WorldWideScience

Sample records for avaliacao da concentracao

  1. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  2. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  3. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  4. Sustainable charcoal use in iron and steel industry in Carajas region, Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial brasileiro de florestas plantadas na reducao da concentracao do carbono atmosferico: o caso do polo guseiro de Grande Carajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Concern about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change has raised awareness that forest-management strategies have a large potential for storing and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. Other measures under consideration include the use of renewable biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel use. This thesis shows the potential of charcoal from renewable Eucalyptus plantations for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by replacing charcoal from the harvest of native forest in the iron and steel industry located at Carajas region, state of Para, Brazil. The results show that, if deforestation in the Carajas region were stopped and substituted by renewable forests for charcoal production, within a 21-year time horizon some 470.000 hectares of native Amazon forests could be preserved, avoiding the emission of some 2.67 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr to the atmosphere, which is 3.2% of the current carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Brazil (82,4 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr) at a cost of 2,65-3,84 US$/tC. (author)

  5. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the reservoir was carried out and the possibility of these elements interfering adversely on biota and water quality of this environment. (author)

  6. Avaliacao da Relacao entre a Doenca Hepatica Nao Gordurosa e CAD utilizando TCMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Efe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Alguns fatores de risco para a aterosclerose são acompanhados pela doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA. Desejamos usar a tomografia computadorizada multi-fatias (TCMF como a técnica para encontrar relação entre a DHGNA e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Objetivo: A relação entre a DHGNA e a DAC foi investigada através de TCMF. Métodos: Um total de 372 indivíduos com ou sem sintomas cardíacos, que foram submetidos à angiografia por TCMF, foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença da DHGNA. Os segmentos arteriais coronarianos foram avaliados visualmente via angiografia por TCMF. Com base no grau de estenose arterial coronariana, aqueles com placas ausentes ou mínimas foram considerados como normais, enquanto aqueles que apresentavam estenose de menos do que 50% e no mínimo uma placa foram considerados como portadores da doença arterial coronariana não obstrutiva (não-obsDAC. Os pacientes que apresentaram no mínimo uma placa e estenose arterial coronariana de 50% ou mais foram considerados como portadores de doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (obsDAC. A DHGNA foi determinada de acordo com o protocolo de TCMF, utilizando a densidade hepática. Resultados: De acordo com a densidade hepática, o número de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (grupo 1 foi de 204 (149 homens, 54,8% e com fígado normal (grupos 2 foi de 168 (95 homens, 45.2%. Houve 50 (24,5% não-obsDAC e 57 (27,9% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 1, e 39 (23,2% não-obsDAC e 23 (13,7% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 2. Conclusões: O presente estudo utilizando TCMF demonstrou que a frequência da doença arterial coronariana em pacientes com NAFDL foi significativamente superior do que nos pacientes em NAFDL.

  7. Avaliacao da seguranca de diferentes doses de suplementos de acido folico em mulheres do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quenia dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a distribuição da ingestão de ácido fólico e a segurança de diferentes doses de suplementos em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados de consumo a partir de dois dias não consecutivos de registro alimentar de 6.837 mulheres em idade reprodutiva (19 a 40 anos participantes do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, módulo da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Médias e percentis de consumo habitual de folato natural e ácido fólico foram estimados utilizando o método do National Cancer Institute . Cinco cenários foram simulados somando-se diferentes doses diárias de fortificação (400 mcg, 500 mcg, 600 mcg, 700 mcg e 800 mcg ao ácido fólico oriundo dos alimentos consumidos pelas mulheres. Comparou-se o total de ácido fólico (dieta + suplemento com o nível máximo de ingestão tolerável (UL = 1.000 mcg para definir a dose segura de suplementação. RESULTADOS Mulheres com ingestão habitual de ácido fólico acima do nível máximo de ingestão tolerável foram observadas para doses de suplemento de 800 mcg (7,0% das mulheres. Abaixo desse valor, qualquer dose de suplementação mostrou-se segura. CONCLUSÕES O uso de suplementos de até 700 mcg de ácido fólico mostrou-se seguro.

  8. Metal concentration on soils of urban parks at Sao Paulo, Brazil. 3. Parque da Aclimacao; Concentracao de metais em solos de parques urbanos em Sao Paulo. 3. Parque da Aclimacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavese, Arthur C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: pavese@terra.com.br; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Gumiero, Felipe C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Enzweiler, Jacinta [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jacinta@ige.unicamp.br; Milian, Felix Mas [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: felixmasmilian@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper determines the concentration of As, Ba, Zn, Sb, Se, Co, Cf, Cu and Pb on samples of superficial soils (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) at the Parque da Aclimacao, Sao Paulo downtown. The metal analyses were performed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The obtained results for the Zn were higher than the values considered as reference for soils at Sao Paulo, in accordance with the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB), but were lower than the prevention values. For the As, Ba, Cr and Sb, the results have shown concentration higher than the values of reference reported by the CETESB. (author)

  9. Leitura rapida do KDIGO 2012: Diretrizes para avaliacao e manuseio da doenca renal cronica na pratica clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores desta "leitura rápida" apresentam os dados que consideraram mais relevantes na versão 2012 do KDIGO referente à avaliação e manuseio da doença renal crônica. Não se trata da opinião dos autores, mas sim de uma apresentação mais concisa das diretrizes, que podem ser úteis na prática clínica.

  10. Avaliacao da espessura medio-intimal em pacientes com doenca renal cronica nao dialitica: estudo prospectivo de 24 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gaspar Marcos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento da espessura média-intimal (EMI avaliada por ultrassom é um preditor de risco cardiovascular na população geral. Porém, em pacientes com doença renal crônica nos estágios iniciais, essa associação ainda não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação EMI com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e mortalidade em pacientes nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica. Métodos: A análise post hoc de uma coorte de pacientes nos estágios 2-4 da DRC. Foram avaliados dados laboratoriais, ultrassom da artéria carótida e tomografia coronariana no início do estudo e a ocorrência de óbito, em seguimento por 24 meses. Resultados: Um total de 117 pacientes (57 ± 11 anos, 61% sexo masculino foram avaliados. A taxa de filtração glomerular foi 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% dos pacientes eram hipertensos, 23% diabéticos e 27% obesos. Calcificação arterial coronariana esteve presente em 48% dos pacientes, sendo mais prevalente em pacientes nos estágios mais avançados da DRC (p = 0,02. EMI foi 0,6 mm (0,4-0,7 mm. Comparado aos pacientes com EMI < 0,6mm, aqueles com EMI ≥ 0,6 mm eram mais velhos (p = 0,001, apresentavam maior prevalência do sexo masculino (p = 0,001, menor taxa de filtração glomerular (p = 0,01 e maior proporção de pacientes com calcificação (p = 0,001. Não foi observada relação entre a espessura média-intimal e a ocorrência de evento cardiovascular e óbito. Conclusão: A espessura médio-intimal em pacientes DRC se associou à calcificação coronariana, mas não à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e óbito, em um seguimento de 24 meses.

  11. Evaluation of the activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty bay region; Avaliacao da concentracao de atividade de Ra-226, Ra-228 e Pb-210 em sedimentos provenientes da Antartica na regiao da baia do Almirantado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Tamires de Araujo

    2015-07-01

    The natural radionuclides from radioactive series of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th have been applied as tracers in environmental studies for understanding the dynamics that occur in both marine and terrestrial environment, as for example, in research of oceanic processes and management of the coastal region. In the marine environment, these radionuclides can be used to estimate biogeochemical fluxes of marine particles and nutrients that occur in the water column as well as in the sediment. Several research works applied the distribution and the respective disequilibrium degree of natural radionuclides in the environment, including geochronological models for obtaining historical information on samples of certain sediment profile. In this study we performed a radiochemical characterization of the distribution of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb from a sedimentary column called 1B (248 cm long) collected in the Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula region. The methodology used included the acid leaching of sediment samples followed by the radiochemical sequential separation of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by co-precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and {sup 210}Pb by co-precipitation with PbCrO{sub 4}. All measurements were carried out by counting of gross alpha and gross beta measures in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were used to estimate the unsupported {sup 210}Pb activities present in sediment profile 1 B. Based on unsupported {sup 210}Pb data and the application of the CIC model (Constant Initial Concentration), it was possible to determine the sedimentation rate of 0.59 ± 0.05 cm /year. (author)

  12. Assessment of natural radionuclides concentration from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in Virginia and Burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L; Avaliacao da concentracao dos radionuclideos naturais das series do {sup 238}U e {sup 232}Th nas variedades Burley e Virginia da Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carolina Fernanda da

    2015-07-01

    Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop production of 2013/2014. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco products varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variations resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world, and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed globally, and many surveys are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. There is a lack of information about the radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, members from the {sup 238}U decay series, and the radionuclides {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra members of the {sup 232}Th decay series in the varieties Burley and Virginia, which are the most cultivated in Brazil. Plants from these varieties were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and also acquired from the producers and analyzed by alpha spectrometry for U and Th isotopes and {sup 210}Po determination, and gross alpha and beta counting, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination. The whole plant, from both places, was analyzed; root, stem, leaves, as well as the organic substrate, the fertilizers, and the soil. The results for U and Th isotopes presented values below the detection limits of the methods to the leaves and stems of all plants analyzed, with measurable results only in roots, soil, and substrate. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po, were determined in most parts of the plants, with the highest values obtained for {sup 228}Ra, which also had the highest value of the transfer factor. Plants grown at IPEN showed lower concentration of radionuclides analyzed when compared with plants grown by the producer, as these were grown in pots with organic substrate and addition of fertilizer, whose analysis showed low concentrations of radionuclides studied. Based on data from national literature who studied the Brazilian fertilizer, it can be concluded, to the plants from the producer, the fertilizer has a great influence in the concentration of radionuclides studied. (author)

  13. Evaluation of radon and their daughters concentration and estimative of effective dose in a waste deposits at the ore treatment unity of INB/Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de radonio e seus filhos e estimativa de dose efetiva em um deposito de rejeitos na unidade de tratamento de minerios da INB/Caldas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Antunes, Marcos M.; Junior, Joao V.S.; Py Junior, Delcy A., E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b, E-mail: antunes@inb.gov.b, E-mail: Joao@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Pereira, Wagner S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Universidade Federal Fluminense (IB/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos

    2011-10-26

    This paper conducts a surveillance of radon and their short half-life daughters gas concentration, inside the warehouse due to these gas inhalation. The results showed that the average concentration inside the warehouse ix approximately 700 Bq/m{sup 3} and the effective dose of an IOE, related to that concentration would be 5.0 mSv/year, therefore being 4 times lower than the established limit of 20 mSv/year

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach

  15. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL oriented values adopted by CETESB for toxic metals content in sediments, area 1 surpassed the TEL limits for some metals, mainly for Hg. Sediments from area 2 and 3 (except station 14), did not exceed the limits for most of the metals analyzed. Although the sediments from Cananeia region were composed mainly of sandy fractions, in some stations the pelitic fraction was greatly significant. From the results obtained in the region, the concentration levels of metals potentially available such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were below the limits TEL and PEL oriented values and CONAMA 344/2004 resolution for the 3 areas assessed: area 1 (Cananeia sea), area 2 (Trapande Bay) and area 3 (Cubatao sea). Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo), geochemical tools used for contamination assessment were used to evaluate the contamination level in both estuaries. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results which were then compared to the results of other published studies in these regions (Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia). (author)

  16. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  17. Evaluation of home-made teas efficiency from medicinal plants used on childish diarrhea treatment; Avaliacao da eficacia de chas caseiros de plantas medicinais utilizados no tratamento da diarreia infantil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Magda Moreira; Silva, Maria Jose de Sousa Ferreira da [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, Claudia de; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this work is to verify whether the home-made teas form Brazilian plants, used for control of childish diarrhea have been efficient reaching the composition recommended by World Health Organizations (WHO). This work has been carried out using the neutron activation analysis and the TRIGA MARK I reactor, the IPR-R1, in the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Quality evaluation of image segmentation of brain magnetic resonance for mapping and functional analysis; Avaliacao da qualidade de segmentacao de imagens de ressonancia magnetica cerebral para mapeamento e analise funcional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, F.K.; Canova, C.V.; Marques da Silva, A.M. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Nucleo de Pesquisas em Imagens Medicas (NIMed)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of the brain structure segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRI) through a comparison between automatic and semiautomatic volumetric segmentation techniques. T1-weighed volumetric acquired stacks of MRI head images from Centro de Diagnostico por Imagens at the Hospital Sao Lucas da PUCRS were used in this study. In the semi-automatic segmentation technique were applied procedures like pre-processing and region-growing using Image J software. The automatic method of volume segmentation was carried through by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), a statistical analysis tool written for software MATLAB. The automatic method of volumetric segmentation had better performance in time. However the quality of image that the half-automatic segmentation presents a better detailing, but it required longer image processing time. The best method to be used, whether automatic or semi-automatic, depends on the region of interest. (author)

  19. Thermal hydraulic evaluation for an experimental facility to investigate pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in CDTN/CNEN; Avaliacao termo-hidraulica da montagem experimental de choque termico pressurizado do CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Elcio T.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Aronne, Ivam D.; Terra, Jose L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the work presented in this paper is to provide necessary thermal hydraulics information to the design of an experimental installation to investigate the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) to be implemented at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN). The envisaged installation has a test section that represents, in a small scale, a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. This test section will be heated and then exposed to a PTS in order to evaluate the appearance and development of cracks. To verify the behavior of the temperatures of the pressure vessel after a sudden flood through the annulus, calculations were made using the RELAP5/MOD 3.2.2 gamma code. Different outer radiuses were studied for the annular region. The results showed that the smaller annulus spacing (20 mm) anticipates the wetting of the surface and produces a higher cooling of the external surface, which stays completely wet for a longer time. (author)

  20. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc; Avaliacao da solubilidade em liquido pulmonar simulado dos metais presentes no rejeito gerado por uma industria metalurgica de zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O, and willemite - Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f{sub r} = 2.082 days; f{sub r} = 0.09 days; f{sub r} = 0.37 days; f{sub r} = 0.332 days ad f{sub r} = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f{sub r} = 146.95 days; f{sub r} = 63 days; f{sub r} = 86.64 days; f{sub r} = 79.66 days and f{sub r} = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in

  1. Disinfection of effluent of wastewater treated using solar energy (SODIS): evaluation of a solar concentrator device; Desinfeccao de efluentes com tratamento terciario utilizando energia solar (SODIS): avaliacao do uso do dispositivo para concentracao dos raios solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp; Silva, Marcelo Jacomini Moreira da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Saneamento e Ambiente]. E-mail: pater@agr.unicamp.br

    2005-01-15

    Besides being an available natural resource, the solar energy is very applicable in places with few recourses and low money resources, because there aren't either the need of chemical products neither a huge cost (commercial materials can be reused). To make this job we re-used PET bottles half painted black with the variables: 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours of heat exposition and we also used a concentrator of rays of sunshine. The affluent control parameters were turbidity, apparent color, temperature, total coliforms and E. coli. These last three were evaluated before and after the disinfection process (effluent parameters). To assess the bacteria reactivation we kept the water in bottles for 24 hours, pretending a very common situation in Brazilian rural houses. We conclude that the use of the concentrator of rays of sunshine can reduce the heat exposition from 6 to 4 hours, without harm the SODIS efficiency. Using the concentrator of rays of sunshine for 6 hours we can obtain, besides SODIS, the process of solar pasteurization (SOPAS), which stops the re-growth of bacteria with a 70 deg C water temperature. We also observed that when the sky is cloudy the incidence of solar radiation and, therefore, the SODIS efficiency decrease, even if the water temperature is higher during the disinfection. Although, this factor doesn't mean a significant influence statistically. (author)

  2. Evaluation of radon concentration in dwellings and well water of Parana State-Brazil; Avaliacao dos niveis de concentracao de radonio em ambientes e aguas de pocos no Estado do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi

    2011-07-01

    Considering the growing interest of International Agencies and national Governmental organs in studies and measurements of radon activity in air, soil gas and ground water (mainly from artesian wells) as well as scarceness of such measurements at Brazilian territory, present studies were initiated by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN) of Brazilian Commission on Nuclear Energy (CNEN). This Collaboration started in 2003. Radon monitoring program is based mainly on use of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors for radon activity measurements in air. Continuous electronic radon detectors are used for radon measurements in soil gas and water. Current work presents the results of indoor {sup 222}Rn activity of dwellings and working places of Curitiba-PR and radon concentration in ground water samples from artesian wells from aquifers of the same area. The indoor measurements of radon activity were performed using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors CR-39. After the exposition, CR-39 detectors were submitted to chemical development which permitted to make alpha particle tracks counting. The results of calibration of CR-39 together with efficiency of used exhalation chambers as well as alpha particle tracks chemical development procedure were performed in cooperation with CDTN and collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The major part of indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration in residences was found below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements present {sup 222}Rn concentration bellow 100 Bq/m3. The studies of radon activity in water were performed using the samples of water from artesian wells submitted to recursive measurements by instant radon detector AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO during few weeks with intervals of about 4 days between each measurement approximately. The calculations of initial radon activity in water were done considering the {sup 222}Rn decay correction as well as equilibrium level of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra observed after 30 days of measurements. Obtained results show that about 70% measured activity levels of {sup 222}Rn are higher than recommended value of 11.1 Bq/L which represent the risk for the human health associated with this radionuclide.

  3. BCT phase formation in synthesis via microwave assisted hydrothermal method; Limite da concentracao de Ca na formacao da fase BCT em sintese via metodo hidrotermico assistido por microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barra, B.C.; Souza, A.E.; Teixeira, S.R.; Santos, G.T.A.; Lanzi, C.A.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCT/DFQB/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia; Longo, E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IQ/UNESP/), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Materiais em Nanotecnologia (INCTMN), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In previous work, samples of barium and calcium titanate (Ba1-xCaxTiO3 (BCT x = 0- 1) were prepared using the microwave assisted hydrothermal method in conditions of relatively short time and temperature. To the sample with 75wt% of Ca no BCT phase was formed but the photoluminescent emission was improved. In the present study, these titanates were synthesized by the same method with other concentrations of Ca, Ba1-xCaxTiO3 (x = 0, 0.20, 0.40, 0. 60, 0.80 and 1) to evaluate the limit of BCT phase formation. Results of X-ray diffraction showed that the phase BCT is formed between zero and 50wt%-Ca, in Ba substitution. Above this concentration, was observed only the formation of carbonates, and to x = 1 there was carbonate formation together with CaTiO3. These results were confirmed by micro Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  4. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds; Avaliacao da radiomarcacao da anexina A5 com tecnecio-99m: influencia do metodo de marcacao nas propriedades fisico-quimicas e biologicas do composto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several {sup 99}mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O]{sup +3}, [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc{identical_to}N]+2 and [Tc(CO{sub 3})]{sup +1}. In this study, we evaluated the influence of {sup 99}mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc{identical_to}N]{sup +2} core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of {sup 99}mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl{sub 2} and PDTA to obtain the intermediate {sup 99}mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O]{sup +3} core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the {sup 99}mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound

  5. Avaliacao neuropsicologica de idosos praticantes de capoeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Miranda Petry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo procura contribuir com uma relação pouco explorada no meio acadêmico: capoeira, cognição e envelhecimento. Relacionando estudos sobre funções executivas e a capoeira, busca-se investigar a interligação desta arte e as funções executivas. Estas se referem a desempenhos de comportamentos complexos (memória de trabalho, flexibilidade mental, tomada de decisão e a memória léxico-semântica. OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de funções executivas em idosas praticantes de capoeira e idosas não praticantes de exercício físico. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal que coletou as informações de cada participante apenas uma vez. Serão comparados dois grupos: 1 grupo de idosos praticantes de capoeira e 2 idosos que não fazem exercício físico. Para seleção e caracterização dos grupos utilizaram-se: questionário sociodemográfico, aspectos gerais de saúde e escala de hábitos de leitura e escrita, mini-exame de estado mental (MEEM e escala de depressão de Yesavage (GDS-30. Para avaliar o desempenho das funções executivas foi realizado o teste de trilhas e as tarefas de fluência verbal. Para análise estatística dos dados será utilizado o teste de Shapiro-Wilk para normatização dos dados. O teste de t de Student e o teste U de Mann Whitney serão usados para comparar duas médias de amostras independentes. Utilizou-se a improvisação, a ação, a tomada de decisão, o equilíbrio e as noções de espaço, tempo, ritmo, música, e a compreensão do jogo da capoeira como intervenção devido à possível utilização dos processos executivos nessa arte. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa nos testes realizados. Porém houve superioridade nos testes de fluência verbal e testes de trilha A e B, sendo maior em B no grupo de capoeira do que no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A prática de capoeira tem uma tendência em contribuir para a melhora das funções executivas, embora os

  6. Certification for copper concentration in reference material for fuel anhydro ethylic alcohol; Certificacao da concentracao de cobre em material de referencia para alcool etilico anidro combustivel (AEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindomar Augusto dos; Rocha, Marcia Silva da; Mesko, Marcia Foster; Silva, Fagner Francisco da; Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; Araujo, Thiago Oliveira [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (DIMCI/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Metrologia Cientifica e Industrial], E-mail: lareis@inmetro.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    This work aiming to obtain the first certified reference material for fuel anhydro ethylic alcohol relative to the copper concentration, which has his maximum limit determined by the in force legislation providing traceability and reliability for the measurement results.

  7. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images; A teoria da decisao na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessa, Patricia Silva

    2001-10-01

    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  8. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  9. Imaging assessment of osteitis pubis; Avaliacao por imagem da osteite pubica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Ferreira, Ana Paula Alves; Leite, Ana Rachel Albuquerque de Moura; Guido, Daniela Araujo; Rodrigues, Rogeria Nobre [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: ce@cidbh.com.br; Araujo, Rodrigo Otavio Dias [Minas Tenis Clube, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Fisioterapia

    2005-10-15

    Objective: to assess the physiopathological aspects of osteitis pubis and the findings seen on imaging methods, emphasizing the usefulness of Flamingo view radiographs and the diagnostic aspects of Magnetic resonance images. Material and Method: magnetic resonance images of ten patients (eight of them professional athletes) referring symptoms in the inguinal regional were retrospectively evaluated. For some of these patients Flaming view radiographs were performed. Results: in all studied patients magnetic resonance imaging was the only diagnostic method capable of showing the different phases os osteitis pubis, from acute cases with pubic bone marrow edematous changes to chronic cases with involvement of other pelvic joints. Flamingo view radiographs were performed in six patients and three of them were diagnosed with vertical pubis symphyseal instability greater than 2 mm of vertical displacement. This diagnosis was confirmed by instability tests using orthopedic manoeuvres. Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging was the most helpful method for the diagnosis of different phases of osteitis pubis whereas conventional X-ray was inconclusive in the initial phases. Flamingo view radiographs were extremely important to show vertical instability of the pubic symphysis, which in combination with osteitis pubis can be the cause of failure of nonoperative treatment. (author)

  10. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: annarocha@yahoo.com, E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  11. Advances tomographic in evaluation of middle ear; Avancos tomograficos na avaliacao da orelha media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Mayara Alves Pinheiro dos; Ledo, Mirelle D& #x27; arc Frota; Ribeiro, Marcio Duarte, E-mail: may_anjos@yahoo.com.br [Fundacao Bahiana para o Desenvolvimento das Ciencias, Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography has a key role in the study of hearing, since through it can be evaluated structures not seen by otoscope. In many clinical situations the diagnosis through this test proves limited, being fundamental examination of the associated image reconstructions: multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and volume-rendering technique. The ossicular chain is a complex formed by the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes, situated in the middle ear; it is difficult to view them in orthogonals planes. This review article intends to demonstrate the importance of post-processing the image of the ossicular chain for a better representation of the anatomy and possible diseases. Reformatting of images helps, significantly, to a better visualization of these structures as related congenital malformations, vascular abnormalities, inflammatory conditions, neoplasia and traumas. (author)

  12. Quality evaluation of blood irradiation process;Avaliacao da qualidade do processo de irradiacao de hemocomponentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, R.E.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (DDI/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem. Coordenadoria de Fisica e Higiene das Radiacoes

    2009-07-01

    An adverse reaction in blood transfusion is the graft versus host disease (GVHD). This disease affects immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patients where transfused T cells proliferate and initiate a host's immune system reaction. Blood gamma irradiation is the most efficient way to inhibit lymphocyte T blastic transformation and mitotic activity and it is the most effective method to combat this disorder. However, there is no fast and effective system to analyze the dose distribution in the irradiation process and guarantee that the absorbed doses are in agreement with FDA recommendations. This study aims to establish a periodic quality control of the gammacell irradiators using radiochromic films properly calibrated. The quality control is simply and effective to combat GVHD as well as is useful to detect mechanical fails at rotation set system through the dose uniformity analysis. It was possible to verify the uniformity ranged from -72.38% to 106.33% and some blood bag received doses not compatible with recommended international threshold. (author)

  13. MRI evaluation of fetal vitality and maturity; Avaliacao da vitalidade e maturidade fetal pela ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Salete J.F. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Secaf, Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Magalhaes, Alvaro Cebrian A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Dept. de Radiologia

    1995-05-01

    Assessment of fetal vitality is an essential part of feto-maternal medicine. In clinical practice, this is carried out by investigation of the fetal growth pattern and biochemical or biophysical tests of fetal heath. MRI has the ability of characterizing different soft tissues and is the only technique that can display in the uterus the process of physiological myelinization and may well present a noninvasive method to determine lung maturity. MRI is more powerful technique allowing more detailed visualization of the fetal brain, better images can be obtained of areas such as posterior fossa. The major advantage of MRI over imaging modalities is the potential for biochemical and metabolic studies and it will make an important contribution to obstetric research. (author)., 10 refs., 7 figs p.

  14. Integrity assessment of pipelines - additional remarks; Avaliacao da integridade de dutos - observacoes adicionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis F.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios. Exploracao e Producao

    2005-07-01

    Integrity assessment of pipelines is part of a process that aims to enhance the operating safety of pipelines. During this task, questions related to the interpretation of inspection reports and the way of regarding the impact of several parameters on the pipeline integrity normally come up. In order to satisfactorily answer such questions, the integrity assessment team must be able to suitably approach different subjects such as corrosion control and monitoring, assessment of metal loss and geometric anomalies, and third party activities. This paper presents additional remarks on some of these questions based on the integrity assessment of almost fifty pipelines that has been done at PETROBRAS/E and P Bahia over the past eight years. (author)

  15. Evaluation of skin dose in tomographic radiographs of temporomandibular joint; Avaliacao da dose pele em radiografias tomograficas da articulacao tempromandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.B.; Chaves, F.C.; Rocha, F.E.F.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Khoury, H.J. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: khoury@elogica.com.br

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin entrance dose, in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunctions submitted to computerized tomography. For this purpose, in a private medical establishment, in the city of Recife-Pe/Br, 40 patients were evaluated, in according to radiation doses received in eyes, thyroid and TMJ regions. The value found for eye region range from 0.004 to 0.125 mGy, for thyroid range from 0.002 to 0.113 mGy and for TMJ range from 0.112 to 0.541 mGy.

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial activity of curcumin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimalarica de compostos derivados da curcumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Patricia Ramos; Miguel, Fabio Balbino; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Couri, Mara Rubia Costa [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Oliveira, Michael Eder de; Ferreira, Vanessa Viana; Guimaraes, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Lima, Aline Brito de; Barbosa, Camila de Souza; Oliveira, Mariana Amorim de; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla, E-mail: varotti@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; and others

    2014-05-15

    ne of the main challenges in the development of new antimalarial drugs is to achieve a viable lead candidate with good pharmacokinetic properties. Curcumin has a broad range of biological activities, including antimalarial activity. Herein, we report the antimalarial activity of six curcumin derivatives (6-12) and an initial analysis of their pharmacokinetic properties. Five compounds have demonstrated potent activity against the P. falciparum in vitro (IC{sub 50} values ranging from 1.7 to 15.2 μg mL{sup -1}), with moderate or low cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line. The substitution of the carbonyl group in 6 by a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone group (to afford 11) increases the Selective Index. These preliminary results indicate curcumin derivatives as potential antimalarial compounds. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the thermoluminescent detector answers of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti and micro LiF:Mg,Ti in photon clinical beams dosimetry using water simulator; Avaliacao da resposta de detectores termoluminescentes de CaSO4:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti e microLiF:Mg,Ti na dosimetria de feixes clinicos de fotons utilizando simulador de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Luciana C.; Veneziani, Glauco R.; Campos, Leticia L., E-mail: lmatsushima@usp.b, E-mail: veneziani@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (GMR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes; Sakuraba, Roberto K.; Cruz, Jose C. da, E-mail: rsakuraba@einstein.b, E-mail: jccruz@einstein.b [Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital Albert Einstein (HAE)

    2011-10-26

    This paper perform the comparative study of thermoluminescent answer of calcium sulfate dosemeter doped with dysprosium (DaSO{sub 4}:Dy) produced by the IPEN, Sao Paulo, with answer of lithium fluoride dosemeters doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg, Ti) in the dosimetry of clinical beams of photons (6 and 15 MV) by using water simulator object. Dose-answer curves were obtained for gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in the air and in conditions of electronic equilibrium (plate of PMMA), and clinical photons of CLINAC model 2100C accelerators of the two evaluated hospitals: Hospital das Clinicas of the Faculty of Medicine of Sao Paulo university and Hospital Albert Einstein. It was also evaluated the sensitivity and reproduction of the three dosemeters

  18. Effect of the polypropylene concentration on the structure and properties of compounds with poly(hydroxymethylacrylamide); Efeito da concentracao de polipropileno sobre a estrutura e propriedades de compostos com poli(hidroximetilacrilamida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirne, I.V.; Esperidiao, D.M.C.A., E-mail: mcecilia@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica; Watanabe, G.T. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Lucas, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Ferreira, S.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2010-07-01

    The oily wastewater from petroleum industry has micro-emulsified oil in concentration around 1000 ppm. This oil can be efficiently removed by using adsorption processes. In this work the effect of the polypropylene, PP, concentration on the structure and properties of their compounds with poly(hydroxymethylacrylamide), PHMAA, were investigated for analyze its possible use as adsorbent. The apparent density, d{sub a}, swelling degree, Xi and crosslink density, X{sub c}, were determined. The FTIR, DSC, TGA, DRX and optical microscopy analyses were made. The d{sub a} and X{sub c} values decrease when the PP concentration increases. The Xi was equal to 1.3, 1.8 e 2.0 for compounds with 65, 70 e 79% of PP, respectively. The PP-PHMAA compounds have lesser temperature and melting enthalpy than the PP. The crystalline structure of the PP chains in PP-PHMAA was modified evidencing physic interactions between PP and PHMAA chains. (author)

  19. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results; Concentracao de Rn-222 e filhos em aguas provenientes de pocos e emergencias de agua da regiao de Presidente Prudente: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Ana Maria Araya; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica Quimica e Biologia; Aguiar, Claudinei Rodrigues de [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil); Pereira, Luiz Augusto Stuani [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  20. Development of a sublation system in atmospheric tank using sunflower oil surfactant to reduce oily water concentration; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de sublacao em tanque atmosferico utilizando tensoativo de oleo de girassol para reducao da concentracao de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Rodrigo F. de; Dantas, Iuri A.C.; Quintaes, Filipe de O.; Salazar, Andres O.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to reduce the rate of oil in water, was developed a system capable to be inserted in a tank and make air bubbles move to top of the tank, where is a layer of oil, similar that occurs in flotation, but in this case is called sublation. This system is composed by drilled PVC pipes and connected in way of four identical squares, joined by a high pressure hose. A compressor located in a region near to the tank supplies air to the system through the hose, that is connected in the central point of the system. The preliminary results had shown that the concentration after the sublation, without the surfactants use, decrease of 70 ppm to 35 ppm. After the sublation using surfactants this concentration decrease of 70ppm to 24,8 ppm. The efficiency of the sublation process using surfactants made of vegetal oil - OGS - was proved by the experimental results. This process, beyond allowing a bigger reutilization of the water in the tests of the laboratory, makes possible the reduction of the rate of oil in water to permitted levels by CONAMA. (author)

  1. Technical economic evaluation for electricity generation from biomass generation; Avaliacao tecnico-economica da conversao da biomassa em eletricidade utilizando tecnologia da gaseificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: Cristinasales@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: ruben@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: esl43@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas microturbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells. The power range for electricity generation is considered between 50 kW and 3 MW. The paper shows the sensibility analysis about fuel price, investment, electric energy tax and O and M costs, and the calculation are realized in excel. The results are presented in graphs having indicated the behavior of the economic indicators in function of the variation of the costs of each parameter reducing and increasing in up to 50% of the calculated value. (author)

  2. Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry; Avaliacao da densidade da madeira de Gmelina arborea pela aplicacao da densitometria de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roque, Roger Moya [Instituto Tecnologico da Costa Rica, Cartago (Costa Rica). Centro de Investigacao em Integracao Bosque-Industria. Dept. de Engenharia Florestal]. E-mail: rmoya@itcr.ac.cr; Tomazello, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail: mtomazel@esalq.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  4. Evaluation of the asphaltenes macromolecules stabilization by alkylbenzenes compounds; Avaliacao da estabilizacao de macromoleculas asfaltenicas por compostos alquilbenzenicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Mansur, C.R.E.; Lucas, E.F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br; geiza@ima.ufrj.br; Gonzalez, G. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: gaspar@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The asphaltene deposition is a problem that affects oil production, transportation and storage. Some researches about asphaltene stabilization have been made in order to avoid its flocculation and deposition. In this work, the performance of four alkylbenzene compounds as asphaltene stabilizer was evaluated. The additive were tested in two different concentrations: 5000 and 10000 mg/L. Cardanol, polycardanol, polystyrene and polystyrene sulfonade were used as additive. The study was carried out by asphaltene precipitation in a solvent mixture (toluene and heptane), since that the asphaltene solubility in these solvents are different. The best results were obtained by using cardanol, at 5000 mg/L. (author)

  5. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  6. Evaluation of radioiodinetherapy protocol for patients with Plummer disease; Avaliacao do protocolo da radioiodoterapia para pacientes com doenca de Plummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Keyla Mary Cavalheiro; Antonio Filho, Joao; Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: keylamcm@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The disease Plummer (DP) is generated by the thyroid cells that function autonomously, independent the rest of the organ parenchyma. The DP presents a prevalence of 1% to 9%, higher in regions with iodine deficiency, affecting six women for every man. The study was conducted at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) from {sup 99m}Tc data capture and mass existing in the thyroid records of 54 patients with PD who underwent radioiodine therapy with fixed activities 1110 megabecquerels (MBq) from 2004 to 2008. For capitation of {sup 99m}Tc from a group of 22 patients were used 5 ml syringes, measured by a Capintec CRC-7 model activimeter, having scintigraphy after 20 minutes and results in a region of interest. Mass evaluation was based on method of palpation of the thyroid, considering the mass standard. It is observed that 68.2% of patients received more activity than needed, 31.8% were less active, and none received activity in accordance with your needs. There was a statistically significant difference (p <0.05) between the fixed activities and activities computed for all patients, according to Chi-square test for independence with 21 degrees of freedom. The cure rate of a group of 32 patients was 75% after one year of follow-up. It is suggested that the RIT is preceded by an assessment of the maximum percentage of uptake and thyroid mass.

  7. Competencies evaluation of the petroleum industry local suppliers; Avaliacao de competencias dos fornecedores locais da industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzani, Bianca Santos; Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mail: bianca@ige.unicamp.br; furtado@ige.unicamp.br

    2003-07-01

    This article presents a research proposition that focuses on competencies evaluation of the local suppliers of goods and services in the petroleum industry. Because of the new context created by the opening of the petroleum market the suppliers to face a new competition environment, exposed to the foreign suppliers that operate in a higher production scale and have great financial and technological capacities. This justifies the development of the current study because the final diagnosis will help the studied companies in their decision process by the divulgation of their weaknesses and potentialities, which will motivate an improvement in the sector. In this paper, we include technological, organizational and relational competencies. Moreover, some of the main contributions of the literature about these topics are presented, including Lall, Kim, Figueiredo, Furtado, Munier, etc. (author)

  8. Secondary network distribution evaluation system using genetic algorithms; Sistema de avaliacao da rede secundaria de distribuicao utilizando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Alexandre Augusto Angelo de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: alexandre.souza@copel.com; Neves Junior, Flavio; Lopes, Heitor Silverio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: neves@cpgei.cefetpr.br; hslopes@cpgei.cefetpr.br

    2006-10-15

    Abstract: This work aims at evaluating the performance of an evolutionary approach of Pareto's Optimization for a multi objective optimization problem. The purpose of the method is to generate a solution not dominated to determine an appropriate configuration for a circuit of the secondary network. The method considers values of supply voltage evaluated through the simulation of a power flow, as well as cost criteria for the proposed solution. For the determination of the best configuration of the circuit, replacement of cables and changes of the phases of consumers are evaluated, aiming at an improvement of voltage level of the circuit in analysis. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  11. Evaluation of elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais (MG); Avaliacao da composicao elementar de argilas de Campos Gerais (MG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao P.M.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jpmm0697@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous applications given to clays including oil and water adsorbent, ceramic, whitening of beverages, porcelain, waste treatment, organic carrier molecules in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, support for catalysts. In the pharmaceutical industry, the clays are used as excipients, diluents, desiccants, emulsifiers, to mask undesirable flavors, isotonic agent such as charger and delivery of active substances. These characteristics have contributed to the expansion of the search for applications of clay minerals in the cosmetic industry. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais, Minas Gerais, with a view to their applicability in the production of cosmetics. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th,U, Yb and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis and radionuclide activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was verified that the activity concentration of radionuclides was in the same concentration as the global average, indicating that these samples do not present a risk of increased radiation exposure. The concentration of most elements determined is less than or equal to the overall mean concentrations, indicated by the values of Continental Upper Crust. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  13. Evaluation of {sup 7}Be fallout spatial variability; Avaliacao da variabilidade espacial do fallout do {sup 7}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Victor Meriguetti

    2011-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide beryllium-7 (Be) is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic particle reactions and is being used as a tracer for soil erosion and climatic processes research. After the production, {sup 7}Be bonds to aerosol particles in the atmosphere and is deposited on the soil surface with other radionuclide species by rainfall. Because of the high adsorption on soil particles and its short half-life of 53.2 days, this radionuclide follows of the erosion process and can be used as a tracer to evaluate the sediment transport that occurs during a single rain event or short period of rain events. A key assumption for the erosion evaluation through this radiotracer is the uniformity of the spatial distribution of the {sup 7}Be fallout. The {sup 7}Be method was elaborated recently and due to its few applications, some assumptions related to the method were not yet properly investigated yet, and the hypothesis of {sup 7}Be fallout uniformity needs to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 7}Be fallout spatial distribution through the rain water {sup 7}Be activity analysis of the first five millimeters of single rain events. The rain water was sampled using twelve collectors distributed on an experimental area of about 300 m2 , located in the campus of Sao Paulo University, Piracicaba. The {sup 7}Be activities were measured using a 53% efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer from the Radioisotope laboratory of CENA. The {sup 7}Be activities in rain water varied from 0.26 to 1.81 Sq.L{sup -}1, with the highest values in summer and lowest in spring. In each one of the 5 single events, the spatial variability of {sup 7}Se activity in rain water was high, showing the high randomness of the fallout spatial distribution. A simulation using the {sup 7}Be spatial variability values obtained here and {sup 7}Se average reference inventories taken from the literature was performed determining the lowest detectable erosion rate estimated by {sup 7}Be model. The importance of taking a representative number of samples to determine the average reference {sup 7}Se inventory was verified, which is essential to improve the precision of the soil redistribution rate estimates. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the image quality in computed tomography: different phantoms; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem na tomografia computadorizada: diferentes fantomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Vinicius C.; Delduck, Romulo S.; Kodlulovich, Simone [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Larissa C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia. Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory; Mecca, Fernando A. [National Institute of Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Silva, Humberto O. [Copa D' Or Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Rede Labs D' Or

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the simulators provided by the CT manufactures and Catphan's Phantom with the American College of Radiology (ACR) computed tomography phantom. The image evaluation followed the protocols established by the manufactures of the phantoms. For slice thickness evaluation, the maximum percentage difference was 9% between the phantoms ACR and Siemens. In CT number accuracy test, the measurements of CT number of water showed a difference of 10 HU between the CT simulators. Comparing the uniformity results, the discrepancy was 11% and 55% for Siemens and Philips respectively in relation to the result obtained with the ACR phantom. The result of low contrast was the same for all phantoms. The MTF50 and MTF10 obtained with Siemens phantom was 4 and 8 pl/mm. For Catphan, 6 and 7 pl/mm. Results demonstrate that the ACR simulator was the most comprehensive and flexible to be used in several scanner models. Some simulators did not present all image quality indicators to perform a complete test. (author)

  15. Evaluation of biostimulation in clay soil contaminated by petroleum; Avaliacao da bioestimulacao em solos argilosos contaminados com petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Sandro J.; Cammarota, Magali C.; Freire, Denize D.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica. Lab. de Tecnologia Ambiental]. E-mail: baptista@eq.ufrj.br; denize@eq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    Biostimulation has been used as a technic in order to increase the microbial activity adding inorganic nutrients and/or terminal electron acceptor in the contaminated place. The main goal of this work was evaluate how each inorganic nutrient could help the biodegradation at a given petroleum contaminated clay soil. At first, the work was designed to investigate the optimal relation between C:N:P that could influence the best organic matter removal (OMR) in aerobic bioreactors with 50 ml during 30 days. It was noticed that when one worked with 35 mg KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}/100 g soil, without adding nitrogen source, the OMR was 35%. Furthermore, it was noticed that the highest concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus was a limiting factor for microbial degradation and this resulted in the lowest OMR. At second, it was designed in aerobic bioreactor with 500 ml for 45 days and worked with the optimal concentrations of added phosphorus from the last stage. Although the assays have focused that nitrogen was not necessary to add to the soil, it was worked with 2,5 g (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}/100 g soil. The OMR was 46%, Oil and Grease removal was around 38% and TPH removal was around 45%. (author)

  16. Evaluation of welding by MIG in martensitic stainless steel; Avaliacao da soldagem pelo processo MIG em aco inoxidavel martensitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Mariano, N.A.; Marinho, D.H.C. Marinho, E-mail: neideaparecidamariano@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work evaluated structure's characterization and mechanical properties after the welding process of the stainless steel CA6NM. The employed welding process was the metal active gas with tubular wire. The control of the thermal cycle in the welding process has fundamental importance regarding the properties of the welded joint, particularly in the thermally affected zone. The mechanical properties were appraised through impact resistance tests and the hardness and microstructure through metallographic characterization and Ray-X diffraction. The parameters and the process of welding used promoted the hardness and toughness appropriate to the applications of the steel. Welding energy's control becomes an essential factor that can affect the temperature of carbide precipitation and the nucleation of the retained austenite in the in the region of the in the thermally affected zone. (author)

  17. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em residencia construida com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo

    2008-07-01

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb e {sup 40}K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. The results of {sup 40}K were lower than 81 Bq kg{sup -1}. The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y{sup -1} for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy{sup -1} for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy{sup -1} for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy{sup -1}, an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  18. Evaluation of measurement methods for diffuse solar radiation; Avaliacao de metodos de medicao da radiacao solar difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Escobedo, Joao Francisco; Almeida Frisina, Valeria de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais

    1998-07-01

    The evaluation results from measuring methods of the diffuse solar radiation, disc and shadow ring are described compared to the method by difference between the global radiation and the direct radiation projected in a horizontal plane. The disc method is dependent on the diffuse radiation anisotropy, with an average relative deviation around 7.1% with percentages according to the sky cover; 11.56% for open sky days; 4.8% for partly cloudy days and 2.43% for cloudy days. The shadow ring method is also sky cover dependent with an average relative deviation 8.0% ranging from 8.99% for open sky days; 7.70% for partly cloudy and 2.5% for cloudy days. (author)

  19. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography; Desenvolvimento de objetos de teste para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM format, the software {sup O}BJ{sub I}QJeduced{sup ,} version 3.0, was used. It was developed by the team of Prof.. Dr. Nicholas Marshall at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. The results were very promising, leaving opened the possibility of future work as the optimization of the correction factors and uncertainties for the dosimeters as well as the applicability of the test objects in evaluating the image quality of digital systems across the country. (author)

  20. Use of different simulators to quality evaluation of image quality in digital mammography; Utilizacao de diferentes simuladores na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Leslie S.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: leslie@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Luis A.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com, E-mail: cea71@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the digital images were acquired with different exposure simulators to evaluate the quality of the image, noting the tumor mass detection, microcalcification fiber and representing regions of interest during mammography. The technical parameters of exposure depends on the thickness and composition of the breast, thus affecting the dose and image quality. The simulators were used: ACR, SBP 1054, BREAST PHANTOM CIRS and for evaluation of image quality, as well as measures kerma incident on the entrance surface (Ki) and calculating the mean glandular dose (MGD)

  1. Evaluation of mechanical conditions of turbomachineries for spectral signature of vibration and neural networks; Avaliacao da condicao mecanica de turbomaquinas pela assinatura espectral da vibracao e redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adejoro, Samuel T.; Lopes, Tiago A.P.; Rebello, Joao M.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia]. E-mail: samuel@peno.coppe.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    The condition monitoring of machinery generally considers the vibration signature as the main parameter to be measured and is one of the bases of predictive maintenance . The mechanical condition/integrity evaluation can be performed by comparing the measured spectrum to a reference spectrum and is based on the premise that usually exist spectral characteristics that identifies the fault. Nine typical faults are considered and the automation of the capability to interpret the vibration data is a field for the application of artificial neural networks. This article presents a comparative study for three types of neural networks: MLP, fuzzy-MLP and SOM for turbomachinery mechanical faults classification. The mean standards for the faults were obtained from available literature and random changes were introduced in order to establish the training data for the neural networks. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail: rcruz@uea.edu.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  3. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images; Avaliacao da atenuacao da radiacao X por meio de imagens radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon S.C., E-mail: ramon@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.co [Faculdade de Tecnologia Camoes (FATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gabriel Pinto de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  4. Density evaluation by computerized tomography in plain soils over different manipulation systems; Avaliacao da densidade pelo metodo da tomografia computadorizada de um planossolo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, Alceu [Lavras Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia do Solo; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Instrumentacao Agropecuaria (CNPDIA)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this paper is the evaluation of a plain soil density in different culture systems determined by X ray computerized tomography.It was observed a larger variation in densities in soils profiles analysed. The identification of layers is better utilising computerized tomography than others technic 1 fig.

  5. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser; Avaliacao da alteracao morfologica da superficie cimentaria irradiada com laser de diodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of the increase of temperature during radiation, and probably followed by a new scraping and root polishing with conventional instruments in an attempt to obtain a smoother and more homogeneous root surface. (author)

  7. Quality evaluation of Argentina onion irradiated, transported and stored; Avaliacao da qualidade da cebola argentina irradiada, transportada e armazenada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J.M.M.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Blumer, L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1995-12-31

    Onion bulbs of the Valenciana Sintetica 14 variety from Argentina were irradiated with a dose of 60 Gy gamma rays at 30-40 days after harvest. Treated and control lots (40 bags of 20 Kg each) were send by road to Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, and stored up to 180 days in a warehouse at 20-28{sup 0} C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 100%. Monthly quality control was done by physical and sensorial analysis. Radiation treatment reduced the weight loss of the bulbs and increased the percentage of marketable bulbs without affecting its sensorial properties. (author). 4 refs, 8 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of gels obtained from acetylation of chitosan in heterogeneous medium; Avaliacao de geis obtidos a partir da acetilacao da quitosana em meio heterogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosangela Balaban; Silva, Dayse Luzia Pinheiro da; Costa, Marta [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: balaban@digi.com.br; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Quimica, Tecnologia Farmaceutica e de Alimentos; Ruiz, Naira Machado da Silva [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Chitosan was acetylated during 2, 5 and 10 h and physical gels were obtained at different polymer concentrations in N,N-dimethylacetamide containing 5% of LiCl. Acetylation was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR, and degrees of acetylation in the range of 0.82-0.91 were determined by NMR. The O-acetylation degree (0.12-0.15) was exclusively determined by a volumetric method. Rheological studies showed that the storage modulus values were smaller for the more acetylated samples and increased with the temperature and the polymer concentration. All the gels presented storage modulus superior to loss modulus, evidencing more elastic than viscous characteristics. The results obtained in this work suggest a gelation process based on a balance between O and N-acetylation and intermolecular bonds. (author)

  9. Evaluation of imaging methods in the diagnosis of urolithiasis: review of the literature; Avaliacao dos metodos de imagem no diagnostico da urolitiase: revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa de; Silva, Luciana Costa; Santos, Jovita Lane Soares; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: rmcfreitas@ig.com.br

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare helical computed tomography with imaging studies currently used to evaluate patients with acute low back pain. In addition, we briefly review the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. The literature published in the last 30 years was reviewed, and the following methods were discussed: plain abdominal radiographs, intravenous pyelography, ultrasound of the urinary tract, and helical computed tomography. Helical computed tomography showed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting urolithiasis, virtually showing all stones, except in patients receiving indinavir. The accuracy of plain abdominal radiographs associated with ultrasound was similar to helical computed tomography, although the latter showed superiority as an isolated method. Data from literature suggest that whenever helical computed tomography is available, it is helpful in the evaluation of low back pain and also allows differential diagnosis between conditions that mimic the symptoms of urolithiasis.(author)

  10. Radiographic evaluation of adenoidal size in children: methods of measurement and parameters of normality; Avaliacao radiografica da adenoide em criancas: metodos de mensuracao e parametros da normalidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires de [Centro de Assistencia Integral a Saude da Mulher (CAISM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com; Queiroz, Suelio Marinho de [Tomovale, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Baracat, Emilio Carlos Elias [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Pediatria; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia

    2004-12-01

    Radiograph of the nasopharynx is still the most commonly used imaging method to investigate the adenoidal tissue. Due to the variety and complexity of proposed methods to measure the adenoid size, some radiologists prefer subjective evaluation, which can, however, be imprecise and inaccurate. We review and describe several methods to determine the adenoid size, taking into account the practicity, accuracy and precision with the aim of pointing out the best methods to be applied in daily routine practice. (author)

  11. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and Eldorado. (author)

  12. Use of LabSOCS for determination of specific concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in fertilizer samples; Uso de LabSOCS no calculo da eficiencia de detecao para determinacao da concentracao especifica de {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U e {sup 232}Th em amostras de fertilizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, Ricardo Washington Dutra; Lopes, Jose Marques; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: rgarcez@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Domingues, Alessandro Mariano; Lima, Marco Frota, E-mail: slessandrodomingues@fisica.if.uff.br, E-mail: marcofrotalima@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia

    2015-07-01

    Use of fertilizer is an established practice worldwide to promote agricultural productivity increased without increasing the planted area, resulting in native forests protection and increase of the food availability. Some kinds of fertilizer have in their chemical composition some radionuclides due the origin of its feedstock, such as {sup 238}U, the {sup 232}Th, and their descendants, beyond {sup 40}K. Knowledge of the radioactivity levels in the environment is great importance to know the gamma radiation dose that the human being is exposed. For identification and quantitation of radionuclides, it was used gamma spectrometry where HPGe detector was used to obtain the spectra, and LabSOCS software for calculating the detection efficiency for each energy. The values of {sup 232}Th specific concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 368.1 Bq.Kg{sup -1} , the values of {sup 238}U specific concentrations ranged from 16.0 to 647.7 Bq.Kg{sup -1} and {sup 40}K specific concentrations ranged from 19.1 to 12713 Bq.Kg{sup -1} . Concentrations of values are consistent with those found in literature. (author)

  13. Regeneration to OH{sup -} form of anionic Dowex 1-X8 and Dowex 2-X8 resins as a function of concentration of eluent solution; Regeneracao de resinas anionicas Dowex 1-X8 e Dowex 2-X8 a forma OH{sup -} em funcao da concentracao da solucao eluente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuse [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: jbendass@cena.usp.br; pcotrive@pira.cena.usp.br; Carneiro Junior, Francisco [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: fcarneir@unimep.br

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of the present paper was to evaluate the regeneration process of Dowex 1-X8 and Dowex 2-X8, 100-200 mesh anionic resins, from Cl{sup -} to OH{sup -} forms. The efficiency of the regeneration process with different concentrations of the eluent sodium hydroxide solution was determined. (author)

  14. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-07-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical industry. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the contribution of contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces in the measure of exposure rate of radioiodine therapy patients; Avaliacao da contribuicao da contaminacao de superficies do quarto terapeutico na medida da taxa de exposicao de pacientes de radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Rafael Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    The contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces is significant and the measures of patient exposure rate are held on the fourth dependencies, relevant questions are raised: the background radiation of the room stay high due to surface contamination, may interfere with the rate of patient exposure at the time of its release? The monitoring site is important to determine whether the patient will be released? The value of the deal activity and the clinical condition of the patient may increase the contamination, influencing the monitoring results? This paper aims to conduct a quantitative analysis of surface contamination of the contribution of therapeutic room at the time is monitored exposure rate from inpatient. Measurements were made regarding the hospitalization of 32 patients with different doses administered activity, age and of both genders. The measurements were performed in the therapeutic rooms at the hospital Brotherhood Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo. Exposure rate measurements were performed at the center of the room at 1 meter of the patient on the day of its release. After his release and prior to decontamination, measurements were performed at predetermined landmarks within the therapeutic room. The results revealed that on average background radiation, high due to surface contamination contributes only 2% of the patient dose rate. It can be considered that even with influence of contamination of surfaces, this is insignificant to determine if the patient may or may not be released. This study suggests that the site in which monitoring occurs exposure rate of the patient should not be decisive for liberation thereof. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the fuel rod integrity in PWR reactors from the spectrometric analysis of the primary coolant; Avaliacao da integridade de varetas combustiveis em reatores PWR a partir da analise espectrometrica da agua do primario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Iara Arraes

    1999-02-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the transport of fission products, from the fuel rod to the coolant of a PWR reactor. To achieve this purpose, several steps were followed. Firstly, it was presented a description of the fuel elements and the main mechanisms of fuel rod failure, indicating the most important nuclides and their transport mechanisms. Secondly, taking both the kinetic and diffusion models for the transport of fission products as a basis, a simple analytical and semi-empirical model was developed. This model was also based on theoretical considerations and measurements of coolant's activity, according to internationally adopted methodologies. Several factors are considered in the modelling procedures: intrinsic factors to the reactor itself, factors which depend on the reactor's operational mode, isotope characteristic factors, and factors which depend on the type of rod failure. The model was applied for different reactor's operational parameters in the presence of failed rods. The main conclusions drawn from the analysis of the model's output are relative to the variation on the coolant's water activity with the fuel burnup, the linear operation power and the primary purification rate and to the different behaviour of iodine and noble gases. The model was saturated from a certain failure size and showed to be unable to distinguish between a single big fail and many small ones. (author)

  17. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    Many developed countries have established a goal of self-sufficiency in food production, while many other obtain their principal foreign exchange through food exports. For these reasons, it is essential to eliminate losses in food products. It is no less important to prevent or combat food-transmitted diseases, principally across poultry and poultry derivatives, which play a major role in certain infections and is the focus of national public health goals in order to increase the international commerce. In tropical countries, perishable products represent the largest markets. The population lives in a constant battle against the deterioration of these foods. Such loss is enormous where the climate favors the proliferation of agents of decomposition and acceleration of putrification. Increasing the useful life of these perishable products will provide producers the option of commercializing them in low harvest season, thus achieving higher prices, and providing sensible growth to the agro-industrial market. Treatment of perishables with gamma radiation presently constitutes one of the most modern, safe, and efficient methods for increasing food preservation. The irradiation of foods can offer various special advantages such as: kill or sterilize pathogenic organisms in food, improving their quality and duration, reducing the level of toxics, slow or stop the aging of roots and tubers, disinfect products of animal and vegetable origin thus slowing their decomposition, increasing their shelf-life, and prolonging their conservation refrigeration. The practice of irradiating foods for the treatment of microorganisms has begun to gain momentum in Brazil, where roughly 25% of all food produced annually is lost to disease and insects activity, increased by lack of adequate storage treatments. Various countries have already adopted the method that, when practiced properly by qualified professionals, does not cause side effects other than the extension of useful life. In light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  18. Aspects of the Iea-R1 research reactor seismic evaluation; Aspectos da avaliacao sismica do reator de pesquisa IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Codes and standards for the seismic evaluation of the research reactor IEA-R1 are presented. An approach to define the design basis earthquake based on the local seismic map and on simplified analysis methods is proposed. The site seismic evaluation indicates that the design earthquake intensity is IV MM. Therefore, according to the used codes and standards, no buildings, systems, and components seismic analysis are required. (author)

  19. Assessment of activity of nitrate-reducing bacterial souring control; Avaliacao da atividade de bacterias redutoras de nitrato no controle de acidificacao de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Kally A. de; Cammarota, Magali C.; Servulo, Eliana F.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The effect of nitrate addition in relation to NRB concentration was evaluated on biogenic H{sub 2}S generation in anaerobic microcosms with produced water. A 2{sup k} factorial experimental design was performed by using as response variables nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup =}) consumption and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and sulfide (H{sub 2}S) production and as independent variables the SRB and NRB (10{sup 1} - 10{sup 7} MPN/mL) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (127.5 - 727.5 mg/L) initial concentrations. Each condition was carried out under incubation at 30 deg C during 7, 14 and 28 days. The lowest sulfide production (0.4 - 0.8 mg/L) was achieved for 10{sup 4} MPN/mL of SRB and NRB and 427.5 mg/L nitrate. Also, a reduction of sulfide generation was obtained by nitrate addition when low SRB and NRB concentrations were established. In such condition, the produced sulfide is rather dependent of nitrate concentration. The increase of the NRB concentration has not resulted in the reduction of sulfide production, even when higher nitrate concentrations were used. (author)

  20. Evaluation of radiation effects on dental enamel hardness and dental restorative materials; Avaliacao do efeito da irradiacao na dureza do esmalte dental e de materiais odontologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Protese

    2000-07-01

    This research presents the results of the microhardness of human dental enamel and of the following dental restorative materials: three dental porcelains - Ceramco II, Finesse and Noritake, and two resin restorative materials - Artglass and Targis, for materials submitted to different times of irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12}n cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} . The results obtained indicated that there is a decrease of the surface microhardness when the enamel is irradiated for 1 h and when dental materials are irradiated for 3 h. However, enamels irradiated for 30 min. did not show significant change of their surface hardness. Therefore, the selection of irradiation time is an important factor to be considered when irradiated teeth or dental materials are used in the investigations of their properties. (author)

  1. Environmental evaluation in the electric sector expansion planing: an strategic approach; Avaliacao ambiental no planejamento da expansao do setor eletrico: uma abordagem estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Silvia Helena [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: silviah@cepel.br; Medeiros, Alexandre [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lacorte, Ana; Aquino, Luiz C.S.; Farah, Pedro; Menezes, Paulo C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a resume of the methodology developed for the Socio Environmental Studies Committee - CTSA - of the CCPE, aiming the incorporation of the environment dimension in the expansion indicative planning of the electric sector. The first results of the partial application to the 2001-2010 planning cycle are also presented.

  2. Assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into biological samples by SAXS technique;Avaliacao das estrutras supramoleculares presentes em amostras biologicas atraves da tecnica de SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M., E-mail: andre_conceicao@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2009-07-01

    In this work was made an assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into human breast tissue normal and pathological samples, as well as into two types of animals samples (tendon chicken and pork fat) using the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The scattering profiles of the samples were determined at the momentum transfer range O.150nm{sup -1}<=5:q(=4pi.sin({theta}/2)/{lambda})<=8.500nm{sup -1}. In this range, it was possible identify structures corresponding to collagen fibrils (glandular tissue) and to triacylglycerides (adipose tissue) from the correlation between the information extracted from the human breast tissues scattering profiles and those extracted from animals samples. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  4. Evaluation of impact strength of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites; Avaliacao da resistencia mecanica sob impacto de nanocompositos de poliamida 6/argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Rene A.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Medeirosa, Vanessa da N., E-mail: rene@cct.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Nanocomposites of polymer/clay have had much attention in recent years, particularly those developed with layered silicates due to the need of engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and has been observed that they affect the crystalline behavior and the physical and mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites of polyamide 6 were obtained by the melt intercalation method, using a regional bentonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt in an amount of 3% by weight. XRD results showed that incorporation of salt among the layers of clay, making it organophilic and obtaining exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structures. The impact properties of the nanocomposites showed inferior in relation to pure polyamide, in other words, lost of toughness. (author)

  5. Quality of life evaluation of workers for diagnostic radiology services; Avaliacao da qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores de servicos de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ivani Martins

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of diagnostic radiology services workers at a hospital of Sao Paulo city. It aimed also to draw the profile of these workers identifying the variables, as its influence on their quality of life. A descriptive exploratory study with qualitative and quantitative approaches was carried out. The data were collected using the questionnaires: the abbreviated instrument for the assessment of the QOL, World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument bref (WHOQOL-bref) and a questionnaire including the social demographic variables, work conditions and the variables that express the lifestyle of individuals, both questionnaires self-applied. The sample was formed by 118 workers, among them: physicians, technologists/technicians in radiology, nurses, technicians and assistants in nursing, and others health professionals. The data analysis included descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and the use of a linear regression model. The reliability of the instrument for the studied sample was verified by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient ({alpha}). The WHOQOL-bref proved to be an adequate instrument, with a good level of internal consistency ({alpha}=0.884), being easily and quickly administrated for the evaluation of the QOL. The study provided an overview of the perception of quality of life of the studied group. (author)

  6. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: dagcortez@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  7. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: joelson_alves@ig.com.br; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  9. Biodegradation evaluation of recycled polyethylene doped with Moringa oleifera oil; Avaliacao da biodegradacao de filmes de polietileno reciclado dopados com oleo de Moringa oleifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Luciana A.; Novack, Katia M.; Melo, Tania M.S., E-mail: knovack@iceb.ufop.br [Dept. de Quimica (DEQUI) - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Chemical modifications and use of additives are some of the mainly ways to obtain polymer materials with especial properties. Vegetable oils incorporated to polymers preserve their structure while make possible a reduction of degradation rate. This work proposed the use of polyethylene, one of the most common polymer commodities, because of its low cost and wide application. In this project it was verified the possibility of making polymer materials with properties of a natural product through the incorporation of Moringa oleifera oil to recycled low density polyethylene (LDPEr) in different proportions. The films were buried for different times and their degradation was evaluated.) Samples were characterized by DSC, TGA and XRD. It was observed that samples doped with Moringa oil showed lower degradation time. (author)

  10. Evaluation of knee meniscus lesions using MRI - a comparative study of pulse sequences; Avaliacao da lesao meniscal por meio de ressonancia magnetica do joelho - estudo comparativo das sequencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Artur da Rocha C.; Vilela, Sonia de Aguiar; Turrini, Elisabeth; Lederman, Henrique M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    1997-05-01

    The frequency of knee disability after injuries has become higher, in this context meniscal lesions keep an important role. This study evaluated 34 MR exams using 1.5-T system (Signa; GE). In this group 26 had 4 sequences (5 acquisitions); 2 coronal (T1, MPGR), 3 sagittal (T1, T2, proton density). The aim of this study was to evaluate the MR pulse sequence`s reproducibility and observer variability. Two readers (A and B) reviewed the exams using the same criteria. The reader A reviewed all sequences for each patient; the reader B reviewed the individual sequences at random on two separate occasions, 6 months apart. The signal expression of meniscal lesion is more evident with T1 (short TR/short TE) sagittal; however, in this sequence the results were less consistent. The sagittal proton density (long TR/short TE) was very close to be the idea sequence: had good concordance among the readings of readers A and B. Kappa concordance test showed best result for sagittal proton density images (Kw = 0.84). (author) 47 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  12. Evaluation of occupational dose from the special procedures guided by fluoroscopy: cardiac catheterism; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional oriunda dos procedimentos especiais guiados por fluoroscopia: cateterismo cardiaco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amanda Juliene da

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose received by health professionals in the hemodynamic sector of a university hospital in Sao Paulo city. A self-applied questionnaire was used to delineate the profile of health professionals, taking into account sociodemographic variables and variables related to the work with ionizing radiation. The assessment of occupational doses was performed by consulting of the individual dose records of the institution database from 2000 to 2009. A total of 240 records was evaluated, corresponding to 38 active professionals (2009), divided in different professional category: physician, nurses, radiologic technologists and nursing assistants. The annual doses were compared with the limits established by national regulatory authorities. Based on the effective doses received and recorded during the studied period, experimental measures were performed with TL dosimeters in five physicians to evaluate the equivalent dose, in the left hand, during hemodynamic procedures. In addition, the radioprotection measures adopted by health professionals were verified. This study allowed delineating the profile of medical staff that integrates the hemodynamic service as well as knowing the distribution of their doses in relation to limits over the years. (author)

  13. Evaluation of radiosensitivity hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to gamma radiation; Avaliacao da radiossensibilidade de hemocitos de Biomphalaria glabrata expostos a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.R.S.; Amaral, A.J., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife-PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Silva, E.B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amancio, F.F.; Melo, A.M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2013-06-15

    The mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata have characteristics that allow them to be identified as an animal model ideal for monitoring areas exposed to chemical agents and physical. This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiation from Cobalt-60 in haemocytes present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata, with the goal of using these cells as indicators of the presence of radiation in aquatic environments. The mollusks were divided into five groups: one control and four subjected doses of 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of gamma radiation. After 48 hours of irradiation, the clam hemolymph was collected and slides were prepared and stained with Giemsa for analyses under a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, p <0.05. The results showed that the total number of cells after irradiation reduced compared to control except at a dose of 55 Gy. During data analysis, morphological changes were observed in haemocytes of mollusks subjected to doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy. These modifications consisted of nucleus bilobulated and nucleo plasmatic bridges. Another change was exclusively observed in the cellular exposure of 55 Gy, where hemocytes showed misshapen nuclei and cytoplasm vacuolisation, suggestive of apoptosis. It is concluded that hemocytes are sensitive to radiation and can be used as indicators of the presence of high doses of ionizing radiation in aquatic environments. (author)

  14. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  15. Weldability evaluation of special stainless steels for utilization in petroleum industry; Avaliacao da soldabilidade de acos inoxidaveis especiais a ser utilizados na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Paredes, Ramon S. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ramon@demec.ufpr.br; Borsato, Karin Soldatelli [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bernardini, Pedro Amadeo Nanneti [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Villanueva Aguila, Jaime [Universidade de Tarapaca (UTA), Arica (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    A weldability study of super austenitic stainless steel AISI 904L type 25 Ni. 20 Cr, with Mo, Cu and duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 additions is made. The higher mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels, when compared to other kinds of stainless steels, have increased the attention of different industrial areas. According to literature, AISI 904L stainless steel is sensitive to solidification and liquation cracking during welding. The main microstructural features, as well as mechanical properties of duplex stainless steels, can be modify when submitted to multiple thermal cycles , such as happen during welding process. Samples have been prepared and welded by two welding processes: coated electrodes and semi-automatic MIG. The objective was to evaluate the cracking sensitiveness of super austenitic steels . For duplex steels the aim was to research the welding process influence for tubular wire in the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 25 mm plate, which are considered of great thickness. In AISI 904L it has not been observed any solidification cracking in the structure in the two welding processes that were studied. However, cracking of liquation in the affected thermal zone has been observed. In duplex steels the use of different thermal cycles showed variation of delta ferrite in the structure of solidification and variation of ferrite grain size in the ZTA. The formation of nitrate and secondary austenitic was also observed, which results in a proportional hardness increase . The mechanical and microstructure characterization data of those two stainless steels are presented. (author)

  16. Contribution of ultrasonography and scintillography to the evaluation of parothyroid glands; Contribuicao da ultra-sonografia na avaliacao das glandulas paratireoideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craide, Rosany Helena [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Ultra-som; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Instituto do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Custodio, Melani Ribeiro; Jorgetti, Vanda [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Nefrologia; Oliveira, Ilka Regina S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Vermelho, Marli B.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Ultra-sonografia

    1999-02-01

    Sonography and scintilography are good methods for imaging the parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias. The diagnostic methods were correlated in order to determine the sensitivity of sonographic evaluation with that of scintigraphy in the preoperative examinations for hyperparathyroidism suspected on clinical groups. Scintigraphic examinations were obtained using technetium-9 9 m and technetium-99m-sestamibi as radionuclide agents. A group of 36 patients was evaluated with sonography 19 being correlated with sestamibi. Our results suggest that sonography yields a sensitivity of 77 and 78.5%in comparison with scintigraphy with technetium-99m and with technetium-99m-sestamibi, respectively. The sonographic limitations are ectopic glands, enlarged thyroid goiter and posteriorly displaced adenomas. (author)

  17. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil; Impacto de um programa de avaliacao da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira

    2002-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless ongoing action is needed to resolve the remaining problems and to increase the impact. The proposed method for public monitoring should be modified to evaluate primarily the quality of the final exam provided to the consumer. (author)

  18. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B., E-mail: rolivier@ipen.b, E-mail: nblima@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M., E-mail: anapaola@ipt.b, E-mail: mgoncalves@ipt.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {Psi} method. (author)

  19. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliacao da atividade antibacteriana de Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Leoncio M. de; Gois, Roberto W. da S.; Lemos, Telma L. G.; Arriaga, Angela M. C.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P., E-mail: gil@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias; Costa, Jose G.M. da; Rodrigues, Fabiola F.G. [Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Biologica

    2013-11-01

    The chemical investigation of the stems and branches of Macroptilium lathyroides led to the isolation of a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The extracts from the roots allowed the isolation of lasiodiplodin, a mixture of stigmast-4-en-6{beta}-ol-3-one and stigmast-4,22-dien-6{beta}-ol-3-one, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin, genistein and lupinalbin A. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their NMR data, including comparison of their spectral data with values described in the literature. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from stems, branches and roots was evaluated. This is the first report involving the chemical investigation of this species. (author)

  20. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats;Avaliacao de alteracoes morfologicas da pele apos lesao radioinduzida em ratos Wistar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cherley Borba Vieira de

    2010-07-01

    The cancer covers a heterogeneous group of more than 100 diseases with different etiology and prognosis. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities, aiming at the destruction of cancer cells, using ionizing radiation. One of the limiting factors of radiotherapy is that radiation promotes the death of tumor cells in addition to injure healthy tissue neighboring the tumor, and may cause their death. Irradiation of the skin, accidental or for therapeutic purposes can trigger many injuries culminating in fibrosis, which implies functional alteration of the body. The evaluation of morphological effects associated with skin irradiation becomes essential to develop more effective radiation strategies and decreased morbidity; and in case of accidents, proper handling of the victim.Evaluate radio-induced dermal changes using a Wistar rats model irradiated with 10, 40 and 60Gy. Male Wistar rats, aged approximately three months, were pre-anesthetized with midazolam and xylazine and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, shaved in the back, immobilized on polystyrene support in the prone position and irradiated with doses of 10, 40 and 60 Gy, with 4MeV nominal energy electron beams. The skin was irradiated in a 3cm{sup 2} field, and used 0.5cm of tissue equivalent material, to obtain a homogeneous dose distribution. After irradiation, the animals remained on constant evaluation, and the lesions were recorded photographically. The animals were divided into groups and were killed on the irradiation day, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 100 days after irradiation. The skin was fixed in 10% formaldehyde; the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red and immuno stained with antibody anti-TGF beta1. Another part of the tissue was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for scanning electron microscopy. It was observed macroscopically the appearance of skin lesions similar to burns on the entire irradiated area. The optical microscope verified the early development of lesions in the 5 days group. After 10 days of irradiation it was already possible to see evidences of epidermal healing under the crust formed by the lesion. At 15 days after irradiation the tissue beneath the lesion had reconstructed epidermis. It was also observed the characteristics of tissue healing. It was also seen a significant polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. After 25 days at the higher doses the lesions remained, which did not occur at the lower dose, where the irradiated area of the animals were already completely healed. After 100 days of irradiation at 40Gy dose the wound was healed with the emergence of a well defined healed tissue. At the 60Gy dose, the lesion persisted in some animals, and in those that healing occurred the epidermis was a hypertrophied (acanthosis). It was visualized a tissue with their morphological aspect completely mis characterized, where it's possible to view a necrotic tissue. The results of the scanning electron microscopy analysis corroborate with the in optical microscopy findings, where it's possible to visualize the distortion of collagen fibers at the higher dosages. The results indicate that the used doses induced an important skin inflammatory process, activating the immune system. This fact leads to an increase in the expression of TGF beta1, one of the responsible for the increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) by various cell types, mainly fibroblasts in injured tissues. Besides the increased expression of ECM, the TGF beta1 also promotes the inhibition of the degradation processes of the same. The intense expression of cytokines in irradiated skin can trigger the fibrosis process; consequently, affect the homeostasis of this organ due to the accumulation of ECM. (author)

  1. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail: Siche.J.R@gmail.com; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail: ortega@fea.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  2. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: miltonlavor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)

  3. Phytochemical study and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignoato, Marlene Capelin; Fabrao, Rodrigo Monteiro; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Botelho, Marcos Felipe Pinatto; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Souza, Maria Conceicao de, E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2{beta} ->7, 4{beta} ->8)- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated (author)

  4. Avaliacao do contributo da expressao genética na tolerância à desidratacao em Rosa x hybrida coltivada em humidade relativa elevada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, D.R.A.; Vasconcelos, M.W.; Koning-Boucoiran, C.F.S.; Krens, F.A.; Heuvelink, E.; Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of cut flowers with high postharvest longevity is of extreme importance for consumer’s satisfaction. A negative water balance is indicated as the most important factor reducing longevity. This problem is more severe in plants grown at high relative air humidity (i.e. RH > 85%) mainly

  5. Importance of evaluation of uncertainties on the measurement of natural gas and petroleum volumes; Importancia da avaliacao das incertezas na medicao dos volumes de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Jose Alberto Pinheiro da; Oliveira, Thiago Barra Vidal de; Mata, Josaphat Dias da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br, josaphat@petrobras.com.br; Val, Luiz Gustavo do [Instituto de Qualidade e Metrologia (IQM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: gdoval.iqm@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The measurement is considered as the 'cash register' of the enterprises, increasing the accuracy and the exigence at each step when come close to the delivery points, where the 0.1 % of differences are discussed. The work presents the approach used in the evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the volumes obtained of petroleum and natural gas at the processes of production in Brazil, and in the international level as well.

  6. Importance of critical evaluation in quality control of scintillation cameras;Importancia da avaliacao criteriosa no controle de qualidade de camaras de cintilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, V.O.; Machado, M.A.D.; Sampaio, L.J.L.; Silva, D.C. [Hospital Sao Rafael, Salvador, BR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The evaluation of quality control results in nuclear medicine must be performed with a critical view over the conditions the tests are executed. This paper is a result of observations in the routine quality control where we set up didactic 'findings' to show the importance of evaluating critical situations while executing the procedures. (author)

  7. Evaluation of radon measuring technique using passive detector activated carbon; Avaliacao da tecnica de medicao do radonio utilizando detector passivo com carvao ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha; Lessa, Edmilson de Lima; Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de, E-mail: epoliveira@aluno.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioprotecao Ambiental e Ocupacional

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of measuring the radioactive gas Radon ({sup 222} Rn) with passive detector activated carbon. Alpha Guard, exposure chamber, air sampler, default font Radio, calibrator flow, flow adjuster, ducts drivers: For this, various equipment to make the measurement system as were used. An assembly of such equipment, with specific sequence was used allowing for more efficient exposure of passive detectors Radon gas. Twenty samples were heated to remove moisture and then stored in desiccator until the experiment were made. The exhibition was held passive dosimeters being removed from the chamber, and one hour after, subjected to analysis by gamma spectrometry in germanium (HPGe) for an hour. Subsequently, other measurements were made at scheduled times and sequential for one hour. The results were presented in report form and spectra, measures and graphs generated by Alpha Guard were also extracted. Finally we calculated the efficiency of the passive meter activated carbon. (author)

  8. Situational quality evaluation of mammography services at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Avaliacao situacional da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z., E-mail: georgia.santos@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.cavalcanti@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: adrianac@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.oliveira@saude.mg.gov.b [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Minas Gerais (SVS/SES-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Superintendencia de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Nogueira, Maria do S., E-mail: marcio.alves@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Joao E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Currently, the most effective method for early detection of this cancer is the mammography, and to achieve the standard definition and contrast, the whole system of imaging must operate under optimal conditions. This paper presents the results of the assessment of mammography centers in the state of Minas Gerais, which was held with the aim of supporting the actions of the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography. These results indicated that less than half of mammography achieved the minimum standard of image quality, endorsing the need of a monitoring more efficient and effective, which led to the establishment, in Minas Gerais, of the monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography. (author)

  9. Comparison of the automated evaluation of phantom mama in digital and digitalized images; Comparacao da avaliacao automatizada do phantom mama em imagens digitais e digitalizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo, E-mail: pcs@cdtn.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Propedeutica Complementar; Gomes, Danielle Soares; Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer if it is provided as a very good quality service. The process of evaluating the quality of radiographic images in general, and mammography in particular, can be much more accurate, practical and fast with the help of computer analysis tools. This work compare the automated methodology for the evaluation of scanned digital images the phantom mama. By applied the DIP method techniques was possible determine geometrical and radiometric images evaluated. The evaluated parameters include circular details of low contrast, contrast ratio, spatial resolution, tumor masses, optical density and background in Phantom Mama scanned and digitized images. The both results of images were evaluated. Through this comparison was possible to demonstrate that this automated methodology is presented as a promising alternative for the reduction or elimination of subjectivity in both types of images, but the Phantom Mama present insufficient parameters for spatial resolution evaluation. (author)

  10. Characterization and evaluation of residue 'grits' of the cellulose industry; Caracterizacao e avaliacao do resisduo 'grits' da industria de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destefani, A.Z.; Santos, M.M.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2010-07-01

    The cellulose industry generates huge amounts of solid waste residue called 'grits'. These wastes have been willing over time in landfills near the mills. However, this type of disposal is not environmentally friendly and can cause degradation and environmental pollution. In addition, environmental legislation increasingly severe and the high costs of landfill have led the search for new alternatives for final disposition of this abundant waste. In this context, this study is to characterize waste grits, generated by the cellulose industry in the region of Aracruz-ES. The residue samples were characterized in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA). The characterization of the residual 'grits' demonstrated its potential as a feedstock for production of soil-cement bricks. (author)

  11. Kerma rate evaluation in the air in a room interventional cardiology; Avaliacao da taxa de Kerma no ar em uma sala de cardiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the number of interventional cardiology procedures is increasing. However, due to the long time of fluoroscopy in these procedures, care teams can receive high doses of radiation. The radiation scattered by the patient is not uniform, and their assessment is of utmost importance. This study aimed to estimate and map the kerma rate in the air at the time of the gonads, in an interventional cardiology room, seeking to optimize the dose absorbed by individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. For data collection, the room was divided into quadrants of 1m{sup 2}, totaling 40 collection points. The simulator was positioned so that its entry surface was located in the interventional reference point. Were chosen the conditions that simulate angiography and angioplasty procedures performed in the service. The data were obtained for height of 1 meter, gonad region. The results obtained for kerma rates in air, in quadrants, show that higher measured values was in the vicinity of the X-ray tube. Has been found that the medical staff are more exposed, because of its location during the procedure, around the table. The law of the inverse square distance of the farthest points of the X-ray tube were verified.

  12. Value of ultrasound in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma;O valor da ultra-sonografia na avaliacao do traumatismo abdominal fechado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayanthi, Shri Krishna

    2008-07-01

    Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in an age group including from teenagers to young adults, in a male dominant proportion, resulting in great economic and social impact. Within the complex of trauma, blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is frequent event and presents difficulty in the evaluation and management since the clinical examination shows low sensitivity and specificity. The detection of hemo peritoneum is one of the methods of evaluation of possible indirect intra-abdominal injuries, initially using direct diagnostic abdominal paracentesis and posteriorly the diagnostic peritoneal lavage, that despite the effectiveness, have drawbacks such as invasiveness and the inability of hemo peritoneum quantification and the lesion staging, resulting in non-therapeutic laparotomies. Imaging methods provide useful information in the investigation of abdominal injuries, such as conventional and contrast radiology, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), which is the best effective method, but has its own drawbacks, such as cost, accessibility, use of ionizing radiation and contrast media and the displacement of the patient to the machine. US presents itself as an alternative in the initial evaluation of these patients as noninvasive method, with lack of harmfulness, low cost, fast answer and portability. Nevertheless, this method also has its limitations, as in cases of abdominal injuries without free fluid. This study was conducted in order to establish the performance of the US in this setting, allowing to rationalise the use of CT. For this purpose we studied 163 patients treated in the ER of HC/FMUSP, with the completion of consecutive US and CT. The population fits the usual profile of trauma victims, with 83% male, 56% in the age group between 20 and 39 years and in 73% of cases victims of traffic accidents. They were brought to the service in an average time of 51 minutes, mainly stable and with satisfactory level of consciousness. US took on average 5 minutes to be performed and the average interval until CT completion was 155 minutes. 31 (19%) of 163 patients showed positive US and 132 (81%) had negative US. 33 (20.2%) of the same 163 patients had positive CT and 130 (79.8%) had negative CT, resulting in a sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 95%, accuracy of 90% in 20% prevalence, with 77% of positive predictive value and 93% of negative predictive value. Correcting the detection of free fluid, results in 64% of sensitivity 98% of specificity 89% of accuracy in 28% of prevalence, with 93% of positive predictive value and 88% of negative predictive value of 88%. Considering the evolution of the patients, US performance was similar to that of CT. Considering need for surgery the US presented accuracy of 87%, positive predictive value of 58% and negative predictive value of 94%, near CT, with accuracy of 91%, predictive value of 67% and negative predictive value of 97%. 24% of patients with abdominal injuries did not have free fluid, as recorded by CT. The hepatorenal space and pelvis were the most frequent sites fluid finding, 74% and 67% at US and 51% and 62% at CT, respectively. Among the factors that showed a tendency for surgery requirement were the presence of fluid in hepatorenal space (14 of 20 patients) and the sum of liquid pockets over 3.0 cm. Detection of parenchymal lesions was low: 4 cases in 33, while only 2 of them confirmed. Among the factors that limit the US study are parenchymal lesions not associated with free fluid and retroperitoneal hematomas. Examiner experience did not influence the number of negative or positive cases, but there was a tendency to false positive with most experienced examiners and false negative with less experienced. Thus, US is an useful tool in the initial evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma, providing information for clinical evaluation, which associated with other data, tailors the management. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the inflammatory activity in chronic osteomyelitis. Contribution of the scintigraphy with polyclonal antibodies; Avaliacao de atividade inflamatoria em osteomielite cronica. Contribuicao da cintilografia com anticorpos policlonais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    1996-07-01

    Active chronic osteomyelitis or complicating osteomyelitis (superimposed on diseases that changes the normal bone structure fractures, post-surgery, prosthesis) can be difficult to diagnose by anatomic radiological imaging modalities, like plain radiograph and CT. These diseases frequently cause also increased bone remodeling, leading to nonspecific uptake of Tc-99m-bone scan agents and gallium-67. New radiopharmaceuticals with greater inflammation/infection avidity and specificity are being developed, including the nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) labeled with technetium-99. Tc-99m-IgG may be available as a ready to use kit, with no reported side effects, low patient absorbed radiation dose and low cost. The mechanism of IgG uptake at the inflammation site has not been fully elucidated yet. Specific (receptor linking, physico-chemical immunoglobulin properties) and nonspecific mechanisms (enhanced vascular permeability and macromolecular exudate) has been suggested. IgG scintigraphy results are affected by the isotope, labeling procedure adopted and characteristics of the inflammatory focus. Nineteen patients with suspected osteomyelitis (active chronic osteomyelitis or violated bone osteomyelitis) were studied by Tc-99m-IgG scintigraphy (directly labeled polyclonal immunoglobulin, Sandoglobuilina - Sandoz). All patients also underwent standard three-phase bone scintigraphy using methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-MDP), gallium-67 scintigraphy and plain radiographs. Infection was found in 8 sites. Sensitivity and specificity for Tc-99m-MDP, gallium-67 and Tc 99m-IgG scintigraphy were, respectively, 88 and 36%, 75 and 73%,88 and 82%. All patients with false positive IgG scintigraphies had previous surgery. Other current scintigraphic procedures used in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis are also reviewed. (author)

  14. Assessment and epidemiology of Chagas' disease in patients treated in Araguaina - Tocantins; Avaliacao e epidemiologia da cardiopatia chagasica em pacientes atendidos em Araguaina - Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Valeria Rita

    2010-07-01

    Chagas disease (AD) was described by Carlos Chagas in 1909. It is caused by a parasite T. cruzi, transmitted by bugs, by blood transfusion, vertical and orally. The DC has two phases: acute and chronic. The evolution to the cardiac form occurs in about 30% of chronic cases and is the largest cause of mortality in chronic Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to Chagas' disease in patients of Tocantins, compared with other heart patients and asymptomatic from the standpoint of non-invasive exams using radiant energies such as echocardiography and ECG and RX. The descriptive study included 80 patients, 20 chronic form of Chagas disease, 20 indeterminate, 20 with other heart diseases, and 20 controls. There was a prevalence of 9.5% of chagasic patients treated in outpatient cardiology at Araguaina Tocantins, and 7.3% in chronic and 2.21% in the indeterminate. Of the chronic patients in the study 50% had mega esophagus and megacolon 4 (20%). Most patients had no family history of AD, nor was a smoker or drinker. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities found refer to driving. The evaluation of ICT, the chronic chagasic showed that increased by 40% of patients, 40% had esophageal changes and 20% of patients had megacolon s. The echocardiogram was abnormal in 42%). 27% of patients had EF below 55% changed. Changes in segmental contractility and Asynchrony septum were found in 80% of chronic Chagas disease. In 80% of the patients was observed diastolic dysfunction. The valvular changes occurred in 75%. Electrocardiographic abnormalities occurred in 80% of patients with CCC, while the other heart had ECG changes. Arterial hypertension had an incidence of 45% in patients with CCC and 40% in FCI. The systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction was more prevalent in groups that had an abnormal ECG and arrhythmia. Observed that the group of chagasic decreased ejection fraction is correlated to a higher incidence of arrhythmias besides diastolic dysfunction and related increased atrio-left, ICT correlates with LV size and EF and LA. The abnormal ECG also are related to the dysfunction. (author)

  15. A regulatory model for conformity evaluation in natural gas building installations; Um modelo regulatorio para avaliacao da conformidade das instalacoes prediais de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossa, Alberto Jose; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of the Brazilian growth needs to consider necessarily the energy arrangements, and natural gas has relevant participation in this matter. The possibility of its end use that make possible an effective adequacy of our energy matrix must be supported by modern concepts of quality and conformity. In this particular, the program of 'Tecnologia Industrial Basica' (TIB), including concepts and application of conformity evaluation processes, is considered basic for the construction of a consistent gas market. This paper present the Brazilian reality related to TIB aspects and elements, from which it constructs a technician and regulatory building gas installations model proposal for a conformity evaluation program in the country. (author)

  16. Isolation and cytotoxicity evaluation of some oxoaporphine alkaloids from Annonaceae; Isolamento e avaliacao da atividade citotoxica de alguns alcaloides oxaporfinicos obtidos de annonaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Denise Brentan da; Matos, Maria de Fatima Cepa; Nakashita, Simone T.; Misu, Carina K.; Yoshida, Nidia Cristiane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Fabri, Joao Roberto; Miglio, Hercules da Silva; Siqueira, Joao Maximo de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br

    2007-07-01

    A different methodology was used to isolate and purify oxoaporphine alkaloids, as they are difficult to separate by the usual workup when in mixture. Alkaloid extracts from Annonaceae species were obtained by base/acid extraction. The extracts were concentrated and submitted to partition in solutions of acids of different pKa values, followed by separation by preparative TLC using 1 mm thick silica gel impregnated with oxalic acid (11.2% w/w). Liriodenine, lisycamine, lanuginosine, and O-methylmoschatoline were obtained and tested against tumoral cells (line Hep{sub 2}, ATCC-CCL 23, larynx carcinoma). Only O-methylmoschatoline (IC{sub 50} 12.4 muM) was more active than cisplatin (18.0 muM). (author)

  17. Assessment in dogs tympanic bulla, through virtual tomographic endoscopy; Avaliacao de bulas timpanicas em caes, por meio da endoscopia tomografica virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Sabino, Emanuelle Guidugli, E-mail: lucianacarandina@uol.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Dogs usually have problems related to the auditory canal. For the diagnosis of these pathologies, it is necessary a physical examination and, in some cases radiographic examination and computed tomography. The tympanic bulla is not easily visualized radiographically, since there is many structures of the brain overlaying the image obtained. The computed tomography has been the technique of choice to assess this structure faithfully. A new alternative assessment of the tympanic bulla is tomographic virtual endoscopy, which allows an improvement of the image obtained through the virtual tomographic technique. This paper provides information on the use of computed tomography, and a new technique, tomographic virtual endoscopy, in order to make the improvement of these techniques, and prove the reliability of these changes in the diagnosis of ear canals of dogs. Therefore, we performed the computed tomography of the tympanic bulla on healthy animals, and later performed image reconstruction in three-dimensional (3D) mode for virtual endoscopy. (author)

  18. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  19. Evaluation of operational management in the oil terminals using human factor indicator; Avaliacao da gestao operacional em terminais com o uso do indicador de fator humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, George L.D. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Gilson Brito Alves [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). LATEC. Mestrado Profissional em Sistemas de Gestao

    2005-07-01

    This research has as objective to analyze the continuous improvement in a management system at TRANSPETRO in Madre de Deus Terminal (BA), environment and occupational health, particularly in the reduction of the accident levels. We consider relevant in this research the effective implementation of the human factor that includes the boarding of the work system relating them it three points: individual activities, organizational processes of work and activities, emphasizing the management of these resources and the communication between them. The case study it was make in a company of logistic of fuels. The methodology was lead through bibliographical research and applied closed questionnaire (adaptation's baseline API 770 - Manager's Guide to Reducing Human Errors Improving - Improving in the Process Industries) in 2003 and 2005 with the manager, coordinators, supervisors, operators and others technician. Were analyzed results of the company in management security and occupational health, such as: pointers of the tax of frequency of accidents with and without removal, volume of leaked product and results of internal and external audits. We conclude that the importance of the human factor in the Safety Management that propitiated significant progress in the organization during the development of the research. (author)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella turcica: evaluation of patients with galactorrhea, amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia; Ressonancia magnetica da sela turca: avaliacao de pacientes com galactorreia, amenorreia e hiperprolactinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M.D. dos [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia Santa Cruz Scan

    1999-08-01

    We have selected 135 cases of patients who have done magnetic resonance imaging of sella region, carried out from September, 1991 to August, 1996, who had galactorrhea (G), amenorrhea(A), and hyperprolactinemia (H), isolated or in association. The patients were divided in seven groups, according to the presence of these symptoms and signs. All examinations were made in a private clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Correlating these patients with the results of the magnetic resonance images, we found 57 micro adenomas, 31 normal examinations, 22 macro adenomas, 11 pituitary hyperplasias, 7 empty sella and 7 cases included in other aspects. The micro adenoma predominated in groups 1 (GAH), 2 (GH), 3 (HA) and 5 (H), that is, in all groups whose patients had hyperprolactinemia. In macro adenomas, a bright signal on T 1-weighted images indicates pituitary apoplexy with intratumoral hemorrhage. All in all, the magnetic resonance imaging is excellent method to be used in the evaluation of patients with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (author)

  1. Synthesis optimization of calcium aluminate cement phases for biomedical applications; Avaliacao da sintese das fases de cimento de aluminato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L.; Oliveira, I.R. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied as a potential material for applications in the areas of health such as, endodontics and bone reconstruction. These studies have been based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by investigating the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance for biomedical applications. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the CAC synthesis routes in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO systems, as well as the phase characterization attained by means of X ray analysis. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO route enabled the production of the target phases (CA, CA{sub 2}, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) with a higher purity compared to the Al2O3-CaCO3 one. As a result the particular properties of these phases can be evaluated to define a more suitable composition that results in better properties for an endodontic cement and other applications. (author)

  2. Dynamic evaluation of the nominal capacity for connection of wind parks; Avaliacao dinamica da capacidade nominal para conexao de parques eolicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Tony; Lloyd, Graeme; An, Chang [Areva T and D, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aten, Martin; Ferris, Bob [E.ON Central Networks (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The capacity dynamic determination was applied to 132 kV line, for protection and load management purposes, increasing the possibility of wind generation connection. The capacity was calculated based on climatic measurements, coordinate the automatic dispatch. To guarantee that the capacity was not surmounted, a backup system was used composed by relay. (author)

  3. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em materiais utilizados em restauracoes dentarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio

    2009-07-01

    This work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations (Titanium, Amalgam, Resin Composite and Glass Ionomer) aiming the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, arising when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-ray beams of 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. The sample were submitted to Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chambers in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a Germanium detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  4. Evaluation of thermal stability of paraffin wax by differential scanning calorimetry; Avaliacao da estabilidade termica de parafina por calorimetria diferencial de varredura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, K.O.; Silva, A.G.P.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos], Email: holanda@uenf.br

    2010-07-01

    Phase change materials for heat storage are used as passive solar energy storage materials, which can be impregnated into construction materials. In this work the thermal stability (heating/cooling cycle) of the paraffin wax was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The latent heat and fusion temperature were determined for the following thermal cycles: 0, 30, 180 and 360. The thermal stability for paraffin wax infiltrated in support of gypsum was also determined. The experimental results showed that the paraffin wax showed good thermal stability in the states pure and infiltrated for up to 360 thermal cycles. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation on projects of energy efficiency of AES ELETROPAULO - indicators proposition; Avaliacao de desempenho de projetos do programa de eficiencia energetica da AES Eletropaulo - proposicao de indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Gimenes, Andre Luiz Veiga; Braga, Lillian Kariny Queiroz Serra; Rangel, Paulo Jose da Silva Mourao; Sigoli, Jose Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; AES ELETROPAULO, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: saidel@pea.usp.br; gimenes@gmail.com; lillian.braga@poli.usp.br; rangel@pea.usp.br; marcelo.sigoli@aes.com

    2006-07-01

    This work proposes a series of quality and performance indicators for quantitatively and qualitatively evaluation of Energy Efficiency of the Law 9991/2000, through a punctuation criterion, and to evaluate the performance of the Energy Service Companies (ESC), from the results of the projects presented and executed considering their final results related to presented proposals.

  6. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents; Sintese e avaliacao preliminar da atividade antibacteriana e antifungica de derivados N-acilidrazonicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachiba, Thomas Haruo; Carvalho, Bruno Demartini; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Medicamentos; Cusinato, Marina; Prado, Clara Gaviao; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches, E-mail: diogo.carvalho@unifal-mg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2012-07-01

    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC{sub 50} values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 {mu}M), C. krusei (34 {mu}M) and C. tropicalis (17 {mu}M). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  7. Glass forming ability of the Al-Ce-Ni system; Avaliacao da capacidade de formacao vitrea do sistema Al-Ce-Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triveno Rios, C. [Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: triveno@ufmt.br; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the glass forming ability (GFA) and its compositional dependence on Al-Ni-Ce system alloys were investigated in function of several thermal parameters. Rapidly quenched Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 15}-{sub X}Ce{sub X} (X=4,5,6,7,10), Al{sub 90}Ni{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 89}Ni{sub 2}.{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}.{sub 6}, Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 15.6}Ce{sub 4}.{sub 4} and Al{sub 78}Ni{sub 18.5}Ce{sub 3.5} amorphous ribbons were produced by melt-spinning and the structural transformation during heating was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the GFA and the thermal stability in the Al-rich corner of Al- Ni-Ce system alloys were enhanced by increasing the solute content and specifically the Ce content (author)

  8. Evaluation of the strengthening of the conditions of voltage security using sensitivity analysis; Avaliacao do reforco das condicoes da seguranca de tensao utilizando a analise de sensibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, A.L.S.; Costa, V.M. da; Peres, W. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia], Emails: arleilucas@gmail.com, vander@lacee.ufjf.br, wesley.peres@yahoo.com.br; Prada, R.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Email: prada@ele.puc-rio.br

    2009-07-01

    Voltage stability or voltage security analysis has motivated an expressive attention of power systems researchers. In this work, a simple and fast method evaluates voltage security and proposes conditions to improve the loading margin. System analysis is carried out in terms of active power transmission path. Sensitivity analysis provides the most adequate buses to active and reactive power redispatch. A sequential iterative methodology to reinforce system conditions is presented. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the capacity of heavy metal adsorption in exfoliated vermiculite; Avaliacao da capacidade de adsorcao de metal pesado em vermiculitas esfoliadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.F.; Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C.M.O., E-mail: raposo@dmg.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), Bodocongo, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Many groups from modern society have seen with attention the issues of pollutants, generally present in nature, those same that have caused irreversible damages to the environment. The Vermiculite, a phyllosilicate, with t-o-t structure, have high interlamelar charge, has been studied as cationic exchanger, whose application when exfoliated, are increased. This work has the objective of evaluate the absorption capacity of chromium (III), in different concentrations, in high, slim and medium concentrations of exfoliated vermiculites. The results obtained from the characterization by spectroscopy in infrared and by diffraction of x-ray from prepared solids showed important variations in the quantity of adsorbed metal in order the size of the concentrated particles. (author)

  10. Evaluation of secondary crystallization effect in poly hydroxybutyrate and silanized coir dust composites; Avaliacao do efeito da cristalizacao secundaria em compositos de polihidroxibutirato e po de coco silanizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Carolina C. de; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M.S.M., E-mail: ccmello@metalmat.ufrj.br [Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate is a natural and biodegradable polyester, susceptible to secondary crystallization when it is stored at environment temperature. Coir dust is an agroindustrial waste which has good prospects for use as filler in composites. In this context, PHB-coir dust composites were produced. The compatibilization was made by coir dust silanization. The secondary crystallization evolution on materials was evaluated by x-ray diffraction. Its effect was verified by tension tests which presented that elastic modulus increases when crystallinity increases. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the life cycle of integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel; Avaliacao do ciclo de vida da producao integrada de etanol e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone Pereira de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], email: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Pacca; Sergio Almeida [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades], email: spacca@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane and palm are amongst the crops with the highest yields, which can reach 6 to 7.5 thousand liters of ethanol per hectare year and 4 to 6 metric tons of oil per hectare year, respectively. A joint production of biofuels from these crops is an interesting alternative for life cycle assessment improvement through fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions reduction, besides energy efficiency gains. The objective of this work is comparing the Brazilian production system sugarcane ethanol with an integrated system proposal where the ethanol and palm biodiesel are produced together. This comparative study is based on a life cycle approach using the ISO 14.044/2006 and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado, Cerradao and grassland ecosystem were considered. The energy balance, carbon balance and land use change were evaluated. The integrated system includes a 100% substitution of biodiesel by diesel, which is used in life cycle agriculture stages. Distinct fractions of sugarcane used for sugar production were assessed. When all sugarcane is sent to sugar production, ethanol is produced by molasses. The data were collected by direct observation method by questionnaire and secondary sources. Three sugarcane mills situated in Sao Paulo state and a palm mill located in Para state were surveyed. Results showed a 164% increase in energy balance for the joint production system in comparison to the traditional system. Besides this, the joint production system demonstrated a 24% GHG emission reduction. For ethanol production by molasses, the energy balance was up to 59% and 162% higher in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively, which differ each other through of the boiler that was utilized. For GHG emission, the reduction can reach 91%. The land use change identify an average ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradao and Degraded Grassland of 5, 10, and -5 years, respectively. In conclusion, the joint production system of sugarcane ethanol and palm biodiesel presents an improvement in energy balance, GHG emissions and land use change impacts in comparison to the traditional ethanol system. (author)

  12. Chemical and microbiological assessments of the multi mixture treated by gamma radiation; Avaliacao quimica e microbiologica da multimistura tratada por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cinthia Graciele

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the multi mixture have being used since the eighties as an alternative against severe infantile malnutrition of the poorest population. However, its use is still reason of controversies mainly due to: the presence of anti nutritional factors, the microbiological quality and the nutritional value. Considering the routine use of multi mixture in the region, this work aimed to evaluate samples of multi mixture were collected in the metropolitan area of the City of Belo Horizonte/MG for determining the anti nutritional factors (phytic and oxalic acids), the microbiological quality, the centesimal and mineral composition, and still the induced effect in these factors of the gamma radiation. For the analyses, the samples passed by the process of gamma irradiation at doses of: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and then were evaluated anti nutritional factors (phytic acid and oxalic), the microbiological quality (yeasts and molds, Salmonella, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, coliform to 45 deg C) to full percentage (moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and the efficiency of the method of Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance (EPR) in the detection of irradiated samples. The mineral composition of the samples was carried out by the irradiation by Neutronic Activation. The methods used were searched in literature. The obtained results suggest that the concentration of the phytic and oxalic acids can not be appropriated for the children with severe nutritional deficit and that it would be necessary additional control in their daily ingestion due to the absorption of essential minerals. In general the samples had presented acceptable microbiological quality for consumption, except by one of it. The data of the centesimal and mineral composition, in the usually recommended portions, showed lower concentration than recommended for children. Any significant alteration in phytic and oxalic acids as well as in the centesimal composition were detected after gamma irradiation. The electronic paramagnetic resonance can be detected irradiated samples. (author)

  13. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous thrombosis. (author) 101 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Performance of direct ethanol and methanol fuel cells as function of alcohol concentration applied to the anode of those cells; Desempenho de celulas a combustivel com alimentacao direta de etanol (CCADE) e celulas a combustivel com alimentacao direta de metanol (CCADM) em funcao da concentracao do alcool aplicado ao anodo destas celulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchor, P.M.; Forte, M.M.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Correa, J.P.; Kuhn, C.K.; Carpenter, D. [FURB -Fundacao Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper aimed to compare the performance of a CCADE and a CCADM as function of diminishing of concentration of alcohol applied top the anode of each cell. As result, reaching a diminishing the concentration of each alcohol through the mix of each one with the deionized water, one obtained a improved humidification and sensible reduction of the permeability of cationic membrane, generating a gain of performance of the functioning both cells. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliavao da concentracao de elementos traco e de mercurio total em pescados comercializados na cidade de Cubatao, Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T., E-mail: ba_cortopassi@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the non predator species, and the 1000 {mu}g{sup -1} for the predator species (humid weight)

  16. Determination of the semi-empiric relationship among the physical density, the concentration and rate between hydrogen and manganese atoms, and a manganese sulfate solution; Determinacao da relacao semi-empirica entre a densidade fisica, concentracao e razao entre atomos de hidrogenio e manganes em uma solucao de sulfato de manganes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, Guilherme Rodrigues [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). PIBIC; Castro, Leonardo Curvello de; Pereira, Walsan W.; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Dantas, Maria Leticia [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI). Lab. de Neutrons

    2009-07-01

    The bath of a manganese sulfate (BMS) is a system for absolute standardization of the neutron sources. This work establishes a functional relationship based on semi-empirical methods for the theoretical prediction of physical density values, concentration and rate between the hydrogen and manganese atoms presents in the solution of the BMS

  17. Spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao estuarine system, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Variabilidade espacial e sazonal da concentracao de elementos-traco em sedimentos do sistema estuarino de Santos-Cubatao (SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz-Silva, Wanilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: wanilson@ige.unicamp.br; Matos, Rosa Helena Ribeiro; Kristosch, Giane Chaves [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Machado, Wilson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geoquimica

    2006-03-15

    Multi-element analyses of sediment samples from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System were carried out to investigate the spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations. The study area contains a rich mangrove ecosystem that is a habitat for tens of thousands of resident and migratory bi some of them endangered globally. Enrichments of metals in fine-grained surface sediments are, in decreasing order, Hg, Mn, La, Ca, Sr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cu, Cr, Fe, Nb, Y, Ni and Ga, relative to pre-industrial background levels. The maximum enrichment ranged from 49 (Hg) to 3.1 (Ga). Mercury concentrations were greater in the Cubatao river than in other sites, while the other elements showed greater concentrations in the Morrao river. Concentrations of Mn were significantly greater in winter and autumn than in summer and spring. However, other elements (e.g. Cd and Pb) showed the opposite, with greater concentrations in summer and spring. This study suggests that seasonal changes in physical and chemical conditions may affect the degree of sediment enrichment and therefore make the assessment of contamination difficult. Consequently, these processes need to be considered when assessing water quality and the potential contamination of biota.(author)

  18. Impact of uranium concentration reduction in side plates of the fuel elements of IEA-R1 reactor on neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses; Impacto da reducao na concentracao de uranio nas placas laterais dos elementos combustiveis do reator IEA-R1 nas analises neutronica e termo-hidraulica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka Antonia

    2013-09-01

    This master thesis presents a study to verify the impact of the uranium concentration reduction in the side plates of the reactor IEA-R1 fuel elements on the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. To develop such study, a previous IPEN-CNEN/SP research was reproduced by simulating the fuel elements burn-up, with side plate uranium density reduced to 50, 60 and 70% of the standard fuel element plates. This research begins with the neutronic analysis using the computer code HAMMER and the first step consists in the calculation of the cross section of all materials presented at the reactor core, with their initial concentration; the second step consists in the calculation of the fast and thermal neutron group fluxes and power densities for fuel elements using the computer code CITATION. HAMMER output data is used as input data. Once the neutronic analysis is finished and the most critical fuel elements with highest power density have been defined, the thermal-hydraulics analysis begins. This analysis uses MCTR-IEA-R1 thermal-hydraulics model, which equations are solved by commercial code EES. Thermalhydraulics analysis input is the power density data calculated by CITATION: it is considered the highest power density on each fuel element, where there is a higher energy release and, consequently, higher temperatures. This data is used on energy balance equations to calculate temperatures on critical fuel element regions. Reactor operation comparison for three different uranium densities on fuel side plates is presented. Uranium density reduction contributes to the cladding surface temperature to remain below the established limit, as reactor operation safety requirement and it does not affect significantly fuel element final burn-up nor reactor reactivity. The reduction of uranium in the side plates of the fuel elements of the IEA-R1 showed to be a viable option to avoid corrosion problems due to high temperatures. (author)

  19. 何谓DaF,DaZ,DaM?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀芳

    2004-01-01

    DaF(Deutsch als Fremdsprache)“对外德语” 这是一个在德语界耳熟能详的术语,人们首先想到的也许是德语培训班。实际上,DaF发展到今天,已成了一个广义的概念(Oberbegriff)。它由两大部分组成:除了人们已熟悉的为母语非德语人士开设的德语语言培训,即语言教学实践(DaF-Lehrgebiet)部分外,还包括学科专业(DaF-Studiengang)部分。

  20. Nomes de marca estrangeiros: examinando a relacao entre a linguagem e a avaliacao de uma marca internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Olavarrieta Soto, Sergio; Manzur Mobarec, Enrique; Friedmann, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    A eleiçao de nomes de marca em idiomas estrangeiros ("foreign brand names") nos mercados latino-americanos e bastante popular em variadas categorías de produtos, Nos investigamos este fenomeno entendendo os trabalhos originais de Le Clerc et. al. (1989-1994) no contexto de um pais latino americano em desenvolvimento, como o Chile. Para isso realizaram-se esperimentos ulilizando duas linguas estrangeiras: Frances e Ingles, alem da linguagem do pais foco -Espanhol-, o que amplia o estudo origin...

  1. Evaluation of the influence of water and oil derivatives absorption on PVC pipes; Avaliacao da influencia da absorcao de agua e de derivados de petroleo em tubulacoes de PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, D.C.F. del; D' Almeida, J.R.M., E-mail: dalmeida@puc-rio.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    PVC is the only polymer of large consume that is not totally obtained from petroleum, since it contains 57% of chlorine. As chlorine containing materials are resistant to bacteria rich environments, such as buried pipes, PVC is being used for fluid transportation, principally water, but it can also be considered as an alternative material for the transportation of other fluids. This work analyzes the aging behavior of PVC exposed to water, ethanol and diesel oil, using TGA, DSC, FT-IR and DR-X techniques. The results showed that the chemical structure of PVC is not affected by exposure to water and ethanol. For these fluids a dipolar interaction could be occurring, increasing at the beginning of the absorption process, the polymer thermal stability. The diesel oil caused plasticization, with reduction of the Tg since the beginning of the aging process. (author)

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the utilization of biopiles technology to the bioremediation of the soil of Guamare/RN (Brazil); Avaliacao preliminar da aplicacao da tecnologia de biopilhas para a biorremediacao do solo de Guamare/RN (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edmilson P.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Costa, Alex S.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of biopiles to the bioremediation of the soil of Stabilization Station of Guamare-RN-Brazil. The evaluation was performed by the characterization of the soil, tests of biodegradation in laboratory scale and by the use of a complete 2{sup 3} factorial design with triplicate at the central point. The input variables were: Nitrogen concentration; diesel-oil concentration; and inoculum concentration. The response variable was the percentage gravimetric loss of organic matter. Statistical analyses of the main factors and their interactions on the response variable were performed using contour curves and Pareto obtained from the software STATISTICA for Windows, Release 5.5. The results showed that biopiles technology can be used to remediate eventual contaminated areas in that region. (author)

  3. Model for qualitative evaluation of risk in ducts through the fuzzy logic in conformity with the methodology of IBR; Modelo para avaliacao qualitativa do risco em oleodutos atraves da logica fuzzy segundo a metodologia da IBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, Koje Daniel Vasconcelos [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Silva, Jose Felicio da; Silva, Joao Bosco de Aquino [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPb), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This work considers a system for qualitative evaluation of the terrestrial risk in pipelines, based in the methodology of the Inspection Based on Risk and the Fuzzy Logic. For this one developed a matrix of risk associated with the oil transport and its derivatives, that define the type of tracking and the regularity of inspection with Pig Instrumented in function of the level of risk found in the stretch in study. This matrix of risk considers the probabilities and the consequences associates to the damage for corrosion. The evaluation of the considered system was based on the consistency of the found levels of risk, in relation to that it would be found in the practical one. The gotten results had demonstrated that the use of the methodology of the IBR and the Fuzzy Logic can be used jointly as one sufficiently efficient alternative technique in the evaluation of risk in corroded pipe-lines. (author)

  4. Evaluation of internal occupational exposure of workers from nuclear medicine services by aerosol analysis containing {sup 131}I; Avaliacao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em servicos de medicina nuclear atraves da analise de aerossois contendo {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao, E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Paula, Gustavo Affonso de [Escola SESC de Ensino Medio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the risk of internal occupational exposure associated with the incorporation of {sup 131}I via inhalation, in Nuclear Medicine Services, using aerosol analysis techniques. Occupationally Exposed Individuals (IOE) involved in handling this radionuclide are subject to chronic exposure, which can lead to an increase in the committed effective dose. Results obtained in preliminary studies indicate the occurrence of incorporation of {sup 131}I by workers involved in handling solutions for radioiodine therapy procedures. The evaluation was carried out in radiopharmacy lab (nuclear medicine service) of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After confirmed the presence of the radioisotope, by a qualitative assessment, it was determined an experimental arrangement for sample collection and were detected and quantitated the presence of steam {sup 131}I during routine work. The average concentration of activity obtained in this study was 3 Bq / m{sup 3}. This value is below of Derived Concentration in Air (DCA) of 8.4 x 10{sup 3} Bq of {sup 131}I / m{sup 3} corresponding to a committed effective dose of 1.76 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These results demonstrate that the studied area is safe in terms of internal exposure of workers. However, the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically reevaluated, since this type of exposure contributes to the increase of the individual effective doses. Based on the data obtained improvements were suggested in the exhaust system and the use of good work practices in order to optimize the exposures.

  5. Mining adaptation to the radioprotection regulations: evaluation of the regulation CNEN-NN-4.01; Adaptacao da mineracao as normas de radioprotecao: avaliacao da Norma CNEN-NN-4.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Silva, Cleber Jabarra da; Campinhos, Gabriela Michalsky [Jabarra Servicos e Comercio de Radioprotecao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Consultoria em Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    This paper proposes a generic model of monitoring to be used in mining with uranium or thorium associated viewing to estimate the dose of workers for classification the mining in the specific question of worker exposure. Besides the monitoring model, a dosimetric model also is proposed. It is indicated some instruments and techniques used in individual and area monitoring, besides to point out the necessity of radioprotection supervisor specific in this area

  6. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Avaliacao da contaminacao por elementos inorganicos e esteres ftalicos em poeira domestica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 {mu}m. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the uncertainty for the efficiency curve determination of {sup 210}Pb by liquid scintillation; Avaliacao da incerteza para a curva de eficiencia da determinacao de {sup 210}Pb por cintilacao liquida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.S.; Sousa, W.O.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: camilla@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Methodologies for the evaluation of uncertainties associated with the determination of the efficiency curve of {sup 210}Pb by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) are presented. No statistical difference were found when compared the uncertainties of the curves that represented the counting net before and after the secular equilibrium between {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Bi, nether when compared the curves when counting only {sup 210}Pb and the curve with the total count of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Bi, for the same time interval after precipitation. (author)

  8. Combined discrete nebulization and microextraction process for molybdenum determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS); Avaliacao da combinacao da nebulizacao discreta e processos de microextracao aplicados a determinacao de molibdenio por espectrometria de absorcao atomica com chama (FAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Jenny A.; Jesus, Amanda M.D. de; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R., E-mail: erpf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    Simple and sensitive procedures for the extraction/preconcentration of molybdenum based on vortex-assisted solidified floating organic drop microextraction (VA-SFODME) and cloud point combined with flame absorption atomic spectrometry (FAAS) and discrete nebulization were developed. The influence of the discrete nebulization on the sensitivity of the molybdenum preconcentration processes was studied. An injection volume of 200 μ resulted in a lower relative standard deviation with both preconcentration procedures. Enrichment factors of 31 and 67 and limits of detection of 25 and 5 μ L{sup -1} were obtained for cloud point and VA-SFODME, respectively. The developed procedures were applied to the determination of Mo in mineral water and multivitamin samples. (author)

  9. Application of nuclear techniques for the assessment of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte City, MG; Aplicacao de tecnicas nucleares nos estudos de avaliacao da poluicao do ar da regiao metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucas, Janaina Goncalves

    2009-07-01

    Toxic metals, such as Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and metalloids as As and Se and their compounds are mainly associated with the smaller diameter particulates present in the atmospheric aerosols. This fact is important, principally, when it concerns public health, because this is considered the breathable fraction of particles that can penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause damage to the alveoli. Once in the atmosphere the concentrations of trace metals, in general, show very low levels, thus the determination of the elementary composition of those particles requires the use of appropriate analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Rays Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), among others. The main objective of this study was the identification of the generating sources of gross (PM{sub 10}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) particles present in the atmospheric aerosols of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Neutron Activation Analyses by k{sub 0}-method (k0NAA) combined with energy dispersed by X-ray fluorescence was used to measurement of the concentration of trace elements present in each sample. High levels of particulate concentrations, especially PM{sub 2.5}, were measured during the sampling period. In general, the air quality varied from Reasonable to Inadequate. The receptor model used to assist in the identification of the main emission sources was the Principal Components Analysis. The results showed that the main elements presents in particulate inhalable matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}) were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, W and Zn. The results for multi-variable analyses shown clearly four pollutant sources, these being: vehicular emissions; resuspended soil/asphalt powder; secondary aerosols associated with emission of SO{sub 2} and industrial emissions associated with fossil oil burning. (author)

  10. Inorganic composition determination and evaluation of the biological activity of Peperomia pellucida in the Aspergillus flavus growth; Estudo da composicao inorganica e avaliacao da atividade biologica de Peperomia pellucida no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio

    2011-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a great advancement in research in developing drugs from plants. Nevertheless, little significant care exists in the literature about the stable concentration of elements, as well as the activity concentration of '2{sup 38}U and {sup 232}Th decay products in plants used for this purpose in Brazil. The presence of stable elements and radionuclides in plants constitutes the pathway for their migration to humans, via uptake of tea or remedies made with medicinal herbs. Peperomia pellucida, whose popular name is 'erva de jabuti', is a plant known by its medicinal usages, such as healing and analgesic properties plus antibacterial and antifungal activities against food fungi. In this study, the elemental composition of Peperomia pellucida and surrounding soil samples collected in the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro was determined; the elemental concentration in the alcoholic extract and infusion processes of dry plants was also determined. The elemental concentration of As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn was determined in the leaves, aerial parts, including leaves, stems and roots of Peperomia pellucida, in their extracts obtained by maceration and infusions and in the surrounding soil by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical methodology used to determine the elements Cd, Hg and Pb was the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS); the activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were carried out by gross alpha and beta counting, after radiochemical separation. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen, IAEA-Soil-7, IAEA-326 Radionuclides in soil, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves and NIST 1542 Peach Leaves. The relative standard deviations and the relative errors obtained in these analyses indicated good precision and accuracy of the results. The essential oil, ethanolic and hexane extracts of Peperomia pellucida were tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus in vitro on Petri plates. The antifungal activity was based on the inhibition zone and IC{sub 50} values against the pathogen on Petri plates assays. Also, the essential oil chemical composition was determined by GC-MS. (author)

  11. Study of the heterogeneity effects of lung in the evaluation of absorbed dose in radiotherapy; Estudo dos efeitos da heterogeneidade de pulmao na avaliacao da dose absorvida em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Luciana Tourinho

    2006-02-15

    The main objective of radiotherapy is to deliver the highest possible dose to the tumour, in order to destroy it, reducing as much as possible the doses to healthy tissues adjacent to the target volume. Therefore, it is necessary to do a planning of the treatment. The more complex is the treatment, the more difficult the planning will be, demanding computation sophisticated methods in its execution, in order to consider the heterogeneities present in the human body. Additionally, with the appearing of new radiotherapeutic techniques, that used irradiation fields of small area, for instance, the intensity modulated radiotherapy, the difficulties for the execution of a reliable treatment planning, became still larger. In this work it was studied the influence of the lung heterogeneity in the planning of the curves of percentage depth dose, PDP, obtained with the Eclipse{sup R} planning system for different sizes of irradiation fields, using the correction algorithms for heterogeneities available in the planning system: modified Batho, general Batho and equivalent tissue-air ratio. A thorax phantom, manufactured in acrylic, containing a region made of cork to simulate the lung tissue, was used. The PDP curves generated by the planning system were compared to those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and with the use of thermoluminescent, TL, dosimetry. It was verified that the algorithms used by the Eclipse{sup R} system for the correction of heterogeneity effects are not able to generate correct results for PDP curves in the case of small fields, occurring differences of up to 100%, when the 1x1 cm{sup 2} treatment field is considered. These differences can cause a considerable subdosage in the lung tissue, reducing the possibility of the patient cure. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the radioprotection state-of-the-art for nursing mothers and the recommendation for multidisciplinary teams; Avaliacao do estado da arte da radioprotecao para lactantes e elaboracao de recomendacoes para equipes multidisciplinares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de, E-mail: lirio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Related to the ionizing radiation exposure, the breast feed babies can be classified as individuals occupational y exposed and public individuals existing dose limits, and nonexisting limits. breast feeds are always considered as public individuals, independently of the category which women are classified. The contamination can occur by ingestion of mother warm milk on the cases of accidents involving mothers occupational y exposed, intake of radionuclides by inhalation, or ingestion, or when the mother are submitted to diagnostic procedures or therapeutics with radiopharmaceuticals, that can reach high concentrations in the milk which can cause significant absorbed doses for the children organs. Besides the internal dose, the close contact between the mother and the baby results in external doses. In Brazil, round 7 % of the diagnostic procedures use {sup 131}I or {sup 123}I, and 84 % are carry out by women. For {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl, it is necessary the definitive interruption of the breast feeding. This work proposes a study on the risk of children and babies breast feed in the country. A questionnaire was developed to be applied to interviews with doctors and nurses on public and private nuclear medicine services, for the evaluation of the procedures used with young women. After that, will be developed a brochure for multidisciplinary teams, presenting the basic concepts on internal dosimetry of the children and babies, allowing the precise prediction of interruption time of the maternal breast feed and, when applicable, the alternative methods for that period

  13. Study of the contribution of the different components of atmospheric cosmic radiation in dose received by the aircraft crew; Avaliacao da contribuicao dos diferentes componentes da radiacao cosmica atmosferica na dose em tripulacoes de aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marlon A.; Prado, Adriane C.M., E-mail: adriane.acm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marlon@ieav.cta.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The crews and aircraft passengers are exposed to atmospheric cosmic radiation. The flow of this radiation is modulated by the solar cycle and space weather, varying with the geomagnetic latitude and altitude. This paper presents a study of the contributions of radiation in total ambient dose equivalent of the crews depending on flight altitude up to 20 km, during maximum and minimum solar and in equatorial and polar regions. The results of calculations of the particle flows generated by the EXPACS and QARM codes are used. The particles evaluated that contributing significantly in the ambient dose equivalent are neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, alphas, photons, muons and charged pions. This review allows us to characterize the origin of the dose received by crews and also support a project of a dosimetric system suitable for this ionizing radiation field in aircraft and on the ground.

  14. Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina; Avaliacao dosimetrica de uma combinacao de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porcao distal da vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues [Real e Benemerita Sociedade Portuguesa de Beneficencia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia Estereotactica; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: handrade@hcnet.usp.br; Seraide, Rodrigo Migotto [Centro de Oncologia Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. Materials And Methods: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC); tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C); and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC). Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50), 100% (V100), 150% (V150) and 200% (V200) were compared. Results: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder). Conclusion: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina. (author)

  15. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  16. The refractometry use in the evaluation of type 'C' gasoline non-conformities; Uso da refratometria na avaliacao de nao conformidades da gasolina tipo 'C'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, K.M.; Andrade, J.M.; Severiano, M.L.; Medeiros, M.A.O.; Fernandes, N.S.; Fernandes, V.J. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: klecia.morais@bol.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The need of the creation of practical and efficient methods that can monitor the quality of the automotive fuels it is an important factor, because they should evaluate the physical-chemical properties of the fuels to guarantee your conformity. To determine these parameters of conformity, several regulars analyses are done in the gasoline type 'C', as the distillation and content of ethyl alcohol (AEAC). However, the present work has as objective uses the refractometry in the forecast of irregularities in the gasoline trying to establish a faster and efficient analysis method. (author)

  17. Evaluation of variation of voltage (kV) absorbed dose in chest CT scans; Avaliacao da variacao da tensao (kV) na dose absorvida em varreduras de TC torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Bruna G.A.; Mourao, Arnaldo P., E-mail: brunabgam@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CENEB/CEFET-MG), Belo Horionte, MG, (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most important diagnostic techniques images today. The increasing utilization of CT implies a significant increase of population exposure to ionizing radiation. Optimization of practice aims to reduce doses to patients because the image quality is directly related to the diagnosis. You can decrease the amount of dose to the patient, and maintain the quality of the image. There are several parameters that can be manipulated in a CT scan and these parameters can be used to reduce the energy deposited in the patient. Based on this, we analyzed the variation of dose deposited in the lungs, breasts and thyroid, by varying the supply voltage of the tube. Scans of the thorax were performed following the protocol of routine chest with constant and variable current for the same applied voltage. Moreover, a female phantom was used and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100), model bat, were used to record the specific organ doses. Scans were performed on a GE CT scanner, model 64 Discovery channels. Higher doses were recorded for the voltage of 120 kV with 200 mAs in the lungs (22.46 mGy) and thyroid (32.22 mGy). For scans with automatic mAs, variable between 100 and 440, this same tension contributed to the higher doses. The best examination in terms of the dose that was used with automatic 80 kV mAs, whose lungs and thyroid received lower dose. For the best breast exam was 100 kV. Since the increase in the 80 kV to 100 kV no impact so much the dose deposited in the lungs, it can be concluded that lowering the applied voltage to 100 kV resulted in a reduction in the dose absorbed by the patient. These results can contribute to optimizing scans of the chest computed tomography.

  18. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade e remocao da cor de um efluente textil tratado com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-07-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  19. Evaluation exposure to the ionizing radiation of workers during the operation of first Brazilian uranium mine; Avaliacao da exposicao de trabalhadores a radiacao ionizante durante a operacao da primeira mina de uranio do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Oliveira, Sergio Q. de; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Silva, Ana Claudia A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Servico de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    The production of uranium in Brazil initiated, in industrial scale, in the year of 1982, in the Miner-Industrial Complex at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This paper analysed the data of 13410 individual historic of dose, registered along the years of work, bay the radioprotection service of installation. Descriptive statistics and frequency histograms based on dose historic, and the annual distribution doses and the accumulated doses were evaluated during the functioning period of the CIPC, and his adequacy to the in force legislation at the time of it operation

  20. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of broccoli significant difference on the yellowing during storage. It is concluded that the processing of collard greens and broccoli butter by gamma radiation may be a viable alternative to the industry, since there was a reduction of the population of microorganisms, without changes in the sensory qualities and with minimum changes in the characteristics that confer antioxidant power. (author)

  1. Evaluation of parapharyngeal space by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance. Part 1: anatomy; O valor da tomografia computadorizada e da ressonancia magnetica na avaliacao do espaco parafaringeo. Parte 1: anatomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Rapoport, Abrao [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-01-01

    The authors, through a comprehensive review of the literature, intend to establish an anatomical concept of the parapharyngeal space and its surroundings spaces in the supra-hyoid neck, based on its division by the fascial planes. The correlation between the anatomically defined parapharyngeal space and the findings of the sectional imaging procedures (computed tomography and magnetic resonance) is established, evidencing clear anatomic-radiologic correspondence. (author) 44 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Evaluation of eco toxicity, biocide effectiveness and corrosiveness of fluid for pipelines hydro testing; Avaliacao da ecotoxicidade, eficiencia biocida e da corrosividade de fluidos para teste hidroestatico de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia A.; Veiga, Leticia F.; Penna, Monica O.; Souza, Leonardo S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Fabio F.; Amigo, Alexandre A.; Chaves, Claudia [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Before the installation of subsea pipelines for draining the oil and gas production, the line need to be submitted to hydrostatic tests. In these, the lines are flooded with sea water and chemicals and pressurized to check the leakage occurrence. By the end of the test, the fluid needs to be discharged in-situ. Based on the environmental restrictions, this study began, and the three most important aspects in relation to the environmental risks had been evaluated: the toxicity, the biocide efficiency and the fluids' corrosiveness. By the partial results, it was observed that the fluids which had presented the best results in all studied aspects were the ones that contained the biocide THPS, combined with U.V. and a quaternary salt. In relation to the corrosion, it could be established that the studied fluids do not present impacts in internal corrosion, since during the test, the pipes are totally flooded with the fluid, remaining stamped and all the internal air having been removed. An important aspect is: even with concentrations below of the recommended ones for biocides, in order to guarantee lower environmental risks, by making use of alternative techniques (U.V.) and efficient biocide products, it is also possible to reach success in terms of biocide's efficiency. A regular monitoring procedure of the fulfilling fluid's quality is essential. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the efficiency of a tubular digester in the reduction of organic load of biogas from swine wastes; Avaliacao da eficiencia de um biodigestor tubular na reducao da carga organica de biogas a partir de dejetos de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Moreno Palacio, Soraya [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil); Szymanski, Nayara [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Curso de Quimica

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the anaerobic biological treatment systems in the reduction and stabilization of biodegradable organic matter of swine waste. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. The residues analysis was performed by means of sampling at the entrance and way out of the digester. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, DBO{sub 5}, DQO, total solids, total volatile solids, total fixed solids, total nitrogen e ammonia, potassium, total phosphate, average of biogas production. The results suggested that the anaerobic biological treatment system was efficient for reducing and stabilizing the organic matter resulted from the swine wastes. Expressive reductions of DBO, DQO, ST and SVT of 76, 77, 43 and 59% respectively, were obtained for the effluent originated by the digester. The average daily production of biogas during the analyzed period was 31, 5 m{sup 3}. (author)

  4. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements originated from the natural and anthropogenic sources. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the results showed six major components, where components 1 and 2 accounted for 52.9 % of the variance of the data. Enrichment factors (EF) calculated for the results of lichens from CUASO and a region considered unpolluted were EF> 1 for most elements, showing that these elements may be from anthropogenic sources. From the results obtained in this study can be concluded that the elements found in lichens from CUASO can be originated from sources such as resuspension of soil particles and anthropogenic emissions. (author)

  5. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  6. Stability evaluation of CNBr-Sepharose 4 B for using as solid matrix in immunoradiometric assay antibodies coupling; Avaliacao da estabilidade da CNBr-sepharose 4B para emprego como matriz solida no acoplamento de anticorpos especificos de ensaios imunorradiometricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Esther Piltcher; Silva, Sandra Rosa da; Borghi, Vania Caira [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wajchenberg, Bernardo Leo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1995-12-31

    The present work verifies the stability of a CNBr-Sepharose 4 B product (Pharmacia) stored at our laboratory one year after its expire date in view of its application as solid phase antibodies in the development of an immunoradiometric assay for measurement of serum human proinsulin. From rabbit IgG antiserum previously purified and concentrated by ultrafiltration (Publication IPEN 294, 1990) the antibodies were isolated by affinity chromatography. Sheep antiserum anti-rabbit IgG were coupled to cyanogen bromide activated Sepharose 4 B and the rabbit IgG which were bound to the immunosorbent could be obtained by elution with stepwise pH gradient from pH 7.0 to pH 2.5. The complying efficiency of the sheep antiserum to this solid phase material was 97%. The elution profile obtained shows identify of the sample related to the antiserum anti-rabbit IgG by affinity chromatography. These results suggest that this CNBr-Sepharose 4 B lot can be used satisfactorily to attach antibodies for use in the two-site immunoradiometric assay. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment; Analise ambiental da celula a combustivel de membrana trocadora de protons sob o enfoque da avaliacao do ciclo de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi

    2006-07-01

    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and the current studies on LCA of PEMFC. Several questions raised up on this issues have contributed in the development of a method of recuperating the PEMFC catalysts and, particularly, for its subsequent environmental evaluation. Among significant results are the importance of LCA, out lined as useful tool for perceiving the weight of environmental matters concerning the platinum and its subsidy strategies relating to the development, consolidation and to the innovation of PEMFC. (author)

  8. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  9. Social environmental and economic evaluation diagnosis through application of MADSA (Social and Environmental Evaluation Matrix) customization; Diagnostico de desempenho socioambiental e economico por meio da customizacao da MADSA (Matriz para Avaliacao de Desempenho Socioambiental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziliotto, Marco Aurelio B.; Villa, Alessandra T.; Padilha, Simone L. Vieira; Canaverde, Patricia Margue [Instituto ECOPLAN, General Carneiro, PR (Brazil); Sanqueta, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present paper reports a social, environment and economic diagnosis in an oil and energy organization, in the enlargement of its plant. Attending to some previous requirements made by this company, the diagnosis was accomplished making use of an innovative evaluation tool called MADSA{sup R} (Social and Environmental Evaluation Matrix). Through the customization of this tool, it was possible to evaluate, systematically, the performance of the engaged companies hired by the organization to implement its enterprise, based on proposed actions in QSMS - Quality, Safety, Environment and Health. The performance evaluation was supported by the employees', the organization, its clients' and the local community perception. MADSA{sup R} methodology made it possible to measure the accomplished gain through proposed actions. The development of a performance indicator allowed the comparison between achieved results and accomplished investments. It was concluded that MADSA{sup R} provided subsidies to elaborate an action plan to improve the organization achievements, since it was able to represent the strategy of the organization, to guide and standardize actions, to identify and quantify points to be made better of. (author)

  10. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology;Analise preliminar das doses para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em exames radiograficos na radiologia veterinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  11. Evaluation of {sup 137}Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil; Avaliacao da mobilidade do {sup 137}Cs em perfis de solos da regiao do Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda Leite da

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for {sup 137}Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to {sup 137}Cs soil and can be used in the task of remediation in case of rural areas by accident and {sup 137}Cs contamination establishing geographic areas where we should prioritize treatment due to a greater vulnerability. (author)

  12. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations; Avaliacao da protecao radiologica e da dose de entrada na pele em exames de odontologia pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Vasconcelos, Flavia Maria Nassar de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontopediatria; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-07-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  13. Evaluation of parapharyngeal space by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance. Part 2: tumours and pseudo tumours; O valor da tomografia computadorizada e da ressonancia magnetica na avaliacao do espaco parafaringeo. Parte 2: tumores e pseudotumores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Rapoport, Abrao [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-01-01

    The tumors of the parapharyngeal space are a heterogeneous group of lesions not actually originating in the parapharyngeal space itself, fascially defined, but usually in the adjacent spaces, the mucosal pharyngeal space, masticatory space and carotid space. Centrally localized in the supra-hyoid neck, the parapharyngeal space can be used as a diagnostic key in the compartmental localization of these regional lesions, since one observes the pattern of dislocation of the fat content of the space by the lesions at computerized tomography or magnetic resonance. The authors reported 14 cases of parapharyngeal tumors analysed using this criteria, leading to 86% of correct compartmental localization. (author) 155 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in superficial and underground drinking water, from the Caetite region, BA; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em aguas potaveis, de superficie e subterraneas da regiao de Caetite, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Sousa

    2011-07-01

    Brazil has the seventh greatest geological uranium reserve in the world with approximately 310 thousand tons. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, situated in South Center Bahia, is considered the most important monomineralic province in Brazil. Urban population who lives in the uranium district in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento de Nossa Senhora uses drinking water originated from public supply. In the rural area, characterized by frequent draughts, residents receive water from digged and drilled wells and from small dams and reservoirs, as well, which are supplied by the rains. This work determined the levels of total alpha and beta radioactivity and the uranium concentrations in several kinds of water consumed by urban and rural population from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. Total {alpha} and {beta} activities were determined with a low-level gas flow proportional detector. The uranium concentrations were determined with an inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained were confronted with the latest World Health Organization's recommendations from 2011, the ordinance number 2914 of December 12 2011 from the Health Ministry and CONAMA's resolutions. Natural radiation levels varied from 0,0041 {+-} 0,0004 Bq.L{sup -1} to 0,80 {+-} 0,04 Bq.L{sup -1} for total alpha activity and from 0,045 {+-} 0,003 to 3,00 {+-} 0,2 Bq.L{sup -1} for total beta activity. Having the WHO and the HM as parameter, just two underground water samples, one located in the city of Lagoa Real and the other in the city of Caetite presented total alpha concentration above the value of 0,5 Bq.L{sup -1} described in its recommendations, 0,80 {+-} 0,040 Bq.L{sup -1} and 0,57 {+-} 0,03 Bq.L{sup -1} respectively. For total beta three samples presented radioactivity levels above the 1 Bq.L{sup -1} limit recommended by the WHO and established by the Health Ministry; 3,00 {+-} 0,2 Bq.L{sup -1}; 1,63 {+-} 0,13 Bq.L{sup -1} and 1,19 {+-} 0,07 Bq.L{sup -1}., all of them situated in the Lagoa Real town. Two samples of underground water from Caetite presented uranium concentrations above the value of 15 {mu}g.L{sup -1} determined by CONAMA, 20,3 {+-} 0,3 {mu}g.L{sup -1} and 17,1{+-} 0,3 {mu}g.L{sup -1}. In Lagoa Real one sample presented uranium levels six times over the limit established by the Environment National Council 89,5 {+-} 1,5 {mu}g.L{sup -1}. In 2004 the World Health Organization established in its recommendations the 15 {mu}g.L{sup -1} limit as the maximum uranium concentration in drinking water. In 2011 the WHO increased that limit to 30 {mu}g.L{sup -1}. Taking into account the current WHO recommendations only the concentration of one water sample presented uranium levels above the recommended, 89,5 {+-} 1,5 {mu}g.L{sup -1} in Lagoa Real. (author)

  15. Qualidade da carne do músculo longissimus dorsi de novilhos superjovens Aberdeen Angus de biótipo pequeno e médio abatidos com o mesmo estágio de acabamento na carcaça = Meat quality of the longissimus dorsi muscle of Aberdeen Angus steers of small and medium frame score, slaughtered at the same carcass finishing stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelangelo Ziegler Arboitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influencia do biotipo pequeno e medio de novilhos Aberdeen Angus superjovens na composicao da carne do longissimus dorsi (LD. Foram utilizadas seccoes do LD de oito novilhos com biotipo pequeno e dez com biotipo medio, confinados por 158 dias, apresentando ao abate idade e peso vivo medio de 456 dias e 429 kg. A alimentacao foi constituida de silagem de sorgo e concentrado na relacao 60:40 nos primeiros 63 dias e apos 50:50 ate o abate. O biotipo foi calculado por meio da formula: B = -11,548 +(0,4878 x h - (0,0289 x ID + (0,0000146 x (ID2 + (0,0000759 x h x ID; h = altura em polegadas e ID=idade em dias. A carne do LD apresentou gordura intramuscular media (10,11 pontos; p = 0,7034, coloracao vermelha (4,33 pontos; p = 0,3724, textura com tendenciaa muito fina (4,61 pontos; p = 0,3075 e forca ao cisalhamento de 2,72 kgf cm-2 (p = 0,4009. A carne apresentou 72,27% (p = 0,4355 de umidade, 19,34% (p = 0,4150 de proteina bruta, 3,96% (p = 0,9071 de lipidios, 4,43% (p = 0,9842 de minerais e 0,25 mg 100g-1 de carne(p = 0,2375 de colesterol. Os biotipos nao influenciaram na concentracao dos acidos graxos palmitico (p = 0,0790, estearico (p = 0,2455, oleico (p = 0,3046, linoleico (p = 0,9456, ocorrendo alteracao na participacao do acido graxo miristico (. = 1,85 + 0,12B; p = 0,043. O estudo do biotipo na composicao da carne e importante para a identificacao de melhores caracteristicas nutraceuticas.The objective of this work was to assess the influence of small and medium frame scores in the meat composition of the longissimus dorsi (LD muscle of Abredeen Angus steers. We used LD sections from eight small-framed steers and ten medium-framed steers, confined for 158 days, with mean slaughter age of 457 days and 429 kg live weight. The feed was composed of sorghum silage and concentrate in a 60:40 ratio for the first 63 days, and 50:50 thereafter until slaughter. Frame wascalculated using the formula: F=-11

  16. O resgate da epistemologia

    OpenAIRE

    João Arriscado Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Ao longo das três últimas décadas, o projecto da epistemologia passou por um processo de crítica e de transformação, marcado, sucessivamente, pela transferência da soberania epistémica para o “social”, pela redescoberta da ontologia e pela atenção à normatividade constitutiva e às implicações políticas do conhecimento, chegando mesmo a ser postulado o abandono da epistemologia como projecto filosófico. Em contraponto a esse processo, foi ganhando contornos a proposta de uma outra epistemologi...

  17. Evaluation of conformal radiotherapy techniques through physics and biologic criteria; Avaliacao de tecnicas radioterapicas conformacionais utilizando criterios fisicos e biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Jonatas Carrero

    2012-07-01

    In the fight against cancer, different irradiation techniques have been developed based on technological advances and aiming to optimize the elimination of tumor cells with the lowest damage to healthy tissues. The radiotherapy planning goal is to establish irradiation technical parameters in order to achieve the prescribed dose distribution over the treatment volumes. While dose prescription is based on radiosensitivity of the irradiated tissues, the physical calculations on treatment planning take into account dosimetric parameters related to the radiation beam and the physical characteristics of the irradiated tissues. To incorporate tissue's radiosensitivity into radiotherapy planning calculations can help particularize treatments and establish criteria to compare and elect radiation techniques, contributing to the tumor control and the success of the treatment. Accordingly, biological models of cellular response to radiation have to be well established. This work aimed to study the applicability of using biological models in radiotherapy planning calculations to aid evaluating radiotherapy techniques. Tumor control probability (TCP) was studied for two formulations of the linear-quadratic model, with and without repopulation, as a function of planning parameters, as dose per fraction, and of radiobiological parameters, as the α/β ratio. Besides, the usage of biological criteria to compare radiotherapy techniques was tested using a prostate planning simulated with Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Afterwards, prostate planning for five patients from the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, using three different techniques were compared using the tumor control probability. In that order, dose matrices from the XiO treatment planning system were converted to TCP distributions and TCP-volume histograms. The studies performed allow the conclusions that radiobiological parameters can significantly influence tumor control

  18. GERONTOLOGIA: ESTADO DA ARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M.A.Tordino Brandão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Gerontologia da PUC desenvolve pesquisas focando o ser na perspectiva do envelhecimento. As atividades são interdisciplinares e reúnem docentes, alunos e ex-alunos. Nesta mesa redonda apresentamos um panorama sobre estes estudos. Na área da educação e comunicação o foco está centrado na longevidade e na preparação e representação social da velhice. São ressaltadas como temáticas: a formação continuada de profissionais e pesquisadores; o significado da religiosidade/espiritualidade ao longo da trajetória, e sua repercussão na qualidade de vida do idoso; os programas sócio-educacionais para idosos e concepções sobre educação; o monitoramento da mídia na cobertura da crescente longevidade e seus impactos. Em identidade e modos de morar reflete-se sobre soluções planejadas e sua adequação para a inclusão do envelhecimento populacional como questão fundamental, que implica a elaboração de novas políticas, investigações e, especialmente, apresenta-se como questão a ser analisada, refletida e vivenciada pela sociedade em geral. Quanto à saúde, o Programa desenvolve várias pesquisas numa abordagem interdisciplinar tendo como objetos de estudo: a terapia assistida com animais direcionada a idosos com diagnóstico de Alzheimer; o acompanhamento terapêutico e o atendimento psicoterapêutico em grupo, a aplicação da técnica de Calatonia em idosos moradores de ILPI, além da investigação sobre impasses clínicos no idoso frágil. Palavras-chave: gerontologia, longevidade, envelhecimento

  19. Alguns aspectos da avifauna da Ilha Terceira.

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Fátima; Daniel, Ana; Pereira, Ana C.; Pimentel, Dinarte; J. Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    IX Expedição Científica do Departamento de Biologia - Terceira 1994. 0s objectivos da presente expedição foram os seguintes: 1. Captura e biometria de espécimes pertencentes a diferentes espécies de aves com vista ulterior realização de estudos morfológicos; 2. Estudo da distribuição de Columba palumbus na ilha Terceira; 3. Detecção de habitats propícios para a nidificação de Gallinula chloropus correiana; 4. Observação e identificação de diferentes espécies de aves residentes e migrató...

  20. Het Italiaanse voorzetsel da

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    SAMENVATTING In een voorzetselstudie in het kader van Jackendoffs semantische theorie wordt het sterk polyseme Italiaanse voorzetsel da geanalyseerd als een verzameling deelbetekenissen waarbij de meeste door een of meer semantische regels afgeleid kunnen worden van de basisbetekenis ruimtelijke He

  1. Aspectos internacionais da Revolta da Chibata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Love

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats four international dimensions of the Revolta da Chibata: 1 the trip of the Dreadnought Sao Paulo to Lisbon (with Presidente Hermes aboard, during which the Portuguese monarchy was overthrown, providing a model for Brazilian sailors; 2 the reception and interpretation of the revolt by the French, British, and American presses, which quickly saw that the central issue was torture; 3 ideological aspects of the revolt, which focus on the rights of citizens under the constitution of 1891; and 4 foreign observers’ favorable impression of the working conditions of Batalhao Naval before the second rebellion in December, and their discovery of a massacre after the second revolt.

  2. DA LITERATURA AO PENSAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bernardo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Apresento uma concepção pessoal do ensino de literatura, condensando a discussão das principais questões que o afetam: a singularidade da disciplina entre as demais disciplinas escolares; a crítica do realismo como valor dominante; a importância do exemplo; os efeitos da desvalorização salarial e moral do professor; a praga das adaptações literárias para jovens. A partir dessas questões, apresento cinco modos de leitura e ensino do texto literário, a saber: ler como resposta; ler como pergunta; a leitura ingênua; a leitura crítica; a leitura teórica. Concluo pela necessidade de proteção radical à dúvida, fundadora da literatura e do próprio pensamento.

  3. Da Vinci Linjen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin.......Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin....

  4. Qualidade de vida e conforto acústico em ambientes educacionais

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo LEVANDOSKI

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A poluicao sonora e um problema que afeta a percepcao subjetiva da populacao em geral. No ambiente escolar, a ma qualidade acustica pode prejudicar o nivel de concentracao do aluno e trazer ao professor um maior desgaste fisico, interferindo em sua saude. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida, intensidade vocal durante o discurso em sala de aula, saude vocal e percepcao ao ruido de 61 professores da educacao basica do ensino publico na cidade de Curitiba-Pr, que des...

  5. O esvaziamento da cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Paula de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da resenha da obra "A civilização do espetáculo: uma radiografia do nosso tempo e da nossa cultura" de autoria de Mario Vargas Llosa, ganhador do Nobel de Literatura em 2010. O trabalho busca compreender este tempo em que a diversão assume maior relevância em detrimento da cultura profunda e reflexiva. Destarte, a todo momento se olha para o passado com vistas a examinar este fenômeno que se tornou um verdadeiro "esvaziamento cultural". Outrossim, busca-se elucidar que embora ocorra um progresso científico, acesso a educação e a tecnologia de forma vertiginosa, isso não significa que a as artes avançaram na mesma velocidade, pelo contrário, acabou estagnando e já não visa mais a modificação de estruturas, mas apenas entreter.

  6. Dj Da Hai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Miko Da Hai is DJ at a Xi’an disco bar. At work, in his cool attire, the pulsing disco beat punctuated by his distinctive vocal commentary, he makes a striking impression. The job having come his way by chance, Miko is now a skilled and experienced DJ of eight years’ standing. This may be

  7. Transitoriedade ou o desterro da certeza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O tema da transitoriedade era lugar-comum da medicina da alma da primeira modernidade. Este artigo analisa algumas dessas fontes para mostrar como a dor do tempo e os males da alma atinentes eram relacionados a um modo de encarar a fugacidade do tempo e a fragilidade da vida. Dá-se destaque, sobretudo, às construções em torno da condição humana enquanto desterro da certeza.

  8. O exame da OAB

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Júlio Cezar Bittencourt

    2013-01-01

    Versa o trabalho sobre a exigência de aprovação em Exame de Ordem para a inscrição do advogado nos quadros da Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil. Tal requisito gera inúmeros disparates e injustiças, não apenas com os bacharéis, que têm cerceada sua garantia constitucional de exercício da profissão à qual estão qualificados, mas também à sociedade, que resta prejudicada pelos altos custos dos serviços de advocacia, bem como, pelo incremento das dificuldades de acesso à justiça. Procede-se então a u...

  9. Fisiopatologia da asma grave

    OpenAIRE

    Todo-Bom, Ana; Mota-Pinto, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    Não tem resumo. Transcreve-se o primeiro parágrafo: A história natural da asma e os condicionalismos de uma evolução para formas moderadas ou graves não está completamente estabelecida. Contudo, quer os factores genéticos quer os factores ambientais, serão determinantes na fisiopatologia e no prognóstico da doença. A asma é, por definição, uma doença inflamatória crónica das vias aéreas caracterizada por uma obstrução brônquica generalizada mas variável que é, pelo menos parcialmente, reve...

  10. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Castro Leal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atribuído as microcistinas incluírem gastroenterite, reações alérgicas ou irritativas, neurotoxicidade, o principal alvo da toxina é o fígado. Nos hepatócitos as microcistinas são carreadas pelo sistema transportador do ácido biliar, inibindo a atividade da proteína fosfatase no citoplasma. A inibição leva a mudanças morfológicas na membrana plasmática pela hiperfosforilação de citoqueratinas, e à atividade de promoção tumoral pelas proteínas hiperfosforiladas. Os métodos de detecção e quantificação de microcistinas no ambiente incluem a cromatografia líquida, o bioensaio em camundongos e os testes imunoenzimáticos. O último vem ganhando destaque pela praticidade e alta sensibilidade.

  11. Reliability assessment of permanent downhole monitoring systems (PDG/TPT) in Marlim Field; Avaliacao da confiabilidade de sistemas de monitoramento permanente de fundo de pocos (PDG/TPT) no Campo de Marlim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frota, Helder Mamede; Destro, Wagner [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work is related to the reliability engineering, specifically, to the analysis of data lifetime and to the failure modeling of Permanent Downhole Gauge monitoring systems (PDG/TPT) in Marlim field, Campos Basin. These systems are composed of pressure and temperature sensors installed in oil wells and connected, by umbilicals, to their production platforms. The raising of the main failure causes in these systems, in 12-year operation, served as the basis to describe their driving parameters, foreseeing their behavior for the following years, considering the reliability theory of systems. It was obtained the pattern of the operations and extracted the wanted information: types and failure modeling, systems survival time and the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). This methodology permits the comparison among the components performance from several manufacturers. The results can be used in economical analysis, in oil field management, in maintenance prediction and in reliability studies. The area of failure modeling in association with these systems lifetime is the focus of this study. (author)

  12. Environmental assessment on PETROBRAS pipeline projects: case study of Cacimbas-Catu gas pipeline; Engenharia de avaliacao ambiental no processo de concepcao de projetos de dutos da PETROBRAS - estudo de caso do Gasoduto Cacimbas (ES) - Catu (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Wilson Jose de; Pereira Junior, Edson R.; Fonseca, Renata A. Almeida; Rocha, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luis Felipe [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Avaliacao Ambiental

    2005-07-01

    The environmental assessment process is one of the most important phases in the implementation of pipeline projects. For that reason, new technologies and work procedures are used to perform the environmental assessment of areas where pipeways will be implemented. Since the quality of environmental assessment studies influences the social acceptance of projects and, consequently, the time required to obtain the environmental permits, PETROBRAS (Engenharia/IETEG/ETEG/EAMB) applies advanced technological tools to acquire remote sensing data (conventional / digital aero-surveys and satellite images), as well as software for digital image processing and integration and spatial analysis of information. Information about the physical, biological and socioeconomic environments are further verified and complemented through field trips using helicopters. This process makes it possible to identify environmentally favorable corridors to develop guidelines for the implementation of the pipeline, assuring its environmental feasibility, and produces relevant data to support the Environmental Impact Assessment Study, the Environmental Impact Assessment Report and the Risk Analysis Study. As an example of the application of this methodology, this paper presents results of the assessment of the Cacimbas / Catu gas pipeline, which is currently being permitted and is planned to be implemented in areas of high environmental complexity. (author)

  13. Evaluation of occupational radiation dose in nuclear medicine: radiopharmaceutical administration to scintiscanning exams of myocardial perfusion; Avaliacao da dose de radiacao ocupacional em medicina nuclear: administracao de radiofarmacos em exames de cintilografria de perfusao miocardica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Cassio V., E-mail: cassiok@yahoo.com [Medicina Nuclear do Triangulo (MNT), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Michelin, Charlie A.; Jakubiak, Rosangela R., E-mail: charlie@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: requi@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lemes, Alyne O.; Silva, Juliana L.M., E-mail: alyne275@gmail.com, E-mail: jujumontesdocinho@gmail.com [Faculdade do Trabalho (FATRA), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    In nuclear medicine, workers directly involved in exams are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation. The procedure for administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient is one of the most critical times of exposure. In tests of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) administration of radiopharmaceutical repeats the steps of rest and cardiac stress. In this study, we used a Geiger -Mueller detector for measuring occupational radiation doses for during the administration of technetium- {sup 99m}- sestamibi in MPS tests. In the evaluation, discriminated the stages of examination and related professional experience time to doses measures at home. It were followed 110 procedures at home (55 conducted by professionals with over 5 years experience and 55 conducted by professionals with less than 1 year of experience) and 55 effort procedures. The results showed that the rest of the procedure time and dose are related to the experience of the worker. More experienced workers were faster (mean: 43 {+-} 16 vs 67 {+-} 25 seconds / procedure), and therefore received lower doses (mean 0.57 {+-} 0.16 versus 0.80 {+-} 0.24 {mu}Sv / procedure), both with statistical significance (p <0.001). In step effort, there were procedures lasting longer (mean: 19 {+-} 2 minutes / procedure), which resulted in higher doses (mean 3.0 {+-} 0.6 {mu}Sv / procedure)

  14. Gamma radiation effect on tocopherol content in natural and industrialized products and sensory evaluation; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre o conteudo de tocoferois em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliacao sensorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigallia

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin E content, the percentage of activity retention and the sensory characteristics were analyzed in samples of vitamin E rich foods: pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and a fortified powder formula irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. For the vitamin E determination (as -tocopherol equivalents) three different samples lots were employed using the colorimetric method standardized by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz of Sao Paulo. For sensory analysis, the Multiple Comparison or Control Difference Test was used for all products, comparing the irradiated samples to the non-irradiated controls and measuring the difference rate in total terms, concerning appearance, odor, texture and flavor, in a category scale of 9 points, ranging from 1 = no difference to 9 = extreme difference to the control. The experimental outline employed was that of randomized complete blocks design, in two consecutive sessions. The obtained data were submitted to variance analysis, ANOVA, and means comparison by Dunnett test, at 5% significance. The results show that there was no E vitamin loss in the pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and powder food samples, irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy doses. With regard to the sensory analysis, the 3 kGy gamma irradiation produced significant changes in the sensory properties of pecan nuts for the attributes: appearance, odor, texture and flavor. The 1 kGy dose did not cause a significant difference for these attributes. Concerning the sensory analysis of whole grain cookies and fortified powder food, significant differences were observed in all the irradiated products, although the difference grades were significantly low, compared to those of the non-irradiated samples, especially when 1 kGy dose was applied. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the environmental equivalent dose rate using area monitors for neutrons in clinical linear accelerators; Avaliacao da taxa de equivalente de dose ambiente utilizando monitores de area para neutrons em aceleradores lineares clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da, E-mail: asalgado@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Neutron Laboratory of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute - IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, initiated studies on the process of calibration of neutron area monitors and the results of the measurements performed at radiotherapy treatment rooms, containing clinical accelerators

  16. Evaluation of radiochemistry purity and p H of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Pernambuco, Brazil; Avaliacao da pureza radioquimica e pH de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Poliane A.L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are cellular or molecular structures that have a radionuclide in its composition and they are used for diagnosing or treating diseases. The evaluation of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is essential to produce images with artifacts free, as well as avoid unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Since they are administered in humans is important and necessary that they undergo rigorous quality control. Due to this fact, the norm in ANVISA RDC 38/2008 declaring the mandatory completion of a minimum of tests in routine nuclear medicine services before human administration. (author)

  17. Offshore degasser vessel capacity versus performance qualitative evaluation for waste water treatment; Avaliacao qualitativa da capacidade versus desempenho de vaso degaseificador em plataformas offshore visando tratamento de agua produzida para descarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Marcel V.; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Daniel B.V.F. [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software (ESSS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Present work shows a qualitative evaluation of an offshore degasser vessel aiming the improvement of the water processing plant capacity. For such computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allowed the analysis of the flow pattern inside the vessel for different operational flow rates and internal geometries. This vessel is responsible for the process of water final polishing to be disposed into the sea. Original capacity of the vessel is 13.308 m{sup 3}/d, but after some changes in the outlet section, the processing capacity increased to 24.000 m{sup 3}/d, without changing its separation efficiency. However, as newer production predictions state that the new processing capacity should be increased to 26.000 m{sup 3}/d, there is some uncertainty on how would be this vessel behaviour, given the new operational condition. CFD analysis will be used to evaluate the flow characteristics inside the vessel (residence time distribution), therefore providing information on the separation performance for each one of the specified conditions and internal modifications. (author)

  18. Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. A clinical trial; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao laser de emissao vermelha em baixa intensidade na incorporacao de fluor no esmalte. Estudo clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Regina Keiko

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two maxillary central incisors of each volunteer to be biopsied were used and divided into 4 groups: group G{sub C} (control, which was untreated; group G{sub F} (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser ({lambda}= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm{sup 2}) with APF application after irradiation and group G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as G{sub LF}. The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results show a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups G{sub F}, G{sub LF} and G{sub FL} when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for G{sub LF} with respect to G{sub F}, there were no statistical differences among treated groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation used before APF could be employed in the clinical practice to prevent dental caries. (author)

  19. Parametric curve evaluation of a phototransistor used as detector in stereotactic radiosurgery X-ray beam; Avaliacao da curva parametrica de um fototransistor ao ser submetido a feixes de raios-X utilizados em radiocirurgia estereotaxica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Daniela Pontes A.; Santos, Luiz Antonio P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: lasantos@cnen.gov.br; Santos, Walter M. [Hospital Governador Joao Alves Filho, Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Setor de Fisica Medica]. E-mail: walradio@mail.com; Silva Junior, Eronides F. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: eron@ufpe.br

    2005-07-01

    Phototransistors have been widely used as detectors for low energy X-rays. However, when they are used in high energy X-rays fields like those generated from linear accelerators (linac), there is a certain loss of sensibility to the ionizing radiation. This damage is cumulative and irreversible. Thus, a correction factor must be applied to its response, which is proportional to the integrated dose. However, it is possible to estimate the correction factor by using the V x I parametric curve of the device. The aim of this work was to develop studies to evaluate and correlate the parametric response curve of a phototransistor with its loss of sensibility after irradiation. An Agilent 4155C semiconductor parameter analyzer was used to trace the parametric curve. X-rays were generated by a 14 MV Primus-Siemens linear accelerator. The results demonstrated that there is a correlation between the integrated dose applied to the phototransistor and the parametric response of the device. Studies are under way to determine how such behavior can provide information for the dosimetric planning in stereotactic radiosurgery. (author)

  20. Assessment of the occupational exposure of the workers involved in the {sup 123}I production at the IEN/CNEN-RJ; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional dos trabalhadores envolvidos na producao de {sup 123}I no IEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisco de

    2005-07-01

    {sup 123}I is a gamma emitter used for diagnosis in Nuclear Medicine. Since 1998 it is produced in the Institute of Nuclear Energy (IEN) and supplied to the Clinics and Hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The annual production is in the approximately of 0,74 TBq (20 Ci), which represents a risk of external and internal exposure to the workers involved in this activity. A survey of external doses in the period of 1994 to 2004 was carried out based on the individual registries available in the CONEXO Data Base operated by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). It was verified an increase of the external exposure associated to the production curve. However, the individual doses are all bellow the annual limits established by the regulatory board. On the other hand, the variation of doses among individuals involved in the same tasks suggests the possibility of optimization of procedures. Regarding internal exposure it was calculated a decision factor above 1mSv for the practice, which justifies the need for internal monitoring. An evaluation of the process based on the results of in vivo thyroid monitoring in the period of 2000 to 2004 was carried out to identify the steps which represent higher risk of internal exposure. The available data indicate that the laboratory of quality control is the critical step in terms of internal contamination. This conclusion can be justified by the high volatility of iodine which is manipulated in the form of a liquid open source during this step. With the aim of optimizing monitoring procedures for the control of occupationally exposed workers in the production of {sup 123}I, in vivo and in vitro bioassay methods were developed to identify and quantify internal contamination by such radionuclide, using the detection systems available at the Bioassay Laboratory and at the In Vivo Measurements Laboratory. The techniques developed present sensitivity compatible with the derived registry level associated to the committed effective dose equivalent of 1mSv. It was also established a methodology for the interpretation of bioassay data using the software AIDE. The methods developed in this work can be used to implement improvements in the radiation protection program of the IEN. It is suggested to increase the frequency of in vivo measurements and to include in vitro bioassay in the monitoring program, which will permit a better evaluation of the internal doses of the workers(author)

  1. Assessment of the bacteria reduction in the infected root canal irradiated with diode laser; Avaliacao da reducao bacteriana em conduto radicular infectado e irradiado com laser de diodo. Estudo in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radaelli, Claudia Amaral Rabello de Mello

    2002-07-01

    High success rates are achieved in conventional endodontic treatment of vital pulp teeth. However, in cases of non-vital pulp, a decrease in the rate of success occurs due to difficulties in achieving a complete disinfection of the root canals system. Some bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis, are frequently found in cases of endodontic treatment failure due to their high resistance to the conventional endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a high power diode laser irradiation in bacterial reduction of contaminated canals associated with dressing compose by calcium hydroxide paste propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. Eighty-two root canals were infected in vitro with Enterococcus faecalis in a concentration of 1x10{sup 8} CFU/ml. Specimens were high intensity irradiated with a diode laser model Opus 10, at a wavelength of 830 nm. Two different parameters were employed in continuous mode: 3 W and 2,5 W with a 360 {mu}m optical fiber at an angle of approximately 5 degrees respect to the dentine surface during 5 seconds, in 4 applications, with 20 seconds intervals among them. After these proceedings specimens were vortexed in peptone water and dilutions performed. Aliquots of the dilution were plated on m-Enterococcus agar, incubated, and the Colonies Forming Units (CFU) of ali groups was counted. The results showed a significant reduction of bacteria on ali groups after laser irradiation. A high reduction rate was achieved: 98.5% immediately after the laser irradiation; 48 hours after, the reduction was of 96,73% and, finally, a 100% reduction was achieved through the combination of laser irradiation and a long lasting dressing of calcium hydroxide paste, propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. High rates of bacteria reduction were achieved using the parameter of 3 W in continuous mode with the power of 2,9473 KW/cm{sup 2}. The temperature was monitored with a K-pipe thermocouple placed at the periapical point which width measured 1 mm, approximately. The maximum temperature variation was 7.45 deg C. Under electron microscope scanning, the control groups showed areas with smear layer covering the dentinal walls. The laser irradiated groups showed a smooth, uniform, clean appearance, with small areas of closed dentinal tubules without cracking alternately with areas of exposed open dentinal tubules. Some parts showed fusion of the dentinal mass (groups irradiated with 3 W). In groups where calcium hydroxide was associated with laser irradiation remains were found over the irradiated surface and, in many parts, the dentinal tubules could not be observed. The use of high intensity diode laser at 830 nm proved to be efficient and able to promote reduction in the Enterococcus faecalis population in the infected root canals. (author)

  2. Evaluation of toxicity to the biological treatment and removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from oil refineries wastewaters; Avaliacao da toxicidade ao tratamento biologico e remocao de compostos organicos recalcitrantes existentes em efluentes de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Junior, Laerte M.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Bezerra, Marcio S.; Pereira, Franklin M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Schmidell, Willibaldo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil industry waste water usually contains recalcitrant chemical compounds, like phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene and acenaphthene. The respirometry, determination of respiration rate of an active biomass, is an adequate methodology for quantification of aerobic activity biological. This study aims evaluate the inhibition effect of phenol in the oxidation capacity of an industrial sludge. This work also intends to study the phenol removal through biological and photochemical-biological processes. The respirometry was carried out with synthetic solution, using sludge from an oil processing industry. The phenol degradation experiments were carried out in an activated sludge unit and in a photochemical reactor. This work suggests the potential of photochemical-biological treatment use, in relation to the biological process with a no-acclimated sludge, in the removal of refractory organic compounds from oil industry wastewaters. The characterization of biomass using the respirometry methodology showed which is a useful tool in evaluation of phenol toxicity to biological treatment. (author)

  3. 'High throughput': new technique to evaluation of biocides for biofouling control in oil fields; 'High throughput': nova tecnologia para avaliacao da eficacia de biocidas no controle de biofilme na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Bei [DOW, IL(United States); Yang, Jeff [DOW, Shangai (China); Bertheas, Ute [DOW, Horgen (Switzerland); Takahashi, Debora F. [DOW, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The wide metabolism diversifications and versatile surviving mechanisms lead to the broad existence of microorganisms in oil fields. Water flooding in secondary production can encourage microbial growth and biofilm build-up. Microbial contamination in oil field can cause many problems including microbiologically induced corrosion, oil and gas souring, deposition of iron sulfide, degradation of polymer additives, and plugging oil and gas pipelines and water purification systems. In general, biocides are needed both topside and down hole to control problematic microorganisms. In this study, a high throughput test method was developed that enables a more realistic determination of biocides efficacy against anaerobic microorganisms commonly found in oil field environments. Using this method, a thorough comparison of several commonly used biocides products in oil field for their efficacy against oil field anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolates was executed. This study showed that for each individual application, it is important to screen biocides and their combinations against microorganisms cultured from the field. Since biocides vary in their mode of action, this study also demonstrated the critical importance of utilizing the high throughput method for determining the best and most customized solution for each application. (author)

  4. Feasibility evaluation of using spent FCC catalyst for metals treatment from industrial waste; Avaliacao do potencial de recuperacao de niquel de catalisadores equilibrados (E-CAT) atraves da tecnica de remediacao eletrocinetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Adalberto; Ponte, Haroldo de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the feasibility evaluation using FCC catalyst for treatment from industrial wastes increasing the life time of the spent catalysts and reducing the environmental impact. Evaluated the reutilization of catalyst in process recovery of nickel adsorbed. The technique used was the Electrokinetic Remediation. This technique is based in application of a direct current of low intensity or low potential between the electrodes located in soil. The pollutants are mobilized how loaded species or particles. It used a electrokinetic reactor with approximated volume of 1200 cm{sup 3}, where the residue is placed. In your extremity are adapted two cameras of acrylic, being one anodic, with steel inox 304 electrode, and other cathodic, with lead electrode. In anodic camera, it was injected, with aid a bomb, a solution of sulfuric acid, which work as electrolyte, to a flow rate of 20 ml/h. Was evaluated the desorption of Nickel in the equilibrium catalyst submitting a variation of the conditions of the concentration and potential. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the use of waste of soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) combined with wood waste in making briquet; Avaliacao da utilizacao de residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira de confeccao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Scherpinski, Neusa Idick [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@gmail.com, mhanami@gmail.com, neusascherpinski@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces a large amount of which use biomass is an alternative energy economically viable through the compression portion of ligno-cellulose as raw material to replace the wood with an equivalent product, by briquetting. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing fuel briquettes made from soybean residues combined with waste wood. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electromechanics of UTFPR campus Medianeira PR. For this analysis, we assessed the content of moisture, ash, fixed carbon content of porosity and higher calorific value. From the results we can conclude that the manufacture of briquettes from lignocellulosic raw materials is an extremely viable energy flashlight for the region of the Bacia do Rio Parana III. (author)

  6. Influence of cyclophosphamide on the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution: experimental evaluation in BALB/cJ mice; Efeito da ciclofosfamida na biodistribuicao de radiofarmacos: avaliacao experimental em camundongos BALB/cJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ismar Pinto

    1996-11-01

    We study the influence of cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapeutic drug used in neoplastic treatments, on the biodistribution, in mouse, of some {sup 99m}Tc-labelled compounds used to get scintigraphic images. The cyclophosphamide was administered intravenously in female BALB/cJ mouse, in two distinct doses with an interval of 48 hours. Then, the radiopharmaceutical (150 k Hq) was administered by the same via one hour later. These animals were sacrificed, their organs were isolated and the activity was counted in a well counter. The percentage of activity in the organs was calculated by four methods: dividing the activity in each organ by the sum of activities in all organs, dividing the activity in each organ by the total activity injected in animal, dividing the result obtained in method by the mass of the specific organ. The results were compared with a set of animals not treated with the chemo therapeutical (control). (author). 87 refs., 5 figs., 39 tabs.

  7. Quantification of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of patients exposed to gamma radiation for dose absorbed assessment; Quantificacao de micronucleos em linfocitos de pacientes expostas a radiacao gama para a avaliacao da dose absorvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafim da Silva

    2003-02-15

    Dose assessment in an important step to evaluate biological effects as a result of individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The use of cytogenetic dosimetry based on the quantification of micronuclei in lymphocytes is very important to complement physical dosimetry, since the measurement of absorbed dose cannot be always performed. In this research, the quantification of micronuclei was carried out in order to evaluate absorbed dose as a result of radiotherapy with {sup 60}Co, using peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer. For this purpose, an aliquot of whole blood from the individual patients was added in culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with fetal calf serum and phytohaemagglutinin. The culture was incubated for 44 hours. Henceforth, cytochalasin B was added to block the dividing lymphocytes in cytokinesis. The culture was returned to the incubator for further of 28 hours. Thus, cells were harvested, processed and analyzed. Values obtained considering micronuclei frequency after pelvis irradiation with absorption of 0,08 Gy and 1,8 Gy were, respectively, 0,0021 and 0,052. These results are in agreement with some recent researches that provided some standard values related to micronuclei frequency induced by gamma radiation exposure in different exposed areas for the human body. The results presented in this report emphasizes biological dosimetry as an important tool for dose assessment of either total or partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation, mainly in retrospective dose investigation. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Portland cement from X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis; Avaliacao de cimento Portland a partir da difracao de raios X associada a analise por agrupamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobbo, Luciano de Andrade, E-mail: luciano.gobbo@panalytical.com [Panalytical Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Tarcisio Jose, E-mail: tarcisio.montanheiro@gmail.com [Instituto Geologico, Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Filipe, E-mail: flpmontanheiro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LEBAC/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia Aplicada. Lab. de Estudos de Bacias; Sant' Agostino, Lilia Mascarenhas, E-mail: agostino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2013-12-15

    The Brazilian cement industry produced 64 million tons of cement in 2012, with noteworthy contribution of CP-II (slag), CP-III (blast furnace) and CP-IV (pozzolanic) cements. The industrial pole comprises about 80 factories that utilize raw materials of different origins and chemical compositions that require enhanced analytical technologies to optimize production in order to gain space in the growing consumer market in Brazil. This paper assesses the sensitivity of mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis to distinguish different kinds of cements with different additions. This technique can be applied, for example, in the prospection of different types of limestone (calcitic, dolomitic and siliceous) as well as in the qualification of different clinkers. The cluster analysis does not require any specific knowledge of the mineralogical composition of the diffractograms to be clustered; rather, it is based on their similarity. The materials tested for addition have different origins: fly ashes from different power stations from South Brazil and slag from different steel plants in the Southeast. Cement with different additions of limestone and white Portland cement were also used. The Rietveld method of qualitative and quantitative analysis was used for measuring the results generated by the cluster analysis technique. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the shield calculation adequacy of radiotherapy rooms through Monte Carlo Method and experimental measures; Avaliacao da adequacao do calculo de blindagens de salas de radioterapia atraves do metodo de Monte Carlos e medidas experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Ramiro Conceicao

    2016-07-01

    The shielding calculation methodology for radiotherapy services adopted in Brazil and in several countries is that described in publication 151 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 151). This methodology however, markedly employs several approaches that can impact both in the construction cost and in the radiological safety of the facility. Although this methodology is currently well established by the high level of use, some parameters employed in the calculation methodology did not undergo to a detailed assessment to evaluate the impact of the various approaches considered. In this work the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used with the purpose of evaluating the above mentioned approaches. TVLs values were obtained for photons in conventional concrete (2.35g / cm{sup 3}), considering the energies of 6, 10 and 25 MeV, respectively, first considering an isotropic radiation source impinging perpendicular to the barriers, and subsequently a lead head shielding emitting a shaped beam, in the format of a pyramid trunk. Primary barriers safety margins, taking in account the head shielding emitting photon beam pyramid-shaped in the energies of 6, 10, 15 and 18 MeV were assessed. A study was conducted considering the attenuation provided by the patient's body in the energies of 6,10, 15 and 18 MeV, leading to new attenuation factors. Experimental measurements were performed in a real radiotherapy room, in order to map the leakage radiation emitted by the accelerator head shielding and the results obtained were employed in the Monte Carlo simulation, as well as to validate the entire study. The study results indicate that the TVLs values provided by (NCRP, 2005) show discrepancies in comparison with the values obtained by simulation and that there may be some barriers that are calculated with insufficient thickness. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the additional safety margins considered when calculating the width of the primary barrier of radiotherapy rooms are conservative. They also show that the attenuation provided by the patient's body decreases with increased energy, with the highest attenuation being 0.54, for the energy of 6 MeV. (author)

  10. Methodology applied to evaluate the idea of selling electric energy from independent producers using wind power generation plants; Metodologia para avaliacao da ideia de venda de energia eletrica de origem eolica por produtores independentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, G.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, E. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1995-12-31

    Electricity production using wind energy as its source is a developing technology in more than 40 countries. There are about 27000 aerogenerators installed, in a total of circa 4.000 mw in nominal power. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that De Bono`s methodology for ideas` evaluation can be applied to evaluate the idea of a Brazilian private independent energy producer selling to the Brazilian electric sector energy produced from the wind. (author). 37 refs

  11. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao por feixe de eletrons na resistencia de embalagens a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella e Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2011-07-01

    The plagues of stored products consist of a man problem, depreciating products and causing economical damages. Among these curses we have Lasioderma serricorne (F. 1792), Sitophilus zeamais (M. 1855) and Plodia interpunctella (H. 1813) known by infesting stored products as: grains, brans, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits and spices. These curses perforate and penetrate the packages, ovipositing over the substratum. In this context the package plays a fundamental part, preventing the contact and curses' proliferation in the packed product. So, to protect the packed product and to prolong its shelf life, the package should have good mechanical resistance to tension and perforation, good sealing, good barrier properties and should not transfer odors nor strange flavors to the packed product. The ionizing radiation can cause structural changes in polymer packages, these changes are caused by the scission processes and reticulation of the polymers chains. These are concurrent processes and the predominance of one over the other depends on the chemical structure of the polymer, the irradiation conditions and specific factors of the material that will absorb the energy. This work had the objective to evaluate the changes in mechanical properties of package structures used to store granola, cereal bar and pasta, as well as its resistance to perforation by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais, when submitted to electrons sheaf radiation. In this methodology were used five structures of commercially utilized packages to store granola, cereal bar and pasta composed by (Polypropylene bi-oriented metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - BOPPmet/BOPP 50 {mu}m), (Polypropylene bi-oriented/Polypropylene - BOPP/PP 50 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - PETmet/BOPP 32 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) /Polypropylene - PET/PP1 72 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate)/Polypropylene - PET/PP2 32 {mu}m). The structures of packaging were submitted to radiation doses between 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy, in one electron accelerator of 1,5 M and V, 25 mA and 37,5 kW, dose tax of 11,22 kGy / s, room temperature and air presence . Eight days, Two and Six months after irradiations, mechanical resistance experiment were accomplished to tension and elongating in rupture, sealing resistance and perforation resistance, all based in respective ASTM norms. The perforation experiment by insects were realized in an acclimatized room, where irradiated samples in doses of 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy were sealed containing 40 g of granola, 40 g of pasta and cereal bar in number of nine by experiment, and equally divided in three plastic screened boxes by studied dose. In each box 20 adults of each insect were added in for 60 days, when the packages were evaluated to verify possible perforations. The differences between the sample results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA (p<0.05). The results showed that concerning the perforation resistance by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais the polymeric structures evaluated showed low resistance by insects perforation before and after the treatment. BOPPmet/BOPP (50 {mu}m), PETmet/BOPP (32 {mu}m), PET/PP1 (72 {mu}m) and PET/PP2 (32 {mu}m) structures showed significant losses in mechanical properties studied. The BOPP/PP (50 {mu}m) showed the best set of answers in mechanical properties to the radiation treatment with electrons sheaf up to 10 kGy doses. Among the mechanical properties evaluated, sealing was the most affected by ionizing radiation, has shown, in general, increasing losses with radiation dose. (author)

  12. Assessment of occupational radiation protection conditions during power enhancement of the Angra-2 nuclear power plant; Avaliacao das condicoes de radioprotecao ocupacional durante a elevacao de potencia na Unidade 2 da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - Angra-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Eduardo M.; Rocha, Antonio Carlos S.; Ferreira, Paulo R.R.; Mouco, Charles Dickens C.L.; Godoy, Jose M.O.; Matta, Luiz E.S.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper intend to analyse the occupational radioprotection conditions of the Angra-2 nuclear power plant, from the startup up to reach 100% of the nominal power. To perform this work a group of dose rates measures was made including beta/gamma and neutron radiation, particulates and iodine monitoring, and surface contamination, during the whole process. These measures were made inside of the three main buildings: the reactor buildings (UJA - reactor core and UJB) and the Reactor Auxiliary Building (UKA). (author)

  13. HDPE/LLDPE blend-based nanocomposites - Part I: evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties and weathering resistance; Nanocompositos de blendas HDPE/LLDPE e OMMT - parte I: avaliacao das propriedades termo-mecanicas e da resistencia ao intemperismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passador, Fabio R.; Backes, Eduardo H.; Travain, Daniel R.; Ruvolo Filho, Adhemar; Pessan, Luiz A., E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-07-01

    Nano composites from high density polyethylene/ linear low density polyethylene (HDPE/LLDPE) blends were prepared at the melt state in an extruder, using HDPE-g-MA as compatibilizer agent. The structural characterization was performed through wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that adding the compatibilizer induced formation of a predominant intercalated microstructure. Dynamic-mechanical studies showed that the addition of the compatibilizer increases the interactions between the nano clay surface and the polyolefin matrix. The weathering conditions affected the mechanical behavior of HDPE/LLDPE blend-based nano composites. Both treatments performed in hot water and in a forced convection air oven provided the relief of residual stresses in the polymer matrix, while the treatment in an accelerated aging chamber provided the formation of carbonyl groups that lead to a decreased degree of crystallinity and elastic modulus of the nanocomposites. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante nos aspectos microbiologicos, fisico-quimicos e sensoriais de sorvetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-06-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  15. Radiation exposure evaluation of the professional working interventionist procedures in a hemodynamics service; Avaliacao da exposicao a radiacao dos profissionais que executam procedimentos intervencionistas em um servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Leonardo Peres

    2004-07-01

    An evaluation of the dose distribution received by all the workers involved on coronary angioplasty, arteriography, coronary angiography and mitral valvuloplasty procedures has been made in this work. For the measurements, LiF:Mg, Ti TLD(TLD 100) was used, located in seven different points on the worker's body: hands, knees, neck, forehead and thorax, inside and outside lead apron.) The measurements have been done for each hemo dynamical procedure, and the TLD calibrated in personal dose equivalent (H{sub p}(d)) operational quantity for 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm depth. Nurses and auxiliary doctors did not receive expressive dose values, indicating that the adopted radioprotection procedures seem to be appropriate and sufficient for them. However, the same is not true for the doctors direct in charge of the procedure. The results show the importance of the use of thyroid protections in these cases. This work discusses the main factors that cause occupational dose increase. From all interventionist hemo dynamical procedures analyzed, the dose values received by the doctors on coronary angioplasty procedures and coronary angiography were higher than the ones found on arteriography and mitral valvuloplasty. The higher dose values has been found for coronary angiography procedures in X-ray tools, that work with fluoroscopy on continuous mode and have been executed with brachial way, even in the eyes, hands, knees and thyroid, with or without shield. Multiplying these high dose values, measured in one procedure by the mean number of annual procedures made at the studied hospital by each doctor, the individual dose annual limits can be surpassed. Based on these estimations, some optimizations suggestions have been made and one discussion about the need of additional monitoring points is presented. Different algorithms have been used in order to estimate the effective dose, including a new proposal. The obtained results using the actual Radiodiagnostic Brazilian regulation underestimate the dose, in the major part of the measured cases. The proposed algorithm seem sto offer a better estimation for the occupational effective dose for Interventional Radiology. (author)

  16. In vivo evaluation of Fe in the human skin and swins mice skin through the X-rays fluorescence technique; Avaliacao in vivo de Fe na pele humana e de camundongos swins atraves da tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevam, Marcelo

    2005-07-01

    Recent technological improvements allow the method of in vivo XRF to supply useful sensibility for diagnostics or monitoring in biomedical applications. In cases of hereditary sanguine disorders as the {beta}-Thalassaemia or a genetic disorder like Haemochromatosis, there is a high concentration of elements as Fe, Zn and Cu in the skin and internal organs, due to the treatment of those abnormalities or due to the own dysfunction caused by the disease. The levels of Fe related to the patient bearers of the {beta}-Thalassaemia are determined, at the moment, measuring a protein in the sanguine current, called ferritin. The monitoring of the protein is ineffective in several situations, such as when the patient suffers any disturbance of health. Nowadays, the main forms of measuring the levels of those metals through hepatic storage are the biopsy of the liver, that is invasive and potentially dangerous, presenting a rate of mortality of 0,1%, and through magnetic susceptibilities that employs a quantum superconductor, which is highly expensive and there are only three main world medical centers with this equipment. This work investigates the use of a Si PIN-diode detector and a 238Pu source (13 and 17 keV; 13%; 95.2 mCi; 86y) for the measurement of Fe skin levels compatible with those associated to the disease {beta}-Thalassaemia. XRF spectra were analyzed using a set of AXIL-WinQXAS programs elaborated and disseminated by the IAEA. The determination coefficient of the calibration model (sensitivity curve) was 0.97. Measurements on skin phantoms containing concentrations of Fe in the range from 15 to 150 parts per million (ppm), indicate that we are able to detect Fe at levels of the order of 13 ppm, using monitoring periods of 50 seconds and skin entrance dose less than 10 mSv. The literature reports skin Fe levels from 15.0 to 60.0 ppm in normal persons and from 70 to 150 ppm in thalassaemic patients. So, the employed methodology allows the in vivo measurement of the skin Fe concentration in wanted levels. (author)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of polyurethanes derived from cyclodextrins and poli (ethyleneglycol); Sintese, caracterizacao e avaliacao da capacidade de inclusao de poliuretanos derivados de cicodextrina e poli(etileno)glicol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcia V.G. de; Vieira, Joao V.F.; Zawadzki, Sonia F., E-mail: zawadzki@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Dept. de Quimica, Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos (LABPOL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Cyclodextrins are natural cyclic oligosaccharides that have the ability to form inclusion complexes with various chemical species. In this work, the polymers with beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) or hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) were synthesized from the reaction with poly (ethylene) glycol (PEG400, PEG1500, PEG4000) and diisocyanate, toluene 2,4 and 3,6 (TDI) in a solution of dimethylformamide (DMF). The polymers were characterized by infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The encapsulation capacity was evaluated by calorimetric method of discoloration of the alkaline solution of phenolphthalein. FTIR analysis revealed that assignments confirmed the formation of urethane linkages. TGA was evidenced by the mass loss in three stages and the evaluation results by XRD showed a crosslinking process. The evaluation of the encapsulation capacity of the units of the cyclodextrin crosslinked polymer showed that encapsulation increased proportionally to the mass of polymer used. (author)

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole; Sintese e avaliacao da propriedade reguladora de crescimento vegetal de compostos indolicos derivados do safrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, Irineu [Escola Agrotecnica Federal de Rio do Sul, Rio do Sul, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: marchi@softhouse.com.br; Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade; Rosa, Flavia A. Fernandes da; Maiochi, Riceli A. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-15

    The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxy substituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I). The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro assays were performed in a germination chamber and were of two types: root growth in germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa, Cucumbis sativus and Raphanus sativus and peciole biotest using Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of ZSM-5 and calcined kaolin evaluation using the content of structure-directing; Sintese e caracterizacao da zeolita ZSM-5 utilizando caulim calcinado e avaliacao do teor de direcionador de estrutura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.J.; Silva, V.J. da; Rodrigues, M.G.F., E-mail: jocielys@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LABNOV/UAEQ/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Desenvolvimento de Novos Materiais

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the structure-directing content, tetrapropylammonium bromide, on the structural and morphological characteristics of ZSM-5 zeolite obtained using calcined kaolin as silicon and aluminum. The samples were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM and Physics Adsorption N{sub 2}. Trough X ray diffraction patterns was possible to observed the formation of the structure of ZSM-5 with intense peaks and well-defined characteristic of crystalline. The micrographs showed that the samples consist of agglomerates and/or aggregates of particles characteristic of the MFI structure typical of ZSM-5 zeolite. And through the adsorption-desorption isotherms physical N2 was possible to observe that the samples show hysteresis type I typical of microporous materials with specific surface areas of 218 and 222 m{sup 2}/g. Therefore, the use of calcined kaolin to obtain ZSM-5 zeolite was effective. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the calibration uncertainty of gamma radiation monitors using a {sup 137}Cs source; Avaliacao da incerteza de calibracao de monitores de radiacao gama com uma fonte de {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Elisabeth; Leite, Sandro Passos; David, Mariano Gazineu; Estrada, Carlos Frederico Alves; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: beth.fernandes56@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2014-07-01

    This study shows all the relevant components to the calculation of the calibration uncertainty of gamma radiation area monitors performed by the Lab. Ciencias Radiologicas of UERJ . The uncertainty components will be related with their respective estimated values, details about the uncertainty components calculations of positioning and field homogeneity will be shown. There were obtained the values of 3,8 % and 5,8 % to the expanded uncertainty (k=2) for the dosimetry and for the area monitors calibration, respectively. (author)

  1. Are the imaging findings used to assess the portal triad reliable to perform living-donor liver transplant?; Os achados de imagem para avaliacao da triade portal sao confiaveis para realizacao do transplante hepatico com doador vivo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazzi, Francisco Leoncio; Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; Mancero, Jorge Marcelo Padilla; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; D' Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro, E-mail: franciscodazzi@hotmail.com [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia Geral e Transplante; Leao-Filho, Hilton Muniz [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem; Silva, Adavio de Oliveira e [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Gastroenterologia e Hepatologia

    2013-07-01

    Background: a crucial aspect of living-donor liver transplant is the risk imposed to the donor due to a procedure performed in a healthy individual that can lead to a high postoperative morbidity rate Aim: To correlate the pre- and intraoperative hepatic imaging findings of living adult donors. Methods: From 2003 to 2008 the medical charts of 66 donors were revised; in that, 42 were males (64%) and 24 females (36%), mean age of 30±8 years. The preoperative anatomy was analyzed by magnetic resonance cholangiography to study the bile ducts and by computed tomography angiography to evaluate the hepatic artery and portal vein. Normalcy criteria were established according to previously published studies. Results: Anatomic variations of the bile ducts were found in 59.1% of donors, of the artery hepatic in 31.8% and of the portal vein in 30.3% of the cases during the preoperative period. The magnetic resonance cholangiography findings were in agreement in 44 (66.6%) of donors and in disagreement in 22 (33.3%). With regards to hepatic artery, in all donors the findings of the imaging examination were in agreement with those of the intraoperative period. As to the portal vein, the computed tomography findings were in agreement in 59 (89.4%) donors and in disagreement in seven (10.6%). Conclusions: the bile duct anatomic variations are frequent, and the magnetic resonance cholangiography showed moderate accuracy (70%) in reproducing the surgical findings; the computed tomography reproduced the intraoperative findings of the hepatic artery in 100% of donors, and of the portal vein in 89.4% of the cases, thus demonstrating high accuracy (89%). (author)

  2. Development of methodologies for internal exposure assessment due to the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}FDG; Desenvolvimento de metodologias para avaliacao da exposicao ocupational interna devido ao radiofarmaco {sup 18}FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de

    2013-07-01

    The production of {sup 18}F has increased in the last decade. It is produced basically for the synthesis of {sup 18}F- fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG), the main radiopharmaceutical used in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans. The growth in the frequency of these tests resulted in rise of the number of occupationally exposed individuals (OEI) to the radionuclide {sup 18}F as {sup 18}FDG, increasing thereby the probability of its accidental incorporation. This study aimed to implement optimized techniques for assessing internal exposures of individuals occupationally exposed through both in vivo and in vitro bioassay methods during production and handling of {sup 18}FDG at the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA), Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN). The in vivo monitoring was conducted at the Laboratorio de Dosimetria Interna, Divisao de Laboratorios Tecnico-Cientificos (DILAB). For this bioassay method, measurements were done with a 3x3' NaI(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to Genie 2000 software. The calibration of the system was performed with a brain phantom containing a standard liquid source of {sup 22}Na to simulate a contaminated individual. The calibration of the HPGe coaxial detector for in vitro monitoring was performed at the Laboratorio de Medidas de Atividade de Radionuclideos (DIPRA/CRCN-NE/CNEN) with a standard source of {sup 22}Na. Base on the calibration factors, it was possible to determine the minimum detectable activities (MDA) for the systems by using direct measurements and simulation of uncontaminated urine. Then, through the biokinetic models published by ICRP 106 and edited by the AIDE software (version 6.0), it was possible to estimate the minimum detectable effective dose (MDED), which evaluates the detection sensitivity of the techniques developed. The MDED was estimated for in vivo and in vitro measurements performed 2.4 hours after the occurrence of incorporation by ingestion, since this is the period of higher retention fraction of activity in the brain compartment and accumulated urine for {sup 18}FDG. The values obtained were compared to the recording level of 1 mSv, recommended by the IAEA. After validation of in vivo monitoring technique, measurements of the IOE from DIPRA began shortly after the end of production and quality control procedures. The in vitro internal monitoring was not performed since there was not voluntary participation to obtain the biological sample (urine). The techniques developed showed sufficient sensitivity for application to occupational internal monitoring. (author)

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of the Fricke gel dosimeter using the spectrophotometric technique for application in electron and neutron dosimetry; Avaliacao dosimetrica da solucao Fricke gel usando a tecnica de espectrofotometria para aplicacao na dosimetria de eletrons e neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (GMR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes

    2011-07-01

    The main dosimetric characteristics of the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) solution were established for further application in the measurement of dose distribution of clinical electron fields. The dose-response curves of the FXG in a thermal neutron field were also evaluated for application in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and industrial electron fields. The standard reading technique was the spectrophotometry. For clinical fields the intra and inter-batch reproducibility of FXG solution are better than 1.4% and 5.1%, respectively. The optical response presents a linear behavior for doses ranging from 0.2 to 40 Gy independently of the electron energy and the dose rate in the studied ranges. Due to the effects of the FXG natural oxidation, the optimum elapsed time between FXG preparation and irradiation was established as 24h. The behavior of the dose-response curve does not change the obtained absorbance values relative to the non-irradiated dosimeter response during the studied period. The dose-response curve to industrial electron beam presented an exponential decreasing behavior. The optical response to thermal neutrons beam presented a linear behavior for the studied dose range. According to the obtained results to the different radiation fields studied it was not observed changes in the wavelength of the typical bands of the absorption spectrum radiation induced. Additional tests were performed with FXG solution to verify the viability and application of FXG dosimetry on intracavitary brachytherapy using digital photographic imaging. The excellent performance of the FXG dosimeter indicates that this dosimeter may be applied to tri-dimensional dose evaluation in radiotherapy treatments using electrons and neutron beams. (author)

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of the Fricke gel dosimeter using the spectrophotometric technique for application in electron and neutron dosimetry; Avaliacao dosimetrica da solucao Fricke gel usando a tecnica de espectrofotometria para aplicacao na dosimentria de eletrons e neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti

    2009-07-01

    In this work the main dosimetric characteristics of the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) solution were established for further application in the measurement of dose distribution of clinical electron fields. The dose-response curves of the FXG in a neutron field were also evaluated for the research in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and industrial electron fields. The standard reading technique was the spectrophotometric. For the clinical field, the intra and inter-batch reproducibility are better than 1.4% and 5.1 %, respectively, the response presents a linear behavior for doses ranging from 0.2 to 40 Gy independently of the energy and the dose rate in the studied ranges. Due to the effects of the FXG natural oxidation, the optimum elapsed time between FXG preparation and irradiation was established as 24h period and the behavior of the dose-response curve of the FXG using the variation in the absorbance relative to the non-irradiated dosimeter as a basis during the whole studied period were not altered. The dose-response to the industrial electron beam presented an exponential decreasing behavior and the neutron beam for research in BNCT presented a linear behavior for the complete studied dose range. According to the obtained results for the different types of radiation studied for the FXG, there was no change in the position of the characteristic bands of the absorption spectrum due to the interaction of these radiation types. Additional tests were performed to determine the digital photographic imaging of FXG analyses viability and the application of FXG dosimetry on intracavitary brachytherapy. The good performance of the FXG dosimeter in the tests that were carried out indicates that this dosimeter may be applied to the tri-dimensional dose evaluation in radiotherapic treatments using electrons and neutron beams. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the response of thermoluminescent detectors in clinical beams dosimetry using different phantoms; Avaliacao da resposta de detectores termoluminescentes na dosimetria de feixes clinicos utilizando diferentes objetos simuladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Luciana Cardoso

    2010-07-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the three principal treatment modalities used in the treatment of malignant diseases such as cancer, the other two are chemotherapy and radiosurgery. In contrast to other medical specialties that rely mainly on the clinical knowledge and experience of medical specialists, radiotherapy, with its use of ionizing radiation in treatment of cancer, relies heavily on modern technology and the collaborative efforts of several professionals whose coordinated team approach greatly influences the outcome of the treatment. In the area of clinical dosimetry, an efficient and accurate calibration of the radiation beam ensures knowledge of the radiation dose delivered to the patient, allowing thus the success of radiotherapy. This study aims to compare the thermoluminescent response of calcium sulfate doped with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) dosimeters produced by IPEN (6 mm in diameter and 0,8 mm tick) with the response of lithium fluoride (3,15 x 3,15 x 0,9 mm{sup 3}) doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti) in dosimetry of clinical photons (6 and 15 MV) and electrons beams (6 and 9 MeV) using solid water (RMI-457), water and PMMA phantoms. Initially, the dose-response curves were obtained for irradiation in cobalt-60 gamma radiation source in air (PMMA plates) and under electronic equilibrium conditions and for clinical electrons and photons beams at depth of maximum dose. The sensitivities of the thermoluminescent dosimeters were also evaluated and the values of their reproducibilities and intrinsic efficiency were determined for the response to different types of phantoms and radiation energy. The obtained results indicate that the main advantage of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy dosimeters is the enhanced sensitivity to radiation doses measured for {sup 60}Co, photons and electrons beams, thus representing a viable alternative for application in dosimetry in the radiotherapy area. (author)

  6. Irradiation effects of GaAlAs ({lambda}=830 nm) laser on oral traumatic ulceration; Avaliacao dos efeitos da irradiacao de ulceras traumaticas na cavidade bucal com o laser de GaAlAs ({lambda}=830 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Andre Machado de

    2003-07-01

    Low intensity GaAlAs ({lambda}=830 nm) laser irradiation effects on oral traumatic ulceration were evaluated. For this purpose, twenty patients presenting orthodontic appliance - induced oral traumatic ulceration were randomly distributed in two groups. Patients in group 1 were submitted to the irradiation procedure and group 2 was the control one. The irradiation parameters employed were the following: wavelength 830 nm, one single application of 4 J/cm{sup 2}, punctual in the contact mode and 30 mW power. The control group received the conventional treatment, consisting on topical application of Triancinolon based ointment four times a day. For both groups the agent responsible for the trauma was removed or covered with utility wax whenever removal was impossible. The results were evaluated concerning the wounds size reduction and pain relief. The time of laser irradiation was considered the starting time (time zero) and analysis were done 24 hours, 48 hours and seven days after that. The statistical analysis showed an acceleration in the healing process as well accentuated pain reduction for the irradiated group compared to the control one. These evidences allows us to indicate this protocol of one single application of 4 J/cm{sup 2} as therapy when patients with oral traumatic ulceration can not attend several sessions for a multiple application procedure. (author)

  7. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em tecido osseo bovino por espectroscoia ATR-FTIR e analise dinamica-mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/{sub v1,v3}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  8. Market evaluation and investment planning in natural gas industry in Brazil: development of the net distribution pipeline; Avaliacao de mercado e planejamento de investimentos na industria de gas natural no Brasil: perspectivas de crescimento da malha de gasodutos de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro L.; Pamplona, Edson O. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposes to develop a real options model to decision-making investments in flexible technologies. As a result, finding a closed-form solution, derived from the partial differential equation of the value of flexibility provided by alternative fuels. However, you can present and analysis the results of a practical application using the method to solve real options problems known as binomial model. Initially presents a brief explanation on the method of discounted cash flow, its failures and changes to the real options analysis. In the sequence chart an overview of the natural gas industry on Brazil, emphasizing the need for consistent investments evaluations in the sector. The next section shows the proposed development of mathematical model for assessing the flexibility to choose, obtained by the exchange of fuel for transport of gas pipeline distribution of natural gas. The model takes as the case scenario where the flexible pipeline can carry both natural gas and hydrogen, and the evaluation of the option of exchanging input gives more value to the investment opportunity, and consider the optimum conditions where the option to be exercised. Keywords: Decision Making, Real Options; Natural Gas, Flexible Technology. (author)

  9. Application of support vector machines in the evaluation of reliability generation and transmission systems; Aplicacao de maquinas de vetores suporte na avaliacao da confiabilidade de sistemas de geracao e transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Wellington Damascena; Resende, Leonidas Chaves de [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil); Manso, Luiz Antonio da Fonseca; Silva, Armando Martins Leite da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the reliability indices for composite generation and transmission systems based on Support Vector Machines (SVM). The importance of SVMs is its high generalization ability. The SVMs are used to classify data into two distinct classes. These can be named positive and negative. Thus, the basic idea is to classify the system states into success or failure. For this, a pre-classification of states is achieved by performing the proposed SVM-based neural network, where the sampled states during the beginning of the non-sequential Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) are considered as input data for training and validation sets. By adopting this procedure, a large number of states are classified by a simple evaluation of the network, providing significant reductions in computational costs. The proposed methodology is applied to the IEEE Reliability Test System and to the IEEE Modified Reliability Test System. (author)

  10. Evaluation of gains of energy efficiency in illumination with the use of proposed rulemaking labeling for buildings; Avaliacao dos ganhos em eficiencia energetica em iluminacao com o uso da proposta de regulamentacao de etiquetagem para edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Guilherme Augusto Marques; Saidel, Marco Antonio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Emails: guilherme.araujo2@poli.usp.br, saidel@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This article aims to examine the gains in energy efficiency through the classification levels, assigned to the installation of lighting systems with the use of the proposed regulations for voluntary labeling of the level of energy efficiency in commercial buildings, and public services. Were produced three different simulations: the first, considering a survey of data in an existing building which is hosting an administrative part of the public power, composed of 275 dependences. The second and third simulations deal with the application in a lighting project in the same enterprise, in two different luminaries (composed of optical systems with and without fins, respectively). From these activities that guide the direct application of the methodology for preparation of projects have been established comparisons between the results and made comments on the rates of illuminance, the levels of efficiency and the use of luminaries. (author)

  11. Firewood and wood-shaving use energy assessment for energy generation in sericulture agroindustry; Avaliacao energetica do uso da lenha e cavaco de madeira para producao de energia em agroindustria seropedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Mario Donizeti do [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia], E-mail: mariovmr@fca.unesp.br; Biaggioni, Marco Antonio Martin [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: biaggioni@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform an energy assessment of firewood and wood-shaving use for energy generation in sericulture agroindustry boilers. In this research, we used a boiler from a silk spinning factory located in the city of Duartina, Sao Paulo, Brazil, that currently uses eucalyptus firewood as fuel to generate water vapour used in silk fiber production. In the studied fuels utilization system energy consumption structure development, we considered energy input in Megajoule (MJ) by type, source and form involved in several firewood use technical itinerary operations, as well as in wood-shaving use technical itinerary operations. From these fuels utilization built structure, we performed a firewood- and wood-shaving-generated energy input comparative analysis, in Megajoule/hour (MJ.h{sup -1}), to produce 2.968,80 kg.h{sup -1} of vapour, which is the boiler average production, during the following years: 2004, 2005, and 2006. The energy analysis results revealed that to replace eucalyptus firewood with wood-shaving is something possible in the boiler, reducing total energy consumption approximately by 21%. (author)

  12. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  13. Evaluation of fracture toughness in dental ceramics using indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)-method; Avaliacao da tenacidade a fratura de ceramicas dentarias atraves do metodo de entalhe - SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.A.; Santos, C.; Souza, R.C.; Ribeiro, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Polo Urbo-Industrial; Strecker, K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (DME/UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais Eletricos; Oberacker, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the fracture toughness of different ceramics based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} were evaluated using, comparatively two methods, Vickers indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam) method. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) micro-particled and ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanometric, ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composites were sintered at different temperatures. Samples were characterized by relative density, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and mechanical evaluation by hardness, bending strength and fracture toughness obtained by ickers indentation and SEVNB-method. The results were presented comparing the densification and microstructural results. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of each method were discussed. (author)

  14. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  15. Evaluation of energy efficiency of climatization system in dairy cattle free-stall; Avaliacao da eficiencia energetica de sistemas de climatizacao em galpoes tipo 'free-stall' para confinamento de bovinos leiteiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perissinoto, Mauricio [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural. Setor de Construcoes Rurais], Email: mperissi@esalqusp.br; Moura, Daniella Jorge de; Lima, Karla Andrea Oliveira de; Mendes, Angelica Signor [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Matarazzo, Soraia Vanessa

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this research was the evaluation of the economical efficiency, in relation to water and energy expenses, of two different evaporative cooling systems, misting and sprinkler, associated with forced ventilation. The study was carried out in a commercial dairy cattle farm located in a small city of Sao Paulo State. The experimental period was twenty-eight consecutive days of November 2003. For the economical analysis of each system of climatization the cost with electrical energy and water expended in each system was considered and also the feeding consumption. The sprinkling cooling system presented a greater consumption of water and energy than the misting system. Even those treatments promoting similar feed intake (the difference was 3.0 kg DM.animal{sup -1}.month{sup -1}), the sprinkling system associated to forced ventilation led to an increase (18.0 liters.animal{sup -1}.month{sup -1}) of 3% in milk production. As consequence, it was observed an increase of 5,8% in total month profit in relation to misting system. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the potential application of 2-acetylpyridine N4- phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis; Avaliacao da potencial aplicacao de derivados de 2-acetilpiridina N-4 fenil tiossemicarbazonas em terapia e diagnostico oncologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio

    2013-08-01

    Despite the wide range of antineoplastic agents available, resistance of some types of cancer and toxicity to normal cells have been identified as the main causes of treatment failure and death. The lack of early and precise diagnosis is also responsible for reducing survival of cancer patients. In this context, the development of substances with low toxicity and therapeutic potential and/or diagnosis purpose, is the major tool in an attempt to increase the survival of patients and assure the safety and efficacy of treatment. Thiosemicarbazones (TSC) are a class of synthetic compounds that have several biological activities, including antitumor. Although several studies have shown the great potential of TSC as therapeutic and / or diagnostic agents, different chemical modifications performed on this class of molecules indicate new possibilities for applications and still require further studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential applicability of 2-acetylpyridine N-4-phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis. The results showed that all 13 TSC tested were cytotoxic to breast and glioblastoma tumor cell lines, presenting higher in vitro antitumor activity than etoposide, an antineoplastic and inhibitor of topoisomerase II frequently used for cancer therapy. The TSC that have halogen or nitro on ortho position showed higher antitumor activity in vitro than their isomers with halogen or nitro on meta or para position of the phenyl group. H2Ac4oFPh and H2Ac4oClPh compounds showed the highest antitumor activity among all tested compounds, with IC{sub 50} in nanomolar order. These TSC induced cell death by apoptosis and oxidative stress was responsible, at least in part, for this type of cell death. The 5 mg.kg{sup -1} H2Ac4oFPh dose, administered s.c., for 4 consecutive days, did not induce important toxicity; however, the same treatment protocol was not effective for tumor growth reduction in an animal model of brain tumor. Radioactive probes of H2Ac4oFPh were synthesized using {sup 111}In or {sup 67}Ga as radiotracers, with satisfactory specific activity and radiochemical purity. H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 111}In was more useful than H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 67}Ga, with higher specific activity, better chemical purity, better in vitro stability, higher distribution volume, faster blood clearance and, therefore, was considered the most promising for application in molecular imaging studies. H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 111}In also showed high lipophilicity and was internalized by glioblastoma cells in vitro. H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 111}In showed significative tumor uptake in vivo, however, the high abdominal uptake and high background did not allow a good visualization of tumor in imaging studies. Unlike intravenous administration, intratumoral administration allowed greater diffusion and retention of H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 111}In in the tumor site and significantly reduced the activity accumulated in the organs. These results encourage new experiments to be performed in order to promote the complexation of H2Ac4oFPh with particle emitters, such as yttrium-90, to evaluate its application in local radioisotopic therapy for glioblastoma multiforme. (author)

  17. Energy evaluation of soil preparation for deployment of the eucalyptus culture: a subsidy for sustainable analysis; Avaliacao energetica do preparo do solo para implantacao da cultura de eucalipto: subsidio para uma analise de sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; Quintana, Nuria Rosa Gagliardi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura

    2004-07-01

    The knowledge of the production and expenditure of energy for the agriculture are fundamental due, among other factors, to the strategic importance that occupies as producing of energy input for other economic sections. With the objective of presenting the participation of the several energy types employees in the soil prepare for implantation of the eucalyptus culture, this work is constituted in a contribution regarding the subject of the sustain grow. It was determined that the field hypothetical to be prepared possesses soil with sandy texture and raise plan or soft-wavy, where the minimum cultivation of the soil allows without problems, the use of 'subsolador florestal multifuncional'. The silviculture practical, linked to the minimum cultivation of the soil in the implantation of the culture was: liming, court of the residues and roots, subsoil, basic fertilizing, control chemical of undesirable plants and control chemical of ants. The technical coefficients, the work day, the revenue, the identification of the tractors, implements and equipment; its specifications and respective consumption of fuel, lubricants and greases, besides the quantification of the labor used by silviculture practical, were certain starting from collected secondary data. The adopted methodological procedures were based in literature revision. In agreement with the obtained results, it was ended that of the total of energy maid's 3.309,62 MJ for hectare in the soil prepare, it is had the participation of 83,30% of industrial energy, 16,52% of fossil energy and 0,18% of biological energy. It was verified like this that the dependence of the industrial energy and of the fossil energy in the soil prepare. In that way, we suggest himself the search of the use of another types of energy that they allow the energy sustainability of this agro-ecosystems. (author)

  18. Evaluation of polymer efficiency on the inhibition of calcium carbonate scale in synthetic brines; Avaliacao da acao de polimeros sobre a inibicao de incrustacoes de carbonato de calcio em salmouras sinteticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Juliana M.; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Loureiro, Tatiana S.; Lucas, Elizabete F.; Spinelli, Luciana S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: julianamatos@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The inorganic scale results in serious problems for oil production. This scale results from the incompatibility between the chemical compositions of formation water and injection, and the changes of thermodynamic system. These deposits consist mainly of calcium carbonate and barium sulfate. In order to prevent the formation of these deposits, the petroleum industry has made use of chemicals that act as scale inhibitors. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two types of polymeric inhibitors prevent the formation of calcium carbonate from brines of different compositions with high concentrations of calcium. The inhibitors were tested at varying concentrations and at fixed conditions of temperature, pH, pressure and time. The estimated effectiveness of each inhibitor was measured by complexometric titration. The inhibitor carboxylic acid-based (poly (maleic acid)) was more efficient at relatively low concentrations, which is important both economically and environmentally. (author)

  19. Methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes: application in a metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Metodologia para avaliacao da energia associada ao residuo solido industrial: aplicacao a regiao metropolitada de Campinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Tereza Rosana Orrico [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Teixeira, Egle Novaes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to the application of a methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The methodological route proposed is: the characterization of the research area and the production/management of the industrial solid wastes; the energetic classification and the qualitative/quantitative research of the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes; and, the valuation of the applicability of the energetic utilization mechanisms proposed to the region. This methodology when applied at the Campinas metropolitan region proved to be valid and it resulted in a synthetically presentation of the social and environmental reality of the industrial sector and the destination of the wastes, as well as it indicated the potentialities related to the energetic utilization of the industrial solid waste in the region. With the obtained results it was shown the importance of the the production and the destination of the industrial solid wastes in the Campinas metropolitan region , and the meaning, in terms of electric potency, of the values of the energy associated to the wastes with a known factor of energetic conversion shown in the researched sample. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the contamination risk by {sup 241}AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump; Avaliacao da contaminacao provocada por para-raios radioativos de americio-241 descartados em lixoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  1. Radioisotope and mathematical modeling in the assessment of supplementation of Phytase in diets for growing pigs; Radioisotopo e modelagem matematica na avaliacao da suplementacao de fitase em dietas para suinos em crescimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, L.C.; Moreira, J.A.; Oliveira, R.L.R., E-mail: japmoreira@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Vitti, D.M.S.S. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Patino, R.M. [Universidade de Sucre, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of including increasing levels of phytase enzyme in pig diets for growing pigs, using the mathematical model. Data from 20 crossbred male piglets, castrated and weighing 26.80 kg on average was used. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages to collect feces and urine in a 17 day period. A randomized block experimental design containing five treatments and four repetitions was used. The experimental diet provided to piglets contained corn and soybean and was supplemented with five increasing levels of phytase enzyme (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 UF/kg), corresponding to 0.00 %, 0.01 %, 0.02 %, 0.03 % and 0.04 % respectively. The variables evaluated were: intake, excretion, output flow of P in the digestive tract, bloodstream, bones and soft tissues. The phytase enzyme did not affect the P intake (P>0.05 (F{sub 10}), the P excreted in urine (F{sub 02}) and the output flow of P in the bones (F{sub 32} e F{sub 23}) and soft tissue (F{sub 42} e F{sub 24}), however, there was a reduction in P excreted in feces (F{sub 01}) of 8.92 %, 26.76 %, 22.53 % and 28.64 % to the levels 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000UF/kg, respectively and showed a positive linear effect (P<0.08) for the endogenous P (F{sub 12}). Corn and soybean meal based diets can be used with 50% of P by dicalcium phosphate, adding 250UF/kg diet for growing pigs, and may cause a reduction of 27 % of P excretion in feces. (author)

  2. Intrapulpal temperature during preparation with the Er:YAG laser: an in vitro study; Avaliacao da temperatura intrapulpar de incisivos bovinos irradiados com o laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo-Martins, Vinicius Rangel

    2003-07-01

    This study evaluated the variation of the pulp chamber temperature when dentine, with 2,0 mm of thickness, adjacent to the pulp, was irradiated by the Er:YAG laser. Seventy two bovine incisors were used, that had the enamel and dentine of the buccal surface weared until to reach the thickness used in this study. The teeth were divided in 3 groups, according with the repetition rate used ( Group I = 2 Hz; Group II = 4 Hz and Group III = 6 Hz), and irradiated, with or without water cooling, using 250, 300 and 350 mJ of energy per pulse. Thermocouples were introduced inside the pulp chamber through the palatine opening of the samples and fixed to the vestibular wall of the pulp chamber using a thermal paste. After the statistical analysis, it was verified that there was a decrease of the intrapulpal temperature for all of the parameters in the group I irradiated with water cooling. In the same group, but without cooling, occurred increases of the intrapulpal temperature, however they were less than 2 deg C. In the group 11, only the para meter 350 mJ/4 Hz/ with water cooling presented decrease of the temperature (-0,08 deg C). The other irradiations presented increase of the intrapulpal temperature, varying from 1,5 to 1,9 deg C for irradiations without cooling and of 0,03 the 0,58 deg C for the samples irradiated under water cooling. In the group III, all of the samples presented increase of the intrapulpal temperature, however, they were smaller than to 2,5 deg C. The conditions of this study allow to conclude that the use of the laser of Er:YAG promoted acceptable temperature increases inside the pulp chamber, not reaching the critical level of 5,5 deg C. However, in spite of the temperature variations inside the pulp chamber have not reached critical levels, this procedure should not be recommended because macroscopic observations of the dentine irradiated without water cooling showed dark lesions, suggesting carbonization of this tissue. (author)

  3. Clinical and morphologic evaluation of Er:YAG laser action at the front of cervical dentinal hypersensitivity; Avaliacao clinica e morfologica da acao do laser de Er:YAG frente a hipersensibilidade dentinaria cervical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Dalva Maria

    2001-07-01

    This work was achieved in vivo and in vitro to evaluate the efficiency of Er:YAG laser in the cervical dentinal hypersensitivity treatment (HSDC). The Clinical study was achieved in patients with HSDC. The treatment was realized in five sessions: the first for selection, the second for exams (clinic and X-Ray) and trying to remove the etiologic factors that could cause the HSDC. The third and fourth sessions were subjected to the radiation with that protocol: 60 mJ energy ,2 Hz frequency, 6 mm out of focus, under air cooling, 20 seconds each application which the same was repeated four times with one minute breaks, which scanning movements and without using anaesthetics. The fifth was evaluation. The patients were evaluated and registered in a subject scale of pain 0 to 3, in the beginning and end of each session of irradiation, and one month after the last session. The results showed that for the irradiated group occurs significant differences in the beginning of each session and between. For the control group did not occur significant differences in the beginning and after each session, but did show a difference between the sessions. As the control group as the irradiated group, had reduction of sensibility between the session. For the morphologic study nine teeth were selected, 7 molars and 2 pre-molars from operative dentistry discipline. Half of the surface was irradiated with Er:YAG laser, the same protocol used in vivo, and the other half was used as a control without receiving any laser irradiation. Subsequently, specimens were prepared for SEM examinations. The results showed that laser treated surfaces showed a reduction of dentine tubular diameter with partial or total closure of the dentine tubules. For the control group, it was observed bigger amounts smear layer and open dentine tubular. The results obtained indicated that the Er:YAG laser can contribute to the HSDC treatment. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the attenuation of the lead aprons with different lead equivalences for use in radiology services; Avaliacao da atenuacao de aventais plumbiferos com diferentes equivalencias de chumbo para uso em servicos de radiologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Juliana, E-mail: juliana.pimentel@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Borgonhi, William Mello, E-mail: borgonhi@gmail.com [Instituto Pro Universidade Canoense (IPUC), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Vanni, Stefania, E-mail: stevannni87@gmail.com [Assessoria em Fisica Medica (AFIM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work has the aim to evaluate the attenuation of personal protective gear of lead rubber with equivalence of 0.25 and 0.50 mmPb, the scattered radiation. It was used as a radiation emitter, a x-ray equipment brand GE® Model XR6000 with maximum voltage of 150 kVp, the maximum electric current of 630 mA. How spreader object was used a cylindrical acrylic simulator with measures 32 cm by 15 cm. To collect the measurements was used the ionizing chambers Fluke Biomedical® Victoreen® model 451B-DE-SI. The individual protective clothing evaluated were two rubber aprons with equivalence of 0.25 and 0.50 mmPb. To perform the experiment the simulator equipment was placed on the table aligned with the primary beam with focus-film distance of one meter. Were used as exposure parameters 85 kVp, 80 mA and 2.5 sec. Recordings were carried out at distances from 50 to 250 cm, ranging from 25 to 25 cm. For each distance were made four measures in the air and four measures with each VPI in front of the meter, checking the equivalent dose rate and tabling the values obtained. For aprons with equivalence 0,25mmPb average attenuation obtained was 94.05%, with standard deviation of 1.36. As for the aprons with 0,50mmPb the affected attenuation was 97.6%, with deviation of 0.75. From the results of this assessment, it is evident the importance of radiological protective clothing in the routines of individuals occupationally exposed to X-ray.

  5. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of vermicompost from bovine manure and evaluation of competitive adsorption of cadmium and lead; Caracterizacao quimica e fisico-quimica de vermicomposto de esterco bovino e avaliacao da adsorcao competitiva por cadmio e chumbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamim, Soraida Sozzi Miguel [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Jordao, Claudio Pereira; Brune, Walter; Pereira, Jose Luis [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1996-09-01

    The chemical and physicochemical characterization of vermicompost from bovine manure has been studied. It was examined the pH and cation exchangeable capacity (CTC), moistness, ash, organic carbon, total nitrogen, lignin, cellulose and metal concentrations, among other characteristics. The vermicompost was then applied to the retention and competition of metal pollutants (Cd and Pb) from metal nitrate solutions. The retention was affected by both the pH and time of adsorption, while the competitive character of these metals for the substrate was not relevant to each pH examined. (author) 46 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of the environmental conditioning factors in the perspective of expansion of ethanol production in Brazil; Avaliacao dos condicionantes ambientais na perspectiva de expansao da producao de etanol no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Conceicao Elaine Cardoso

    2010-03-15

    Various countries have studied the possibility of adding ethanol to gasoline or using pure fuel ethanol as an alternative to petroleum derivatives. Brazil occupies a leading position in this scenario because with its National Alcohol Program (Programa Nacional do Alcool - PROALCOOL), created in 1975, it became the pioneer in setting up a biofuels program. Since then it has accumulated experience and gained mastery of the technology to produce ethanol from sugarcane. Hence there is a strong expectation that the country can become the world's main ethanol exporter. This thesis examines the main environmental impacts associated with the ethanol productive chain, which are relevant conditioning factors for the expansion of this industry in Brazil. The study describes the evolution of PROALCOOL and the overview of current structure of the brazilian sugar-alcohol sector, identifies technologies and environmental management policies, and presents the perspective of expansion of ethanol production. Thus, the study undertakes an extensive review of the literature and examines to what extent the creation and implementation of public and private environmental management policies (legal restrictions and market instruments, respectively) interfere with the expansion of these productive activities. (author)

  7. Evaluation of natural and degradation by salt spray of red ceramics incorporated with ornamental rock waste; Avaliacao da degradacao natural e por nevoa salina de ceramica vermelha incorporadas com rejeito de rocha ornamental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altoe, Larissa Machado; Xavier, Gustavo de Castro; Albuquerque, Fernando Saboya; Maia, Paulo Cesar de Almeida; Alexandre, Jonas, E-mail: daniellavrodrigues@hotmail.com, E-mail: gxavier@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LECIV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)Laboratorio de Engenharia Civil

    2011-07-01

    To better study the mechanical behavior of red ceramic, the samples were degraded in salt spray equipment and exposed in environment. The salt spray equipment subjects the samples to conditions found by the sea, through the mix solutions of sodium chloride. The ceramic samples were prepared with up to 10% by mass of ornamental rock waste to dry and pressed into rectangular mold of steel. The materials were fired at temperatures of 650°C, 750° C and 850°C. After 90 days of degradation natural and 45 days in salt spray, ware analyzed the properties of ceramic material. The results of mechanical strength were compared using the Weibull distribution, before and after the degradation. Note that the material with ornamental rock waste raised the mechanical strength and did'nt significantly changes the material properties after degradation. (author)

  8. Evaluation of specific consumption from the use of chicken oil biodiesel in one cylinder generator set; Avaliacao do consumo especifico a partir da utilizacao de biodiesel de oleo de frango em um grupo-gerador monocilindrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Diego Augusto [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (PGEAGRI/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: dafiorese@yahoo.com.br; Lima, Paulo Peruzzo de [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Souza, Abel Alves de; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Dallmeyer, Arno Udo [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (PGEAGRI/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel can be produced from numerous materials, including by-products of animal chain. In this scenario, the chicken's oil, that is located and an environment not explored for biodiesel production, can be a good alternative in South and Southeast Brazilian Region, where they are slaughtered around 9.100.000 chickens per day. In order to determine the specific consumption from a generator set with single cylinder 6.6 kW of power and generation capacity of 5 kW, using chicken oil biodiesel (B-100), were performed the bench test using a auxiliary tank, precision scale and an energy analyzer. Were conducted four treatments (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of generating capacity). The worst SC was the engine at 25% of generation capacity (1.5 kW) and better with 75% of maximum load (3.75 kW) with a mean of 479.34 g kWh{sup -1}. By Turkey's test ant 5% probability there was a significant difference only for the first treatment. (author)

  9. Development of a methodology for the evaluation of energy efficiency of central irrigation pivots; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para a avaliacao da eficiencia energetica de pivos centrais de irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Aureo Cezar de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET-Pet), PE (Brazil); Guimaraes Junior, Sebastiao Camargo; Camacho, Jose Roberto; Salerno, Carlos Henrique [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (NERFAE/UFU), MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica. Nucleo de Eletricidade Rural e Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2006-07-01

    It will be presented in this work a methodology for the evaluation of the energy efficiency of irrigation center systems by central pivot. Integrating water efficiency application with the energy associated to the sprinklers, adduction pipeline, pivot arm and pump systems, the proposed indexes make possible to evaluate the energy income of each component of the irrigation system, contributing for the increase of the global efficiency of the irrigated agriculture. (author)

  10. Evaluation of CFD numerical models for the study of the flow of water from the RMB pool; Avaliacao de modelos numericos de CFD para o estudo do escoamento de agua da piscina do RMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Bruno Leonhardt; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Rezende, Hugo Cesar, E-mail: blp@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEM-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Schweizer, Fernando Lage Araujo, E-mail: flas@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    In this work two numerical models were developed for the study of the flow in the pool of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor-RMB using two computer codes: FLUENT and CFX. The codes presents big differences that may affect the results and performance of the simulation. An example is the mesh, which can be fully composed of regular hexahedral and present local refinement in FLUENT, due to the implementation of the solution focused on the element, which is not possible in CFX, which takes a node-centric solution. The temperature profiles were evaluated over the time of simulation. The research and the defining of an appropriate and optimized numerical model will be of fundamental importance for the RMB hot water layer project.

  11. Synthesis of polyisoprene and its evaluation as reducer of flow loss temperature of paraffinic drilling fluid; Sintese de poliisopreno e sua avaliacao como redutor da temperatura de perda de fluidez de fluido de perfuracao parafinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Luiz Carlos; Pires, Renata V.; Sant' Anna, Monica; Cardoso, Jaciene J.F.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizpalermo@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    N-paraffin fluids are widely used in drilling oil wells. However, under low temperature, such as those found in deep water, they lose their ability to flow due to solidification of paraffins. In order to keep the fluid flowing, isoparaffins are added to fluids. Nevertheless, the safety of the process is affected, due to its low flash point, especially during the storage in platforms offshore. This paper aims to obtain polymeric additives that can reduce the flow loss temperature of the n-paraffin fluid, replacing the isoparaffin, without affecting its rheological properties. So, oligomers/polymers based on isoprene were synthesized and the rheological behavior of the products and their mixtures with n-paraffin, as a function of decreasing temperature, was evaluated. Products from chemical degradation of natural rubber (NR) were also evaluated. The results showed that samples presenting relatively low molar mass, about 5,000 g/mol, exhibited good performance. When obtaining product by polymerization, a chain transfer agent must be used. (author)

  12. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nos teores de carotenoides, acido ascorbico e acucares do fruto Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Quimica, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Irradiacao de Alimentos], e-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, e-mail: jaquelinefisica@bol.com.br; Coelho, Maysa Joppert [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Engenharia Ambiental], e-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 {mu}g/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  13. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn, the highest contents were related to industrial zones and this element can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. (author)

  14. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  15. Evaluation of the maximum energy achieved through generation of hydro and wind power in the Northeast subsystem; Avaliacao da maxima energia assegurada atraves de geracao hidro-eolica no subsistema do Nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Pedro T.; Teixeira, Marcos A.; Kissel, Johannes [Gesellschaft Fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In the current context to encourage sustainable development, wind energy plays an important role in the spread of renewable energy sources. In this paper, the possibilities and difficulties of wind power integration in large-scale are evaluated, specifically in the northeastern region of Brazil. From the seasonal complementarity with the water source, scenarios are set out where the maximum participation of only these two sources in the energy supply of the region is sought. Aiming to evaluate the possibilities of a completely sustainable regional energy supply, the northeast subsystem is isolated, excluding, in principle, imports and exports. Therefore, the energy storage capacity of reservoirs in the region is used as a key factor, combined with the seasonal availability of data sources and the annual energy consumption of the region. (author)

  16. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  18. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study; Avaliacao clinica da eficiencia do laser de Nd:YAG associado ao fluor fosfato acidulado na prevencao de caries de sulcos e fissuras de criancas e adolescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boari, Heloisa Gomes Dimiranda

    2000-07-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 {mu}m, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm{sup 2}. The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the temperature rise in pulp chamber during class V preparation with Er:YAG laser; Avaliacao da temperatura na camara pulpar durante preparo classe V com laser de Erbio:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picinini, Leonardo Santos

    2001-07-01

    One of the major concerns regarding laser irradiation in the dentistry field is the overheating in dental tissue, specially pulpal tissue. A temperature raise over 5.5 deg C is considered to be harmful to its vitality. The current study evaluated the temperature increase in the pulp chamber, during class V preparation, performed with the laser Er:YAG in 36 bovine incisive extracted teeth. The samples were eroded on the outer side of the vestibular wall to obtain the dentinal thickness of 2.0 mm (group I), 1.0 mm (group II) and 0.5 mm (group III). Thermocouples were fixed to the inner part of the vestibular wall using thermal paste, through the palatine opening of the samples. Class V cavities were prepared in the vestibular side only in 1 mm{sup 2} thick dentins. Irradiation parameters used were: 500 mJ/10 Hz, 850 mJ/10 Hz and 1 000 mJ/10 Hz for all the groups. The results were processed by a microcomputer. This study showed that the temperature increased into the pulpal cavity reached around 3 deg C for the groups I (2,0 mm thick dentine) and II (1.0 mm thick dentine). In the group III (0.5 mm thick) temperature was around 5.5 deg C. Thus, the parameters used for cavity preparation, using Er:YAG laser, were safe in relation to the temperature raise for dentinal thickness of 1,0 and 2,0 mm; in 0.5 mm thick dentins, temperature increase reached 5.5 deg C and an appropriate correction in the laser parameters was necessary. (author)

  20. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the {sup 99}Tc{sup m} measurements in the nuclear medicine; Aplicacao de teste de proficiencia para avaliacao da medicao de {sup 99}Tc{sup m} na medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: aedu@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nicoli, Ieda Gomes, E-mail: ieda@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Escritorio de Brasilia; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria, E-mail: falabarse@ird.gov.b, E-mail: axavier@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2009-07-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing {sup 99}Tc{sup m}. Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  1. Use of the HRICP-MS technique for the evaluation of boron isotopes in Eucalitpus plants; Uso da tecnica HRICP-MS na avaliacao dos isotopos de boro em eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiello, Edson Marcio; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro da, E-mail: mattiello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The {sup 10}B isotope tracer technique is essential to study the B mobility in plants. Factors that can influence the quality of measured B isotope ratios were optimized experimentally using High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HRICP-MS). An isotopically certified standard (NIST SRM-951) was used. The best combination was obtained using a resolution of 400, a RF power of 1250 W, followed by 15 measurements over a 10-s integration period each (15*10). Utilizing this approach it was possible to obtain a precision of 0.3 % in standard material and 2z % in the experimental samples. The results show the importance of establishing optimized work conditions before carrying out the analytical series. (author)

  2. Simulation and evaluation of mammography quality from an X-ray equipment of a instrument calibration laboratory; Simulacao e avaliacao das qualidades da mamografia do equipamento de raios-x de um laboratorio de calibracao de instrumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F. da; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: na.fiorini@gmail.com, E-mail: maysadecastro@gmail.com, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory (ICL) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil has developed some work in order to establish a primary standard system for low energy X-ray employing a ionization chamber of free air. For this, one of the most important steps is the determination of factors of correction of its answer. Simulation is a frequently used tool for this because some correction factors can not be determined experimentally. For the correct simulation of these correction factors is necessary some input parameters such as geometry, the material composition of the dosimeter, the experimental arrangement and the radiation source are specified correctly. For the ionization chamber available on the LCI, the geometry, the material components and the experimental arrangement can be obtained easily. On the other hand, spectrum of radiation energy source, which must be inserted into the computer code has not been obtained. Thus, this study aims to determine this radiation spectrum, thus enabling the characterization of the new primary standard for low power X-radiation of ICL.

  3. Assessment of potential Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, clays when subjected to high rates of heating; Avaliacao da potencialidade de argilas do Rio Grande do Norte quando submetidas a elevadas taxas de aquecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueira, R.L.; Pereira, L.M.; Dutra, R.P.S.; Nascimento, R.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/CT/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In this work we study three clays of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, to evaluate the potential them when subjected to high rates of heating. The samples were formed by pressing and subject to rates of 5 deg C / min, 10 deg C / min and 15 deg C / min, with temperature of 950 deg C. This study determined the technological properties of the samples. The mineralogical composition was identified by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was determined by Xray fluorescence. The Atterberg limits, were used to classify the samples on the plasticity. Were also performed: dilatometry, size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of the processing variables and the intrinsic characteristics of each material indicates that the RX clay showed the best results for the manufacture of blocks and tiles. The techniques used in this study were efficient and the initial objectives were achieved. (author)

  4. Evaluation of human dental loss caused by carbamide peroxide bleacher compared with phosphoric acid conditioning - radioactive method; Avaliacao da perda dental humana com o uso do clareador peroxido de carbamida comparado ao condicionamento com acido fosforico - metodo radiometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Eduardo Makoto; Yousseff, Michel Nicolau [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Dentistica; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The radiometric method was applied to the evaluation of dental loss caused by carbamide peroxide when it is applied on the surface layers of enamel and dentin tissues. Also the dental loss caused by the etching with 37% phosphoric acid procedure used in aesthetic restoration was assessed for comparison with those results obtained. The tooth samples irradiated with a P standard in a thermal neutron flux of the nuclear reactor were placed in contact with 10% carbamide peroxide or with 37% phosphoric acid solution. The radioactivity of {sup 32} P transferred from the radioactive teeth to the bleaching gel or to etching acid was measured using a Geiger Muller detector to calculate the mass of P removed in this treatment and losses were calculated after obtaining their P concentrations. Results obtained indicated that enamel and dentin exposed to carbamide peroxide bleaching agent lose phosphorus. The extent of enamel loss was smaller than that obtained for dentin. In the case of acid etching, there was no difference between the results obtained for enamel and dentin loss. Also the dentin loss obtained after a treatment of 30 applications of 10% carbamide peroxide was the same magnitude of that one application of 37% phosphoric acid. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the efficiency of silicone polyether additives as foam inhibitor in crude oil; Avaliacao da eficiencia de aditivos a base de silicone polieter como inibidores de espuma em petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This work evaluates the chemical and physico-chemical properties of commercial anti-foam products based on silicone polyethers along with their efficiency in inhibiting foaming. The commercial surfactants were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), determination of solubility in different solvents and measurement of the surface and interfacial tensions. A method to test the formation of foam in oil was used to mimic the operating conditions in gas-oil separators. The results show that the most polar additive was the most efficient in breaking up the foam. (author)

  6. Evaluation of '9{sup 9}Mo presence in eluates of {sup 99}mTc used in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da presenca de {sup 99}Mo em eluatos de {sup 99m}Tc utilizados em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Tc-99m is used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine through SPECT technique. It is obtained by the elution of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators. During the elution process {sup 99}Mo can be extracted becoming a radionuclidic impurity. One of the quality parameters of the eluate is the radionuclidic purity, MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc activities in the eluate. The North-American and European pharmacopoeias restrict the {sup 99}Mo content, respectively, in 0.015 e 0.1% and, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the activity ratio at the moment of administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient, should not exceed 0.015%. In Brazil, the control of such parameter is not obliged in official regulations. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of {sup 99}Mo in {sup 99m}Tc eluates. It was initially optimized a methodology to determine the activity of {sup 99}Mo in eluate samples. Efficiency curves were obtained for a NaI (Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector installed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LABMIV-IRD). The methodology has been validated through the measurement of a {sup 99}Mo standard liquid source calibrated at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The samples analyzed in this work were gently supplied by 5 Nuclear Medicine Clinics located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The activities of {sup 99}mTc and {sup 99}Mo in those samples have been measured respectively at the clinics and at the LABMIV. By applying a standardized methodology, the ration between the activities were calculated. The results show that 147 out of 174 samples presented {sup 99}Mo activities above the minimum detectable activity of the technique. On the other hand, only 2 out of 147 samples surpassed the MBT limit suggested by the IAEA and have been detected in samples eluted from generators of 750 mCi. In one of the samples, eluted from a generator of 1000 mCi, the calculated MBT value was very close to the IAEA limit. However, the results are not sufficient to establish a relationship between MBT values and generator activity. The measurement technique developed has enough sensitivity to detect {sup 99}Mo in {sup 99m}Tc eluates samples and permits to evaluate the quality of the generators used by the Clinics participating in this study. Furthermore, it was developed a spreadsheet aimed to calculate MBT values at the moment of elution to be used by the staff of the clinic. (author)

  7. Study of uptake and endocytosis of gamma rays-irradiated crotoxin by mice peritoneal macrophages; Avaliacao do mecanismo de captacao e endocitose de crotoxina submetida a acao da radiacao, por macrofagos peritoneais de camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardi, Bruno Andrade

    1999-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate the uptake and endocytosis of 2000 Gy {sup 60}Co irradiated crotoxin through mouse peritoneal macrophages, correlating with native one and another non related protein, the ovalbumin. Native (CTXN) or 2000 Gy {sup 60} Co {gamma}-rays (dose rate 540 Gy/hour) irradiated crotoxin (CTXI) or ovalbumin processed of same manner (OVAN - OVAI) were offered to mouse peritoneal macrophages and their uptake was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative in situ ELISA. The involvement of scavenger receptors (ScvR) was evaluated by using blockers drugs (Probuco-PBC or Dextran Sulfate - SD) or with nonspecific blocking using fetal calf serum (FBS). The morphology and viability of macrophages were preserved during the experiments. CTXI showed irradiation-induced aggregates and formation of oxidative changing were observed on this protein after gamma rays treatment. By immunohistochemistry we could observe heavy stained phagocytic vacuole on macrophages incubated with CTXI, as compared with CTXN. Quantitatively by in situ ELISA, the sema pattern was observed, displaying a 2-fold CTXI incorporation. In presence of PBC or SD we could find a significant decrease of CTXI uptake but not of CTXN. However the CTXN uptake was depressed by FBS, not observed with CTXI. OVA, after gamma rays treatment, underwent a high degradation suffering a potent incorporation and metabolism by macrophages, with a major uptake of OVAI in longer incubation (120 minutes). Gamma rays ({sup 60} Co) produced oxidative changes on CTX molecule, leading to a uptake by ScvR-mice peritoneal macrophages, suggesting that the relation antigen-presenting cells and gamma rays-modified proteins are responsible for the better immune response presented by irradiated antigens. (author)

  8. Evaluation of area monitor response for neutrons in radiation field generated by a 15 MV clinic accelerator; Avaliacao da resposta dos monitores de area para neutrons em campo de radiacao gerado por um acelerador clinico de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)

  9. In vitro evaluation of the chemical and morphological changes of the enamel surface using different bleaching techniques; Avaliacao in vitro das alteracoes quimica e morfologica da superficie do esmalte utilizando diferentes tecnicas de clareamento dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Alessandra de Siervi

    2003-07-01

    'In vitro' evaluation through MEV and EDS of the morphological and chemical changes, respectively, of the bovine enamel, submitted to different bleaching techniques. For the MEV evaluation eighteen apical thirds were pigmented and divided into two parts. One half of each sample was the control and the other half was bleached according to the protocol of each test group (n= 6). Group I - home bleaching with a 10% carbamide peroxide; group II bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and LED; group III - bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with diode laser bleaching. The same procedure was done with the eighteen samples which were analyzed through EDS and which had their buccal surface grinded and polished before the bleaching procedure in order to obtain more precise values of the fraction of calcium and phosphorus. The results showed no morphological changes among the analyzed control halves and the bleached halves. There was not a statistical significant difference about Ca and P values, among the control halves and the bleached halves regarding the chemical components (p< 0,05). (author)

  10. Marginal microleakage evaluation in class V composite restorations of deciduous teeth prepared conventionally and using Er:YAG laser; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao marginal em cavidades classe V de dentes deciduos preparados com laser Er:YAG e alta rotacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulga, Neusa Vieira Galvao

    2001-07-01

    The evaluation of marginal microleakage in class V restorations of deciduous teeth prepared using Er:laser and comparison to the ones observed when conventionally prepared, using two photopolimerizable materials, composite resin and glass ionomer cement, was the subject of this study. Twenty eight complete deciduous teeth were divided into four groups Group 1 (G1) prepared with high speed drill + composite resin; Group 2 (G2) prepared with high speed drill + glass ionomer cement; Group 3 (G3) prepared using Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m), 300 mJ, 3 Hz, handpiece 2051, energy density 86 mJ/cm{sup 2} + composite resin; Group 4 (G4) prepared using Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m), 300 mJ, 3 Hz, handpiece 2051, energy density 86 J / cm{sup 2} + glass ionomer cement. After the preparation and restoration the specimens where stored at 37 deg C for 24 hours, thermally stressed, immersed in 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours while kept in the dark. The specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in photodeveloping solution and exposed to fluorescent light for 6 hours. After this process the samples were sectioned and observed by stereomicroscopy. For comparison the groups were divided into occlusive and cervical microleakage. The results were analysed under the Kruskal-Wallis test. For the occlusive microleakage the statistical significance was 5% among the groups and the average comparison showed higher microleakage for G1 (M=35.1) than for G2 (M=24.0) as well as compared to G3 (M=22.3). The other groups did not present statistical differences among them. For the cervical microleakage the Kruskal-Wallis test did not present any statistical difference. Comparing the occlusive and cervical microleakage data, for every group, using the Wilcoxon test, no statistical differences were observed. Concluding, this study showed the Er:YAG laser to be effective for class V restorations and to result in a smaller microleakage degree using the composite resin. These results indicate the viability of the Er:YAG laser for conservative restorations of deciduous teeth. (author)

  11. Study of crotoxin mechanism of action to mammary carcinomas and evaluation of its potential as a radiopharmaceutical; Estudo do mecanismo de acao da crotoxina em tumores mamarios e avaliacao do seu potenctial radiofarmaceutico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina Bicalho

    2010-07-01

    Crotoxin, the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, has been studied since 1938. It is a natural polypeptidic complex with pharmacological potential because of its antitumoral properties which has attracted great interest for diagnosis and therapy of oncological diseases. However, Crotoxin mechanism of action and sites of specific interaction on tumor cells are still misunderstood. Breast cancer is the second most frequent type in the world and the most common cancer in women. About 30 to 60% of mammary tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein related to cell proliferation. Since literature has reported that Crotoxin antitumoral effect is more potent on cells with EGFR overexpression the objectives of this work were to evaluate Crotoxin cytotoxic effects on mammary tumor cells human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and Ehrlich tumor cells (murine ascitics carcinoma), and to investigate the specific molecular interaction of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells. Initially, Crotoxin was radiolabelled with iodine-125 ({sup 125}I-Crotoxin) and iodine-131 ({sup 131}I-Crotoxin). Saturation and competition assay were carried out to characterize Crotoxin in vitro interaction; Crotoxin biodistribution studies and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor have been evaluated to describe in vivo interaction. Our results showed that Crotoxin presented cytotoxic effect against Ehrlich with DL{sub 50} in vitro (concentration of compound which is lethal for 50% of cells) of about one micromolar, but did not present significant effect against MCF-7. Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis suggests programmed cell death. {sup 125}I-Crotoxin interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells was saturable with approximately 70% specificity, and presented K{sub d}=24.98 nmol/L and B{sub max}=16,570 sites/cell for low affinity binding sites and K{sub d}=0.06 nmol/L and B{sub max}=210 sites/cell high affinity binding sites; moreover, the radiolabeled polypeptide interaction showed low specificity toward to MCF-7 (37%). EGF reduced 20% of {sup 125}I-Crotoxin specific binding, so specific binding sites of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells partially overlap to EGFR. Crotoxin biodistribution studies showed significant uptake in the tumor paw (tumor/skeletal muscle ratio= 18.55), three hours after administration. SPECT imaging also showed tumor uptake confirming in vivo interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells. Crotoxin had an antitumoral effect on Ehrlich tumor cells and this action is due, at least partially, to the specific interaction with low and high affinity binding sites. Low affinity binding sites correlate EGFR and high affinity binding sites still need identification. These results confirm Crotoxin as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis and as a tool for cancer studies, increasing its biotechnological potential. (author)

  12. Building and cities. Study of energetical demand in Lisbon; Os edificios e a Cidade estudio de avaliacao das necessidades energeticas dos edificios no espaco urbano, o caso da cidades de lisboa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, H. P.; Panao, M. O.; Camelo, S. L.; Graca, J. M.; Ramalho, A. F.; Aguilar, R.

    2004-07-01

    The evaluation of the building thermal performance in an urban environment was undertaken in Lisbon city (Portugal) within the frame of ACLURE Project (Built Environment, Urban Climate and Rational Use of Energy) (Goncalves et al, 2004). In order to reveal the main parameters that affect the building thermal behavior, an experimental survey of the dwellings and the urban climate was performed and modeling facilities were also used. While the experimental results allow to infer how the dwellings interact with the urban climate, the modeling analysis estimate the average annual energy demands for different geographical and morphological conditions, namely by the canyon height- to-with ratio (H/W). (Author)

  13. Root planing with Er:YAG laser X Gracey curette, a study in vitro in scanning electron microscopic study; Avaliacao em microscopia eletronica de varredura da superficie radicular, raspada e alisada com Er: YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Fabiano Augusto Sfier de

    2000-07-01

    The Er:YAG laser has been studied as a periodontal therapies, used to remove subgingival calculus and its bactericidal effects. The proposal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser in root planing in comparison to the traditional method, not surgical. Six recently extracted due to the disease periodontal, were cut longitudinally, tends like this two half of the root. These half were separate in four groups. The first group is the natural tooth (group controls negative), the second group (group controls) was accomplished to root planing with Gracey curette. And in the third to Er:YAG laser with a contact tip, using a 45 deg angle in relation to the root; in the fourth group was scraped and planned with Er:YAG laser and complemented root planing with Gracey curette. The used energy was of 100 mJ (out put) and the frequency of 10 Hz accomplished with irrigation. The obtained results were similar in the groups 2 and 3 in comparison to the amount of smear-layer. In group 4 however, better result was obtained, because the image (SEM) was much more regular and with less amount of smear-layer. The conclusion of the work is that with the association of the laser technique and Gracey curette the results are superior to the conventional treatment. (author)

  14. Impregnation of 12-tungstophosphoric acid on silica - part I: determination of impregnation parameters, characterization and evaluation of catalytic activity; Impregnacao do acido 12-fosfotungstico em silica - parte I: determinacao de parametros de impregnacao, caracterizacao e avaliacao da atividade catalitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scroccaro, Karine Isabel; Tanobe, Valcineide Oliveira de Andrade; Cocco, Lilian Cristina; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo, E-mail: karineisabel@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Wypych, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Catalyst based on Kegging-type heteropolyacids (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} - HPA), supported on SiO{sub 2} (H{sub 3}PW), were prepared by the impregnation method under different thermal treatment conditions. The materials were characterized by different instrumental techniques and used as catalysts in the methyl esterification reactions of stearic acid. Using the catalyst with 15% of HPA, conversions higher than 60% were obtained after 2 h of reaction at 65 deg C. Recovery studies using hot-filtration with ethanol at 75 deg C showed satisfactory activity for two additional reaction cycles. (author)

  15. An evaluation of the participation of the social movements on the decision making process and planning of the electric sector; Uma avaliacao da participacao dos movimentos sociais no planejamento e no processo decisorio do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral Hernandez, Francisco del; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: delmoral@hotmail.com; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents some reflexions on the possibility of a public sphere in the decision making process in the energetic sector. By using the conceptual mark of Juergen HABERMAS, some reflexions on the political participation specificities at Latin America, mainly those ones suggested by AVRITZER (2002) and the theoretical reflexions of HONNETH (2003) recognition fight and construction in the social movements, the work tries the verification of how far the requirements of social organizations identified in this work are from a desirable situation, or else a more effective participation of the social movements on the decisions and planning spaces and the deliberative character of the public discussion space in the area of energy.

  16. Gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) effects on active substances and microbe burden of medicinal plants; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama (Co{sup 60}) sobre principios ativos e carga microbiana de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Agnol, L. [Herbarium Laboratorio Botanico Ltda, Colombo, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Garantia da Qualidade

    2001-04-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of radioactivity on active vegetal substances, samples of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller., fructus), Guarana (Paulinia cupana, Kunth, semen), Gingko (gingko biloba, L., folium), and Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum G. Forst, rhizoma), were treated with scaling doses (0 to 25 KGy) of gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}). The 'blind test' methodology was used. The active substances from each sample were analysed by qualitative and quantitative methods after radiation. There were no significant differences seen between the control sample (0 KGy) and the irradiated samples. Microbe contamination was significantly reduced, about 10000 CFU/g, with the initial 5 KGy dose. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce microbiologic contamination in medicinal plants. Before this procedure can be extended to other medicinal plants, more specific analytical methods are recommended to verify possible structural alterations in active vegetal molecules. (author)

  17. Image quality and volume computed tomography air kerma index (C{sub vol}) evaluation in Recife; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem e do indice volumetrico de Kerma ar em tomografia computadorizada (C{sub vol}) em Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida

    2008-07-01

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is an important diagnostic imaging method, widely used. However, in spite of all the advantages and technologic advances within the CT scanners, the tomographic procedures result in high absorbed doses to patients. The main objective of this work was to perform a dosimetric study of CT scanners located at Recife and to evaluate the image quality on CT examinations in these equipment. The volume CT air kerma index (C{sub VOL}) and air kerma length product (P{sub KL,CT}) were estimated. These values were calculated using normalized weighted air kerma indexes in CT standard dosimetry phantoms ({sub n}C{sub W}), supplied by ImPACT group for several CT scanners, and the scan parameters of routine head, routine chest and hi-resolution chest CT exams performed at 20 institutions. The irradiation parameters of 15 adult patients for each CT procedure were registered at six participating centres, at which the phantom from the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation protocol was used for the image quality measurements. For routine head exams, the C{sub VOL} values varied between 12 and 58 mGy (at the posterior fossa) and 15 to 58 mGy (at the cerebrum) and the P{sub KL,CT}, from 150 to 750 mGy{center_dot}cm. The C{sub VOL} values for routine chest procedures varied from 3 to 26 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT}, between 120 and 460 mGy{center_dot}cm. In relation to Hi-resolution chest exams, C{sub VOL} values were from 1.0 to 2.7 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT} values varied between 24 and 67 mGy{center_dot}cm. The image quality evaluations results showed that almost all scanners presented at least one inadequacy. One of the equipment presented faults at 70% of the tests. With regard to the image noise, only two scanners presented acceptable results. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the volume CT air kerma index values are lower than the European reference levels. However, the image quality of these CT scanners does not attend the ACR requirements, suggesting the need to implement quality assurance programs at the evaluated institutions. (author)

  18. Acai oil development and evaluation of immobilization and release in poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) hydrogels; Desenvolvimento e avaliacao da incorporacao e liberacao de oleo de acai em hidrogeis de poli(N-vinil-2-pirrolidona)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ana Carolina Henriques Ribeiro

    2010-07-01

    Acai (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. The benefits of the hydrogels are known as dressings. The purpose of this study was to develop devices for controlled release of acai oil on poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogels. The behavior of the acai oil front to the radiation was evaluated by the composition of fatty acids of the oil before and after irradiation. Two different matrices of PVP hydrogel were evaluated physically and chemically through assays of swelling, gel fraction, mechanical proprieties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Both matrices were considered adjusted to be used as an active release system. The devices were obtained by acai oil immobilization in PVP hydrogel matrices, were also characterized through assays of sweeling, gel fraction, mechanical proprieties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Moreover, they were characterized by assays of scanning electron microscopy and in vivo primary cutaneous irritation. Both devices were submitted to assay of active release kinetics, and the acai oil was quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The devices showed to be satisfactory to compose a release system of actives. (author)

  19. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results; Avaliacao da presenca de NORM no tratamento de agua do municipio de Pocos de Caldas: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Adriano Mota; Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: adrianomotaferreira@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  20. Determination of absorbed dose in water: evaluation of dosimetric factors calibration sets used in radiotherapy; Determinacao da dose absorvida na agua: avaliacao dos fatores de calibracao de conjuntos dosimetricos de uso em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Fontana, Julia M.; Santos, Vitor H.P.; Nunes, Isabella P.F.; Okawabata, Francine S., E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencia

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a methodology for measuring the dose rate (cGy/min) in a telecobaltotherapy beam, looking emphasize the need for calibration of dosimetric set used and the importance of conducting periodic clinical megavoltage dosimetry of these beams. Two dosimetric set with their respective calibration factors were used. The correction parameters indicated in dosimetry protocols were determined by ionization chambers used. The difference between the value of the dose rate used in the calculation of the service routine and the values obtained in this work with both dosimetric sets proved to be less than 1.5%, and therefore satisfies the maximum recommended tolerance on quality control protocols for this type of therapeutic beam. (author)

  1. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Marcacao de Corynebacterium diphtheriae com Tecnecio-99m e avaliacao da capacidade de ligacao a fibronectina de plasma humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2004-04-15

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of {sup 99m}Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by {sup 99m}Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl{sub 2} bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl{sub 2} > 110 {mu}g/ml. Adherence levels of {sup 99m}Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 {mu}g/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% {+-} 1.2). Therefore, bacterial {sup 99m}Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  2. Apical microinfiltration evaluation of radicular channels irradiated with Er:YAG laser in vitro; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao apical de condutos radiculares irradiados in vitro com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrao, Catia Cilene Nass

    2003-07-01

    It was evaluated, in vitro, the adaptation of the filling material (Sealer 2S{sup R}) to the root channels dentine walls treated using the endodontic technique and prepared with the Er:YAG laser, by the technique of infiltration of methylene blue dye. Using scanning electronic microscopy, the morphologic alteration of the root channel dentine was observed for one sample per studied group. Also, an evaluation of the temperature increase in the external surface of the root during the irradiations was performed for two samples per group. For each group of samples, with eleven roots each, two sub-groups had been considered: the dry, irradiated after completely dry with absorbent cones of paper, and the humid, where a cone of absorbent paper was applied for two seconds in the root canal, leaving them lightly humidified. Considering the used energies for the irradiations, the groups are: G1, control (without irradiation), G2-dry (100 mJ-10 Hz), G2-humid (100 mJ-10 Hz), G3-dry (140 mJ-6 Hz), G3-humid (140 mJ-6 Hz), G4-dry (180 mJ-6 Hz), and G4-humid (180 mJ-6 Hz). The results had shown that apical microinfiltration did not exhibit significant difference among groups. The highest increase in temperature was observed for the dry groups, with the maximum variation of temperature of 6.5 deg C. Under the scanning electronic microscopy analysis, the humid groups had presented cleaner surfaces than the dry groups. The G4-humid group presented extensive regions of fusion and resolidification of the dentine. (author)

  3. Marginal microleakage in vitro study of occlusal fissures sealing prepared and etched or not with Er: YAG laser; Avaliacao in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em selamentos oclusais preparados e condicionados ou nao pelo laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Fernanda de Almeida

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of marginal microleakage in occlusal sealing by invasive techniques, after preparation with Er:YAG laser followed or not by Er:YAG laser etching and compared to the conventional technique. Thirty human premolars were divided into three groups: A (control group) - cavities were prepared with high speed and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group B - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J /cm{sup 2}) and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group C - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG laser (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J/cm{sup 2}), and etched with Er:YAG laser (80 mJ, 4 Hz and 25 m/cm{sup 2}). All cavities were treated with the same adhesive system and restored with flow composite according to manufacturer instructions. Teeth were submitted to thermal cycling procedures and immersed in 50% Silver Nitrate Solutions for 8 hours in total darkness. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally in the bucco-lingual direction, in slices of 1 mm thick. Each slice was immersed into photo developing solution under 16 hours of fluorescent light. Slices were photographed and microleakage was scored from 0 to 7 J by three standard examiners. Results showed statistically significant differences for group C (Er:YAG laser preparation and etching). We concluded that Er:YAG laser can be used for cavity preparation of occlusal sealing, like the conventional high speed method. However, this laser, used as enamel etching agent, could not promote an adequate surface for adhesive procedures. (author)

  4. Evaluation of demand for water and electricity for papaya micro sprinkler irrigation system in Paraiba state, Brazil; Avaliacao das demandas de agua e energia eletrica para mamao irrigado por microaspersao no estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Riuzuani Michelle Bezerra Pedrosa; Dantas Neto, Jose; Farias, Soahd Arruda Rached Farias; Azevedo, Carlos Alberto Vieira de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais. Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: riuzuani@yahoo.com.br, zedantas@deag.ufcg.edu.br, soahd_rached@hotmail.com, cazevedo@deag.ufcg.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an assessment on the demands for water and electricity for fruit irrigated by micro sprinkler irrigation in agricultural planning. We obtained the demands of gross water and electricity for papaya in 15 municipalities spread over the Rio Paraiba-PB, which was used by micro irrigation system with 90% application efficiency. The city of Joao Pessoa is the place to lower water consumption, requiring 32.9% of the amount required for papaya in Exile, which had the highest annual and daily evapotranspiration, combined with the lowest annual rainfall likely at a 75 % probability. The municipalities were chosen because they had a greater variance in terms of climate, in order to examine various irrigation demands. In Exile is a necessary volume of water-to 8.006,9 m{sup 3}.ha{sup -1}.year{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya while in Joao Pessoa need to 2.712,89 m{sup 3}.ha-1.year{sup -1}. The consumption of electricity in the city of Desterro is higher among the cities studied, necessitating 2.009,0 kW.ha{sup -1}.ano{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya, while in Joao Pessoa we only need 876,54 kW.ha {sup -1}.ano{sup -1} (author)

  5. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimally processed; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimamente processado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio

    2011-07-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to rethink their eating habits, consuming fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, therefore, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has high nutritional value, being rich in C vitamin especially, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Thus, along with papaya, passion fruit and pineapple, kiwi can be considered as an additional feature of C vitamin in the diet, or as a substitute for traditional citrus. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of gamma radiation on physical and chemical characteristics of kiwis minimally processed and stored under refrigeration, since this technology increases the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. The Kiwis was stripped, processed and cut into slices, stored in polyethylene bags of 10 cm squared and irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 1 and 2 kGy. A source of {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220, dose rate of 0.429 kGy/hour, in which each treatment had 5 replicates with 15 slices of kiwifruit per replicate. After irradiation the samples were stored in a climatic chamber at 6 degree C (near the temperature of commercial refrigerators). The following criteria were physical chemical analysis: pH, color, chlorophyll content, loss of weight, moisture, acidity and Brix. The analysis were done on 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 14{sup th} days after irradiation. The results indicated that gamma radiation did not induce deleterious changes in the physicochemical properties of the kiwi may be used for preservation of minimally processed kiwifruit. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the energy dependence of ionization chambers pencil type calibrated beam tomography standards; Avaliacao da dependencia energetica de camaras de ionizacao do tipo lapis calibradas em feixes padroes de tomografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira; Potiens, Maria da Penha A., E-mail: lpfontes@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory of IPEN (LCI - IPEN) performs calibrations of pencil-type ionization chambers (IC) used in measures of dosimetric survey on clinical systems of Computed Tomography (CT). Many users make mistakes when using a calibrated ionization chamber in their CT dosimetry systems. In this work a methodology for determination of factors of correction for quality (Kq) through the calibration curve that is specific for each ionization chamber was established. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate the energy dependence on an pencil-type Ionization Chamber(IC) calibrated at the LCI - IPEN. (author)

  7. {sup 222} Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR); Avaliacao da exposicao ao {sup 222} Rn nas cavernas do Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The {sup 222}Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6607 Bq.m{sup -3} and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a{sup -1}. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a{sup -1} suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  8. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of halogenated furans and analogue compounds to nostoclides; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimicrobiana de furanonas halogenadas e de compostos analogos aos nostoclideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Maltha, Celia R.A.; Demuner, Antonio J.; Pinheiro, Patricia F.; Varejao, Jodieh O.S.; Montanari, Ricardo M., E-mail: lcab@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Andrade, Nelio J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos

    2010-07-01

    Considering the broad spectrum of biological activity of gamma-butyrolactone derivatives, we presented the synthesis of 3,4-dihalo-5-arylidenefuran-2(5H)-ones (17-21) and analogues (24-28) of the natural product nostoclide (7,8). Furanones 17-21 were synthesized from the condensation of aromatic aldehydes with lactones 14 and 15, that were obtained from mucobromic and mucochloric acids. Lactone 15 was converted into the intermediate 23 in 36% overall yield. Compound 23 was then transformed into the nostoclide analogues 24-28. Some of the compounds prepared showed antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus comparable to commercial antibiotics. (author)

  10. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars; Avaliacao da lama vermelha como material pozolanico em substituicao ao cimento para producao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C., E-mail: elizmanfroi@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: malik@valores.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  11. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength observed in the composites specimens. Besides that, this reduction did not affect negatively mechanical properties of blends compared to the composites. Ionizing radiation neither promoted detectable interaction between polymeric matrix and fibers. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that lixiviation products from homopolymers, blend and composites did not release sufficient amount of substances to induce significant cellular death. Thermal processing used to obtain composites and previous acetylation by chemical treatment contributed to the bioburden reduce. Furthermore, reducing initial bioburden it was possible to diminish radiation doses needed to perform sterilization. Enzymatic and soil degradation were not negatively affected by radiation processing. Even though fiber incorporation to the polymer blend slightly reduced degradation process, composites continued degrading through time. Artifacts produced by means of the materials studied here can be radiation processed with doses up to 100 kGy without prejudice of their biodegradability. (author)

  12. Evaluation of radioiodine therapy with fixed doses of 10 and 15 mCi in patients with Graves disease; Avaliacao da radioiodoterapia com doses fixas de 10 e 15 mCi em pacientes com doenca de Graves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadas, Viviane; Vilar, Lucio; Moura, Eliane; Brito, Ana; Castellar, Enio [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: vivi2207@ig.com.br

    2007-10-15

    The treatment options for the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease are antithyroid drugs, surgery and radioiodine, none of which is considered ideal, as they do not act directly on the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Radioiodine has been increasingly used as the treatment of choice because it is a safe and definitive therapy whose administration is very easy. Some authors prefer to administer higher doses in order to deliberately induce hypothyroidism, while others recommend lower doses that result in a lower incidence of hypothyroidism and a greater incidence of euthyroidism. There is no consensus for the optimal regimen of fixed doses to be used and this is the main focus of the present study, where doses of 10 and 15 mCi of {sup 131}I were compared. Among the 164 patients analyzed, 61 (37.2%) were submitted to 10 mCi and 103 (62.8%) to 15 mCi. In the longitudinal analysis it was observed that remission of the hyperthyroidism was statistically different in the sixth month (p < 0.001), being higher in the group that used the dose of 15 mCi, but similar in both groups at 12 and 24 months. It may be concluded that the administration of fixed doses of 10 and 15 mCi of {sup 131}I brought about a similar remission of the hyperthyroidism after 12 months of treatment. Moreover, the remission rate of the hyperthyroidism had no association with age, sex or previous therapy with antithyroid drugs. (author)

  13. Evaluation in vitro of pulpal chamber temperature of deciduous teeth during Er:YAG laser application; Avaliacao in vitro da temperatura na camara pulpar de dentes deciduos durante aplicacao do laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sznajder, Alexandre Joseph

    2001-07-01

    The Er:YAG laser technology has been thoroughly studied, since its invention, and has been increasingly recommended in Dentistry. However, its use in deciduous teeth has not been deserving the equivalent attention to its counterpart in permanent teeth, despite of the deciduous teething occur in a phase of life in which it has a far more importance than its substitutes. For that reason, this study aims to identify the suitable parameters to the clinic procedures in deciduous teeth, using the already established protocols in permanent teeth. The study was lead in a way to resemble the most the conditions of the clinical use of the laser. Five groups were analyzed using different energy densities and repetition rates. Each group was composed of 10 first superior right deciduous molars randomly selected. The energy densities and repetition rates used for each group were: 60 mJ 15 Hz, 250 mJ 2 Hz, 250 mJ 15 Hz, 400 mJ 6 Hz and 500 mJ 2 Hz. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the use of the Er:YAG laser in Odontopediatrics is effective, safe and secure and the main reason for its recommendation is the low transfer of heat to the adjacent tissues of the applied surfaces. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the potential of additives as corrosion inhibitors of CA-50 carbon steel used as reinforcement in concretes; Avaliacao da potencialidade de aditivos como inibidores de corrosao do aco carbono CA-50 usado como armadura de estruturas de concreto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennucci, Marina Martins

    2006-07-01

    In this work, various compounds were tested to evaluate their potential capability for their use as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel reinforcement in concretes. The additives tested were sodium benzoate, polyethylene glycol, hexamethylenetetramine, benzotriazole and yttrium carbonate. Initially, exploratory tests were carried out to select the ones to be used as corrosion inhibitors, based on the inhibit ion efficiency determined from electrochemical tests, specifically polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These tests were carried out in a solution composed of 0.01 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 0.05 N potassium hydroxide (KOH) to simulate the composition of the solution inside the pores in concretes. The additive that presented the most promising potential to be used as corrosion inhibitor was benzotriazole (BTA). After the elimination of some compounds and selection of the additive with higher corrosion inhibit ion efficiency in the test medium, the effect of its concentration on the corrosion inhibition efficiency was evaluated. Sodium nitrite solutions with the same concentrations as those solutions with BTA were tested for comparison reasons. Sodium nitrite is a well established corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel reinforcement in concretes but it has been related to toxic effects. The BTA was associated to higher corrosion inhibition efficiencies than that of sodium nitrite in similar concentrations. A blackish adherent film was formed on the steel surface exposed to BTA solutions during long periods of immersion in the alkaline medium. The results suggest that BTA is a potential candidate for substitution of nitrites as corrosion inhibitor of reinforcements in concrete. (author)

  15. Delphi technique applied to risk identification and assessment on pipe supports fabrication and erection contracts; Aplicacao da tecnica Delphi para identificacao e avaliacao de riscos na contratacao e montagem de suportes de tubulacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Rodrigo Luiz Neves; Balbi, Diego Junca de Gonzaga [Promon Engenharia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Through the years, Risk Management became an accepted subject in Brazilian Organizations, with its own language, techniques and tools; and its processes are being more and more often introduced in its management models. However, risk identification, assessment and management is a difficult task, and can be even more difficult for construction industry-related projects, for these ventures tend to be more dynamic and complex. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to present the application of Delphi technique for risk identification in the erection of piping support. To achieve the desired objective, a literature review of theory references was conducted to understand concepts involved. To apply the technique itself, experts in plant erection were involving. (author)

  16. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation rate was determined by the passive detection technique with the Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (CR-39) and the sealed can technique, assuming a ventilation rate of 0.5 h{sup -1} and an annual exposure time of 7000 h. The results for this studies show that the annual effective dose ranged from (62 {+-} 3) {mu}Sv.y{sup 1} to (138 {+-} 1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and the internal annual effective dose ranged from (0,39 {+-} 0,04) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} to (70 {+-} 4) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. These values are below the maximum limit of 1 mSv.y{sup -1} suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection, meaning that the granitic rocks evaluated can be used without radiological implications since the considered scenario is obeyed. The values obtained for the contribution due to the internal dose ranged from 1 % to 78 % of the values obtained for the respective external dose showing the radon contribution varies strongly with the rock type. The results of the correlations between {sup 222}Rn superficial exhalation rate, {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, density, porosity and major oxides of the samples, showed that, in terms of influence in the emanation fraction of radon, the most important parameter is the density, due to low porosity and similarity in terms of chemical composition amid the studied samples. (author)

  17. Preparation of modified clay with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium chloride and evaluation of their interactions with PVC;Preparacao de argilas modificadas com cloreto de benzetonio ou cetilpiridineo e avaliacao da interacao destas com o PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Daniel K.; Dornelas, Camila B.; Moreira, Leonardo A.; Gomes, Ailton S.; Tavares, Maria I.B., E-mail: dkresende@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano; Cabral, Lucio M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Industrial Farmaceutica; Simeoni, Luiz A. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Farmacologia Molecular

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was the preparation of modified clays with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium to obtain organophilic silicates with good stability and evaluate the possible use of them for the preparation of nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The reactions of modification of clays and the PVC were prepared by solution intercalation. The new clays were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The reactions of clays with PVC were assessed by Low-field NMR, through the determination of proton spin lattice relaxation time. The stability of new organophilic clays and their reactions with PVC were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). High stability was observed for organophilic clays prepared. The degradation of PVC materials obtained with the organophilic clay began at temperatures above 200 deg C. If it is considered that the temperatures normally used in the processing of PVC are between 140 deg C to 180 deg C, the observed results may indicate the possibility of the use of clays for preparation of nanomaterials with PVC. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the modified nanoclay effect on the vulcanization of SBR through rheometric curve and DSC;Avaliacao do efeito de nanoargila modificada na vulcanizacao de SBR atraves da curva reometrica e DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, Maria Madalena C.; Brito, Karin J.S., E-mail: mmcforte@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Gheller Junior, Jordao [SENAI, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico de Polimeros

    2009-07-01

    Rubber nanocomposites with nanoclays organically modified by quaternary ammonium salts may have the curing features modified significantly, since the salts may act on the rubber cure system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influences of an organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) on the curing reaction of an SBR (styrene butadiene rubber) with sulfur. The SBR/OMMT nanocomposites were prepared by co-coagulating SBR latex and Cloisite{sup R} 20A aqueous suspension at different nanoclay concentrations. The OMMT effect on the sulfur curing reaction was evaluated by the rheometric curve using a rheometer type RPA (Rubber Process Analyzer) and the heat of vulcanization (DELTAH{sub v}) using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The evaluation of the clay nanolayers dispersion in the SBR matrix was accomplished by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors; Avaliacao da homogeneidade das fontes planas de referencia utilizadas na calibracao de monitores de contaminacao de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: iremarjr@ipen.br, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.br, E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm{sup 2} of {sup 241}Am, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y and {sup 99}Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm{sup 2} of {sup 14}C, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm{sup 2}) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm{sup 2} in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of {sup 241}Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of {sup 241}Am (5.7%), {sup 137}Cs (8.8%), {sup 90}Sr+{sup 9}'0Y (8, 8%) and {sup 99}Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of {sup 14}C (53.3%) and {sup 36}Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm{sup 2}, show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources {sup 14}C (46.7%) and {sup 60}Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions to believe a laboratory according to ISO 17025, show the laboratory performs its services with a high quality. The continuation of this study, as part of the characterization of the sources used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, will be performed using a computational model. (author)

  20. Resistance evaluation of distillation tower welded metal plate linings to corrosion caused by heavy crude oil; Avaliacao da resistencia a corrosao causada por petroleo pesado em chapas soldadas utilizadas em 'linings' de torres de destilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleiton Carvalho; Farias, Jesualdo Pereira [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais], e-mail: cleitonufc@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: jpf@secrel.com.br; Sant' Ana, Hosilberto Batista de [' Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: hbs@ufc.br

    2008-04-15

    This study evaluated the microstructures and the resistance of AISI 316L, 410S and 444 stainless steel welded joints to heavy crude oil corrosion, using the AWS E309MoL-16 electrode. The above mentioned stainless steel plates were welded applying three energy levels (6; 9 and 12kJ/cm). Experimental sample forms were obtained from the welded plates, which were thermally treated at 200 and 300 deg C and immersed (annealed) in heavy crude oil. The techniques of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were employed to make the microstructure evaluation, in addition to the surface characterization and the corrosion product identification. It was concluded that the welding thermal cycle is sufficient to cause metallurgic alterations in the region of the heat-affected zone (HAZ), making the region more susceptible to corrosion. It was also observed that the rate of corrosion varied according to the welding parameters applied. (author)

  1. Development of a model for strategic evaluation of the global performance of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Desenvolvimento de um modelo para avaliacao estrategica do desempenho global da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2003-07-01

    A conscious, effective course of action, now essential to several areas and organizations, has become a must in the public administration. In this sense, modem managerial practices may contribute significantly for governmental organism to take up an attitude shifted to results in the society, without losing its eminently public function. In order to measure the social impact of the activities of the State as a whole, institutions must use mechanisms that allow self-evaluations of their performance, so as to verify the return obtained as a result of their efforts. However, most institutions do not have structured tools for such evaluation. The present study proposes to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear a model to measure its global performance, offering a proposed architecture for the measurement system in accordance with the results of the planning process of the Institution. The methodology presented also comprises the definition of cause-and-effect critical models between the strategic objectives of the organization and its respective factors critic ai for success, as well as related performance indicators. This work also includes the breakdown of the measurement system for the macro processes of the organization, optimizing resource sharing and the flow of information, avoiding redundant efforts and bringing forth further advantages aiming at creating a organizational 'unit'. Within this context, the developed model may offer substantial help for the improvement of the maturity of the organization in goal-oriented management, considering that the proposed global performance measurement follows a planned structure, with a systemic approach of the organization, allowing that the process be carried out in a way that is transparent and objective. (author)

  2. High-resolution computed tomography versus chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis; Avaliacao da tomografia de alta resolucao versus radiografia de torax na doenca intersticial pulmonar na esclerose sistemica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Ana Beatriz Cordeiro de; Calderaro, Debora; Moreira, Caio [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Reumatologia; Guimaraes, Silvana Mangeon Meirelles [Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Secao de Tomografia Computadorizada; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Leao Filho, Hilton Muniz; Andrade, Diego Correa de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: wilsontavaresjrmd@yahho.fr; Ferreira, Cid Sergio; Vieira, Jose Nelson Mendes [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    2005-04-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Materials And Methods: HRCT scans and chest radiographs in postero-anterior and lateral views were performed in 34 patients with systemic sclerosis, according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for the diagnosis of SSc. The prevalence of radiological findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease in SSc seen on both imaging methods was compared. Results: Interstitial disease was observed on HRCT images of 31 patients (91%) and in the chest radiographs of 16 patients (47%). The most frequent findings observed on HRCT were septal lines (74%), honeycombing (56%) and parenchymal bands (26%). Chest radiographs showed reticular areas of attenuation in 11 patients (32%) and parenchymal distortion in 12% of the patients. In 18 patients (53%) with normal chest radiographs HRCT showed septal lines in 55%, ground glass in 44%, honeycombing in 38.5% and cysts in 33%. Conclusion: HRCT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the evaluation of incipient interstitial lung involvement in patients with SSc and can provide a justification for immunosuppressive therapy in patients with early disease. (author)

  3. Strategic environmental assessment of Brazil's ethanol expansion: a methodological proposal and its preliminary application; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica da expansao de etanol no Brasil: uma proposta metodologica e sua aplicacao preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberling, Daniel Fontana

    2008-03-15

    The main objective of this dissertation is to adapt the methodology of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to the case of ethanol fuel production in Brazil. The results are be utilized in decision-making processes as well as in the discussion on future tendencies of risks and opportunities regarding the development of ethanol as the principal renewable liquid fuel. Taking into account the international experiences of countries with a tradition in sectoral planning, SEA is found to be the instrument in public environmental management that can most adequately consider the environmental variable - beginning already at the planning stage of the ethanol industry, a necessity that has strongly unfolded itself following the deregulation of the sector in Brazil. The conflicts that may emerge from large ethanol production surpluses for export are also identified through the application of specifically designed indicators. (author)

  4. Metabolic activity assessment (H{sub 2} S production) of mixed cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB); Avaliacao da atividade metabolica (Producao de H{sub 2} S) de culturas mistas de bacterias redutoras de sulfato (BRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Monica de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel, Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais]. E-mail: mpena@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Oliveira, Herval Barreto de; Silva, Edson Domingos da [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2003-12-01

    The occurrence of and intense H{sub 2}S production in oil reservoirs (biogenic souring) has become one of the biggest problems in the oil industry, because seawater has been increasingly used as a means of oil secondary recovery. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possible effects of the seawater injection process on the metabolic activity of the SRB from the Marlim reservoir. The Marlim Field is one of the largest PETROBRAS fields in volume of reserves and the occurrence of intense production in this field would bring about many problems. The metabolic activity (H{sub 2}S production) of the four different cultures of SRB obtained from the Marlim Field samples were assessed for different salinity contents, sulfate and at three different incubation temperatures (35, 55 and 70 deg C).This study obtained the H{sub 2}S production curves with their time evolution and the maximum conversion rates of the sulfate ion under these conditions. A comparison was made between the maximum conversion rates at the three temperatures with the purpose of assessing the inhibitory influence of temperature over the metabolic activity of the cultures. We concluded with this study that the water flood shall always stimulate the activities of the bacteria from the Marlim Field reservoir and those found in the injection water. (author)

  5. Geological, geotechnical and environmental evaluation of influence area of the oil production in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao geologico-geotecnica e ambiental da zona de influencia do duto petrolifero no municipio de Mangaratiba (RJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Andre Ferreira; Polivanov, Helena [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Silva, Jorge Xavier da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geografia; Oliveira, Wilson J. de [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is applicable for a specials and strategies areas that must be permanently controlled called pipelines and their proximities. Those areas are liable to be under the influence of different situations like potential environmental risks - eg. conflagrations, floods, soil erosion, slumps and also accidental risks like located spills. Besides those negatives environmental situations, the pipelines also cross different regions that has an important natural resource like forests, watersheds, urban, industrial and agricultural areas. For main regulator of this work the pipeline was developed a series of maps that can be used single or overlayed with another maps. Those maps can be useful for Mangaratiba city urban management and demonstrate possible environmental risks that can occur on pipelines proximities of this city. (author)

  6. Development of methodology for evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I incorporated activities during lactation; Desenvolvimento de metodologia para avaliacao da atividade de {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 131}I em lactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Dantas, A.L.A.; Mesquita, S.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Oliveira, S.M.V., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2012-07-01

    Internal contamination of babies may occur for milk ingestion or inhalation of mothers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation with possible incorporation or mothers submitted to medical exposures during lactation. Radionuclide concentrations in the mother's milk may cause organ absorbed doses in the babies proportionally to the breast volumes. Milk analysis allow to determine activities ingested by the babies by determining the peak of mother's milk considering the decrease of the activity rate and the milk activities drunk at different time intervals. The work had the aim to develop simulators and methodology to evaluate {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I in lactation, in the following steps: to prepare standard solution of contaminated milk separately with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I; to build four breast simulators (600 g and 800 g) and respective calibration for two geometries (breast and whole-body) in the Whole-Body Counter Unit in Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The results demonstrated the system efficiency to determine {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I activities in breasts during the lactation period. The methodology for positioning in the 'breast geometry' seemed to be more efficient than the 'whole-body geometry' for different breast volumes. The experiment allows achieving better evaluation of internal dosimetry of mothers and their young children. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the price volatility of short-term in Brazil and its relation with the thermal generation; Avaliacao da volatilidade do preco de curto prazo no Brasil e sua relacao com a geracao termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideier, R.B.; Prado, F.A.A.; Saidel, M.A.; Ueocka, M.Z. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], E-mails: fernando@sinerconsult.com.br, saidel@pea.usp.br, marcos.ueocka@poli.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This article evaluate the intensity of volatility of the electric power prices in the short term market in selected countries. It were analyzed historical series of monthly prices of major energy markets worldwide, with assessment of the energy matrix of each region. The study, by analysis of data entry program for optimizing the operation of the SIN (NEWAVE and DECOM), concludes that the price volatility in short-term in Brazil is marked by the large variation of thermal power available, especially the lack of natural gas.

  8. Evaluating factorial kriging for seismic attributes filtering: a geostatistical filter applied to reservoir characterization; Avaliacao da krigagem fatorial na filtragem de atributos sismicos: um filtro geoestatistico aplicado a caracterizacao de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Evaldo Cesario

    1999-02-01

    In this dissertation the Factorial Kriging analysis for the filtering of seismic attributes applied to reservoir characterization is considered. Factorial Kriging works in the spatial, domain in a similar way to the Spectral Analysis in the frequency domain. The incorporation of filtered attributes via External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging in the estimate of reservoir characterization is discussed. Its relevance for the reservoir porous volume calculation is also evaluated based on comparative analysis of the volume risk curves derived from stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with external drift. results prove Factorial Kriging as an efficient technique for the filtering of seismic attributes images, of which geologic features are enhanced. The attribute filtering improves the correlation between the attributes and the well data and the estimates of the reservoir properties. The differences between the estimates obtained by External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging are also reduced. (author)

  9. Economic evaluation of photovoltaic electric power generation connected to the grid in deregulated electric power markets; Avaliacao economica da geracao de energia eletrica fotovoltaica conectada a rede em mercados eletricos desregulados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumaran, David Richard Orosco

    2000-12-01

    This work presents an analysis of economic, tariff and regulating issues related to the introduction of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems in a deregulated electric market context; a case study for the peruvian electric market is realized. Based on the pricing system of the electric market, it is developed an economic assessment model that can be used by institutions interested in promoting this technology for generating electricity. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the efficiency of a plug-flow digester to produce biogas from swine waste water; Avaliacao da eficiencia de um biodigestor tubular na producao de biogas a partir de aguas residuarias de suinocultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: armin.feiden@creapr.org.br; Reichl, Johann [Escola de Energia Biolsolar, Quatro Pontes, PR (Brazil); Schwab, Jair; Schwab, Vera [Colegio Estadual Entre Rios do Oeste, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of a plug-flow digester, type Reichl, was evaluated with and without mixing. The digester, treating swine wastewater, had a capacity of 800 m{sup 3} and were operated at a loading rate of 0,931 kg and 0,634 kg of total solids and volatile solids per day, respectively. With mixing, the daily average biogas production was 289,50 m{sup 3} day{sup -1}, the specific volume production of 0,362 m{sup 3} biogas m{sup -3} reactor day{sup -1} and a specific biogas production of 0,389 m{sup 3} and 0,571 m{sup 3} biogas kg{sup -1} total solids and volatile solids added, respectively. Without mixing, was observed a reduction of 17,69% on the daily average biogas production, to only 238,30 m{sup 3} day{sup -1}. It correspond to a specific volume production of 0,298 m{sup 3} biogas m{sup -3} reactor day{sup -1} and a specific biogas production of 0,320 m{sup 3} and 0,470 m{sup 3} biogas kg{sup -1} total solids and volatile solids added, respectively. With mixing, a reduction of 68,67% total solids was achieved, compared to 52,11% without mixing. Considering volatile solids, it was achieved 80,16% with mixing, compared to 58,77% without mixing. (author)

  11. O paradoxo da legitimidade a partir da legalidade segundo Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylton Barbieri Durão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n2p233A autonomia jurídica surge da conexão co-originária entre a autnomia privada dos indivíduos e a autonomia pública dos cidadãos, a qual, contudo, ficou velada ao longo da história da filosofia política e jurídica por causa da herança metafísica do direito natural racional e da filosofia da consciência que gerou uma relação de competição entre os direitos humanos e a vontade soberana do povo. Por causa desta conexão entre a autonomia privada e pública, o processo democrática de produção de normas jurídicas apresenta um aparente paradoxo porque os cidadãos tanto podem aprovar as normas motivados pela busca do êxito da racionalidade estratégica como orientados pelo reconhecimento de sua validade através da racionalidade comunicativa, o qual se dissolve, contudo, quando se considera a democracia como um processo aberto para a solidariedade dos cidadãos no mundo da vida.

  12. Pioneirismo da associacao brasileira de enfermagem no desenvolvimento da pesquisa: da revista ao centro de pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais de Araujo Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar as primeiras iniciativas da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa em enfermagem. Com um recorte temporal que engloba o período de 1932 a 1971, ano de criação da Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem à criação do Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas, da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem. As fontes utilizadas foram documentos escritos localizados no Centro de Documentação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro e no Centro de Memória da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem, além de edições da revista localizadas na Biblioteca Setorial da Pós-Graduação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery. Percebe-se, nesta análise, que os empreendimentos realizados por essa entidade representaram um verdadeiro espaço de investigação e de formação de enfermeiros pesquisadores no Brasil.

  13. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa de Castro Leal; Manoel do Carmo Pereira Soares

    2004-01-01

    Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atrib...

  14. Fisiopatologia da Dor

    OpenAIRE

    Varandas, Cláudia Maria Brás

    2013-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas A dor constitui uma experiência indissociável do ser humano, experiência essa que afeta a qualidade de vida do Homem, o seu bem- estar e atividades do dia- a- dia, independentemente da sua faixa etária e classe social. A dor pode ser classificada segundo a duração temporal e segundo a sua fisiopatologia, assim sendo existe dor a...

  15. O CORPO DE BAILE DA LINGUAGEM DA VIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldes de Melo e Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available “O corpo de baile da linguagem da vida” propõe-se a evidenciar a unidade primordial da música e da linguagem. Ambas se correspondem, quando se compreende a primeira como arte das musas e a segunda como expressão da vida em si mesma. O livro As musas e a origem divina do canto e da saga, de Walter F. Otto, dá o mote que o ensaio persegue e desdobra com o auxílio de inúmeros estudos altamente especializados, convalidando-se no exame da obra de artífices notáveis da expressão poética, de Homero a Joyce.  The essay proposes to evince the primordial unity between music and language. Their bond becomes apparent when the first is comprehended as the art of the muses and the second as the expression of life itself. The book The muses and the divine origin of singing and saga, by Walter Friedrich Otto, motivates the research which the essay pursues and develops with the aid of highly specialized studies. An incursion into the works of remarkable artifices of poetic expression from Homer to Joyce helps to corroborate the issue.  

  16. Tumores cartilaginosos da laringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomé Robert

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tumores cartilaginosos da laringe são raros, sendo a cartilagem cricóide a mais acometida. A raridade desses tumores tem como conseqüência experiência limitada e, portanto, o conhecimento a respeito destas neoplasias apresenta pontos obscuros. Objetivo: Apresentar os resultados cirúrgicos bem como o seguimento a longo prazo de 6 pacientes com tumores cartilaginosos da laringe, 4 condrossarcomas de baixa malignidade e 2 condromas. Forma de estudo: Retrospectivo não randomizado. Material e método: Cinco dos tumores acometiam a cartilagem cricóide e 1 a tireóide. Os pacientes foram submetidos a laringectomia parcial (4 e total (2, com seguimento de 6 a 30 anos (média-19,5 anos. Resultados: Nenhum dos pacientes apresentou metástase ou morte relacionada ao tumor. A sobrevida alcançada por 5 anos foi de 100% e a por 20 anos, 67%, sendo a comorbidade responsável por tal decréscimo. Conclusões: Nossos resultados reforçam o conceito de que a laringectomia conservadora seja a modalidade ideal de tratamento, reservando a ressecção total para tumores extensos ou casos de recorrência. Há indícios de que 5 anos pode não ser tempo suficiente para observar recorrência no condrossarcoma de baixo grau de malignidade.

  17. A morte da bailarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Mangabeira Unger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A história do Ocidente pode ser lida de acordo com o sentido da palavra grega hybris: transgressão, presunção, desmesura. Hoje, vivemos o ápice de um percurso marcado pela desejo de tudo dominar. Por sua extrema gravidade, a crise contemporânea nos coloca diante da responsabilidade de questionar a própria dimensão na qual pensamos, e a maneira em que compreendemos nossa identidade enquanto humanos e nosso lugar na totalidade do real.Palavras-chave: civilização ocidental; crise; hybris; questionamento. AbstractThe history of the West can be read according to the meaning of the greek word hybris: transgression, arrogance, loss of measure. We presently live the pinnacle of a course marked by the desire to dominate all beings.  The extreme gravity of  contemporary crisis confronts us with the responsibility of questioning the very dimension in which we think, as well as the manner in which we understand our identity as human beings and our place in the totality of being.Key words: western civilization; crisis; hybris; questioning. 

  18. Dos Males da Medida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarcz Lilia Moritz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objeto a difícil percepção da "diferença". Tema polêmico, o debate sobre as variedades culturais foi transformado, em meados do século XIX, em uma questão racial e, nesse sentido, vinculado às regularidades da biologia. Tecendo comparações entre os teóricos raciais brasileiros e os impasses mais contemporâneos, sobre a aferição de inteligência e capacidade, esse ensaio pretende provocar. Em pauta estarão as contradições que têm se destacado, mais recentemente, quando se opõem de um lado as etnicidades locais, de outro a tão propalada globalização. Tal qual dois lados de uma mesma moeda, a afirmação de identidades tem se mostrado tão evidente como o próprio estreitamento das relações internacionais. Mudam os termos do debate - de raça, para etnia -, mas, de alguma maneira, continuamos presos a uma lógica positiva de estabelecimento de hierarquias ontológicas.

  19. Filosofia da amizade: uma proposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Utz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n2p151O artifo tenciona desenvolver o conceito da amizade como conceito-base de toda Filosofia Prática. Porém pretende apresentar apenas uma entre as várias argumentações possíveis em favor desta concepção: defende que a amizade, no sentido exposto, seja a solução mais convincente ao problema da intersubjetividade. A questão é como a  concepção da subjetividade pode ser entendida a outros indivíduos, se essa, como o autor defende pode ser compreendida priginariamente somente a partir da auto-referência da primeira pessoa. Para isso, ele faz uso do conceito aristotélico do amor amigável enquanto direcionado a um "heterosautos", identificando como seus momentos tanto o conhecimento e o desejo do outro, como o respeito e a benevolência. Os últimos dois momentos são interpretados como "conversão" da consciência dos primeiros. Por meio dessa "conversão da consciência" a consciência do Outro é estabelecida. Como se trata da conversão de uma consciência concreta, tanto cognitiva quanto volitiva, seu resultado não é um conceito abstrato e geral de uma subjetividade diferente da minha, mas uma relação concreta entre indivíduos que implica um compromisso e a partir da qual forma-se um étos específico da comunidade assim estabelecida.

  20. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  1. Fisiologia da caquexia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Catarina Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz A caquexia é uma síndrome de desnutrição multifatorial que se caracteriza por uma perda de peso e perda de massa muscular. Esta síndrome parte de uma doença subjacente e pode estar presente em várias doenças crónicas como por exemplo HIV, doença renal crónica, DPOC, doença hepática crónica, insuficiência cardíaca congénita e cancro. Com este trabalho, pretendeu-se entender a definição de ca...

  2. Dimensão da maturidade à luz da logoterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libardi, Tadeu Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o tema da maturidade humana à luz da logoterapia, fundada por Viktor Emil Frankl. Nos dias de hoje, existe a frustração existencial, não mais a sexual, como analisada por Freud. Cada ser humano, como pessoa livre e responsável e tendo como meta a busca da maturidade, vai percorrendo seu próprio caminho, que o leva à ceitação de si, de seus limites e potencialidades e ao relacionamento social e religioso, capacitando-o ao confronto com o sofrimento humano

  3. Evaluation of seawater contamination with benzene, toluene and xylene in the Ubatuba north coast, SP region, and study of their removal by ionizing radiation; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua do mar por benzeno, tolueno e xileno na regiao de Ubatuba, litoral norte (SP) e estudo da degradacao destes compostos por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Kelly Cristina Santana de

    2006-07-01

    A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and low water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation. The studied region was Ubatuba region, SP, between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S of latitude and 45 deg 02'W and 45 deg 11'W of longitude, area of carry and output of petroleum, and samples were collected from November, 2003 to July, 2005. For BTX in seawater analysis, the Purge and Trap concentrator with FIDGC detector showed significantly higher sensibility than Head Space concentrator with MSGC detector. The minimal detected limits (MDL) obtained at FIDGC were of 0.50 {mu}g/L for benzene, 0.70 {mu}g/L for toluene, and 1.54 {mu}g/L for xylene, and the obtained experimental variability was 15%. While the concentrator type Headspace system with MS detector showed higher MLD, about of 9.30 mg/L for benzene, 8.50 mg/L for toluene, and 9.80 mg/L for xylene, and 10% of experimental variability. In the studied area the benzene concentration varied from 1.0 {mu}g/L to 2.0 {mu}g/L, the concentration of toluene varied from < 0.70 {mu}g/L to 3.24 {mu}g/L and the maximum value of xylene observed was of 2.92 {mu}g/L. The seawater samples contaminated with BTX standard and exposed to ionizing radiation using a source of {sup 60}Co, presented a removal from 10% to 40% of benzene at 20 kGy absorbed doses and concentration of 35.1 mg/L and 70.2 mg/L, respectively; from 20% to 60% of toluene removal with 15 kGy absorbed dose and from 20% to 80% of xylene with 15 kGy absorbed dose in similar concentrations. (author)

  4. Evaluation in vitro of effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers irradiation on root canal wall, by stereoscopy, scanning electron micrography and thermographic camera; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da irradiacao laser de Er:YAG e Nd:YAG na parede dentinaria do canal radicular, sob observacao do estereoscopio, da micrografia eletronica e da camera termografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goya, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the effects of Nd:YAG laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation in the root canal wall by SEM, evaluating the apical leakage and the temperature changes during the laser irradiation. Seventy four extracted human teeth were used, they were instrumented and divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. The teeth were evaluated through stereoscopy, by SEM, and with the thermographic camera. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation parameters were 100 mJ/p, 15 Hz, and Er:YAG laser were 160 mJ/p and 10 Hz, the irradiation was 4 times at 2 mm/sec speed, with 20 sec interval. The apical leakage was not observed in the teeth irradiated by Nd:YAG laser alone or in association with Er:YAG laser. However in the teeth irradiated only by the Er:YAG laser we observed a little leakage. By SEM observation the Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed melting and recrystallization in the dentin surface closing dentinal tubules, and in the samples irradiated by Er:Y AG laser a clean surface, opened dentinal tubules, and the combination by two lasers, showed melting covering some dentinal tubules The thermographic study found the temperature increase was not more than 6 deg C. This study showed the safety parameters applications of Er:YAG laser in association with Nd:YAG laser in root canal treatment, in order to not cause thermal damages to the periodontal tissues. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the permeability and morphological alteration of the dental surface after apicoectomy, treatment and preparation with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers; Avaliacao da permeabilidade e da alteracao morfologica da superficie dentinaria apos apicectomia, tratamento e retropreparo com os lasers de Er:YAG e Nd:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Guerra de

    2001-07-01

    One of the objectives of endodontic treatment is to resolve pathological periapical processes caused by microbial contamination of the dental pulp. Correct execution of the necessary chemical preparation prior to surgery generally results in positive outcomes. However, a percentage of cases do not respond favorably and therefore require retreatment, a conservative therapeutic option. There are meanwhile a number of treatment failures which do not respond to these conservative measures and must therefore be subjected to paraendodontic surgical procedures. One of the principal problems of this therapeutic conduct is linked to the surface permeability of the dentin after apicoectomy and the lack of adequate marginal adaptation between the retrofilling material and the cavity walls. This permits the percolation of microorganisms and their metabolic by products from the system of root canals to the periapical region, thereby compromising the necessary tissue repair. The present work proposes the evaluation of the surface and marginal permeability of cut dentin after apicoectomy and treatment with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers with fiber optics and then retrofilled with intermediate restorative material (IRM). A total of 24 single rooted teeth whose canals were endodontically treated were divided into 3 experimental groups: group I, whose apices were sectioned with an Er:YAG laser and the resulting cavity and the cut dental surface were irradiated with this laser via a 50/10 type fiber; in group II the apicoectomy was conducted with an Er:YAG laser and the resulting cavity and the cut surface were irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser; in group III, the samples were apicoectomized and the cavities were treated with a high speed bur (control group). Analysis of the infiltration of the dye methylene blue throughout the cut dental surface and the reconstruction demonstrated that the samples in the irradiated groups presented lower indices of infiltration than the control group. The Group I samples, meanwhile, did not present statistically significantly better results than the control group. Group II presented statistically significantly less infiltration than the other experimental groups. This result is compatible with the morphological and structural alterations evidenced by scanning electron microscopy: the group I samples (Er:YAG) presented clean, irregular surfaces with the presence of some cratering, without a smear layer and with the dental tubules exposed. The group II samples (Er:YAG and Nd:YAG) presented smoother, clean surfaces, without a smear layer, with fusion and resolidification of the dentin which sealed the dental tubules. Under the conditions of the study, apicoectomy with the Er:YAG laser followed by subsequent treatment of the cut surface and resulting cavity with a Nd:YAG laser, have shown as an option capable of reducing the permeability of the dentin to methylene blue dye. (author)

  6. Controle da ferrugem e da broca-dos-ramos da figueira com diferentes fungicidas e inseticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Júnior Mezzalira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperaturas e precipitações elevadas favorecem a incidência da ferrugem (Cerotelium fici(Cast. e da broca-dos-ramos (Azochis gripusalis (Walker, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, limitando a produção comercial de figos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a eficiência de fungicidas e inseticidas alternativos em relação à de produtos convencionais registrados para a cultura. Foram realizados dois experimentos, no delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repetições, no setor de fruticultura da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos. Para controle da ferrugem, foram utilizados, em 100 L de água, azoxistrobin (10 g, calda bordalesa (1.500 g de cal virgem + 1.500 g de sulfato de cobre e testemunha (água. No controle da broca-dos-ramos utilizaram-se, em 100 L de água, azadiractina (1.000 mL P.C., alho (Allium sativumL. (100 mL P.C., cinza (20.000 g, extrato de fumo (nicotina (10.000 mL do preparado, deltametrina (50 mL P.C., Bacillus thuringiensisBerliner (100 g P.C., rotenona (1.000 mL P.C., sabão de coco (1.000 g e testemunha (água. A calda bordalesa foi o tratamento mais efetivo no controle da ferrugem, promovendo aumento da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. A deltametrina promoveu o melhor controle da broca-dos-ramos da figueira. Entre os produtos alternativos testados, o alho foi o mais efetivo no controle dessa praga.

  7. ESTUDO DA PASTEURIZAÇÃO DA POLPA DE GRAVIOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. B. TEIXEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se a pasteurização da polpa de graviola (Annona muricata L., visando estabelecer condições simples e eficientes para sua conservação. Foram realizadas avaliações microbiológica, enzimática e de cor da polpa, para identificar parâmetros a serem utilizados no acompanhamento da pasteurização. O produto foi submetido a tratamento térmico, em copos de inox, em diferentes tempos (1 a 300 seg e temperaturas (70°C a 90°C, para identificar o efeito destas variáveis sobre parâmetros de qualidade do produto. Constatou-se que os tratamentos não provocaram variação na atividade da peroxidase, contagem de bactérias, bolores e leveduras e cor da polpa. Em seguida foram realizadas pasteurizações, em escala piloto, a 80°C e 90°C; sendo os produtos estocados a 25°C e avaliados durante 120 dias. A redução da atividade da peroxidase e da concentração de bactérias, bolores e leveduras, a níveis aceitáveis, e a manutenção da cor, demonstraram a eficiência dos processos térmicos. A manutenção destes parâmetros, nos níveis aceitáveis, durante a estocagem, confirmou a aplicabilidade dos processos, sem a necessidade da adição de conservante na polpa. A pasteurização da polpa de graviola a 80°C ou 90°C, mostrou ser um tratamento térmico adequado para a conservação do produto, proporcionando 120 dias de vidade- prateleira à temperatura ambiente ( 25°C.

  8. A INTERPRETAÇÃO DELEUZEANA DA GENEALOGIA DA MORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles Pereira de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto tem o objetivo de apresentar como o filósofo francês Gilles Deleuze, a partir da obra Nietzsche e a Filosofia, interpreta a Genealogia da Moral, obra escrita pelo filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, levando em consideração as formas mais gerais do niilismo: ressentimento, má consciência e ideal ascético.

  9. SOBRE OS FUNDAMENTOS DA ARQUITETURA DA INFORMAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfram Roberto Rodrigues de Albuquerque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Expõe-se o estado atual da disciplina Arquitetura da Informação quanto a problemática terminológica da definição do campo de estudo, apresentando-se argumentos para uma definição de Arquitetura da Informação de uma forma ampla na qual os usos correntes dessa expressão sejam vistos como especializações. Defende-se uma definição com a utilização de um conjunto de propriedades mínimas cujas interações levam a uma terminologia formal e cuja abstração leva a uma definição formal do conceito que emprega a linguagem de morfismos da Teoria das Categorias. Trata-se de um recorte de alguns dos resultados obtidos na tese de doutoramento de um dos autores, defendida em setembro de 2010. O contexto da pesquisa é exposto e alguns dos resultados obtidos são delineados.

  10. A utilização da teoria da aprendizagem significativa no ensino da Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivo:sintetizar a produção científica acerca da Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa no processo de ensino-aprendizagem em Enfermagem.Método:revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e CINAHL, com artigos que abordaram a temática ou aspectos da teoria da aprendizagem significativa de David Ausubel. Fizeram parte da amostra dez artigos, sendo seis escritos no idioma português e quatro no inglês, publicados de 1998 a 2013.Resultados:cinco artigos fizeram alusão à Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, quatro citaram Ausubel como autor dessa teoria e apenas dois seguiram a estrutura para a aplicação da teoria completamente. Há escassez de estudos sobre o tema e os que o abordam não o correlacionam com a teoria de Ausubel.Conclusão:faz-se necessário romper com a dicotomia entre teoria e prática e promover a articulação dos conteúdos com a ação, introduzindo o aluno como autor de seu próprio conhecimento.

  11. A subjetividade fora da mente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Simões

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo contextualiza uma tradição que se apresenta de maneira recorrente nas práticas clínicas da psicologia e da saúde mental: o Mentalismo. O Mentalismo pressupõe uma concepção interiorizada do sujeito em prol de modelos instrumentais de clínica. A partir da crítica ao Mentalismo, os autores examinam outras possibilidades de se lidar não mais com o sujeito essencializado, porém, com os complexos processos de subjetivação. Esta é uma perspectiva clínica que recorrendo a Deleuze, Guattari e à Filosofia da Diferença oferece estratégias mais condizentes com a complexidade do mundo contemporâneo, introduzindo debates éticos, políticos e estéticos na dimensão psíquica.

  12. Atlas nacional da Espanha, demografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Calvo Palacios J.L., Pueyo Campos Á. (2008, Atlas nacional de España, Demografía. Madrid: Centro Nacional de Información Geográfica, 386 p. ISBN: 978-8-4416-0685-2.O volume, que faz parte da série Monografias do Atlas Nacional de Espanha, inclui 420 mapas, 91 dos quais apresentam informações por município que dão uma visão global, concisa e muito completa da realidade da população espanhola e da sua evolução (em alguns casos analisada desde 1857. Seus diretores científicos são José Luis Cal...

  13. SÍNTESE DA PENEIRA MOLECULAR MCM-41 DERIVADA DA CINZA DA CASCA DO ARROZ

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Martins Braga; Najara Maira Teodoro; Dulce Maria de Araujo Melo; Flávia de Medeiros Aquino; Joana Maria de Farias Barros; Julio Cezar de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-01-01

    As peneiras moleculares MCM-41 têm atraído grande interesse devido as suas propriedades de alta área específica, volume e diâmetro de poros controláveis. Estes materiais são aplicados em diversos ramos da indústria química como adsorventes, suportes catalíticos e catalisadores heterogêneos em vários processos. Neste trabalho, o MCM-41 foi sintetizado a partir da cinza da casca do arroz, natural e tratada quimicamente, como fontes alternativas de sílica, denominadas CCA-MCM-41 e CCAL-MCM-41, r...

  14. Teoria da Literatura e interdisciplinaridade: o espaço da impureza

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nazareth Soares Fonseca; Ivete Lara Camargos Walty

    1996-01-01

    Este estudo constitui uma reflexão sobre o lugar da Teoria da Literatura na América Latina. A metáfora da impureza, resgatada dos estudos de Roland Barthes, é o fio condutor da trajetória que procura delinear a questão do sujeito e suas implicações na busca da identidade latinoamericana.

  15. O PRAZER DA APRENDIZAGEM ATRAVÉS DA POESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COLI, Katiane Cristie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To present researches “The pleasure of the learning through of the poetry” has for objective to emphasize the importance of pleased poetries in classroom of the fundamental teaching, proposing to the students one moment ludic, tends in view the exercise of the imagination, of the fantasy and of the creativity, developing like this a form teaching more cheerful, more poetic and with larger freedom to build the knowledge. The research also has for purpose to call the teachers’ attention for the importance of the reading of poetries in the classroom and to develop in the students the taste for her. For the accomplishment of this research works of renowned national prominence were used, among other materials. It was also accomplished a field research, in way to still give larger credibility to the study. A presente pesquisa “O prazer da aprendizagem através da poesia” teve por objetivo ressaltar a importância de poesias prazerosas em sala de aula do ensino fundamental, propondo aos alunos um momento lúdico, tendo em vista o exercício da imaginação, da fantasia e da criatividade, desenvolvendo assim um ensino de forma mais alegre, mais poético e com maior liberdade para construir o conhecimento. A pesquisa também tem por propósito chamar a atenção dos professores para a importância da leitura de poesias na sala de aula e desenvolver nos alunos o gosto por ela. Para a realização desta pesquisa foram utilizadas obras de renomado destaque nacional, entre outros materiais. Foi realizada também uma pesquisa de campo, de forma a dar maior credibilidade ao estudo.

  16. VOLTAIRE CRÍTICO DA TEOLOGIA DA HISTÓRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Sousa Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A teologia esforça-se por repertoriar e sistematizar o que a revelação e a fé trazem ao crente sobre o problema do sentido da história, da peregrinação através do tempo da humanidade pensada em seu conjunto. Ela enfatiza, não tanto o conhecimento, mas o estado espiritual de felicidade ao qual a humanidade deve ascender antes do fim da vida na terra. Os modernos não aceitam a proposta teológica e têm por ambição descentralizar a história tradicionalmente ordenada por uma visão cristocêntrica do mundo. O historiador, isentando-se da facção, assume o discurso racional sobre a trajetória dos humanos a partir de um novo núcleo referencial interpretativo, a saber, a ideia de humanidade. Voltaire apresenta-se como legítimo representante dessa perspectiva. A história sob o prisma voltairiano é colocada como problema e não como dogmática com características de uma aquisição definitiva. O problema histórico é o de compreender o mundo atual e a humanidade nele inserida. O objetivo, portanto, do trabalho foi apresentar a proposta teológica para a história e a crítica a ela desenvolvida por Voltaire, de forma a evidenciar a originalidade da abordagem moderna do fenômeno histórico.

  17. Avaliação da qualidade do serviço da biblioteca da Universidade de Aveiro

    OpenAIRE

    Pour, Masoomeh Tasouji Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Este estudo examina em termos gerais a qualidade do serviço prestado pela biblioteca da Universidade de Aveiro em Portugal baseado na perspetiva dos utilizadores da biblioteca com o intuito de investigar quais são os atributos essenciais para os quais os gestores da biblioteca devem alocar recursos de forma a garantir um serviço de qualidade e como é que se comporta o ranking da biblioteca em termos da perceção da qualidade do serviço prestado. Neste trabalho também são anal...

  18. Publicidade e ética: um estudo da construção da imagem da mulher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O texto propõe uma reflexão sobre a ética da responsabilidade na publicidade veiculada nas revistas Claudia e Nova. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, resultante da leitura dos anúncios selecionados, subsidiada por teóricos da Análise do Discurso da linha francesa, que busca averiguar como a mulher é representada. Constatou-se que no contexto da sociedade contemporânea o retrato da mulher como sedutora ainda está presente, mesmo que em vários momentos ela apareça como protagonista de sua própria vida.

  19. O PROJETO DA MODERNIDADE SEGUNDO HABERMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O projeto acadêmico de Habermas busca contribuir para a realização das metas emancipatórias da modernidade, através da teoria da ação comunicativa. Portanto, será examinado aqui se o processo de racionalização da sociedade moderna, presente na teoria da ação comunicativa, realmente representa um potencial para a emancipação humana. Primeiramente, pretende-se abordar no respectivo trabalho os principais conceitos que Habermas utiliza em sua teoria da ação comunicativa. Em um segundo momento, serão explorados os elementos fundamentais da teoria da sociedade. Após isso, será analisada a teoria da modernidade e a sua relação com a teoria da sociedade. Tal caminho terá o objetivo de investigar a possibilidade de resgate do projeto da modernidade, ao explicar a possibilidade da teoria da ação comunicativa ser considerada o potenciador emancipatório da sociedade moderna, formando tanto o cidadão como um indivíduo autônomo, preservando a sua identidade pessoal, quanto o cidadão como participante de uma sociedade política, possuidor de uma identidade cultural, étnica, entre outras, que abrange variados grupos sociais.

  20. ESTUDO DA EFICIÊNCIA DA PASTEURIZAÇÃO DA POLPA DE TAPEREBÁ (SPONDIAS MOMBIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. R. M. BASTOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O taperebá (Spondias mombim é uma pequena drupa elipsóide, de cor amarelo alaranjado, com casca fi na que pode ser facilmente rompida, tornando o fruto susceptível à contaminação por ação de agentes externos. Estudou-se a pasteurização da polpa de taperebá, visando estabelecer condições simples e efi cientes de conservação a temperatura ambiente. Parâmetros microbiológicos (enumeração de microrganismos mesófílos aeróbios e pesquisa de coliformes a 45°C, químicos (teor de vitamina C, enzimáticos (atividade da peroxidase – POD e colorimétricos (colorimetria tristimulus foram utilizados como variáveis de resposta. Em bancada, foram testados diferentes tempos (1 a 300 s e temperaturas (70ºC a 90ºC de tratamento térmico, não tendo sido observado efeito estatisticamente signifi cativo (p < 0,05 sobre as contagens de microrganismos mesófi los aeróbios, coliformes a 45°C e sobre a cor da polpa. Em escala piloto, realizou-se a pasteurização da polpa a 85°C por 3 minutos, sendo avaliados parâmetros de qualidade do produto durante 14 dias de manutenção a 40°C, sob iluminação artifi cial, e realizados testes sensoriais. A redução da contagem de microrganismos mesófi los aeróbios e coliformes a 45°C, para níveis aceitáveis pela legislação brasileira, a manutenção da cor e os índices de aceitação da polpa confi rmaram a efi ciência do tratamento térmico. Não se observou atividade da POD na polpa pasteurizada, devendo o controle de qualidade do produto ser feito com base nos parâmetros microbiológicos e de cor da polpa.

  1. O panorama das Drogas no México: da margem da sociedade ao centro da cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Palaversich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo destaca o percurso das manifestações culturais ligadas ao tráfico de drogas no México, de um lugar marginal, de subcultura, na sociedade mexicana das décadas de 1970 e 1980, expressas principalmente através dos narcocorridos e do narcocine, para um lugar no mainstream cultural mexicano, desde o início do século 21, com destaque especial para a narcoliteratura. O aumento da violência, provocado pela guerra ao narcotráfico, produz uma proliferação da temática nos meios de comunicação e se reflete em áreas da cultura como as artes plásticas e a literatura, produzindo um novo tipo de expressão artística ou narrativa, que tanto pode ser oportunista e contribuir para a banalização da violência do narcotráfico como ser crítica e narrar o impacto individual e coletivo do tráfico de drogas, narrar a desenfreada e violenta realidade mexicana sem cair no estilo da imprensa marrom, do folclore ou dos lugares comuns dos romances de ação.

  2. CILADAS DA DIFERENÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Flávio Pierucci

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar os efeitos perversos da apropriação pela esquerda de um tema definidor das tradições de direita, a saber, a diferença. Com base no caso Sears (EUA e no caso Le Pen (França, o autor aponta para as armadilhas racistas e sexistas presentes nos discursos que focalizam e enfatizam a diferença, sobretudo num período histórico de reemergência dos conservadorismos que, por sua vez, se apropriam do argumento da diferença, dirigindo-o contra os próprios movimentos de esquerda.

  3. Cinco discursos da digitalidade audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbase, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Michel Foucault ensina que toda fala sistemática - inclusive aquela que se afirma “neutra” ou “uma desinteressada visão objetiva do que acontece” - é, na verdade, mecanismo de articulação do saber e, na seqüência, de formação de poder. O aparecimento de novas tecnologias, especialmente as digitais, no campo da produção audiovisual, provoca uma avalanche de declarações de cineastas, ensaios de acadêmicos e previsões de demiurgos da mídia.

  4. Efeitos da acupuntura no tratamento da ansiedade: revisao integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Leiko Takamatsu Goyatá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar as evidências científicas disponíveis na literatura sobre os efeitos da acupuntura no tratamento da ansiedade e a qualidade desses estudos. Método: revisão integrativa, realizada nas bases/bancos de dados CINAHL, LILACS, PUBMEDPICO, SciELO, The Cochrane Library, no período entre 2001 a 2014. Os descritores anxiety, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture e anxiety disorders foram combinados entre si para garantir a ampla busca de estudos primários. Resultados: dos 514 artigos, 67 foram selecionados para leitura na íntegra e 19 incluídos. Desses, 11 apresentaram forte nível de evidência. Dos seis artigos de estudos clínicos randomizados, cinco apresentaram qualidade classificada como razoável. Dois estudos utilizaram acupunturistas enfermeiros para a aplicação da intervenção. Os resultados mostram efeitos positivos e estatisticamente significativos do uso da acupuntura para tratamento de indivíduos com ansiedade. Conclusão: a acupuntura parece ser um tratamento promissor para a ansiedade, no entanto, há necessidade de melhorar a qualidade metodológica das pesquisas nessa temática.

  5. Laser de diodo no tratamento da retinopatia da prematuridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liarth Josilene de Carvalho Soares

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar a eficácia do laser de diodo e suas complicações no tratamento da retinopatia da prematuridade, estágio 3 limiar. Métodos: De 348 crianças pré-termo examinadas na Clínica Oftalmológica do Hospital Getúlio Vargas e Instituto de Olhos do Piauí, em Teresina, Piauí, no período de julho/89 a março/99, 152 (43,7% apresentaram retinopatia da prematuridade. As crianças com retinopatia da prematuridade no estágio 3 limiar foram submetidas a laserablação retiniana com laser de diodo indireto, no centro cirúrgico, sob anestesia geral. Resultados: Vinte crianças (38 olhos foram submetidas a laserablação retiniana. Doze pacientes (80,0% tiveram regressão da retinopatia e três (20,0% evoluíram para o estágio 5. Cinco crianças não retornaram para controle, sendo excluídas do estudo quanto aos resultados do laser. Não foram observadas complicações oculares. Cinco crianças apresentaram apnéia relacionada à anestesia. Conclusões: Neste grupo de crianças, o laser de diodo foi eficaz em 80,0% dos pacientes tratados. As complicações encontradas (cinco casos de apnéia se relacionaram possivelmente à anestesia geral.

  6. Termoestabilidade da peroxidase extraída da folha de repolho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlei Scariot Roling

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Extratos da enzima peroxidase solúvel e ionicamente ligada foram obtidos da folha do repolho (Brassica oleracea L., var. capitata. Para essa extração usou-se solução-tampão fosfato 100 mM, pH 6,0. Perante o tratamento térmico nas temperaturas de 65, 70, 75ºC, observou-se um comportamento não linear. O extrato solúvel de peroxidase apresentou-se particularmente mais estável no tratamento térmico que a peroxidase ionicamente ligada. O estudo da regeneração foi realizado a 70ºC. A peroxidase ionicamente ligada permaneceu estável, demostrando não haver renaturação, enquanto que o extrato solúvel perdeu atividade.

  7. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  8. O panorama das Drogas no México: da margem da sociedade ao centro da cultura

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Palaversich

    2013-01-01

    O artigo destaca o percurso das manifestações culturais ligadas ao tráfico de drogas no México, de um lugar marginal, de subcultura, na sociedade mexicana das décadas de 1970 e 1980, expressas principalmente através dos narcocorridos e do narcocine, para um lugar no mainstream cultural mexicano, desde o início do século 21, com destaque especial para a narcoliteratura. O aumento da violência, provocado pela guerra ao narcotráfico, produz uma proliferação da temática nos meios de comunicação e...

  9. Psicologia da saúde no ISPA

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, José A. Carvalho

    1992-01-01

    Na presente nota didáctica, após algumas considerações gerais, procura-se fazer o ponto da situação actual da Psicologia da Saúde no ISPA, e destacar aigumas perspectivas futuras de desenvolvimento.

  10. Da ordem. Da cidade. Da literatura: personagens à beira do "ruim do mundo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Kuster

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As grandes cidades estão doentes. Seus sintomas: a quebra da sociabilidade e a irrupção rotineira da violência. Diante disso, ecoa na sociedade um clamor por ordem. No mesmo momento em que a polícia põe a tropa na rua, os literatos criam personagens que dão voz à sensação crescente de que a cidade está deixando de ser uma referência à constituição das identidades urbanas. É a partir da literatura, em especial da obra do escritor Rubem Fonseca, que iremos perscrutar as possibilidades apresentadas pela cidade para o convívio humano.The great cities are sick. Its indications: the sociability in addition and the routine irruption of the violence. Ahead of this, a outcry for order echoes in the society. At the same moment where the policy goes to the street, the writers create personages who give voice to the increasing sensation of that the city is leaving of being a reference to the constitution of the urban identities. It is from literature, in special of the writer Rubem Fonseca, that we will go to investigate the possibilities presented for the city for the human conviviality.

  11. Trabalho de pares na aprendizagem da leitura e da escrita

    OpenAIRE

    Relva, Tânia Regina de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    A estratégia do trabalho a pares é um elemento chave para a criação de um ambiente inclusivo de sucesso. Especificamente no caso das crianças com dificuldades específicas de aprendizagem da leittura (dislexia) tem-se assistido ao desenvovimento e implementação com bastante sucesso de vários programas centrados no trabalho de pares. (...)

  12. Avaliando a efetividade da Lei Maria da Penha

    OpenAIRE

    Cerqueira, Daniel; Matos, Mariana; Martins, Ana Paula Antunes; Pinto Junior, Jony

    2015-01-01

    The Law 11.340, known as Maria da Penha Law (MPL), enacted in 2006, represented an important institutional framework in order to overcome domestic violence in Brazil. However, more than eight years after the sanction of MPL, there is a complete gap about empirical studies to evaluate their effect, which is the object of this work. We Constructed a model of differences in differences, where homicides against women that occurred at home were compared with those against men. Our results indicate...

  13. A arte da fuga: Os mecanismos da liquidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Castro Caldas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A ideia de “liquidez” enquanto característica da fase actual da modernidade, presente na obra mais recente de Zygmunt Bauman, convida a uma leitura cruzada entre este autor e Keynes. Quer em Bauman, quer em Keynes, a liquidez aplica-se a relações que podem ser facilmente revertidas, ou revertidas a baixo custo, e a sistemas que, sendo caracterizados pela precariedade dos laços que unem os seus elementos constituintes, tendem a ser, eles próprios, instáveis e precários. Em ambos os autores, a liquidez e a especulação surgem como respostas racionais à incerteza e, ao mesmo tempo, como estratégias individuais que contribuem para o aumento do risco sistémico. As duas abordagens são complementares e coerentes. A leitura cruzada sugere a existência de mecanismos da liquidez transversais a diferentes domínios institucionais cuja identificação é aqui ensaiada.

  14. baseado no principio da elasticidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue realizado en el Laboratorio de Mecanización Agrícola del Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola de la Universidad Federal de Viçosa, con el objetivo de separar los frutos de café verde de los de cereza, buscando propiciar una mejor calidad de la bebida. En este experimento se evaluó el comportamiento de los frutos de café, en la caída libre sobre superficie de madera inclinada, considerando las diferentes distancias de rebote alcanzadas, de acuerdo con la variación de los factores: altura de caída, inclinación de la superficie de impacto en los estadios de maduración de los frutos de café arábica, variedad Catuai Rojo. El experimento fue dividido en tres etapas. La primera parte del estudio fue observar el efecto del ángulo de la superficie de impacto de separación de los frutos de café. La altura de caída fue fijada a 80 cm y evaluados los ángulos de la superficie de impacto de 10º , 15º , 20º , 25º , 30º, 35º y 40º, respectivamente, utilizando, para cada una de las seis repeticiones, una muestra que contiene diez frutos de café . Para determinar con cuáles inclinaciones se obtuvieron las mayores distancias de rebote, se partió de los frutos verdes de cerezas para saber la altura de caída que proporciona un aumento en la diferencia de rebote de los frutos, después del impacto en la tabla. Esta segunda etapa consistió en un ensayo del comportamiento de los frutos, considerando las alturas de caída de 40 cm, 80 cm y 120 cm, se utilizaron seis muestras, conteniendo quince frutos de cada uno. A partir de estos ensayos se pudo concluir que la altura de caída libre de 80 cm y la inclinación de la superficie de impacto de 30º proporcionan una mayor eficiencia de separación de los frutos verdes de los cerezos para el café estudiado

  15. Industrialização da celebridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de relatos descritivos acerca de personagens históricos, o texto percorre os 250 anos da história das celebridades. Entre o sociopolítico e a esfera do sentimento, a figura da celebridade nasce para uma identificação distante, que nos ensina como estar em sociedade. No decorrer dos capítulos, o autor demonstra como foi construída a “indústria da celebridade”, como a fama deslocou-se do renome para o glamour e como esses atores sociais contribuem para a manutenção da ordem social.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGIA DA LEPTOSPIROSE EM BOVINOS

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiomar Soares Brod; Marta Fernanda Fehlberg

    1992-01-01

    A leptospirose é uma zoonose causada por 'ima bactéria que pertence ao gênero Leptospira e a espécie L. interrogans a qual apresenta mais de 200 sorovares diferentes. A principal fonte de infecção desta doença são os roedores peri-domésticos, tais como o rato e o camundongo. Dentre os animais domésticos, os suínos são os principais reservatórios de leptospiras. Esses animais eliminam o agente através da urina, contaminando a água, o solo e os alimentos, principais vias de transmissão da doenç...

  17. para um museu da praia

    OpenAIRE

    Severo, Carlos Manuel de Oliveira, 1958-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Museologia e museografia, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2011 O documento possui um ficheiro com Anexos em Word, sem possibilidade de conversão que apenas poderá ser consultado na Biblioteca da FBAUL Due to the exceptional weather, climatic and morphologic characteristics of the west region of Lisbon, seaside holidaying was born and grew in Costa do Sol in Portugal. Sea bathing first started for therapeutic reasons, but it was quickly transformed ...

  18. 1992: a redescoberta da Natureza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Santos

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a presença do homem sobre a Terra, a natureza está, sempre, sendo redescoberta, com a criação da natureza social. É a história de uma rutura progressiva entre o homem e o entorno, acelerada pela mecanização. Mediante a tecnociência, a natureza artificializada alcança seu estágio supremo, onde a natureza e o homem tornam-se reciprocramente hostis. Com a globalização da economia, da política e da cultura, não há mais relações totalizantes entre a sociedade e o meio. A natureza tecnicizada se impõe como algo abstrato, exigindo um discurso. A questão do meio ambiente é um aspecto dessa evolução e reclama um estudo abrangente, para permitir uma correta interpretação. Para alcançar essa interpretação, a universidade deve fugir dos raciocínios técnicos e conformistas e enfrentar o entendimento do mundo como um todo.With man on Earth, Nature is being permanently rediscovered through the creation of social nature. The progressive rupture between man and his surrounding is quickened by mechanization. More recently, with globalization of economy, politics and culture, there are no longer totalizing relations between society and environment. Through technoscience, nature and man become reciprocally hostile. Tecnicized nature emerges as an abstraction that demands a discourse. Environmental problems are only an aspect of this evolution, and ask for a comprehensive approach, in order to reach its correct interpretation. University must fly away from technical and conformicist reasonning and face the understanding of the world as a whole.

  19. EXPANSÃO DA SOJA NO TERRITÓRIO NACIONAL: O PAPEL DA DEMANDA INTERNACIONAL E DA DEMANDA INTERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida de Cássia Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Produto das discussões do segundo capítulo da tese de doutorado intitulada A Embrapa/Soja em Londrina (PR. Pesquisa agrícola dum país moderno que analisou a criação da Embrapa/Soja em Londrina, como parte integrante do projeto nacional desenvolvimentista, idealizado a partir da década de 1930. Discutem-se os fatores da expansão da soja no Brasil, a fim de entender quais agentes externos e internos foram responsáveis pelo incentivo à expansão do plantio de soja no território brasileiro, no decorrer das últimas décadas, tendo em vista a importância dessa Commodity como geradora de divisas e importante produto para o mercado interno em franca expansão. Defende-se que a expansão da soja no território nacional a partir da década de 1960 teve influência direta da demanda internacional por essa oleaginosa, além de atender à demanda interna, proveniente da crescente urbanização e mudança nos hábitos de alimentação da população brasileira.

  20. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao e identificacao da toxicidade (Toxity Identification Evaluation - TIE) do efluente liquido do polo industrial de Belford Roxo, RJ, e sua contribuicao na qualidade das aguas do corso inferior do Rio Sarapui, sub-bacia do Rio Iguacu, Bacia da Baia da Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-07-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  1. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects; Avaliacao da toxicidade e genotoxicidade dos corantes azo reativos Remazol Preto B e Remazol Alaranjado 3R e da eficacia da radiacao com feixe de eletrons na reducao da cor e efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-07-01

    The textile industries play an important role in national and global economy. But, their activities are considered potentially polluting. The use of large volumes of water and the production of colored wastewater with high organic matter are among the main issues raised, especially during the stage of dyeing and washing of the textile process. The reactive azo dyes are the main colors used in the industry for dyeing of cotton in Brazil and worldwide. Because of its low setting and variations in the fiber production process, about 30% of the initial concentration used in the dyeing baths are lost and will compose the final effluent. These compounds have a low biodegradability, are highly soluble in water and therefore are not completely removed by conventional biological processes. In addition, other processes do not promote degradation but the transference to solid environment. The dyes discarded without treatment in the water body can cause aesthetic modifications, alter photosynthesis and gas solubility, as well as being toxic and genotoxic. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of two reactive azo dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R - R3AR) and the percentage of color and toxicity reduction after the use of electron beam radiation. The acute toxicity assays performed with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Biomphalaria glabrata showed different response patterns for dyes. The different chemical forms of dyes were slightly toxic to Vibrio fischeri and only the RPB dye (vinylsulphone) was toxic (EC50{sub 15min} = 6,23 mg L-1). In tests with Daphnia similis, the dye RPB was slightly toxic in its pattern form, sulphatoethylsulphone, (CE50{sub 48h} = 91,25 mg L{sup -1}) and showed no toxicity in other chemical forms. However, the RA3R dye was toxic to the dafnids and the vinylsulphone form very toxic (EC50{sub 48h} = 0,54 mg L-1). No toxicity was observed in Biomphalaria glabrata assays. Chronic toxicity was assessed with the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia and the NOEC and OEC values of RPB dye (sulphatoethylsulphone) were 12.5 and 25 mg L-1, respectively. After hydrolysis of the dye (vinylsulphone and hydroxyethyl sulphone) was shown to increase the values obtained from the NOEC and OEC. There was no chronic effect for the R3AR dye and its chemical forms to C. dubia. The comet assay adapted to haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata was used to assess the genotoxicity of the dyes. The RPB dye was genotoxic at highest concentrations (1 and 2 g L-1), with quantitative values of DNA damage equal to 117 and 112 and the R3AR dye was not genotoxic. The use of radiation with electron beams have proven effective in removing the color dyes. With a dose of 10 kGy a reduction of 97.64% and 96.8% for R3AR and RPB, respectively, was achieved. Possibly, the color removal was mainly due to the interaction of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals generated in the radiolysis of water after the radiation beam of electrons. After radiation of the RPB dye a dose of 10 kGy reduced 59.52 % of the acute toxicity measured with Vibrio fischeri. For the other doses there was no significant reduction, as well as with Daphnia similis, where the values of EC50{sub 48h} obtained were smaller than the non-irradiated dye. The R3AR dye showed better decreased toxicity after radiation when compared with the RPB, with reductions of 82.95% (V. fischeri) and 71.26% (D. similis) with 10 kGy. (author)

  2. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua subterranea de pocos tubulares, por combustiveis fosseis, no municipio de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo: uma contribuicao a gestao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindrisz, Ana Copat

    2006-07-01

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the monitoring places. It was made registrations of places and preliminary investigation of suspicious areas was accomplished. The sampling and monitoring were carried out and the results were compared with the standard values for underground water that are established by CETESB. The results showed that in the twelve wells evaluated were not found values of BTEX above the recommended by Law 518/2004 of the Health Ministry in which the allowed value for benzene is 5 mug L{sup -1}. It was observed that three of the twelve wells studied were contaminated with nitrate, which is responsible for Methaemoglobinaemia induction. They were appraised also the processes or mechanisms of natural (biodegradation) or induced remediation. (author)

  3. Analysis of the perception of risk of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro using the risk evaluation system in radiotherapy (SEVRRA / FORUM); Analise da percepcao de risco de servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro usando o sistema de avaliacao de risco em radioterapia (SEVRRA/FORO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Adam de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    In this work it was possible to analyze the perception of risks associated with existing processes in the high-dose rate brachytherapy and teletherapy using linear accelerators of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, through the combined use of two proposed methods: FMECA and risk matrix, using a general analysis and other more specific ones. The database software (SEVRRA) was used to identify possible existing processes in radiotherapy services (brachytherapy and teletherapy) and to classify the sequence of events in risk levels. The risk levels were analyzed at each stage and sub-stage, present in the treatment of patients undergoing high dose rate gynecological intracavitary brachytherapy and teletherapy treatments with the use of linear accelerators applying electron or photon beams in order to establish recommendations to the risks of highest priority for each case. The results show that although the procedure of high dose rate brachytherapy be automated and less susceptible to errors or failures, daily, one can still find considerable amounts of processes with worrying levels of risk perception. The processes that are more subject to radiological accident risks was associated with procedures, for of which the majority of the failures record and planning step of the treatment. The controls analyzed showed low efficiency, warning of the need to seek and implement new more efficient controls in routine brachytherapy for each participant service. About teletherapy procedure it was found that most of the failures were related to the registration and planning of treatment and equipment stages. The controls analyzed to teletherapy showed a poor result with a first type of analysis performed by suggesting a new type of more appropriate analysis. With a second type of analysis, these controls could be better analyzed and showed an order of importance according to a percentage of efficiency. Controls such as 'Double-check', 'Weekly image portal' and 'Weekly medical review of patients', were highlighted as the most present and effective in routine radiotherapy procedure. These results have great relevance for this type of methodology, since their practical application, together with its potential risk identification and classification, confirm their feasibility of use in routine services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, as well as in other locations, seeking to meet national and international recommendations for safety and radiation protection. (author)

  4. Establishment and prioritization of relevant factors to the safety of fuel cycle facilities non reactor through dynamics archetypes evaluation; Estabelecimento e priorizacao de fatores relevantes para a seguranca de instalacoes do ciclo do combustivel exceto o reator atraves da avaliacao da dinamica de arquetipos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Anna Leticia Barbosa de

    2012-07-01

    The present work aims to establish and prioritize factors that are important to the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in order to model, analyze and design safety as a physical system, employing systemic models in an innovative way. This work takes into consideration the fact that models that use adaptations of methodologies for nuclear reactors will not properly work due to the specificities of fuel cycle facilities. Based on the fundamentals of the theory of systems, the four levels of system thinking, and the relationship of eight socio technical factors, a mental model has been developed for safety management in the nuclear fuel cycle context. From this conceptual model, safety archetypes were constructed in order to identify and highlight the processes of change and decision making that allow the system to migrate to a state of loss of safety. After that, stock and flow diagrams were created so that their behavior could be assessed by the system's dynamics. The results from the analysis using the model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the variables (socio technical factors) indicated, as expected, that the system's dynamics proved to be an appropriate and efficient tool for modeling fuel cycle safety as an emergent property. (author)

  5. Application of the linear load normalization technique in specimens SE(T) for the evaluation of structural integrity in conducting ducts of gas and oil; Aplicacao da tecnica de normalizacao linear da carga em especimes SE(T) para a avaliacao de integridade estrutural em dutos condutores de gas e petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovatto, R.R.; Carvalho, A.L.M.; Bose Filho, W.W.; Spinelli, D.; Rugieri, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], e-mail: betaopiovatto@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This aim of this work is to evaluate the fracture toughness of pipe lines under high internal pressure, used in the petroliferous industry for transportation of gas and oil. These ducts are produced from high strength low alloy steels, classified as API X60. Therefore, to simulate the stress and strain fields ahead of crack, the SE(T) specimens has been point out as the best specimen geometry. The linear load normalization technique, LLN, has been showed as a promissory technique for obtaining the J-R resistance curves. The J values were obtained following the ASTM 1820 and 1152 standards, with the coefficients modified for this specimen geometry. Side groves were executed to avoid crack tunneling and to maintaining the crack on the plane perpendicular to the loading direction. The J-R curves obtained are compatible for high ductility steels. However, the observed J values seems to high, and the factors affecting this result are discussed in this work. (author)

  6. Evaluation of secular trend and the existence of cases of clusters of bladder cancer in Goiania: descriptive study population-based; Avaliacao da tendencia temporal e da existencia de casos de clusters de cancer de bexiga em Goiania: estudo descritivo de base populacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Gisele Guimaraes Daflon

    2008-07-01

    More than 20 years after the radiological accident with cesium-137 in the city of Goiania, there is still a feeling in local population that the number of cases of cancer in the city is growing up due to the past radiation exposure and that the number of people contaminated or exposed was higher than the number reported. The present study aims to evaluate the temporal trend and the space-time distribution of bladder cancer cases in Goiania from 1988 and 2003, taking into account that bladder cancer presents the highest risk coefficients per unit of radiation dose among solid cancers. The study population was composed of all incident cases of bladder cancer registered in the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Goiania, between 1988 and 2003.Temporal trend of bladder cancer incidence was analyzed by sex and age groups ( < 60 and {>=} 60 years of age) through polynomial regression using age standardized incidence rates of bladder cancer (world population). SaTscan was used to determine whether statistical significant geographic clusters of high incidence of bladder cancer cases can be located in the city. The results showed a significant increase of bladder cancer incidence rates in males of all ages (p= 0.025) and for age group higher or equal to 60 years old (p=O.022), and a stability in trends for female sex. In the space-time analysis, a cluster was identified, however without statistical significance (p=0.278) and its location has no relationship with the main focuses of contamination of the radiological accident in 1987. We concluded that, despite of the increase of incidence rates in males, this can be explained by the improvement in diagnostic procedures throughout time, being this increase still not perceived in females considering the small number of cases. As chance can not be ruled out as the explanation of the identified cluster, we do not suggest any further detailed investigation in this cluster, as the occurrence of cluster diseases in space can occur randomically without any relationship to environmental factors in the geographical area. (author)

  7. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Spatial seasonal evaluation; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto (CNAAA), Saco de Piraquara de Fora, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Avaliacao espaco-temporal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1994-12-31

    Marine macro algae from the area which is under in fluence of the heated and chlorate liquid effluent to the CNAAA were observed (1981-1983) at 3 collection points: Pingo Dagua, Velho Beach, discharge point. A total of 121 taxa were found: 29 Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 66 Rhodophyta. The spring season was the richest in taxa (78) while autumn was the poorest (85). Overall, the data suggest that the point A (Pingo Dagua) macro algae community (which is similar to the discharge point (0,80) is adequate for the control of the CNAAA effluent impact ad Piraquara de Fora. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Integrated evaluation of offer and energy demand management in Honduras, with emphasis on the residential area of the 'Valle de Sula metropolitan area'; Avaliacao integrada de alternativas de oferta e de gerenciamento da demanda de energia em Honduras, com enfase no setor residencial da 'zona metropolitana del Valle de Sula'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcamo, Jose Ricardo Matute

    2000-09-01

    A methodology for the integrated analysis of energy demand side and supply alternatives in Honduras is developed. The residential sector of the ZMVS (Sula Valley Metropolitan Area) , in the Honduran north coast is emphasized and identified as having the most promising energy efficiency potential region in the country. Energy end uses and load curve characterization was carried out by ENEE and OLADE investigation developed for the ZMVS region. Energy demand side management programs evaluated comprise: substitution of 20W compact fluorescent lamps for 50 and 60 W incandescent bulbs: substitution of LPG stoves for electric stoves, after their useful life; substitution of efficient for inefficient refrigerators: and replacement of air conditioning equipment with ERR at 8,8 or less with more efficient airs conditioning equipment. Economic evaluation of the programs was carried out under three different perspectives: the consumer, the utility and the perspective of society. Results indicate that energy efficiency and energy demand side management programs are cost-effective, since their costs are lower than equivalent supply-side options. (author)

  9. Technical evaluation of the reduction of energy consumption and electrical demand of active power on the campus of UFMT (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso) after implantation of the energy efficiency project; Avaliacao tecnica da reducao do consumo de energia eletrica e demanda de potencia ativa no campus da UFMT apos implantacao do projeto de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho Malheiro; Vasconcelos, Arnulfo Barroso de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos de Planejamento Energetico; Ochiuto, Milton de Souza; Bernardes, Thiago Alves [Centrais Eletricas Matogrossenses (CEMAT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since the energy crisis of 2001, measures that promote rational use of energy have been adopted by the Brazilian population. Either by industries that developed more efficient equipment, or by consumers, inclined in acquiring these equipment and adopting rational energy use measures, or by the government, that established a series of measures stimulating the energy efficiency. This work will go to illustrate some of these measures, as the implantation of STAMP PROCEL, that aims to indicate to the consumer which equipment achieve greater efficiency in each category. And law number 9,991, of July 24 2000, that regulates research and development investments in energy efficiency by electric sector companies. Finally, the result of the implantation of a energy efficiency project in a public agency will be shown, illustrating the impacts that the development of these projects bring to society as a whole. (author)

  10. Assessment of the effects of inhibition of inflammatory cascades and exogenous supplementation of CXCL12 in hematopoiesis of experimental; Avaliacao dos efeitos da inibicao de cadeias inflamatorias e da suplementacao exogena de CXCL 12 na hematopoiese de modelos experimentais expostos a doses letais ou subletais de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Daniel Perez

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inhibition of the inflammatory chains governed by the action of interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma}) and the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in damage after radiation exposure to lethal dose (8 Gy) or moderate /severe dose (4 Gy) in hematopoietic tissues (spleen and bone marrow) of experimental models irradiated at these doses. Groups of isogenic C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to radiation (4 or 8 Gy) in whole-body exposures in a {sup 60}Co panoramic source. Similarly, were irradiated mice whose iNOS or IFN-{gamma} expression was absent or undetectable. Other groups received orally in all days of experiments an inhibitor of iNOS activity, aminoguanidine, or CXCL12, a primordial chemokine known as an haematopoiesis promoter intraperitoneally by days 0 to fourth after radiation events. Another groups received the two agents concomitantly. The animals were sacrificed on days second, fourth and eighth after irradiation, and fragments of the spleens and femurs were preserved for histology. Splenocytes and non-adherent cells from femoral bone marrow were removed and divided, providing aliquots for subsequent RT-PCR and cell suspensions suitable for flow cytometry experiments specific to the detection of the frequency of CD34+ cell populations. In same days of experiment, tail blood samples were collected for counting of peripheral red blood cells and platelets. The results showed that the absence of the production of interferon-gamma at the irradiated sites increases the survival and the amount of hematopoietic progenitor cells and that the absence of iNOS or its functional blockade reduces the extent of radioinduced damage in tested hematopoietic tissues. Furthermore, it was possible to observe that supplementing with synthetic CXCL12 increases the frequency of CD34{sup +} phenotype in the spleens of tested models, and that its effect seems to antagonize the inhibition of the production of NO by aminoguanidine. (author)

  11. In vitro evaluation of the morphologic changes on the root dentine irradiated by CO{sub 2} laser associated or not to calcium hydroxide application; Avaliacao in vitro das alteracoes morfologicas da superficie da dentina radicular irradiada pelo laser de CO{sub 2} associado ou nao a aplicacao de hidroxido de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Ana Cristina Cury Camargo

    2003-07-01

    This in vitro study has evaluated the structural changes on the root dentine irradiated by a CO{sub 2} laser associated or not to calcium hydroxide application, from the irradiated surface analysis by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). The purpose of this evaluation has been the study of an alternative method for the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. Fourteen human teeth were utilized, third molars, divided into 7 groups. Group I (control group) to which no treatment was applied; Groups II, III and IV were given an application of Ca (OH){sub 2} paste followed by C0{sub 2} laser irradiation, lasting 5 seconds each with intervals of 10 seconds between each application, with continuous emission, power of 0.5 W (Group II), 1.0 W (Group III), and 1.5 W (Group IV); Groups V, VI, and VII were given laser irradiations without the Ca (OH){sub 2} paste following the same parameters applied to groups II, III, and IV respectively. Morphologic changes suggesting to fusion and re-solidification have been observed, as well as the presence of material obstructing the whole analyzed surface on groups II, III, and IV (laser + Ca (OH){sub 2}). As for groups V, VI, and VII, it has been observed fusion, re-solidification, and cracks, and these results being statistically significant when compared the '(Ca (OH){sub 2})' groups to the laser groups. No statistically significant differences were observed regarding the different powers applied in the groups that used the same treatment. Despite this result, it can be stated that powers above 1.0 W (DP = 125,38 W/cm{sup 2}) are unfavorable due to the undesirable morphologic alterations and aesthetic compromising. (author)

  12. Appraisal of the biocide activity of products for the control of microorganisms associated with corrosive processes in the Bacia de Campos pipelines; Avaliacao da acao biocida de produtos para o controle de microrganismos associados a processos corrosivos em oledutos da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Monica de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Biotecnologia e Ecossistemas]. E-mail: mpena@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao]. E-mail: cynthiaandrade@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Nascimento, Juliana Rangel do; Silva, Edilson Domingos da; Souza, Leonardo Suhett de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: julianarn@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; edilson@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; suhett@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2001-12-01

    The possible effect of corrosion inhibitors on bacteria has significant interest for the oil and gas industry since, in addition to presenting lower operational costs than biocides due to the low concentrations used, they allow a simultaneous activity on the inhibition of corrosion and adhesion of sulfate reducing-bacteria. In the case of pipes with low BSW oil fluid low, the benefit of using corrosion inhibitors in microorganism combat is even more significant in view of their dispersing characteristics during the oil phase. Herein presented are the laboratorial analysis results of the biocidal effects of six commercial products, four of which having corrosion inhibition function and two with biocidal quality. During this analysis, an oil sample collected from a Petrobras pipeline and a mixed culture of sulfate-reducing mesophilic bacteria (m-BRS) obtained from this sample were used. The study was divided in two phases: the first phase performed in semi-static conditions and, the second phase performed in dynamic conditions (loop). Compositions were analyzed according to their activities regarding the growth control of sulfate-reducing planktonic bacteria, according to their time reducing performance regarding microbial growth (activity) detection and regarding sessile bacteria (pre-adhered bacteria). Results showed that the two biocidal products had the best performance in the presence of oil and that the tetra kishidroximethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) at 75% was the most effective. Of the four corrosion inhibitors tested for efficiency regarding BRS growth in solution, three were slightly stimulating and the fourth was intensely stimulating. (author)

  13. Diagnosis and evaluation of the environmental interference in the nascent and streams due to the passing of the Bolivia-Mato Grosso pipeline in the Serrana Province; Diagnostico e avaliacao das interferencias ambientais nas nascentes e corregos da Provincia Serrana, decorrentes da passagem do gasoduto Bolivia-Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durao, Alaide M. [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Durao, Claudia V.M. [Bio-Geo Consultoria Ambiental, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The investigated area involves the Pipeline Row of Bolivia Mato-Grosso, inserted in the South-center of The Serrana Province (Almeida, 1964). The south-center section of Serrana Province is a water divisor from those that leaks west directly to Paraguay River from the waters that leaks on the east side to Pantanal. This work has as main subject, to diagnose and to value the environmental impacts that occurred and can occur in the future on the brooks and springs where there were Pipeline Bolivia Mato-Grosso interference on its crossing at the Serrana area, in Caceres municipality. The springs monitor were done during 18 months (march, 2001 to September, 2001), during and after the ending of the works, including different climates and hydrologic conditions, making it possible to diagnose and to value the draining behavior on the drought and on the overflow epoch. So, we believe that the knowledge about the interferences, risks and alterations that reflects on the fluvial duct of the sub-basin that drains the Serrana Province and leaks to Paraguay River may be contributing indirectly or directly to the Pantanal conservation. (author)

  14. Evaluation of temperature variation in pulp chamber after high power diode laser irradiation ({lambda}=830 nm) on dental enamel: 'in vitro' study; Avaliacao da variacao da temperatura na camara pulpar apos a irradiacao de diodo laser de alta potencia de 830 nanometros em esmalte dental: estudo 'in vitro'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macri, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the variation of temperature in the pulp chamber caused by irradiation of a commercial diode laser operating in continuous wave with wavelength 830 nm over the dental enamel. In the first part of this study, two types of tooth models were tested: 3,5 mm slice and whole tooth. In the second part, we irradiated the buccal si de of the enamel in 2 primary lower incisors from cattle with Opus 10 diode laser for 10 s with power levels of 1 W and 2 W, always using an absorber. Two thermocouples were used. The first one was inserted in the dentin wall closest to the irradiation site, while the second was inserted in the middle of the pulp chamber. It was observed that the thermocouples registered different temperatures. Always, the dentin thermocouple registered higher temperatures. Considering the dentin records, the irradiation of 1 W for 10 s can be safe for the pulp. Further studies must be developed related to the correct positioning of the thermocouples inside the pulp chamber. This was a first step of using diode laser in enamel, and in this study, we concluded that the Opus 10 diode laser shown to be safe for this use, with 1 W power for 10 S. (author)

  15. In vitro evaluation of marginal microleakage in class V restorations with composite resin in bovine teeth. Laser irradiation influences and the adhesive system in the dentin pre-treatment; Avaliacao in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em restauracoes de classe V com resina composta em dentes bovinos. Influencia da irradiacao laser e sistema adesivo no pre-tratamento dentinario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Wendell Lima de

    2003-07-01

    Microleakage is one of the most important reasons to restorations failure, it is the responsible for marginal colors changing, new caries, hipersensibility and pulpar diseases. Several techniques and materials have been studied to eliminate or, at least, to decrease microleakage. The cavities preparation with Er:YAG laser and autoconditioning adhesive are some of these techniques and materials. This research has the objective to compare, in vitro, microleakage in class V cavities, prepared with high rotation (conventional treatment), Er:YAG laser (Enamel-400 mj/2 Hz/128,38 J/Cm{sup 2}, Dentin 250 mJ/ 2 Hz/ 80,24 J/Cm{sup 2}) and the treatment made at dentin with autoconditioning adhesive (Clerafil SE Bond) using Er:YAG laser (with water or not water) or not using Er:YAG laser. It was used 48 bovines teeth with cavities prepared in vestibular face and gingival wall on cement enamel junction and oclusal wall on enamel. The materials used were autoconditioning adhesive (Clerafil SE Bond) and composite resin Z250. Teeth were divided into four groups of twelve samples each one, according to dentin treatment. Group 1 - Conventional cavity and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 2- Cavity prepared with Er: YAG laser and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 3 - Cavity prepared with Er:YAG laser and dentin conditioning with Er:YAG laser associated to water and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 4 - Cavity prepared with Er:YAG laser and dentin conditioning with Er: YAG laser without water and associated to autoconditioning adhesive. Teeth were restored and stocked at 37 deg C, thermocycled and placed into a 50% silver nitrate solution. Right after, teeth were sliced and evaluated on a stereo microscopic magnifying glass in order to see microleakage degree trying to follow a score from 0 to 3. The findings were submitted to Fisher, Anderson-Darling tests and to the not parametric Sen and Puri test. The results indicated that in gingival edge, the Group 2 showed less microleakage than others ones; in the oclusal edges there were not statistic differences among all the groups. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the quality of the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MIBI and its influence on image quality in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy; Avaliacao da qualidade do radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI e sua influencia na qualidade da imagem em cintilografia de perfusao do miocardio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Poliane Angelo de Lucena

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the quality of the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI radiopharmaceutical from different manufacturers, used in three nuclear medicine services (NMS) in Recife-PE, through labeling procedure of each service. It was observed their biodistribution by quantifying the activity present in the organs of interest (heart / liver), the influence and interference in image quality and in myocardial scintigraphy diagnosis exam. In these NMS (A, B and C) were done quality controls in the eluates of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators (radionuclidic, chemical and radiochemical purity and pH) and of the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI radiopharmaceutical (radiochemical purity and pH) used in myocardial scintigraphy exam. In the case of radiochemical purity (RCP), was used the thin layer chromatography technique; after the chromatographic ran on, the plates were analyzed both in the dose calibrator, and in scintillation camera of each NMS. The radiopharmaceutical biodistribution was evaluated through the activities present in the heart and liver images in 60 patients, using the technique of combined images counting. Five nuclear physicians analyzed 24 images through myocardial perfusion visual interpretation during stress, it was verified the agreement degree among them. The results of the quality control showed that all eluate samples were in agreement with the manufacturers in relation to radionuclidic purity and pH. In relation to chemical purity, 10% of the services samples B and C showed Al{sup +3} values above 10 ppm. In the RCP, it was observed that using the scintillation camera, only 22% of the samples would be discarded, while with dose calibrator would be 78%, indicating that the scintillation camera is more sensitive in chromatographic pale analysis. For the labeled radiopharmaceutical, the services B and C presented respectively one and three samples with RCP percentage below 90%. However, C service presented the lowest medium to liver/heart proportions, showing that this factor does not depends on the labeling efficiency. In the images evaluation, in relation to perfusion defect degree, were observed a lower concordance number (20%) among the evaluators in the exams group with radiopharmaceutical labeling problems. These results suggested that problems in radiopharmaceutical labeling can interfere in image interpretation, emphasizing the need to comply with ANVISA (Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency) requirements in relation to quality controls in radiopharmaceuticals implementation before its administration to the patient. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation (N{sub 2}) contribution in several forage legumes and the transfer of N to associated grasses; Avaliacao da contribuicao da fixacao biologica de N{sub 2} em varias leguminosas forrageiras e transferencia de N para uma graminea consorciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.S.V.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to compare two different techniques for labelling the soil mineral nitrogen with {sup 15} N, for studies to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to forage legumes using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. The two techniques for labelling the soil were: incorporation a {sup 15} N labelled organic compost (slow release treatment), and split applications of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate. The evaluation of the techniques was through the quantification of BNF in the Itaguai Hybrid of Centrosema using two non-Na- fixing control plants (P. maximum K K-16 and Sorghum bicolor). The objective of experiment 2 was to quantify the contribution of BNF to forage legumes and the transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grasses in mixed swards again using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. This study was conducted on a red podzolic soil (Typic Hapludult), with 7 forage legumes and 3 grasses in monoculture, and 3 mixed swards of Brachiaria brizantha with the Centrosema hybrid, Galactia striata and Desmodium ovalifolium, respectively, with varying ratios of grass to legume (4:1 to 1:4). In order to quantify the BNF contributions to the legumes and the transfer of fixed N to the B. brizantha, the plots were amended 8 times with doses of 0.01 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate (12.5 atom % {sup 15} N) each 14 days, giving a total of 0.08 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N during the 97 days of the experiment. In monoculture the different forage legumes obtained the equivalent of between 43 and 100 kg N ha{sup -1} from BNF. Stylosanthes guianensis showed the greatest contributions from BNF at 100 Kg N ha{sup -1}. In mixed swards with Brachiaria brizantha the proportion of N derived from BNF in the three legumes studied (Centrosema hybrid, G. striata and D. ovalifolium) was significantly greater than when they were grown in monoculture. (author). 197 refs, 9 figs, 19 tabs.

  18. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  19. Clinical evaluation of the low intensity laser antialgic action of GaAlAs ({lambda}=785 nm) in the treatment of the temporomandibular disorders; Avaliacao clinica da acao antialgica do laser em baixa intensidade de arseneto de galio e aluminio ({lambda}=785 nm) no tratamento das disfuncoes da articulacao temporo-mandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanseverino, Nelly Tichauer Maluf

    2001-07-01

    The therapy with laser emitting low intensity has been currently used in the most diverse fields of medicine as therapeutic conduct for pain. It is a non invasive, painless, non-thermal and aseptic type therapy, without any collateral effects, having a good cost/benefit relationship. However, for the therapy with low-intensity laser to result in positive effects, a correct diagnosis is fundamental, as well as a protocol of adequate application. n odontology, the majority of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), present pain and limitations in the movements of the jaw. In this work, a GaAlAs laser emitting low intensity, was used, {lambda}=785 nm, in patients having a dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint with a complaint of pain. Twenty patients were divided into two groups. The group treated received laser therapy in the temporomandibular articulations and in the muscles affected. The dose applied was 45 J/cm{sup 2}, while the ten patients in the control group received 0 J/cm{sup 2}, in a total of nine applications, carried out three times a week, during three weeks. he evaluation of the patients was made through clinical examinations of manual palpation of the masseter, temporal, cervical, posterior neck and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and measurements of opening and laterality of the mouth. The results obtained showed a diminishing of the pain and an increase of the mandibular mobility in the patients treated, when compared to the control group. These results point to this therapy as being an important tool in the treatment of pain in patients with a dysfunction in the TMJ, indicating this therapeutic modality as a co-adjuvant in these treatments. (author)

  20. Oil generation potential assessment and paleoenvironmental interpretation based on bio markers and stable carbon isotopes of the Pliensbachian - lower Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) of the Peniche region (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal); Avaliacao do potencial gerador de petroleo e interpretacao paleoambiental com base em biomarcadores e isotopos estaveis de carbono da secao Pliensbaquiano - Toarciano inferior (Jurassico Inferior) da regiao de Peniche (Bacia Lusitanica, Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Veiga de; Rodrigues, Rene; Duarte, Luis Vitor; Lemos, Valesca Brasil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia]. E-mail: lcveiga@petrobras.com.br

    2006-05-15

    The Lusitanian Basin (Portugal) is located on the western margin of the Iberian Plate with maximum sedimentary thickness around 5 km. In spite of containing promising petroleum systems and more than a hundred wells, its hydrocarbon generation potential has not been fully evaluated yet. These sediments range from upper Triassic to upper Cretaceous, mainly from the Jurassic age. The Lower Jurassic is particularly well represented in the Lusitanian Basin, specifically in the Peniche region, where there are more than 450 m thick outcrops of carbonate rocks aged between Sinemurian and Toarcian. This study presents the evaluation of the hydrocarbon generation potential of the Pliensbachian . lower Toarcian of the Peniche section; which includes the Vale das Fontes Formation, Lemede Formation and Cabo Carvoeiro Formation (CC1 and CC2 members) based on 233 rock samples analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-Eval pyrolysis and bio markers. Available data of oxygen and carbon stable isotopes were also used in the paleoenvironmental interpretation. Marls and limestones with the bituminous facies (Mlbf) of the Vale das Fontes Formation, present the highest TOC values, up to 14.95%, corresponding to the ibex (upper part), davoei and margaritatus ammonites zones and part of the NJ4a and NJ4b nanno fossils bio zones (Pliensbachian). In thermal immature sections (T max about 430 deg C), this member also shows high S{sub 2} values (10 to 50 mgHC/g rock) and Hydrogen index (HI: 200 to 555 mgHC/g TOC). The correlation between HI x OI shows that type II kerogen is predominant in the portion of the section where TOC values are higher. The good positive correlation between TOC values and the bio markers ratio P/nC17 and sterane (C{sub 27}/C{sub 29}) throughout the Mlbf Member suggests a gradual increase of anoxia and higher contribution of algae in relation to terrestrial organic matter. Usually {delta}{sup 18}O variations observed in the basins of the Iberian Peninsula have been explained by temperature changes. This work proposes an alternative interpretation, by correlating {delta}{sup 18}O alterations with data on bio markers to indicate salinity variations. Thus, the presence of gammacerane in the marls and limestones with Uptonia and Pentacrinus (Mlup) and lumpy marls and limestones (Lml), associated to the increase of {delta}{sup 18}O values would indicate an environment with salinity above normal levels. In addition to this, the increase of moretanes rates towards the maximum flooding (MF) interval - which is located in the {delta}{sup 13}C positive excursion in the upper part of the Mlbf Member - margaritatus ammonites zone and NJ4b nanno fossil bio zone - associated with the absence of gammacerane, suggests gradual salinity reduction. The presence of gammaceranes at the uppermost part of the Mlbf Member, with the moretanes rate reduction and the increase of Ts/Tm values seems to indicate a new cycle of increasing salinity.

  1. Study of the viability of technetium-{sup 99m} labeling of whole antimyosin antibody and its fragment: development of radiopharmaceutical for cardiac survey; Estudo da viabilidade da marcacao com tecnecio-99m do anticorpo antimiosina integro e seu fragmento: desenvolvimento de radiofarmaco para avaliacao cardiaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz de Castro

    2007-07-01

    In the acute myocardium infarction, the myocytes cell membrane loses its integrity, allowing the influx of extracellular macromolecules such as circulating antibody into the damaged cell. The use of the specific antibodies against cardiac myosin labeled with {sup 99m}Tc allows to determine the localization and extension of myocardial infarction. The purpose of this work was to study the viability of labeling of the antimyosin monoclonal antibody and its fragment F(ab')2 with {sup 99m}Tc. Because of the high cost of antimyosin antibody, others antibodies were used to optimize the methodology and the best condition was used for antimyosin antibody. The intact antibody was cleaved by pepsin to produce F(ab'){sub 2} fragment. The F(ab'){sub 2} and the intact antibody were reduced by treatment with Dithiothreitol (DTT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and labeled with {sup 99m}Tc by direct method. Different concentrations of reductant, mixing conditions and incubation times were studied. In the standard condition, incubation at molar ratio 1:1000 (antibody:reducing agent) at room temperature for 30 minutes with continuous rotation (850 rpm), 13.28 - SH groups were formed per molecule. It was studied the influence of p H, of the concentration of stannous chloride (Sn{sup 2+}) and incubation time in the labeling condition. The better radiochemical yield (90.06 +- 1.53%) was obtained using 2.5 {mu}g of Sn{sup 2+} in p H 4.5 for 60 minutes. The labeling of the fragment F(ab'){sub 2} did not present satisfactory results because of the low yield of the digestion. After purification by PD-10, the biodistribution study was performed and showed that the intact antimyosin antibody labeled with {sup 99m}Tc presented fast kinetic compatible with the biodistribution of an intact antibody labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. Scintigraphy image of the animal with myocardial infarction was obtained and compared with the image of a normal animal. The studies allow to conclude that the use of fragment F(ab'){sub 2} are not viable, but the use of the labeled antimyosin antibody are promising. (author)

  2. The action of ionizing radiation on the morphology, physiology and growth of Leishmania Amazonensis, with evaluation of their immunogenic power in experimental models; Acao da radiacao ionizante sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e crescimento da Leishmania amazonensis, com avaliacao de seu poder imunogenico em modelos experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, Franco Claudio

    2002-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease which affects thousands of people in the Tropical regions around the world, is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania spp., with urban and wild mammals acting as reservoirs. In the mammal host, the amastigote form of the parasite infects and multiplies into macrophages. Treatments for leishmaniasis have a high cost and are long lasting, frequently resulting in therapy interruption. This procedure culminates with a selection of resistant parasite strains, inducing tolerance to the therapy. Either the control of vectors or the mammal host are difficult due the social and economic implications. Thus, the search for alternatives treatments against these protozoans have been stimulated. The gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) shown to be an efficient toll to kill these parasites maintaining their immunogenicity. Cellular viability, Electronically microscopy and Multiplex-PCR techniques showed that, after irradiation, the parasites had their growth inhibited by cytoplasmatic and nucleic material disorganisation, appointing the gamma radiation as important in terms of immunogens improvement. (author)

  3. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market; Avaliacao da microbiota fungica e da presenca de micotoxinas em amostras de plantas medicinais irradiadas adquiridas no comercio varejista e atacadista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-07-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a {sup 60}Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  4. Comparative study of the action of two different types of bleaching agents activated by two different types of irradiation fonts: xenon plasma arc lamp and 960 nm diode laser; Avaliacao da cor e estudo comparativo da acao de dois tipos diferentes de agentes clareadores ativados pelo laser de diodo e lampada xenonio plasmatica, na superficie do esmalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walverde, Debora Ayala

    2001-07-01

    This in vitro study compares two different types of tooth bleaching agents stimulated with two different irradiation fonts. These fonts accelerate the action of the bleaching agents upon the enamel surface by heating up the materials. We used the xenon plasma arc lamp and a 960 nm fiber-coupled diode laser to irradiate the two materials containing 35% of hydrogen peroxide (Opus White and Opalescence extra). The color of the teeth was measured with a spectrophotometer using the CIELAB color system that gives the numeric values of L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *}. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the effect of low intensity laser radiation on the osseointegration of titanium implants inserted in rabbits' tibia; Avaliacao biomecanica da acao da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade no processo de osseointegracao de implantes de titanio inseridos em tibia de coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho Filho, Thyrso

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of low intensity laser irradiation on bone repair process after titanium implant surgeries performed in rabbits' tibia. Thirty three Norfolk rabbits were divided into three different groups according to the implant removal period (14, 21 and 42 days). Two titanium-pure implants were inserted one in each tibia and one side was randomly chosen to be irradiated. Irradiations were performed employing a GaAlAs laser ({lambda}=780 nm) during 10 seconds, with an energy density of 7.5 J/cm{sup 2} on 4 spots: above, bellow, on the right and on the left side of the implants with an interval between irradiations of 48 hours during 14 days. Animals were sacrificed according to the observation times, tibias were removed and the strength removal values recorded. Results showed that, for the 21 and 42 days sacrifices periods, the irradiated side presented a statistically higher implant strength removal values when compared to the non-irradiated side. (author)

  6. Da onda da gestão da qualidade a uma filosofia da qualidade da gestão: Balanced Scorecard promovendo mudanças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cavalcanti Correia Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 80 a Gestão da Qualidade Total (GQT era apresentada como capaz de resolver todos os problemas e atender a todas as necessidades da gestão das organizações. Buscando solucionar problemas de gestão não equacionados pela GQT, muitas organizações começam a adotar o Balanced Scorecard (BSC. Uma questão ainda não discutida com profundidade no mundo acadêmico é a viabilidade de integração desses dois modelos. O presente artigo discute a possibilidade de integração dessas duas ferramentas, verificando as melhorias que podem alcançar, principalmente no gerenciamento da estratégia da organização. Assim sendo, realizou-se estudo de caso no Caesar Park Hotel Fortaleza (CPHF, empresa que vêm adotando com sucesso os dois modelos. A pesquisa revela que é possível integrar os princípios da GQT com os do BSC, à medida que os fundamentos de ambos se complementam, sendo assim a utilização conjunta das ferramentas propicia melhor gerenciamento da estratégia da organização.In recent years, many organizations have been managed according to the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM, which became known around the globe in the 1980's, when looking for explanations for the so-called "Japanese miracle". TQM was presented as being capable of solving all problems and attending to all company management needs, a stage that seems outdated now. In the search for a model that would allow them to analyze and follow up the implementation of organizational strategies, without remaining limited to Quality indicators, many companies started to adopt the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. Companies using TQM question whether it is viable together with the BSC. In order to contribute to a solution to this question, this article discusses the possibility of aligning these two tools. Therefore, a case study was carried out at the Caesar Park Hotel Fortaleza, a company that implanted TQM in 1997 and started to adopt the BSC in 2000. The

  7. Formas obstrutivas da neurocisticercose ventricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio de Vergueiro Forjaz

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available A incidência da cisticercose cerebral entre os consulentes orientados para o Ambulatório de Neurologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Prêto é muito alta. Trata-se de moléstia que, pela gravidade de seus sintomas, pela facilidade de infestação e pela precariedade dos recursos terapêuticos, representa um probiema individual e social grave nesta região. Muitos aspectos da moléstia já foram esclarecidos, sendo grande a contribuição de autores brasileiros. Certas feições da moléstia, porém, ainda comportam maiores estudos. É nosso objetivo oferecer uma contribuição ao estudo das formas intraventriculares de neurocisticercose. Relatamos as observações de 4 pacientes com queixas de hipertensão intracraniana periódica e com achados liquóricos e radiológicos compatíveis com a suspeita de cisticercose cerebral. Exames subsidiários (pneumencefalografia ou ventriculografia mostraram que em dois dêstes pacientes havia bloqueio do aqueduto de Sylvius (casos 3 e 4 e que, nos outros dois, havia exclusão de um ventrículo lateral por bloqueio do buraco de Monro (caso 1 e da confluência dos cornos temporal e occipital (caso 2. Nos dois casos em que havia bloqueio na parte alta do aqueduto de Sylvius os pacientes acusavam dificuldade no olhar vertical (síndrome de Parinaud. O tratamento cirúrgico permitiu desfazer o bloqueio em 3 casos (casos 2, 3 e 4; no caso 1 as punções feitas após a intervenção cirúrgica parecem ter agido benèficamente no sentido de restabelecer o trânsito do liqüido cefalorraquidiano. Excluindo um paciente (caso 2 que faleceu em caquexia 3 meses após a operação e no qual o exame necroscópico mostrou lesões pregressas imputáveis apenas à hipertensão aguda sem lesões cisticercóticas, os outros casos evoluíram para a cura.

  8. POSSIBILIDADES NO TRATAMENTO DA HISTÓRIA DISCIPLINAR DA HISTÓRIA DA EDUCAÇÃO POR MEIO DA CULTURA ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gonçalves Borges

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste artigo é apresentar como possibilidade o tratamento da história da disciplina História da Educação na perspectiva da cultura escolar. Para tanto, inicia-se com a abordagem da história da própria disciplina, que originária nos cursos de formação de professores, disseminou-se pelo mundo a partir do início do século XX. Na sequência, são apresentados os usos do termo cultura, propriamente nas ciências humanas e no interior da disciplina História com o desenvolvimento da chamada Nova História. No contexto da pesquisa em História da Educação, aborda-se a cultura escolar como objeto e categoria histórica e a possível construção de uma história do ensino, que responda a intenção de fazer uma história de dentro, ou seja, a reconstrução de uma disciplina por meio de suas práticas escolares e ação dos agentes educacionais.http://dx.doi.org/10.14572/nuances.v25i1.2726

  9. SÍNTESE DA PENEIRA MOLECULAR MCM-41 DERIVADA DA CINZA DA CASCA DO ARROZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Martins Braga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As peneiras moleculares MCM-41 têm atraído grande interesse devido as suas propriedades de alta área específica, volume e diâmetro de poros controláveis. Estes materiais são aplicados em diversos ramos da indústria química como adsorventes, suportes catalíticos e catalisadores heterogêneos em vários processos. Neste trabalho, o MCM-41 foi sintetizado a partir da cinza da casca do arroz, natural e tratada quimicamente, como fontes alternativas de sílica, denominadas CCA-MCM-41 e CCAL-MCM-41, respectivamente, com o objetivo de reaproveitar este resíduo e produzir um material mesoporoso de menor custo. Os materiais foram sintetizados pelo método hidrotérmico a partir de um gel com composição molar: CTAMBr 1,0 mol L-1; SiO2 4,0 mol L-1; Na2O 1,0 mol L-1; H2O 200 mol L-1 e caracterizados por FRX, DRX, FT-IR e determinação de área superficial pelo método BET. Os materiais obtidos apresentaram elevada área superfícial específica (905 m2 g-1, com dimensões e volume de poros dentro das especificações de materiais mesoporosos, sendo estas prorpriedades semelhantes ao MCM-41 sintetizado com a sílica gel comercial, comprovando que a cinza da casca do arroz pode ser utilizada como fonte alternativa de sílica na síntese de peneiras moleculares do tipo MCM-41.

  10. Controlo operacional da qualidade da água: caso Águas do Algarve

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Helena Maria Gonçalves Lucas dos

    2014-01-01

    O presente relatório pretende contribuir para a demonstração de que a adoção de um esquema de certificação da água para consumo humano associado à implementação de um plano de segurança da água, permite implementar um programa de controlo operacional da qualidade da água, quer no tratamento da água para consumo humano, quer no sistema de abastecimento de água, tendo em vista detetar e corrigir, em tempo útil, as alterações que eventualmente ocorram na qualidade da água. ...

  11. Investimento no capital humano da AP, factor essencial na resolução da crise

    OpenAIRE

    Rato, Helena; Silva, Matilde Gago da

    2011-01-01

    Becker e outros cientistas das ciências humanas levaram ao desenvolvimento da teoria do capital humano. O desenvolvimento da sociedade do conhecimento e as TIC reforçaram o reconhecimento da importância do capital humano. Contudo, os países da sociedade do conhecimento enfrentam uma ameaça de retrocesso, devido ao desajuste dos indicadores do desempenho macroeconómico e à dificuldade de mensuração do investimento em capital humano. A resolução da crise actual exige que o capital humano da Adm...

  12. Influence of cobalt nitrate concentration in the calcination temperature and time for synthesis of La{sub 0,60S}r{sub 0,40C}o{sub 0,20F}e{sub 0,80O3}; Influencia da concentracao de nitrato de cobalto na temperatura e tempo de calcinacao para a sintese do La{sub 0,60S}r{sub 0,40C}o{sub 0,20F}e{sub 0,80O3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, R.A.; Bonturim, E.; Andreoli, M.; Chiba, R.; Seo, E.S.M., E-mail: ravargas@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de SOFC: Insumos e Componentes

    2010-07-01

    The La({sub 1-x})Sr{sub x}Co({sub 1-y})Fe{sub y}O{sub 3} (LSCF) has been highlighted as a excellent cathode for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, due to the high catalytic activity and good ionic and electronic conductivity. This work presents some characteristics of LSCF particle with regard of nitrate excess cobalt influence in the synthesis which different temperatures (700, 800, 900 and 1000 deg C) and times (2, 3 and 4h) calcination. The material was synthesized by citrate technique and analysis for XRF to confirmed the formation of nominal composition (x=0,40 and y=0,80). The micrographs showed the grain sized distribution disclosed particle accumulations, with 0,50 mum inferior average sizes. It was verified for TGA that the LSCF is synthesized above at 700 deg C and for XRD the studied formation of the main phase pseudo-orthorhombic structure in temperatures and times studied.(author)

  13. EFEITOS DA LARGURA DA FAIXA DE CAPINA NA CULTURA DA MAMONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDISON MARTINS PAULO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de diferentes larguras de faixas de controle de plantas daninhas sobre a altura, o número de racemos e a produção de grãos da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. var. IAC-80, objetivando-se determinar a área vegetada entre as linhas de plantio. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Adamantina, na Estação Experimental de Agronomia da Alta Paulista do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, nos anos agrícolas 1989/90, 1990/91 e 1991/92. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram em faixas com 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 m de largura capinadas ao longo da linha de plantio e mantidas sempre livres de plantas daninhas; além dessas, mateve-se uma faixa de 1,0 m de largura e mesmo procedimento, na qual a comunidade infestante das entrelinhas era roçada manual- mente sempre que a altura média de 0,3 m era atingida. Concluiu-se que faixas de capina menores do que 1,0 m aplicadas sobre a linha de plantio da cultura diminuíram a produção de grãos, o número de racemos e a altura da mamoneira.Three experiments were carried out in Adamantina at the Experimental Station of Agronomy of Alta Paulista, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on a Dark Red Latosol during 1989-1992, in order to study the effects of different row widths covered by weeds on the yield, height and number of racemes of IAC-80 castor bean cultivar. Hoed rows of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 m wide were studied. An extra treatment had the entire plot covered with weeds mantained at 0.3 m height. The row space used was 3.0 x 1.0 m and the plots were 9.0 x 5.0 m. The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Hoeing row width of 1.0 m or less reduced raceme emission, plant height and seed yields.

  14. À Procura da Unidade Primordial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Pazetto Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo uma abordagem crítica de um dos primeiros ensaios de Hölderlin, escrito por volta de 1794-5, intitulado Juízo e Ser. Nesse período, fundamentar o sistema kantiano através de um primeiro princípio tornou-se um dos principais incentivos dos desenvolvimentos teóricos do idealismo alemão. A filosofia de Fichte e Schelling, bem como a de Hölderlin, podem ser compreendidas por esse viés. Entretanto, o último chega a soluções bastante diferentes dos demais, culminando com a negação da possibilidade de um princípio unificador para qualquer sistema filosófico. Assim, contra os incessantes esforços dos idealistas alemães para apreender a totalidade do real em termos conceituais, através de um primeiro princípio, normalmente caracterizado como o Eu, o Sujeito, o Eu absoluto, Hölderlin defende a incognoscibilidade de qualquer conceito unificante do real. A realidade enquanto unidade primordial não pode ser apanhada pelo discurso teórico, nem conhecida, nem aprisionada em conceitos, revelando-se apenas através de uma intuição intelectual de cunho estético. Esse conceito eminentemente anti-kantiano constitui a peça chave para o entendimento do pensamento hölderliniano. Ele justifica, em última instância, o privilégio da poesia e da linguagem poética em detrimento do discurso conceitual e mostra, com isso, que há uma coerência interna entre os ensaios teóricos de Hölderlin e suas obras literárias.

  15. A procura do belo e da verdade

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Cristina Azevedo, 1956-

    2012-01-01

    Contém: 1:Paidéia. 2:Da teoria da arte à representação do corpo. 3: O mundo medieval, as ideias estéticas e a medicina. 4: Os tratados, programa e método. Berengário da Capri e a beleza humanista: o corpo de Apolo como esplendor do conhecimento. Vesalius: a fronteira do natural e do ideal

  16. Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos Francisco Inácio

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available São divulgados os primeiros resultados da avaliação da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil através de técnicas de análise da distribuição espacial. São revisadas questões metodológicas, apontando as dificuldades de estabelecer regiões geográficas homogêneas no Brasil. Descrevem-se tendências recentes da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil - pauperização, interiorização e alteração na participação proporcional das categorias de exposição. Avalia-se a distribuição de casos de AIDS por Unidades da Federação (UFs, confeccionando-se mapas relativos à disseminação da epidemia no período 1987-1993 nas diversas UFs, estabelecendo-se os Centros Gravimétricos (CGs relativos a esses anos. A análise do posicionamento e deslocamento pluri-anual desses CGs indica a força atrativa do Estado de São Paulo como pólo de difusão da epidemia e uma expansão simultânea da epidemia em direção às fronteiras de ocupação. Essas tendências colocam dificuldades adicionais às atividades de prevenção ao acrescentarem novos segmentos populacionais e regiões geográficas ao quadro observado inicialmente nas principais regiões metropolitanas e segmentos mais afetados.

  17. Fisiopatologia da enxaqueca Migraine pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICE B. VINCENT

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A fisiopatologia da enxaqueca ainda não foi completamente elucidada. As principais estruturas envolvidas parecem ser o sistema nervoso central (córtex e tronco cerebral, o sistema trigeminovascular e os vasos correspondentes, outras fibras autonômicas que inervam estes vasos, e os vários agentes vasoativos locais, como a SP, CGRP, NO, VIP, NPY, ACh, NA, NKA, entre outros. A depressão alastrante é o fenômeno neurológico que provavelmente justifica achados experimenais e clínicos na enxaqueca. Ela tem velocidade de propagação semelhante à aura, ativa o núcleo espinhal do trigêmeo e está relacionada à liberação de CGRP e NO. Alterações circulatórias detectadas por métodos complementares reforçam o papel da depressão alastrante. A identificação de anormalidades em pelo menos três loci (cromossomas 19 e 1 na enxaqueca hemiplégica familiar ocorreu recentemente. Elas estão relacionadas a anormalidades nos canais de cálcio voltagem dependentes tipo P/Q, específicos do sistema nervoso central, que regulam a liberação de vários neurotransmissores, incluindo possivelmente a serotonina. A exemplo de outras anormalidades neurológicas paroxísticas que resultam da hiperexcitabilidade da membrana plasmática, é possível que a enxaqueca ocorra devido a uma desordem de canais iônicos.The pathophysiology of migraine is not yet fully understood. The most important structures involved seem to be the central nervous system (cortex and brain stem, the trigeminovascular system and related cranial arteries, other autonomic fibres innervating such vessels, and various local vasoactive agents, including SP, CGRP, NO, VIP, NPY, ACh, NA, NKA, among others. The spreading depression phenomenon may explain clinical as well experimental findings in migraine. Its propagation velocity mirrors what is found in clinical aura, it may activate the spinal trigeminal nucleus and may induce CGRP and NO release. Circulatory changes detected with

  18. Vigotski e o estudo da psicologia da arte: contribuições para o desenvolvimento humano

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Mari Shima Barroco; Tatiane Superti

    2014-01-01

    O presente texto resulta de investigação bibliográfica e de um exercício teórico-metodológico sobre a obra Psicologia da Arte, de L. S. Vigotski (1999), visando aprofundar uma reflexão sobre o objeto e método da própria psicologia da arte. Objetiva-se, assim, discutir as possíveis contribuições da arte para o desenvolvimento humano com base na teoria histórico-cultural. Propõe-se que o objeto da psicologia da arte é o estudo da estrutura da obra, que deve provocar uma resposta estética e impa...

  19. Hiperplasia Benigna da Próstata

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente de Carvalho, J; Sismeiro, A; Campos Pinheiro, L; Catalão Castro, MT; Carmona Luís, MJ; Abreu, MJ; Mendes Silva, M

    2001-01-01

    Os autores fazem a revisão da clínica, do registo da sintomatologia e impacto na qualidade de vida, dos meios auxiliares ao diagnóstico e das atitudes terapêuticas da Hiperplasia benigna da Próstata. Fundamentados nestes dados propõem Orientações Terapêuticas e Recomendações, para quando e como enviar os doentes portadores desta patologia a Urologia. Assim, segundo os critérios definidos neste trabalho, devem ser enviados à Urologia os doentes com sintomatologia importante ou grave, idade ...

  20. Biomarcadores da injúria renal aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres; Ademar Dantas da Cunha Júnior; Alex Júnior Schäfer; Aline Liene da Silva; Arianne Ditzel Gaspar; Deborah Francisca Scarpari; Julia Barazetti Ferrari Alves; Rodolfo Girelli Neto; Thaís Figueiredo Teodoro de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    A creatinina continua a ser o padrão laboratorial para diagnóstico da injúria renal aguda (IRA). Esforços para prevenção da nefrotoxicidade foram prejudicados pelo atraso no diagnóstico da IRA por critérios utilizando somente a creatinina como marcador, havendo, por isso, grande interesse em identificar mais precocemente biomarcadores confiáveis. Além disso, o tratamento precoce da IRA pode ser correlacionado com um melhor prognóstico e a identificação de biomarcadores para um diagnóstico pre...

  1. Actinomicose da Mama em Gestante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottola Jr Juvenal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A actinomicose mamária é doença inflamatória rara, com poucos casos descritos na literatura. Pode ser primária da mama quando resultante de traumas na pele e papila mamária, e, secundária, quando de origem toracopleural. Sua apresentação clínica é variável, devendo ser diferenciada das doenças mais comuns, dentre elas as mastites e também as neoplasias, como o carcinoma inflamatório. Seu diagnóstico é realizado pela cultura da secreção, com a identificação das colônias de Actinomyces sp. Seu tratamento é a drenagem, quando indicada, a antibioticoterapia endovenosa e manutenção oral por tempo prolongado. Os autores relatam caso de abscesso retromamário por Actinomyces sp. em gestante de 12 semanas que apresentava tumoração mamária expansiva na mama esquerda.

  2. A cirurgia da endomiocardiofibrose revisitada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. MORAES

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre dezembro de 1977 e dezembro de 1997, 83 doentes com endomiocardiofibrose (EMF foram submetidos a decorticação endocárdica e substituição ou reparo das valvas atrioventriculares. Sessenta e seis (79,6% eram do sexo feminino e 17 (20,4% do masculino, variando as idades de 4 a 59 anos (média 31. Trinta e sete (44,5% pacientes tinham doença biventricular, 34 (41% apenas do ventrículo direito e 12 (14,5% apresentavam EMF limitada ao ventrículo esquerdo. Todos estavam na classe funcional III ou IV da classificação da New York Heart Association. Sessenta e oito (81,9% pacientes sobreviveram à operação e foram seguidos por período de tempo que variou de um mês a 17 anos. O tempo total de seguimento foi de 6.290 pacientes/meses (média: 92 meses. Houve 15 óbitos tardios, mas em 6 a causa não esteve relacionada à doença de base. Quatro (5,8% doentes apresentaram recidiva da fibrose e foram reoperados; em 6 (8,8% apareceu fibrose no outro ventrículo. Cinco (7,3% pacientes foram reoperados, seja para retroca de prótese valvular, seja para substituir a valva preservada na primeira operação. Somente 24 (45% dos atuais 53 sobreviventes estão em classe funcional I ou II. A curva de sobrevida actuarial, incluindo a mortalidade operatória, revelou que a probabilidade de sobrevida, 17 anos após a operação, é de 55%. Conclui-se que o tratamento cirúrgico da EMF deve ser considerado um procedimento paliativo porque a operação não impede a progressão da doença. Mesmo assim a operação é recomendada em pacientes com EMF e sintomas de insuficiência cardíaca, visto ser a única forma de tratamento.Eighty-three patients with endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF underwent endocardial decortication and atrioventricular valve replacement or repair between December, 1977, and December, 1997. There were 66 (79.6% female and 17 (20.4% male patients, ranging in age from 4 to 59 years (mean, 31. Thirty-seven (44.5% had biventricular disease

  3. Os determinantes da atitude e da lealdade nas compras online

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Marketing Relacional apresentada à ESTG - Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão do Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. Hoje em dia a utilização da Internet está completamente enraizada nos hábitos das pessoas. Inicialmente usada como meio de comunicação, a Internet assume-se hoje como um espaço negocial onde se efetuam transações e onde as empresas procuram dinamizar os seus negócios, tornando-se mais competitivas. A globalização dos mercados e a competição m...

  4. Estudo da estabilidade térmica da pele

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mónica Rosas da

    2008-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Química As preocupações ambientais associadas à indústria dos curtumes centram-se no curtume com crómio, uma das etapas mais poluentes de todo o processo. Actualmente, 80 a 90% das peles, em todo o mundo, são curtidas com crómio (wet blue), é do interesse de todos a busca por um processo isento de crómio, de forma a obter um couro mais ecológico, o wet white. A pele é formada por uma rede complexa de fibras de colagénio que são estabilizadas através da formação de...

  5. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance. PMID:26721261

  6. Tratamento cirúrgico da cisticircose da fossa craniana posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia Lopes

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose, um dos mais sérios problemas parasitológicos do sistema nervoso, apresenta, quando localizada na fossa posterior, um quadro clínico dramático, no qual predomina a hipertensão intracraniana. Foram estudados neste trabalho, 70 pacientes com cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior, atendidos no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 1945 a 1968. Considerando-se a grande diversidade existente em torno das técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico, foi objetivo deste trabalho o estudo dos resultados obtidos nestes pacientes, nos quais várias técnicas foram empregadas. As cirurgias paliativas que derivam o trânsito do líquido cefalorraqueano para regiões extracranianas, quando comparadas aos outros tipos de cirurgias utilizados, foram as que proporcionaram maior índice de recuperação, exigiram menos reoperações, além de terem sido acompanhadas de menor número de complicações, bem como de menor mortalidade pós-operatória. Por outro lado, a neurocisticercose geralmente é um processo difuso, encontrando-se parasitas em várias regiões do encéfalo e/ou aracnoidite, conforme comprovou-se, também, entre os casos ora reunidos e que vieram a falecer. Baseando-se nestes fatos, não se justificam as derivações intracranianas e, a não ser eventualmente, a abordagem direta do parasita. Os casos estudados permitem cone- tatar, portanto, que as derivações extracranianas, por sua simplicidade e eficácia, apresentam-se, atualmente, como a terapêutica cirúrgica mais propriada à cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior.

  7. Determinantes da estrutura de capital das empresas de tecnologias da informação

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    O presente estudo pretende identificar os determinantes financeiros da estrutura de capital das empresas de tecnologias de informação e, ao mesmo tempo, verificar o poder explicativo de várias teorias financeiras sobre a estrutura de capital, nomeadamente, a teoria do efeito fiscal, a teoria dos custos de falência, a teoria da agência e a teoria da pecking order. A evidência empírica reforça o poder explicativo da teoria da pecking order e sugere que o crescimento, a rendibilidade, a re...

  8. Metodologia da investigação em cibercultura I: Design da pesquisa

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Pedro José de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Linguagem da Ciência e a problematização na área da Cibercultura: O objecto de estudos científico; conceitos e teoria; Conceitos principais; A validade dos conceitos; Metodologia e técnicas sociológicas; Fontes da pesquisa; Agenda da pesquisa; Metodologias Sociológicas clássicas e emergentes; Métodos e técnicas de pesquisa sobre a Cibercultura; Exemplo de um projeto de investigação: a Comunicação Pública da Arte em museus físicos e virtuais.

  9. Estudo sobre a estabilidade da rede geodésica de monitoramento da UHE Salto Caxias

    OpenAIRE

    Suci, Felipe Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho analisa a estabilidade da rede geodésica que dá suporte ao monitoramento da Usina Hidrelétrica Salto Caxias. Tal rede é composta por cinco pilares de centragem forçada localizados à jusante da barragem, além de um pino de crista, situado sobre uma das comportas da mesma. Essa análise foi realizada a partir da coleta de dados GNSS. Decidiu-se tomar o pilar P1 como referência e suas coordenadas foram determinadas de forma relativa (utilizando-se o aplicativo Leica Ge...

  10. Abner Vicentini: um pioneiro da Biblioteconomia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Bastos Cunha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio biobibliográfico analisa a trajetória profissional do bibliotecário Abner Vicentini (23/08/1929 – 9/08/1976. Dentre vários cargos ocupados, Abner Vicentini foi presidente da Associação Paulista de Bibliotecários (1958-1961; professor de Biblioteconomia na Universidade de Brasília (1964-1971; conselheiro da Federação Internacional de Documentação; consultor da FAO para a implantação da Biblioteca Nacional da Agricultura e do Sistema Nacional de Informação e Documentação Agrícola (1975-1976. Como diretor na área de bibliotecas, Vicentini passou pela seguinte trajetória: Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (1952-1953, Centro Tecnológico da Aeronáutica (1954-1963, Universidade de Brasília (1964-1971, Ministério das Minas e Energia (1972-1975. Abner Vicentini foi ainda, um grande divulgador da Classificação Decimal Universal e editor da primeira edição brasileira do Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR-1, lançada em 1969

  11. Arquitetura da paisagem da cidade e a importância da sistematização da análise do problema projetual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gonçalves dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este artigo pretende-se levantar os conceitos próprios da atividade da Arquitetura Paisagística encarando-a como disciplina projetual e associando-a ao Design Ambiental, necessitando, assim, de linhas metodológicas específicas para apresentação de soluções coerentes aos problemas paisagísticos. Sob esta ótica, reflexões sobre o uso da vegetação no projeto dos espaços exteriores são apresentadas apontando-se uma etapa de sistematização da análise do problema de projeto, dentro da abordagem da concepção de uma metodologia projetual em arquitetura paisagística. Também foram analisadas oito vias de circulação da área central de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, exemplificando uma etapa de sistematização da análise do problema de projeto.

  12. Flaskehalsen peger på DA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Nu har vi i årevis stillet krav til de arbejdsløse. Flaskehalsen peger nu på DA. Kom ind i kampen!......Nu har vi i årevis stillet krav til de arbejdsløse. Flaskehalsen peger nu på DA. Kom ind i kampen!...

  13. Abner Vicentini: um pioneiro da Biblioteconomia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo Bastos Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Este ensaio biobibliográfico analisa a trajetória profissional do bibliotecário Abner Vicentini (23/08/1929 – 9/08/1976). Dentre vários cargos ocupados, Abner Vicentini foi presidente da Associação Paulista de Bibliotecários (1958-1961); professor de Biblioteconomia na Universidade de Brasília (1964-1971); conselheiro da Federação Internacional de Documentação; consultor da FAO para a implantação da Biblioteca Nacional da Agricultura e do Sistema Nacional de Informação e Documentação Agrícola...

  14. Hanna Krall e os caminhos tortos da memória e da identidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kilanowski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos a escritora polonesa de origem judaica Hanna Krall por meio da análise literária do seu romance Sublokatorka (A sublocatária.  O romance, com elementos autobiográficos, apresenta a personalidade cindida de uma menina sobrevivente do Holocausto e discute o tema da identidade polonesa, judaica e judaico-polonesa. Através da observação da memória e do processo de criação da memória, a autora mostra a construção da identidade falsa e a repressão da verdadeira, o comportamento comum entre alguns dos sobreviventes.

  15. O peso social da obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe, Flávia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer as representações sociais sobre o comer para indivíduos obesos, o significado atribuído à relação com o comer e com a manutenção de um peso saudável são os objetivos deste artigo. O peso social da obesidade revela que ela vem crescendo em proporções epidêmicas, favorecidas pela sociedade contemporânea, onde se percebem intenções ideológicas claras. Os mapas de diferentes segmentos foram construídos mostrando aspectos contraditórios no significado do comer para os obesos, como prazer e sofrimento relacionado ao comer (compulsão, descontrole; como aspectos que permeiam essa relação, aparecem os fatores sociais (discriminação, pressão, preconceito, culto ao corpo

  16. No arco da luz obscura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude LeManchec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEm Kafka, criação literária, escrita epistolar, anotações íntimas e escritos gnômicos estão dispostos sobre uma tela que comporta escritos como a Carta ao pai, orientada pela dupla compreensão da singularidade de seu percurso na sociedade e de sua vocação de escritor. A escrita nasce do vazio existencial e a ele reconduz. Este ensaio se propõe a refletir sobre os movimentos da escrita de Kafka em sua dimensão ética.Palavras-chave : criação literária ; escrita epistolar ; ética.Résumé Chez Kafka, création littéraire, écriture épistolaire, notations intimes et écrits gnomiques se positionnent sur une immense toile qui enserre des écrits comme la Lettre au  père orientée par la double compréhension de la singularité de son parcours dans la société et de sa vocation d’écrivain. L’écriture naît du vécu existentiel et elle y reconduit. Cet essai se propose à réfléchir sur les  mouvements de l’écriture de Kafka dans sa dimension éthique.Mots-clés: création littéraire; écriture épistolaire; éthique

  17. Fenomenologia e crise da arquitetura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Furtado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao se fazer no espaço limítrofe entre a engenharia e a arte, a arquitetura enfrenta simultaneamente problemas estéticos e técnicos. Esta situação a torna tarefa sempre inacabada, ciência tecida no diálogo constante entre dois valores e fazeres tradicionalmente antagônicos. Diante desse quadro, busca-se comumente enraizar a arquitetura em fundamentos exteriores aos seus próprios conceitos, seja na improvisação criadora dos indivíduos, inerente à vida urbana, ou nos diversos saberes sobre o homem que equacionam as necessidades universais às quais ela deveria responder. Estas considerações preliminares conduzem ao cerne de uma questão propriamente filosófica acerca dos fundamentos pré-reflexivos do mundo da vida (Lebenswelt e, no caso da arquitetura, sobre a experiência do habitar que constitui o campo ontológico "regional" de onde parte a ciência/arte aqui investigada.Architecture faces technical and aesthetical problems since it exists in the space between Engineering and Art. This situation turns Architecture into an endless task, a science made in a ceaseless dialogue between two traditional antagonistic values. Art and Engeneering seek to base Architecture in foundations that are outside its own concepts, either when they try to base it in creative improvisation of individuals in their urban lives or when they try to put its roots in several different cognizances about humankind to which it should respond. This introductory essay intends to take us to the experience of inhabitation which constitutes the ontological "region" where this science/art departs from.

  18. SOBRE AS ORIGENS DA FAVELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pereira de Queiroz Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon the origins of the Brazilian shantytown (favela. It investigates the context of the appearance of the housing and of the name itself which came to characterize this form of precarious settlement in Rio de Janeiro at the end of the 19th century. Evidence suggests that the appearance of the shacks was related to the population explosion and the lack of housing in what was the Federal Capital at the time. The name ¿favela¿ is considered to have its origins in the place name 'Alto da Favela', a district on high ground located to the south of the town of Belo Monte, in the North-eastern state of Bahia, which was the site of the 'War of Canudos' uprising. 'Favela' is also the popular name for a plant, common to the outback of Bahia where the fi ghting took place. The species described by Euclides da Cunha, in his book 'Os Sertões', is probably the Cninodoscolus quercifolius. Of the many theories concerning the renaming of the hill district 'Providência' as 'Favela' by those who had been involved in the uprising, the most plausible is that it recalls strategic and topographic features. On the 'Favela' hill in Canudos, the Republican troops were ambushed, and the occupation was extremely important in the defeat of Antonio Conselheiro's followers. The topography is associated with a metaphor for the deprivation suffered by the troops during and after the fi ghting. The natural diffi culties of the battle, compounded by the physical characteristics of the outback, were related to the struggle the soldiers had in receiving their pay once the war had ended.

  19. Estudo da prevalência e da gravidade da dermatite de contacto em 'frango do campo'

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Maria Clara Simões

    2014-01-01

    O sector avícola enfrenta atualmente dois desafios muito estimulantes. O primeiro decorre do aumento, que se prevê continuar a crescer, nos níveis de procura de carne de aves no mercado interno e internacional; o segundo decorre do facto da criação avícola ter adotado métodos de produção mais intensivos (kg peso vivo/m2/ano) e em maior escala, i.e. com maior concentração animal na mesma exploração. Este carácter vincadamente “industrial” tem merecido uma natural atenção das sociedades e das a...

  20. Pegada de carbono da Quinta da Gruta: quantificação e compensação

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mafalda Diana das Dores Rocha e

    2011-01-01

    A presente dissertação resulta de uma proposta feita por parte da Câmara Municipal da Maia, para a realização de um estudo sobre a pegada de carbono na Quinta da Gruta, um centro de educação ambiental localizado na freguesia de Avioso (Santa Maria), na Vila do Castêlo da Maia. Neste sentido, após uma revisão de literatura no âmbito das metodologias actualmente usadas no cálculo da pegada de carbono, foram calculadas as emissões totais anuais decorrentes da actividade da Quinta da Gruta, pa...

  1. Da veritas à caritas: a religião depois da religião

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antônio de Paiva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa abordar a passagem da veritas para a caritas, como possibilidade privilegiada da espiritualidade após a religião. No horizonte da filosofia da religião, o artigo discute os problemas de tal perspectiva e aponta sua contribuição para ler o fenômeno da espiritualidade dos sem religião. Tal objetivo será direcionado para o retorno da religião segundo o senso cultural comum, de um lado; e de outro, para a queda das razões filosóficas do ateísmo. Percorrendo as obras consideradas fundamentais, o texto se desenvolve a partir do horizonte maior do pensiero debole, mostrando a perspectiva hermenêutica da verdade – a verdade como abertura – até desembocar na concepção de caritas, como viés possível da experiência religiosa, após a morte de Deus e o fim da metafísica. Vattimo vê na passagem da veritas à caritas o itinerário do pensamento contemporâneo, definindo o cristianismo como ato de amor antes que revelação de verdades.

  2. ESTATUTO PARADOXAL DA PELE E CULTURA CONTEMPORÂNEA: da porosidade à pele-teflon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Franco Ferraz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A exploração do estatuto paradoxal da pele - interface dentro/fora - permite ultrapassar a dicotomia metafísica superfície/profundidade, problematizando a tendência atual, também expressa na teoria, a um elogio das superfícies e a um horror por oposições dicotômicas. Possibilta avaliar as implicações do fechamento da porosidade da pele em formas de sociabilidade estimuladas na cultura da imagem, da exibição, do espetáculo, bem expressas pelo material inorgânico teflon. Sendo Poros, na visão grega, pai de Eros, a investigação acerca do estatuto paradoxal da pele convida a uma retomada do tema do erotismo. Partindo de perspectivas oferecidas por Agamben acerca da pornografia, ligada ao valor de exibição nas sociedades de espetáculo e de consumo, e relacionando-as a diversas reflexões de José Gil acerca do corpo e da pele, discute-se e convoca-se a abertura da porosidade da pele.

  3. Combatentes do gueto, guerreiros da periferia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rebecca Ferrari Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combatente do gueto, guerreiro da periferia, militante da causa (... Combatente do gueto é o nome de uma rua atrás do Palácio do Governo (...” conta Jairo, taxista, a propósito de sua inspiração poética, durante as filmagens de Povo lindo, povo inteligente – O Sarau da Cooperifa, documentário dirigido por Sérgio Gagliardi e Maurício Falcão, produzido, em 2008, pela DGT Filmes. O filme narra a história e os bastidores do sarau que acontece na zona sul da cidade de São Paulo, em Campo Limpo, no bar do Zé Batidão. “A periferia não tem museu, não tem teatro nem cinema, o único espaço público que tem é o bar”, explica Sérgio Vaz, um dos idealizadores do movimento que contempla na produção poética, da periferia para a periferia, a força da contestação social. A cultura como arena para a luta entre os signos monossêmicos e a pluralidade sígnica proposta pelo artista que faz da palavra ruído incômodo. O sarau da Cooperifa, o sarau do Binho também já foram objetos de estudos acadêmicos, como a tese As redes de escritura nas periferias de São Paulo, de Marco Antônio Bin, defendida no Programa de Ciências Sociais da PUCSP, em maio de 2009

  4. Aneurismas da aorta Aortic aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário M Souza

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre janeiro de 1979 e janeiro de 1992, foram realizadas 212 operações para correção de aneurismas e de dissecções da aorta. Neste trabalho serão analisados 104 procedimentos cirúrgicos (em 97 pacientes para correção de aneurismas. A idade dos pacientes variou de 14 a 79 anos (média 59,5 anos e o sexo predominante foi o masculino, com 75 pacientes. Os aneurismas localizavam-se na aorta ascendente em 46 pacientes, na croça em 8, na aorta descendente em 8, na aorta toráco-abdominal em 8, na aorta abdominal em 21, na aorta descendente e abdominal em 2, na aorta ascendente e tóraco-abdominal em 2, na aorta ascendente e descendente em 1, na aorta ascendente, croça e descendente em 1. Doenças cardiovasculares associadas estavam presentes em 39 pacientes, sendo valvopatia aórtica em 18 (excluídos os pacientes com ectasiaânulo-aórtíca, insuficiência coronária em 17, coarctação da aorta em 2, persistência do canal arterial em 1 e valvopatia mitral e aórtica em 1. A mortalidade imediata (hospitalar e/ou 30 dias foi de 14,4%, sendo de 27,7% (5/18 para pacientes com mais de 70 anos e de 11,3% (9/79 para pacientes com idade inferior a 70 anos. Os aneurismas localizados na aorta ascendente e croça foram operados como o auxílio de circulação extracorpórea. Parada circulatória e hipotermia profunda foram utilizadas em todos os pacientes com aneurisma da croça. O estudo tomográfico e angiográfico deve ser de toda a aorta, pela possibilidade de aneurismas de localizações múltiplas.Among 212 patients undergoing operation for aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection between January 1979 and January 1992, 97 were operated on for aneurysms. The aneurysms were localized in: ascending aorta in 46 patients, transverse aortic arch in 8, descending aorta in 8, thoracoabdominal aorta in 8, abdominal (infrarenal aorta in 21, descending and abdominal aorta in 2, ascending and thoracoabdominal aorta in 2, ascending and descending in 1

  5. Fontes para o estudo da arte medieval

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga Sampedro, Mª Dolores

    2013-01-01

    A materia Fontes documentais e literarias para a Historia da Arte, posúe o carácter de obrigatoria e ten que ser cursada no segundo ano (2º curso), en concreto no segundo cuadrimestre. Está integrada no módulo Coñecementos sistemáticos e integrados do feito artístico. Esta materia está estreitamente relacionada con Literatura e Arte no mundo antigo e medieval de primeiro curso, Fundamentos teóricos da historia da Arte de primeiro curso, Métodos de Análise e Interpretación do Fenómen...

  6. Aplicabilidade da escala de Torrington e Henderson

    OpenAIRE

    Faresin S.M.; Barros J.A. de; Beppu O.S.; Peres C. de A.; Atallah A.N.

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Validar a escala de Torrington e Henderson na estratificação do risco cirúrgico da nossa população, fornecendo a quantificação do mesmo. Tipo de estudo: coorte prospectivo longitudinal. Duração do estudo: 30 meses. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 1162 pacientes no pré-operatório de cirurgia geral eletiva no Ambulatório de Risco Cirúrgico da Disciplina de Pneumologia da EPM/Unifesp. De acordo com a escala de Torrington e Henderson os pacientes foram classificados no período pré-operatório e...

  7. O ACOMPANHANTE NO ALOJAMENTO CONJUNTO DA MATERNIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Mendes; Márcia Guimarães Alcântara; Diogo de Souza C orreia; Marisa Monticell; Luana Cláudia dos Passos Aires; Fernanda Cardinal

    2011-01-01

    Pesquisa qualitativa exploratório-descritiva, realizada no Alojamento Conjunto do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, de agosto a novembro de 2010, com o objetivo de observar a inserção e as ações do acompanhante nessa unidade. Participaram 32 sujeitos. Da análise dos dados, coletados através da observação participante, emergiram seis categorias: a) O acompanhante na admissão e na alta; b) Receber e dar informações: a complexidade comunicacional na unidade; c) O ...

  8. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  9. Virtual Observatory Publishing with DaCHS

    CERN Document Server

    Demleitner, Markus; Rothmaier, Florian; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building Virtual Observatory (VO) and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  10. Evaluation of the frequency of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genes related to the genome stability maintenance in individuals of the resident population from Monte Alegre, PA/Brazil municipality; Avaliacao da frequencia de polimorfismos nos genes XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) e XPD (Lys751Gln) relacionados a manutencao da estabilidade do genoma em individuos da populacao residente no municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Isabelle Magliano

    2010-07-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on Earth. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent, which can affect biological molecules, causing DNA damage and genomic instability. The cellular system of DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents. However, genes related to DNA repair may have their role committed when presenting a certain polymorphism. This study intended to analyze the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair XRCC1 (Arg39-9Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in a: population of the city of Monte Alegre, that resides in an area of high exposure to natural radioactivity. Samples of saliva were collected from individuals of the population of Monte Alegre, in which 40 samples were of male and 46 female. Through the use of RFLP (length polymorphism restriction fragment) the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous was determined for polymorphic genes. The XRCC1 gene had 65.4% of the presence of the allele 399Gln and XPD gene had 32.9% of the 751Gln allele. These values are similar to those found in previous studies for the XPD gene, whereas XRCC1 showed a frequency much higher than described in the literature. The. influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology for risk assessment of cancer in the population of Monte Alegre. (author)

  11. Metilfenidato: medicamento gadget da contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Brant

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo consiste em apresentar os principais aspectos do uso não médico do metilfenidato. Em termos metodológicos, procedemos a uma pesquisa bibliográfica na busca por uma melhor compreensão interdisciplinar dessa utilização polêmica e multifacetada. Constatamos que o uso contemporâneo ultrapassa a tríade doença, saúde e cuidado. Compreende a busca incessante do homem em superar seus limites e viver bem em sociedade, o que torna esse medicamento um fetiche, aproximando o usuário de sua fragilidade. Percebe-se que, primeiramente, produziu-se o metilfenidato e, posteriormente, tentou-se configurar cientificamente o transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH, ou seja, inventou-se, primeiro, o remédio e, depois, a doença. Concluímos ser o metilfenidato mais um gadget da contemporaneidade. Um objeto de consumo curto e rápido, parceiro conectável e desconectável ao alcance das mãos, tornando-se dispositivo de prazeres efêmeros, fabricado e comercializado como medicamento.

  12. Tipologia da consciência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Queiroz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do interesse crescente de muitas comunidades cientí­ficas pelo fenômeno da consciência, e apesar dos avanços obtidos recentemente por estas comunidades, multiplicam-se questões básicas sobre teorias, métodos, modelos e protocolos de investigação adequados; multiplicam-se as divergências sobre definições e demarcações conceituais e terminológicas. Parece, entretanto, haver uma questão consensual, embora não resolvida, que aproxima materialistas e dualistas, reducionistas e epifenomenalistas de muitas áreas: a consciência é um estado, processo ou entidade, que manifesta-seheterogeneamente. Como classificar a heterogeneidade de suas formas?Abstract: In spite of the increased interest of several scientific communities in the phenomenon of consciousness, and in spite of the recent results they have obtained, many basic questions about the most adequate theories, methods, models, and protocols for investigation concerning this topic remain, as well as disagreements about conceptual and terminological definitions. However, there does seem to be a consensus among dualists, materialists, reductionists and epiphenomenalists from many fields that consciousness is a state, process or entity, which express itself heterogeneously. This,therefore, leads to the question of how to classify the heterogeneity of its forms.

  13. Sobre o tempo da loucura em Nise da Silveira Time in mental illness according to Nise da Silveira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacileide Guimarães

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um ensaio sobre a vivência do tempo no âmbito do hospital psiquiátrico. Após breve incursão acerca da escrita sobre o tempo e o tempo no hospital psiquiátrico, nos detemos no enfoque da psiquiatra e pesquisadora Nise da Silveira, cujo trabalho foi desenvolvido no Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional do Engenho de Dentro Rio de Janeiro (antigo Centro Psiquiátrico Pedro II e atualmente denominado Instituto Municipal Nise da Silveira, onde criou, em 1946, a Seção de Terapêutica Ocupacional e Reabilitação (STOR, chamada por um interno de "a sala da emoção de lidar". O tempo da loucura em Nise equaciona a síntese tempo versus afeto, sem reservas para com as susceptibilidades de um saber científico, mas em busca da real complexidade da condição humana. Reportando-se da vida ao sofrimento, Nise trouxe o afeto como condição sine que non para a compreensão da diferença e no limite para o questionamento do que o jargão psiquiátrico preconizava/esquadrinhava como "desorientado no tempo e no espaço". Com a tendência da reestruturação dos serviços psiquiátricos no Brasil, o tempo revisitado da loucura enclausurada traz a contribuição de Nise da Silveira como atitude digna de sobrevivência em tempos de atenção psicossocial.This research is about time at psychiatric hospitals. After a brief review of the literature on time and time at a psychiatric hospital, the author focused on psychiatry's approach and on studies by Nise da Silveira, a researcher who worked at the Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional do Engenho de Dentro, Rio de Janeiro (now named Centro Psiquiátrico Pedro II, where in 1946 she founded an Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation Division, which a patient named "the emotions coping room". Time of mental illness according to Nise is equal to the synthesis of time versus affection, with no considerations towards the sensitivities of scientific knowledge, but instead is a search for the real complexities of the

  14. Irradiation of bovine meat: effect of heme-iron concentration.; Irradiacao de carne bovina: efeito na concentracao de ferro heme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistura, Liliana Perazzini Furtado

    2002-07-01

    The irradiation is often used, nowadays, for meat conservation and it is important to know how much this process interferes with the nutritional quality of the meat. In this study round cut meat, ground and steaks (from a local supermarket) was irradiated with doses of O; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 7,5 and 10 kGy (JS-7500 Nordium Inc -Canada) and the interference of irradiation and the process of food preparation on heme-iron (H Fe) content was determined. Half of the sample was kept raw and the other half was grilled in a pre-warmed oven at 250 deg C for 9 min and a controlled humidity of 70%. The chemical composition, the total iron (T Fe) (EM) and the heme iron concentration were determined (Hornsey,1956) and the sensorial quality evaluated. The average T Fe concentration of raw and ground , ground and grilled, raw steaks and grilled steak meat, on dry and degreased basis was 113 mug/g, 121 mug/g , 91 mug/g and 77 mug/g; and the H Fe concentration 105 mug/g (93% of T Fe) , 88 mug/g (73% of T Fe), 90 mug/g (99% of T Fe) and 52 mug/g (68% of T Fe) respectively. Data were evaluated by ANOVA with fixed effects and multiple comparisons. The irradiation neither altered the chemical composition nor the proportion of heme iron of meat. The preparation conditions (temperature, cooking time, environment humidity, meat presentation) of the sample interfered more with the heme iron content than the irradiation. With the sensorial analysis we verified that meats irradiated with doses of 3 kGy were better evaluated in softness and succulency attributes than the others. Meat submitted to irradiation doses up to 3 kGy were accepted by the specialists' panel. (author)

  15. Climatic-geologic conditions in ground water radon concentrations; Condicionamento climatico-geologico na concentracao de radonio em aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Antonio M.A.; Jachic, Joao; Souza, Nereu J.M. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Andre V.L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    1997-12-01

    In regions with warm and moist climates uranium and thorium leaching and redistribution in landscapes, under evolution of the weathering processes upon existent radioanomalous rocks, may be regarded as the principal conditions to the understanding of the geologic controls on radon ({sup 222} Rn and {sup 22O} Rn) emanation, concentration diffusion and transport from rocks and soils to ground waters and atmosphere. On the basis of the concepts of landscape geochemistry and geochemical behaviour of U and Th, a study of a virtual radioanomalous granitic context is performed. A mathematical model simulates the concentration variations of Ra and Rn in ground waters as result of U leaching and redistribution in materials and of Rn recoil transport after Ra radioactive decay around the pores. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig.

  16. An extension of PPLS-DA for classification and comparison to ordinary PLS-DA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Telaar

    Full Text Available Classification studies are widely applied, e.g. in biomedical research to classify objects/patients into predefined groups. The goal is to find a classification function/rule which assigns each object/patient to a unique group with the greatest possible accuracy (classification error. Especially in gene expression experiments often a lot of variables (genes are measured for only few objects/patients. A suitable approach is the well-known method PLS-DA, which searches for a transformation to a lower dimensional space. Resulting new components are linear combinations of the original variables. An advancement of PLS-DA leads to PPLS-DA, introducing a so called 'power parameter', which is maximized towards the correlation between the components and the group-membership. We introduce an extension of PPLS-DA for optimizing this power parameter towards the final aim, namely towards a minimal classification error. We compare this new extension with the original PPLS-DA and also with the ordinary PLS-DA using simulated and experimental datasets. For the investigated data sets with weak linear dependency between features/variables, no improvement is shown for PPLS-DA and for the extensions compared to PLS-DA. A very weak linear dependency, a low proportion of differentially expressed genes for simulated data, does not lead to an improvement of PPLS-DA over PLS-DA, but our extension shows a lower prediction error. On the contrary, for the data set with strong between-feature collinearity and a low proportion of differentially expressed genes and a large total number of genes, the prediction error of PPLS-DA and the extensions is clearly lower than for PLS-DA. Moreover we compare these prediction results with results of support vector machines with linear kernel and linear discriminant analysis.

  17. Aleksi II kritikujet "Kod da Vintshi"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dan Browni samanimelise romaani järgi valminud põnevusfilm "Da Vinci kood" : režissöör Ron Howard : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Venemaa patriarh Aleksius II nimetas filmi linastamist lugupidamatuseks moraalinormide vastu

  18. O psicanalista no tratamento da dor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Pinto Minatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dor se manifesta como mal-estar do corpo e no corpo, e tende a ser encaminhada para tratamento médico. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a queixa dolorosa do ponto de vista do tratamento psicanalítico, retomando algumas acepções relacionadas ao tratamento da dor, encontradas na obra de Freud. Partimos da experiência no trabalho em hospital pediátrico, utilizando a análise do atendimento de pacientes com queixas de dor para definir e situar a dor no campo da psicanálise, e distingui-la do campo da medicina. No texto, pode-se acompanhar a dor como signo de sofrimento e diversas formas de abordá-la tanto pelo sujeito que a porta quanto pelas instituições que propõem seu cuidado.

  19. Nova abordagem no tratamento da esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Speltri

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram tratados 11 casos de esquizofrenia com a guanetidina, substância considerada, do ponto de vista farmacodinâmico, como simpaticoplégica. Na opinião do autor, os surpreendentes e significativos resultados obtidos autorizam uma nova abordagem nas pesquisas à procura da etiopatogenia da esquizofrenia e, a partir dos elementos colhidos, considera plausível uma "teoria psicossomática da esquizofrenia". Recusa-se, entretanto, a cair no atraente, mas inútil, terreno especulativo. Prefere aguardar que os farmacologistas e fisiologistas forneçam dados pais precisos sobre o mecanismo de ação da guanetidina e que novos estudos confirmem seus resultados para, depois, dar publicidade à sua teoria.

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DA DANÇA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DA COORDENAÇÃO MOTORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ricotso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista os benefícios proporcionados pela prática da dança, o papel educativo da escola deve ter também em consideração as atividades físicas enquanto promotoras da postura, equilíbrio e coordenação motora.Objetivo: Analisar o efeito que a prática da dança, no contexto do desporto escolar, exerce no desenvolvimento motor dos alunos.

  1. Estimativa da produtividade da cana-de-açúcar utilizando o Sebal e imagens Landsat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Guimarães Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As técnicas de sensoriamento remoto têm sido muito promissoras para o desenvolvimento de medidas mais confiáveis e economicamente viáveis da produção vegetal em larga escala. O algoritmo SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land tem como vantagem a obtenção de parâmetros biofísicos usando imagens de satélite e poucos dados observacionais. Este trabalho objetivou estimar a produtividade da cana-de-açúcar por meio da aplicação do algoritmo SEBAL e de imagens Landsat 5 TM. O estudo foi realizado em plantios de cana-de-açúcar da fazenda Boa Fé, localizada no Triângulo Mineiro, município de Conquista, Minas Gerais. A metodologia utilizada apresentou variação de desempenho nas estimativas de produtividade da cana-de-açúcar de cada gleba, provavelmente em decorrência de influências da dimensão dos talhões e da resolução espacial da imagem, e de variedades e épocas de plantio e colheita da cultura. No entanto, os resultados apontam que a metodologia tem potencial para ser aplicada em áreas extensas com limitada disponibilidade de dados meteorológicos.

  2. Influência da estrutura da paisagem nas comunidades de passeriformes no centro de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Quinta-Nova, L.C.; Tomé, J.; Cabaceira, S.; Fernandez, P.; Roque, N.

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo identificar a relação existente entre as comunidades de passeriformes que nidificam na região Centro de Portugal e a composição e estrutura da paisagem desse território. Procurou-se, igualmente, verificar a importância da rugosidade do terreno na distribuição destas comunidades. Identificaram-se um conjunto de indicadores espaciais (métricas da paisagem e variáveis morfométricas) que, no seu conjunto, caracterizam a estrutura da paisagem, bem como as tipo...

  3. Aspectos morfológicos da terminologia da nanociência e nanotecnologia

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Sossai Coleti; Gladis Maria de Barcellos Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Neste artigo, descrevem-se e analisam-se os aspectos morfológicos do conjunto de termos mais frequentes da terminologia da Nanociência e Nanotecnologia, de forma a cooperar com a fixação e maior compreensão da terminologia da Nanociência e Nanotecnologia, áreas centrais das atividades de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação no mundo todo, como também enriquecer a descrição morfológica do português a partir de um léxico especializado, de maneira a contribuir com o refinamento de conhecimento l...

  4. O método comparativo na origem da psicologia da arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Andriolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem por objetivo apresentar o surgimento do método comparativo nas interpretações psicológicas das produções artísticas da Europa e do Brasil. Utilizam-se os discursos da Psiquiatria no início do século XX, notando como as interpretações básicas acerca da Psicologia da Arte foram permeadas pelo método comparativo. Este, por sua vez, carregou consigo um risco de análise, o de encontrar na arte uma manifestação de degeneração.

  5. O método comparativo na origem da psicologia da arte

    OpenAIRE

    Arley Andriolo

    2006-01-01

    Este texto tem por objetivo apresentar o surgimento do método comparativo nas interpretações psicológicas das produções artísticas da Europa e do Brasil. Utilizam-se os discursos da Psiquiatria no início do século XX, notando como as interpretações básicas acerca da Psicologia da Arte foram permeadas pelo método comparativo. Este, por sua vez, carregou consigo um risco de análise, o de encontrar na arte uma manifestação de degeneração.

  6. Discursos e imagens da violência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Marquetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo baseou-se na pesquisa de doutorado “Discursos e imagens da violência”, na qual abordamos as mortes violentas (homicídios na metrópole de São Paulo, privilegiando o estudo das elaborações subjetivas e culturais que ocorrem em torno desse fenômeno. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi abordar dois tipos de discursos sobre as mortes violentas: o discurso de uma população submetida ao evento das mortes violentas e o discurso da mídia televisiva sobre o fenômeno da violência. Há duas vertentes metodológicas neste estudo. A primeira é uma abordagem etnográfica de um bairro situado ou visto como “território violento” na cidade de São Paulo. A segunda são duas análises de discursos sobre as mortes violentas: o discurso da mídia televisiva e o discurso dos moradores do território. Nos resultados da etnografia do território violento encontramos, na trama da sociabilidade, angústia, medo, estratégias de sobrevivência e outros subterfúgios para viver num bairro violento. Nas narrativas dos moradores encontramos uma série de discursos verbais fragmentados, caóticos, desorganizados onde estava presente o terror da proximidade excessiva com a morte. Em contraponto, na análise do discurso da mídia televisiva, encontramos o excesso de imagens, verbalizações, teorizações e interpretações sobre a violência.

  7. Claro Enigma:o discurso da Obscuridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Fiorillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrariando o molde clssico, o intenso poder comunicativo da primeira retrica crist repousa no paradoxo, no exagero e na ambivalncia. A retrica crist nasceu no da simplicidade dos lrios dos campos, mas de uma exortao ao assombro e ao enigma como pathos das boas-novas. Neste ensaio, analisamos em mincia esta caracterstica, numa passagem (perikope do mais antigo evangelho de que se tem conhecimento, o Evangelho de Tom.

  8. The Structure of Ferroelectric DCsDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, G. M.; Dietrich, O. W.; Nelmes, R. J.;

    1976-01-01

    In further neutron scattering experiments on the (orthorhombic) ferroelectric phase of DCsDA and CsDA, a study has been made of the scattering arising at wavevectors along the a* direction at positions away from Bragg reflections. It is shown that this most probably arises from Bragg scattering i...... temperature range. This effect has been observed with both neutron and X-ray scattering techniques and is independent of crystal size....

  9. Fundamentos bioquímicos da hereditariedade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Otto

    1970-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os resultados de levantamentos seccionais sobre a prevalência e a morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica no Estado de Alagoas. Os inquéritos foram feitos em oito localidades, urbanas e rurais. A prevalência da esquistossomose e de outras helmintoses intestinais foi muito elevada. As formas hepato-esplênicas variaram de 1 a 3%.

  10. Morfologia da laringe de cutia (Dasyprocta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza B.S. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A cutia (Dasyprocta sp. é um roedor silvestre com distribuição mundial. Atualmente, além de importante papel ecológico que exerce, está sendo utilizada como modelo em experimento animal. Estudos sobre a morfologia destes animais são importantes porque podem ser uma alternativa para o estudo de diversos processos patológicos, além de contribuirem para a preservação da espécie. A laringe é um órgão localizado entre a faringe e a traqueia, no qual está envolvido nas funções de respiração, deglutição e fonação. O presente estudo propôs realizar uma descrição morfológica macroscópica e microscópica da laringe da cutia. Para tanto, foram utilizadas quinze cutias pertencentes ao Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí e provenientes do Núcleo de Estudos e Preservação de Animais Silvestres com licença do IBAMA (Nº 02/08-618, CTF Nº 474064. Todos os animais foram identificados, promovida a sexagem e, posteriormente, a laringe acessada e dissecada sendo os fragmentos cartilagíneos encaminhados para rotina histológica e corados pelo método de hematoxilina-eosina. As lâminas obtidas foram visualizadas em microscopia óptica de luz e foto documentadas. A laringe da cutia apresenta cinco cartilagens, com ausência da cartilagem cuneiforme e presença da incisura caudal na cartilagem tireoide. O tecido epitelial da laringe varia de epitélio estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado à não queratinizado e ciliado com células caliciformes.

  11. "Da Vinci kood" ja Eesti / Reet Rast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rast, Reet, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    Möödunud kuu kunstisündmuseks oli "Da Vinci koodi avamine" Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis ja Tallinna Ülikoolis. 5.-12. veebruarini eksponeeriti Kadrioru kunstimuuseumis Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed. Lõuna-Itaalia erakogust leitud maali analüüsimisega tegelesid Tallinna Ülikooli maali ja maalitehnoloogia õppejõud Orest Kormašov, kes valmistas klassikalise portreeskulptuuri, arvutisimulatsiooni teostas Eesti Kunstiakadeemia graafilise disaini tudeng Helen Kokk

  12. NOTAS SOBRE A IRRACIONALIDADE DA GUERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Leal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, procedemos a uma análise sobre a irracionalidade da guerra em tempos cada vez mais caracterizados pela evolução da racionalidade técnica, ou seja, em tempos contemporâneos. Esse é o ponto a partir do qual traçamos, aqui, um percurso argumentativo dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, reconstituímos elementos da concepção de guerra de filósofos como Maquiavel, Clausewitz e Kant, destacando, nos dois primeiros pensadores, a prerrogativa de que a guerra é racional quando se configura meio para fins políticos. Na segunda parte, confrontamos essa racionalidade política da guerra com a dupla dimensão técnica que a guerra assumiu: de um lado, a guerra como um fim em si mesmo e não mais como meio da ação política; de outro, a dimensão racionalizante da guerra como resultado do progresso técnico e científico, atualizada como guerra do terror.

  13. A LEITURA DA GRAMÁTICA DA FORMA DO CONJUNTO HABITACIONAL CAMPINAS-F DA CDHU EM CAMPINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gramática da forma constitui uma importante ferramenta que pode dar suporte para futuros estudos e melhor qualidade em conjuntos habitacionais. A utilização de sistemas generativos de projeto pode aperfeiçoar uma série de rotinas de projeto, potencializando seu uso com outras ferramentas de informática. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de estudo exploratório com um sistema generativo de projeto em processo de simulação e imersão, por meio do qual se pode avaliar o desenvolvimento e as alterações do projeto de implantação de conjunto habitacional social, ocasionadas pela variação das regras nos algoritmos criados. Inicialmente, se realizou a leitura Analítica da Gramática da Forma de um Conjunto Habitacional específico e, posteriormente, simulou-se em ferramenta computacional a Gramática da Forma Paramétrica, para futuros estudos de melhorias em conjuntos habitacionais similares. Tal ferramenta visa desenvolver soluções inovadoras em tecnologia da informação e comunicação aplicadas à construção e arquitetura. Os resultados demonstram a potencialidade do uso da Gramática da Forma, permitindo a inserção de novos parâmetros a cada momento, criando a perspectiva de flexibilidade na concepção e gerando diversas possibilidades que podem ser analisadas e comparadas durante o processo de tomada de decisão do projeto.

  14. Corrimentos vaginais em gestantes: comparacao da abordagem sindromica com exames da pratica clinica da enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Marques Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo avaliativo de abordagem quantitativa, com amostra de 104 gestantes, com o objetivo de comparar os achados de infecções vaginais em gestantes obtidos por meio do fluxograma de corrimento vaginal com exames presentes na prática clínica da Enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista e exame ginecológico realizados de janeiro a julho de 2011. O fluxograma não se mostrou eficaz na identificação de candidíase e tricomoníase, apresentou baixa sensibilidade (0,0%; 50% e valor preditivo positivo (0,0%; 3,6% para as duas infecções e baixa especificidade para tricomoníase (46%. Mostrou-se satisfatório para vaginose bacteriana, com alta sensibilidade (100%, valor preditivo negativo (100% e acurácia (74%. Conclui-se que o emprego do fluxograma precisa ser reavaliado, visto que não foi eficaz em identificar infecções importantes em gestantes. Os esforços para o desenvolvimento de testes eficazes devem ser contínuos, com intuito de prevenir a disseminação de infecções e reduzir tratamentos desnecessários.

  15. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA...

  16. Fase aguda da esquistossomose mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Tonelli

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available O A. faz um estudo panorâmico sobre a fase aguda da esquistossomose mansoni, abordando o quadro clínico e seu diagnóstico, os exames subsidiários, o diagnóstico diferencial, a terapêutica e os aspectos evolutivos. As manifestações clinicas dos períodos de incubação, de estado e de supressão são abordados. O diagnóstico da fase aguda é baseado em dado epidemiológico, 110 exame fisico e em exames subsidiários. O dado epidemiológico. em geral, é positivo, com menção a banho infectante, comumente 30 a 40 dias antes do início do quadro clínico e ao exame físico, encontramos hipertermia (38 - 4G°C, prostração, micropoliadenia hepatomegalia dolorosa em 95%, dos casos e esplenomegalia em 70% dos casos. Os exames prioritários para o diagnóstico são o exame parasiiológico de fezes seriado, que é positivo para ovos viáveis de S. mansoni e o leucograma seriado, que, geralmente, acusa leucocitose com eosinofilia. Em caso de dúvida ou para complementação diagnostica, podemos recorrer à endoscovia retal, ao oograma e á biópsia hepática. A endoscopia acusa, comumente, mucosa hiperêmica, edemaciada, friável, granulosa, com pontos hemorrágicos e o exame colhido por punção biópsia revela, entre outros achados, granulomas na fase necrótica-exsudativa. O diagnóstico diferencial deve ser feito com as seguintes entidades clínicas: gastroenterites. febre tifóide, disenteria bacilar, amebíase aguda, salmonelose septicêrnica prolongada, devendo, ainda, figurar a tuberculose miliar, abdome agudo, a G.N.D.A., a mononucleose infecciosa, a leptospirose, a hepatite e as poaneurites. A terapeutica é baseada nos cuidados gerais, na córticoterapia e na terapêutica específica. Observamos regressão dramática do quadro toxinfeccioso. nas primeiras 24 a 48 horas com a córticoterapia (prednisona que tem duração aproximada de 7 a 10 dias. A terapêutica específica (derivado nitrotiazolico = ambilhar e derivado hidroximet

  17. Energy education; Pedagogia da energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Rafael Ninno, e-mail: rafaelninno@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    'Pedagogia da Energia' (energy education) is a qualification course that has as intention to unite ambient education with renewable energies through the art-education and of the long-distance education. Collective made up of theoretical and practical activities through group dynamic and works, with intention to integrate and to enable the participants as a whole, aiming to form potentials to agreement and diffusion of energy concepts of the subjects environment - energy - residues. It possess the structure of an actual course with support of long-distance education with a platform of available web education in the Internet, where the participants have access the all content used in the course (texts, presentations and figures), virtual library, colloquy room, thematic list of quarrel and forum, beyond guardianship accompaniment. A structure constructed in classroom for the participants uses as pedagogical tool titled 'Mandala das Energias' where the concepts studied are worked in. The politics characteristics presented are, ambient and social of the use of the power plants and its implications in the daily one of the humanity. It understands the education as a reciprocal process, that understands the intention to teach and to learn in a set of exchanges of necessary information to the curious nature of the human beings. This article explains the structure and methodology of functioning of the course with a summary of the worked chapters. It also presents the pedagogical tool 'Mandala das Energias' and its respective flowchart of energies that originated it in annex at the end of the text. (author)

  18. Tratamento da giardiase com tinidazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1975-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia terapêutica do tinidazol, um novo derivado nitroimidazólico, em trinta pacientes com giardiase. A posologia diária foi de 300 mg em 20 pacientes com idade superior a 10 anos, e de 150 mg em 10 crianças com idade inferior a 10 anos. O tratamento teve a duração de cinco dias. O diagnóstico e os controles de cura parasitológicos foram feitos pelos métodos de Hoffman, Pons & Janer e de Faust e cols. Foram realizados três controles, com intervalos de sete dias, iniciando-se na semana subsequente ao término do tratamento. Obtiveram cura parasitológica em 96,6% dos casos. Ressaltam a excelente tolerância da droga, mesmo em pacientes com grave doença fundamental ou em crianças, não se registrando efeitos colaterais. Concluem ser o tinidazol excelente droga giardicida.The Autors study the therapeutic efficacy of Tinidazole, a new nitrimidazole derivative, in the treatment of thirty patients with giardiasis. They employed the daily dosage of 300 mg for twenty patients and 150 mg for ten children, respectively with ten years of age or and less during five consecutive days. The diagnosis and the parasitological evaluation of the results of treatment were accomplished by stool examinations using zinc sulphate centrifugal-flotation technique of Faust et al. and sedimentatian-concentration technique of Hoffman, Pons and Janer. The control started one week after the treatment and consisted of three stool examinations, at one week intervals. The Authors achieved 96.6 per cent of parasitological cures. They stressed the excellent tolerance of the drug ,even by patients with serious fundamental diseases or by children. No side effects were registered. They conclude that Tinidazole is an excellent drug against Giardia lamblia infections.

  19. Determinantes sociais da saude e o Programa Saude da Familia no municipio de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pluciennik Dowbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar a situação do trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde no âmbito do Programa Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS Estudo de caso com métodos mistos de pesquisa, ancorados em estratégia sequencial explanatória, com 171 gerentes das unidades do Programa Saúde da Família em São Paulo, SP, em 2005/2006. Questionários autopreenchíveis foram aplicados. Entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupos focais foram realizados com amostra intencional de profissionais envolvidos no trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados por análise descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla, análise de agrupamento e testes de correlação entre variáveis. Os dados qualitativos foram apurados por análise de conteúdo e a criação de categorias temáticas. RESULTADOS Apesar da concentração de atividades direcionadas ao cuidado com a doença, o Programa Saúde da Família realizou atividades relacionadas à determinação social da saúde, contemplando todas as formas de abordagem da promoção da saúde (biológico, comportamental, psicológico, social e estrutural e os principais determinantes sociais da saúde descritos na literatura. Houve diferença significativa quanto à abrangência dos determinantes trabalhados nas unidades em relação às diferentes regiões do município. Constatou-se fragilidade das iniciativas e a sua desconexão com a estrutura programática do Programa Saúde da Família. CONCLUSÕES A quantidade e variedade de atividades com determinantes sociais da saúde realizadas no Programa Saúde da Família mostram potencial para trabalhar a determinação social da saúde. Mas a fluidez de objetivo e o caráter extraordinário das atividades descritas questionam sua sustentabilidade como parte integral da atual estrutura organizacional do programa.

  20. DETERMINANTES DA DIVULGAÇÃO DOS INDICADORES DE DESEMPENHO DA GRI NAS EMPRESAS DO BRASIL E DA ESPANHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Diógenes Góis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo investigar os fatores determinantes da divulgação dos indicadores de desempenho de sustentabilidade da GRI nas empresas listadas nas bolsas do Brasil e da Espanha. Para tanto, foram analisados os dados de 94 empresas de capital aberto dos dois países que publicaram relatórios anuais e/ou de sustentabilidade, referentes a 2011, no padrão GRI-G3. A pesquisa é descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa dos dados, utilizando-se a Regressão Linear Múltipla para quatro modelos de disclosure (econômico, ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade. Os resultados mostram que as empresas da Espanha apresentam um nível de disclosure de sustentabilidade mais elevado, e que o nível de evidenciação geral, considerando o conjunto das dimensões da sustentabilidade (econômica, social e ambiental, corresponde a 72,7%. Quanto ao resultado dos modelos de regressão, observa-se que as variáveis independentes (Tamanho, Rentabilidade, Endividamento, Auditoria, Setor de Impacto Ambiental e Idade não explicam o disclosure econômico; porém, quanto aos disclosures ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade, as variáveis Tamanho e Idade são fatores determinantes.

  1. ANÁLISE EXPERIMENTAL DA INFLUÊNCIA DA TECNOLOGIA HOMEPLUG NA QUALIDADE DA ENERGIA ELÉTRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Pereira de Siqueira Campos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos recentes têm estudado características do meio elétrico para a transmissão de dados, ruídos e técnicas empregadas na comunicação pela rede elétrica. A maioria dos trabalhos limita-se a fazer testes de desempenho do protocolo. Diversos pesquisadores têm se preocupado com a influência das transmissões de dados na rede elétrica sobre as comunicações sem fio, mas ninguém tem se preocupado com a influência dessas transmissões na qualidade da energia elétrica. Este trabalho apresenta resultados preliminares sobre o efeito produzido por redes de computadores que utilizam a tecnologia Homeplug 1.0 na qualidade da energia elétrica. Para isso, foram escolhidos parâmetros apropriados para análise da qualidade da energia elétrica, bem como, foram definidas as formas de se obter esses parâmetros. Foi montada uma rede de computadores, com modem’s PLC, no CEFET-RN e realizados testes iniciais para medição da qualidade de energia elétrica. Resultados numéricos são apresentados.

  2. Os problemas epistemológicos da realidade, da compreensibilidade e da causalidade na teoria quântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos Filho Jenner Barretto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho apresentamos uma discussão epistemológica sobre os problemas da Realidade, da Compreensibilidade e da Causalidade no contexto de algumas das questões suscitadas pela teoria quântica, discussão essa que se reflete também num combate à concepção positivista de ciência. Argumentamos em prol de uma maior aproximação entre a epistemologia complexa de Bachelard, a filosofia popperiana do racionalismo crítico e a concepção lakatosiana de programas científicos de pesquisa. Argumentamos, outrossim, em prol de ambas: da necessidade de se levar mais a sério a complexidade do diálogo teoria/experimento e da cautela redobrada em relação à idéia de 'experimentos cruciais' notadamente quando esses são lidos tanto na ótica do positivismo quanto na do realismo ingênuo.

  3. O OFÍCIO DA PINTURA EM PORTUGAL E O PROJETO DA ACADEMIA DE PINTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Quinet Pifano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o processo de reconhecimento do estatuto teórico das artes visuais e a consequente transformação do estatuto social do artista na Europa a partir do século XV. A formulação inédita de uma teoria da arte fundamentará tal processo e justificará a criação da Academia de Desenho em Florença no século XVI. A partir daí, muitas academias serão fundadas na Europa, consolidando paulatinamente a institucionalização da arte da pintura, escultura e arquitetura como artes liberais. Embora Portugal não se mantenha à margem deste processo, precisou esperar a dissolução do sistema de organização dos ofícios mecânicos em corporações para então fundar uma Academia de Belas Artes. Reflete-se aqui sobre o processo português de liberalização da arte: as relações entre a prática efetiva da pintura, a teoria da arte e o projeto de uma Academia de Pintura proposto pelo pintor Cyrillo Volkmar Machado.

  4. Vigotski e o estudo da psicologia da arte: contribuições para o desenvolvimento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mari Shima Barroco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto resulta de investigação bibliográfica e de um exercício teórico-metodológico sobre a obra Psicologia da Arte, de L. S. Vigotski (1999, visando aprofundar uma reflexão sobre o objeto e método da própria psicologia da arte. Objetiva-se, assim, discutir as possíveis contribuições da arte para o desenvolvimento humano com base na teoria histórico-cultural. Propõe-se que o objeto da psicologia da arte é o estudo da estrutura da obra, que deve provocar uma resposta estética e impactar a psique do fruidor. Considera-se que a arte, por sua estrutura específica e condição de objeto cultural, pode trazer desenvolvimento à psique humana pois, entre outros aspectos, possibilita a duplicação do real no âmbito intrapsiquíco, ao oferecer ao fruidor a vivência, por meio indireto, sobretudo de emoções e sentimentos não cotidianos.

  5. A inclusão da subjetividade no ensino da Psicopatologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da Psicopatologia tem sido freqüentemente apresentado em sua dimensão descritiva. Apesar da relevância para o ensino - auxiliar o aluno a reconhecer a dimensão sintomatológica dos quadros psicopatológicos -, exclui a dimensão subjetiva da experiência do adoecimento e seus aspectos relacionais. Partindo da tradição antropológico-existencial, apresentamos uma experiência de ensino de Psicopatologia que considera tais dimensões relevantes para a compreensão do sofrimento mental. Trabalhando com estudo de caso descritivo, são apresentadas duas novas modalidades de práticas na disciplina Psicopatologia Especial I, oferecida para alunos do curso de Psicologia da UFRJ. A proposta é ampliar o ensino prático, tradicionalmente centrado no modelo da extensa entrevista clínica, realizada diante de um grande grupo de alunos que a tudo assistem passivamente. Pretendemos aproximar o ensino e a prática da Psicopatologia dos ideais da Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira, que concebe o adoecimento mental como fenômeno complexo, envolvendo a relação do sujeito com o mundo.

  6. A revolução da biotecnologia: questões da sociabilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Valério Igor P Victorino

    2000-01-01

    O autor procura levantar uma série de questões relacionadas ao avanço acelerado da biotecnologia e aos paradigmas que fundamentam tal avanço, como o determinismo genético. É demonstrado que as ciências biológicas sentem-se tão confortáveis com seus últimos desenvolvimentos que pressupõem amplos esquemas interpretativos para todos os campos da existência, principalmente para as ciências do comportamento e da cultura. É problematizada a ambivalência da questão da genética na relação entre as ci...

  7. A Liberdade da Imprensa Agrilhoada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Peri Guedes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda caso decidido no ano de 2009 - MCRecl. nº 9.428 - pelo STF, envolvendo possível censura ao jornal O Estado de São Paulo. O jornal publicou matéria sobre operação da Polícia Federal designada Boi Barrica, envolvendo entre tantas outras pessoas o empresário Fernando Sarney, filho do então presidente do Senado José Sarney. O empresário, então, ingressa com ação junto ao T.J.D.F. a fim de tutelar o seu direito fundamental à intimidade, que estaria sendo violado pelo jornal. Medida liminar favorável lhe é concedida por desembargador daquele tribunal, que havia sido anteriormente indicado politicamente pelo Senador José Sarney – pai do empresário. Sem o conhecimento de todos os detalhes, poderíamos dizer que ponderação de interesses foi realizada – liberdade de imprensa e direito à privacidade - e direitos fundamentais foram protegidos, tendo o poder judiciário agido proativamente em sua defesa – sob uma leitura de ativismo judicial. Contudo, o que se observou foi a expressão de práticas oligárquicas a influenciar politicamente a composição do poder judiciário com vistas a dirigir suas decisões, denotando a força do patrimonialismo na república e a fragilidade de nossa constituição. Assim, teria se estabelecido uma censura em via oblíqua à liberdade de imprensa em plena vigor de um Estado democrático e social de direito, a ferir mortalmente nossas liberdades públicas e a constituição. Lembre-se que a constituição de 1988 veda todas as formas de censuta. Precisamos compreender o significado desta decisão e reverter este quadro de insegurança à liberdade de imprensa.

  8. Possíveis impasses da Lei Maria da Penha à convivência parental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Simplício Cardoso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa discorrer sobre a temática da convivência parental, a partir dos pressupostos teóricos da Psicologia Jurídica, em sua interface com o Direito de Família. A questão problematizada são os possíveis desdobramentos da lei 11.340/2006, conhecida como Lei Maria da Penha, na convivência dos filhos com o pai, suposto autor de agressão. Trata-se de investigação baseada em pesquisa bibliográfica e observações realizadas em um serviço de psicologia do judiciário. A partir da explanação do contexto de surgimento da Lei Maria da Penha no Brasil e da atual estrutura do judiciário para aplicá-la, questiona-se os desdobramentos das medidas de proteção de urgência. Embora tenham a finalidade de prevenir a ocorrência de novos episódios de violência contra a mulher, supõe-se que possam interferir na convivência familiar, quando o pai é impedido de ter contato com os filhos, seja pela medida de afastamento da mulher ou de restrição/suspensão das visitas paternas. Concluiu-se neste estudo que, embora a referida lei esteja voltada para a proteção da mulher, seus efeitos sobre a convivência familiar precisam ser melhor investigados, visando assegurar a diferenciação entre conjugalidade e parentalidade para evitar que os filhos sofram prejuízos em seu direito a conviver com ambos os pais.

  9. Acompanhamento de familias de criancas com doenca cronica: percepcao da equipe de Saude da Familia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvaldo Francisco Rego Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou caracterizar como a equipe da Estratégia Saúde da Família percebe sua dinâmica de acompanhamento de famílias que convivem com a doença crônica da criança. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que teve como referencial teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico e como método a Análise de Conteúdo, técnica de análise categorial temática. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se o grupo focal, que foi desenvolvido com três equipes de Saúde da Família, totalizando 32 sujeitos. Os resultados foram organizados em três categorias temáticas: Peculiaridades das famílias que convivem com a doença crônica da criança; Equipe, família e Estratégia Saúde da Família e Limitações para cuidar. A percepção da equipe é que o desenho da Estratégia Saúde da Família favorece o acesso à experiência familiar, permitindo o reconhecimento de suas especificidades. Os dados revelam ainda as limitações da equipe em sua capacidade de resolução e a necessidade de investimentos na articulação entre os distintos serviços, setores e equipamentos sociais.

  10. 76 FR 12627 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... the MCAI, on November 23, 2010, we issued AD 2010-25-01, Amendment 39-16534 (75 FR 75868, December 7... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  11. FUNDAMENTOS COGNITIVOS PARA O ENSINO DA LEITURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Bender de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, revisamos alguns fundamentos teóricos para o ensino da leitura baseados em recentes estudos das neurociências e ciências cognitivas. A leitura, enquanto processo cognitivo, deve ser compreendida em todos os seus níveis de processamento para que o ensino possa identificar e atender às necessidades do aluno. Primeiramente, abordamos o processamento da leitura do nível mais básico, a decodificação, ao nível mais avançado, a compreensão. Em seguida, exploramos funções cognitivas que não são exclusivas da leitura, a memória, a emoção e a aprendizagem. Por fim, propomos uma visão integrada desses processos, considerando a intrínseca relação entre língua, cognição e cultura, a qual permeia todas as nossas atividades, destacando o papel da cultura e da educação no desenvolvimento cognitivo.

  12. A PROPAGANDA NA VAZANTE DA INFOMARÉ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admir Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão sobre a origem sistêmica da Internet, sua adoção pelo marketing e a tímida tentativa da publicidade de agregar e conceber a Web como uma nova e importante mídia. Apresenta-se uma exposição sobre o surgimento da preocupação com a integração das ciências no contexto e abordagem proposta pela Teoria Geral dos Sistemas (sistema aberto, do biólogo alemão Ludwig Von Bertalanffy. O fenômeno da Internet tornou possível a democratização da informação e abriu para o marketing significativas fronteiras para a maior aproximação com o consumidor, através de suas estratégias de relacionamento, logística e interatividade. No entanto, a publicidade ainda não conseguiu criar uma linguagem e uma forma adequada de mensagem para esse novo meio.

  13. ANTROPOLOGIA DA IGUALDADE: DO ANONIMATO À FAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizia Maria Souza Villaça

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O texto pretende refletir sobre a cultura da performance, discutindo paralelamente a antropologia da igualdade que, no contemporâneo, dá lugar ao surgimento de novos heróis interpelados pela generalização da publicidade que promete a todos a possibilidade de atingir uma repentina notabilidade. A estratégia consegue seduzir uma quantidade grande de anônimos que participam dos certames e/ou se identificam com os que se sobressaem por meio dos dispositivos midiáticos. Tal modelo é pautado por uma cultura de estilo atlético e empresarial e tem seu foco na obtenção da fama. O fracasso de tal busca gera frequentemente um paradigma depressivo entre ansiolíticos, drogas, reclusão e imobilidade. A dinâmica da identidade/diferença é dinamizada pelas práticas do marketing cultural cujas ações serão objeto de discussão no sentido de verificar se o recurso à cultura propicia, efetivamente, um envolvimento individual e comunitário.

  14. O paradoxo da teoria: interpretando Niklas Luhmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Moeller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O artigo discute o papel do paradoxo na teoria social de Niklas Luhmann a partir de uma perspectiva hermenêutica "autológica": uma tentativa de interpretação "ortodoxa" da teoria de Luhmann, incluindo sua teoria do paradoxo, descobrirá que esta teoria não se presta a uma interpretação ortodoxa. Assim, mesmo que o paradoxo da teoria de Luhmann só possa ser compreendido por meio de uma interpretação ortodoxa, os fundamentos mesmos de tal abordagem hermenêutica ortodoxa são desconstruídos por seus próprios resultados. Com base em uma visada sobre esse paradoxo hermenêutico, o papel fundamental do paradoxo na teoria de Luhmann pode ser apreciado. Para Luhmann, a autoconstrução da sociedade como um sistema complexo de funções de comunicação baseia-se na Paradoxieentfaltung - o desenvolvimento de paradoxos -, que, por sua vez, se fundamenta no "paradoxo fundamental da observação" (die Grundparadoxie des Beobachtens. Assim, a construção social não opera por meio da eliminação de paradoxos, mas por meio do uso deles.

  15. Sustentabilidade Ambiental da Alimentação Humana

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Ana Margarida Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho complementar (Monografia) realizado no âmbito da Unidade Curricular Estágio da Licenciatura em Ciências da Nutrição da Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, sob orientação de Dr.ª Ana Sofia Costa (Misericórdia de Riba de Ave) e coorientação de Dr. Pedro Carvalho (Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto) Resumo da tese: Num mundo em constante crescimento e globalização, os impactes ambientais são cada vez mais not...

  16. Influência da nutrição mineral foliar sobre doenças da parte aérea da cultura do trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de fungicida para o controle de doenças foliares na cultura do trigo é prática comum entre os triticultores. Contudo, devido ao impacto ambiental provocado pelo seu uso generalizado, buscam-se alternativas para controle dos fitopatógenos. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da nutrição mineral foliar sobre as doenças foliares do trigo, bem como seu efeito sobre o desenvolvimento da planta. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e quatro tratamentos: 1- testemunha; 2- adubação foliar aos 30 dias após a emergência (DAE e aos 75 DAE; 3- fungicida aos 30 e 75 DAE; e 4- adubação foliar aos 30 DAE e adubação foliar mais fungicida aos 75 DAE. Foram realizadas nove avaliações da incidência e da severidade do oídio, cujos dados foram utilizados para o cálculo das áreas abaixo das curvas de progresso da doença; três avaliações da severidade da ferrugem e da mancha da gluma; e duas avaliações da mancha amarela. Foram determinadas a massa de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e a produtividade da cultura. Foi observada redução da incidência e da severidade de oídio em função da adubação foliar, apenas na primeira avaliação de incidência e nas segunda e quinta avaliações de severidade da doença. O efeito complementar dos nutrientes com o fungicida para redução das doenças foi observado apenas para a mancha amarela, com redução de aproximadamente 11,16 % da severidade. Os maiores valores de produtividade foram observados para os tratamentos apenas com fungicida e, com fungicida mais nutrientes. A adubação foliar proporcionou aumento da massa fresca de raízes e massa seca de raízes. Apesar disso, não houve aumento da massa fresca da parte aérea em função da adubação foliar.

  17. Instrumento mensurador de adesao para hipertensos: contribuicao da Teoria da Resposta ao Item

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Thais Pacheco Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar instrumento de medição da adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão por meio da "Teoria da Resposta ao Item". MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico com 406 hipertensos com complicações associadas, atendidos na atenção básica em Fortaleza, CE, 2011, pela "Teoria da Resposta ao Item". As etapas de execução foram: teste de dimensionalidade, calibração dos itens; tratamento dos dados e construção da escala, analisadas com base no modelo de resposta gradual. Estudo da dimensionalidade do instrumento foi feito pela análise da matriz de correlação policórica e análise fatorial de informação completa. Utilizou-se o software Multilog para calibração dos itens e estimação dos escores. RESULTADOS: Os itens referentes ao tratamento medicamentoso foram os mais diretamente relacionados à adesão, enquanto aqueles referentes ao tratamento não medicamentoso precisam ser reformulados, pois possuíram menor quantidade de informação psicométrica e baixa discriminação. A independência dos itens, o reduzido número de níveis da escala e as baixas variâncias explicadas no ajuste dos modelos mostraram as principais fragilidades do instrumento analisado. A "Teoria da Resposta ao Item" mostrou-se relevante para análise, pois avaliou o respondente quanto à adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão, ao nível de dificuldade dos itens e à sua capacidade de discriminação entre indivíduos com diferentes níveis de adesão, o que gerou maior quantidade de informação. CONCLUSÕES: O instrumento analisado é limitado para medir a adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão, mediante análise pela "Teoria da Resposta ao Item", e necessita de ajustes. A adequada formulação dos itens é importante para medir precisamente o traço latente desejado.

  18. o caso da Primark em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Daniela Antunes da Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos de obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências da Comunicação, Ramo de Relações Públicas O valor da marca e a satisfação do consumidor são dois temas que têm vindo a ser abordados ao longo de décadas, por diversos autores. Como tal, surgiu o interesse de relacionar ambas as variáveis uma vez que não existe nenhum estudo em concreto que apresente uma relação entre as duas. Deste modo, o tema da presente pesquisa é a...

  19. Metáforas Organizacionais