSFET is stabilized, it is linear and have a small dose rate dependence. However, it needs to be calibrated for each energy utilized, because of the energy dependence. A problem observed was its low saturation limit, about 200 Gy or 20000 mV. (author)

  1. Doses de basalto moído nas propriedades químicas de um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico da savana de Roraima Levels of finely ground basalt rock in the chemical properties of a yellow latosol of the savannah of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinar Ferreira Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As rochas basálticas possuem composição rica em elementos químicos considerados nutrientes às plantas, o que a torna apta para o uso agrícola, melhorando a fertilidade dos solos. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar o efeito de doses de basalto moído nos teores de alguns nutrientes no solo. Foi utilizado um Latossolo Amarelo ácido e de baixa CTC, formação geológica Boa Vista, estado de Roraima. A rocha basáltica da formação Apoteri foi coletada na pedreira da serra de Nova Olinda, Boa Vista. Os tratamentos consistiram da incorporação e incubação de oito doses do pó da rocha (0; 0,85; 1,70; 3,35; 5,03; 10,05; 20,40 e 40,80 g kg-1, correspondente a 0; 2,0; 4,0; 8,0; 12,0; 24,0; 48,0 e 96 t ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e três repetições. Após a incorporação do basalto moído ao solo e por um período 180 dias de incubação, o solo foi analisado quanto aos teores de Ca2+, Mg2+ e Al3+ trocáveis, acidez potencial (H+Al, teores disponíveis de Zn, Fe, Cu e Mn e valores de pH em H2O e em KCl. A dose de 20,40 g kg-1 de basalto proporcionou a máxima redução da acidez ativa, com pH aumentando de 4,8 para 5,5. Os teores de Ca2+ e Mg2+ trocáveis aumentaram, porém proporcionaram baixos incrementos desses cátions no solo. As doses de basalto apresentaram alta eficiência para a neutralização da acidez potencial. A adição do basalto moído proporcionou incremento nos teores de Zn, Fe e Cu no solo com o tempo de incubação.Basaltic rocks have chemical and mineralogical composition that allows its agricultural application due to its capability of improving soil fertility. The aim in this work was to evaluate the effect of levels of finely crushed basalt rock in soil chemical conditioning. A dystrophic Yellow Latosol from pre-weathered Boa Vista Formation was used. The rock of the Apoteri formation was collected in the mine of Nova Olinda near Boa Vista. The treatments

  2. Dose preparatória de atracúrio: aferição da fadiga no músculo orbicular do olho e condições de intubação orotraqueal Dosis preparatoria de atracurio: comparación de la fatiga en el músculo orbicular del ojo y condiciones de intubación orotraqueal Priming dose of atracurium: measuring orbicularis oculi muscle fade and tracheal intubation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani de Figueiredo Locks

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O método da dose preparatória (priming principle consiste na injeção de uma pequena dose do bloqueador neuromuscular, minutos antes da administração do restante da dose preconizada para intubação traqueal, para encurtar o início de ação dos bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM adespolarizantes. Existe, porém, possibilidade de fadiga muscular e broncoaspiração. De interesse especial para as manobras de intubação orotraqueal e proteção das vias aéreas, são os músculos da laringe. Como sua monitorização direta impõe dificuldades técnicas, foi demonstrado que o músculo orbicular do olho apresenta correlação com os músculos laríngeos quanto à sensibilidade aos BNM. O objetivo desta pesquisa é avaliar se há fadiga do músculo orbicular ocular após o uso da dose preparatória de atracúrio e comparar as condições clínicas de intubação traqueal após dois intervalos entre as doses. MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 35 pacientes adultos, estado físico ASA I ou II, sem fatores de risco para broncoaspiração, submetidos à cirurgia eletiva. Foi induzida anestesia geral com alfentanil e propofol e os pacientes foram ventilados manualmente sob máscara. Em seguida, foram posicionados os eletrodos para estimular o ramo temporal do nervo facial e o transdutor de aceleração no músculo orbicular do olho. Administrou-se a dose preparatória de atracúrio (0,02 mg.kg-1 e a relação T4/T1 foi avaliada a cada minuto durante 5 minutos em 20 casos (G1 e 7 minutos em 13 casos (G2. Após este intervalo, administrou-se a dose complementar de atracúrio (0,5 mg.kg-1 e procedeu-se a intubação orotraqueal após um minuto. Foi considerada fadiga clinicamente importante a relação T4/T1 inferior a 0,9. RESULTADOS: Nenhum paciente apresentou fadiga durante o intervalo de monitorização. Em 80% e 69% dos pacientes de G1 ou G2, respectivamente, as condições de intubação traqueal foram consideradas

  3. Efeitos da associação entre pequenas doses subaracnóideas de morfina e cetoprofeno venoso e oral em pacientes submetidas à cesariana Efectos de la asociación entre pequeñas dosis subaracnóideas de morfina y cetoprofeno venoso y oral en pacientes sometidas a cesariana Effects of low spinal morphine doses associated to intravenous and oral ketoprofen in patients submitted to cesarean sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Marisa Ganem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Pequenas doses subaracnóideas de morfina são eficazes em reduzir a dor pós-operatória de pacientes submetidas à cesariana, com menor incidência de efeitos colaterais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade da analgesia pós-operatória e a ocorrência de efeitos colaterais em pacientes submetidas a cesarianas, sob anestesia subaracnóidea com bupivacaína hiperbárica e morfina nas doses de 0,05 mg e 0,1 mg, associadas ao cetoprofeno pelas vias venosa e oral. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 60 gestantes de termo, estado físico ASA I e II, que foram submetidas à cesariana eletiva. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo 1 - morfina 0,1 mg, grupo 2 - 0,05 mg, associada a 15 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica. Todas receberam cetoprofeno (100 mg por via venosa no per-operatório e por via oral a cada 8 horas no primeiro dia de pós-operatório. As pacientes foram avaliadas 6, 12 e 24 horas após o término da cirurgia, com relação à intensidade da dor e presença de efeitos colaterais (sedação, prurido, náusea e vômito. A presença destes últimos também foi avaliada no per-operatório. RESULTADOS: Ambos os grupos foram idênticos quanto aos dados antropométricos e à duração da cirurgia e da anestesia. Também foram homogêneos com relação à intensidade da dor pós-operatória e à presença de prurido, sedação, náusea e vômito. CONCLUSÕES: A morfina, nas doses de 0,05 mg e 0,1 mg administradas no espaço subaracnóideo, associada ao cetoprofeno pelas vias venosa e oral, apresentou a mesma qualidade de analgesia pós-operatória e determinou a mesma ocorrência de efeitos colaterais.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Pequeñas dosis subaracnóideas de morfina son eficaces en reducir el dolor pos-operatorio de pacientes sometidas a cesariana, con menor incidencia de efectos colaterales. El objetivo de esta pesquisa fue evaluar la calidad de la analgesia pos-operatoria y la ocurrencia

  4. Determination of absorbed dose distribution in water for COC ophthalmic applicator of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh using Monte Carlo code-MCNPX; Determinacao da distribuicao de dose absorvida na agua para o aplicador oftalmico COC de {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh utilizando o codigo de Monte Carlo - MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Nilseia A.; Rosa, Luiz A. Ribeiro da, E-mail: nilseia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braz, Delson, E-mail: delson@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2014-07-01

    The COC ophthalmic applicators using beta radiation source of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh are used in the treatment of intraocular tumors near the optic nerve. In this type of treatment is very important to know the dose distribution in order to provide the best possible delivery of prescribed dose to the tumor, preserves the optic nerve region extremely critical, that if damaged, can compromise the patient's visual acuity, and cause brain sequelae. These dose distributions are complex and doctors, who will have the responsibility on the therapy, only have the source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer Eckert and Ziegler BEBIG GmbH. These certificates provide 10 absorbed dose values at water depth along the central axis applicator with the uncertainties of the order of 20% isodose and in a plane located 1 mm from the applicator surface. Thus, it is important to know with more detail and precision the dose distributions in water generated by such applicators. To this end, the Monte Carlo simulation was used using MCNPX code. Initially, was validated the simulation by comparing the obtained results to the central axis of the applicator with those provided by the certificate. The different percentages were lower than 5%, validating the used method. Lateral dose profile was calculated for 6 different depths in intervals of 1 mm and the dose rates in mGy.min{sup -1} for the same depths.

  5. Incidência e severidade do "furo de bala" em folhas da ameixeira sob doses de nitrogênio e potássio Incidence and severity of 'shot hole' in plum´s leaves related into nitrogen and potassium doses

    OpenAIRE

    Inês Tutida; Louise Larissa May-De Mio; Antonio Carlos Vargas Motta; Joel Maurício Corrêa da Rosa

    2007-01-01

    A produção integrada (PI) vem suprir uma demanda crescente de frutos de qualidade, garantir segurança alimentar, produção com qualidade ambiental e rastreabilidade. Na visão da PI, as práticas da adubação e do controle de doenças estão intimamente relacionadas; no entanto, tem sido negligenciadas e pouco estudadas, principalmente para a doença "furo de bala" (Wilsonomyces carpophilus) em folhas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência e severidade des...

  6. Doses de nitrogênio e enxofre na produção e qualidade da forragem de campo natural de planossolo no Rio Grande do Sul Effect of nitrogen and sulfur levels on yield and quality forage in a native low-land pasture area in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Könsgen Cunha

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da fertilização nitrogenada e sulfurada sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS e o teor de proteína bruta (PB da forragem de um campo natural em Planossolo, entre outubro de 1996 e março de 1997, na área experimental de Pastagens da UFPEL, no Capão do Leão-RS. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis doses de enxofre (S (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 kg/ha sob a forma de sulfato de amônio e quatro doses de nitrogênio (N (50, 100, 150 e 200 kg/ha, sob a forma de uréia e sulfato de amônio, arranjadas num fatorial completo de blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições. A fertilização foi a lanço, em cobertura, sem parcelamento, em 08/10/96. Foram realizados dois cortes, em 03/12/96 e 14/03/97, utilizando-se segadeira mecânica tipo barra horizontal com altura de corte de 3 centímetros. A produção de MS e o teor de PB aumentaram com o incremento das doses de N e S. Nas variáveis analisadas não houve interação entre as doses de N e S. A dose de enxofre de 35 kg/ha é suficiente para maximizar a produção de MS. Já a dose de 200 kg/ha de N não foi suficiente para determinar a máxima produção de MS. Doses de nitrogênio de até 200 kg/ha e de enxofre até 50 kg/ha, não foram suficientes para determinar o máximo teor de PB na forragem.Nitrogen and sulfur fertilizations were evaluated in a native low-land pasture area (Planossolo in southern Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Sul, for dry matter yield and crude protein contents, between Oct. 1996 and Mar. 1997. In a factorial treatment arrangement six levels of sulfur (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kg/ha were combined with four levels of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha topdressed to the pasture in Oct. 10, 1996. Two cuttings were made to determine dry matter yield and crude protein contents (Dec. 3, 1996 and Mar. 14, 1997. Results indicate that both factors increase the dry matter yield and crude protein contents on forage. With 35 kg/ha of sulfur was obtained

  7. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e retardamento da senescência foliar em girassol de vaso (Helianthus annuus L.: fontes e doses de nitrogênio Growth, development and delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.: sources and rates of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O girassol é a quarta oleaginosa em produção de grãos no mundo e alguns genótipos são usados com finalidade ornamental para flor de corte e de vaso (girassol de vaso. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes e doses de nitrogênio sobre alguns parâmetros de crescimento, desenvolvimento e no retardamento da senescência das folhas basais em girassol de vaso. Um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram: uréia, nitrato de amônio e nitrato de cálcio nas doses de 0, 50, 100 e 150mg L-1 de N na solução de fertirrigação, com duas aplicações semanais. O experimento foi um bi-fatorial (fontes e doses de N no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições. Cada repetição foi um vaso no 15 (1,3L, 15cm de altura com uma planta por vaso. As variáveis analisadas foram: número final de folhas, altura final de plantas, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no ponto de venda, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no final de vida de vaso, área foliar total da planta, filocrono e a soma térmica acumulada da emergência ao botão visível e da emergência ao ponto de venda. A fonte de N tem influência sobre a área foliar do girassol de vaso, sendo a uréia recomendável para o maior crescimento das folhas. A dose de N em torno de 100mg L-1 aplicada duas vezes por semana via fertirrigação favorece características desejáveis para a comercialização, como precocidade e retardamento da senescência das folhas.Sunflower is the fourth oil grain crop grown worldwide and some genotypes are used with ornamental purpose as cut and pot-grown flower. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources and rates of nitrogen on some growth and developmental parameters, and on the delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower. An experiment was carried out inside a greenhouse in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were: urea, ammonium nitrate and

  8. Comparison between Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and National Research Council, Canada (NRC) of the absorbed dose in water using Fricke dosimetry; Comparacao entre o LCR/Brasil e o NRC/Canada da dose absorvida na agua usando a dosimetria Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salata, Camila; David, Mariano Gazineu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcom, E-mail: mila.salata@gmail.com [National Research Council, Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC), were compared. The two institutions have developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are significant differences between the two standards as far as the preparation and readout of the Fricke solution and irradiation geometry of the holder. Measurements were done at the NRC laboratory using a single Ir-192 source. The comparison of absorbed dose measurements was expressed as the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR), which was found to be 1.026. (author)

  9. Preliminary study of the distribution of dose in patients with Graves' disease undergoing examination of uptake of iodine-131 using Monte Carlo simulation; Estudo preliminar da distribuicao de dose em pacientes com doenca de Graves submetidos a exame de captacao de iodo-131 utilizando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarcke, Marcelo; Marques, Tatiana; Nicolucci, Patricia; Baffa, Oswaldo, E-mail: mschwarcke@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Bornemann, Clarissa [Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear de Santa Maria

    2010-06-15

    Patients with Graves disease have a high hormonal disorder, which causes behavioral changes. One way to treat this disease is the use of high doses of {sup 131} Iodine, requiring that the patient carries out the examination of {sup 131}I uptake to estimate the activity to be administered. Using these data capture and compared with the simulated data using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE is possible to determine a distribution of dose to the region surrounding the thyroid. As noted the difference between the simulated values and the experimentally obtained were 10.36%, thus showing the code of simulation for accurate determination of absorbed dose in tissue near the thyroid. (author)

  10. Estudo comparativo da eficácia de isotionato de pentamidina administrada em três doses durante uma semana e de N-metil-glucamina 20mgSbV/kg/dia durante 20 dias para o tratamento da forma cutânea da leishmaniose tegumentar americana A comparative study between the efficacy of pentamidine isothionate given in three doses for one week and N-methil-glucamine in a dose of 20mgSbV/day for 20 days to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Déa Ribeiro de Paula

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e nove pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana, forma cutânea, foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo experimental (I, formado por 38 pessoas que receberam isotionato de pentamidina, 4mg/kg/dia, três aplicações, IM, durante uma semana, e o grupo controle (II, formado por 41 doentes tratados com N-metilglucamina, 20mgSbV/kg/dia por 20 dias, EV. Foram identificados, por técnica de anticorpos monoclonais, 21 isolados com predominância de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Encontrou-se cura clínica em 71,05% do grupo experimental e 73,17% do grupo controle (p=0,47. Alterações de ECG foram mais freqüentes utilizando antimonial pentavalente, com significância (pSeventy-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were included in this study. The experimental group (n = 38 was treated with pentamidine isothionate in a dose of 4mg/kg/day on alternate days, for one week. The control group (n = 41 was treated with N-methylglucamine in a dose of 20mgSbV/kg/day for 20 days. Twenty-one isolates were identified using monoclonal antibody technique. We characterized Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, most frequently. There was a cure rate of 71.05% of the patients in the experimental group and 73.17% in the control group (p = 0.47.We found a statistical significance regarding frequency of ECG alterations between the experimental and control group (p<0.05. In our study pentamidine was as effective as antimonial for the treatment of american cutaneous leishmaniasis. It proved to be a safer drug considering heart toxicity. Moreover, it requires less time to complete the treatment.

  11. COMPORTAMENTO DOS PARÂMETROS INDICATIVOS DE PRODUÇÃO DA BANANEIRA PACOVAN SUBMETIDA A DIFERENTES LÂMINAS DE IRRIGAÇÃO E DOSES DE POTÁSSIO NA CHAPADA DO APODI - LIMOEIRO DO NORTE-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLERNE CAMINHA COSTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of different irrigation levels and rates of potassium applied drip on parameters indicative of the banana production Pacovan Apodi (var. SH3640. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with split plot and 3 replications. The treatments consisted of a combination of five layers of irrigation and drainage lysimeter by means for four doses of potassium applied by fertirrigation. The variables were the weight of the bunch without stalk, the number of hands in the bunch, the weight of the hand of the central cluster and the number of fruits of the central cluster of the bunch. The data were obtained from the harvest of the first two cycles of the experiment, from March 2006 to September 2007. The treatments with irrigation levels influenced in all tested parameters of production, while the doses of potassium only influenced the weight of the bunch without stalk.

  12. Evaluation of protection measurements for rural environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Silva, Fernanda L.; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: fleite@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares

    2011-10-26

    Among the planning activities of actuation in nuclear/radiological emergences, it is included the efficiency evaluation of protection and remediation measurements. From the development of a data base on such measurements for the agricultural areas, the program SIEM was used for effectuation the simulations involving the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr radionuclides, in scenery previously established for simulation those areas of a 50 km surrounding the Admiral Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant. The obtained results indicate that the scenery is determinant of efficiency measurements involving various specific factors of each place, such as: agricultural and cattle breeding products, consumption habits of population and the grade of subsistence by the diet items, making not practical the elaboration of predefined generic sceneries. The great dependence on seasoning related to the moment of accident makes inadequate any previous evaluation what soever for evaluation of efficiency of protection and remediation measurements. Therefore, previous decisions are not recommended about the relevance of protection measurements for rural areas. Two classification criteria were defined: (i) the efficiency in reduction the doses in the firs year; and, (i i) efficiency in reduction the dose at long term

  13. Avaliação da tolerância e nefrotoxicidade do antimonial pentavalente administrado na dose de 40mg Sb v/kg/dia, de 12/12h, por 30 dias na forma cutaneo-mucosa de leishmaniose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda N.R. Sampaio

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a função renal de 11 pacientes com leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa tratados com antimonial pentavalente na dose de 40mg SbV/kg/dia aplicada de 12/12 horas, em esquema contínuo, durante trinta dias. No estudo, um paciente apresentou insuficiência renal reversível e dois desenvolveram alterações enzimáticas hepáticas e eletrocardiográficas sendo o esquema terapêutico interrompido. Nos demais pacientes observou-se efeitos nefrotóxicos tais como diminuição da taxa de filtração glomerular, diminuição da capacidade de concentração urinária, avaliada por um jejum hídrico de 16 horas e aumento na fração de excreção de sódio. No exame do sedimento urinário observou-se um aumento no número de leucócitos e cilindros. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo sugerem que o tratamento com antimonial pentavalente na dose de 40mg SbV/kg/dia foi menos tolerado em virtude de seus efeitos tóxicos, não parecendo apresentar índice de cura superior ao esquema atualmente preconizado de 20mg SbV/kg/dia.The renal function of eleven patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was analyzed in a prospective study realized at the School Hospital of University of Brasília. The patients were treated with doses of 40mg/kg/day of pentavalent antimony (SbV, in a continuous scheme during thirty days. In this study three patients were excluded, one patient with reversible renal failure and two patients with hepatic and cardiac malfunctions. In the other eight patients, severe nephrotoxics effects were observed, like reduction of glomerular filtration rate, reduction of the urinary concentration capacity, evaluated by a sixteen hours hydric fasting and an increase of sodium fractional excretion. An increase in the number of leucocytes and cylinders were observed at the urinary sediment exam. Finally, the results shows that the treatment with pentavalent antimony in doses of 40mg Sb/kg/day was less tolerated on account of its renal toxics

  14. Características morfogênicas e estruturais na rebrotação da Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu submetida a três doses de nitrogênio Morphogenesis and structural characteristics of regrowth of Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu assigned to three nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Alexandrino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi disposto no delineamento em blocos casualizados, sob o esquema fatorial 3x8, três dose de N (0, 20 e 40 mg dm-3 semana-1 de N e oito tempos de rebrotação (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 e 48 dias após o corte de uniformização, em vasos, em casa-de-vegetação, com três repetições para cada tratamento, para avaliar as características morfogênicas (taxa de aparecimento foliar [TApF] e taxa de alongamento foliar [TAlF] e estruturais (comprimento médio de folhas [CMF], número de folhas vivas perfilho-1 [NFVP], peso médio de perfilho [PMP] e densidade de perfilhos [DP] da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. A TApF foi afetada significativamente com o aumento da dose de N. Plantas que receberam 40 mg dm-3 semana-1 de N apresentaram filocronos bem inferiores (6,99 dias folhas-1 aos encontrados na testemunha (12,20 dias folhas-1. A TAlF também foi bem sensível à aplicação de N, elevando-se significativamente com o aumento do suprimento de N, em torno de 185,24 e 264,32%, respectivamente, para as plantas que receberam 20 e 40 mg dm-3 semana-1 de N. O CMF sofreu efeito significativamente positivo com o aumento da dose de N. Tanto a dose de N quanto o tempo de rebrotação tiveram efeito significativamente positivo sobre o NFVP e o PMP. Apesar do maior NFV, plantas que receberam doses de N tiveram maior perda por senescência. Os fatores quantitativos estudados também tiveram efeito significativamente positivo sobre a DP.An experiment was arranged in a randomized blocks design, in a 3 x 8 factorial scheme, three nitrogen (N levels (0, 20 e 40 mg dm-3 week-1 of N and eight regrowth ages (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 48 days after the standardized harvest in pots in greenhouse, with three replicates for each treatment, to evaluate the morphogenesis (leaf appearance rate [TApF] and leaf elongation rate [TAlF] and structural characteristics (average leaf length [CMF], number of alive leaves tiller-1 [NFVP], average tiller weight [PMP

  15. Avaliação da eficácia e segurança da associação de budesonida e formoterol em dose fixa e cápsula única no tratamento de asma não controlada: ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, multicêntrico e controlado Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose, single-capsule budesonide-formoterol combination in uncontrolled asthma: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Stirbulov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança da associação de budesonida e formoterol em dose fixa e cápsula única, em comparação ao uso de budesonida isolada em pacientes com asma não controlada. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, multicêntrico, de fase III, com grupos paralelos, comparando a eficácia de curto prazo e a segurança da formulação em pó de budesonida (400 µg e formoterol (12 µg com a formulação em pó de budesonida (400 µg em 181 participantes com asma não totalmente controlada. A idade dos participantes variou de 18-77 anos. Após um período de run-in de 4 semanas, durante o qual todos os participantes receberam budesonida duas vezes por dia, houve a randomização para um dos tratamentos do estudo. O tratamento foi administrado duas vezes ao dia por 12 semanas. Os principais desfechos foram VEF1, CVF e PFE matinal. Os dados foram analisados por intenção de tratar. RESULTADOS: O grupo tratado com a associação, quando comparado ao grupo budesonida isolado, teve uma melhora significativa no VEF1 (0,12 L vs. 0,02 L; p = 0.0129 e no PFE matinal (30,2 L/min vs. 6,3 L/min; p = 0,0004. Esses efeitos foram acompanhados por boa tolerabilidade e segurança, como demonstrado pela baixa frequência de eventos adversos menores. CONCLUSÕES: A associação em cápsula única de budesonida e formoterol mostrou ser eficaz e segura. Os resultados demonstram que essa formulação é uma opção terapêutica válida para a obtenção e manutenção do controle da asma.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose, single-capsule budesonide-formoterol combination, in comparison with budesonide alone, in patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III, parallel clinical trial, comparing the short-term efficacy and safety of the combination of budesonide (400 µg and formoterol (12 µg, with those of budesonide alone (400 µg, both delivered

  16. Study of distribution of doses in maintenance operations and interventions in restricted areas of IPEN's radiopharmacy center, Brazil; Estudo da distribuicao de doses em operacoes de manutencao e intervencao em areas restritas no Centro de Radiofarmacia do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Jessica S.; Souza, Daiane C.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Gerulis, Eduardo; Todo, Alberto S., E-mail: jsmachado@ipen.br, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rodrijr@ipen.br, E-mail: egerulis@ipen.br, E-mail: astodo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (lPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This research was developed at the Radiopharmacy Center of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN/CNEN/SP, Brazil, that performs the production of radiopharmaceuticals with isotopes of the {sup 131}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 18}F and {sup 99}Mo for use in nuclear medicine. The radioisotopes are produced on an industrial scale and the installation was designed to meet radiation safety standards and quality control requirements. To ensure the production, there are skilled professionals who perform the tasks of maintenance of the equipment and instruments, installed in the cells of processing of radiopharmaceuticals, without which it is not possible to conduct the work with safety and quality. This study was done a survey called Survey of Variables, based on the maintenance operations and interventions in restricted areas of the Centre of Radiopharmacy and in the survey of the distribution of doses in these tasks, carried out during the period from 2005 to 2011. This research aims to identify and determine the main variables that have an impact on the worker's dose. The results are presented for the Occupationally Exposed Individual variable, variable operation, variable area/Cell, task and Feature variable and variable duration of operation, depending on the Dose variable. It is intended in this way to contribute to improvements in operations in restricted areas that may result in lower individual doses without causing significant changes in the routine of work.

  17. Study of the radiation scattered and produced by concrete shielding of radiotherapy rooms and its effects on equivalent doses in patients' organs; Estudo da radiacao espalhada e produzida pela blindagem de concreto de salas de radioterapia e seus efeitos sobre doses equivalentes nos orgaos dos pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, K.L.; Rebello, W.F.; Andrade, E.R.; Gavazza, S.; Medeiros, M.P.C.; Mendes, R.M.S.; Gomes, R.G.; Silva, M.G., E-mail: kelmo.lins@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: sergiogavazza@yahoo.com, E-mail: eng.cavaliere@gmail.com, E-mail: raphaelmsm@gmail.com, E-mail: ggrprojetos@gmail.com, E-mail: maglosilva15@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Thalhofer, J.L.; Silva, A.X., E-mail: jardellt@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia Nuclear; Santos, R.F.G., E-mail: raphaelfgsantos@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Anhanguera, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia

    2015-07-01

    Within a radiotherapy room, in addition to the primary beam, there is also secondary radiation due to the leakage of the accelerator head and the radiation scattering from room objects, patient and even the room's shielding itself, which is projected to protect external individuals disregarding its effects on the patient. This work aims to study the effect of concrete shielding wall over the patient, taking into account its contribution on equivalent doses. The MCNPX code was used to model the linear accelerator Varian 2100/2300 C/D operating at 18MeV, with MAX phantom representing the patient undergoing radiotherapy treatment for prostate cancer following Brazilian Institute of Cancer four-fields radiation application protocol (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°). Firstly, the treatment was patterned within a standard radiotherapy room, calculating the equivalent doses on patient's organs individually. In a second step, this treatment was modeled withdrawing the walls, floor and ceiling from the radiotherapy room, and then the equivalent doses calculated again. Comparing these results, it was found that the concrete has an average shielding contribution of around 20% in the equivalent dose on the patient's organs. (author)

  18. Comparison between dose calculation in XiO Registered-Sign and dosimetric measurements in virtual wedge photon beams; Comparacao entre o calculo da dose no XiO Registered-Sign e medidas dosimetricas em feixes de fotons com filtro virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Laila G.; Amaral, Leonardo L.; Oliveira, Harley F., E-mail: lailagalmeida@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia; Maia, Ana F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao (Sweden), (Brasil) Departamento de Fisica

    2012-08-15

    The virtual wedge is useful tool in the radiation treatment planning since it has series of advantages over the hard wedge. Quality control tests ensure correct performance of the planning done in treatment planning systems (TPS). This study aimed to compare doses calculated by TPS and doses measured by ionization chamber (CI) and an ionization chambers array in virtual wedge photon beams of 6 MV. Measures carried out in Primus linear accelerator with a solid water phantom and dosimeter positioned at 10 cm depth with gantry at 0 Degree-Sign in many fields sizes and angles in the virtual wedge. Measurements on the central axis used as dosimeter an IC and on off-axis used an IC array. The simulation in CMS-XiO used the CT images of the phantom in the same configuration of the irradiation. Maximum and minimum values of the percentage differences between the doses provided by TPS and measurements with ionization chamber on the central axis were 1.43 and -0.10%, respectively, with average percentage difference of 0.08% and confidence limit of {Delta}=1.72%. In the region off-axis, the average percentage difference was 0.04%, with a maximum of 1.9%, minimum of 0% and confidence limit of {Delta}=1.91%. All values for dose percentage differences were below 2% and lower confidence limit of 3% are thus, according to the recommendations of the Technical Report Series - TRS-430. (author)

  19. Determination of the equivalent doses due to the ingestion of radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series presents in drinking waters of the region of Santa Luzia, Paraiba state, Brazil; Determinacao das doses equivalentes devido a ingestao de radionuclideos das series do uranio e torio presentes em aguas de consumo do municipio de Santa Luzia, estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastura, Valeria F. da S., E-mail: vpastura@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DRSN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear. Coordenacao de Materias Primas e Minerais; Campos, Thomas F. da C.; Petta, Reinaldo A., E-mail: thomascampos@geologia.ufrn.b, E-mail: petta@geologia.ufrn.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (LARANA/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Radioatividade Natural

    2011-10-26

    This paper determined the original dose equivalents from radionuclides of uranium and thorium series in a drinking water of well which is supplied to the population of Santa Luzia, Paraiba state, Brazil. The collected waters are near to the mineralized phlegmatic bodies in rose quartz and amazonite feldspar. Radiometric measurements performed on the feldspar vein point out counting ratios surrounding 30000 cps and the analysis of collected samples of minerals presented tenors for the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 219}Pb varying from 0.50 to 2.30 Bq/sw. For determination of concentration of radionuclides U{sub Total}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 219}Pb, found in the not desalinated, two methods were used, spectrophotometry with arsenazo and radiochemistry, both realized in the CNEN-LAPOC laboratories. For the calculation of dose equivalent it was taken into consideration the following parameters: the dose coefficients for incorporation by ingestion for public individuals with ages over 17 years (Norma CNEN-NN-3.01, Regulatory Position 3.01/011) and daily ingestion of 4 liters of water, which is over the recommended by the WHO of 2L/day - 1993. The obtained values were compared with the reference value for compromised dose equivalent established by WHO for evaluate the risk potential to the health of population, by ingestion. The radionuclide concentrations in the wells varies from 0.054 to 0.21 Bq/L, resulting dose equivalents of 3.94 x 10{sup -3} mSv/year and 0.17 mSv/year in the studied population

  20. Avaliação da eficiência de deltametrina (K-Othrine 50fw, em doses baixas, no controle de triatomíneos em São Sebastião do Umbuzeiro, Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Brisola Marcondes

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Testamos a deltametrina (K-Othrine 50FW no controle de triatomíneos em área de semi-árido, com cerca de 56,6% depositividade inicial no intradomicilio. Usamos, em 402 Unidades Domiciliares, 125, 75, 60 ou 50ml por bomba de 10 litros, equivalendo, se aplicados em 250 m², a 25, 15, 12 ou 10 mg/m². Os índices de invasão, colonização e cumulativo no intradomicilio e de positividade no peridomicílio foram muito baixos e similares nos quatro grupos, nos 15 meses de avaliação, indicando poderem as doses menores substituir a de 25 mg/m². Houve predominância de T. infestans, seguido de T. pseudomaculata, nas casas, e este predominou no peridomicílio, após a pulverização.We tested deltamethrin (K-Othrine 50 FW in the control of triatomine bugs, in an semi arid area with about 56.6% of houses bug infested. We used in 402 Domiciliary Units, 125, 75, 60 or 50 ml per pump of 10 liters, equivalent, if appliedon 250m², to 25,15, 12 and 10 mg/m². The invasion, colonization and cumulative indices in the houses and the positivity index in shelters near houses were very low and similar in the four groups during the 15 months of evaluation, indicating that lower doses could replace 25 mg/m². T. infestans, followed by T. pseudomaculata, predominated in and near the houses, after spraying.

  1. Doped with lithium effects in the dose signal line (CO{sub 2} radical) in dosimetry with EPR b-type synthetic carboapatite; Efeito da dopagem com litio no sinal indicador de dose (radical CO{sub 2}) em dosimetria por RPE de carboapatitas sinteticas do tipo B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Marcus A.V. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: mvallim@ien.gov.br; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.br; Rossi, Alexandre M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Bioceramicos]. E-mail: rossi@cbpf.br

    2002-07-01

    In this work it was studied the influence of the doped with lithium (Li) in the dose signal line of the B-type synthetic carboapatite irradiated with gamma radiation. The B-type carboapatite was synthesized in a aqueous way and the doped of the synthetic carbonated apatite was reached by the sorption of the lithium, in the nitrate form, in aqueous solution. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation from the {sup 60}Co to a dose of 1000 Gy. The EPR spectrum the doped sample is similar to the spectrum of the pure carboapatite, being constituted by the CO{sub 2}{sup -} species with orthorhombic symmetry, by the CO{sup -} and H-CO{sup -} species with axial symmetry and by the unstable CO{sub 3}{sup -} species. the presence of the lithium in apatite alters the number of CO{sub 2}{sup -} species created by irradiation, increases the intensity EPR signal of the species CO{sub 2}{sup -}. The sorption of Li also supplied larger stability to the CO{sub 2}{sup -} species in relation to pure sample. The presence of the metals in the surface of the carboapatite crystals does not alter the CO{sub 2}{sup -} signal fading type, first order exponential decay, however the decay constants differ between the doped sample and pure sample. These results indicate that the dose determination with the Li doped carboapatite can be overestimated if the dose value be obtained immediately after the irradiation of samples or before the EPR spectra stabilization. (author)

  2. Development of a external exposure computational model for studying of input dose in skin for radiographs of thorax and vertebral column; Desenvolvimento de um modelo computacional de exposicao externa para estudo da dose de entrada na pele para radiografias de torax e coluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Bianca C.; Menezes, Claudio J.M., E-mail: bianca.cm95@gmail.com, E-mail: cjmm@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.net [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The dosimetric measurements do not always happen directly in the human body. Therefore, these assessments can be performed using anthropomorphic models (phantoms) evidencing models computational exposure (MCE) using techniques of Monte Carlo Method for virtual simulations. These processing techniques coupled with more powerful and affordable computers make the Monte Carlo method one of the tools most used worldwide in radiation transport area. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGS4 program was used to develop a computer model of external exposure to study the entrance skin dose for chest and column X-radiography and, aiming to optimize these practices by reducing doses to patients, professionals involved and the general public. The results obtained experimentally with the electrometer Radcal, model 9015, associated with the ionization chamber for radiology model 10X5-6, showed that the proposed computational model can be used in quality assurance programs in radiodiagnostic, evaluating the entrance skin dose when varying parameters of the radiation beam such as kilo voltage peak (kVp), current-time product (mAs), total filtration and distance surface source (DFS), optimizing the practices in radiodiagnostic and meeting the current regulation.

  3. Crescimento, trocas gasosas e potencial osmótico da bananeira-'Prata', submetida a diferentes doses de sódio e cálcio em solução nutritiva Growth, gaseous exchange and osmotic potential of banana 'Prata' plants, exposed to different concentrations of sodium and calcium in nutritive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDMILA LAFETÁ DE MELO NEVES

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio vem sendo utilizado com o intuito de incrementar tolerância a sais nas plantas, pois sabe-se que a salinidade restringe o crescimento e a produtividade de muitas culturas. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de sódio e cálcio sobre o crescimento inicial, trocas gasosas e potencial osmótico da bananeira (Musa spp. 'Prata' (AAB. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 [ 4 doses de sódio ( 0; 5; 10; 15 mmol L-1 e 4 de cálcio ( 2; 4; 8; 12 mmol L-1] e 3 repetições. A emissão total de folhas e o potencial osmótico das plantas não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. O aumento dos níveis de sódio na solução promoveu redução significativa na massa fresca da parte aérea, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do pseudocaule e massa seca das plantas. A presença de 5 mmol L-1 de Na na solução favoreceu as trocas gasosas. O aumento dos níveis de cálcio na solução promoveu a redução da massa fresca da parte aérea, altura e área foliar da bananeira-'Prata'.The Calcium has been used to increase salt tolerance in plants since salinity restricts growth and productivity in many crops. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effects of sodium and calcium application on the initial growth, gaseous exchange and osmotic potential of banana (Musa spp. 'Prata' plants (AAB. The experimental layout was a 4 x 4 factorial with three replicates in a randomized complete block design. The factors tested were concentrations of sodium (0; 5; 10; 15 mmol L-1 and calcium (2; 4; 8; 12 mmol L-1. The total emition of leaves and the osmotic potential of the plants were not influenced by the treatments. However, the increase in concentrations of sodium in the nutritive solution resulted in significant reduction of the fresh weight of aerial plant parts, height and leaf area of the plants, diameter of the pseudostem, and dry weight of the plants. The

  4. FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC LOSSES IN CORN GRAIN ENSILED WITH Lactobacillus buchneri “NCIMB 40788” EFEITO DE DOSES DE Lactobacillus buchneri “CEPA NCIMB 40788” SOBRE AS PERDAS NOS PERÍODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO E PÓS-ABERTURA DA SILAGEM DE GRÃOS ÚMIDOS DE MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estella Rosseto Janusckiewicz

    2008-12-01

    , durante a exposição aeróbia, as silagens inoculadas com doses a partir de 1x105 UFC/g de massa ensilada mostraram-se mais estáveis, aumentando de 68 h (controle para 239,3 h (dose de 1x105 UFC/g de massa ensilada o tempo de quebra da estabilidade. A inoculação da silagem de grão úmido de milho com dose de L. buchneri de 1 x 105 UFC/g de massa ensilada mostrou-se eficaz no controle de leveduras e fungos e promoveu aumento na estabilidade aeróbia. Doses superiores às supracitadas possuem efeito benéfico, no entanto tem-se de considerar a relação custo–benefício.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aditivos, ensilagem, estabilidade, fermentação, perdas.

  5. Evaluation of the fuel rod integrity in PWR reactors from the spectrometric analysis of the primary coolant; Avaliacao da integridade de varetas combustiveis em reatores PWR a partir da analise espectrometrica da agua do primario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Iara Arraes

    1999-02-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the transport of fission products, from the fuel rod to the coolant of a PWR reactor. To achieve this purpose, several steps were followed. Firstly, it was presented a description of the fuel elements and the main mechanisms of fuel rod failure, indicating the most important nuclides and their transport mechanisms. Secondly, taking both the kinetic and diffusion models for the transport of fission products as a basis, a simple analytical and semi-empirical model was developed. This model was also based on theoretical considerations and measurements of coolant's activity, according to internationally adopted methodologies. Several factors are considered in the modelling procedures: intrinsic factors to the reactor itself, factors which depend on the reactor's operational mode, isotope characteristic factors, and factors which depend on the type of rod failure. The model was applied for different reactor's operational parameters in the presence of failed rods. The main conclusions drawn from the analysis of the model's output are relative to the variation on the coolant's water activity with the fuel burnup, the linear operation power and the primary purification rate and to the different behaviour of iodine and noble gases. The model was saturated from a certain failure size and showed to be unable to distinguish between a single big fail and many small ones. (author)

  6. Aspects of the Iea-R1 research reactor seismic evaluation; Aspectos da avaliacao sismica do reator de pesquisa IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Codes and standards for the seismic evaluation of the research reactor IEA-R1 are presented. An approach to define the design basis earthquake based on the local seismic map and on simplified analysis methods is proposed. The site seismic evaluation indicates that the design earthquake intensity is IV MM. Therefore, according to the used codes and standards, no buildings, systems, and components seismic analysis are required. (author)

  7. Assessment of activity of nitrate-reducing bacterial souring control; Avaliacao da atividade de bacterias redutoras de nitrato no controle de acidificacao de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Kally A. de; Cammarota, Magali C.; Servulo, Eliana F.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The effect of nitrate addition in relation to NRB concentration was evaluated on biogenic H{sub 2}S generation in anaerobic microcosms with produced water. A 2{sup k} factorial experimental design was performed by using as response variables nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup =}) consumption and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and sulfide (H{sub 2}S) production and as independent variables the SRB and NRB (10{sup 1} - 10{sup 7} MPN/mL) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (127.5 - 727.5 mg/L) initial concentrations. Each condition was carried out under incubation at 30 deg C during 7, 14 and 28 days. The lowest sulfide production (0.4 - 0.8 mg/L) was achieved for 10{sup 4} MPN/mL of SRB and NRB and 427.5 mg/L nitrate. Also, a reduction of sulfide generation was obtained by nitrate addition when low SRB and NRB concentrations were established. In such condition, the produced sulfide is rather dependent of nitrate concentration. The increase of the NRB concentration has not resulted in the reduction of sulfide production, even when higher nitrate concentrations were used. (author)

  8. Evaluation of radiation effects on dental enamel hardness and dental restorative materials; Avaliacao do efeito da irradiacao na dureza do esmalte dental e de materiais odontologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Protese

    2000-07-01

    This research presents the results of the microhardness of human dental enamel and of the following dental restorative materials: three dental porcelains - Ceramco II, Finesse and Noritake, and two resin restorative materials - Artglass and Targis, for materials submitted to different times of irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12}n cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} . The results obtained indicated that there is a decrease of the surface microhardness when the enamel is irradiated for 1 h and when dental materials are irradiated for 3 h. However, enamels irradiated for 30 min. did not show significant change of their surface hardness. Therefore, the selection of irradiation time is an important factor to be considered when irradiated teeth or dental materials are used in the investigations of their properties. (author)

  9. Environmental evaluation in the electric sector expansion planing: an strategic approach; Avaliacao ambiental no planejamento da expansao do setor eletrico: uma abordagem estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Silvia Helena [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: silviah@cepel.br; Medeiros, Alexandre [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lacorte, Ana; Aquino, Luiz C.S.; Farah, Pedro; Menezes, Paulo C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a resume of the methodology developed for the Socio Environmental Studies Committee - CTSA - of the CCPE, aiming the incorporation of the environment dimension in the expansion indicative planning of the electric sector. The first results of the partial application to the 2001-2010 planning cycle are also presented.

  10. Assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into biological samples by SAXS technique;Avaliacao das estrutras supramoleculares presentes em amostras biologicas atraves da tecnica de SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M., E-mail: andre_conceicao@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2009-07-01

    In this work was made an assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into human breast tissue normal and pathological samples, as well as into two types of animals samples (tendon chicken and pork fat) using the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The scattering profiles of the samples were determined at the momentum transfer range O.150nm{sup -1}<=5:q(=4pi.sin({theta}/2)/{lambda})<=8.500nm{sup -1}. In this range, it was possible identify structures corresponding to collagen fibrils (glandular tissue) and to triacylglycerides (adipose tissue) from the correlation between the information extracted from the human breast tissues scattering profiles and those extracted from animals samples. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  12. Evaluation of impact strength of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites; Avaliacao da resistencia mecanica sob impacto de nanocompositos de poliamida 6/argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Rene A.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Medeirosa, Vanessa da N., E-mail: rene@cct.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Nanocomposites of polymer/clay have had much attention in recent years, particularly those developed with layered silicates due to the need of engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and has been observed that they affect the crystalline behavior and the physical and mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites of polyamide 6 were obtained by the melt intercalation method, using a regional bentonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt in an amount of 3% by weight. XRD results showed that incorporation of salt among the layers of clay, making it organophilic and obtaining exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structures. The impact properties of the nanocomposites showed inferior in relation to pure polyamide, in other words, lost of toughness. (author)

  13. Quality of life evaluation of workers for diagnostic radiology services; Avaliacao da qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores de servicos de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ivani Martins

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of diagnostic radiology services workers at a hospital of Sao Paulo city. It aimed also to draw the profile of these workers identifying the variables, as its influence on their quality of life. A descriptive exploratory study with qualitative and quantitative approaches was carried out. The data were collected using the questionnaires: the abbreviated instrument for the assessment of the QOL, World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument bref (WHOQOL-bref) and a questionnaire including the social demographic variables, work conditions and the variables that express the lifestyle of individuals, both questionnaires self-applied. The sample was formed by 118 workers, among them: physicians, technologists/technicians in radiology, nurses, technicians and assistants in nursing, and others health professionals. The data analysis included descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and the use of a linear regression model. The reliability of the instrument for the studied sample was verified by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient ({alpha}). The WHOQOL-bref proved to be an adequate instrument, with a good level of internal consistency ({alpha}=0.884), being easily and quickly administrated for the evaluation of the QOL. The study provided an overview of the perception of quality of life of the studied group. (author)

  14. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: dagcortez@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: joelson_alves@ig.com.br; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  16. Biodegradation evaluation of recycled polyethylene doped with Moringa oleifera oil; Avaliacao da biodegradacao de filmes de polietileno reciclado dopados com oleo de Moringa oleifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Luciana A.; Novack, Katia M.; Melo, Tania M.S., E-mail: knovack@iceb.ufop.br [Dept. de Quimica (DEQUI) - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Chemical modifications and use of additives are some of the mainly ways to obtain polymer materials with especial properties. Vegetable oils incorporated to polymers preserve their structure while make possible a reduction of degradation rate. This work proposed the use of polyethylene, one of the most common polymer commodities, because of its low cost and wide application. In this project it was verified the possibility of making polymer materials with properties of a natural product through the incorporation of Moringa oleifera oil to recycled low density polyethylene (LDPEr) in different proportions. The films were buried for different times and their degradation was evaluated.) Samples were characterized by DSC, TGA and XRD. It was observed that samples doped with Moringa oil showed lower degradation time. (author)

  17. Evaluation of knee meniscus lesions using MRI - a comparative study of pulse sequences; Avaliacao da lesao meniscal por meio de ressonancia magnetica do joelho - estudo comparativo das sequencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Artur da Rocha C.; Vilela, Sonia de Aguiar; Turrini, Elisabeth; Lederman, Henrique M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    1997-05-01

    The frequency of knee disability after injuries has become higher, in this context meniscal lesions keep an important role. This study evaluated 34 MR exams using 1.5-T system (Signa; GE). In this group 26 had 4 sequences (5 acquisitions); 2 coronal (T1, MPGR), 3 sagittal (T1, T2, proton density). The aim of this study was to evaluate the MR pulse sequence`s reproducibility and observer variability. Two readers (A and B) reviewed the exams using the same criteria. The reader A reviewed all sequences for each patient; the reader B reviewed the individual sequences at random on two separate occasions, 6 months apart. The signal expression of meniscal lesion is more evident with T1 (short TR/short TE) sagittal; however, in this sequence the results were less consistent. The sagittal proton density (long TR/short TE) was very close to be the idea sequence: had good concordance among the readings of readers A and B. Kappa concordance test showed best result for sagittal proton density images (Kw = 0.84). (author) 47 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  19. Weldability evaluation of special stainless steels for utilization in petroleum industry; Avaliacao da soldabilidade de acos inoxidaveis especiais a ser utilizados na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Paredes, Ramon S. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ramon@demec.ufpr.br; Borsato, Karin Soldatelli [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bernardini, Pedro Amadeo Nanneti [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Villanueva Aguila, Jaime [Universidade de Tarapaca (UTA), Arica (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    A weldability study of super austenitic stainless steel AISI 904L type 25 Ni. 20 Cr, with Mo, Cu and duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 additions is made. The higher mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels, when compared to other kinds of stainless steels, have increased the attention of different industrial areas. According to literature, AISI 904L stainless steel is sensitive to solidification and liquation cracking during welding. The main microstructural features, as well as mechanical properties of duplex stainless steels, can be modify when submitted to multiple thermal cycles , such as happen during welding process. Samples have been prepared and welded by two welding processes: coated electrodes and semi-automatic MIG. The objective was to evaluate the cracking sensitiveness of super austenitic steels . For duplex steels the aim was to research the welding process influence for tubular wire in the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 25 mm plate, which are considered of great thickness. In AISI 904L it has not been observed any solidification cracking in the structure in the two welding processes that were studied. However, cracking of liquation in the affected thermal zone has been observed. In duplex steels the use of different thermal cycles showed variation of delta ferrite in the structure of solidification and variation of ferrite grain size in the ZTA. The formation of nitrate and secondary austenitic was also observed, which results in a proportional hardness increase . The mechanical and microstructure characterization data of those two stainless steels are presented. (author)

  20. Contribution of ultrasonography and scintillography to the evaluation of parothyroid glands; Contribuicao da ultra-sonografia na avaliacao das glandulas paratireoideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craide, Rosany Helena [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Ultra-som; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Instituto do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Custodio, Melani Ribeiro; Jorgetti, Vanda [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Nefrologia; Oliveira, Ilka Regina S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Vermelho, Marli B.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Ultra-sonografia

    1999-02-01

    Sonography and scintilography are good methods for imaging the parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias. The diagnostic methods were correlated in order to determine the sensitivity of sonographic evaluation with that of scintigraphy in the preoperative examinations for hyperparathyroidism suspected on clinical groups. Scintigraphic examinations were obtained using technetium-9 9 m and technetium-99m-sestamibi as radionuclide agents. A group of 36 patients was evaluated with sonography 19 being correlated with sestamibi. Our results suggest that sonography yields a sensitivity of 77 and 78.5%in comparison with scintigraphy with technetium-99m and with technetium-99m-sestamibi, respectively. The sonographic limitations are ectopic glands, enlarged thyroid goiter and posteriorly displaced adenomas. (author)

  1. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil; Impacto de um programa de avaliacao da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira

    2002-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless ongoing action is needed to resolve the remaining problems and to increase the impact. The proposed method for public monitoring should be modified to evaluate primarily the quality of the final exam provided to the consumer. (author)

  2. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B., E-mail: rolivier@ipen.b, E-mail: nblima@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M., E-mail: anapaola@ipt.b, E-mail: mgoncalves@ipt.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {Psi} method. (author)

  3. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliacao da atividade antibacteriana de Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Leoncio M. de; Gois, Roberto W. da S.; Lemos, Telma L. G.; Arriaga, Angela M. C.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P., E-mail: gil@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias; Costa, Jose G.M. da; Rodrigues, Fabiola F.G. [Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Biologica

    2013-11-01

    The chemical investigation of the stems and branches of Macroptilium lathyroides led to the isolation of a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The extracts from the roots allowed the isolation of lasiodiplodin, a mixture of stigmast-4-en-6{beta}-ol-3-one and stigmast-4,22-dien-6{beta}-ol-3-one, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin, genistein and lupinalbin A. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their NMR data, including comparison of their spectral data with values described in the literature. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from stems, branches and roots was evaluated. This is the first report involving the chemical investigation of this species. (author)

  4. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail: Siche.J.R@gmail.com; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail: ortega@fea.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  5. Phytochemical study and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignoato, Marlene Capelin; Fabrao, Rodrigo Monteiro; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Botelho, Marcos Felipe Pinatto; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Souza, Maria Conceicao de, E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2{beta} ->7, 4{beta} ->8)- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated (author)

  6. Avaliacao do contributo da expressao genética na tolerância à desidratacao em Rosa x hybrida coltivada em humidade relativa elevada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, D.R.A.; Vasconcelos, M.W.; Koning-Boucoiran, C.F.S.; Krens, F.A.; Heuvelink, E.; Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of cut flowers with high postharvest longevity is of extreme importance for consumer’s satisfaction. A negative water balance is indicated as the most important factor reducing longevity. This problem is more severe in plants grown at high relative air humidity (i.e. RH > 85%) mainly

  7. Importance of evaluation of uncertainties on the measurement of natural gas and petroleum volumes; Importancia da avaliacao das incertezas na medicao dos volumes de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Jose Alberto Pinheiro da; Oliveira, Thiago Barra Vidal de; Mata, Josaphat Dias da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br, josaphat@petrobras.com.br; Val, Luiz Gustavo do [Instituto de Qualidade e Metrologia (IQM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: gdoval.iqm@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The measurement is considered as the 'cash register' of the enterprises, increasing the accuracy and the exigence at each step when come close to the delivery points, where the 0.1 % of differences are discussed. The work presents the approach used in the evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the volumes obtained of petroleum and natural gas at the processes of production in Brazil, and in the international level as well.

  8. Importance of critical evaluation in quality control of scintillation cameras;Importancia da avaliacao criteriosa no controle de qualidade de camaras de cintilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, V.O.; Machado, M.A.D.; Sampaio, L.J.L.; Silva, D.C. [Hospital Sao Rafael, Salvador, BR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The evaluation of quality control results in nuclear medicine must be performed with a critical view over the conditions the tests are executed. This paper is a result of observations in the routine quality control where we set up didactic 'findings' to show the importance of evaluating critical situations while executing the procedures. (author)

  9. Evaluation of radon measuring technique using passive detector activated carbon; Avaliacao da tecnica de medicao do radonio utilizando detector passivo com carvao ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha; Lessa, Edmilson de Lima; Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de, E-mail: epoliveira@aluno.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioprotecao Ambiental e Ocupacional

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of measuring the radioactive gas Radon ({sup 222} Rn) with passive detector activated carbon. Alpha Guard, exposure chamber, air sampler, default font Radio, calibrator flow, flow adjuster, ducts drivers: For this, various equipment to make the measurement system as were used. An assembly of such equipment, with specific sequence was used allowing for more efficient exposure of passive detectors Radon gas. Twenty samples were heated to remove moisture and then stored in desiccator until the experiment were made. The exhibition was held passive dosimeters being removed from the chamber, and one hour after, subjected to analysis by gamma spectrometry in germanium (HPGe) for an hour. Subsequently, other measurements were made at scheduled times and sequential for one hour. The results were presented in report form and spectra, measures and graphs generated by Alpha Guard were also extracted. Finally we calculated the efficiency of the passive meter activated carbon. (author)

  10. Situational quality evaluation of mammography services at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Avaliacao situacional da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z., E-mail: georgia.santos@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.cavalcanti@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: adrianac@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.oliveira@saude.mg.gov.b [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Minas Gerais (SVS/SES-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Superintendencia de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Nogueira, Maria do S., E-mail: marcio.alves@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Joao E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Currently, the most effective method for early detection of this cancer is the mammography, and to achieve the standard definition and contrast, the whole system of imaging must operate under optimal conditions. This paper presents the results of the assessment of mammography centers in the state of Minas Gerais, which was held with the aim of supporting the actions of the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography. These results indicated that less than half of mammography achieved the minimum standard of image quality, endorsing the need of a monitoring more efficient and effective, which led to the establishment, in Minas Gerais, of the monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography. (author)

  11. Comparison of the automated evaluation of phantom mama in digital and digitalized images; Comparacao da avaliacao automatizada do phantom mama em imagens digitais e digitalizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo, E-mail: pcs@cdtn.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Propedeutica Complementar; Gomes, Danielle Soares; Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer if it is provided as a very good quality service. The process of evaluating the quality of radiographic images in general, and mammography in particular, can be much more accurate, practical and fast with the help of computer analysis tools. This work compare the automated methodology for the evaluation of scanned digital images the phantom mama. By applied the DIP method techniques was possible determine geometrical and radiometric images evaluated. The evaluated parameters include circular details of low contrast, contrast ratio, spatial resolution, tumor masses, optical density and background in Phantom Mama scanned and digitized images. The both results of images were evaluated. Through this comparison was possible to demonstrate that this automated methodology is presented as a promising alternative for the reduction or elimination of subjectivity in both types of images, but the Phantom Mama present insufficient parameters for spatial resolution evaluation. (author)

  12. Characterization and evaluation of residue 'grits' of the cellulose industry; Caracterizacao e avaliacao do resisduo 'grits' da industria de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destefani, A.Z.; Santos, M.M.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2010-07-01

    The cellulose industry generates huge amounts of solid waste residue called 'grits'. These wastes have been willing over time in landfills near the mills. However, this type of disposal is not environmentally friendly and can cause degradation and environmental pollution. In addition, environmental legislation increasingly severe and the high costs of landfill have led the search for new alternatives for final disposition of this abundant waste. In this context, this study is to characterize waste grits, generated by the cellulose industry in the region of Aracruz-ES. The residue samples were characterized in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA). The characterization of the residual 'grits' demonstrated its potential as a feedstock for production of soil-cement bricks. (author)

  13. Value of ultrasound in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma;O valor da ultra-sonografia na avaliacao do traumatismo abdominal fechado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayanthi, Shri Krishna

    2008-07-01

    Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in an age group including from teenagers to young adults, in a male dominant proportion, resulting in great economic and social impact. Within the complex of trauma, blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is frequent event and presents difficulty in the evaluation and management since the clinical examination shows low sensitivity and specificity. The detection of hemo peritoneum is one of the methods of evaluation of possible indirect intra-abdominal injuries, initially using direct diagnostic abdominal paracentesis and posteriorly the diagnostic peritoneal lavage, that despite the effectiveness, have drawbacks such as invasiveness and the inability of hemo peritoneum quantification and the lesion staging, resulting in non-therapeutic laparotomies. Imaging methods provide useful information in the investigation of abdominal injuries, such as conventional and contrast radiology, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), which is the best effective method, but has its own drawbacks, such as cost, accessibility, use of ionizing radiation and contrast media and the displacement of the patient to the machine. US presents itself as an alternative in the initial evaluation of these patients as noninvasive method, with lack of harmfulness, low cost, fast answer and portability. Nevertheless, this method also has its limitations, as in cases of abdominal injuries without free fluid. This study was conducted in order to establish the performance of the US in this setting, allowing to rationalise the use of CT. For this purpose we studied 163 patients treated in the ER of HC/FMUSP, with the completion of consecutive US and CT. The population fits the usual profile of trauma victims, with 83% male, 56% in the age group between 20 and 39 years and in 73% of cases victims of traffic accidents. They were brought to the service in an average time of 51 minutes, mainly stable and with satisfactory level of consciousness. US took on average 5 minutes to be performed and the average interval until CT completion was 155 minutes. 31 (19%) of 163 patients showed positive US and 132 (81%) had negative US. 33 (20.2%) of the same 163 patients had positive CT and 130 (79.8%) had negative CT, resulting in a sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 95%, accuracy of 90% in 20% prevalence, with 77% of positive predictive value and 93% of negative predictive value. Correcting the detection of free fluid, results in 64% of sensitivity 98% of specificity 89% of accuracy in 28% of prevalence, with 93% of positive predictive value and 88% of negative predictive value of 88%. Considering the evolution of the patients, US performance was similar to that of CT. Considering need for surgery the US presented accuracy of 87%, positive predictive value of 58% and negative predictive value of 94%, near CT, with accuracy of 91%, predictive value of 67% and negative predictive value of 97%. 24% of patients with abdominal injuries did not have free fluid, as recorded by CT. The hepatorenal space and pelvis were the most frequent sites fluid finding, 74% and 67% at US and 51% and 62% at CT, respectively. Among the factors that showed a tendency for surgery requirement were the presence of fluid in hepatorenal space (14 of 20 patients) and the sum of liquid pockets over 3.0 cm. Detection of parenchymal lesions was low: 4 cases in 33, while only 2 of them confirmed. Among the factors that limit the US study are parenchymal lesions not associated with free fluid and retroperitoneal hematomas. Examiner experience did not influence the number of negative or positive cases, but there was a tendency to false positive with most experienced examiners and false negative with less experienced. Thus, US is an useful tool in the initial evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma, providing information for clinical evaluation, which associated with other data, tailors the management. (author)

  14. Assessment and epidemiology of Chagas' disease in patients treated in Araguaina - Tocantins; Avaliacao e epidemiologia da cardiopatia chagasica em pacientes atendidos em Araguaina - Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Valeria Rita

    2010-07-01

    Chagas disease (AD) was described by Carlos Chagas in 1909. It is caused by a parasite T. cruzi, transmitted by bugs, by blood transfusion, vertical and orally. The DC has two phases: acute and chronic. The evolution to the cardiac form occurs in about 30% of chronic cases and is the largest cause of mortality in chronic Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to Chagas' disease in patients of Tocantins, compared with other heart patients and asymptomatic from the standpoint of non-invasive exams using radiant energies such as echocardiography and ECG and RX. The descriptive study included 80 patients, 20 chronic form of Chagas disease, 20 indeterminate, 20 with other heart diseases, and 20 controls. There was a prevalence of 9.5% of chagasic patients treated in outpatient cardiology at Araguaina Tocantins, and 7.3% in chronic and 2.21% in the indeterminate. Of the chronic patients in the study 50% had mega esophagus and megacolon 4 (20%). Most patients had no family history of AD, nor was a smoker or drinker. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities found refer to driving. The evaluation of ICT, the chronic chagasic showed that increased by 40% of patients, 40% had esophageal changes and 20% of patients had megacolon s. The echocardiogram was abnormal in 42%). 27% of patients had EF below 55% changed. Changes in segmental contractility and Asynchrony septum were found in 80% of chronic Chagas disease. In 80% of the patients was observed diastolic dysfunction. The valvular changes occurred in 75%. Electrocardiographic abnormalities occurred in 80% of patients with CCC, while the other heart had ECG changes. Arterial hypertension had an incidence of 45% in patients with CCC and 40% in FCI. The systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction was more prevalent in groups that had an abnormal ECG and arrhythmia. Observed that the group of chagasic decreased ejection fraction is correlated to a higher incidence of arrhythmias besides diastolic dysfunction and related increased atrio-left, ICT correlates with LV size and EF and LA. The abnormal ECG also are related to the dysfunction. (author)

  15. A regulatory model for conformity evaluation in natural gas building installations; Um modelo regulatorio para avaliacao da conformidade das instalacoes prediais de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossa, Alberto Jose; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of the Brazilian growth needs to consider necessarily the energy arrangements, and natural gas has relevant participation in this matter. The possibility of its end use that make possible an effective adequacy of our energy matrix must be supported by modern concepts of quality and conformity. In this particular, the program of 'Tecnologia Industrial Basica' (TIB), including concepts and application of conformity evaluation processes, is considered basic for the construction of a consistent gas market. This paper present the Brazilian reality related to TIB aspects and elements, from which it constructs a technician and regulatory building gas installations model proposal for a conformity evaluation program in the country. (author)

  16. Isolation and cytotoxicity evaluation of some oxoaporphine alkaloids from Annonaceae; Isolamento e avaliacao da atividade citotoxica de alguns alcaloides oxaporfinicos obtidos de annonaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Denise Brentan da; Matos, Maria de Fatima Cepa; Nakashita, Simone T.; Misu, Carina K.; Yoshida, Nidia Cristiane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Fabri, Joao Roberto; Miglio, Hercules da Silva; Siqueira, Joao Maximo de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br

    2007-07-01

    A different methodology was used to isolate and purify oxoaporphine alkaloids, as they are difficult to separate by the usual workup when in mixture. Alkaloid extracts from Annonaceae species were obtained by base/acid extraction. The extracts were concentrated and submitted to partition in solutions of acids of different pKa values, followed by separation by preparative TLC using 1 mm thick silica gel impregnated with oxalic acid (11.2% w/w). Liriodenine, lisycamine, lanuginosine, and O-methylmoschatoline were obtained and tested against tumoral cells (line Hep{sub 2}, ATCC-CCL 23, larynx carcinoma). Only O-methylmoschatoline (IC{sub 50} 12.4 muM) was more active than cisplatin (18.0 muM). (author)

  17. Assessment in dogs tympanic bulla, through virtual tomographic endoscopy; Avaliacao de bulas timpanicas em caes, por meio da endoscopia tomografica virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Sabino, Emanuelle Guidugli, E-mail: lucianacarandina@uol.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Dogs usually have problems related to the auditory canal. For the diagnosis of these pathologies, it is necessary a physical examination and, in some cases radiographic examination and computed tomography. The tympanic bulla is not easily visualized radiographically, since there is many structures of the brain overlaying the image obtained. The computed tomography has been the technique of choice to assess this structure faithfully. A new alternative assessment of the tympanic bulla is tomographic virtual endoscopy, which allows an improvement of the image obtained through the virtual tomographic technique. This paper provides information on the use of computed tomography, and a new technique, tomographic virtual endoscopy, in order to make the improvement of these techniques, and prove the reliability of these changes in the diagnosis of ear canals of dogs. Therefore, we performed the computed tomography of the tympanic bulla on healthy animals, and later performed image reconstruction in three-dimensional (3D) mode for virtual endoscopy. (author)

  18. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  19. Evaluation of operational management in the oil terminals using human factor indicator; Avaliacao da gestao operacional em terminais com o uso do indicador de fator humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, George L.D. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Gilson Brito Alves [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). LATEC. Mestrado Profissional em Sistemas de Gestao

    2005-07-01

    This research has as objective to analyze the continuous improvement in a management system at TRANSPETRO in Madre de Deus Terminal (BA), environment and occupational health, particularly in the reduction of the accident levels. We consider relevant in this research the effective implementation of the human factor that includes the boarding of the work system relating them it three points: individual activities, organizational processes of work and activities, emphasizing the management of these resources and the communication between them. The case study it was make in a company of logistic of fuels. The methodology was lead through bibliographical research and applied closed questionnaire (adaptation's baseline API 770 - Manager's Guide to Reducing Human Errors Improving - Improving in the Process Industries) in 2003 and 2005 with the manager, coordinators, supervisors, operators and others technician. Were analyzed results of the company in management security and occupational health, such as: pointers of the tax of frequency of accidents with and without removal, volume of leaked product and results of internal and external audits. We conclude that the importance of the human factor in the Safety Management that propitiated significant progress in the organization during the development of the research. (author)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella turcica: evaluation of patients with galactorrhea, amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia; Ressonancia magnetica da sela turca: avaliacao de pacientes com galactorreia, amenorreia e hiperprolactinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M.D. dos [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia Santa Cruz Scan

    1999-08-01

    We have selected 135 cases of patients who have done magnetic resonance imaging of sella region, carried out from September, 1991 to August, 1996, who had galactorrhea (G), amenorrhea(A), and hyperprolactinemia (H), isolated or in association. The patients were divided in seven groups, according to the presence of these symptoms and signs. All examinations were made in a private clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Correlating these patients with the results of the magnetic resonance images, we found 57 micro adenomas, 31 normal examinations, 22 macro adenomas, 11 pituitary hyperplasias, 7 empty sella and 7 cases included in other aspects. The micro adenoma predominated in groups 1 (GAH), 2 (GH), 3 (HA) and 5 (H), that is, in all groups whose patients had hyperprolactinemia. In macro adenomas, a bright signal on T 1-weighted images indicates pituitary apoplexy with intratumoral hemorrhage. All in all, the magnetic resonance imaging is excellent method to be used in the evaluation of patients with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (author)

  1. Synthesis optimization of calcium aluminate cement phases for biomedical applications; Avaliacao da sintese das fases de cimento de aluminato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L.; Oliveira, I.R. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied as a potential material for applications in the areas of health such as, endodontics and bone reconstruction. These studies have been based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by investigating the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance for biomedical applications. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the CAC synthesis routes in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO systems, as well as the phase characterization attained by means of X ray analysis. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO route enabled the production of the target phases (CA, CA{sub 2}, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) with a higher purity compared to the Al2O3-CaCO3 one. As a result the particular properties of these phases can be evaluated to define a more suitable composition that results in better properties for an endodontic cement and other applications. (author)

  2. Dynamic evaluation of the nominal capacity for connection of wind parks; Avaliacao dinamica da capacidade nominal para conexao de parques eolicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Tony; Lloyd, Graeme; An, Chang [Areva T and D, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aten, Martin; Ferris, Bob [E.ON Central Networks (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The capacity dynamic determination was applied to 132 kV line, for protection and load management purposes, increasing the possibility of wind generation connection. The capacity was calculated based on climatic measurements, coordinate the automatic dispatch. To guarantee that the capacity was not surmounted, a backup system was used composed by relay. (author)

  3. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em materiais utilizados em restauracoes dentarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio

    2009-07-01

    This work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations (Titanium, Amalgam, Resin Composite and Glass Ionomer) aiming the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, arising when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-ray beams of 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. The sample were submitted to Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chambers in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a Germanium detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  4. Evaluation of thermal stability of paraffin wax by differential scanning calorimetry; Avaliacao da estabilidade termica de parafina por calorimetria diferencial de varredura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, K.O.; Silva, A.G.P.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos], Email: holanda@uenf.br

    2010-07-01

    Phase change materials for heat storage are used as passive solar energy storage materials, which can be impregnated into construction materials. In this work the thermal stability (heating/cooling cycle) of the paraffin wax was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The latent heat and fusion temperature were determined for the following thermal cycles: 0, 30, 180 and 360. The thermal stability for paraffin wax infiltrated in support of gypsum was also determined. The experimental results showed that the paraffin wax showed good thermal stability in the states pure and infiltrated for up to 360 thermal cycles. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation on projects of energy efficiency of AES ELETROPAULO - indicators proposition; Avaliacao de desempenho de projetos do programa de eficiencia energetica da AES Eletropaulo - proposicao de indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Gimenes, Andre Luiz Veiga; Braga, Lillian Kariny Queiroz Serra; Rangel, Paulo Jose da Silva Mourao; Sigoli, Jose Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; AES ELETROPAULO, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: saidel@pea.usp.br; gimenes@gmail.com; lillian.braga@poli.usp.br; rangel@pea.usp.br; marcelo.sigoli@aes.com

    2006-07-01

    This work proposes a series of quality and performance indicators for quantitatively and qualitatively evaluation of Energy Efficiency of the Law 9991/2000, through a punctuation criterion, and to evaluate the performance of the Energy Service Companies (ESC), from the results of the projects presented and executed considering their final results related to presented proposals.

  6. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents; Sintese e avaliacao preliminar da atividade antibacteriana e antifungica de derivados N-acilidrazonicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachiba, Thomas Haruo; Carvalho, Bruno Demartini; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Medicamentos; Cusinato, Marina; Prado, Clara Gaviao; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches, E-mail: diogo.carvalho@unifal-mg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2012-07-01

    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC{sub 50} values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 {mu}M), C. krusei (34 {mu}M) and C. tropicalis (17 {mu}M). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  7. Glass forming ability of the Al-Ce-Ni system; Avaliacao da capacidade de formacao vitrea do sistema Al-Ce-Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triveno Rios, C. [Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: triveno@ufmt.br; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the glass forming ability (GFA) and its compositional dependence on Al-Ni-Ce system alloys were investigated in function of several thermal parameters. Rapidly quenched Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 15}-{sub X}Ce{sub X} (X=4,5,6,7,10), Al{sub 90}Ni{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 89}Ni{sub 2}.{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}.{sub 6}, Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 15.6}Ce{sub 4}.{sub 4} and Al{sub 78}Ni{sub 18.5}Ce{sub 3.5} amorphous ribbons were produced by melt-spinning and the structural transformation during heating was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the GFA and the thermal stability in the Al-rich corner of Al- Ni-Ce system alloys were enhanced by increasing the solute content and specifically the Ce content (author)

  8. Evaluation of the strengthening of the conditions of voltage security using sensitivity analysis; Avaliacao do reforco das condicoes da seguranca de tensao utilizando a analise de sensibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, A.L.S.; Costa, V.M. da; Peres, W. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia], Emails: arleilucas@gmail.com, vander@lacee.ufjf.br, wesley.peres@yahoo.com.br; Prada, R.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Email: prada@ele.puc-rio.br

    2009-07-01

    Voltage stability or voltage security analysis has motivated an expressive attention of power systems researchers. In this work, a simple and fast method evaluates voltage security and proposes conditions to improve the loading margin. System analysis is carried out in terms of active power transmission path. Sensitivity analysis provides the most adequate buses to active and reactive power redispatch. A sequential iterative methodology to reinforce system conditions is presented. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the capacity of heavy metal adsorption in exfoliated vermiculite; Avaliacao da capacidade de adsorcao de metal pesado em vermiculitas esfoliadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.F.; Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C.M.O., E-mail: raposo@dmg.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), Bodocongo, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Many groups from modern society have seen with attention the issues of pollutants, generally present in nature, those same that have caused irreversible damages to the environment. The Vermiculite, a phyllosilicate, with t-o-t structure, have high interlamelar charge, has been studied as cationic exchanger, whose application when exfoliated, are increased. This work has the objective of evaluate the absorption capacity of chromium (III), in different concentrations, in high, slim and medium concentrations of exfoliated vermiculites. The results obtained from the characterization by spectroscopy in infrared and by diffraction of x-ray from prepared solids showed important variations in the quantity of adsorbed metal in order the size of the concentrated particles. (author)

  10. Evaluation of secondary crystallization effect in poly hydroxybutyrate and silanized coir dust composites; Avaliacao do efeito da cristalizacao secundaria em compositos de polihidroxibutirato e po de coco silanizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Carolina C. de; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M.S.M., E-mail: ccmello@metalmat.ufrj.br [Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate is a natural and biodegradable polyester, susceptible to secondary crystallization when it is stored at environment temperature. Coir dust is an agroindustrial waste which has good prospects for use as filler in composites. In this context, PHB-coir dust composites were produced. The compatibilization was made by coir dust silanization. The secondary crystallization evolution on materials was evaluated by x-ray diffraction. Its effect was verified by tension tests which presented that elastic modulus increases when crystallinity increases. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the life cycle of integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel; Avaliacao do ciclo de vida da producao integrada de etanol e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone Pereira de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], email: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Pacca; Sergio Almeida [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades], email: spacca@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane and palm are amongst the crops with the highest yields, which can reach 6 to 7.5 thousand liters of ethanol per hectare year and 4 to 6 metric tons of oil per hectare year, respectively. A joint production of biofuels from these crops is an interesting alternative for life cycle assessment improvement through fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions reduction, besides energy efficiency gains. The objective of this work is comparing the Brazilian production system sugarcane ethanol with an integrated system proposal where the ethanol and palm biodiesel are produced together. This comparative study is based on a life cycle approach using the ISO 14.044/2006 and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado, Cerradao and grassland ecosystem were considered. The energy balance, carbon balance and land use change were evaluated. The integrated system includes a 100% substitution of biodiesel by diesel, which is used in life cycle agriculture stages. Distinct fractions of sugarcane used for sugar production were assessed. When all sugarcane is sent to sugar production, ethanol is produced by molasses. The data were collected by direct observation method by questionnaire and secondary sources. Three sugarcane mills situated in Sao Paulo state and a palm mill located in Para state were surveyed. Results showed a 164% increase in energy balance for the joint production system in comparison to the traditional system. Besides this, the joint production system demonstrated a 24% GHG emission reduction. For ethanol production by molasses, the energy balance was up to 59% and 162% higher in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively, which differ each other through of the boiler that was utilized. For GHG emission, the reduction can reach 91%. The land use change identify an average ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradao and Degraded Grassland of 5, 10, and -5 years, respectively. In conclusion, the joint production system of sugarcane ethanol and palm biodiesel presents an improvement in energy balance, GHG emissions and land use change impacts in comparison to the traditional ethanol system. (author)

  12. Quantificação de macronutrientes no solo e em folhas de cana-de-açúcar em função de doses de resíduo da mineração de bauxita Nutrient diagnosis of sugarcane in function of residue rates of the bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio O. De Nobile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em ambiente protegido, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do resíduo da mineração de bauxita nos teores de macronutrientes, no solo e em plantas de cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados vasos de 10 L que receberam as seguintes doses de resíduo de bauxita: 0; 28;56; 84; 112 e 140 t ha-1, utilizando-se do clone de cana-de-açúcar SP92 4221. A incorporação do resíduo de bauxita no solo proporcionou aumento nos teores dos macronutrientes do solo, sendo que apenas para o enxofre doses acima de 83 t ha-1 proporcionaram reduções desse nutriente. Já para os teores de macronutrientes determinados na folha, doses acima de 70,5; 125; 101 e 56 t ha-1 diminuíram os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio e enxofre, respectivamente. Entretanto, para o cálcio e o magnésio, a utilização do resíduo proporcionou a diminuição dos seus teores foliares. A dose do resíduo de bauxita que teve a maior produção de massa seca foi de 64 t ha-1.The experiment was carried out in green house with the objective of evaluating the effect of the bauxite mining residue in the rates of macronutrients in sugarcane and soil. Containers of 10 L were used. They received the following rates of bauxite residue: 0; 28; 56; 84; 112 and 140 t ha-1 . The used culture was the sugarcane (SP92 4221. The incorporation of the bauxite residue in the soil provided an increase in the levels of the soil macronutrients, and only for sulphur levels above 83 t ha-1, it was possible to provide reductions of this nutrient. For rates of determined macronutrients in the leaf, levels above 70, 5; 125; 101; 56 t ha -1 diminished the rates of nitrogen, phosphorum, potassium and sulphur, respectively. However, for calcium and magnesium the use of the residue provided the reduction of leaf rates. The level of the bauxite residue which had the largest production of dry mass was 64 t ha-1.

  13. Efeitos de métodos de estabelecimento de braquiária e estilosantes e de doses de calcário, fósforo e gesso sobre alguns componentes nutricionais da forragem Effect of establishment methods of brachiaria and stylosanthes, limestone, gypsum and phosphorus on some forage nutritional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Eustáquio Mesquita

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar, em dois anos, os efeitos de métodos de estabelecimento (sulcamento: 1,5 e 1,0 m entre linhas em etapa única; 1,5 e 1,0 m em duas e três etapas, respectivamente; aração, gradeação e sulcos espaçados de 1,0 m entre linhas, doses de calcário (25, 50, 75 e 100% da necessidade de calagem-NC, obtida pelo método do Al, Ca e Mg trocáveis, gesso agrícola (0, 230, 940, 1.880 e 2.820 kg/ha, referentes à substituição de 0, 3,0, 12,5, 25,0 e 37,5% do CaO do calcário pelo CaO do gesso, na dose de 100% da NC e P2O5 (50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 kg/ha nas concentrações de minerais (P, K, Ca, Mg e S, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e lignina na matéria seca e na DIVMS de Brachiaria decumbens consorciada com Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão. Os métodos de estabelecimento em duas e três etapas propiciaram maiores concentrações de K na braquiária e Ca no estilosantes. As maiores concentrações de PB na braquiária foram alcançadas com o estabelecimento com aração e gradeação do solo. A substituição do calcário pelo gesso elevou as concentrações de S, Ca e PB na matéria seca da braquiária e do estilosantes e reduziu as concentrações de FDN na gramínea. As doses de P elevaram as concentrações de P, PB e a DIVMS e reduziram as concentrações de FDN na braquiária, melhorando seu valor nutritivo.A field trial was carried out to evaluate the establishment methods (Furrow only: row 1,5 and 1,0 m apart at one time; 1.5 and 1.0 at two and three times, respectively; Plowing and horrowing: row 1,0 apart, limestone (25, 50, 75 e 100% of necessity of limestone, obtained by Al, Ca e Mg exchangeable, gypsum (0, 230, 940, 1.880 e 2.820 kg/ha and P2O5 (50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 kg/ha on minerals concentration (P, K, Ca, Mg e S; crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent acid (ADF and in vitro dry matter

  14. O sevofluorano em psitacídeos (Amazonas aestiva: determinação da dose mínima (d. a. m para produção de anestesia geral Sevoflurane in psitacines (Amazonas aestiva: determination of minimal anesthetic concentration to produce general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Alves Nicolau

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 10 psitacídeos da espécie Amazonas aestiva (papagaio-verdadeiro. Após contenção física, a anestesia foi induzida com o auxílio de uma máscara facial conectada ao sistema de Maplesson D (BARAKA, utilizando sevofluorano a 6V% e fluxo diluente de O2 de 1,5/min de oxigênio. A determinação da Dose Anestésica Mínima (DAM foi estabelecida de maneira similar àquela proposta por LUDDERS et al. (1990. A DAM obtida neste experimento 3,44V%, que eqüivale a concentração alveolar mínima de mamíferos mostrou-se maior nas aves analisadas quando comparada a obtida nos mamíferos. O anestésico mostrou-se bastante seguro para a espécie, não alterando de forma deletéria as variáveis fisiológicas analisadas.Ten adult psittacines (Amazonas aestiva were used. After appropriate immobilization the anesthetic induction was accomplished with facial mask connect to modified circuit of Maggil using 6V% of Sevofluorano with oxygen flow rate at 1.5/. The Minimal Anesthetic Concentration was determined in a manner similar to that proposed by LUDDERS et al. (1990. The MAC obtained was 3.44V%, higher than MAC. proposed to mammals. Sevoflurane can be used safely in avian species once it did not alter significantly all physiological parameters analyzed.

  15. Application of low-dose gamma irradiation to extend the shelf life of minimally processed Red Beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder; Aplicacao de baixas doses de radiacao gama para extensao da vida util de beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Nilber Kenup

    2006-07-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of low-dose gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension and phyto sanitary safety of minimally processed red beet with basis on physicochemical; microbiological; chemical and sensory analyses. The samples (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Early Wonder cultivar, were cultivated in the experimental area of the Horticulture Sector of the Departamento de Fitotecnia of the Instituto de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ, as part of two experiments performed during the second semester of 2005. In each experiment, 1200 plants (40 per linear meter of terrain) were sowed. Physicochemical analyses (fresh mass; length; average diameter and total soluble solids) of the edible part of the red beets (their tuberous roots) were periodically carried out in order to assess the most appropriate time for harvest by monitoring the development of the plants. Those times were found to be 104 and 73 days after transplanting, respectively. The harvested edible part of the roots were minimally processed and separated in two groups: (1) gamma irradiated (with doses of 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and (2) non-irradiated (control). All samples were stored at 8 degree C. Microbiological analyses were performed during the storage period (22 and 21 days, for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) in order to evaluate the phyto sanitary quality of the samples (Salmonella sp.; coliforms and total count of mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria). The samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy were found to remain appropriate for consumption for 21 days, as compared to only 7 days for the control. Monitoring of chemical composition was also performed and included the determination of saccharose; glucose; fructose and vitamins B1 and B2. No difference was found between the concentrations of those vitamins in irradiated and control samples at the end of the storage period, whereas significant changes in sugar contents were

  16. Study of the mineral variation of two varieties of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) submitted to different doses of fertilizers by the neutron activation analysis; Acompanhamento da variacao mineral de duas cultivares de guandu (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) submetidas a diferentes doses de fertilizantes, pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasentin, Ricardo Marcelo

    2001-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pr, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Z, in 82 leaf samples belonging to two cultivars of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp). Pigeonpea, an easy cultivation legume species, probably originated from Africa and adapted to brazilian conditions, is a very promising and unconventional source of food, mainly to the grain production intended for human feeding, and that even can be used in flour products. It is an excellent proteic supplement for ruminants, due to its large potential of forage production and its high nutritive value, or in addition it can be used in the recuperation of exhausting soils either by means of its utilization as green manure or by taking free Nitrogen from the atmosphere to produce nitrates which can be utilized by the plants. However, in spite of the several possibilities and increasing utilization of pigeonpea, data about the composition of microelements and trace elements of this forage species ate scarce. The plants employed in this work were submitted, individually, to two different doses of fertilizers containing the following elements: B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, V and Zn. The leaf samples were harvested in two different times at 4-month intervals. Statistics was used to verify the difference promoted on the concentrations of those 20 elements determined, due to the use of different fertilizers in relation to the plants which were not submitted to any fertilizer, the so-called test or control plants, as well as, to compare the eventual variations in the concentration of the elements of interest due to the leaf harvest time, due to both doses of fertilizers and between both varieties of pigeonpea studied. Experimental designs were applied to evaluate the effect promoted by possible interactions related to the leaf harvest time, mineral fertilizer doses and the use or not of

  17. Avaliação da tolerabilidade e do controle de ciclo de dois contraceptivos orais de baixa dose: estudo comparativo aberto Assessment of the tolerability and cycle control of two low-dose oral contraceptives: an open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Baracat

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo aberto comparativo em nove centros brasileiros para avaliar a tolerabilidade e o controle de ciclo obtido com o uso de dois contraceptivos orais de baixa dose contendo 20 mg etinilestradiol/75 mg gestodeno e 20 mg etinilestradiol/150 mg desogestrel, durante seis ciclos de tratamento. Foram selecionadas 167 mulheres saudáveis com vida sexual ativa (77 no grupo do gestodeno e 90 no grupo do desogestrel, das quais 138 completaram os seis ciclos de tratamento. Em um subgrupo de novas usuárias realizou-se também perfil lipídico e hemostático. Foram avaliados 867 ciclos no total. Ocorreu sangramento irregular em 4,6% dos ciclos com gestodeno e em 8,1% com desogestrel. A tolerabilidade a ambas preparações foi boa, mas houve significativamente mais náusea no grupo do desogestrel. O controle de ciclo foi bom com os dois contraceptivos, sendo que houve freqüência significativamente menor de sangramento irregular no grupo do gestodeno quando se leva em conta que todos os ciclos foram considerados. Não houve alterações clinicamente significativas no perfil hemostático. O perfil lipídico mostrou tendência a tornar-se mais favorável após seis ciclos de tratamento com as duas preparações. Não ocorreu alteração no peso médio das mulheres no grupo do gestodeno; no grupo do desogestrel houve aumento significativo no peso médio de aproximadamente 1 kg após seis meses de tratamento. A adesão ao tratamento foi boa com as duas preparações. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que preparações contendo baixa dose de gestodeno ou desogestrel associados a 20 mg de etinilestradiol são contraceptivos bem tolerados que permitem bom controle de ciclo, sem efeitos colaterais significantes.An open-label comparative study was conducted in nine centers in Brazil to evaluate the tolerability and cycle control of two low-dose oral contraceptives containing 20 mg ethynylestradiol/75 mg gestodene and 20 mg ethynylestradiol/150 mg

  18. Curvas de resposta e isobolograma como forma de descrever a associação de herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II e da síntese de carotenóides Dose-response curve and isobologram used to describe the mixture of herbicides inhibitors of the photosystem II and carotenoid synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Kruse

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A metodologia de curvas de resposta e isobologramas, feitos a partir dos I50 gerados pelas curvas, tem sido bastante apregoada na comprovação de sinergismo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com girassol cultivado em solução nutritiva (Hoagland, aplicando-se na solução 27 tratamentos, com os herbicidas metribuzin nas doses de 0, 70, 140, 280, 560 e 1.130 nM e clomazone nas doses de 0, 40, 80, 160, 320 e 640 mM. Combinaram-se as doses dos herbicidas de maneira a produzir os I50 das seis curvas resultantes das associações. Nas plantas coletadas, cinco dias após a aplicação, determinou-se o percentual de dano, a massa fresca e a massa seca das plantas de girassol. Os seis pontos de I50 de cada variável foram utilizados para formar isobologramas, onde os I50 dos herbicidas aplicados isolados, unidos por uma reta, formaram a isobole de aditividade. Em torno desta, foram traçadas faixas de confiança, a partir do produto dos intervalos de confiança dos I50 dos herbicidas isolados, dentro das quais se posicionaram os I50 resultantes das associações. Todas as associações situaram-se na região de sinergismo, abaixo da isobole de aditividade, embora com diferentes probabilidades. Na variável massa seca, a associação das doses de clomazone com 140 nM de metribuzin demonstrou probabilidade de, em torno de 90%, ser uma interação sinérgica.The Dose-Response Curve and Isobolograms methodology, based on the I50 generated by curves has been largely recommended to demonstrate synergism. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, with sunflower cultivated in nutrient solution (Hoagland, applying in solution 27 treatments, with the herbicides metribuzin, at the rates of 0, 70, 140, 280, 560 and 1,130 nM and clomazone, at the rates of 0, 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 mM. The herbicide doses were combined so as to produce the I50 of six resulting curves from the matches. Injury percentage, and fresh and dry weight of sunflower

  19. Benchmark Dose Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finite doses are employed in experimental toxicology studies. Under the traditional methodology, the point of departure (POD) value for low dose extrapolation is identified as one of these doses. Dose spacing necessarily precludes a more accurate description of the POD value. ...

  20. Investigating VMAT planning technique to reduce rectal and bladder dose in prostate cancer treatment plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: RapidArc is a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique that can deliver conformal dose distribution to the target while minimizing dose to critical structures. The main purpose of this study was to compare dosimetric quality of full double arc (full DA, full single arc (full SA, and partial double arc (partial DA techniques in RapidArc planning of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of prostate cancer involving seminal vesicles were selected for this retrospective study. For each case, RapidArc plans were created using full DA (two full arcs, full SA (one full arc, and partial DA (two partial arcs with anterior and posterior avoidance sectors techniques. For planning target volume (PTV, the maximum and mean doses, conformity, and inhomogeneity indices were evaluated. For bladder and rectum, volumes that received 70, 50, 40, and 20 Gy (V 70Gy , V 50Gy , V 40Gy and V 20Gy , respectively, and mean dose were compared. For femoral heads, V 40Gy , V 20Gy , and mean dose were evaluated. Additionally, an integral dose and monitor units (MUs were compared for each treatment plan. Results: In comparison to full DA and full SA techniques, the partial DA technique was better in sparing of rectum and bladder but delivered higher femoral head dose, which was nonetheless within the planning criteria. No clear dosimetric differences were found between full DA and partial DA plans for dose conformity and target homogeneity. The number of MUs and integral dose were largest with the partial DA technique and lowest with the full SA technique. Conclusion: The partial DA technique provides an alternative RapidArc planning approach for low risk prostate cancer.

  1. Época de aplicação da primeira dose de nitrogênio em cobertura em milho e espécies antecessoras de cobertura de inverno Timing of first side-dressed nitrogen application in maize as affected by antecedent winter cover species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércio Luiz Strieder

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, os critérios utilizados no Sul do Brasil para definição da dose de nitrogênio (N a ser aplicada no milho são o teor de matéria orgânica no solo, a expectativa de rendimento da cultura e as características da cultura antecessora. Embora apresente alta relação carbono:nitrogênio (C/N, a aveia preta é a espécie de cobertura de solo de inverno mais utilizada como antecessora às culturas comerciais de verão. Essa característica pode resultar em imobilização do N do solo, deficiência de N na planta de milho e redução no rendimento de grãos. Embora na determinação da dose a ser aplicada sejam consideradas as espécies antecessoras, os avanços quanto à melhor época para aplicar N em cobertura em milho foram pequenos. Com o objetivo de avaliar a época mais adequada para aplicação da primeira dose de N em cobertura no milho cultivado em sucessão a espécies de inverno com distintas relações C/N, um experimento foi realizado em vasos em casa de vegetação em Porto Alegre-RS. Utilizaram-se colunas de solo não deformado, classificado como Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro sistemas de coberturas de solo de inverno (aveia preta, ervilhaca comum, nabo forrageiro e pousio e três formas de manejo de N em cobertura (com aplicação de N nos estádios V3 ou V5 e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com três repetições. Procedeu-se à análise de variância pelo teste F e à comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey (p The criteria currently used in Southern Brazil for the definition of the nitrogen (N rate to be applied in maize are based on the soil organic matter content, the expected grain yield and the characteristics of the previous crop. Although the carbon:nitrogen (C/N ratio is high, black oat is the most commonly used winter species antecedent to commercial summer crops. This

  2. Cardiopulmonary effects and eyeball centralization with low-dose atracurium in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized dogs Avaliação cardiopulmonar e da centralização do globo ocular em cães com baixas doses de atracúrio mantidos em anestesia inalatória sob ventilação espontânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the cardiopulmonary effects and eyeball centralization time obtained with 15 or 30µg kg-1 of atracurium in anesthetized dogs under spontaneous breathing. Eighteen healthy adult mixed-breed dogs were used, which received 0.1mg kg-1 acepromazine and 0.5mg kg-1 morphine IM, followed by 4mg kg-1 propofol IV and maintained on isoflurane anesthesia with spontaneous breathing. Animals received 1mL 0.9% NaCl IV (CG, 15µg kg-1 (G15 or 30µg kg-1 (G30 of atracurium IV. Eyeball centralization time was measured; heart rate (HR, systolic (SAP, mean (MAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressures, respiratory rate (RR, tidal volume (Vt and minute volume (Vm were determined every 5min, and pH, arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 , arterial O2 pressure (PaO2 , hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2 , bicarbonate (HCO3- and base excess (BE every 15min until 60min. Both doses of atracurium produced a similar period of eyeball centralization. Vt in groups treated with atracurium was lower than in CG up to 15min. Vm in G15 differed from CG up to 10min and in G30 up to 25min. No differences were observed for cardiovascular parameters, RR, SaO2, PaO2, HCO3- and BE. pH decreased in CG between 30 and 60min and in G15 and G30 at 15min. G30 differed from CG between 15 and 30min. PaCO2 in GC differed from baseline between 30 and 60min and in G15 differed at 15min. Atracurium at the dose of 15µg kg-1 is adequate for short corneal procedures in inhalant-anesthetized dogs under spontaneous breathing.Objetivou-se determinar os efeitos cardiopulmonares e o tempo de centralização do globo ocular obtidos com 15 ou 30µg kg-1 de atracúrio em cães anestesiados sob ventilação espontânea. Dezoito cães adultos foram pré-medicados com 0,1mg kg-1 de acepromazina e 0,5mg kg-1 de morfina IM, anestesiados com 4mg kg-1 de propofol IV e mantidos sob anestesia inalatória com isofluorano em ventilação espontânea. Os animais receberam 1mL de NaCl 0,9% IV (GC, 15

  3. Electrophysiological evaluation of the time-course of dopamine uptake inhibition induced by intravenous cocaine at a reinforcing dose

    OpenAIRE

    Wakazono, Yoshihiko; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2007-01-01

    Cocaine is an effective dopamine (DA) uptake inhibitor and this action appears to be the primary cause for increased DA transmission following systemic cocaine administration. Although this action had been reliably demonstrated in vivo with cocaine at high doses, data on the extent and the time-course of DA uptake inhibition induced by intravenous (iv) cocaine at low, reinforcing doses remain controversial. To clarify this issue, we examined how cocaine affects striatal neuronal responses to ...

  4. Dosimetric evaluation in panoramic and tele-radiography procedures; Avaliacao dosimetrica em procedimentos de radiografia panoramica e teleradiografias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Georgge Gomes

    2004-07-01

    The present work had as an objective to evaluate the skin surface entrance dose in panoramic and tele radiography procedures in three clinics in Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil, and to contribute with data for the determination of reference levels for super cited extra oral procedures, for this purpose, operational conditions in 3 clinics were evaluated in Recife, aiming to evaluate the existence and integrity of the radioprotection equipment, manner and conditions of image processing; and radiographic equipment parameters such as the dimension of the irradiation filed, the total filtration, the exposure time and the potential applied to the X ray tube. For an estimation of the skin entrance dose of the patient, the phantom Randon Alderson and thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. From these values and the conversion factors determined by the Monte Carlo technique, with the phantom MAX it was possible to estimate the dose absorbed in the organ due to the tele radiography procedures. Regarding panoramic radiography the study showed that the more elevated doses occurred in the parotid gland region which is near rotational venters. In the case of tele radiography the highest dose value occurred in the regions corresponding to the temporal lobe of the brain, followed by linfonodes, ears and parotid glands. The doses absorbed in the eyes and the thyroid gland were, 0.037 mGy and 0.002 mGy in Clinic A and 0.062 mGy and 0.003 mGy in Clinic C, respectively. Regarding equipment test, inadequacy was found in the beam collimation in Clinic A and in the reproducibility of the X ray exposure in Clinic C. The total filtration in both clinics was inadequate.(author)

  5. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  6. 何谓DaF,DaZ,DaM?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀芳

    2004-01-01

    DaF(Deutsch als Fremdsprache)“对外德语” 这是一个在德语界耳熟能详的术语,人们首先想到的也许是德语培训班。实际上,DaF发展到今天,已成了一个广义的概念(Oberbegriff)。它由两大部分组成:除了人们已熟悉的为母语非德语人士开设的德语语言培训,即语言教学实践(DaF-Lehrgebiet)部分外,还包括学科专业(DaF-Studiengang)部分。

  7. Registration of radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is maintaining the register (called Dose Register) of the radiation exposure of occupationally exposed workers in order to ensure compliance with the principles of optimisation and individual protection. The guide contains a description of the Dose Register and specifies the responsibilities of the party running a radiation practice to report the relevant information to the Dose Register

  8. Nomes de marca estrangeiros: examinando a relacao entre a linguagem e a avaliacao de uma marca internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Olavarrieta Soto, Sergio; Manzur Mobarec, Enrique; Friedmann, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    A eleiçao de nomes de marca em idiomas estrangeiros ("foreign brand names") nos mercados latino-americanos e bastante popular em variadas categorías de produtos, Nos investigamos este fenomeno entendendo os trabalhos originais de Le Clerc et. al. (1989-1994) no contexto de um pais latino americano em desenvolvimento, como o Chile. Para isso realizaram-se esperimentos ulilizando duas linguas estrangeiras: Frances e Ingles, alem da linguagem do pais foco -Espanhol-, o que amplia o estudo origin...

  9. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice; Avaliacao fisico-quimica do suco de maca irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple`s juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Evaluation of the influence of water and oil derivatives absorption on PVC pipes; Avaliacao da influencia da absorcao de agua e de derivados de petroleo em tubulacoes de PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, D.C.F. del; D' Almeida, J.R.M., E-mail: dalmeida@puc-rio.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    PVC is the only polymer of large consume that is not totally obtained from petroleum, since it contains 57% of chlorine. As chlorine containing materials are resistant to bacteria rich environments, such as buried pipes, PVC is being used for fluid transportation, principally water, but it can also be considered as an alternative material for the transportation of other fluids. This work analyzes the aging behavior of PVC exposed to water, ethanol and diesel oil, using TGA, DSC, FT-IR and DR-X techniques. The results showed that the chemical structure of PVC is not affected by exposure to water and ethanol. For these fluids a dipolar interaction could be occurring, increasing at the beginning of the absorption process, the polymer thermal stability. The diesel oil caused plasticization, with reduction of the Tg since the beginning of the aging process. (author)

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the utilization of biopiles technology to the bioremediation of the soil of Guamare/RN (Brazil); Avaliacao preliminar da aplicacao da tecnologia de biopilhas para a biorremediacao do solo de Guamare/RN (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edmilson P.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Costa, Alex S.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of biopiles to the bioremediation of the soil of Stabilization Station of Guamare-RN-Brazil. The evaluation was performed by the characterization of the soil, tests of biodegradation in laboratory scale and by the use of a complete 2{sup 3} factorial design with triplicate at the central point. The input variables were: Nitrogen concentration; diesel-oil concentration; and inoculum concentration. The response variable was the percentage gravimetric loss of organic matter. Statistical analyses of the main factors and their interactions on the response variable were performed using contour curves and Pareto obtained from the software STATISTICA for Windows, Release 5.5. The results showed that biopiles technology can be used to remediate eventual contaminated areas in that region. (author)

  12. Model for qualitative evaluation of risk in ducts through the fuzzy logic in conformity with the methodology of IBR; Modelo para avaliacao qualitativa do risco em oleodutos atraves da logica fuzzy segundo a metodologia da IBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, Koje Daniel Vasconcelos [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Silva, Jose Felicio da; Silva, Joao Bosco de Aquino [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPb), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This work considers a system for qualitative evaluation of the terrestrial risk in pipelines, based in the methodology of the Inspection Based on Risk and the Fuzzy Logic. For this one developed a matrix of risk associated with the oil transport and its derivatives, that define the type of tracking and the regularity of inspection with Pig Instrumented in function of the level of risk found in the stretch in study. This matrix of risk considers the probabilities and the consequences associates to the damage for corrosion. The evaluation of the considered system was based on the consistency of the found levels of risk, in relation to that it would be found in the practical one. The gotten results had demonstrated that the use of the methodology of the IBR and the Fuzzy Logic can be used jointly as one sufficiently efficient alternative technique in the evaluation of risk in corroded pipe-lines. (author)

  13. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Avaliacao da contaminacao por elementos inorganicos e esteres ftalicos em poeira domestica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 {mu}m. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the uncertainty for the efficiency curve determination of {sup 210}Pb by liquid scintillation; Avaliacao da incerteza para a curva de eficiencia da determinacao de {sup 210}Pb por cintilacao liquida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.S.; Sousa, W.O.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: camilla@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Methodologies for the evaluation of uncertainties associated with the determination of the efficiency curve of {sup 210}Pb by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) are presented. No statistical difference were found when compared the uncertainties of the curves that represented the counting net before and after the secular equilibrium between {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Bi, nether when compared the curves when counting only {sup 210}Pb and the curve with the total count of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Bi, for the same time interval after precipitation. (author)

  15. Combined discrete nebulization and microextraction process for molybdenum determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS); Avaliacao da combinacao da nebulizacao discreta e processos de microextracao aplicados a determinacao de molibdenio por espectrometria de absorcao atomica com chama (FAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Jenny A.; Jesus, Amanda M.D. de; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R., E-mail: erpf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    Simple and sensitive procedures for the extraction/preconcentration of molybdenum based on vortex-assisted solidified floating organic drop microextraction (VA-SFODME) and cloud point combined with flame absorption atomic spectrometry (FAAS) and discrete nebulization were developed. The influence of the discrete nebulization on the sensitivity of the molybdenum preconcentration processes was studied. An injection volume of 200 μ resulted in a lower relative standard deviation with both preconcentration procedures. Enrichment factors of 31 and 67 and limits of detection of 25 and 5 μ L{sup -1} were obtained for cloud point and VA-SFODME, respectively. The developed procedures were applied to the determination of Mo in mineral water and multivitamin samples. (author)

  16. Application of nuclear techniques for the assessment of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte City, MG; Aplicacao de tecnicas nucleares nos estudos de avaliacao da poluicao do ar da regiao metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucas, Janaina Goncalves

    2009-07-01

    Toxic metals, such as Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and metalloids as As and Se and their compounds are mainly associated with the smaller diameter particulates present in the atmospheric aerosols. This fact is important, principally, when it concerns public health, because this is considered the breathable fraction of particles that can penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause damage to the alveoli. Once in the atmosphere the concentrations of trace metals, in general, show very low levels, thus the determination of the elementary composition of those particles requires the use of appropriate analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Rays Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), among others. The main objective of this study was the identification of the generating sources of gross (PM{sub 10}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) particles present in the atmospheric aerosols of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Neutron Activation Analyses by k{sub 0}-method (k0NAA) combined with energy dispersed by X-ray fluorescence was used to measurement of the concentration of trace elements present in each sample. High levels of particulate concentrations, especially PM{sub 2.5}, were measured during the sampling period. In general, the air quality varied from Reasonable to Inadequate. The receptor model used to assist in the identification of the main emission sources was the Principal Components Analysis. The results showed that the main elements presents in particulate inhalable matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}) were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, W and Zn. The results for multi-variable analyses shown clearly four pollutant sources, these being: vehicular emissions; resuspended soil/asphalt powder; secondary aerosols associated with emission of SO{sub 2} and industrial emissions associated with fossil oil burning. (author)

  17. Inorganic composition determination and evaluation of the biological activity of Peperomia pellucida in the Aspergillus flavus growth; Estudo da composicao inorganica e avaliacao da atividade biologica de Peperomia pellucida no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio

    2011-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a great advancement in research in developing drugs from plants. Nevertheless, little significant care exists in the literature about the stable concentration of elements, as well as the activity concentration of '2{sup 38}U and {sup 232}Th decay products in plants used for this purpose in Brazil. The presence of stable elements and radionuclides in plants constitutes the pathway for their migration to humans, via uptake of tea or remedies made with medicinal herbs. Peperomia pellucida, whose popular name is 'erva de jabuti', is a plant known by its medicinal usages, such as healing and analgesic properties plus antibacterial and antifungal activities against food fungi. In this study, the elemental composition of Peperomia pellucida and surrounding soil samples collected in the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro was determined; the elemental concentration in the alcoholic extract and infusion processes of dry plants was also determined. The elemental concentration of As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn was determined in the leaves, aerial parts, including leaves, stems and roots of Peperomia pellucida, in their extracts obtained by maceration and infusions and in the surrounding soil by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical methodology used to determine the elements Cd, Hg and Pb was the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS); the activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were carried out by gross alpha and beta counting, after radiochemical separation. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen, IAEA-Soil-7, IAEA-326 Radionuclides in soil, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves and NIST 1542 Peach Leaves. The relative standard deviations and the relative errors obtained in these analyses indicated good precision and accuracy of the results. The essential oil, ethanolic and hexane extracts of Peperomia pellucida were tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus in vitro on Petri plates. The antifungal activity was based on the inhibition zone and IC{sub 50} values against the pathogen on Petri plates assays. Also, the essential oil chemical composition was determined by GC-MS. (author)

  18. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  19. The refractometry use in the evaluation of type 'C' gasoline non-conformities; Uso da refratometria na avaliacao de nao conformidades da gasolina tipo 'C'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, K.M.; Andrade, J.M.; Severiano, M.L.; Medeiros, M.A.O.; Fernandes, N.S.; Fernandes, V.J. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: klecia.morais@bol.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The need of the creation of practical and efficient methods that can monitor the quality of the automotive fuels it is an important factor, because they should evaluate the physical-chemical properties of the fuels to guarantee your conformity. To determine these parameters of conformity, several regulars analyses are done in the gasoline type 'C', as the distillation and content of ethyl alcohol (AEAC). However, the present work has as objective uses the refractometry in the forecast of irregularities in the gasoline trying to establish a faster and efficient analysis method. (author)

  20. Evaluation of parapharyngeal space by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance. Part 1: anatomy; O valor da tomografia computadorizada e da ressonancia magnetica na avaliacao do espaco parafaringeo. Parte 1: anatomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Rapoport, Abrao [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-01-01

    The authors, through a comprehensive review of the literature, intend to establish an anatomical concept of the parapharyngeal space and its surroundings spaces in the supra-hyoid neck, based on its division by the fascial planes. The correlation between the anatomically defined parapharyngeal space and the findings of the sectional imaging procedures (computed tomography and magnetic resonance) is established, evidencing clear anatomic-radiologic correspondence. (author) 44 refs., 2 figs.