WorldWideScience

Sample records for availability leaf life

  1. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter B; Walters, Michael B; Ellsworth, David S; Vose, James M; Volin, John C; Gresham, Charles; Bowman, William D

    1998-05-01

    Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, we hypothesized that variation among species in leaf dark respiration rate (R d ) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (A max ). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is similar among disparate biomes and plant functional types. We tested this idea by examining the interspecific relationships between R d measured at a standard temperature and leaf life-span, N, SLA and A max for 69 species from four functional groups (forbs, broad-leafed trees and shrubs, and needle-leafed conifers) in six biomes traversing the Americas: alpine tundra/subalpine forest, Colorado; cold temperate forest/grassland, Wisconsin; cool temperate forest, North Carolina; desert/shrubland, New Mexico; subtropical forest, South Carolina; and tropical rain forest, Amazonas, Venezuela. Area-based R d was positively related to area-based leaf N within functional groups and for all species pooled, but not when comparing among species within any site. At all sites, mass-based R d (R d-mass ) decreased sharply with increasing leaf life-span and was positively related to SLA and mass-based A max and leaf N (leaf N mass ). These intra-biome relationships were similar in shape and slope among sites, where in each case we compared species belonging to different plant functional groups. Significant R d-mass -N mass relationships were observed in all functional groups (pooled across sites), but the relationships differed, with higher R d at any given leaf N in functional groups (such as forbs) with higher SLA and shorter leaf life-span. Regardless of biome or functional group, R d-mass was well predicted by all combinations of leaf life-span, N mass and/or SLA (r 2 ≥ 0.79, P morphological, chemical and metabolic traits.

  2. Leaf life span plasticity in tropical seedlings grown under contrasting light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gregoire

    2006-02-01

    The phenotypic plasticity of leaf life span in response to low resource conditions has a potentially large impact on the plant carbon budget, notably in evergreen species not subject to seasonal leaf shedding, but has rarely been well documented. This study evaluates the plasticity of leaf longevity, in terms of its quantitative importance to the plant carbon balance under limiting light. Seedlings of four tropical tree species with contrasting light requirements (Alstonia scholaris, Hevea brasiliensis, Durio zibethinus and Lansium domesticum) were grown under three light regimes (full sunlight, 45 % sunlight and 12 % sunlight). Their leaf dynamics were monitored over 18 months. All species showed a considerable level of plasticity with regard to leaf life span: over the range of light levels explored, the ratio of the range to the mean value of life span varied from 29 %, for the least plastic species, to 84 %, for the most. The common trend was for leaf life span to increase with decreasing light intensity. The plasticity apparent in leaf life span was similar in magnitude to the plasticity observed in specific leaf area and photosynthetic rate, implying that it has a significant impact on carbon gain efficiency when plants acclimate to different light regimes. In all species, median survival time was negatively correlated with leaf photosynthetic capacity (or its proxy, the nitrogen content per unit area) and leaf emergence rate. Longer leaf life spans under low light are likely to be a consequence of slower ageing as a result of a slower photosynthetic metabolism.

  3. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  4. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lundholm

    Full Text Available Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that

  5. Leaf life span plasticity in tropical seedlings grown under contrasting light regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Grégoire

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims The phenotypic plasticity of leaf life span in response to low resource conditions has a potentially large impact on the plant carbon budget, notably in evergreen species not subject to seasonal leaf shedding, but has rarely been well documented. This study evaluates the plasticity of leaf longevity, in terms of its quantitative importance to the plant carbon balance under limiting light. Methods Seedlings of four tropical tree species with contrasting light requirements (...

  6. Herbivores sculpt leaf traits differently in grasslands depending on life form and land-use histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Schütz, Martin; Nguyen, Huong; Risch, Anita C

    2017-01-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores alter plant communities directly by selectively consuming plant species; and indirectly by inducing morphological and physiological changes to plant traits that provide competitive or survivorship advantages to some life forms over others. Progressively excluding aboveground herbivore communities (ungulates, medium and small sized mammals, invertebrates) over five growing seasons, we explored how leaf morphology (specific leaf area or SLA) and nutrition (nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and calcium) of different plant life forms (forbs, legumes, grasses, sedges) correlated with their dominance. We experimented in two subalpine grassland types with different land-use histories: (1) heavily grazed, nutrient-rich, short-grass vegetation and (2) lightly grazed, lower nutrient tall-grass vegetation. We found differences in leaf traits between treatments where either all herbivores were excluded or all herbivores were present, showing the importance of considering the impacts of both vertebrates and invertebrates on the leaf traits of plant species. Life forms responses to the progressive exclusion of herbivores were captured by six possible combinations: (1) increased leaf size and resource use efficiency (leaf area/nutrients) where lower nutrient levels are invested in leaf construction, but a reduction in the number of leaves, for example, forbs in both vegetation types, (2) increased leaf size and resource use efficiency, for example, legumes in short grass, (3) increased leaf size but a reduction in the number of leaves, for example, legumes in the tall grass, (4) increased number of leaves produced and increased resource use efficiency, for example, grasses in the short grass, (5) increased resource use efficiency of leaves only, for example, grasses and sedges in the tall grass, and (6) no response in terms of leaf construction or dominance, for example, sedges in the short grass. Although we found multiple

  7. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  8. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  9. Leaf life span and the mobility of "non-mobile" mineral nutrients - the case of boron in conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro J. Aphalo; Anna W. Schoettle; Tarja Lehto

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient conservation is considered important for the adaptation of plants to infertile environments. The importance of leaf life spans in controlling mean residence time of nutrients in plants has usually been analyzed in relation to nutrients that can be retranslocated within the plant. Longer leaf life spans increase the mean residence time of all mineral...

  10. Global quantification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous and evergreen species in response to environmental conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A.E.E.; Douma, J.C.; Ordonez Barragan, J.C.; Reick, P.B.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Species with deciduous and evergreen leaf habits typically differ in leaf life span (LLS). Yet quantification of the response of LLS, within each habit, to key environmental conditions is surprisingly lacking. The aim of this study is to quantify LLS strategies of the two leaf habits under

  11. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Heim, Amy; Tran, Stephanie; Smith, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth) to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies) for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that favor less

  12. Effect of water availability on tolerance of leaf damage in tall morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atala, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2009-03-01

    Resource availability may limit plant tolerance of herbivory. To predict the effect of differential resource availability on plant tolerance, the limiting resource model (LRM) considers which resource limits plant fitness and which resource is mostly affected by herbivore damage. We tested the effect of experimental drought on tolerance of leaf damage in Ipomoea purpurea, which is naturally exposed to both leaf damage and summer drought. To seek mechanistic explanations, we also measured several morphological, allocation and gas exchange traits. In this case, LRM predicts that tolerance would be the same in both water treatments. Plants were assigned to a combination of two water treatments (control and low water) and two damage treatments (50% defoliation and undamaged). Plants showed tolerance of leaf damage, i.e., a similar number of fruits were produced by damaged and undamaged plants, only in control water. Whereas experimental drought affected all plant traits, leaf damage caused plants to show a greater leaf trichome density and reduced shoot biomass, but only in low water. It is suggested that the reduced fitness (number of fruits) of damaged plants in low water was mediated by the differential reduction of shoot biomass, because the number of fruits per shoot biomass was similar in damaged and undamaged plants. Alternative but less likely explanations include the opposing direction of functional responses to drought and defoliation, and resource costs of the damage-induced leaf trichome density. Our results somewhat challenge the LRM predictions, but further research including field experiments is needed to validate some of the preliminary conclusions drawn.

  13. Clone-Specific Response in Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activity among Unrelated Hybrid Poplars in relation to Soil Nitrate Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fortier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this field study, we used in vivo NRA activity in hybrid poplar leaves as an indicator of NO3- assimilation for five unrelated hybrid poplar clones. We also examined if leaf NRA of these clones is influenced to the same extent by different levels of soil NO3- availability in two riparian agroforestry systems located in pastures. Leaf NRA differences of more than one order of magnitude were observed between the clones, clearly showing their different abilities to reduce NO3- in leaves. Clone DxN-3570, a P. deltoides x P. nigra hybrid (Aigeiros intrasectional hybrid, always had the highest leaf NRA during the field assays. This clone was also the only one to increase its leaf NRA with increasing NO3- soil availability, which resulted in a significant Site x Clone interaction and a positive relationship between soil NO3- concentration and NRA. All of the four other clones studied had one or both parental species from the Tacamahaca section. They had relatively low leaf NRA and they did not increase their leaf NRA when grown on the NO3- rich site. These results provide evidence that NO3- assimilation in leaves varies widely among hybrid poplars of different parentages, suggesting potential preferences for N forms.

  14. The Influence of Leaf Fall and Organic Carbon Availability on Nitrogen Cycling in a Headwater Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. A.; Kristin, A.; Doyle, B.; Goodale, C. L.; Gurwick, N. P.; Lepak, J.; Kulkari, M.; McIntyre, P.; McCalley, C.; Raciti, S.; Simkin, S.; Warren, D.; Weiss, M.

    2005-05-01

    The study of allochthonous carbon has a long and distinguished history in stream ecology. Despite this legacy, relatively little is known regarding the influence of leaf litter on nutrient dynamics. We conducted 15N-NO3 tracer additions to a headwater stream in upstate New York before and after autumn leaf fall to assess the influence of leaf litter on nitrogen spiraling. In addition, we amended the stream with labile dissolved organic carbon (as acetate) midway through each experiment to examine whether organic carbon availability differentially stimulated nitrogen cycling. Leaf standing stocks increased from 53 to 175 g dry mass m-2 and discharge more than tripled (6 to 20 L s-1) between the pre- and post-leaf fall period. In contrast, nitrate concentration fell from approximately 50 to less then 10 ug L-1. Despite higher discharge, uptake length was shorter following leaf fall under both ambient (250 and 72 m, respectively) and DOC amended (125 and 45 m) conditions. Uptake velocity increased dramatically following leaf fall, despite a slight decline in the areal uptake rate. Dissolved N2 gas samples were also collected to estimate denitrification rates under each experimental condition. The temporal extent of increased nitrogen retention will also be explored.

  15. Nitrogen availability, leaf life span and nitrogen conservation mechanisms in leaves of tropical trees Disponibilidade de nitrogênio, longevidade foliar e mecanismos de conservação de nitrogênio em folhas de espécies arbóreas tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Nascimento Corte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen species of temperate regions are dominant in low-nutrient soils. This feature is attributed to more efficient mechanisms of nutrient economy. Nevertheless, the cashew (Anacardium occidentale- Anacardiaceae, a deciduous species, is native to regions in Brazil with sandy soil, whilst the annatto (Bixa orellana- Bixaceae, classified as an evergreen species native to tropical America, grows spontaneously in regions with more humid soils. Evergreens contain robust leaves that can resist adverse conditions for longer. The physical aspects of the leaves and mechanisms of nutrient economy between the two species were compared, in order to verify whether the deciduous species had more efficient mechanisms that might explain its occurrence in regions of low soil fertility. The mechanisms of nitrogen economy were also compared for the two species at available concentrations of this nutrient. The following were analysed: (i leaf life span, (ii physical leaf characteristics (leaf mass per area, and rupture strain, (iii nitrogenous compounds (nitrogen, chlorophyll, and protein, (iv nitrogen conservation mechanisms (nitrogen resorption efficiency, resorption proficiency, and use efficiency, and (v nitrogen conservation mechanisms under different availability of this mineral. The higher values of leaf mass per area and leaf rupture strain found in A. occidentale were related to its longer leaf life span. A. occidentale showed lower concentrations of nitrogen and protein in the leaves than B. orellana. Under lower nitrogen availability, A. occidentale had higher nitrogen resorption proficiency, nitrogen use efficiency and leaf life span than B. orellana. These characteristics may contribute to the adaptation of this species to sandy soils with low nitrogen content.Perenifólias de clima temperado são dominantes em solos pouco férteis. Essa característica é atribuída a mecanismos mais eficientes de economia de nutrientes. O cajueiro (Anacardium

  16. Leaf life spans of some conifers of the temperate forests of South America Longevidad foliar de algunas coníferas de los bosques templados de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific variation in leaf life span has wide-ranging implications for plant species sorting on resource availability gradients, and for ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. Very little is known about leaf life spans of evergreen trees in the temperate forests of South America. Leaf life spans were estimated by static demographic methods, and associated leaf traits measured, for four conifers of this region. It was expected that leaf life span variation would correlate negatively with soil fertility of habitats normally occupied by each species. This prediction was upheld by the data. The mean leaf life span determined for Araucaria araucana (24 years is among the highest figures reported for any plant species. This extreme leaf longevity was associated with very robust construction (high leaf mass per unit area and very low nitrogen content. These aspects of the ecology of A. araucana may affect its fitness in two ways. Firstly, slow foliage turnover will reduce its annual nutrient requirements for crown maintenance, a trait that is thought to be crucial for survival on nutrient-poor sites. Secondly, the low decomposability of A. araucana leaf litter is likely to cause nutrient immobilisation, possibly favouring site retention by A. araucana in the face of competition from faster-growing but more nutrient-demanding species. Interspecific variation in leaf life span appeared to be systematically related to variation in leaf mass per unit area (LMA and leaf nitrogen, in agreement with a large body of evidence that leaf evolution is constrained by a trade-off between trait combinations which optimise carbon gain and growth in resource-rich habitats, and those which favour persistence in chronically adverse environmentsLas diferencias específicas en longevidad foliar tienen importantes implicancias para la distribución de las plantas en relación con gradientes de recursos, y en procesos ecosistémicos tales como el ciclaje de

  17. A novel life cycle arising from leaf segments in plants regenerated from horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Y; Matsuhashi, M

    1995-03-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy root clones were established from hairy roots which were transformed with the Ri plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. The transformed plants, which were regenerated from hairy root clones, had thicker roots with extensive lateral branches and thicker stems, and grew faster compared with non-transformed horseradish plants. Small sections of leaves of the transformed plants generated adventitious roots in phytohormone-free G (modified Gamborg's) medium. Root proliferation was followed by adventitious shoot formation and plant regeneration. Approximately twenty plants were regenerated per square centimeter of leaf. The transformed plants were easily transferable from sterile conditions to soil. When leaf segments of the transformed plants were cultured in a liquid fertilizer under non-sterile conditions, adventitious roots were generated at the cut ends of the leaves. Adventitious shoots were generated at the boundary between the leaf and the adventitious roots and developed into complete plants. This novel life cycle arising from leaf segments is a unique property of the transformed plants derived from hairy root clones.

  18. Do seasonal changes in light availability influence the inverse leafing phenology of the neotropical dry forest understory shrub Bonellia nervosa (Theophrastaceae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar M Chaves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical dry forests most plants are deciduous during the dry season and flush leaves with the onset of the rains. In Costa Rica, the only species displaying the opposite pattern is Bonellia nervosa. To determine if seasonal changes in light availability are associated with the leaf and reproductive phenology of this species, we monitored leaf production, survival, and life span, as well as flower and fruit production from April 2000 to October 2001 in Santa Rosa National Park. Leaf flushing and flower bud production took place shortly after the autumnal equinox when day length starts to decrease. Leaves began expansion at the end of the wet season, and plants reached 70 % of their maximum leaf area at the beginning of the dry season, maintaining their foliage throughout the entire dry period. Leaf shedding occurred gradually during the first three months of the wet season. Leaf flushing and shedding showed high synchrony, with leaf numbers being related to light availability. Maximum leaf production coincided with peaks in radiation during the middle of the dry season. Decreasing day length induces highly synchronous flower bud emergence in dry forest species, but this is the first study indicating induction of leaf flushing by declining day length. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 257-268. Epub 2008 March 31.En los bosques tropicales secos la mayoría de las plantas pierden sus hojas durante la estación seca y las producen con el inicio de las lluvias. En Costa Rica la única especie que muestra el patrón fenológico inverso es Bonellia nervosa. Para determinar si los cambios estacionales en la disponibilidad de luz estaban asociados con la fenología foliar y reproductiva en esta especie, monitoreamos la producción y sobrevivencia de hojas, así como la producción de flores y frutos de abril del 2000 a octubre del 2001 en el Parque Nacional Santa Rosa. La producción de hojas y botones florales ocurrió poco después del equinoccio de oto

  19. Leaf-IT: An Android application for measuring leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Julian; Pillar, Giso; Kreft, Holger

    2017-11-01

    The use of plant functional traits has become increasingly popular in ecological studies because plant functional traits help to understand key ecological processes in plant species and communities. This also includes changes in diversity, inter- and intraspecific interactions, and relationships of species at different spatiotemporal scales. Leaf traits are among the most important traits as they describe key dimensions of a plant's life history strategy. Further, leaf area is a key parameter with relevance for other traits such as specific leaf area, which in turn correlates with leaf chemical composition, photosynthetic rate, leaf longevity, and carbon investment. Measuring leaf area usually involves the use of scanners and commercial software and can be difficult under field conditions. We present Leaf-IT, a new smartphone application for measuring leaf area and other trait-related areas. Leaf-IT is free, designed for scientific purposes, and runs on Android 4 or higher. We tested the precision and accuracy using objects with standardized area and compared the area measurements of real leaves with the well-established, commercial software WinFOLIA using the Altman-Bland method. Area measurements of standardized objects show that Leaf-IT measures area with high accuracy and precision. Area measurements with Leaf-IT of real leaves are comparable to those of WinFOLIA. Leaf-IT is an easy-to-use application running on a wide range of smartphones. That increases the portability and use of Leaf-IT and makes it possible to measure leaf area under field conditions typical for remote locations. Its high accuracy and precision are similar to WinFOLIA. Currently, its main limitation is margin detection of damaged leaves or complex leaf morphologies.

  20. Within-twig leaf distribution patterns differ among plant life-forms in a subtropical Chinese forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengqun; Cao, Rui; Yang, Dongmei; Niklas, Karl J; Sun, Shucun

    2013-07-01

    Amax) had more even leaf distribution patterns than evergreen species (which had low LCP, LSP and Amax); shade-adapted evergreen species had more even leaf distribution patterns than sun-adapted evergreen species. We propose that the leaf distribution pattern (i.e., 'evenness' CV, which is an easily measured functional trait) can be used to distinguish among life-forms in communities similar to the one examined in this study.

  1. Deeper snow alters soil nutrient availability and leaf nutrient status in high Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Amtorp, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    season. Changing nutrient availability may be reflected in plant N and chlorophyll content and lead to increased photosynthetic capacity, plant growth, and ultimately carbon (C) assimilation by plants. In this study, we increased snow depth and thereby cold-season soil temperatures in high Arctic...... Svalbard in two vegetation types spanning three moisture regimes. We measured growing-season availability of ammonium (NH4 (+)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (TON) in soil; C, N, delta N-15 and chlorophyll content in Salix polaris leaves; and leaf sizes of Salix...

  2. Low light availability affects leaf gas exchange, growth and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of dark respiration rate (Rd) and photosynthetic compensation irradiance (Ic) were sufficiently low for a positive carbon balance. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of results of microclimate variables together with leaf gas exchange and growth variables indicated that seedlings at all sites were in a suboptimal ...

  3. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  4. Response of the leaf photosynthetic rate to available nitrogen in erect panicle-type rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivar, Shennong265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Urairi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the yield of rice per unit area is important because of the demand from the growing human population in Asia. A group of varieties called erect panicle-type rice (EP achieves very high yields under conditions of high nitrogen availability. Little is known, however, regarding the leaf photosynthetic capacity of EP, which may be one of the physiological causes of high yield. We analyzed the factors contributing to leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn and leaf mesophyll anatomy of Nipponbare, Takanari, and Shennong265 (a EP type rice cultivar varieties subjected to different nitrogen treatments. In the field experiment, Pn of Shennong265 was 33.8 μmol m−2 s−1 in the high-N treatment, and was higher than that of the other two cultivars because of its high leaf nitrogen content (LNC and a large number of mesophyll cells between the small vascular bundles per unit length. In Takanari, the relatively high value of Pn (31.5 μmol m−2 s−1 was caused by the high stomatal conductance (gs; .72 mol m−2 s−1 in the high-N treatment. In the pot experiment, the ratio of Pn/Ci to LNC, which may reflect mesophyll conductance (gm, was 20–30% higher in Nipponbare than in Takanari or Shennong265 in the high N availability treatment. The photosynthetic performance of Shennong265 might be improved by introducing the greater ratio of Pn/Ci to LNC found in Nipponbare and greater stomatal conductance found in Takanari.

  5. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  6. Climatic Controls on Leaf Nitrogen Content and Implications for Biochemical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherednichenko, I. A.; White, M.; Bastidas, L.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf nitrogen (N) content, expressed as percent total nitrogen per unit of leaf dry mass, is a widely used parameter in biochemical modeling, due mainly to its role as a potentially limiting factor for photosynthesis. The amount of nitrogen, however, does not occur in a fixed amount in every leaf, but rather varies continuously with the leaf life cycle, in constant response to soil-root-stem-leaf-climate interactions and demand for growth. Moreover, while broad data on leaf N has become available it is normally measured under ambient conditions with consequent difficulty for distinguishing between genetic and time specific environmental effects. In the present work we: 1) Investigate the theoretical variation of leaf mass, specific heat capacity and leaf thickness of full sun-expanded leaves as a regulatory mechanism to ensure thermal survival along with long-term climatic radiation/temperature gradient; and discuss nitrogen and carbon controls on leaf thickness. 2) Based on possible states of partition between nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous components of a leaf we further derive probability density functions (PDFs) of nitrogen and carbon content and assess the effect of water and nutrient uptake on the PDFs. 3) Translate the results to spatially explicit representation over the conterminous USA at 1 km spatial resolution by providing maximum potential values of leaf N of fully expanded leaf optimally suited for long term climatic averages values and soils conditions. Implications for potential presence of inherently slow/fast growing species are discussed along with suitability of results for use by biochemical models.

  7. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  8. Differences in the environmental control of leaf senescence of four Quercus species coexisting in a Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa del Río-García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: Our aim is to check the effect of different environmental factors on the leaf senescence of four Quercus species with different leaf longevities, to help us better understand the implications of climate change on leaf demography. Area of study: The study was carried out in two sites of the province of Salamanca (central-western Spain, both sites showing differences in their temperatures and soil water availability. Material and Methods: Over four years (2007-2010 we monitored the number of leaves of the different cohorts labelled on five specimens of each species at both sites to elaborate life-tables and calculate mortality rates. Mortality rates were then related to several other variables measured during the same period: air temperature, soil water availability, precipitation, predawn water potentials (Ψpd and leaf N resorption. Main results: In the two deciduous species maximum daily temperatures and the time during which their values remain above a certain threshold (between 11 and 12ºC of maximum daily temperature are the main factors controlling the timing of leaf abscission. In the evergreen species abscission of old leaves showed no relationship with the environmental factors analyzed. By contrast, mortality rates of old leaves were related to seasonal N resorption values, with the maximum mortality of old leaves coinciding in time with the maximum withdrawal of N from shed leaves and also with the emergence of the new leaf cohort. Research highlights: The increase in the duration of the leaves of the two deciduous species, as a result of the delayed senescence by warmer autumnal temperatures, could contribute to reducing the differences in the length of the productive leaf life with respect to the evergreen species. This could improve the competitive capacity of deciduous species as opposed to that of evergreen species, and thus alter their respective distribution patterns.

  9. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  10. Are leaf physiological traits related to leaf water isotopic enrichment in restinga woody species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO H.P. ROSADO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During plant-transpiration, water molecules having the lighter stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen evaporate and diffuse at a faster rate through the stomata than molecules having the heavier isotopes, which cause isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Although previous models have assumed that leaf water is well-mixed and isotopically uniform, non-uniform stomatal closure, promoting different enrichments between cells, and different pools of water within leaves, due to morpho-physiological traits, might lead to inaccuracies in isotopic models predicting leaf water enrichment. We evaluate the role of leaf morpho-physiological traits on leaf water isotopic enrichment in woody species occurring in a coastal vegetation of Brazil known as restinga. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope values of soil, plant stem and leaf water and leaf traits were measured in six species from restinga vegetation during a drought and a wet period. Leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water was more homogeneous among species during the drought in contrast to the wet period suggesting convergent responses to deal to temporal heterogeneity in water availability. Average leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water during the drought period was highly correlated with relative apoplastic water content. We discuss this observation in the context of current models of leaf water isotopic enrichment as a function of the Péclet effect. We suggest that future studies should include relative apoplastic water content in isotopic models.

  11. Effects of species-specific leaf characteristics and reduced water availability on fine particle capture efficiency of trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Räsänen, Janne V.; Holopainen, Toini; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Ndam, Collins; Pasanen, Pertti; Rinnan, Åsmund; Kivimäenpää, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Trees can improve air quality by capturing particles in their foliage. We determined the particle capture efficiencies of coniferous Pinus sylvestris and three broadleaved species: Betula pendula, Betula pubescens and Tilia vulgaris in a wind tunnel using NaCl particles. The importance of leaf surface structure, physiology and moderate soil drought on the particle capture efficiencies of the trees were determined. The results confirm earlier findings of more efficient particle capture by conifers compared to broadleaved plants. The particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris (0.21%) was significantly higher than those of B. pubescens, T. vulgaris and B. pendula (0.083%, 0.047%, 0.043%, respectively). The small leaf size of P. sylvestris was the major characteristic that increased particle capture. Among the broadleaved species, low leaf wettability, low stomatal density and leaf hairiness increased particle capture. Moderate soil drought tended to increase particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris. -- Highlights: • Coniferous Scots pine was the most efficient particle collector. • Decreasing single leaf size increases particle deposition of the total leaf area. • Hairiness of the leaf increases particle deposition. -- Trees can improve air quality by removing PM 2.5 pollutants carried on the wind at a velocity of 3 m s −1 , the efficiency of which depends on species leaf characteristics and physical factors

  12. Plant traits and environment: floating leaf blade production and turnover of waterlilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Klok

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Floating leaf blades of waterlilies fulfill several functions in wetland ecosystems by production, decomposition and turnover as well as exchange processes. Production and turnover rates of floating leaf blades of three waterlily species, Nuphar lutea (L. Sm., Nymphaea alba L. and Nymphaea candida Presl, were studied in three freshwater bodies, differing in trophic status, pH and alkalinity. Length and percentages of leaf loss of marked leaf blades were measured weekly during the growing season. Area and biomass were calculated based on leaf length and were used to calculate the turnover rate of floating leaf blades. Seasonal changes in floating leaf production showed that values decreased in the order: Nymphaea alba, Nuphar lutea, Nymphaea candida. The highest production was reached for Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba in alkaline, eutrophic water bodies. The production per leaf was relatively high for both species in the acid water body. Nymphaea candida showed a very short vegetation period and low turnover rates. The ratio Total potential leaf biomass/Maximum potential leaf biomass (P/Bmax of the three species ranged from 1.35–2.25. The ratio Vegetation period (Period with floating leaves/Mean leaf life span ranged from 2.94–4.63, the ratio Growth period (Period with appearance of new floating leaves/Vegetation period from 0.53–0.73. The clear differences between Nymphaea candida versus Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba, may be due to adaptations of Nymphaea candida to an Euro-Siberic climate with short-lasting summer conditions.

  13. Leaf nutrient resorption, leaf lifespan and the retention of nutrients in seagrass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.; Marbà, N.; Stapel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Efficient nutrient resorption from senescing leaves, and extended leaf life spans are important strategies in order to conserve nutrients for plants in general. Despite the fact that seagrasses often grow in oligotrophic waters, these conservation strategies are not strongly developed in seagrasses.

  14. Automated Leaf Tracking using Multi-view Image Sequences of Maize Plants for Leaf-growth Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Samal, A.; Stoerger, V.; Bashyam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Extraction of phenotypes with botanical importance by analyzing plant image sequences has the desirable advantages of non-destructive temporal phenotypic measurements of a large number of plants with little or no manual intervention in a relatively short period of time. The health of a plant is best interpreted by the emergence timing and temporal growth of individual leaves. For automated leaf growth monitoring, it is essential to track each leaf throughout the life cycle of the plant. Plants are constantly changing organisms with increasing complexity in architecture due to variations in self-occlusions and phyllotaxy, i.e., arrangements of leaves around the stem. The leaf cross-overs pose challenges to accurately track each leaf using single view image sequence. Thus, we introduce a novel automated leaf tracking algorithm using a graph theoretic approach by multi-view image sequence analysis based on the determination of leaf-tips and leaf-junctions in the 3D space. The basis of the leaf tracking algorithm is: the leaves emerge using bottom-up approach in the case of a maize plant, and the direction of leaf emergence strictly alternates in terms of direction. The algorithm involves labeling of the individual parts of a plant, i.e., leaves and stem, following graphical representation of the plant skeleton, i.e., one-pixel wide connected line obtained from the binary image. The length of the leaf is measured by the number of pixels in the leaf skeleton. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, a benchmark dataset is indispensable. Thus, we publicly release University of Nebraska-Lincoln Component Plant Phenotyping dataset-2 (UNL-CPPD-2) consisting of images of the 20 maize plants captured by visible light camera of the Lemnatec Scanalyzer 3D high throughout plant phenotyping facility once daily for 60 days from 10 different views. The dataset is aimed to facilitate the development and evaluation of leaf tracking algorithms and their uniform comparisons.

  15. Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, P.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Walters, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Vose, J.M. [Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrological Lab.; Gresham, C. [Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Forest Inst.; Volin, J.C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Davie, FL (United States). Div. of Science; Bowman, W.D. [Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Mountain Research Station]|[Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Evolutionary, Population, and Organismic Biology

    1999-09-01

    Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

  16. How well can spectroscopy predict leaf morphological traits in the seasonal neotropical savannas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streher, A. S.; McGill, B.; Morellato, P.; Silva, T. S. F.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in foliar morphological traits, quantified as leaf mass per area (LMA, g m-2) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC, g g-1), correspond to a tradeoff between investments in leaf construction costs and leaf life span. Leaf spectroscopy, the acquisition of reflected radiation along contiguous narrow spectral bands from leaves, has shown the potential to link leaf optical properties with a range of foliar traits. However, our knowledge is still limited on how well leaf traits from plants with different life forms and deciduousness strategies can be predicted from spectroscopy. To understand the relationships between leaf traits and optical properties, we investigated: 1) What are the spectral regions associated with leaf morphological traits? 2) How generalizable an optical trait model is across different life forms and leaf strategies? Five locations across cerrado and campo rupestre vegetation in Brazil were sampled during the growing season in 2017. Triplicate mature sun leaves were harvested from plants encompassing different life forms (grasses, perennial herbs, shrubs and trees), comprising 1650 individuals growing over a wide range of environmental conditions. For each individual, we determined LDMC and LMA, and took 30 spectral leaf measurements from 400 to 2500nm, using a spectrometer. We used the Random Forests (RF) algorithm to predict both morphological traits from leaf reflectance, and performed feature selection with a backward stepwise method, progressively removing variables with small importance at each iteration. Model performance was evaluated by using 10-fold cross-validation. LDMC values ranged from 0.12 to 0.67 g g-1, while LMA varied between 41.78 and 562 g m-2. The spectral bands that best explained trait variation were found within the SWIR, around 1397 nm for LDMC, and 2279 nm for LMA. Our general model explained 55.28% of LDMC variance and 55.64% of LMA variation, and the mean RMSE for the predicted values were 0.004 g g-1 and 36.99 g

  17. Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Bael Sunshine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in their host plants’ defense against leaf-cutting ants. To measure the long-term cost to the ant colony of fungal endophytes in their forage material, we conducted a 20-week laboratory experiment to measure fungal garden development for colonies that foraged on leaves with low or high endophyte content. Results Colony mass and the fungal garden dry mass did not differ significantly between the low and high endophyte feeding treatments. There was, however, a marginally significant trend toward greater mass of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven by differences in the fungal garden mass per worker from the earliest samples, when leaf-cutting ants had been foraging on low or high endophyte leaf material for only 2 weeks. At two weeks of foraging, the mean fungal garden mass per worker was 77% greater for colonies foraging on leaves with low relative to high endophyte loads. Conclusions Our data suggest that the cost of endophyte presence in ant forage material may be greatest to fungal colony development in its earliest stages, when there are few workers available to forage and to clean leaf material. This coincides with a period of high mortality for incipient colonies in the field. We discuss how the endophyte-leaf-cutter ant interaction may parallel constitutive defenses in plants, whereby endophytes reduce the rate of colony development when its risk of mortality is greatest.

  18. Trade-offs between seed and leaf size (seed-phytomer-leaf theory): functional glue linking regenerative with life history strategies … and taxonomy with ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John G; Santini, Bianca A; Montserrat Marti, Gabriel; Royo Pla, Ferran; Jones, Glynis; Bogaard, Amy; Charles, Mike; Font, Xavier; Ater, Mohammed; Taleb, Abdelkader; Poschlod, Peter; Hmimsa, Younes; Palmer, Carol; Wilson, Peter J; Band, Stuart R; Styring, Amy; Diffey, Charlotte; Green, Laura; Nitsch, Erika; Stroud, Elizabeth; Romo-Díez, Angel; de Torres Espuny, Lluis; Warham, Gemma

    2017-11-10

    While the 'worldwide leaf economics spectrum' (Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M, et al. 2004. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature : 821-827) defines mineral nutrient relationships in plants, no unifying functional consensus links size attributes. Here, the focus is upon leaf size, a much-studied plant trait that scales positively with habitat quality and components of plant size. The objective is to show that this wide range of relationships is explicable in terms of a seed-phytomer-leaf (SPL) theoretical model defining leaf size in terms of trade-offs involving the size, growth rate and number of the building blocks (phytomers) of which the young shoot is constructed. Functional data for 2400+ species and English and Spanish vegetation surveys were used to explore interrelationships between leaf area, leaf width, canopy height, seed mass and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). Leaf area was a consistent function of canopy height, LDMC and seed mass. Additionally, size traits are partially uncoupled. First, broad laminas help confer competitive exclusion while morphologically large leaves can, through dissection, be functionally small. Secondly, leaf size scales positively with plant size but many of the largest-leaved species are of medium height with basally supported leaves. Thirdly, photosynthetic stems may represent a functionally viable alternative to 'small seeds + large leaves' in disturbed, fertile habitats and 'large seeds + small leaves' in infertile ones. Although key elements defining the juvenile growth phase remain unmeasured, our results broadly support SPL theory in that phytometer and leaf size are a product of the size of the initial shoot meristem (≅ seed mass) and the duration and quality of juvenile growth. These allometrically constrained traits combine to confer ecological specialization on individual species. Equally, they appear conservatively expressed within major taxa. Thus, 'evolutionary canalization' sensu Stebbins (Stebbins GL

  19. Apparent Overinvestment in Leaf Venation Relaxes Leaf Morphological Constraints on Photosynthesis in Arid Habitats1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Drake, Paul L.; Wendt, Erin; Price, Charles A.; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Turner, Neil C.; Nicolle, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Leaf veins supply the mesophyll with water that evaporates when stomata are open to allow CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. Theoretical analyses suggest that water is optimally distributed in the mesophyll when the lateral distance between veins (dx) is equal to the distance from these veins to the epidermis (dy), expressed as dx:dy ≈ 1. Although this theory is supported by observations of many derived angiosperms, we hypothesize that plants in arid environments may reduce dx:dy below unity owing to climate-specific functional adaptations of increased leaf thickness and increased vein density. To test our hypothesis, we assembled leaf hydraulic, morphological, and photosynthetic traits of 68 species from the Eucalyptus and Corymbia genera (termed eucalypts) along an aridity gradient in southwestern Australia. We inferred the potential gas-exchange advantage of reducing dx beyond dy using a model that links leaf morphology and hydraulics to photosynthesis. Our observations reveal that eucalypts in arid environments have thick amphistomatous leaves with high vein densities, resulting in dx:dy ratios that range from 1.6 to 0.15 along the aridity gradient. Our model suggests that, as leaves become thicker, the effect of reducing dx beyond dy is to offset the reduction in leaf gas exchange that would result from maintaining dx:dy at unity. This apparent overinvestment in leaf venation may be explained from the selective pressure of aridity, under which traits associated with long leaf life span, high hydraulic and thermal capacitances, and high potential rates of leaf water transport confer a competitive advantage. PMID:27784769

  20. ‘Breath figures’ on leaf surfaces – formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eBurkhardt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Microscopic leaf wetness’ means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 µm, microscopic leaf wetness it is about 2 orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the amount and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g. ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past.

  1. The plant leaf movement analyzer (PALMA): a simple tool for the analysis of periodic cotyledon and leaf movement in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lucas; Schmal, Christoph; Staiger, Dorothee; Danisman, Selahattin

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of circadian leaf movement rhythms is a simple yet effective method to study effects of treatments or gene mutations on the circadian clock of plants. Currently, leaf movements are analysed using time lapse photography and subsequent bioinformatics analyses of leaf movements. Programs that are used for this purpose either are able to perform one function (i.e. leaf tip detection or rhythm analysis) or their function is limited to specific computational environments. We developed a leaf movement analysis tool-PALMA-that works in command line and combines image extraction with rhythm analysis using Fast Fourier transformation and non-linear least squares fitting. We validated PALMA in both simulated time series and in experiments using the known short period mutant sensitivity to red light reduced 1 ( srr1 - 1 ). We compared PALMA with two established leaf movement analysis tools and found it to perform equally well. Finally, we tested the effect of reduced iron conditions on the leaf movement rhythms of wild type plants. Here, we found that PALMA successfully detected period lengthening under reduced iron conditions. PALMA correctly estimated the period of both simulated and real-life leaf movement experiments. As a platform-independent console-program that unites both functions needed for the analysis of circadian leaf movements it is a valid alternative to existing leaf movement analysis tools.

  2. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  3. Are leaf physiological traits related to leaf water isotopic enrichment in restinga woody species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Bruno H P; De Mattos, Eduardo A; Sternberg, Leonel Da S L

    2013-09-01

    During plant-transpiration, water molecules having the lighter stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen evaporate and diffuse at a faster rate through the stomata than molecules having the heavier isotopes, which cause isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Although previous models have assumed that leaf water is well-mixed and isotopically uniform, non-uniform stomatal closure, promoting different enrichments between cells, and different pools of water within leaves, due to morpho-physiological traits, might lead to inaccuracies in isotopic models predicting leaf water enrichment. We evaluate the role of leaf morpho-physiological traits on leaf water isotopic enrichment in woody species occurring in a coastal vegetation of Brazil known as restinga. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope values of soil, plant stem and leaf water and leaf traits were measured in six species from restinga vegetation during a drought and a wet period. Leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water was more homogeneous among species during the drought in contrast to the wet period suggesting convergent responses to deal to temporal heterogeneity in water availability. Average leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water during the drought period was highly correlated with relative apoplastic water content. We discuss this observation in the context of current models of leaf water isotopic enrichment as a function of the Péclet effect. We suggest that future studies should include relative apoplastic water content in isotopic models.

  4. Scaling up stomatal conductance from leaf to canopy using a dual-leaf model for estimating crop evapotranspiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng Ding

    Full Text Available The dual-source Shuttleworth-Wallace model has been widely used to estimate and partition crop evapotranspiration (λET. Canopy stomatal conductance (Gsc, an essential parameter of the model, is often calculated by scaling up leaf stomatal conductance, considering the canopy as one single leaf in a so-called "big-leaf" model. However, Gsc can be overestimated or underestimated depending on leaf area index level in the big-leaf model, due to a non-linear stomatal response to light. A dual-leaf model, scaling up Gsc from leaf to canopy, was developed in this study. The non-linear stomata-light relationship was incorporated by dividing the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions and calculating each fraction separately according to absorbed irradiances. The model includes: (1 the absorbed irradiance, determined by separately integrating the sunlit and shaded leaves with consideration of both beam and diffuse radiation; (2 leaf area for the sunlit and shaded fractions; and (3 a leaf conductance model that accounts for the response of stomata to PAR, vapor pressure deficit and available soil water. In contrast to the significant errors of Gsc in the big-leaf model, the predicted Gsc using the dual-leaf model had a high degree of data-model agreement; the slope of the linear regression between daytime predictions and measurements was 1.01 (R2 = 0.98, with RMSE of 0.6120 mm s-1 for four clear-sky days in different growth stages. The estimates of half-hourly λET using the dual-source dual-leaf model (DSDL agreed well with measurements and the error was within 5% during two growing seasons of maize with differing hydrometeorological and management strategies. Moreover, the estimates of soil evaporation using the DSDL model closely matched actual measurements. Our results indicate that the DSDL model can produce more accurate estimation of Gsc and λET, compared to the big-leaf model, and thus is an effective alternative approach for estimating and

  5. Effect of Wind on the Relation of Leaf N, P Stoichiometry with Leaf Morphology in Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry correlates closely to leaf morphology, which is strongly impacted by wind at multiple scales. However, it is not clear how leaf N, P stoichiometry and its relationship to leaf morphology changes with wind load. We determined the leaf N and P concentrations and leaf morphology—including specific leaf area (SLA and leaf dissection index (LDI—for eight Quercus species under a simulated wind load for seven months. Leaf N and P concentrations increased significantly under these conditions for Quercus acutissima, Quercus rubra, Quercus texana, and Quercus palustris—which have elliptic leaves—due to their higher N, P requirements and a resultant leaf biomass decrease, which is a tolerance strategy for Quercus species under a wind load. Leaf N:P was relatively stable under wind for all species, which supports stoichiometric homeostasis. Leaf N concentrations showed a positive correlation to SLA, leaf N and P concentrations showed positive correlations to LDI under each wind treatment, and the slope of correlations was not affected by wind, which indicates synchronous variations between leaf stoichiometry and leaf morphology under wind. However, the intercept of correlations was affected by wind, and leaf N and P use efficiency decreased under the wind load, which suggests that the Quercus species changes from “fast investment-return” in the control to “slow investment-return” under windy conditions. These results will be valuable to understanding functional strategies for plants under varying wind loads, especially synchronous variations in leaf traits along a wind gradient.

  6. Leaf Phenology of Amazonian Canopy Trees as Revealed by Spectral and Physiochemical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavana-Bryant, C.; Gerard, F. F.; Malhi, Y.; Enquist, B. J.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The phenological dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems reflect the response of the Earth's biosphere to inter- and intra-annual dynamics of climatic and hydrological regimes. Some Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (GDVMs) have predicted that by 2050 the Amazon rainforest will begin to dieback (Cox et al. 2000, Nature) or that the ecosystem will become unsustainable (Salazar et al. 2007, GRL). One major component in DGVMs is the simulation of vegetation phenology, however, modelers are challenged with the estimation of tropical phenology which is highly complex. Current modeled phenology is based on observations of temperate vegetation and accurate representation of tropical phenology is long overdue. Remote sensing (RS) data are a key tool in monitoring vegetation dynamics at regional and global scales. Of the many RS techniques available, time-series analysis of vegetation indices (VIs) has become the most common approach in monitoring vegetation phenology (Samanta et al. 2010, GRL; Bradley et al. 2011, GCB). Our research focuses on investigating the influence that age related variation in the spectral reflectance and physiochemical properties of leaves may have on VIs of tropical canopies. In order to do this, we collected a unique leaf and canopy phenological dataset at two different Amazonian sites: Inselberg, French Guyana (FG) and Tambopata, Peru (PE). Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were collected from 4,102 individual leaves sampled to represent different leaf ages and vertical canopy positions (top, mid and low canopy) from 20 different canopy tree species (8 in FG and 12 in PE). These leaf spectra were complemented with 1) leaf physical measurements: fresh and dry weight, area and thickness, LMA and LWC and 2) leaf chemical measurements: %N, %C, %P, C:N and d13C. Canopy level observations included top-of-canopy reflectance measurements obtained using a multispectral 16-band radiometer, leaf demography (tot. number and age distribution) and branch

  7. Study on creation of an indocalamus leaf flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyong ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFlavors represent a small but significant segment of food industry. Sensory characteristics play an important role in the process of consumer acceptance and preference. Indocalamus leaf takes on a pleasant odor and indocalamus leaf flavor can be used in many products. However, indocalamus leaf flavor formula has not been reported. Therefore, developing an indocalamus leaf flavor is of significant interests. Note is a distinct flavor or odor characteristic. This paper concentrates on preparation and creation of indocalamus leaf flavor according to the notes of indocalamus leaf. The notes were obtained by smelling indocalamus leaf, and the results showed that the notes of indocalamus leaf flavor can be classified as: green-leafy note, sweet note, beany note, aldehydic note, waxy note, woody note, roast note, creamy note, and nutty note. According to the notes of indocalamus leaf odor, a typical indocalamus leaf flavor formula was obtained. The indocalamus leaf flavor blended is pleasant, harmonious, and has characteristics of indocalamus leaf odor.

  8. DIFFERENCES IN LEAF GAS EXCHANGE AND LEAF CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN TWO ALMOND CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Nanos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf chlorophyll content, specific leaf weight (SLW, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal functioning, water use efficiency and quantum yield were assessed during the kernel filling period for two consecutive years in order to understand tissue-centered physiological profile differences between two commercial almond cultivars, ‘Ferragnès’ and ‘Texas’. Similar SLWs were observed on the studied cultivars; however, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic and transpiration rates and stomatal functioning demonstrated statistically significant differences. In both cultivars, an overall decline in the examined parameters towards fruit maturation (i.e. end of the summer was recorded. ‘Ferragnès’ leaves were found to be more efficient in leaf photosynthesis related performance during kernel filling, when irrigated sufficiently, in comparison to ‘Texas’ leaves. Low average values of leaf conductance during summer in ‘Texas’ leaves revealed its potential for adaptation in cool climates and increased carbon assimilation therein for high kernel yield.

  9. A morphological reappraisal of the immature stages and life history of Elachista synethes Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae, an Australian leaf miner alien to Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Andrés Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elachista synethes was recently recognized as an alien species in northern Chile, where its larvae mine the rescue grass Bromus catharticus (Poaceae. In order to provide the necessary information to allow field detection of E. synethes during early ontogeny, we conducted a morphological reappraisal of the immature stages of this leaf-miner moth, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, including the first descriptions of the egg and the first-instar larva. This is the first report of the existence of an apodal early larva for a species of Elachista Treitschke. The legs and prolegs are absent in the first two instars, but are well developed in the last two. Additional observations on the life history are also provided, including a description of the mine.

  10. The leaf size-twig size spectrum in evergreen broadleaved forest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to deciduous broad-leaved species, the evergreen broad-leaved species were smaller in total leaf area for a given cross-sectional area or stem mass. This suggests that the species would support less leaf area at a given twig cross-sectional area with increasing environmental stress. And the life form can modify ...

  11. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Brian N; Mahaffee, Walter F

    2017-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field. (paper)

  12. Tradeoff between stem hydraulic efficiency and mechanical strength affects leaf-stem allometry in 28 Ficus tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Ze Xin; Sterck, Frank; Zhang, Shi Bao; Fu, Pei Li; Hao, Guang You

    2017-01-01

    Leaf-stem allometry is an important spectrum that linked to biomass allocation and life history strategy in plants, although the determinants and evolutionary significance of leaf-stem allometry remain poorly understood. Leaf and stem architectures - including stem area/mass, petiole area/mass,

  13. [Effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen-feng; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yuan-bin; Xian, Jun-ren; Wang, Kai-yun

    2009-01-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC), the effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of Western Sichuan were studied. The results showed that comparing with the control, the mean air temperature at 1.2 m above the ground throughout S. eriostachya growth season in OTC increased by 2.9 degrees C, while the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm only increased by 0.4 degrees C. The temperature increase in OTC made S. eriostachya budding advanced and defoliation postponed obviously, and the leaf life-span longer. The leaf and branch growth rates as well as the specific leaf area in OTC increased obviously, whereas the leaf nitrogen concentration decreased significantly. In OTC, the stomata conductance, net photosynthetic rate, photorespiration, and dark respiration rate of S. eriostachya all exhibited an increasing trend. It was suggested that S. eriostachya had stronger capability to adapt to warming, and, under the background of future global climate change, the elevation of S. eriostachya distribution in the timberline ecotone would be likely to ascend.

  14. Possible Roles of Strigolactones during Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yamada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a complicated developmental process that involves degenerative changes and nutrient recycling. The progress of leaf senescence is controlled by various environmental cues and plant hormones, including ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and strigolactones. The production of strigolactones is induced in response to nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency. Strigolactones also accelerate leaf senescence and regulate shoot branching and root architecture. Leaf senescence is actively promoted in a nutrient-poor soil environment, and nutrients are transported from old leaves to young tissues and seeds. Strigolactones might act as important signals in response to nutrient levels in the rhizosphere. In this review, we discuss the possible roles of strigolactones during leaf senescence.

  15. Application of edible coating from cassava peel – bay leaf on avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Karlina, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Cakrawati, D.

    2018-05-01

    Avocados have a fairly short shelf life and are included in climacteric fruits. Edible coating application is one alternative to maintain the shelf life of avocado. Cassava peel starch is potential to be used as raw material for edible coating making. Addition of bay leaf extract containing antioxidants can increase the functional value of edible coating. The purpose of this study is to know the shrinkage of weight, acid number, color change and respiration rate of avocado coated with edible coating from cassava peel starch with an addition of bay leaf extract. The study consisted of making cassava peel starch, bay leaf extraction, edible coating making, edible coating application on avocado, and analysis of avocado characteristics during storage at room temperature. The results showed that addition of bay leaf extract on cassava peel starch edible coating applied to avocado, an effect on characteristics of avocado. Avocado applied edible coating and stored at room temperatures had lower weight loss than avocado without edible coating, lower acid number, tend to be more able to maintain color rather than avocado without edible coating.

  16. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; McEvoy, James L; Luo, Yaguang; Artes, Francisco; Wang, Chien Y

    2006-05-01

    The use of UV-C radiation treatments to inhibit the microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce was investigated. Initially, UV-C resistance of 20 bacterial strains from different genera often associated with fresh produce (Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Leuconostoc, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnela, Salmonella, Serratia and Yersinia) were tested in vitro. Most of the bacterial strains were inhibited with the minimum dose (30 J m(-2)). Erwinia carotovora, Leuconostoc carnosum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia aldovae were the most resistant strains requiring a UV-C dose of 85 J m(-2) to completely inhibit growth. An in vivo study consisted of treating minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with UV-C at three radiation doses (1.18, 2.37 and 7.11 kJ m(-2)) on each side of the leaves and storing the product under passive MAP conditions at 5 degrees C for up to 10 days. The gas composition inside packages varied significantly among the treatments, with CO2 concentrations positively and O2 concentrations negatively correlating with the radiation dose. All the radiation doses were effective in reducing the natural microflora of the product, although the highest doses showed the greatest microbial inhibitions. Taking into account the microbial limit set by Spanish legislation [Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 2001. Normas de higiene para la elaboración, distribución y comercio de comidas preparadas, Madrid, Spain, Real Decreto 3484/2000, pp. 1435-1441], all UV-C treatments extended the shelf-life of the product. However, the 7.11 kJ m(-2) dose induced tissue softening and browning after 7 days of storage at 5 degrees C. Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  18. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  19. From leaf longevity to canopy seasonality: a carbon optimality phenology model for tropical evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Wu, J.; Wright, S. J.; Kitajima, K.; Pacala, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical evergreen forests play a key role in the global carbon, water and energy cycles. Despite apparent evergreenness, this biome shows strong seasonality in leaf litter and photosynthesis. Recent studies have suggested that this seasonality is not directly related to environmental variability but is dominated by seasonal changes of leaf development and senescence. Meanwhile, current terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) can not capture this pattern because leaf life cycle is highly underrepresented. One challenge to model this leaf life cycle is the remarkable diversity in leaf longevity, ranging from several weeks to multiple years. Ecologists have proposed models where leaf longevity is regarded as a strategy to optimize carbon gain. However previous optimality models can not be readily integrated into TBMs because (i) there are still large biases in predicted leaf longevity and (ii) it is never tested whether the carbon optimality model can capture the observed seasonality in leaf demography and canopy photosynthesis. In this study, we develop a new carbon optimality model for leaf demography. The novelty of our approach is two-fold. First, we incorporate a mechanistic photosynthesis model that can better estimate leaf carbon gain. Second, we consider the interspecific variations in leaf senescence rate, which strongly influence the modelled optimal carbon gain. We test our model with a leaf trait database for Panamanian evergreen forests. Then, we apply the model at seasonal scale and compare simulated seasonality of leaf litter and canopy photosynthesis with in-situ observations from several Amazonian forest sites. We find that (i) compared with original optimality model, the regression slope between observed and predicted leaf longevity increases from 0.15 to 1.04 in our new model and (ii) that our new model can capture the observed seasonal variations of leaf demography and canopy photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the phenology in tropical evergreen

  20. Maize YABBY genes drooping leaf1 and drooping leaf2 affect agronomic traits by regulating leaf architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf architectural traits, such as length, width and angle, directly influence canopy structure and light penetration, photosynthate production and overall yield. We discovered and characterized a maize (Zea mays) mutant with aberrant leaf architecture we named drooping leaf1 (drl1), as leaf blades ...

  1. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  2. UNIRAM modeling for increased nuclear-plant availability and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mara, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    At the start of a nuclear-power plant's design life of 40 years, most parts of the plant are effectively brand new, but some subcomponents have already experienced significant wear and aging effects. In short, the spectrum of where each component is in its life cycle at any time is quite broad, and this makes the prediction of the future availability of the plant a complex issue. Predictive models that account for the differential effects of aging, wear, and functional failure on the plant are desirable as a means to represent this complex behavior. This paper addresses the task of using a computer model to account for the relationships between components, systems, and plant availability, in the context of current and future needs, including eventual life extension. The computer model is based on the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) code, UNIRAM, which has a large and growing user base among utilities

  3. Parameterization of Leaf-Level Gas Exchange for Plant Functional Groups From Amazonian Seasonal Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, T. F.; Berry, J. A.; Ometto, J. P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant communities exert strong influence over the magnitude of carbon and water cycling through ecosystems by controlling photosynthetic gas exchange and respiratory processes. Leaf-level gas exchange fluxes result from a combination of physiological properties, such as carboxylation capacity, respiration rates and hydraulic conductivity, interacting with environmental drivers such as water and light availability, leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit, and temperature. Carbon balance models concerned with ecosystem-scale responses have as a common feature the description of eco-physiological properties of vegetation. Here we focus on the parameterization of ecophysiological gas-exchange properties of plant functional groups from a pristine Amazonian seasonally dry tropical rain forest ecosystem (FLONA-Tapajós, Santarém, PA, Brazil). The parameters were specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, photosynthetic carboxylation capacity, dark respiration rates, and stomatal conductance to water vapor. Our plant functional groupings were lianas at the top of the canopy, trees at the top of the canopy, mid-canopy trees and undestory trees. Within the functional groups, we found no evidence that leaves acclimated to seasonal changes in precipitation. However, there were life-form dependent distinctions when a combination of parameters was included. Top-canopy lianas were statistically different from top-canopy trees for leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and stomatal conductance to water vapor, suggesting that lianas are more conservative in the use of water, causing a stomatal limitation on photosynthetic assimilation. Top-canopy, mid canopy and understory groupings were distinct for specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and photosynthetic carboxylation capacity. The recognition that plant

  4. Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

  5. Role of residual stresses induced by double peening on fatigue durability of automotive leaf springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuracchio, Bruno Geoffroy; Batista de Lima, Nelson; Schön, Cláudio Geraldo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proper choice of peening media is needed for higher fatigue strength in leaf springs. ► Optimum double-peening condition for leaf springs: 0.8 mm shot, followed by 0.3 mm. ► Fatigue life correlates with residual stress levels at the surface (up to 0.02 mm). ► Residual stress profile below 0.02 mm has no measurable effect over fatigue life. ► Failure of the investigated parts is nucleation-controlled. - Abstract: Improvement of fatigue life in parts subjected to cyclic stresses by application of mechanical surface treatment processes is already well known, both in the industry and in the academy. Dealing with automotive springs, the shot peening process becomes an essential step in manufacturing. In the case of leaf springs, however, a systematic investigation of the effect of shot peening on fatigue life is still required. The aim of the present work is to improve the knowledge on the role of shot peening in manufacturing leaf springs for vehicles, through the analysis of residual stresses by X-ray diffraction and fatigue tests on a series of samples that were subject to ten different peening schedules. Among the investigated processes, the usage of 0.8 mm diameter cast steel shot followed by a second peening with 0.3 mm diameter cast steel shot leads to optimal performance, regarding fatigue life. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that this improved performance may be attributed to residual compressive stress maintained until a depth of 0.02 mm below the surface, which directly influences fatigue crack nucleation. Residual stresses induced by shot peening in larger depths have no influence on the sample’s fatigue life

  6. Leaf Litterfall and Decomposition of Polylepis reticulata in the Treeline of the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pinos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litterfall contributes significantly to carbon fluxes in forests. A crucial open question for the sustainability of mountain forests is how climate change will affect this and other carbon fluxes (eg photosynthesis and respiration. Leaf litterfall and decomposition of Polylepis reticulata, an endemic species of the Andes, were analyzed during a period of 1 year at 6 experimental plots located in the Andean páramo between 3700 and 3900 m above sea level in Cajas National Park, Ecuador. Litterfall was collected in each plot using 5 randomly distributed traps. Every trap had a 40-cm diameter (0.125 m2 and was suspended 0.8 to 1.0 m above the ground. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was analyzed using litter bags. Eighteen bags with approximately 20 g of dry litter were placed in the litter layer in each experimental plot and collected 30, 60, 90, 150, 210, 300, and 365 days after they were installed. The mean annual litterfall recorded was 3.77 Mg ha−1, representing 51% of the leaf biomass present in the canopy, so the leaf life span of P. reticulata in Cajas National Park is 1.98 years. Litterfall occurred all year, with no significant seasonal pattern. The mean decomposition rate (k obtained for this study period was 0.38 year−1. This study contributes to the information gap on litterfall and decomposition in natural forests located at the highest elevations in the world.

  7. Plant traits and environment: floating leaf blade production and turnover of waterlilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Peter F; van der Velde, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Floating leaf blades of waterlilies fulfill several functions in wetland ecosystems by production, decomposition and turnover as well as exchange processes. Production and turnover rates of floating leaf blades of three waterlily species, Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm., Nymphaea alba L. and Nymphaea candida Presl, were studied in three freshwater bodies, differing in trophic status, pH and alkalinity. Length and percentages of leaf loss of marked leaf blades were measured weekly during the growing season. Area and biomass were calculated based on leaf length and were used to calculate the turnover rate of floating leaf blades. Seasonal changes in floating leaf production showed that values decreased in the order: Nymphaea alba , Nuphar lutea , Nymphaea candida . The highest production was reached for Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba in alkaline, eutrophic water bodies. The production per leaf was relatively high for both species in the acid water body. Nymphaea candida showed a very short vegetation period and low turnover rates. The ratio Total potential leaf biomass/Maximum potential leaf biomass (P/B max ) of the three species ranged from 1.35-2.25. The ratio Vegetation period (Period with floating leaves)/Mean leaf life span ranged from 2.94-4.63, the ratio Growth period (Period with appearance of new floating leaves)/Vegetation period from 0.53-0.73. The clear differences between Nymphaea candida versus Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba , may be due to adaptations of Nymphaea candida to an Euro-Siberic climate with short-lasting summer conditions.

  8. Nitrogen and phosphorus availabilities interact to modulate leaf trait scaling relationships across six plant functional types in a controlled-environment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Kristine Y; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Bloomfield, Keith J; Negrini, A Clarissa A; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Griffin, Kevin L; Atkin, Owen K

    2017-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have key roles in leaf metabolism, resulting in a strong coupling of chemical composition traits to metabolic rates in field-based studies. However, in such studies, it is difficult to disentangle the effects of nutrient supply per se on trait-trait relationships. Our study assessed how high and low N (5 mM and 0.4 mM, respectively) and P (1 mM and 2 μM, respectively) supply in 37 species from six plant functional types (PTFs) affected photosynthesis (A) and respiration (R) (in darkness and light) in a controlled environment. Low P supply increased scaling exponents (slopes) of area-based log-log A-N or R-N relationships when N supply was not limiting, whereas there was no P effect under low N supply. By contrast, scaling exponents of A-P and R-P relationships were altered by P and N supply. Neither R : A nor light inhibition of leaf R was affected by nutrient supply. Light inhibition was 26% across nutrient treatments; herbaceous species exhibited a lower degree of light inhibition than woody species. Because N and P supply modulates leaf trait-trait relationships, the next generation of terrestrial biosphere models may need to consider how limitations in N and P availability affect trait-trait relationships when predicting carbon exchange. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Pressure Actuated Leaf Seals for Improved Turbine Shaft Sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondahl, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a shaft seal in which leaf seal elements are constructed from slotted shim material formed and layered into a frusto-conical assembly. Limited elastic deflection of seal leaves with increasing system pressure close large startup clearance to a small, non-contacting, steady state running clearance. At shutdown seal elements resiliently retract as differential seal pressure diminishes. Large seal clearance during startup and shutdown provides a mechanism for rub avoidance. Minimum operating clearance improves performance and non-contacting operation promises long seal life. Design features of this seal, sample calculations at differential pressures up to 2400 psid and benefit comparison with brush and labyrinth seals is documented in paper, AIAA 2005 3985, presented at the Advanced Seal Technology session of the Joint Propulsion Conference in Tucson this past July. In this presentation use of bimetallic leaf material will be discussed. Frictional heating of bimetallic leaf seals during a seal rub can relieve the rub condition to some extent with a change in seal shape. Improved leaf seal rub tolerance is expected with bimetallic material.

  10. Combined preharvest and postharvest treatments affect rapid leaf wilting in Bouvardia cut flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Rob E.; Dien, van Luka; Shahin, Arwa; Heimovaara, Sjoukje; Meeteren, van Uulke; Verdonk, Julian C.

    2018-01-01

    Bouvardia is an ornamental shrub, commercially cultivated as flowering stem. Occasionally, negative water balance, which leads to rapid leaf wilting, ends vase life immediately. This work studies the effect of preharvest and postharvest conditions on vase life, water uptake and transpiration.

  11. Transcriptional analyses of natural leaf senescence in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is an important biological process that contributes to grain yield in crops. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying natural leaf senescence, we harvested three different developmental ear leaves of maize, mature leaves (ML, early senescent leaves (ESL, and later senescent leaves (LSL, and analyzed transcriptional changes using RNA-sequencing. Three sets of data, ESL vs. ML, LSL vs. ML, and LSL vs. ESL, were compared, respectively. In total, 4,552 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Functional classification placed these genes into 18 categories including protein metabolism, transporters, and signal transduction. At the early stage of leaf senescence, genes involved in aromatic amino acids (AAAs biosynthetic process and transport, cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, and the cell wall macromolecule catabolic process, were up-regulated. Whereas, genes involved in amino acid metabolism, transport, apoptosis, and response to stimulus were up-regulated at the late stage of leaf senescence. Further analyses reveals that the transport-related genes at the early stage of leaf senescence potentially take part in enzyme and amino acid transport and the genes upregulated at the late stage are involved in sugar transport, indicating nutrient recycling mainly takes place at the late stage of leaf senescence. Comparison between the data of natural leaf senescence in this study and previously reported data for Arabidopsis implies that the mechanisms of leaf senescence in maize are basically similar to those in Arabidopsis. A comparison of natural and induced leaf senescence in maize was performed. Athough many basic biological processes involved in senescence occur in both types of leaf senescence, 78.07% of differentially expressed genes in natural leaf senescence were not identifiable in induced leaf senescence, suggesting that differences in gene regulatory network may exist between these two leaf senescence

  12. "Breath figures" on leaf surfaces-formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    "Microscopic leaf wetness" means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 μm, microscopic leaf wetness is about two orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the type and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g., ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past.

  13. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth performance, meat ... pig growth performance, meat quality, shelf life and fatty acid composition of pork ... negative effect on feed conversion efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits, ...

  14. Betel leaf in stoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Tahmina; Talukder, Rupom; Chowdhury, Tanvir Kabir; Hoque, Mozammel

    2007-07-01

    Construction of a stoma is a common procedure in pediatric surgical practice. For care of these stomas, commercially available devices such as ostomy bag, either disposable or of longer duration are usually used. These are expensive, particularly in countries like Bangladesh, and proper-sized ones are not always available. We have found an alternative for stoma care, betel leaf, which is suitable for Bangladeshis. We report the outcome of its use. After construction of stoma, at first zinc oxide paste was applied on the peristomal skin. A betel leaf with shiny, smooth surface outwards and rough surface inwards was put over the stoma with a hole made in the center according to the size of stoma. Another intact leaf covers the stomal opening. When bowel movement occurs, the overlying intact leaf was removed and the fecal matter was washed away from both. The leaves were reused after cleaning. Leaves were changed every 2 to 3 days. From June 1998 to December 2005, in the department of pediatric surgery, Chittagong Medical College and Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh, a total of 623 patients had exteriorization of bowel. Of this total, 495 stomas were cared for with betel leaves and 128 with ostomy bags. Of 623 children, 287 had sigmoid colostomy, 211 had transverse colostomy, 105 had ileostomy, and 20 had jejunostomy. Of the 495 children under betel leaf stoma care, 13 patients (2.6%) developed skin excoriation. There were no allergic reactions. Of the 128 patients using ostomy bag, 52 (40.65%) had skin excoriation. Twenty-four (18.75%) children developed some allergic reactions to adhesive. Monthly costs for betel leaves were 15 cents (10 BDT), whereas ostomy bags cost about US$24. In the care of stoma, betel leaves are cheap, easy to handle, nonirritant, and nonallergic.

  15. Leaf extraction and analysis framework graphical user interface: segmenting and analyzing the structure of leaf veins and areoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Charles A; Symonova, Olga; Mileyko, Yuriy; Hilley, Troy; Weitz, Joshua S

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the structure and function of physical biological networks has spurred the development of a number of theoretical models that predict optimal network structures across a broad array of taxonomic groups, from mammals to plants. In many cases, direct tests of predicted network structure are impossible given the lack of suitable empirical methods to quantify physical network geometry with sufficient scope and resolution. There is a long history of empirical methods to quantify the network structure of plants, from roots, to xylem networks in shoots and within leaves. However, with few exceptions, current methods emphasize the analysis of portions of, rather than entire networks. Here, we introduce the Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface (LEAF GUI), a user-assisted software tool that facilitates improved empirical understanding of leaf network structure. LEAF GUI takes images of leaves where veins have been enhanced relative to the background, and following a series of interactive thresholding and cleaning steps, returns a suite of statistics and information on the structure of leaf venation networks and areoles. Metrics include the dimensions, position, and connectivity of all network veins, and the dimensions, shape, and position of the areoles they surround. Available for free download, the LEAF GUI software promises to facilitate improved understanding of the adaptive and ecological significance of leaf vein network structure.

  16. Screening Study of Leaf Terpene Concentration of 75 Borneo Rainforest Plant Species: Relationships with Leaf Elemental Concentrations and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sardans

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenes confer advantage in plant protection against abiotic stresses such as heat and drought and biotic stresses such as herbivore and pathogen attack. We conducted a screening of leaf mono- and sesquiterpene concentrations in 75 common woody plant species in the rainforest of Danum Valley (Borneo. Terpene compounds were found in 73 out of the 75 analysed species. Similar or lower proportions have been reported in other parts of the world. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time the foliar concentration of mono- and/or sesquiterpene for 71 species and 39 genera not previously analyzed. Altogether 80 terpene compounds were determined across the species, and out of these only linalool oxide and (E- g -bisabolene had phylogenetic signal. A significant negative relationship between leaf monoterpene concentration and leaf length was observed, but leaf mono- and sesquitepene concentration were not related to any other leaf morphological trait nor to leaf elemental composition. Functions such as temperature protection, radiation protection or signaling and communication could underlie the high frequency of terpene-containing species of this tropical ecosystem which has multiple and very diverse interactions among multiple species.

  17. Simple models for predicting leaf area of mango (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghoreishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L., one of the most popular tropical fruits, is cultivated in a considerable part of southern Iran. Leaf area is a valuable parameter in mango research, especially plant physiological and nutrition field. Most of available methods for estimating plant leaf area are difficult to apply, expensive and destructive which could in turn destroy the canopy and consequently make it difficult to perform further tests on the same plant. Therefore, a non-destructive method which is simple, inexpensive, and could yield an accurate estimation of leaf area will be a great benefit to researchers. A regression analysis was performed in order to determine the relationship between the leaf area and leaf width, leaf length, dry and fresh weight. For this purpose 50 mango seedlings of local selections were randomly took from a nursery in the Hormozgan province, and different parts of plants were separated in laboratory. Leaf area was measured by different method included leaf area meter, planimeter, ruler (length and width and the fresh and dry weight of leaves were also measured. The best regression models were statistically selected using Determination Coefficient, Maximum Error, Model Efficiency, Root Mean Square Error and Coefficient of Residual Mass. Overall, based on regression equation, a satisfactory estimation of leaf area was obtained by measuring the non-destructive parameters, i.e. number of leaf per seedling, length of the longest and width of widest leaf (R2 = 0.88 and also destructive parameters, i.e. dry weight (R2 = 0.94 and fresh weight (R2= 0.94 of leaves.

  18. Influence of Vegetation Structure on Lidar-derived Canopy Height and Fractional Cover in Forested Riparian Buffers During Leaf-Off and Leaf-On Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available. PMID:23382966

  19. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabane Fadwa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules.

  20. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy.

  1. Correlated evolution of stem and leaf hydraulic traits in Pereskia (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erika J

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated significant correlations between stem and leaf hydraulic properties when comparing across species within ecological communities. This implies that these traits are co-evolving, but there have been few studies addressing plant water relations within an explicitly evolutionary framework. This study tests for correlated evolution among a suite of plant water-use traits and environmental parameters in seven species of Pereskia (Cactaceae), using phylogenetically independent contrasts. There were significant evolutionary correlations between leaf-specific xylem hydraulic conductivity, Huber Value, leaf stomatal pore index, leaf venation density and leaf size, but none of these traits appeared to be correlated with environmental water availability; only two water relations traits - mid-day leaf water potentials and photosynthetic water use efficiency - correlated with estimates of moisture regime. In Pereskia, it appears that many stem and leaf hydraulic properties thought to be critical to whole-plant water use have not evolved in response to habitat shifts in water availability. This may be because of the extremely conservative stomatal behavior and particular rooting strategy demonstrated by all Pereskia species investigated. These results highlight the need for a lineage-based approach to understand the relative roles of functional traits in ecological adaptation.

  2. Effects of nitrogen application rate and leaf age on the distribution pattern of leaf SPAD readings in the rice canopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yang

    Full Text Available A Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter can be used as a simple tool for evaluating N concentration of the leaf and investigating the combined effects of nitrogen rate and leaf age on N distribution. We conducted experiments in a paddy field over two consecutive years (2008-2009 using rice plants treated with six different N application levels. N distribution pattern was determined by SPAD readings based on the temporal dynamics of N concentrations in individual leaves. At 62 days after transplantation (DAT in 2008 and DAT 60 in 2009, leaf SPAD readings increased from the upper to lower in the rice canopy that received N levels of 150 to 375 kg ha(-1The differences in SPAD readings between the upper and lower leaf were larger under higher N application rates. However, as plants grew, this atypical distribution of SPAD readings in canopy leaf quickly reversed to the general order. In addition, temporal dynamics of the leaf SPAD readings (N concentrations were fitted to a piecewise function. In our model, changes in leaf SPAD readings were divided into three stages: growth, functioning, and senescence periods. The leaf growth period lasted approximately 6 days, and cumulative growing days were not affected by N application rates. The leaf functioning period was represented with a relatively stable SPAD reading related to N application rate, and cumulative growing days were extended with increasing N application rates. A quadratic equation was utilized to describe the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf age during the leaf senescence period. The rate of decrease in SPAD readings increased with the age of leaves, but the rate was slowed by N application. As leaves in the lower canopy were physiologically older than leaves in the upper canopy, the rate of decrease in SPAD readings was faster in the lower leaves.

  3. Assessing the quality of life history information in publicly available databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, James T; Cope, Jason M; Patrick, Wesley S

    2014-01-01

    Single-species life history parameters are central to ecological research and management, including the fields of macro-ecology, fisheries science, and ecosystem modeling. However, there has been little independent evaluation of the precision and accuracy of the life history values in global and publicly available databases. We therefore develop a novel method based on a Bayesian errors-in-variables model that compares database entries with estimates from local experts, and we illustrate this process by assessing the accuracy and precision of entries in FishBase, one of the largest and oldest life history databases. This model distinguishes biases among seven life history parameters, two types of information available in FishBase (i.e., published values and those estimated from other parameters), and two taxa (i.e., bony and cartilaginous fishes) relative to values from regional experts in the United States, while accounting for additional variance caused by sex- and region-specific life history traits. For published values in FishBase, the model identifies a small positive bias in natural mortality and negative bias in maximum age, perhaps caused by unacknowledged mortality caused by fishing. For life history values calculated by FishBase, the model identified large and inconsistent biases. The model also demonstrates greatest precision for body size parameters, decreased precision for values derived from geographically distant populations, and greatest between-sex differences in age at maturity. We recommend that our bias and precision estimates be used in future errors-in-variables models as a prior on measurement errors. This approach is broadly applicable to global databases of life history traits and, if used, will encourage further development and improvements in these databases.

  4. Does oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) made from a combination of leaf and stem smell more aromatic than leaf-only tea? Contribution of the stem to oolong tea aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lanting; Zhou, Ying; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Cheng, Sihua; Gui, Jiadong; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jinchi; Ma, Shengzhou; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    The raw materials used to make oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) are a combination of leaf and stem. Oolong tea made from leaf and stem is thought to have a more aromatic smell than leaf-only tea. However, there is no available evidence to support the viewpoint. In this study, sensory evaluation and detailed characterization of emitted and internal volatiles (not readily emitted, but stored in samples) of dry oolong teas and infusions indicated that the presence of stem did not significantly improve the total aroma characteristics. During the enzyme-active processes, volatile monoterpenes and theanine were accumulated more abundantly in stem than in leaf, while jasmine lactone, indole, and trans-nerolidol were lower in stem than in leaf. Tissue-specific aroma-related gene expression and availability of precursors of aroma compounds resulted in different aroma distributions in leaf and stem. This study presents the first determination of the contribution of stem to oolong tea aroma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most important sources of plant protein. Current selection of genotypes requires molecular characterization of available populations. Peanut genome database has several EST cDNAs which can be used to analyze gene expression. Analysis of proteins is a direct...... approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel...... electrophoresis in combination with sequence identification using MALDI/TOF to determine their identity and function related to growth, development and responses to stresses. Peanut leaf proteins were resolved into 300 polypeptides with pI values between 3.5 and 8.0 and relative molecular masses from 12 to 100 k...

  6. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  7. Modeling the leaf angle dynamics in rice plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Zhang

    Full Text Available The leaf angle between stem and sheath (SSA is an important rice morphological trait. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a dynamic SSA model under different nitrogen (N rates for selected rice cultivars. The time-course data of SSA were collected in three years, and a dynamic SSA model was developed for different main stem leaf ranks under different N rates for two selected rice cultivars. SSA increased with tiller age. The SSA of the same leaf rank increased with increase in N rate. The maximum SSA increased with leaf rank from the first to the third leaf, then decreased from the third to the final leaf. The relationship between the maximum SSA and leaf rank on main stem could be described with a linear piecewise function. The change of SSA with thermal time (TT was described by a logistic equation. A variety parameter (the maximum SSA of the 3rd leaf on main stem and a nitrogen factor were introduced to quantify the effect of cultivar and N rate on SSA. The model was validated against data collected from both pot and field experiments. The relative root mean square error (RRMSE was 11.56% and 14.05%, respectively. The resulting models could be used for virtual rice plant modeling and plant-type design.

  8. Transformation of Leaf-like Zinc Dendrite in Oxidation and Reduction Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Akiyoshi; Murayama, Haruno; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Yamane, Tomokazu; Arai, Hajime; Hirai, Toshiro; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Leaf-like zinc dendrites change to leaf-like residual oxides at high oxidation current density (10 mA cm −2 ) whereas it completely dissolves at low oxidation current density (1 mA cm −2 ). • Leaf-like residual oxide products is transformed to zinc deposits with particulate morphology, resulting in good rechargeability. • The residual zinc oxide provides sufficient zincate on its reduction, preventing the diffusion-limited condition that causes leaf-like dendrite formation. - Abstract: Zinc is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous battery systems whereas it shows insufficient rechargeability for use in secondary batteries. It has been reported that leaf-like dendrite deposits are often the origin of cell-failure, however, their nature and behavior on discharge (oxidation) - charge (reduction) cycling have been only poorly understood. Here we investigate the transformation of the leaf-like zinc dendrites using ex-situ scanning electron microscopy, X-ray computational tomography and in-situ X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the leaf-like zinc dendrites obtained under diffusion-limited conditions are nearly completely dissolved at a low oxidation current density of 1 mA cm −2 and cause re-evolution of the zinc dendrites. Oxidation at a high current density of 10 mA cm −2 leads to the formation of leaf-like zinc oxide residual products that result in particulate zinc deposits in the following reduction process, enabling good rechargeability. The reaction behavior of this oxide residue is detailed and discussed for the development of long-life zinc electrodes

  9. Foraging on individual leaves by an intracellular feeding insect is not associated with leaf biomechanical properties or leaf orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fiene

    Full Text Available Nearly all herbivorous arthropods make foraging-decisions on individual leaves, yet systematic investigations of the adaptive significance and ecological factors structuring these decisions are rare with most attention given to chewing herbivores. This study investigated why an intracellular feeding herbivore, Western flower thrips (WFT Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, generally avoids feeding on the adaxial leaf surface of cotton cotyledons. WFT showed a significant aversion to adaxial-feeding even when excised-cotyledons were turned up-side (abaxial-side 'up', suggesting that negative-phototaxis was not a primary cause of thrips foraging patterns. No-choice bioassays in which individual WFT females were confined to either the abaxial or adaxial leaf surface showed that 35% fewer offspring were produced when only adaxial feeding was allowed, which coincided with 32% less plant feeding on that surface. To test the hypothesis that leaf biomechanical properties inhibited thrips feeding on the adaxial surface, we used a penetrometer to measure two variables related to the 'toughness' of each leaf surface. Neither variable negatively co-varied with feeding. Thus, while avoiding the upper leaf surface was an adaptive foraging strategy, the proximate cause remains to be elucidated, but is likely due, in part, to certain leaf properties that inhibit feeding.

  10. Understanding of Leaf Development—the Science of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Malinowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf is the major organ involved in light perception and conversion of solar energy into organic carbon. In order to adapt to different natural habitats, plants have developed a variety of leaf forms, ranging from simple to compound, with various forms of dissection. Due to the enormous cellular complexity of leaves, understanding the mechanisms regulating development of these organs is difficult. In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the use of technically advanced imaging techniques and computational modeling in studies of leaf development. Additionally, molecular tools for manipulation of morphogenesis were successfully used for in planta verification of developmental models. Results of these interdisciplinary studies show that global growth patterns influencing final leaf form are generated by cooperative action of genetic, biochemical, and biomechanical inputs. This review summarizes recent progress in integrative studies on leaf development and illustrates how intrinsic features of leaves (including their cellular complexity influence the choice of experimental approach.

  11. Can Leaf Spectroscopy Predict Leaf and Forest Traits Along a Peruvian Tropical Forest Elevation Gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Santos-Andrade, P. E.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Blonder, B.; Shenkin, A.; Bentley, L. P.; Chavana-Bryant, C.; Huaraca-Huasco, W.; Díaz, S.; Salinas, N.; Enquist, B. J.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2017-11-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy can be used to measure leaf chemical and structural traits. Such leaf traits are often highly correlated to other traits, such as photosynthesis, through the leaf economics spectrum. We measured VNIR (visible-near infrared) leaf reflectance (400-1,075 nm) of sunlit and shaded leaves in 150 dominant species across ten, 1 ha plots along a 3,300 m elevation gradient in Peru (on 4,284 individual leaves). We used partial least squares (PLS) regression to compare leaf reflectance to chemical traits, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, structural traits, including leaf mass per area (LMA), branch wood density and leaf venation, and "higher-level" traits such as leaf photosynthetic capacity, leaf water repellency, and woody growth rates. Empirical models using leaf reflectance predicted leaf N and LMA (r2 > 30% and %RMSE < 30%), weakly predicted leaf venation, photosynthesis, and branch density (r2 between 10 and 35% and %RMSE between 10% and 65%), and did not predict leaf water repellency or woody growth rates (r2<5%). Prediction of higher-level traits such as photosynthesis and branch density is likely due to these traits correlations with LMA, a trait readily predicted with leaf spectroscopy.

  12. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  13. Leaf turgor loss point is correlated with drought tolerance and leaf carbon economics traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Dan; Chen, Ya-Jun; Ye, Qing; He, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Hui; Li, Rong-Hua; Fu, Pei-Li; Jiang, Guo-Feng; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2018-05-01

    Leaf turgor loss point (πtlp) indicates the capacity of a plant to maintain cell turgor pressure during dehydration, which has been proven to be strongly predictive of the plant response to drought. In this study, we compiled a data set of πtlp for 1752 woody plant individuals belonging to 389 species from nine major woody biomes in China, along with reduced sample size of hydraulic and leaf carbon economics data. We aimed to investigate the variation of πtlp across biomes varying in water availability. We also tested two hypotheses: (i) πtlp predicts leaf hydraulic safety margins and (ii) it is correlated with leaf carbon economics traits. Our results showed that there was a positive relationship between πtlp and aridity index: biomes from humid regions had less negative values than those from arid regions. This supports the idea that πtlp may reflect drought tolerance at the scale of woody biomes. As expected, πtlp was significantly positively correlated with leaf hydraulic safety margins that varied significantly across biomes, indicating that this trait may be useful in modelling changes of forest components in response to increasing drought. Moreover, πtlp was correlated with a suite of coordinated hydraulic and economics traits; therefore, it can be used to predict the position of a given species along the 'fast-slow' whole-plant economics spectrum. This study expands our understanding of the biological significance of πtlp not only in drought tolerance, but also in the plant economics spectrum.

  14. Variation in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is more affected by leaf position than by leaf age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ravit; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Rubin, Baruch; Dudai, Nativ

    2011-05-11

    The aroma in sweet basil is a factor affecting the commercial value of the crop. In previous studies leaf age was considered to be a factor that influences the composition of essential oil (EO). In this study it was hypothesized that a single observation of the EO content in leaves from different positions on the main stem (young vs old) could predict the developmental changes in the plant during its life cycle. Plants harvested at week 16 demonstrated an exponential increase (R(2) = 0.92) in EO concentration in leaves on the main stem and lateral shoots, indicating higher EO concentrations in younger than in older leaves. Eugenol and methyleugenol predominated (28-77%) in the extract. Eugenol levels were higher in younger leaves (∼53%), and methyl-eugenol levels predominated in older leaves (∼68%). Linalool was lower in mature leaves than in younger leaves. This suggested that eugenol converted into methyleugenol and linalool decreased as leaf mature. However, in weekly monitored plants, the levels of these compounds in the EO had limited variation in the maturing leaf regardless of its position on the stem. This proposed that the EO composition in an individual leaf is mostly affected by the leaf position on the stem and not by its maturation process. Because leaf position is related to plant development, it is probable that the plant's physiological age at the time of leaf formation from the primordial tissue is the factor affecting the EO composition. It was concluded that interpretation of scientific observations should be carried out with caution and that hypotheses should be tested utilizing multifaceted approaches.

  15. Leaf size and leaf display of thirty-eight tropical tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Rozendaal, D.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Trees forage for light through optimal leaf display. Effective leaf display is determined by metamer traits (i.e., the internode, petiole, and corresponding leaf), and thus these traits strongly co-determine carbon gain and as a result competitive advantage in a light-limited environment. We

  16. Evaluation of Methane from Sisal Leaf Residue and Palash Leaf Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisutha, S.; Baredar, P.; Deshpande, D. M.; Suresh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate methane production from sisal leaf residue and palash leaf litter mixed with different bulky materials such as vegetable market waste, hostel kitchen waste and digested biogas slurry in a laboratory scale anaerobic reactor. The mixture was prepared with 1:1 proportion. Maximum methane content of 320 ml/day was observed in the case of sisal leaf residue mixed with vegetable market waste as the feed. Methane content was minimum (47 ml/day), when palash leaf litter was used as feed. This was due to the increased content of lignin and polyphenol in the feedstock which were of complex structure and did not get degraded directly by microorganisms. Sisal leaf residue mixtures also showed highest content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as compared to palash leaf litter mixtures. It was observed that VFA concentration in the digester first increased, reached maximum (when pH was minimum) and then decreased.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in leaf ecophysiological traits of 13 contrasting cork oak populations under different water availabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Valiente, Jose Alberto; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Aranda, Ismael; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    Plants distributed across a wide range of environmental conditions are submitted to differential selective pressures. Long-term selection can lead to the development of adaptations to the local environment, generating ecotypic differentiation. Additionally, plant species can cope with this environmental variability by phenotypic plasticity. In this study, we examine the importance of both processes in coping with environmental heterogeneity in the Mediterranean sclerophyllous cork oak Quercus suber. For this purpose, we measured growth and key functional traits at the leaf level in 9-year-old plants across 2 years of contrasting precipitation (2005 and 2006) in a common garden. Plants were grown from acorns originated from 13 populations spanning a wide range of climates along the distribution range of the species. The traits measured were: leaf size (LS), specific leaf area (SLA), carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) and leaf nitrogen content per unit mass (N(mass)). Inter-population differences in LS, SLA and Delta(13)C were found. These differences were associated with rainfall and temperature at the sites of origin, suggesting local adaptation in response to diverging climates. Additionally, SLA and LS exhibited positive responses to the increase in annual rainfall. Year effect explained 28% of the total phenotypic variance in LS and 2.7% in SLA. There was a significant genotype x environment interaction for shoot growth and a phenotypic correlation between the difference in shoot growth among years and the annual mean temperature at origin. This suggests that populations originating from warm sites can benefit more from wet conditions than populations from cool sites. Finally, we investigated the relationships between functional traits and aboveground growth by several regression models. Our results showed that plants with lower SLA presented larger aboveground growth in a dry year and plants with larger leaf sizes displayed larger growth rates in both

  18. Fate of leaf litter deposits and impacts on oxygen availability in bank filtration column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarsaikhan, Uranchimeg; Filter, Josefine; Gernert, Ulrich; Jekel, Martin; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian

    2018-07-01

    Degradation of particulate organic carbon (POC) such as leaf litter might deplete dissolved oxygen within the upper layers of bank filtration, an efficient and robust barrier for pathogens and for various organic micro-pollutants (OMP) in water supply systems worldwide. The degradation of OMP during bank filtration depends on the redox conditions. The present study aimed at identifying the impacts and fates of different local leaves on the oxygen consumption and the possible biological degradation of indicator OMP. Oxygen concentrations initially decreased within the columns from around 8 mg/L in the influent to low concentrations indicating extensive consumption within a short travel distance. Still a substantial oxygen consumption was observed after 250 days. OMP concentrations were not significantly affected by the microbial processes. A layer of calcium carbonate crystallites was observed on the POC layer. Some leaf fragments appeared to be persistant towards degradation and the carbon content relative to nitrogen and sulfur contents decreased within 250 days. The results demonstrate that trees at bank filtration sites might have a strong long-term impact on the subsurface redox conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial patterns of leaf δ13C and its relationship with plant functional groups and environmental factors in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxu; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Meng; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Kerou; Li, Peng; Yang, Yan; Ni, Jian; Zhu, Qiuan

    2017-07-01

    The leaf carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) is a useful parameter for predicting a plant's water use efficiency, as an indicator for plant classification, and even in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic environments. In this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of leaf δ13C values and its relationship with plant functional groups and environmental factors throughout China. The high leaf δ13C in the database appeared in central and western China, and the averaged leaf δ13C was -27.15‰, with a range from -21.05‰ to -31.5‰. The order of the averaged δ13C for plant life forms from most positive to most negative was subshrubs > herbs = shrubs > trees > subtrees. Leaf δ13C is also influenced by some environmental factors, such as mean annual precipitation, relative humidity, mean annual temperature, solar hours, and altitude, although the overall influences are still relatively weak, in particular the influence of MAT and altitude. And we further found that plant functional types are dominant factors that regulate the magnitude of leaf δ13C for an individual site, whereas environmental conditions are key to understanding spatial patterns of leaf δ13C when we consider China as a whole. Ultimately, we conducted a multiple regression model of leaf δ13C with environmental factors and mapped the spatial distribution of leaf δ13C in China by using this model. However, this partial least squares model overestimated leaf δ13C for most life forms, especially for deciduous trees, evergreen shrubs, and subtrees, and thus need more improvement in the future.

  20. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Leaf Chlorophyll Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Sy, Mikailou

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. These data were collected to help provide an explanation of potential seasonal and spatial changes of leaf pigment properties in boreal forest species at the NSA. At different dates (FFC-Winter, FFC-Thaw, IFC-1, IFC-2, and IMC-3), foliage samples were collected from the upper third of the canopy for five NSA sites (YJP, OJP, OBS, UBS, and OA) near Thompson, Manitoba. Subsamples of 100 needles for black spruce, 20 needles for jack pine, and single leaf for trembling aspen were cut into pieces and immersed in a 20-mL DMF aliquot in a Nalgene test tube. The extracted foliage materials were then oven-dried at 68 C for 48 hours and weighed. Extracted leaf dry weight was converted to a total leaf area basis to express the chlorophyll content in mg/sq cm of total leaf area. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Non-destructive measurement of soybean leaf thickness via X-ray computed tomography allows the study of diel leaf growth rhythms in the third dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Johannes; Mielewczik, Michael; Friedli, Michael; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Present-day high-resolution leaf growth measurements provide exciting insights into diel (24-h) leaf growth rhythms and their control by the circadian clock, which match photosynthesis with oscillating environmental conditions. However, these methods are based on measurements of leaf area or elongation and neglect diel changes of leaf thickness. In contrast, the influence of various environmental stress factors to which leaves are exposed to during growth on the final leaf thickness has been studied extensively. Yet, these studies cannot elucidate how variation in leaf area and thickness are simultaneously regulated and influenced on smaller time scales. Only few methods are available to measure the thickness of young, growing leaves non-destructively. Therefore, we evaluated X-ray computed tomography to simultaneously and non-invasively record diel changes and growth of leaf thickness and area. Using conventional imaging and X-ray computed tomography leaf area, thickness and volume growth of young soybean leaves were simultaneously and non-destructively monitored at three cardinal time points during night and day for a period of 80 h under non-stressful growth conditions. Reference thickness measurements on paperboards were in good agreement to CT measurements. Comparison of CT with leaf mass data further proved the consistency of our method. Exploratory analysis showed that measurements were accurate enough for recording and analyzing relative diel changes of leaf thickness, which were considerably different to those of leaf area. Relative growth rates of leaf area were consistently positive and highest during 'nights', while diel changes in thickness fluctuated more and were temporarily negative, particularly during 'evenings'. The method is suitable for non-invasive, accurate monitoring of diel variation in leaf volume. Moreover, our results indicate that diel rhythms of leaf area and thickness show some similarity but are not tightly coupled. These

  2. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 Inhibits Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is an integral part of plant development, and the timing and progressing rate of senescence could substantially affect the yield and quality of crops. It has been known that a circadian rhythm synchronized with external environmental cues is critical for the optimal coordination of various physiological and metabolic processes. However, the reciprocal interactions between the circadian clock and leaf senescence in plants remain unknown. Here, through measuring the physiological and molecular senescence related markers of several circadian components mutants, we found that CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 inhibits leaf senescence. Further molecular and genetic studies revealed that CCA1 directly activates GLK2 and suppresses ORE1 expression to counteract leaf senescence. As plants age, the expression and periodic amplitude of CCA1 declines and thus weakens the inhibition of senescence. Our findings reveal an age-dependent circadian clock component of the process of leaf senescence.

  3. A non-destructive method for estimating onion leaf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córcoles J.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area is one of the most important parameters for characterizing crop growth and development, and its measurement is useful for examining the effects of agronomic management on crop production. It is related to interception of radiation, photosynthesis, biomass accumulation, transpiration and gas exchange in crop canopies. Several direct and indirect methods have been developed for determining leaf area. The aim of this study is to develop an indirect method, based on the use of a mathematical model, to compute leaf area in an onion crop using non-destructive measurements with the condition that the model must be practical and useful as a Decision Support System tool to improve crop management. A field experiment was conducted in a 4.75 ha commercial onion plot irrigated with a centre pivot system in Aguas Nuevas (Albacete, Spain, during the 2010 irrigation season. To determine onion crop leaf area in the laboratory, the crop was sampled on four occasions between 15 June and 15 September. At each sampling event, eight experimental plots of 1 m2 were used and the leaf area for individual leaves was computed using two indirect methods, one based on the use of an automated infrared imaging system, LI-COR-3100C, and the other using a digital scanner EPSON GT-8000, obtaining several images that were processed using Image J v 1.43 software. A total of 1146 leaves were used. Before measuring the leaf area, 25 parameters related to leaf length and width were determined for each leaf. The combined application of principal components analysis and cluster analysis for grouping leaf parameters was used to reduce the number of variables from 25 to 12. The parameter derived from the product of the total leaf length (L and the leaf diameter at a distance of 25% of the total leaf length (A25 gave the best results for estimating leaf area using a simple linear regression model. The model obtained was useful for computing leaf area using a non

  4. Reading the Leaves: A Comparison of Leaf Rank and Automated Areole Measurement for Quantifying Aspects of Leaf Venation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton A. Green

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reticulate venation that is characteristic of a dicot leaf has excited interest from systematists for more than a century, and from physiological and developmental botanists for decades. The tools of digital image acquisition and computer image analysis, however, are only now approaching the sophistication needed to quantify aspects of the venation network found in real leaves quickly, easily, accurately, and reliably enough to produce biologically meaningful data. In this paper, we examine 120 leaves distributed across vascular plants (representing 118 genera and 80 families using two approaches: a semiquantitative scoring system called “leaf ranking,” devised by the late Leo Hickey, and an automated image-analysis protocol. In the process of comparing these approaches, we review some methodological issues that arise in trying to quantify a vein network, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of automatic data collection and human pattern recognition. We conclude that subjective leaf rank provides a relatively consistent, semiquantitative measure of areole size among other variables; that modal areole size is generally consistent across large sections of a leaf lamina; and that both approaches—semiquantitative, subjective scoring; and fully quantitative, automated measurement—have appropriate places in the study of leaf venation.

  5. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  6. DETERMINATION OF LEAF AREA AND PLANT COVER BY USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    LŐKE, ZS.; SOÓS, G.

    2002-01-01

    The development of different crop models, and crop simulation models in particular, pointed out the importance of quantifying the exact value of the leaf area. To measure the leaf size of plants of pinnatifid form, automatic, portable leaf area meters are necessary. In most places these instruments are not available to measure the assimilatory surface size of crops with special leaf shapes. Any cheap and effective method, that could replace the application of expensive portable area meters co...

  7. Controls on declining carbon balance with leaf age among 10 woody species in Australian woodland: do leaves have zero daily net carbon balances when they die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter B; Falster, Daniel S; Ellsworth, David S; Wright, Ian J; Westoby, Mark; Oleksyn, Jacek; Lee, Tali D

    2009-01-01

    * Here, we evaluated how increased shading and declining net photosynthetic capacity regulate the decline in net carbon balance with increasing leaf age for 10 Australian woodland species. We also asked whether leaves at the age of their mean life-span have carbon balances that are positive, zero or negative. * The net carbon balances of 2307 leaves on 53 branches of the 10 species were estimated. We assessed three-dimensional architecture, canopy openness, photosynthetic light response functions and dark respiration rate across leaf age sequences on all branches. We used YPLANT to estimate light interception and to model carbon balance along the leaf age sequences. * As leaf age increased to the mean life-span, increasing shading and declining photosynthetic capacity each separately reduced daytime carbon gain by approximately 39% on average across species. Together, they reduced daytime carbon gain by 64% on average across species. * At the age of their mean life-span, almost all leaves had positive daytime carbon balances. These per leaf carbon surpluses were of a similar magnitude to the estimated whole-plant respiratory costs per leaf. Thus, the results suggest that a whole-plant economic framework, including respiratory costs, may be useful in assessing controls on leaf longevity.

  8. Leaf habit and woodiness regulate different leaf economy traits at a given nutrient supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Jenny C; van Bodegom, Peter M; Witte, Jan-Philip M; Bartholomeus, Ruud P; van Dobben, Han F; Aerts, Rien

    2010-11-01

    The large variation in the relationships between environmental factors and plant traits observed in natural communities exemplifies the alternative solutions that plants have developed in response to the same environmental limitations. Qualitative attributes, such as growth form, woodiness, and leaf habit can be used to approximate these alternative solutions. Here, we quantified the extent to which these attributes affect leaf trait values at a given resource supply level, using measured plant traits from 105 different species (254 observations) distributed across 50 sites in mesic to wet plant communities in The Netherlands. For each site, soil total N, soil total P, and water supply estimates were obtained by field measurements and modeling. Effects of growth forms, woodiness, and leaf habit on relations between leaf traits (SLA, specific leaf area; LNC, leaf nitrogen concentration; and LPC, leaf phosphorus concentration) vs. nutrient and water supply were quantified using maximum-likelihood methods and Bonferroni post hoc tests. The qualitative attributes explained 8-23% of the variance within sites in leaf traits vs. soil fertility relationships, and therefore they can potentially be used to make better predictions of global patterns of leaf traits in relation to nutrient supply. However, at a given soil fertility, the strength of the effect of each qualitative attribute was not the same for all leaf traits. These differences may imply a differential regulation of the leaf economy traits at a given nutrient supply, in which SLA and LPC seem to be regulated in accordance to changes in plant size and architecture while LNC seems to be primarily regulated at the leaf level by factors related to leaf longevity.

  9. Effects of light availability and growth rate on leaf lifespan of four temperate rainforest Proteaceae Efectos de la luminosidad y de las tasas de crecimiento sobre longevidad foliar de cuatro Proteáceas del bosque templado lluvioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H LUSK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although comparative studies have revealed much about the environmental correlates of leaf lifespan and its integration with other leaf traits, a comprehensive theory of leaf lifespan is still lacking. The influence of growth rate on self-shading may be a key proximate determinant of both inter- and intra-specific variation in leaf lifespans. If this were the case, we would expect leaf lifespans of fast-growing light-demanding species to respond more strongly to light environment than those of shade-tolerant species. We monitored growth and leaf survival of juvenile trees of four temperate rainforest Proteaceae in southern Chile, in order to explore the influences of light environment and self-shading on leaf lifespan. Leaf lifespans tended to decrease with increasing diffuse light availability, and slopes of these relationships were steeper in two light-demanding species (Embothrium coccineum, Lomatia hirsuta than in two more shade-tolerant species (Lomatia ferruginea, Gevuina avellana. This pattern mirrored interspecific variation in relationships of height growth with light availability, height growth rates of the two light-demanding species responding more strongly to light availability than did growth of L. ferruginea and G. avellana. Path analysis suggested that light availability influenced leaf lifespans primarily through the influence of growth on self-shading: when rate of leaf production was held constant by multiple regression, light availability per se had no significant influence on leaf lifespans of any of the four species. However, 29 to 79 % of intraspecific variation in leaf lifespan remained unexplained by light environment and leaf production rate. If self-shading is fact the main proximate control on leaf lifespan, information on the elevational distribution of photosynthetic photon flux may enhance the explanatory power of studies of this nature.Los estudios comparativos han documentado importantes correlaciones ambientales

  10. Immobilization and mineralization of N and P by heterotrophic microbes during leaf decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth Cheever; Erika Kratzer; Jackson Webster

    2012-01-01

    According to theory, the rate and stoichiometry of microbial mineralization depend, in part, on nutrient availability. For microbes associated with leaves in streams, nutrients are available from both the water column and the leaf. Therefore, microbial nutrient cycling may change with nutrient availability and during leaf decomposition. We explored spatial and temporal...

  11. Effect of Addition of Moringa Leaf By-Product (Leaf-Waste) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incorporation of Moringa leaf fibre (a by-product of leaf processing which contains 24% Crude Fibre by dry weight at 0, 5 and 10 % substitution of wheat flour in cookies was investigated. Three products containing wheat flour: Moringa leaf fibre ratios of 100:0, 95:5, and 90:10 respectively were prepared, and a ...

  12. Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate and leaf traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Owen K.

    2015-04-01

    Leaf respiration plays a vital role in regulating ecosystem functioning and the Earth's climate. Because of this, it is imperative that that Earth-system, climate and ecosystem-level models be able to accurately predict variations in rates of leaf respiration. In the field of photosynthesis research, the F/vC/B model has enabled modellers to accurately predict variations in photosynthesis through time and space. By contrast, we lack an equivalent biochemical model to predict variations in leaf respiration. Consequently, we need to rely on phenomenological approaches to model variations in respiration across the Earth's surface. Such approaches require that we develop a thorough understanding of how rates of respiration vary among species and whether global environmental gradients play a role in determining variations in leaf respiration. Dealing with these issues requires that data sets be assembled on rates of leaf respiration in biomes across the Earth's surface. In this talk, I will use a newly-assembled global database on leaf respiration and associated traits (including photosynthesis) to highlight variation in leaf respiration (and the balance between respiration and photosynthesis) across global gradients in growth temperature and aridity.

  13. Leaf traits within communities: context may affect the mapping of traits to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Cornwell, William K

    2013-09-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) has revolutionized the way many ecologists think about quantifying plant ecological trade-offs. In particular, the LES has connected a clear functional trade-off (long-lived leaves with slow carbon capture vs. short-lived leaves with fast carbon capture) to a handful of easily measured leaf traits. Building on this work, community ecologists are now able to quickly assess species carbon-capture strategies, which may have implications for community-level patterns such as competition or succession. However, there are a number of steps in this logic that require careful examination, and a potential danger arises when interpreting leaf-trait variation among species within communities where trait relationships are weak. Using data from 22 diverse communities, we show that relationships among three common functional traits (photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration per mass, leaf mass per area) are weak in communities with low variation in leaf life span (LLS), especially communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous woody species. However, globally there are few LLS data sets for communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous species, and more data are needed to confirm this pattern. The context-dependent nature of trait relationships at the community level suggests that leaf-trait variation within communities, especially those dominated by herbaceous and deciduous woody species, should be interpreted with caution.

  14. From leaf to whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE in complex canopies: Limitations of leaf WUE as a selection target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Medrano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant water use efficiency (WUE is becoming a key issue in semiarid areas, where crop production relies on the use of large volumes of water. Improving WUE is necessary for securing environmental sustainability of food production in these areas. Given that climate change predictions include increases in temperature and drought in semiarid regions, improving crop WUE is mandatory for global food production. WUE is commonly measured at the leaf level, because portable equipment for measuring leaf gas exchange rates facilitates the simultaneous measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration. However, when those measurements are compared with daily integrals or whole-plant estimates of WUE, the two sometimes do not agree. Scaling up from single-leaf to whole-plant WUE was tested in grapevines in different experiments by comparison of daily integrals of instantaneous water use efficiency [ratio between CO2 assimilation (AN and transpiration (E; AN/E] with midday AN/E measurements, showing a low correlation, being worse with increasing water stress. We sought to evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal variation in carbon and water balances at the leaf and plant levels. The leaf position (governing average light interception in the canopy showed a marked effect on instantaneous and daily integrals of leaf WUE. Night transpiration and respiration rates were also evaluated, as well as respiration contributions to total carbon balance. Two main components were identified as filling the gap between leaf and whole plant WUE: the large effect of leaf position on daily carbon gain and water loss and the large flux of carbon losses by dark respiration. These results show that WUE evaluation among genotypes or treatments needs to be revised.

  15. Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf appearance, leaf growth, leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic capacity in maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Birch, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Leaf area growth and nitrogen concentration per unit leaf area, Na (g m-2 N) are two options plants can use to adapt to nitrogen limitation. Previous work indicated that potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) adapts the size of leaves to maintain Na and photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area. This paper

  16. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  17. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  18. Non-destructive linear model for leaf area estimation in Vernonia ferruginea Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC. Souza

    Full Text Available Leaf area estimation is an important biometrical trait for evaluating leaf development and plant growth in field and pot experiments. We developed a non-destructive model to estimate the leaf area (LA of Vernonia ferruginea using the length (L and width (W leaf dimensions. Different combinations of linear equations were obtained from L, L2, W, W2, LW and L2W2. The linear regressions using the product of LW dimensions were more efficient to estimate the LA of V. ferruginea than models based on a single dimension (L, W, L2 or W2. Therefore, the linear regression “LA=0.463+0.676WL” provided the most accurate estimate of V. ferruginea leaf area. Validation of the selected model showed that the correlation between real measured leaf area and estimated leaf area was very high.

  19. Models for leaf area estimation in dwarf pigeon pea by leaf dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vieira Pezzini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the most suitable model to estimate the leaf area of dwarf pigeon pea in function of the leaf central leaflet dimension. Six samplings of 200 leaves were performed in the first experiment, at 36, 42, 50, 56, 64, and 72 days after emergence (DAE. In the second experiment, seven samplings of 200 leaves were performed at 29, 36, 43, 49, 57, 65, and 70 DAE, totaling 2600 leaves. The length (L and width (W of the central leaflet were measured in all leaves composed by left, central, and right leaflets, the product of length times width (LW was calculated, and the leaf area (Y – sum of left, central, and right leaflet areas was determined by digital images. Linear, power, quadratic, and cubic models of Y as function of L, W, and LW were built using data from the second experiment. Leaves from the first experiment were used to validate the models. In dwarf pigeon pea, the linear (Ŷ = – 0.4088 + 1.6669x, R2 = 0.9790 is preferable, but power (Ŷ = 1.6097x1.0065, R2 = 0.9766, quadratic (Ŷ = – 0.3625 + 1.663x + 0.00007x2, R2 = 0.9790, and cubic (Ŷ = 0.7216 + 1.522x + 0.005x2 – 5E–05x3, R2 = 0.9791 models in function of LW are also suitable to estimate the leaf area obtained by digital images. The power model (Ŷ = 5.2508x1.7868, R2 = 0.95 based on the central leaflet width is less laborious because requires only one variable, but it presents accuracy reduction.

  20. SU-F-T-350: Continuous Leaf Optimization (CLO) for IMRT Leaf Sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, T; Chen, M; Jiang, S; Lu, W [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study a new step-and-shoot IMRT leaf sequencing model that avoids the two main pitfalls of conventional leaf sequencing: (1) target fluence being stratified into a fixed number of discrete levels and/or (2) aperture leaf positions being restricted to a discrete set of locations. These assumptions induce error into the sequence or reduce the feasible region of potential plans, respectively. Methods: We develop a one-dimensional (single leaf pair) methodology that does not make assumptions (1) or (2) that can be easily extended to a multi-row model. The proposed continuous leaf optimization (CLO) methodology takes in an existing set of apertures and associated intensities, or solution “seed,” and improves the plan without the restrictiveness of 1or (2). It then uses a first-order descent algorithm to converge onto a locally optimal solution. A seed solution can come from models that assume (1) and (2), thus allowing the CLO model to improve upon existing leaf sequencing methodologies. Results: The CLO model was applied to 208 generated target fluence maps in one dimension. In all cases for all tested sequencing strategies, the CLO model made improvements on the starting seed objective function. The CLO model also was able to keep MUs low. Conclusion: The CLO model can improve upon existing leaf sequencing methods by avoiding the restrictions of (1) and (2). By allowing for more flexible leaf positioning, error can be reduced when matching some target fluence. This study lays the foundation for future models and solution methodologies that can incorporate continuous leaf positions explicitly into the IMRT treatment planning model. Supported by Cancer Prevention & Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) - ID RP150485.

  1. [Relationships among leaf traits and their expression in different vegetation zones in Yanhe River basin, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ru; Wen, Zhong-ming; Wang, Hong-xia; Qi, De-hui

    2015-12-01

    This article selected zonal plant communities as the research objects in different vegetation zones in Yanhe River basin. We measured six leaf traits of the dominant species and main accompanying species in each community, and then analyzed the relationships and their changes along with environmental gradients between these traits in order to understand the plant adaptation strategies to the environment changes. The results showed that the specific leaf area was significantly negatively correlated to leaf tissue density, area-based leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and significantly positively correlated to mass-based leaf phosphorus concentration. Both the scaling relationships among these traits and plant life strategies were different among the three vegetation zones, the scaling-dependent relationship between leaf tissue density and specific leaf area was stronger in steppe and forest-steppe zones than in forest zone, but the correlations among area-based leaf nitrogen/phosphorus concentrations and specific leaf area and leaf tissue density were more significant in forest zone than in steppe zone. In the arid grassland and forest-steppe zone, plants give priority to defensive and stress resistance strategies, and in relatively moist nutrient-rich forest zone, plants give priority to fast growth and resource optimization allocation strategies.

  2. Antibacterial, Antibiofilm Effect of Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) Leaf Fraction and Its Efficiency in Meat Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Li, Cheng; Kou, Xingran; Yu, Fuhao; Wang, Hongxin; Smith, Gary M; Zhu, Song

    2016-08-01

    First, the antibacterial, antibiofilm effect and chemical composition of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaf fractions were studied. Then, the efficiency of burdock leaf fractions in pork preservation was evaluated. The results showed that burdock leaf fraction significantly inhibited the growth and biofilm development of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. MICs of burdock leaf fractions on E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were both 2 mg/ml. At a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml, the inhibition rates of the fraction on growth and development of E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium biofilms were 78.7 and 69.9%, respectively. During storage, the log CFU per gram of meat samples treated with burdock leaf fractions decreased 2.15, compared with the samples without treatment. The shelf life of pork treated with burdock leaf fractions was extended 6 days compared with the pork without treatment, and the sensory property was obviously improved. Compared with the control group, burdock leaf fraction treatment significantly decreased the total volatile basic nitrogen value and pH of the meat samples. Chemical composition analysis showed that the burdock leaf fraction consisted of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, cynarin, crocin, luteolin, arctiin, and quercetin. As a vegetable with an abundant source, burdock leaf is safe, affordable, and efficient in meat preservation, indicating that burdock leaf fraction is a promising natural preservative for pork.

  3. Leaf size indices and structure of the peat swamp forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Aribal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size indices of the tree species in the peatland of Agusan del Sur in Mindanao in Philippines was examined to deduce the variation of forest structure and observed forest zonation.  Using raunkiaer and webb’s leaf size classification, the leaf morphometrics of seven tree species consistently found on the established sampling plots were determined.  The species includes Ternstroemia philippinensis Merr., Polyscias aherniana Merr. Lowry and G.M. Plunkett, Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque, Fagraea racemosa Jack, Ilex cymosa Blume, Syzygium tenuirame (Miq. Merr. and Tristaniopsis micrantha Merr. Peter G.Wilson and J.T.Waterh.The LSI were correlated against the variables of the peat physico-chemical properties (such as bulk density, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, pH; water (pH, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate; and leaf tissue elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  Result showed a decreasing leaf size indices and a three leaf size category consisting of mesophyllous, mesophyllous-notophyllous and microphyllous were observed which corresponds to the structure of vegetation i.e., from the tall-pole forest having the biggest average leaf area of 6,142.29 mm2 to the pygmy forest with average leaf area of 1,670.10 mm2.  Such decreased leaf size indices were strongly correlated to soil nitrogen, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, phosphate in water, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant tissue.

  4. Do Aphids Alter Leaf Surface Temperature Patterns During Early Infestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cahon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation. Aphids induced a slight change in leaf surface temperature patterns after only three days of infestation, mostly due to the effect of aphids on the maximal temperature that can be found at the leaf surface. Aphids may induce stomatal closure, leading to a lower transpiration rate. This effect was local since aphids modified the configuration of the temperature distribution over leaf surfaces. Aphids were positioned at temperatures near the maximal leaf surface temperatures, thus potentially experiencing the thermal changes. The feedback effect of feeding activity by insects on their host plant can be important and should be quantified to better predict the response of phytophagous insects to environmental changes.

  5. ROLE OF ETHYLENE IN RESPONSES OF PLANTS TO NITROGEN AVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iqbal R Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is a plant hormone involved in several physiological processes and regulates the plant development during the whole life. Stressful conditions usually activate ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in plants. The availability of nutrients, shortage or excess, influences plant metabolism and ethylene plays an important role in plant adaptation under suboptimal conditions. Among the plant nutrients, the nitrogen (N is one the most important mineral element required for plant growth and development. The availability of N significantly influences plant metabolism, including ethylene biology. The interaction between ethylene and N affects several physiological process such as leaf gas exchanges, roots architecture, leaf, fruits and flowers development. Low plant N use efficiency leads to N loss and N deprivation, which affect ethylene biosynthesis and tissues sensitivity, inducing cell damage and ultimately lysis. Plants may respond differently to N availability balancing ethylene production through its signalling network. This review discusses the recent advances in the interaction between N availability and ethylene at whole plant and different organ levels, and explores how N availability induces ethylene biology and plant responses. Exogenously applied ethylene seems to cope the stress conditions and improves plant physiological performance. This can be explained considering the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes under different N availability. A greater understanding of the regulation of N by means of ethylene modulation may help to increase N use efficiency and directly influence crop productivity under conditions of limited N availability, leading to positive effects on the environment. Moreover, efforts should be focused on the effect of N deficiency or excess in fruit trees, where ethylene can have detrimental effects especially during postharvest.

  6. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  7. Current Quality-of-Life Tools Available for Use in Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietlik, Jacquelyn; Reeder, Margo

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can cause significant impairment in patients' overall quality of life (QoL). This impact is separate and potentially more clinically relevant than one's disease "severity" in contact dermatitis and should be consistently addressed by dermatologists. Despite this, QoL tools specific to contact dermatitis are lacking, and there is little consistency in the literature regarding the tool used to evaluate clinical response to therapies. Measurements currently available to evaluate disease-related QoL in contact dermatitis fit into 1 of the following 3 general types: generic health-related QoL measures, dermatology-related QoL measures, or specific dermatologic disease-related QoL measures. This article reviews the strengths and weaknesses of existing QoL tools used in contact dermatitis including: Short Form Survey 36, Dermatology Life Quality Index, Skindex-29, Skindex-16, Dermatology-Specific Quality of Life, and Fragrance Quality of Life Index.

  8. Light distribution in leaf chambers and its consequences for photosynthesis measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.; Trouwborst, G.; Harbinson, J.; Ieperen, van W.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of a heterogeneous distribution of actinic light within a leaf chamber for photosynthetic measurements by gas exchange on the photosynthesis-irradiance relationship was investigated. High-resolution light distributions were measured over the area of a commercially available clamp-on leaf

  9. On the temporal variation of leaf magnetic parameters: seasonal accumulation of leaf-deposited and leaf-encapsulated particles of a roadside tree crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle; Wuyts, Karen; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Samson, Roeland

    2014-09-15

    Understanding the accumulation behaviour of atmospheric particles inside tree leaves is of great importance for the interpretation of biomagnetic monitoring results. In this study, we evaluated the temporal variation of the saturation isothermal remanent magnetisation (SIRM) of leaves of a roadside urban Platanus × acerifolia Willd. tree in Antwerp, Belgium. We hereby examined the seasonal development of the total leaf SIRM signal as well as the leaf-encapsulated fraction of the deposited dust, by washing the leaves before biomagnetic analysis. On average 38% of the leaf SIRM signal was exhibited by the leaf-encapsulated particles. Significant correlations were found between the SIRM and the cumulative daily average atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 measurements. Moreover, a steady increase of the SIRM throughout the in-leaf season was observed endorsing the applicability of biomagnetic monitoring as a proxy for the time-integrated PM exposure of urban tree leaves. Strongest correlations were obtained for the SIRM of the leaf-encapsulated particles which confirms the dynamic nature of the leaf surface-accumulated particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating a tobacco leaf humidification system involving nebulisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Enrique Cerquera Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A tobacco leaf humidifying system involving nebulisation was designned, implemented and evaluated; it had a system for monitoring and recording environmental conditions thereby producing an environment having more homogeneous relative humidity, ensuring better water use, better control of relative humidity and better control in managing cured tobacco leaf moisture content, thereby leading to a consequent improvement in final product quality. 55% to 75% relative humidity and 4 to 6 hour working ranges were obtained to en- sure leaf humidification reached 16% humidity on a wet basis. Two new designs are proposed for the conditioning stage regarding this conditioning chamber’s operational management, based on the results and field observations, which would allow better leaf management, thereby avoiding the risk of losses due to manipulation and over-humidification. This work strengthens research in the field of tobacco pos- tharvest technology, complementing other research projects which have been carried out in Colombia.

  11. Leaf ultraviolet optical properties along a latitudinal gradient in the Arctic-Alpine life zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robberecht, R.; Caldwell, M.M.; Billings, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Leaf epidermal transmittance of terrestrial solar ultraviolet-B radiation (295 to 320 nm) was examined along a latitudinal gradient of solar uv-B radiation. In high uv-B radiation zones, e.g., equatorial and tropical regions, mean epidermal transmittance for the species examined was less than 2%. At higher latitudes, mean epidermal transmittance exceeded 5%. Although this latitudinal solar uv-B gradient represents more than a seven-fold difference in daily integrated uv-B irradiance, the calculated mean effective uv-B irradiance at the mesophyll of low-latitude species is not substantially different from that of species at higher latitudes. Species in high uv-B radiation environments appear to attenuate this radiation more effectively than those in lower irradiance environments. In most cases, absorption of uv-B in the epidermis is the major parameter effecting low transmittance. Reflectance from glabrous leaves is generally less than 10%. In some species, pubescent or glaucous leaf surfaces can reflect more than 40% of the uv-B radiation incident on a horizontal leaf, although such surface characteristics do not necessarily indicate high uv-B reflectance. Under controlled conditions, epidermal transmittance in Pisum sativum L. decreased in response to uv-B irradiation. The modification of epidermal transmittance, resulting in lower uv-B irradiance at the mesophyll, may represent a mechanism of plant acclimation to uv-B radiation. Such acclimation may have occurred in several wildland species of temperate-latitude origin that have invaded high uv-B irradiance equatorial and tropical regions

  12. How do leaf veins influence the worldwide leaf economic spectrum? Review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine; John, Grace P; Poorter, Hendrik; Mason, Chase M; Mendez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-10-01

    Leaf vein traits are implicated in the determination of gas exchange rates and plant performance. These traits are increasingly considered as causal factors affecting the 'leaf economic spectrum' (LES), which includes the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis, dark respiration, foliar nitrogen concentration, leaf dry mass per area (LMA) and leaf longevity. This article reviews the support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding a key vein trait, vein length per unit leaf area (VLA). Recently, Blonder et al. (2011, 2013) proposed that vein traits, including VLA, can be described as the 'origin' of the LES by structurally determining LMA and leaf thickness, and thereby vein traits would predict LES traits according to specific equations. Careful re-examination of leaf anatomy, published datasets, and a newly compiled global database for diverse species did not support the 'vein origin' hypothesis, and moreover showed that the apparent power of those equations to predict LES traits arose from circularity. This review provides a 'flux trait network' hypothesis for the effects of vein traits on the LES and on plant performance, based on a synthesis of the previous literature. According to this hypothesis, VLA, while virtually independent of LMA, strongly influences hydraulic conductance, and thus stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. We also review (i) the specific physiological roles of VLA; (ii) the role of leaf major veins in influencing LES traits; and (iii) the role of VLA in determining photosynthetic rate per leaf dry mass and plant relative growth rate. A clear understanding of leaf vein traits provides a new perspective on plant function independently of the LES and can enhance the ability to explain and predict whole plant performance under dynamic conditions, with applications towards breeding improved crop varieties.

  13. The action spectrum in chloroplast translocation in multilayer leaf cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lechowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By measurement of light transmittance through a leaf as criterion of chloroplast translocation, the action spectrum of Ajuga reptans was established. In the spectrum obtained, a correction was introduced for leaf autoabsorption calculated on the basis of the Beer-Lambert law. The action spectrum has two maxima: at λ= 375 nm and λ= 481 nm. The range above 502 nm has no significant effect on chloroplast translocation. Comparison with other objects examined demonstrated that in multilayer leaf cells riboflavin seems also to be a photoreceptor active in this process.

  14. Frost and leaf-size gradients in forests: global patterns and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Christopher H; Clearwater, Michael J; Laughlin, Daniel C; Harrison, Sandy P; Prentice, Iain Colin; Nordenstahl, Marisa; Smith, Benjamin

    2018-05-16

    Explanations of leaf size variation commonly focus on water availability, yet leaf size also varies with latitude and elevation in environments where water is not strongly limiting. We provide the first conclusive test of a prediction of leaf energy balance theory that may explain this pattern: large leaves are more vulnerable to night-time chilling, because their thick boundary layers impede convective exchange with the surrounding air. Seedlings of 15 New Zealand evergreens spanning 12-fold variation in leaf width were exposed to clear night skies, and leaf temperatures were measured with thermocouples. We then used a global dataset to assess several climate variables as predictors of leaf size in forest assemblages. Leaf minus air temperature was strongly correlated with leaf width, ranging from -0.9 to -3.2°C in the smallest- and largest-leaved species, respectively. Mean annual temperature and frost-free period were good predictors of evergreen angiosperm leaf size in forest assemblages, but no climate variable predicted deciduous leaf size. Although winter deciduousness makes large leaves possible in strongly seasonal climates, large-leaved evergreens are largely confined to frost-free climates because of their susceptibility to radiative cooling. Evergreen leaf size data can therefore be used to enhance vegetation models, and to infer palaeotemperatures from fossil leaf assemblages. © 2018 The Authors New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. TALE and Shape: How to Make a Leaf Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Elisabetta; Iannelli, Maria Adelaide; Frugis, Giovanna

    2013-05-06

    The Three Amino acid Loop Extension (TALE) proteins constitute an ancestral superclass of homeodomain transcription factors conserved in animals, plants and fungi. In plants they comprise two classes, KNOTTED1-LIKE homeobox (KNOX) and BEL1-like homeobox (BLH or BELL, hereafter referred to as BLH), which are involved in shoot apical meristem (SAM) function, as well as in the determination and morphological development of leaves, stems and inflorescences. Selective protein-protein interactions between KNOXs and BLHs affect heterodimer subcellular localization and target affinity. KNOXs exert their roles by maintaining a proper balance between undifferentiated and differentiated cell state through the modulation of multiple hormonal pathways. A pivotal function of KNOX in evolutionary diversification of leaf morphology has been assessed. In the SAM of both simple- and compound-leafed seed species, downregulation of most class 1 KNOX (KNOX1) genes marks the sites of leaf primordia initiation. However, KNOX1 expression is re-established during leaf primordia development of compound-leafed species to maintain transient indeterminacy and morphogenetic activity at the leaf margins. Despite the increasing knowledge available about KNOX1 protein function in plant development, a comprehensive view on their downstream effectors remains elusive. This review highlights the role of TALE proteins in leaf initiation and morphological plasticity with a focus on recent advances in the identification of downstream target genes and pathways.

  16. Dynamics of vacuum-sealed, double-leaf partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Joshua Stephen

    The goal of this research is to investigate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of using vacuum-sealed, double-leaf partitions for applications in noise control. Substantial work has been done previously on double-leaf partitions where the acoustics of the inner chamber and mechanical vibrations of structural supports are passively and actively controlled. The work presented here is unique in that the proposed system aims to eliminate the need for active acoustic control of transmitted acoustic energy by removing all the air between the two panels of the double partition. Therefore, the only remaining energy paths would be along the boundary and at the points where there are intermediate structural supports connecting the two panels. The eventual goal of the research is to develop a high-loss double-leaf partition that simplifies active control by removing the need for control of the air cavity and channeling all the energy into discrete structural paths. The work presented here is a first step towards the goal of designing a high-loss, actively-controlled double-leaf partition with an air-evacuated inner chamber. One experiment is conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of vacuum on the response of a double-leaf partition whose panels are mechanically coupled only at the boundary. Another experiment is conducted which investigates the effect of changing the stiffness of an intermediate support coupling the two panels of a double-leaf partition in which a vacuum has been applied to the inner cavity. The available equipment was able to maintain a 99% vacuum between the panels. Both experiments are accompanied by analytical models used to investigate the importance of various dynamic parameters. Results show that the vacuum-sealed system shows some potential for increased transmission loss, primarily by the changing the natural frequencies of the double-leaf partition.

  17. BIOMONITORING OF URBAN AREA BY ANATOMICAL LEAF CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IRIZA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants play a vital role as indicators of pollution. The automobile emissions are high particularly at the traffic intersections. Plants growing under the stress of air pollution show differences in leaf surface characteristics. Light microscopic studies of leaf surface revealed an increase in the number of stomata and trichomes of polluted populations in comparison to control populations of Plantago major and Plantago lanceolata. These changes can be considered as indicators of environmental stress.

  18. An evolutionary perspective on leaf economics : Phylogenetics of leaf mass per area in vascular plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Wright, Ian J.; Reich, Peter B.; Pierce, Simon; Diaz, Sandra; Pakeman, Robin J.; Rusch, Graciela M.; Bernard-Verdier, Maud; Testi, Baptiste; Bakker, Jan P.; Bekker, Renee M.; Cerabolini, Bruno E. L.; Ceriani, Roberta M.; Cornu, Guillaume; Cruz, Pablo; Delcamp, Matthieu; Dolezal, Jiri; Eriksson, Ove; Fayolle, Adeline; Freitas, Helena; Golodets, Carly; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hodgson, John G.; Brusa, Guido; Kleyer, Michael; Kunzmann, Dieter; Lavorel, Sandra; Papanastasis, Vasilios P.; Perez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Vendramini, Fernanda; Weiher, Evan

    In plant leaves, resource use follows a trade-off between rapid resource capture and conservative storage. This "worldwide leaf economics spectrum" consists of a suite of intercorrelated leaf traits, among which leaf mass per area, LMA, is one of the most fundamental as it indicates the cost of leaf

  19. Peach leaf responses to soil and cement dust pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletsika, Persefoni A; Nanos, George D; Stavroulakis, George G

    2015-10-01

    Dust pollution can negatively affect plant productivity in hot, dry and with high irradiance areas during summer. Soil or cement dust were applied on peach trees growing in a Mediterranean area with the above climatic characteristics. Soil and cement dust accumulation onto the leaves decreased the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available to the leaves without causing any shade effect. Soil and mainly cement dust deposition onto the leaves decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, and water use efficiency due possibly to stomatal blockage and other leaf cellular effects. In early autumn, rain events removed soil dust and leaf functions partly recovered, while cement dust created a crust partially remaining onto the leaves and causing more permanent stress. Leaf characteristics were differentially affected by the two dusts studied due to their different hydraulic properties. Leaf total chlorophyll decreased and total phenol content increased with dust accumulation late in the summer compared to control leaves due to intense oxidative stress. The two dusts did not cause serious metal imbalances to the leaves, except of lower leaf K content.

  20. Genetic and Developmental Basis for Increased Leaf Thickness in the Arabidopsis Cvi Ecotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Coneva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf thickness is a quantitative trait that is associated with the ability of plants to occupy dry, high irradiance environments. Despite its importance, leaf thickness has been difficult to measure reproducibly, which has impeded progress in understanding its genetic basis, and the associated anatomical mechanisms that pattern it. Here, we used a custom-built dual confocal profilometer device to measure leaf thickness in the Arabidopsis Ler × Cvi recombinant inbred line population and found statistical support for four quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with this trait. We used publically available data for a suite of traits relating to flowering time and growth responses to light quality and show that three of the four leaf thickness QTL coincide with QTL for at least one of these traits. Using time course photography, we quantified the relative growth rate and the pace of rosette leaf initiation in the Ler and Cvi ecotypes. We found that Cvi rosettes grow slower than Ler, both in terms of the rate of leaf initiation and the overall rate of biomass accumulation. Collectively, these data suggest that leaf thickness is tightly linked with physiological status and may present a tradeoff between the ability to withstand stress and rapid vegetative growth. To understand the anatomical basis of leaf thickness, we compared cross-sections of Cvi and Ler leaves and show that Cvi palisade mesophyll cells elongate anisotropically contributing to leaf thickness. Flow cytometry of whole leaves show that endopolyploidy accompanies thicker leaves in Cvi. Overall, our data suggest that mechanistically, an altered schedule of cellular events affecting endopolyploidy and increasing palisade mesophyll cell length contribute to increase of leaf thickness in Cvi. Ultimately, knowledge of the genetic basis and developmental trajectory leaf thickness will inform the mechanisms by which natural selection acts to produce variation in this adaptive trait.

  1. Accumulation of three different sizes of particulate matter on plant leaf surfaces: Effect on leaf traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only improve air quality by adsorbing particulate matter (PM on leaf surfaces but can also be affected by their accumulation. In this study, a field investigation was performed in Wuhan, China, into the relationship between seven leaf traits and the accumulation of three different sizes of PM (PM11, PM2.5 and PM0.2 on leaves. The retention abilities of plant leaves with respect to the three sizes of PM differed significantly at different sites and species. The average PM retention capabilities of plant leaves and specific leaf area (SLA were significantly greater in a seriously polluted area, whereas the average values of chlorophyll a (Chl a, chlorophyll b (Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pH and relative water content (RWC were greater at the control site. SLA significantly positively correlated with the size of PM, but Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, RWC significantly negatively correlated with the size of PM, whereas the pH did not correlate significantly with the the PM fractions. Additionally, SLA was found to be affected by large particles (PM11, p<0.01; PM2.5 had a more obvious effect on plant leaf traits than the other PM (p<0.05. Overall, the findings from this study provide useful information regarding the selection of plants to reduce atmospheric pollution.

  2. Dissipation and Residues of Pyrethrins in Leaf Lettuce under Greenhouse and Open Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lixiang; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Hongyan

    2017-07-21

    Pyrethrins are nowadays widely used for prevention and control of insects in leaf lettuce. However, there is a concern about the pesticide residue in leaf lettuce. A reliable analytical method for determination of pyrethrins (pyrethrin-and П, cinerin І and П, and jasmolin І and П) in leaf lettuce was developed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce at three spiking levels were 99.4-104.0% with relative standard deviations of 0.9-3.1% ( n = 5). Evaluation of dissipation and final residues of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce were determined at six different locations, including the open field, as well as under greenhouse conditions. The initial concentration of pyrethrins in greenhouse (0.57 mg/kg) was higher than in open field (0.25 mg/kg) and the half-life for pyrethrins disappearance in field lettuce (0.7 days) was less than that greenhouse lettuce (1.1 days). Factors such as rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, and crop growth rate are likely to have caused these results. The final residue in leaf lettuce was far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) (1 mg/kg established by the European Union (EU), Australia, Korea, Japan).

  3. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J

    2014-07-01

    Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. • Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. • Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  4. Leaf anatomical traits determine the 18O enrichment of leaf water in coastal halophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Lin, G., Sr.; Sternberg, L. O.

    2017-12-01

    Foliar anatomical adaptations to high-salinity environment in mangroves may be recorded by leaf water isotopes. Recent studies observed that a few mangrove species have lower 18O enrichment of leaf water (ΔL) relative to source water than the adjacent terrestrial trees, but what factors actually control this phenomenon is still disputable at present. To resolve this issue, we collected 15 species of true mangrove plants, 14 species of adjacent freshwater trees and 4 species of semi-mangrove plants at five study sites on the southeastern coast of China. Leaf stomatal density and pore size, water content, ΔL and other related leaf physiological traits were determined for the selected leaves of these plants. Our results confirmed that ΔL values of mangroves were generally 3 4 ‰ lower than those of the adjacent freshwater or semi-mangrove species. Higher leaf water per area (LWC) and lower leaf stomatal density (LS) of mangroves played co-dominant roles in lowering ΔL through elongating effective leaf mixing length by about 20%. The Péclet model incorporated by LWC and LS performed well in predicting ΔL. The demonstrated general law between leaf anatomy and ΔL in this paper based on a large pool of species bridges the gap between leaf functional traits and metabolic proxies derived ΔL, which will have considerable potential applications in vegetation succession and reconstruction of paleoclimate research.

  5. LEAF MICROMORPHOMETRY OF Schinus molle L. (ANARCADIACEAE IN DIFFERENT CANOPY HEIGHTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Ferreira Pires

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf characterization of trees is essential for its identification and use, as well as to understand its relationships with environment. The objective of this work is to study the leaflet anatomy and leaf biometrical characteristics at different canopy heights of Schinus molle plants as a function of its environmental and physiological modifications. Leaves were collected at three different canopy heights: base, middle and upper canopy in a plantation of S. molle. Leaves were used for anatomical and biometrical analysis. For the anatomical analysis, leaves were fixed in FAA and stored in ethanol 70% and further submitted to transversal and paradermical sections. Slides were photomicrographed and image analysis was performed in UTHSCSA-Imagetool. For biometrical analysis leaf area, length, width, dry mass and specific leaf area were evaluated. The leaflets exhibited single layer epidermis, anomocytic and ciclocytic stomata, isobilateral mesophyll, subepidermal parenchyma layer in both adaxial and abaxial faces of epidermis, secretory vessels and lamellar collenchyma in midrib and leaf border. Leaf anatomy modifications occurred in cuticle and mesophyll thickness, vascular system, phloem thickness, and stomatal density in accordance with leaf canopy position. Leaves were smaller and with reduced leaf area at higher canopy positions. S. molle leaf anatomy is different from other species within Schinus genre with modifications under different environmental and physiological modifications promoted by its canopy height.

  6. Effects of leaf movement on leaf temperature, transpiration and radiation interception in soybean under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, A.; Wang, P.

    2001-01-01

    Varietal differences in leaf movement were examined in terms of radiation interception, leaf temperature and transpiration under water stressed conditions. Five cultivars (Qindou 7232, Gaofei 16, Dongnong 87 - 138, 8285 - 8 and 8874) were grown in a concrete frame field in Xinjiang, China. Irrigation treatments (irrigation and no irrigation) were made from the flowering to the pod filling stage. A leaflet in the uppermost layer of the canopy was restrained horizontally. Leaf temperatures, transpiration rate (stem sap flow rate of the main stem per unit leaf area) and intercepted radiation of each leaflet were measured. There were greater varietal differences in leaf movement, leaf temperature and transpiration rate. Leaf temperature seemed to be adjusted by leaf movement and transpiration. The extent to which is adjusted by leaf movement and transpiration differed among the cultivars; leaf temperature was influenced mainly by leaf movement for Gaofei 16 and Dongnong 87 - 138, mainly by transpiration for Qindou 7232 and 8874, and by both for 8285 - 8. Intercepted radiation in the upper two layers of the canopy (20 cm from the uppermost) was greater in the irrigated plot, although the mean values of total leaflets of the irrigated plot were not different as compared to the non-irrigated plot. Although paraheliotropic leaf movement decreased radiation interception, it offers some possibilities for the improvement in radiation penetration within a dense canopy. Cumulated amount of transpiration during a day was compared between the restrained-leaf and the non-leaf-restrained plants in 8874. Paraheliotropic leaf movement reduced water loss by 23% in the irrigated and 71% in the non-irrigated plots

  7. Leaf green-up in a semi-arid African savanna - separating tree and grass responses to environmental cues

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available -arid African savanna - 583 Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 583-594, 2007 © IAVS; Opulus Press Uppsala. Leaf green-up in a semi-arid African savanna – separating tree and grass responses to environmental cues Archibald, S.1* & Scholes, R.J.1,2 1Natural... to identify tree and grass green-up dates in a semi-arid savanna system, and are there predictable environmental cues for green-up for each life form? Location: Acacia nigrescens/Combretum apiculatum savanna, Kruger National Park, South Africa (25° S, 31...

  8. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofeng eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  9. Bioactivity of Citrus hystrix D.C. Leaf Extract Against Cigarette Beetle Lasioderma serricorne (F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvi Ikawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The major control of pest stored Lasioderma serricorne for using synthetic pesticides, look like phosphine. Although quite effective, synthetic pesticides have a negative effect on the environment, such as pest re-sistance, deadly natural enemies, residues that are harmful to the environment and human health. The use of botanical pesticides as an alternative control be the focus this study. Botanical pesticides are selective to the target, safe for non-target insects and the environment. This research studies the repellent and fumigant activi-ty of the leaf extract of Citrus hystrix against all L. serricorne life stage. The results of GC-MS analysis of leaf crude extracts of C. hystrix with N-hexane solvent showed the highest percentage in the citronellal compound (86.43%. C. hystrix leaf extract showed stronger fumigant against pupae and eggs, compared adults, and larvae. The toxicity of the leaf extract of C. hystrix increased with increasing concentration. At a concentration of 60 ppm, fumigant activity showed the toxicity of 98.75% (pupae, 93.75% (eggs, 86.25% (adults and 76.25% (larvae. Sequentially the LC50 value of fumigant activity from the highest to the lowest as follows; larvae 47.56 ppm, adults 43.42 ppm, eggs 31.61 and pupae 29.63 ppm. Extract of leaves of C. hystrix, have character repellent against L. serricorne. At a concentration of 60 ppm the IR value of 66% including repellent class IV, which means strong repellent level. Based on the results of the research, extracts of leaves of C. hystrix has a fumigant activity and repellent for controlling L. serricorne.

  10. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  11. Variability in leaf optical properties among 26 species from a broad range of habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.K.; Carter, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves from 26 species with growth forms from annual herbs to trees were collected from open, intermediate, and shaded understory habitats in Mississippi and Kansas, USA. Leaf optical properties including reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance in visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelengths were measured along with leaf thickness and specific leaf mass (SLM). These leaf properties and internal light scattering have been reported to vary with light availability in studies that have focused on a limited number of species. Our objective was to determine whether these patterns in leaf optics and light availability were consistent when a greater number of species were evaluated. Leaf thickness and SLM varied by tenfold among species sampled, but within-habitat variance was high. Although there was a strong trend toward thicker leaves in open habitats, only SLM was significantly greater in open vs. understory habitats. In contrast, leaf optical properties were strikingly similar among habitats. Reflectance and reflectance/transmittance in the NIR were used to estimate internal light scattering and there were strong relationships (r2 0.65) between these optical properties and leaf thickness. We concluded that leaf thickness, which did not vary consistently among habitats, was the best predictor of NIR reflectance and internal light scattering. However, because carbon allocation to leaves was lower in understory species (low SLM) yet gross optical properties were similar among all habitats, the energy investment by shade leaves required to achieve optical equivalence with sun leaves was lower. Differences in leaf longevity and growth form within a habitat may help explain the lack of consistent patterns in leaf optics as the number of species sampled increases

  12. Leaf area estimation of cassava from linear dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMARA ZANETTI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine predictor models of leaf area of cassava from linear leaf measurements. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse in the municipality of Botucatu, São Paulo state, Brazil. The stem cuttings with 5-7 nodes of the cultivar IAC 576-70 were planted in boxes filled with about 320 liters of soil, keeping soil moisture at field capacity, monitored by puncturing tensiometers. At 80 days after planting, 140 leaves were randomly collected from the top, middle third and base of cassava plants. We evaluated the length and width of the central lobe of leaves, number of lobes and leaf area. The measurements of leaf areas were correlated with the length and width of the central lobe and the number of lobes of the leaves, and adjusted to polynomial and multiple regression models. The linear function that used the length of the central lobe LA = -69.91114 + 15.06462L and linear multiple functions LA = -69.9188 + 15.5102L + 0.0197726K - 0.0768998J or LA = -69.9346 + 15.0106L + 0.188931K - 0.0264323H are suitable models to estimate leaf area of cassava cultivar IAC 576-70.

  13. Computer aided FEA simulation of EN45A parabolic leaf spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes computer aided finite element analysis of parabolic leaf spring. The present work is an improvement in design of EN45A parabolic leaf spring used by a light commercial automotive vehicle. Development of a leaf spring is a long process which requires lots of test to validate the design and manufacturing variables. A three-layer parabolic leaf spring of EN45A has been taken for this work. The thickness of leaves varies from center to the outer side following a parabolic pattern. These leaf springs are designed to become lighter, but also provide a much improved ride to the vehicle through a reduction on interleaf friction. The CAD modeling of parabolic leaf spring has been done in CATIA V5 and for analysis the model is imported in ANSYS-11 workbench. The finite element analysis (FEA of the leaf spring has been carried out by initially discretizing the model into finite number of elements and nodes and then applying the necessary boundary conditions. Maximum displacement, directional displacement, equivalent stress and weight of the assembly are the output targets of this analysis for comparison & validation of the work.

  14. The Effects of Some Botanical Insecticides and Pymetrozine on Life Table Parameters of Silver Leaf Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Barati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the effects of extracts of two medicinalplant species: Allium sativum (Linn and Calotropis procera (Aiton, and a formulation containingazadirachtin on life table parameters of silver leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci biotypeB (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, grown on greenhouse tomato plants. Theeffects were compared to that of pymetrozine, a synthetic insecticide. Bioassays were carriedout in a greenhouse under controlled conditions of 27 ± 2°C, R.H. of 55 ± 5% and 16:8h (L:D photo period.All treatments significantly affected the survivorship and fertility of SLW female adults,reducing the net reproduction rate, mean generation time and intrinsic rate of increase ofthis insect.The net reproductive rate [R0] values for the populations treated with garlic extract,milkweed extract, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, control for extracts (ethanol + distilled waterand control for pesticides (distilled water were 23.58, 19.32, 10.78, 8.23, 49.66, 57.55; theintrinsic rate of increases [rm] were 0.134, 0.139, 0.110, 0.090, 0.177, 0.178; the mean generationtimes [T] were 23.49, 21.23, 21.66, 23.50, 22.06, 22.69; the doubling times [DT] were 5.14,4.95, 6.27, 7.56, 3.91, 3.87, and the finite rates of increase [λ] were 1.144, 1.149, 1.116, 1.094, 1.193,1.195, respectively. Azadirachtin had the highest effect on the life table parameters of SLW.Our findings indicated that, although herbal extracts were not effective as much asthe chemical insecticides, they can be effective in pest control. Therefore, they are suitablechoices for replacing chemical insecticides and for alternative use with azadirachtin inSLW IPM program.

  15. Variations of leaf N and P concentrations in shrubland biomes across northern China: phylogeny, climate, and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian; Chi, Xiulian; Ji, Chengjun; Liu, Hongyan; Ma, Wenhong; Mohhammat, Anwar; Shi, Zhaoyong; Wang, Xiangping; Yu, Shunli; Yue, Ming; Tang, Zhiyao

    2016-08-01

    Concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two key traits of plants for ecosystem functioning and dynamics. Foliar stoichiometry varies remarkably among life forms. However, previous studies have focused on the stoichiometric patterns of trees and grasses, leaving a significant knowledge gap for shrubs. In this study, we explored the intraspecific and interspecific variations of leaf N and P concentrations in response to the changes in climate, soil property, and evolutionary history. We analysed 1486 samples composed of 163 shrub species from 361 shrubland sites in northern China encompassing 46.1° (86.7-132.8° E) in longitude and 19.8° (32.6-52.4° N) in latitude. Leaf N concentrations decreased with precipitation, while leaf P concentrations decreased with temperature and increased with precipitation and soil total P concentrations. Both leaf N and P concentrations were phylogenetically conserved, but leaf P concentrations were less conserved than leaf N concentrations. At the community level, climate explained more interspecific variation of leaf nutrient concentrations, while soil nutrients explained most of the intraspecific variation. These results suggested that leaf N and P concentrations responded to climate, soil, and phylogeny in different ways. Climate influenced the community chemical traits through the shift in species composition, whereas soil directly influenced the community chemical traits. New patterns were discovered using our observations on specific regions and vegetation types, which improved our knowledge of broad biogeographic patterns of leaf chemical traits.

  16. Variation of leaf margin serration in Populus nigra of industrial dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Shtirs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The variability of leaf margin serration of Populus nigra L. in conditions of industrial dumps (coal mines dumps and overburden dumps and city park is estimated. The value of this indicator is in the range from 1.25 to 1.76 and significantly increases along the gradient: coal mines dumps – overburden dumps – city park. From the number of selected gradations of P. nigra leaf blades, the gradation with values of 1.45-1.55 is most pronounced according to the analyzed index for industrial dumps, for the park – with the values of 1.55-1.65. The degree of serration of edge leaf blade is characterized by low values of variation – coefficient of variation is less than 10.0%. We registered the significant positive correlation between the average values of leaf margin serration and the length of P. nigra leaf blade.

  17. Drought-Induced Leaf Proteome Changes in Switchgrass Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujia Ye

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a “sandwich” system simulating a gradual water deletion process was developed. Switchgrass seedlings were subjected to a 20-day gradual drought treatment process when soil water tension was increased to 0.05 MPa (moderate drought stress and leaf physiological properties had expressed significant alteration. Drought-induced changes in leaf proteomes were identified using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ labeling method followed by nano-scale liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. Additionally, total leaf proteins were processed using a combinatorial library of peptide ligands to enrich for lower abundance proteins. Both total proteins and those enriched samples were analyzed to increase the coverage of the quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 7006 leaf proteins were identified, and 257 (4% of the leaf proteome expressed a significant difference (p < 0.05, fold change <0.6 or >1.7 from the non-treated control to drought-treated conditions. These proteins are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, cell division, cell wall modification, phyto-hormone metabolism and signaling transduction pathways, and metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids. A scheme of abscisic acid (ABA-biosynthesis and ABA responsive signal transduction pathway was reconstructed using these drought-induced significant proteins, showing systemic regulation at protein level to deploy the respective mechanism. Results from this study, in addition to revealing molecular responses to drought stress, provide a large number of proteins (candidate genes that can be employed to improve switchgrass seedling growth and

  18. Geometry, Allometry and Biomechanics of Fern Leaf Petioles: Their Significance for the Evolution of Functional and Ecological Diversity Within the Pteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N. Mahley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants rely on a combination of turgor, ground tissues and geometry for mechanical support of leaves and stems. Unlike most angiosperms however, ferns employ a sub-dermal layer of fibers, known as a hypodermal sterome, for support of their leaves. The sterome is nearly ubiquitous in ferns, but nothing is known about its role in leaf biomechanics. The goal of this research was to characterize sterome attributes in ferns that experience a broad range of mechanical stresses, as imposed by their aquatic, xeric, epiphytic, and terrestrial niches. Members of the Pteridaceae meet this criteria well. The anatomical and functional morphometrics along with published values of tissue moduli were used to model petiole flexural rigidity and susceptibility to buckling in 20 species of the Pteridaceae. Strong allometric relationships were observed between sterome thickness and leaf size, with the sterome contributing over 97% to petiole flexural rigidity. Surprisingly, the small-statured cheilanthoid ferns allocated the highest fraction of their petiole to the sterome, while large leaves exploited aspects of geometry (second moment of area to achieve bending resistance. This pattern also revealed an economy of function in which increasing sterome thickness was associated with decreasing fiber cell reinforcement, and fiber wall fraction. Lastly, strong petioles were associated with durable leaves, as approximated by specific leaf area. This study reveals meaningful patterns in fern leaf biomechanics that align with species leaf size, sterome attributes and life-history strategy.

  19. Leaf and shoot water content and leaf dry matter content of Mediterranean woody species with different post-fire regenerative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura-Mas, S; Lloret, F

    2007-03-01

    Post-fire regeneration is a key process in Mediterranean shrubland dynamics, strongly determining the functional properties of the community. In this study, a test is carried out to determine whether there is co-variation between species regenerative types and functional attributes related to water use. An analysis was made of the seasonal variations in leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf moisture (LM) and live fine fuel moisture (LFFM) in 30 woody species of a coastal shrubland, with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeding, resprouting or both). RWC results suggest that the studied resprouters have more efficient mechanisms to reduce water losses and maintain water supply between seasons. In contrast, seeders are more drought tolerant. LDMC is higher in resprouters over the course of the year, suggesting a more efficient conservation of nutrients. The weight of the phylogenetic constraint to understand differences between regenerative strategies tends to be important for LDMC, while it is not the case for variables such as RWC. Groups of species with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeders and resprouters) have different functional traits related to water use. In addition to the role of phylogenetical constraints, these differences are also likely to be related to the respective life history characteristics. Therefore, the presence and abundance of species with different post-fire regenerative responses influence the functional properties of the communities.

  20. Measurement for the MLC leaf velocity profile by considering the leaf leakage using a radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, Grigor N

    2006-01-01

    A method to measure the velocity profile of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf along its travel range using a radiographic film is reported by considering the intra-leaf leakage. A specific dynamic MLC field with leaves travelling from the field edge to the isocentre line was designed. The field was used to expose a radiographic film, which was then scanned, and the dose profile along the horizontal leaf axis was measured. The velocity at a sampling point on the film can be calculated by considering the horizontal distance between the sampling point and the isocentre line, dose at the sampling point, dose rate of the linear accelerator, the total leaf travel time from the field edge to isocentre line and the pre-measured dose rate of leaf leakage. With the leaf velocities and velocity profiles for all MLC leaves measured routinely, a comprehensive and simple QA for the MLC can be set up to test the consistency of the leaf velocity performance which is essential to the IMRT delivery using a sliding window technique. (note)

  1. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  2. Geometric leaf placement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, J D; Temple, S W P; Clements, R W; Lawrence, G P; Mayles, H M O; Mayles, W P M

    2004-01-01

    Geometric leaf placement strategies for multileaf collimators (MLCs) typically involve the expansion of the beam's-eye-view contour of a target by a uniform MLC margin, followed by movement of the leaves until some point on each leaf end touches the expanded contour. Film-based dose-distribution measurements have been made to determine appropriate MLC margins-characterized through an index d 90 -for multileaves set using one particular strategy to straight lines lying at various angles to the direction of leaf travel. Simple trigonometric relationships exist between different geometric leaf placement strategies and are used to generalize the results of the film work into d 90 values for several different strategies. Measured d 90 values vary both with angle and leaf placement strategy. A model has been derived that explains and describes quite well the observed variations of d 90 with angle. The d 90 angular variations of the strategies studied differ substantially, and geometric and dosimetric reasoning suggests that the best strategy is the one with the least angular variation. Using this criterion, the best straightforwardly implementable strategy studied is a 'touch circle' approach for which semicircles are imagined to be inscribed within leaf ends, the leaves being moved until the semicircles just touch the expanded target outline

  3. Leaf appearance rate and final main stem leaf number as affected by temperature and photoperiod in cereals grown in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Riggi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a two-year field trial was carried out with the aim to evaluate daylength and air temperature effects on leaf appearance and related rates in two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and two barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars, using six different sowing dates (SD. Significant effects of SD on final main stem leaf number (FLN, thermal leaf appearance rate (TLAR, daily leaf appearance rate (DLAR and phyllochron (PhL were found. Cultivars resulted inversely correlated to mean air temperature in the interval emergence - fifth leaf full expansion (E-V. Linear response of leaf number over days after sowing was shown for all SD and cultivars, with R2 higher than 0.95. FLN linearly decreased from the first to the last SD for durum wheat, while more variable behaviour was observed in bread wheat. TLAR and DLAR showed a linear increment of the rate from the first to the last SD in durum wheat, while did not for bread wheat and barley. PhL in durum wheat decreased from the first to the last SD. Barley and bread wheat showed the highest values on those SDs which did not reach flowering. The increase of TLAR was affected by photoperiod and photothermal units in durum wheat, while by temperatures only in barley and bread wheat. Present results might find practical application in the improvement of phenology simulation models for durum wheat, bread wheat and barley grown in Mediterranean area in absence of water and nutrient stress.

  4. Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-Cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, Great Plains, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Donovan

    Full Text Available Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.

  5. Apparent over-investment in leaf venation relaxes leaf morphological constraints on photosynthesis in arid habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo; Drake, Paul; Veneklaas, Erik

    2017-04-01

    The close relationship between leaf water status and stomatal conductance implies that the hydraulic architecture of leaves poses an important constraint on transpiration, specifically in arid environments with high evaporative demands. However, it remains uncertain how morphological, hydraulic and photosynthetic traits are coordinated to achieve optimal leaf functioning in arid environments. Critical is that leaf veins supply the mesophyll with water that evaporates when stomata are open to allow CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. Theoretical analyses suggest that water is optimally distributed in the mesophyll when the lateral distance between veins (dx) is equal to the distance from these veins to the epidermis (dy), expressed as dx:dy≈1. Although this theory is supported by observations on many derived angiosperms, we hypothesize that plants in arid environments may reduce dx:dy below unity owing to climate-specific functional adaptations of increased leaf thickness and increased vein density. To test our hypothesis we assembled leaf hydraulic, morphological and photosynthetic traits of 68 species from the Eucalyptus and Corymbia genera (termed eucalypts) along an aridity gradient in southwestern Australia. We inferred the potential gas exchange advantage of reducing dx beyond dy using a model that links leaf morphology and hydraulics to photosynthesis. Our observations reveal that eucalypts in arid environments have thick amphistomatous leaves with high vein densities, resulting in dx:dy ratios that range from 1.6 to 0.15 along the aridity gradient. Our model suggests that as leaves become thicker, the effect of reducing dx beyond dy is to offset the reduction in leaf gas exchange that would result from maintaining dx:dy at unity. This apparent over-investment in leaf venation may be explained from the selective pressure of aridity, under which traits associated with long leaf lifespan, high hydraulic and thermal capacitances, and high potential rates of leaf

  6. QTL mapping of flag leaf-related traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiye; Xu, Hao; Liu, Gang; Guan, Panfeng; Zhou, Xueyao; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Sun, Qixin; Du, Jinkun

    2018-04-01

    QTL controlling flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf area and flag leaf angle were mapped in wheat. This study aimed to advance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying morphological traits of the flag leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from ND3331 and the Tibetan semi-wild wheat Zang1817 was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), flag leaf area (FLA), and flag leaf angle (FLANG). Using an available simple sequence repeat genetic linkage map, 23 putative QTLs for FLL, FLW, FLA, and FLANG were detected on chromosomes 1B, 2B, 3A, 3D, 4B, 5A, 6B, 7B, and 7D. Individual QTL explained 4.3-68.52% of the phenotypic variance in different environments. Four QTLs for FLL, two for FLW, four for FLA, and five for FLANG were detected in at least two environments. Positive alleles of 17 QTLs for flag leaf-related traits originated from ND3331 and 6 originated from Zang1817. QTLs with pleiotropic effects or multiple linked QTL were also identified on chromosomes 1B, 4B, and 5A; these are potential target regions for fine-mapping and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs.

  7. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  8. Abaxial growth and steric constraints guide leaf folding and shape in Acer pseudoplatanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Etienne; Brunel, Nicole; Douady, Stéphane; Nakayama, Naomi

    2012-08-01

    How leaf shape is regulated is a long-standing question in botany. For diverse groups of dicotyledon species, lamina folding along the veins and geometry of the space available for the primordia can explain the palmate leaf morphology. Dubbed the kirigami theory, this hypothesis of fold-dependent leaf shape regulation has remained largely theoretical. Using Acer pseudoplatanus, we investigated the mechanisms behind the two key processes of kirigami leaf development. Cytological examination and quantitative analyses were used to examine the course of the vein-dependent lamina folding. Surgical ablation and tissue culturing were employed to test the effects of physical constraints on primordia growth. The final morphology of leaves growing without steric constraints were predicted mathematically. The cytological examination showed that the lamina's abaxial side along the veins grows substantially more than the adaxial side. The abaxial hypergrowth along the veins and the lamina extension correlated with the lamina folding. When a primordium was released from the physical constraints imposed by the other primordia, it rapidly grew into the newly available space, while maintaining the curvature inward. The morphology of such a leaf was predicted to lack symmetry in the lobe shapes. The enhanced growth on the abaxial side of the lamina along the veins is likely to drive lamina folding. The surgical ablation provided clear support for the space-filling nature of leaf growth; thus, steric constraints play a role in determination of the shapes of folded leaves and probably also of the final leaf morphology.

  9. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  10. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  11. NARROW LEAF 7 controls leaf shape mediated by auxin in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujino, Kenji; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Nishimura, Takeshi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Fraaije, Marco W.; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi

    Elucidation of the genetic basis of the control of leaf shape could be of use in the manipulation of crop traits, leading to more stable and increased crop production. To improve our understanding of the process controlling leaf shape, we identified a mutant gene in rice that causes a significant

  12. Mycorrhizal stimulation of leaf gas exchange in relation to root colonization, shoot size, leaf phosphorus and nitrogen: a quantitative analysis of the literature using meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Augé

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration rate (E has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen: phosphorus ratio and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of gs and E (28% and 26%, respectively. Carbon exchange rate has been over twice as sensitive as gs and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for gs and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations.

  13. Butterfly Learning and the Diversification of Plant Leaf Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dalbosco Dell'aglio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual cues are important for insects to find flowers and host plants. It has been proposed that the diversity of leaf shape in Passiflora vines could be a result of negative frequency dependent selection driven by visual searching behavior among their butterfly herbivores. Here we tested the hypothesis that Heliconius butterflies use leaf shape as a cue to initiate approach towards a host plant. We first tested for the ability to recognize shapes using a food reward conditioning experiment. Butterflies showed an innate preference for flowers with three and five petals. However, they could be trained to increase the frequency of visits to a non-preferred flower with two petals, indicating an ability to learn to associate shape with a reward. Next we investigated shape learning specifically in the context of oviposition by conditioning females to lay eggs on two shoots associated with different artificial leaf shapes: their own host plant, Passiflora biflora, and a lanceolate non-biflora leaf shape. The conditioning treatment had a significant effect on the approach of butterflies to the two leaf shapes, consistent with a role for shape learning in oviposition behavior. This study is the first to show that Heliconius butterflies use shape as a cue for feeding and oviposition, and can learn shape preference for both flowers and leaves. This demonstrates the potential for Heliconius to drive negative frequency dependent selection on the leaf shape of their Passiflora host plants.

  14. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  15. Leaf processing behaviour in Atta leafcutter ants: 90% of leaf cutting takes place inside the nest, and ants select pieces that require less cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Ryan W; Carlson, Katherine A; Goggans, Matthew Scott; Nesson, Michael H; Shepard, Christopher A; Schofield, Robert M S

    2016-01-01

    Leafcutter ants cut trimmings from plants, carry them to their underground nests and cut them into smaller pieces before inoculating them with a fungus that serves as a primary food source for the colony. Cutting is energetically costly, so the amount of cutting is important in understanding foraging energetics. Estimates of the cutting density, metres of cutting per square metre of leaf, were made from samples of transported leaf cuttings and of fungal substrate from field colonies of Atta cephalotes and Atta colombica. To investigate cutting inside the nest, we made leaf-processing observations of our laboratory colony, A. cephalotes. We did not observe the commonly reported reduction of the leaf fragments into a pulp, which would greatly increase the energy cost of processing. Video clips of processing behaviours, including behaviours that have not previously been described, are linked. An estimated 2.9 (±0.3) km of cutting with mandibles was required to reduce a square metre of leaf to fungal substrate. Only about 12% (±1%) of this cutting took place outside of the nest. The cutting density and energy cost is lower for leaf material with higher ratios of perimeter to area, so we tested for, and found that the laboratory ants had a preference for leaves that were pre-cut into smaller pieces. Estimates suggest that the energy required to transport and cut up the leaf material is comparable to the metabolic energy available from the fungus grown on the leaves, and so conservation of energy is likely to be a particularly strong selective pressure for leafcutter ants.

  16. Effect of drought stress on leaf soluble sugar content, leaf rolling index and relative water content of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With respect to water shortage in arid and semi- arid regions, the study about drought stress effects on crop plants and selection of resistance cultivars, are among the most important goals in the agricultural researches. In order to examine drought stress effects on millet, an experiment was conducted in Birjand and Sarbisheh, simultaneously. In this experiment, five irrigation treatments (well-watered, drought stress in vegetative stage, in ear emergence stage, in seed filling stage and in vegetative and seed filling stage and five proso millet genotypes (Native, K-C-M.2, K-C-M.4, K-C-M.6 and K-C-M.9 were compared in a split plot design along with three replications. Drought stress increased grain protein content, leaf rolling index and soluble sugars concentration and decreased seed germination and leaf RWC. Although seed protein content and germination percentage of genotypes were not significantly different, there were some differences among leaf rolling index, RWC and soluble sugar content of these genotypes. The results of this study indicated that leaf sugar content, RWC and leaf rolling index can not be considered as the only parameters for selection of high yield genotypes. Therefore, it is recommended that some other factors should also be used apart from the above mentioned ones.

  17. Seasonality of Leaf Carbon Isotopic Composition and Leaf Water Isotopic Enrichment in a Mixed Evergreen Forest in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, L. S.; Sickman, J. O.; Goulden, M.; DeVan, C.; Pasquini, S. C.; Pivovaroff, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Leaf carbon isotopic composition and leaf water isotopic enrichment reflect physiological processes and are important for linking local and regional scale processes to global patterns. We investigated how seasonality affects the isotopic composition of bulk leaf carbon, leaf sugar carbon, and leaf water hydrogen under a Mediterranean climate. Leaf and stem samples were collected monthly from four tree species (Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Quercus chrysolepis) at the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve in southern California. Mean monthly bulk leaf carbon isotopic composition varied from -34.5 % in P. ponderosa to -24.7 % in P. lambertiana and became more depleted in 13C from the spring to the summer. Mean monthly leaf sugar varied from -29.3 % in P. ponderosa to -21.8 % in P. lambertiana and was enriched in 13C during the winter, spring and autumn, but depleted during the mid-summer. Leaf water hydrogen isotopic composition was 28.4 to 68.8 % more enriched in deuterium than source water and this enrichment was greater as seasonal drought progressed. These data indicate that leaf carbon and leaf water hydrogen isotopic composition provide sensitive measures that connect plant physiological processes to short-term climatic variability.

  18. Leaf sequencing algorithms for segmented multileaf collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Ranka, Sanjay

    2003-01-01

    The delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator (MLC) requires the conversion of a radiation fluence map into a leaf sequence file that controls the movement of the MLC during radiation delivery. It is imperative that the fluence map delivered using the leaf sequence file is as close as possible to the fluence map generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. Optimization of the leaf sequencing algorithm has been the subject of several recent investigations. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of leaf sequencing algorithms for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery and provide rigorous mathematical proofs of optimized leaf sequence settings in terms of monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation constraint and leaf interdigitation constraint. Our analytical analysis shows that leaf sequencing based on unidirectional movement of the MLC leaves is as MU efficient as bidirectional movement of the MLC leaves

  19. Leaf sequencing algorithms for segmented multileaf collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2003-02-07

    The delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator (MLC) requires the conversion of a radiation fluence map into a leaf sequence file that controls the movement of the MLC during radiation delivery. It is imperative that the fluence map delivered using the leaf sequence file is as close as possible to the fluence map generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. Optimization of the leaf sequencing algorithm has been the subject of several recent investigations. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of leaf sequencing algorithms for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery and provide rigorous mathematical proofs of optimized leaf sequence settings in terms of monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation constraint and leaf interdigitation constraint. Our analytical analysis shows that leaf sequencing based on unidirectional movement of the MLC leaves is as MU efficient as bidirectional movement of the MLC leaves.

  20. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  1. The dosimetric impact of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on VMAT treatment planning in Pinnacle: comparing Pareto fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kesteren, Z; Janssen, T M; Damen, E; Van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate in an objective way the effect of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on volumetric modulated arc therapy plans in Pinnacle. Three multileaf collimators (MLCs) were modeled: two 10 mm leaf width MLCs, with and without interdigitating leafs, and a 5 mm leaf width MLC with interdigitating leafs. Three rectum patients and three prostate patients were used for the planning study. In order to compare treatment techniques in an objective way, a Pareto front comparison was carried out. 200 plans were generated in an automated way, per patient per MLC model, resulting in a total of 3600 plans. From these plans, Pareto-optimal plans were selected which were evaluated for various dosimetric variables. The capability of leaf interdigitation showed little dosimetric impact on the treatment plans, when comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with and without leaf interdigitation. When comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with the 5 mm leaf width MLC, both with interdigitating leafs, improvement in plan quality was observed. For both patient groups, the integral dose was reduced by 0.6 J for the thin MLC. For the prostate patients, the mean dose to the anal sphincter was reduced by 1.8 Gy and the conformity of the V 95% was reduced by 0.02 using the thin MLC. The V 65% of the rectum was reduced by 0.1% and the dose homogeneity with 1.5%. For rectum patients, the mean dose to the bowel was reduced by 1.4 Gy and the mean dose to the bladder with 0.8 Gy for the thin MLC. The conformity of the V 95% was equivalent for the 10 and 5 mm leaf width MLCs for the rectum patients. We have objectively compared three types of MLCs in a planning study for prostate and rectum patients by analyzing Pareto-optimal plans which were generated in an automated way. Interdigitation of MLC leafs does not generate better plans using the SmartArc algorithm in Pinnacle. Changing the MLC leaf width from 10 to 5 mm generates better treatment plans although the clinical relevance remains to be proven

  2. The dosimetric impact of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on VMAT treatment planning in Pinnacle: comparing Pareto fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Z; Janssen, T M; Damen, E; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C

    2012-05-21

    To evaluate in an objective way the effect of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on volumetric modulated arc therapy plans in Pinnacle. Three multileaf collimators (MLCs) were modeled: two 10 mm leaf width MLCs, with and without interdigitating leafs, and a 5 mm leaf width MLC with interdigitating leafs. Three rectum patients and three prostate patients were used for the planning study. In order to compare treatment techniques in an objective way, a Pareto front comparison was carried out. 200 plans were generated in an automated way, per patient per MLC model, resulting in a total of 3600 plans. From these plans, Pareto-optimal plans were selected which were evaluated for various dosimetric variables. The capability of leaf interdigitation showed little dosimetric impact on the treatment plans, when comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with and without leaf interdigitation. When comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with the 5 mm leaf width MLC, both with interdigitating leafs, improvement in plan quality was observed. For both patient groups, the integral dose was reduced by 0.6 J for the thin MLC. For the prostate patients, the mean dose to the anal sphincter was reduced by 1.8 Gy and the conformity of the V(95%) was reduced by 0.02 using the thin MLC. The V(65%) of the rectum was reduced by 0.1% and the dose homogeneity with 1.5%. For rectum patients, the mean dose to the bowel was reduced by 1.4 Gy and the mean dose to the bladder with 0.8 Gy for the thin MLC. The conformity of the V(95%) was equivalent for the 10 and 5 mm leaf width MLCs for the rectum patients. We have objectively compared three types of MLCs in a planning study for prostate and rectum patients by analyzing Pareto-optimal plans which were generated in an automated way. Interdigitation of MLC leafs does not generate better plans using the SmartArc algorithm in Pinnacle. Changing the MLC leaf width from 10 to 5 mm generates better treatment plans although the clinical relevance remains

  3. Interactions between leaf macro, micronutrients and soil properties in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoulakis, Prodromos; Chatzissavvidis, Christos; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis; Pontikis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between: (i) leaf dry matter macronutrients, micronutrients and soil chemical properties, (ii) leaf macro- and micronutrients, (iii) soil macro- and micronutrients and (iv) soil chemical properties, and soil micro- and macronutrients in 50 pistachio orchards were investigated in leaves and soils by means of regression analysis. Most of the soils were deficient in plant-available P, Zn, Mn, Fe, and B, while they were excessively supplied with Cu. Leaf analysis showed that most...

  4. Estimating leaf functional traits by inversion of PROSPECT: Assessing leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area in mixed mountainous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abebe Mohammed; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Duren, Iris van; Heiden, Uta; Heurich, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Assessments of ecosystem functioning rely heavily on quantification of vegetation properties. The search is on for methods that produce reliable and accurate baseline information on plant functional traits. In this study, the inversion of the PROSPECT radiative transfer model was used to estimate two functional leaf traits: leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA). Inversion of PROSPECT usually aims at quantifying its direct input parameters. This is the first time the technique has been used to indirectly model LDMC and SLA. Biophysical parameters of 137 leaf samples were measured in July 2013 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. PROSPECT was inverted using a look-up table (LUT) approach. The LUTs were generated with and without using prior information. The effect of incorporating prior information on the retrieval accuracy was studied before and after stratifying the samples into broadleaf and conifer categories. The estimated values were evaluated using R2 and normalized root mean square error (nRMSE). Among the retrieved variables the lowest nRMSE (0.0899) was observed for LDMC. For both traits higher R2 values (0.83 for LDMC and 0.89 for SLA) were discovered in the pooled samples. The use of prior information improved accuracy of the retrieved traits. The strong correlation between the estimated traits and the NIR/SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum suggests that these leaf traits could be assessed at canopy level by using remotely sensed data.

  5. Seasonal Canopy Temperatures for Normal and Okra Leaf Cotton under Variable Irrigation in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects a number of physiological factors in plants and is related to water use, yield and quality in many crop species. Seasonal canopy temperature, measured with infrared thermometers, is often used in conjunction with environmental factors (e.g., air temperature, humidity, solar radiation to assess crop stress and management actions in cotton. Normal and okra leaf shapes in cotton have been associated with differences in water use and canopy temperature. The okra leaf shape in cotton is generally expected to result in lower water use and lower canopy temperatures, relative to normal leaf, under water deficits. In this study canopy temperatures were monitored in okra and normal leaf varieties for a growing season at four irrigation levels. Differences in canopy temperature (<2 °C were measured between the two leaf shapes. As irrigation levels increased, canopy temperature differences between the leaf shapes declined. At the lowest irrigation level, when differences in sensible energy exchanges due to the okra leaf shape would be enhanced, the canopy temperature of the okra leaf was warmer than the normal leaf. This suggests that varietal differences that are not related to leaf shape may have more than compensated for leaf shape differences in the canopy temperature.

  6. Arrhenius equation modeling for the shelf life prediction of tomato paste containing a natural preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Ganje, Mohammad; Dehnad, Danial; Ghanbari, Vahid; Hajitabar, Javad

    2017-12-01

    The shelf life of tomato paste with microencapsulated olive leaf extract was compared with that of samples containing a commercial preservative by accelerated shelf life testing. Based on previous studies showing that olive leaf extract as a rich source of phenolic compounds can have antimicrobial properties, application of its encapsulated form to improve the storage stability of tomato paste is proposed here. Regarding total soluble solids, the control and the sample containing 1000 µg g -1 sodium benzoate had the lowest (Q 10  = 1.63) and highest (Q 10  = 1.88) sensitivity to temperature changes respectively; also, the microencapsulated sample containing 1000 µg g -1 encapsulated olive leaf extract (Q 10  = 1.83) followed the sample containing 1000 µg g -1 sodium benzoate in terms of the highest kinetic rates. In the case of consistency, the lowest and highest activation energies (E a ) corresponded to samples containing 1000 µg g -1 non-encapsulated olive leaf extract and 1000 µg g -1 microencapsulated olive leaf extract respectively. Interestingly, samples containing microencapsulated olive leaf extract could maintain the original quality of the tomato paste very well, while those with non-encapsulated olive leaf extract rated the worst performance (among all specimens) in terms of maintaining their quality indices for a long time period. Overall, the shelf life equation was able to predict the consistency index of all tomato paste samples during long-time storage with high precision. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Lateral Penumbra Modelling Based Leaf End Shape Optimization for Multileaf Collimator in Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral penumbra of multileaf collimator plays an important role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Growing evidence has revealed that, for a single-focused multileaf collimator, lateral penumbra width is leaf position dependent and largely attributed to the leaf end shape. In our study, an analytical method for leaf end induced lateral penumbra modelling is formulated using Tangent Secant Theory. Compared with Monte Carlo simulation and ray tracing algorithm, our model serves well the purpose of cost-efficient penumbra evaluation. Leaf ends represented in parametric forms of circular arc, elliptical arc, Bézier curve, and B-spline are implemented. With biobjective function of penumbra mean and variance introduced, genetic algorithm is carried out for approximating the Pareto frontier. Results show that for circular arc leaf end objective function is convex and convergence to optimal solution is guaranteed using gradient based iterative method. It is found that optimal leaf end in the shape of Bézier curve achieves minimal standard deviation, while using B-spline minimum of penumbra mean is obtained. For treatment modalities in clinical application, optimized leaf ends are in close agreement with actual shapes. Taken together, the method that we propose can provide insight into leaf end shape design of multileaf collimator.

  8. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  9. Comparison of leaf-on and leaf-off ALS data for mapping riparian tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslier, Marianne; Ba, Antoine; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Dufour, Simon

    2017-10-01

    Forest species composition is a fundamental indicator of forest study and management. However, describing forest species composition at large scales and of highly diverse populations remains an issue for which remote sensing can provide significant contribution, in particular, Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. Riparian corridors are good examples of highly valuable ecosystems, with high species richness and large surface areas that can be time consuming and expensive to monitor with in situ measurements. Remote sensing could be useful to study them, but few studies have focused on monitoring riparian tree species using ALS data. This study aimed to determine which metrics derived from ALS data are best suited to identify and map riparian tree species. We acquired very high density leaf-on and leaf-off ALS data along the Sélune River (France). In addition, we inventoried eight main riparian deciduous tree species along the study site. After manual segmentation of the inventoried trees, we extracted 68 morphological and structural metrics from both leaf-on and leaf-off ALS point clouds. Some of these metrics were then selected using Sequential Forward Selection (SFS) algorithm. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification results showed good accuracy with 7 metrics (0.77). Both leaf-on and leafoff metrics were kept as important metrics for distinguishing tree species. Results demonstrate the ability of 3D information derived from high density ALS data to identify riparian tree species using external and internal structural metrics. They also highlight the complementarity of leaf-on and leaf-off Lidar data for distinguishing riparian tree species.

  10. Specific leaf area estimation from leaf and canopy reflectance through optimization and validation of vegetation indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.M.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; van Duren, I.C.

    2017-01-01

    Specific leaf area (SLA), which is defined as the leaf area per unit of dry leaf mass is an important component when assessing functional diversity and plays a key role in ecosystem modeling, linking plant carbon and water cycles as well as quantifying plant physiological processes. However, studies

  11. Shelf Life Extension of Tomato Paste Through Organoleptically Acceptable Concentration of Betel Leaf Essential Oil Under Accelerated Storage Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep

    2018-05-01

    This study was attempted with two objectives: (1) to find an acceptable concentration of betel leaf essential oil (BLEO) based on sensory evaluation that can be employed in tomato paste; (2) to evaluate the effect of the acceptable concentration of BLEO in the paste during accelerated storage under 89 ± 1.2% RH at 39 ± 1 °C. Linguistic data obtained from sensory evaluation of tomato paste treated with 4 different concentrations of BLEO were analyzed using fuzzy logic approach. The organoleptically acceptable concentration was determined to be 0.25 mg/g of BLEO in tomato paste. The effect of the selected concentration of BLEO on different physicochemical and microbial attributes of tomato paste during accelerated storage was studied. Untreated tomato paste was found to have 12% less total antioxidant capacity than treated paste at the end of storage. Based on a * /b * value in CIELAB color space, the BLEO treated paste efficiently extended the shelf life by 14 days with respect to untreated paste samples under accelerated storage conditions. BLEO comes with a tag contributing to green consumerism, and its application as food preservative is no less than a value addition to the product. Essential oil is considered to have promising potential as an alternative food preservative, and its use is practically possible if they could overcome the sensory barrier, while retaining the preservative potency. The importance of identifying the sensory attributes for commercial success of essential oil treated food product was considered in this study. It contributes to the potency of organoleptically acceptable concentration of BLEO in shelf life extension of tomato paste under accelerated storage conditions. At industrial level, the estimated shelf life of treated tomato paste can be increased by incorporating more hurdles alongside BLEO. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Leaf hydraulic conductance declines in coordination with photosynthesis, transpiration and leaf water status as soybean leaves age regardless of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Anna M.; Ort, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis requires sufficient water transport through leaves for stomata to remain open as water transpires from the leaf, allowing CO2 to diffuse into the leaf. The leaf water needs of soybean change over time because of large microenvironment changes over their lifespan, as leaves mature in full sun at the top of the canopy and then become progressively shaded by younger leaves developing above. Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf), a measure of the leaf’s water transport capacity, can often be linked to changes in microenvironment and transpiration demand. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that K leaf would decline in coordination with transpiration demand as soybean leaves matured and aged. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were also measured at various leaf ages with both field- and chamber-grown soybeans to assess transpiration demand. K leaf was found to decrease as soybean leaves aged from maturity to shading to senescence, and this decrease was strongly correlated with midday A. Decreases in K leaf were further correlated with decreases in g s, although the relationship was not as strong as that with A. Separate experiments investigating the response of K leaf to drought demonstrated no acclimation of K leaf to drought conditions to protect against cavitation or loss of g s during drought and confirmed the effect of leaf age in K leaf observed in the field. These results suggest that the decline of leaf hydraulic conductance as leaves age keeps hydraulic supply in balance with demand without K leaf becoming limiting to transpiration water flux. PMID:25281701

  13. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  14. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  15. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  16. Effect of Abiotic Stresses on the Nondestructive Estimation of Rice Leaf Nitrogen Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan M. Haefele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision support tools for non-destructive estimation of rice crop nitrogen (N status (e.g., chlorophyll meter [SPAD] or leaf color chart [LCC] are an established technology for improved N management in irrigated systems, but their value in rainfed environments with frequent abiotic stresses remains untested. Therefore, we studied the effect of drought, salinity, phosphorus (P deficiency, and sulfur (S deficiency on leaf N estimates derived from SPAD and LCC measurements in a greenhouse experiment. Linear relations between chlorophyll concentration and leaf N concentration based on dry weight (Ndw between SPAD values adjusted for leaf thickness and Ndw and between LCC scores adjusted for leaf thickness and Ndw could be confirmed for all treatments and varieties used. Leaf spectral reflectance measurements did not show a stress-dependent change in the reflectance pattern, indicating that no specific element of the photosynthetic complex was affected by the stresses and at the stress level applied. We concluded that SPAD and LCC are potentially useful tools for improved N management in moderately unfavorable rice environments. However, calibration for the most common rice varieties in the target region is recommended to increase the precision of the leaf N estimates.

  17. Red Guava Leaf Harvesting Impact on Flavonoid Optimation in Different Growth Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNIF GHULAMAHDI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting process is a critical time to identify the quality of raw material for traditional medicine. The time and harvesting techniques, drying process after harvesting, and processing to make the simplicia, are the crucial role to make the good quality of the natural product. On the other hand, there is a lack of general understanding and appreciation about the processes involved in governing shoot and tree growth and development, i.e. red guava. The research objective was to evaluate the influence of leaf harvesting and growth phases on red guava for flavonoid production as antioxidant. Randomized factorial block design in time were laid out with two factors and followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. The treatments were the amount of leaf harvested on tertiary branches (0, 25, 50, and 100% and growth phases of the plant (vegetative and generative. Leaf harvesting 25% on tertiary branches significantly increased the leaf number (766.3 tree-1 and the number of new quarternary branches, decreasing leaf area index (LAI and leaf dry weight at the end of the experiment (22 weeks of observation/WO. The highest leaf dry weight (156.94 g tree-1 and LAI (0.47 was found in harvesting 25% tertiary branches. Harvesting 100% leaf on tertiary branches in vegetative phase significantly produced the lowest flavonoid production (7.82 g tree-1. The result suggested that flavonoid production from red guava leaves should be done by harvesting 50% leaf on tertiary branches in generative phase can be used to produce the highest flavonoid (89.90 g tree-1.

  18. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  19. Preliminary Studies on Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Aloe Vera Leaf, Citrus Hystrix Leaf, Zingiber Officinale and Sabah Snake Grass Against Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uda M.N.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plants have several potential antimicrobial activities either as antifungal or antibacterial to fight against the disease and pathogen that attack the plants. The extractions of the Aloe vera leaf, Citrus hystrix leaf, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sabah snake grass were selected in this study to fight against Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium, rodshaped and catalase-positive that lives on decayed organic material. It is known as Gram-positive bacteria because of its thick peptidoglycan and would appear purple when subjected to Gram test. This species is commonly found in the upper layers of the soil, in meat or vegetables, in pastry, cooked meat, in bread or poultry products. The extracts of Sabah Snake Grass found to be most effective than A.vera leaf, Z. officinale, and C. hystrix against the B. subtilis.

  20. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  1. Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Amran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50–400 mg/kg was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65 during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  2. Estimating leaf area and leaf biomass of open-grown deciduous urban trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    1996-01-01

    Logarithmic regression equations were developed to predict leaf area and leaf biomass for open-grown deciduous urban trees based on stem diameter and crown parameters. Equations based on crown parameters produced more reliable estimates. The equations can be used to help quantify forest structure and functions, particularly in urbanizing and urban/suburban areas.

  3. Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (ANOVA) and significant means separated using FLSD = LSD procedure as outlined in Obi (2002). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In pre-soaking, paw-paw leaf (PL) extract had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the disease incidence at. 50% anthesis. Bitter leaf (BL) extract had a high signifi- cant effect (P ...

  4. Photoreduction of chlorothalonil fungicide on plant leaf models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monadjemi, S; El Roz, M; Richard, C; Ter Halle, A

    2011-11-15

    Photodegradation is seldom considered at the surface of vegetation after crop spraying. Chlorothalonil, a broad-spectrum foliar fungicide with a very widespread use worldwide, was considered. To represent the waxy upper layer of leaves, tests were performed within thin paraffin wax films or in n-heptane. Laser flash photolysis together with steady-state irradiation in n-heptane allowed the determination of the photodegradation mechanisms Chlorothalonil ability to produce singlet oxygen was measured; noteworthy its efficiency is close to 100%. Additionally, chlorothalonil photodegradation mainly proceeds through reductive dechlorination. In these hydrophobic media, a radical mechanism was evidenced. Photochemical tests on wax films under simulated solar light show that formulated chlorothalonil is more reactive than pure chlorothalonil. The field-extrapolated half-life of photolysis on vegetation was estimated to 5.3 days. This value was compared to the half-lives of penetration and volatilization available in the literature. It appears that chlorothalonil dissipation from crops is ruled by both photodegradation and penetration. The relative importance of the two paths probably depends on meteorological factors and on physicochemical characteristics of the crop leaf cuticle.

  5. Nutritional potentials of some tropical vegetable leaf meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three tropical vegetable species (Talium triangulare, Amaranthus cruentus and Telfairia occidentalis) were selected based on their availability and agronomic desirability. The freshly harvested vegetable leaves were subjected to 2 processing techniques (shredding and sundrying) before milling into the vegetable leaf ...

  6. Estimating the total leaf area of the green dwarf coconut tree (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Elias Fernandes de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area has significant effect on tree transpiration, and its measurement is important to many study areas. This work aimed at developing a non-destructive, practical, and empirical method to estimate the total leaf area of green dwarf coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. in plantations located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A mathematical model was developed to estimate total leaf area values (TLA as function of the average lengths of the last three leaf raquis (LR3, and of the number of leaves in the canopy (NL. The model has satisfactory degree of accuracy for agricultural engineering purposes.

  7. Springtime Leaf Development of Mature Sessile Oak Trees as Based on Multi-Seasonal Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYITRAI, Balázs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a four year leaf growth data-set we modelled the thermal time-dependent leafontogeny in upper and lower canopy layers of mature sessile oak trees, in a Quercetum petraeae-cerrisforest stand (NE Hungary. Our regression models revealed no considerable differences between thetiming of leaf unfolding and leaf expansion of different canopy layers. On the other hand seasonalcourse in leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA indicated that sun leaves needed considerably longer thermaltime to fully develop their anatomical structures compared to shade leaves. LMA of sun leaves washigher during the whole leaf maturation process suggesting that ‘sun’ and ‘shade’ characteristicsdevelop in very early stage of leaf ontogeny. Functioning of photosynthetic apparatus (Fv/Fo in shadeleaves have built up faster and performed better in all developmental stages which could be attributedto two main factors: 1 very early determination of leaf traits as a function of light environment and 2evolving shading effect of upper canopy layer eliminates photoinhibition in lower leaves.

  8. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  9. The YABBY Genes of Leaf and Leaf-Like Organ Polarity in Leafless Plant Monotropa hypopitys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Shchennikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monotropa hypopitys is a mycoheterotrophic, nonphotosynthetic plant acquiring nutrients from the roots of autotrophic trees through mycorrhizal symbiosis, and, similar to other extant plants, forming asymmetrical lateral organs during development. The members of the YABBY family of transcription factors are important players in the establishment of leaf and leaf-like organ polarity in plants. This is the first report on the identification of YABBY genes in a mycoheterotrophic plant devoid of aboveground vegetative organs. Seven M. hypopitys YABBY members were identified and classified into four clades. By structural analysis of putative encoded proteins, we confirmed the presence of YABBY-defining conserved domains and identified novel clade-specific motifs. Transcriptomic and qRT-PCR analyses of different tissues revealed MhyYABBY transcriptional patterns, which were similar to those of orthologous YABBY genes from other angiosperms. These data should contribute to the understanding of the role of the YABBY genes in the regulation of developmental and physiological processes in achlorophyllous leafless plants.

  10. Joint Leaf chlorophyll and leaf area index retrieval from Landsat data using a regularized model inversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content represent key biophysical and biochemical controls on water, energy and carbon exchange processes in the terrestrial biosphere. In combination, LAI and leaf Chl content provide critical information on vegetation density, vitality and photosynt...

  11. Using Leaf Samples to Establish a Library of Tropical Leaf Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, P.; Nguyen, R.; Anderson, C.; Weiss, P.

    2010-12-01

    Variation in leaf chemistry is directly expressed in spectroscopic patterns of tropical canopies. The goal of the Spectranomics project is to explore this variation in the hopes of developing a method to measure tropical forest diversity remotely from airborne or space-bound spectroscopy in the future. We analyzed tomato leaves for various chemical compositions to better understand the Spectranomics approach to quantifying chemical data of tropical species. We also compared our data to standard data in each analysis. Our results allow us to give the tomato leaves a chemical signature in which we are able to use to compare to other leaf samples. Using this process, we are able to create a library of leaf signatures and document the variety of tree species in tropical forests around the world.

  12. Leaf density explains variation in leaf mass per area in rice between cultivars and nitrogen treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dongliang; Wang, Dan; Liu, Xi; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Li, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is an important leaf trait; however, correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical features and photosynthesis have not been fully investigated, especially in cereal crops. The objectives of this study were (a) to investigate the correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical traits; and (b) to clarify the response of LMA to nitrogen supply and its effect on photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the present study, 11 rice varieties were pot grown under sufficient nitrogen (SN) conditions, and four selected rice cultivars were grown under low nitrogen (LN) conditions. Leaf anatomical traits, gas exchange and leaf N content were measured. There was large variation in LMA across selected rice varieties. Regression analysis showed that the variation in LMA was more closely related to leaf density (LD) than to leaf thickness (LT). LMA was positively related to the percentage of mesophyll tissue area (%mesophyll), negatively related to the percentage of epidermis tissue area (%epidermis) and unrelated to the percentage of vascular tissue area (%vascular). The response of LMA to N supplementation was dependent on the variety and was also mainly determined by the response of LD to N. Compared with SN, photosynthesis was significantly decreased under LN, while PNUE was increased. The increase in PNUE was more critical in rice cultivars with a higher LMA under SN supply. Leaf density is the major cause of the variation in LMA across rice varieties and N treatments, and an increase in LMA under high N conditions would aggravate the decrease in PNUE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Pervin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum . Methods: Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenolic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx, metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and the prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion method against seven strains of bacteria. Results: Results found that V. corymbosum leaf extract had significant antibacterial activity. The tested extract displayed the highest activity (about 23.18 mm inhibition zone against Salmonella typhymurium and the lowest antibacterial activity was observed against Enterococcus faecalis (about 14.08 mm inhibition zone at 10 mg/ disc. The IC 50 values for DPPH, ABTS and radical scavenging activity were 0.120, 0.049 and 1.160 mg/mL, respectively. V. corymbosum leaf extract also showed dose dependent reduction power, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage prevention and significant antioxidant enzymatic activity. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that leaf extract of V. corymbosum could be used as an alternative therapy for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help prevent various free radical related diseases.

  14. Leaf Area Prediction Using Three Alternative Sampling Methods for Seven Sierra Nevada Conifer Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryw A. Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of projected tree leaf area using allometric relationships with sapwood cross-sectional area is common in tree- and stand-level production studies. Measuring sapwood is difficult and often requires destructive sampling. This study tested multiple leaf area prediction models across seven diverse conifer species in the Sierra Nevada of California. The best-fit whole tree leaf area prediction model for overall simplicity, accuracy, and utility for all seven species was a nonlinear model with basal area as the primary covariate. A new non-destructive procedure was introduced to extend the branch summation approach to leaf area data collection on trees that cannot be destructively sampled. There were no significant differences between fixed effects assigned to sampling procedures, indicating that data from the tested sampling procedures can be combined for whole tree leaf area modeling purposes. These results indicate that, for the species sampled, accurate leaf area estimates can be obtained through partially-destructive sampling and using common forest inventory data.

  15. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and...

  19. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results...

  20. Infrared remote sensing for canopy temperature in paddy field and relationship between leaf temperature and leaf color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Infrared remote sensing is used for crop monitoring, for example evaluation of water stress, detection of infected crops and estimation of transpiration and photosynthetic rates. This study was conducted to show another application of remote sensing information. The relationship between rice leaf temperature and chlorophyll content in the leaf blade was investigated by using thermography during the ripening period. The canopy of a rice community fertilized by top dressing was cooler than that not fertilized in a 1999 field experiment. In an experiment using thermocouples to measure leaf temperature, a rice leaf with high chlorophyll content was also cooler than that with a low chlorophyll content. Transpiration resistance and transpiration rate were measured with a porometer. Transpiration rate was higher with increasing chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. Stomatal aperture is related to chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. High degree of stomatal aperture is caused by high chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. As degree of stomatal aperture increases, transpiration rate increases. Therefore the rice leaf got cooler with increasing chlorophyll content in leaf blade. Paddy rice communities with different chlorophyll contents were provided with fertilization of different nitrogen levels on basal and top dressing in a 2000 field experiment. Canopy temperature of the rice community with high chlorophyll content was 0.85°C cooler than that of the rice community with low chlorophyll content. Results of this study revealed that infrared remote sensing could detect difference in chlorophyll contents in rice communities and could be used in fertilizer management in paddy fields. (author)

  1. An analytical approach for optimizing the leaf design of a multi-leaf collimator in a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolnjak, R; Heide, U A van der

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we present an analytical approach for optimizing the leaf design of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) in a linear accelerator. Because leaf designs vary between vendors, our goal is to characterize and quantify the effects of different compromises which have to be made between performance parameters. Subsequently, an optimal leaf design for an earlier proposed six-bank MLC which combines a high-resolution field-shaping ability with a large field size is determined. To this end a model of the linac is created that includes the following parameters: the source size, the maximum field size, the distance between source and isocenter, and the leaf's design parameters. First, the optimal radius of the leaf tip was found. This optimum was defined by the requirement that the fluence intensity should fall from 80% of the maximum value to 20% in a minimal distance, defining the width of the fluence penumbra. A second requirement was that this penumbra width should be constant when a leaf moves from one side of the field to the other. The geometric, transmission and total penumbra width (80-20%) were calculated depending on the design parameters. The analytical model is in agreement with Elekta, Varian and Siemens collimator designs. For leaves thinner than 4 cm, the transmission penumbra becomes dominant, and for leaves close to the source the geometric penumbra plays a role. Finally, by choosing the leaf thickness of 3.5 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm from the lowest to the highest bank, respectively, an optimal leaf design for a six-bank MLC is achieved

  2. Egg laying site selection by a host plant specialist leaf miner moth at two intra-plant levels in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Storey-Palma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Egg laying site selection by a host plant specialist leaf miner moth at two intra-plant levels in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. The spatial distribution of the immature stages of the leaf miner Angelabella tecomae Vargas & Parra, 2005 was determined at two intra-plant levels (shoot and leaflet on the shrub Tecoma fulva fulva (Cav. D. Don (Bignoniaceae in the Azapa valley, northern Chilean Atacama Desert. An aggregated spatial pattern was detected for all the immature stages along the shoot, with an age dependent relative position: eggs and first instar larvae were clumped at apex; second, third and fourth instar larvae were mostly found at intermediate positions; meanwhile the spinning larva and pupa were clumped at basis. This pattern suggests that the females select new, actively growing leaflets for egg laying. At the leaflet level, the immature stages were found more frequently at underside. Furthermore, survivorship was higher for larvae from underside mines. All these results highlight the importance of an accurate selection of egg laying site in the life history of this highly specialized leaf miner. By contrast, eventual wrong choices in the egg laying site selection may be associated with diminished larval survivorship. The importance of the continuous availability of new plant tissue in this highly human modified arid environment is discussed in relation with the observed patterns.

  3. Leaf litter breakdown rates and associated fauna of native and exotic trees used in Neotropical Riparia Reforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Isaza, Nataly; Blanco, Juan Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A signature of globalization is the prevalence of exotic trees along reforested urban and rural riparian zones in the neotropics, but little is known about the instream processing of its leaf litter. In this study, leaf litter breakdown rates were measured during 35 days using mesh bags within a reference headwater stream for seven exotic and three native tree species commonly used in urban and rural reforestation. Artocarpus altilis, Schefflera actinophylla and Terminalia catappa scored the highest mass loss rates (>85 %; mean life: t50 <15 d), while Cecropia sp. and Cespedesia macrophylla (mass loss =36 and 15 %; t50 =58 and 172 d, respectively) scored the lowest rates. However, a broad range of rates was observed among the ten species studied. The carbon to phosphorus ratio (c:p) and toughness of the leaf litter were the best predictors of breakdown rates. However, these leaf properties were not correlated with the very low values of macro invertebrates abundance and diversity, and the few morpho classified as shredders. Therefore physical rather than biological controls seem to best explain the observed variability of mass loss rates, and thus slow decomposing leaf litter species seems to provide a habitat rather than a food resource, particularly to collectors. This study suggests that riparian reforestation will propagate species-specific ecological influences on instream processes such as leaf litter processing depending on leaf quality properties, therefore ecosystem-wide influences should be considered for improving reforestation strategies. Future studies should test for differences in breakdown rates and colonization by macro invertebrates relative for leaf litter species origin (native vs. exotic).

  4. Impact of Vertical Canopy Position on Leaf Spectral Properties and Traits across Multiple Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda W. Gara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the vertical pattern of leaf traits across plant canopies provide critical information on plant physiology, ecosystem functioning and structure and vegetation response to climate change. However, the impact of vertical canopy position on leaf spectral properties and subsequently leaf traits across the entire spectrum for multiple species is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the ability of leaf optical properties to track variability in leaf traits across the vertical canopy profile using Partial Least Square Discriminatory Analysis (PLS-DA. Leaf spectral measurements together with leaf traits (nitrogen, carbon, chlorophyll, equivalent water thickness and specific leaf area were studied at three vertical canopy positions along the plant stem: lower, middle and upper. We observed that foliar nitrogen (N, chlorophyll (Cab, carbon (C, and equivalent water thickness (EWT were higher in the upper canopy leaves compared with lower shaded leaves, while specific leaf area (SLA increased from upper to lower canopy leaves. We found that leaf spectral reflectance significantly (P ≤ 0.05 shifted to longer wavelengths in the ‘red edge’ spectrum (685–701 nm in the order of lower > middle > upper for the pooled dataset. We report that spectral bands that are influential in the discrimination of leaf samples into the three groups of canopy position, based on the PLS-DA variable importance projection (VIP score, match with wavelength regions of foliar traits observed to vary across the canopy vertical profile. This observation demonstrated that both leaf traits and leaf reflectance co-vary across the vertical canopy profile in multiple species. We conclude that canopy vertical position has a significant impact on leaf spectral properties of an individual plant’s traits, and this finding holds for multiple species. These findings have important implications on field sampling protocols, upscaling leaf traits to canopy level

  5. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  8. Undecomposed Twigs in the Leaf Litter as Nest-Building Resources for Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Areas of the Atlantic Forest in the Southeastern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Tanaami Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, the leaf-litter stratum exhibits one of the greatest abundances of ant species. This diversity is associated with the variety of available locations for nest building. Ant nests can be found in various microhabitats, including tree trunks and fallen twigs in different stages of decomposition. In this study, we aimed to investigate undecomposed twigs as nest-building resources in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forest areas in the southeastern region of Brazil. Demographic data concerning the ant colonies, the physical characteristics of the nests, and the population and structural of the forest were observed. Collections were performed manually over four months in closed canopy locations that did not have trails or flooded areas. A total of 294 nests were collected, and 34 ant species were recorded. Pheidole, Camponotus, and Hypoponera were the richest genera observed; these genera were also among the most populous and exhibited the greatest abundance of nests. We found no association between population size and nest diameter. Only tree cover influenced the nest abundance and species richness. Our data indicate that undecomposed twigs may be part of the life cycle of many species and are important for maintaining ant diversity in the leaf litter.

  9. Algorithm for retrieving vegetative canopy and leaf parameters from multi- and hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Christoph

    2009-05-01

    In recent years hyper-spectral data has been used to retrieve information about vegetative canopies such as leaf area index and canopy water content. For the environmental scientist these two parameters are valuable, but there is potentially more information to be gained as high spatial resolution data becomes available. We developed an Amoeba (Nelder-Mead or Simplex) based program to invert a vegetative canopy radiosity model coupled with a leaf (PROSPECT5) reflectance model and modeled for the background reflectance (e.g. soil, water, leaf litter) to a measured reflectance spectrum. The PROSPECT5 leaf model has five parameters: leaf structure parameter Nstru, chlorophyll a+b concentration Cab, carotenoids content Car, equivalent water thickness Cw and dry matter content Cm. The canopy model has two parameters: total leaf area index (LAI) and number of layers. The background reflectance model is either a single reflectance spectrum from a spectral library() derived from a bare area pixel on an image or a linear mixture of soil spectra. We summarize the radiosity model of a layered canopy and give references to the leaf/needle models. The method is then tested on simulated and measured data. We investigate the uniqueness, limitations and accuracy of the retrieved parameters on canopy parameters (low, medium and high leaf area index) spectral resolution (32 to 211 band hyperspectral), sensor noise and initial conditions.

  10. Leaf physiology and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings in response to light and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caleb E; Mickelbart, Michael V; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-12-01

    Partial canopy cover promotes regeneration of many temperate forest trees, but the consequences of shading on seedling drought resistance are unclear. Reintroduction of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) into eastern North American forests will often occur on water-limited sites and under partial canopy cover. We measured leaf pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd), leaf gas exchange, and growth and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut seedlings from three orchard sources grown under different light intensities (76, 26 and 8% full photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) and subjected to well-watered or mid-season water-stressed conditions. Seedlings in the water-stress treatment were returned to well-watered conditions after wilting to examine recovery. Seedlings growing under medium- and high-light conditions wilted at lower leaf Ψpd than low-light seedlings. Recovery of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance (gs) was greater in low and medium light than in high light. Seed source did not affect the response to water stress or light level in most cases. Between 26 and 8% full PAR, light became limiting to the extent that the effects of water stress had no impact on some growth and morphological traits. We conclude that positive and negative aspects of shading on seedling drought tolerance and recovery are not mutually exclusive. Partial shade may help American chestnut tolerate drought during early establishment through effects on physiological conditioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition.

  12. Stress optimization of leaf-spring crossed flexure pivots for an active Gurney flap mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Gómez, Jon; Booker, Julian D.; Mellor, Phil H.

    2015-04-01

    The EU's Green Rotorcraft programme is pursuing the development of a functional and airworthy Active Gurney Flap (AGF) for a full-scale helicopter rotor blade. Interest in the development of this `smart adaptive rotor blade' technology lies in its potential to provide a number of aerodynamic benefits, which would in turn translate into a reduction in fuel consumption and noise levels. The AGF mechanism selected employs leaf-spring crossed flexure pivots. These provide important advantages over bearings as they are not susceptible to seizing and do not require maintenance (i.e. lubrication or cleaning). A baseline design of this mechanism was successfully tested both in a fatigue rig and in a 2D wind tunnel environment at flight-representative deployment schedules. For full validation, a flight test would also be required. However, the severity of the in-flight loading conditions would likely compromise the mechanical integrity of the pivots' leaf-springs in their current form. This paper investigates the scope for stress reduction through three-dimensional shape optimization of the leaf-springs of a generic crossed flexure pivot. To this end, a procedure combining a linear strain energy formulation, a parametric leaf-spring profile definition and a series of optimization algorithms is employed. The resulting optimized leaf-springs are proven to be not only independent of the angular rotation at which the pivot operates, but also linearly scalable to leaf-springs of any length, minimum thickness and width. Validated using non-linear finite element analysis, the results show very significant stress reductions relative to pivots with constant cross section leaf-springs, of up to as much as 30% for the specific pivot configuration employed in the AGF mechanism. It is concluded that shape optimization offers great potential for reducing stress in crossed flexure pivots and, consequently, for extending their fatigue life and/or rotational range.

  13. Does assimilate supply limit expansion in wheat grown in the field under low phosphorus availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, D.; Andrade, F.H.; Goudriaan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Under conditions of phosphorus deficiency, reductions in plant leaf area have been attributed to both direct effects of phosphorus (P) on the individual leaf expansion rate and a reduced availability of assimilates for leaf growth. Simulation techniques have been used to test the hypothesis of a

  14. Comparison of dwarf bamboos (Indocalamus sp.) leaf parameters to determine relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sandhu, Hardev S; Gielis, Johan; Ding, Yu-Long; Li, Hua-Rong; Dong, Xiao-Bo

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between spatial density and size of plants is an important topic in plant ecology. The self-thinning rule suggests a -3/2 power between average biomass and density or a -1/2 power between stand yield and density. However, the self-thinning rule based on total leaf area per plant and density of plants has been neglected presumably because of the lack of a method that can accurately estimate the total leaf area per plant. We aimed to find the relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant. We also attempted to provide a novel model for accurately describing the leaf shape of bamboos. We proposed a simplified Gielis equation with only two parameters to describe the leaf shape of bamboos one model parameter represented the overall ratio of leaf width to leaf length. Using this method, we compared some leaf parameters (leaf shape, number of leaves per plant, ratio of total leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and total leaf area per plant) of four bamboo species of genus Indocalamus Nakai (I. pedalis (Keng) P.C. Keng, I. pumilus Q.H. Dai and C.F. Keng, I. barbatus McClure, and I. victorialis P.C. Keng). We also explored the possible correlation between spatial density and total leaf area per plant using log-linear regression. We found that the simplified Gielis equation fit the leaf shape of four bamboo species very well. Although all these four species belonged to the same genus, there were still significant differences in leaf shape. Significant differences also existed in leaf area per plant, ratio of leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and leaf length. In addition, we found that the total leaf area per plant decreased with increased spatial density. Therefore, we directly demonstrated the self-thinning rule to improve light interception.

  15. Contributions of leaf photosynthetic capacity, leaf angle and self-shading to the maximization of net photosynthesis in Acer saccharum: a modelling assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Juan M; Sievänen, Risto; Messier, Christian; Perttunen, Jari; Nikinmaa, Eero; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2012-08-01

    Plants are expected to maximize their net photosynthetic gains and efficiently use available resources, but the fundamental principles governing trade-offs in suites of traits related to resource-use optimization remain uncertain. This study investigated whether Acer saccharum (sugar maple) saplings could maximize their net photosynthetic gains through a combination of crown structure and foliar characteristics that let all leaves maximize their photosynthetic light-use efficiency (ε). A functional-structural model, LIGNUM, was used to simulate individuals of different leaf area index (LAI(ind)) together with a genetic algorithm to find distributions of leaf angle (L(A)) and leaf photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) that maximized net carbon gain at the whole-plant level. Saplings grown in either the open or in a forest gap were simulated with A(max) either unconstrained or constrained to an upper value consistent with reported values for A(max) in A. saccharum. It was found that total net photosynthetic gain was highest when whole-plant PPFD absorption and leaf ε were simultaneously maximized. Maximization of ε required simultaneous adjustments in L(A) and A(max) along gradients of PPFD in the plants. When A(max) was constrained to a maximum, plants growing in the open maximized their PPFD absorption but not ε because PPFD incident on leaves was higher than the PPFD at which ε(max) was attainable. Average leaf ε in constrained plants nonetheless improved with increasing LAI(ind) because of an increase in self-shading. It is concluded that there are selective pressures for plants to simultaneously maximize both PPFD absorption at the scale of the whole individual and ε at the scale of leaves, which requires a highly integrated response between L(A), A(max) and LAI(ind). The results also suggest that to maximize ε plants have evolved mechanisms that co-ordinate the L(A) and A(max) of individual leaves with PPFD availability.

  16. Spatial-temporal variability of leaf chlorophyll and its relationship with cocoa yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caique C. Medauar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial-temporal variability of leaf chlorophyll index and its relationship with cocoa yield. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area of cocoa production located in Ilhéus, Bahia State, Brazil. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured in September, October, January, February, March and April in the 2014/2015 season, at each sampling point of a regular grid by using a portable chlorophyll meter. Under the same conditions, yield was evaluated and the data were submitted to descriptive statistics and a linear correlation study. Geostatistical analysis was used to determine and quantify the spatial and temporal variability of leaf chlorophyll index and yield. Leaf chlorophyll index varied over the period evaluated, but the months of February, March and April showed no spatial dependence in the study area, indicating absence of temporal stability. Cocoa monthly yield, except in January, presented high spatial variability. Under the conditions of this study, it was not possible to establish a relationship between leaf chlorophyll index and cocoa yield.

  17. Oxygen isotope fractionations across individual leaf carbohydrates in grass and tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marco M; Gamarra, Bruno; Kahmen, Ansgar; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Saurer, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Almost no δ 18 O data are available for leaf carbohydrates, leaving a gap in the understanding of the δ 18 O relationship between leaf water and cellulose. We measured δ 18 O values of bulk leaf water (δ 18 O LW ) and individual leaf carbohydrates (e.g. fructose, glucose and sucrose) in grass and tree species and δ 18 O of leaf cellulose in grasses. The grasses were grown under two relative humidity (rH) conditions. Sucrose was generally 18 O-enriched compared with hexoses across all species with an apparent biosynthetic fractionation factor (ε bio ) of more than 27‰ relative to δ 18 O LW , which might be explained by isotopic leaf water and sucrose synthesis gradients. δ 18 O LW and δ 18 O values of carbohydrates and cellulose in grasses were strongly related, indicating that the leaf water signal in carbohydrates was transferred to cellulose (ε bio  = 25.1‰). Interestingly, damping factor p ex p x , which reflects oxygen isotope exchange with less enriched water during cellulose synthesis, responded to rH conditions if modelled from δ 18 O LW but not if modelled directly from δ 18 O of individual carbohydrates. We conclude that δ 18 O LW is not always a good substitute for δ 18 O of synthesis water due to isotopic leaf water gradients. Thus, compound-specific δ 18 O analyses of individual carbohydrates are helpful to better constrain (post-)photosynthetic isotope fractionation processes in plants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Assessing the effects of subtropical forest fragmentation on leaf nitrogen distribution using remote sensing data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the utility of new remote sensing tools to model the spatial distribution of leaf N concentration in a forested landscape undergoing deforestation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Leaf N was mapped using models developed from RapidEye imagery; a relatively new...

  19. EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION FREQUENCY AND LEAF DETACHMENT ON CHRYSANTHEMUM GROWN IN TWO TYPES OF PLASTIC HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Budiarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamentals in Indonesia and it ranks in the first quantity of cut flower marketed every year. In most cases, the low productivity is still a constraint for the traditional growers to make production process profitable. Several problems revealed in chrysanthemum production were investigated. The study dealt with the effect of two types of plastic house constructions, irrigation frequency, and leaf detachment on the growth and development of chrysanthemum. The experiment was conducted at Segunung, Indonesian Ornamental Plants Research Institute during the dry season of 2005. A nested design with six replications was used. The results showed that plants grown in wood-constructed plastic house had better growth performance and flower quality than those under bamboo plastic house. Longer stem and higher plant fresh weight with more flowers and longer life span were also observed on chrysanthemum irrigated four times per week than those irrigated twice per week. Leaf removal often practiced by the growers is no longer recommended, since the number of leaves on the plant influenced all parameters observed. The more leaves were detached, the more negative impacts on plant growth were found.

  20. Relationship between Leaf Surface Characteristics and Particle Capturing Capacities of Different Tree Species in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weikang Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf surface is a multifunctional interface between a plant and its environment, which affects both ecological and biological processes. Leaf surface topography directly affects microhabitat availability and ability for deposition. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM and the resuspended particulate matter method were applied to evaluate the adsorptive capacity of the leaf surface. Patterns of particulate‐capturing capacities in different tree species and the effect of leaf surface features on these capacities were explored. Results indicated the following: (1 more total suspended particles (TSP per unit leaf area were captured by coniferous tree species than by broad‐leaved tree species in a particular order—i.e., Pinus tabuliformis > Pinus bungeana > Salix matsudana > Acer truncatum > Ginkgo biloba > Populus tomentosa; (2 Significant seasonal variation in particulate‐capturing capacities were determined. During the observation period, the broad‐leaved tree species capturing TSP and coarse particulate matter (PM10 clearly exhibited a ∩‐shape pattern— that is, increasing initially and later on decreasing; meanwhile, the ∩‐shape pattern was not clearly shown in P. tabuliformis and P. bungeana. However, no obvious patterns in the absorption of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 were found in the tested tree species; (3 The leaf surface topography, as observed by AFM and scanning electron microscopy, revealed that the broad‐leaved tree exhibits a good correlation between micro‐roughness of leaf surfaces and density of particles settling on leaf surfaces over time. However, the main factors affecting the adsorptive capacities of the leaves in coniferous trees are the number of stomata as well as the amount of epicuticular wax and the properties of the cuticle in different seasons.

  1. Procedures for extraction and purification of leaf wax biomarkers from peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Nichols

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecological and palaeoclimate reconstruction, using leaf wax biomarkers, is a relatively new sub-discipline of peatland science. The ability to process large numbers of samples rapidly for biomarkers makes this type of analysis particularly appealing. This review is a guide to the preparation of leaf waxes for analysis by gas chromatography. The main phases of preparation are extraction of soluble organic compounds from sediment, separation of the total extract into fractions of differing polarity, and the derivatisation of polar functional groups. The procedures described here are not meant be exhaustive of all organic geochemical possibilities in peatlands, but a distillation of methods for the preparation of leaf waxes that are commonly and increasingly being used in palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological studies.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant leaf extracts against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikya Farjana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine antibacterial activity of water, oil and methanol extracts of guava (Psidium guajava, green tea (Camellia sinensis, neem (Azadirachta indica and marigold (Calendula officinalis against different species of bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Methods: Antibacterial activity of plant extracts was measured by agar well diffusion method. Results: Boiled water extracts of guava leaf showed the largest zone of inhibition (22 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. Water extracts of green tea leaf at boiling and room temperature showed 17.5 mm and 19 mm zone of inhibitions against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus, respectively. Boiled water extract of neem leaf showed moderate zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (10 mm and Klebsiella spp. (11 mm. Water and oil extracts of marigold leaf at both boiling and room temperature did not show any zone of inhibition against any of the tested microorganisms. Methanol extracts of both guava and green tea leaves showed same zone of inhibition against Pseudomonus spp. (18 mm. Methanol extract of neem leaf showed antibacterial acitivity against Klebsiella spp. (16 mm and Vibrio cholerae (14 mm and that of marigold leaf showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (18 mm and Klebsiella spp. (12 mm. Conclusions: The results from the study suggest that the leaves of guava, green tea, neem and marigold show anibacterial activity against different bacterial species. They could be used as alternatives to common antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial infections.

  3. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  4. Ozone induced leaf loss and decreased leaf production of European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) over multiple seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranford, Jonathan; Reiling, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) was used to study the impact of one short (28 day) ozone fumigation episode on leaf production, leaf loss and stomatal conductance (g s ), in order to explore potential longer term effects over 3 growing seasons. Young I. aquifolium plants received an episode of either charcoal-filtered air or charcoal-filtered air with 70 nl l -1 O 3 added for 7 h d -1 over a 28 day period from June 15th 1996, then placed into ambient environment, Stoke-on-Trent, U.K. Data were collected per leaf cohort over the next three growing seasons. Ozone exposure significantly increased leaf loss and stomatal conductance and reduced leaf production over all subsequent seasons. Impact of the initial ozone stress was still detected in leaves that had no direct experimental ozone exposure. This study has shown the potential of ozone to introduce long-term phenological perturbations into ecosystems by influencing productivity over a number of seasons. - Ozone significantly alters Ilex aquifolium leaf production and loss over multiple seasons

  5. Spilocaea pyracanthae causing leaf scab on loquat in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Butt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Loquat is attacked by many phytopathogenic fungi. Among these Spilocaea pyracanthae is of economic importance. The fungus received no attention in Pakistan and some other parts of the world. The current study is focused on the symptomatology of this disease and the etiology of the fungus. During extensive surveys of loquat orchards in 2013 heavy infestations of this disease were observed. The leaf symptoms were observed as olive brown, opaque necrotic sub-circular spots, with light brown coloration in the center. Two or more spots coalesced in severe infections covering large leaf areas. The fungus was identified as Spilocaea pyracanthae on the basis of conidia and morphological characters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed on healthy plants under greenhouse conditions by following Koch's postulates. The fungus produced characteristic leaf scab symptoms on young leaves. This is the first report of Spilocaea pyracanthae causing leafscab of loquat in Pakistan.

  6. Effect of water availability in opening containers of breeding site on Aedes aegypti life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokachil, Najir; Yusoff, Nuraini; Saaid, Alif; Appandi, Najwa; Harun, Farhana

    2017-11-01

    The distribution of rainfall is one of the factors which contribute to the development of Aedes aegypti life cycle. The fluctuation of rainfall might influence the acceleration of Aedes aegypti growth by providing sufficient breeding sites. In this research, the availability of water in an opening container of the breeding site is considered as a significant variable which affects the distinct stages structure in mosquito life cycle which egg, larva, pupa, and adult. A stage-structured Lefkovitch matrix model was used by considering the quantity of water contains in an opening container and life cycle of Aedes aegypti. The maximum depth of water in the container was also taken into account in order to find the time duration of mosquito life cycle to complete. We found that the maximum depth of water availability in mosquito breeding site influenced the abundance of the mosquito population. Hence, the containers are filled with sufficient water be able to stand from hot temperature for several days before drying out might continue to provide mosquito breeding site. In the future, it is recommended to consider other factors which affect the quantity of water in mosquito breeding sites such as heavy rain and wind blows.

  7. Leaf and soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability in a neotropical rain forest of nutrient-rich soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martínez-Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen and phosphorus supply in a lowland rain forest with a nutrient-rich soil was investigated by means of the leaf N/P quotient. It was hypothesised a high N and P supply to the forest ecosystem with a N and P rich soil. Total N and extractable P were determined in the surface (10 cm soil of three plots of the forest. Total N was analysed by the Kjeldahl method, and P was extracted with HCl and NH4F. The leaf N/P quotient was evaluated from the senesced leaves of 11 dominant tree species from the mature forest. Samples of 5 g of freshly fallen leaves were collected from three trees of each species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid, and determined by photometry. Concentrations of total N (0.50%, n = 30 and extractable P (4.11 μg g-1, n = 30 in the soil were high. As expected, P supply was sufficient, but contrary to expected, N supply was low (N/P = 11.8, n = 11. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 357-361. Epub 2006 Jun 01.A través del cociente foliar N/P, se investigó la disponibilidad de nitrógeno y fósforo en una selva húmeda tropical con suelo fértil. Como hipótesis se esperaba encontrar una alta disponibilidad de N y P en el ecosistema debido a un suelo rico en N y P. Se determinó el N total y el P extraible en el suelo superficial (10 cm en tres sitios de la selva. El N total se analizó por el método Kjeldahl y el P por extracción con HCl y NH4F. El cociente foliar N/P se evaluó a partir de hojas seniles de 11 especies arbóreas dominantes de la selva madura. Se recolectaron muestras de 5 g de hojas recién caídas de tres árboles de cada especie. El nitrógeno se analizó por digestión microkjeldahl con ácido sulfúrico y destilación con ácido bórico, y el fósforo por digestión con ácido nítrico y ácido perclórico, y determinación con fotometría. Las concetraciones de N

  8. Soil water availability and rooting depth as determinants of hydraulic architecture of Patagonian woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Bucci; Fabian G. Scholz; Guillermo Goldstein; Frederick C. Meinzer; Maria E. Arce

    2009-01-01

    We studied the water economy of nine woody species differing in rooting depth in a Patagonian shrub steppe from southern Argentina to understand how soil water availability and rooting depth determine their hydraulic architecture. Soil water content and potentials, leaf water potentials (Leaf) hydraulic conductivity, wood density (Pw), rooting depth, and specific leaf...

  9. Photoperiod-H1 (Ppd-H1) Controls Leaf Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Benedikt; Tavakol, Elahe; Verderio, Gabriele; Tondelli, Alessandro; Xu, Xin; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rossini, Laura; von Korff, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Leaf size is a major determinant of plant photosynthetic activity and biomass; however, it is poorly understood how leaf size is genetically controlled in cereal crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). We conducted a genome-wide association scan for flowering time, leaf width, and leaf length in a diverse panel of European winter cultivars grown in the field and genotyped with a single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The genome-wide association scan identified PHOTOPERIOD-H1 (Ppd-H1) as a candidate gene underlying the major quantitative trait loci for flowering time and leaf size in the barley population. Microscopic phenotyping of three independent introgression lines confirmed the effect of Ppd-H1 on leaf size. Differences in the duration of leaf growth and consequent variation in leaf cell number were responsible for the leaf size differences between the Ppd-H1 variants. The Ppd-H1-dependent induction of the BARLEY MADS BOX genes BM3 and BM8 in the leaf correlated with reductions in leaf size and leaf number. Our results indicate that leaf size is controlled by the Ppd-H1- and photoperiod-dependent progression of plant development. The coordination of leaf growth with flowering may be part of a reproductive strategy to optimize resource allocation to the developing inflorescences and seeds. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial trends in leaf size of Amazonian rainforest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhado, A. C. M.; Malhi, Y.; Whittaker, R. J.; Ladle, R. J.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Butt, N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Quesada, C. A.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; Arroyo, L.; Peacock, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Baker, T. R.; Anderson, L. O.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D.; Pitman, N.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Laurance, W. F.

    2009-08-01

    Leaf size influences many aspects of tree function such as rates of transpiration and photosynthesis and, consequently, often varies in a predictable way in response to environmental gradients. The recent development of pan-Amazonian databases based on permanent botanical plots has now made it possible to assess trends in leaf size across environmental gradients in Amazonia. Previous plot-based studies have shown that the community structure of Amazonian trees breaks down into at least two major ecological gradients corresponding with variations in soil fertility (decreasing from southwest to northeast) and length of the dry season (increasing from northwest to south and east). Here we describe the geographic distribution of leaf size categories based on 121 plots distributed across eight South American countries. We find that the Amazon forest is predominantly populated by tree species and individuals in the mesophyll size class (20.25-182.25 cm2). The geographic distribution of species and individuals with large leaves (>20.25 cm2) is complex but is generally characterized by a higher proportion of such trees in the northwest of the region. Spatially corrected regressions reveal weak correlations between the proportion of large-leaved species and metrics of water availability. We also find a significant negative relationship between leaf size and wood density.

  11. Natural Pineapple Leaf Fibre Extraction On Josapine And Morris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazalan Muhammad Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple’s leaf plant contains approximately 2.5% to 3.5% of strong white silky fibres. These fibres are useful and can be extracted from the leaves. There are a few ways to extract the fibre such as hand scrapping and by extraction machine. The objective of this research is to study the quality of fibre extraction by using different age of pineapple leaf. Next, the study aims to compare the quality of Josapine and Morris pineapple leaf with tensile test. Fibre yield percentage are calculated to determine which type of pineapple leaf produce high production of dry fibre. The mechanical properties of the fibres are analysed by Tensile Test under American Standard Testing Methods (ASTM C1577-03 and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The result of the fibre yield percentage show the Josapine type on 12 month ages are the highest value fibre yield percentage which is 7.89%. Based on fibre yield percentages, it showed the Josapine type produce better dry fibre production compare to Morris type. Based on mechanical test, it showed Josapine type on 12 months ages are the strongest fibre compare to Morris type since it can withstand on 67.6 N of load.

  12. Characterization of oils from Duranta repens leaf and seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agomuo Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the chemical composition of unpopular sources of edible oils has become paramount to supplement the usage of widely known vegetable oils. In this study, the gas chromatographic quantification of fatty acids and phytochemicals was carried out, and the physicochemical and micronutrient composition of Duranta repens leaf and seed oil were evaluated using standard methods. The leaf oils contained significantly higher (p  oleic > myristic > stearic > capric > linoleic > lauric > palmitoleic for the seed oil, while for the leaf oil linoleic > palmitoleic > oleic > stearic > palmitic > myristic > capric > lauric > myristoleic. The major phytochemical constituents of the seed oils were catechin (68.12 ug/ml, saponin (44.03 ug/ml, rutin (32.89 ug/ml, linamarin (22.66 ug/ml and tannins (19.62 ug/ml, while kaempherol (84.05 ug/ml, rutin (62.26 ug/ml and saponins (45.63 ug/ml were mostly predominant in the leaf oil. Spartein, anthocyanins and phytates were among the least phytochemicals in composition, for both samples. These chemical properties evaluated, suggest that Duranta repens seed oil is more suitable for industrial and therapeutic purposes.

  13. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  14. Homogeneity and evaluation of the new NIST leaf certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The NIST has produced and is in the process of certifying two new leaf CRMs, SRM1515 Apple Leaves and SRM 1547 Peach Leaves, as replacements for the no longer available NBS Orchard Leaves and the almost depleted Citrus Leaves. These two new materials have been processed and are being thoroughly evaluated and should provide the most advanced natural matrix botanical trace-element reference materials available. Caution should be used in determining a basis weight (drying) for these CRMs because of their very fine particle size. Homogeneity has been established by instrumental neutron activation analysis on both leaf materials for five elements, to date, to better than 1.5% (1 s) for 100-mg sample sizes

  15. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Phytohormones and microRNAs as sensors and regulators of leaf senescence: assigning macro roles to small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwat, Maryam; Naqvi, Afsar Raza; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2013-12-01

    Ageing or senescence is an intricate and highly synchronized developmental phase in the life of plant parts including leaf. Senescence not only means death of a plant part, but during this process, different macromolecules undergo degradation and the resulting components are transported to other parts of the plant. During the period from when a leaf is young and green to the stage when it senesces, a multitude of factors such as hormones, environmental factors and senescence associated genes (SAGs) are involved. Plant hormones including salicylic acid, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene advance leaf senescence, whereas others like cytokinins, gibberellins, and auxins delay this process. The environmental factors which generally affect plant development and growth, can hasten senescence, the examples being nutrient dearth, water stress, pathogen attack, radiations, high temperature and light intensity, waterlogging, and air, water or soil contamination. Other important influences include carbohydrate accumulation and high carbon/nitrogen level. To date, although several genes involved in this complex process have been identified, still not much information exists in the literature on the signalling mechanism of leaf senescence. Now, the Arabidopsis mutants have paved our way and opened new vistas to elucidate the signalling mechanism of leaf senescence for which various mutants are being utilized. Recent studies demonstrating the role of microRNAs in leaf senescence have reinforced our knowledge of this intricate process. This review provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of the information gained particularly on the roles of several plant growth regulators and microRNAs in regulation of leaf senescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental manipulation of leaf litter colonization by aquatic invertebrates in a third order tropical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uieda, V S; Carvalho, E M

    2015-05-01

    Through a manipulative experiment, the colonization of leaf litter by invertebrates was investigated in two sections of a tropical stream (spatial scale) that differed in function of the canopy cover, one with the presence (closed area) and another without riparian vegetation (open area), during one month of the dry and one of the wet season (temporal scale). The work aimed to verify differences related to four variables: season, canopy cover, leaf type and leaf condition. Litter bags containing arboreal and herbaceous leaves (leaf type variable), non-conditioned and preconditioned (leaf condition variable) were placed at the bottom of the stream in each area (canopy cover variable) and season (dry and wet), and removed after 13-day colonization. The analysis of the remaining litter dry mass per leaf bag emphasizes differences related mainly to seasonality, canopy cover and leaf type, although leaf condition was also important when combined with those three factors. Comparing the abundance of invertebrates per treatment, there was a tendency of high predominance of Chironomidae during the dry season and greater taxa diversity and evenness during the wet season, when the water flow increase could alter the availability of microhabitats for local fauna. Even though canopy cover alone was not a significant source of variation in the abundance of invertebrates, the results showed a tendency of a combined effect of canopy cover with seasonality and leaf condition.

  18. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To undertake green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using Cassia auriculata leaf extract ... Several methods are available for CuO NP preparation ... reader. Characterization .... would be important targets in current.

  19. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  20. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco shall...

  1. Intraspecific trait variation and the leaf economics spectrum across resource gradients and levels of organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Siefert, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of functional trait variation across environmental gradients offers an opportunity to increase inference in the mechanistic causes of plant community assembly. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) predicts global tradeoffs in leaf traits and trait-environment relationships, but few studies have examined whether these predictions hold across different levels of organization, particularly within species. Here, we asked (1) whether the main assumptions of the LES (expected trait relationships and shifts in trait values across resource gradients) hold at the intraspecific level, and (2) how within-species trait correlations scale up to interspecific or among-community levels. We worked with leaf traits of saplings of woody species growing across light and soil N and P availability gradients in temperate rainforests of southern Chile. We found that ITV accounted for a large proportion of community-level variation in leaf traits (e.g., LMA and leaf P) and played an important role in driving community-level shifts in leaf traits across environmental gradients. Additionally, intraspecific leaf trait relationships were generally consistent with interspecific and community-level trait relationships and with LES predictions-e.g., a strong negative intraspecific LMA-leaf N correlation-although, most trait relationships varied significantly among species, suggesting idiosyncrasies in the LES at the intraspecific level. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Plant structure predicts leaf litter capture in the tropical montane bromeliad Tillandsia turneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ospina-Bautista

    Full Text Available Abstract Leaves intercepted by bromeliads become an important energy and matter resource for invertebrate communities, bacteria, fungi, and the plant itself. The relationship between bromeliad structure, defined as its size and complexity, and accumulated leaf litter was studied in 55 bromeliads of Tillandsia turneri through multiple regression and the Akaike information criterion. Leaf litter accumulation in bromeliads was best explained by size and complexity variables such as plant cover, sheath length, and leaf number. In conclusion, plant structure determines the amount of litter that enters bromeliads, and changes in its structure could affect important processes within ecosystem functioning or species richness.

  3. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities of Asparagus laricinus leaf and stem extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polo-Ma-Abiele Hildah Ntsoelinyane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activities, antibacterial activities and a phytochemical constituent of Asparagus laricinus stem and leaf extracts. Determination of antibacterial activity of extracts was assessed by agar dilution method and antioxidant properties by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the leaf was at a concentration of 0.125 mg/mL against S. saprophyticus and E. cloacae, and at a concentration of 1 mg/mL against S. aureus and B. subtilis. There was no MIC of the stem extract at any concentration. The leaf extract showed effective free radical scavenging activity (72.1%, while stem extract had low activity. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and phlobatannins. The leaf extract further confirmed the presence of glycosides, steroids, ternoids and carbohydrates. Our results indicate that, A. laricinus leaf extracts have potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  4. Light drives vertical gradients of leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2014-02-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA, g m(-2)) is an essential trait for modeling canopy function due to its strong association with photosynthesis, respiration and leaf nitrogen. Leaf mass per area, which is influenced by both leaf thickness and density (LMA = thickness × density), generally increases from the bottom to the top of tree canopies, yet the mechanisms behind this universal pattern are not yet resolved. For decades, the light environment was assumed to be the most influential driver of within-canopy variation in LMA, yet recent evidence has shown hydrostatic gradients to be more important in upper canopy positions, especially in tall evergreen trees in temperate and tropical forests. The aim of this study was to disentangle the importance of various environmental drivers on vertical LMA gradients in a mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest. We compared LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness relationships with height, light and predawn leaf water potential (ΨPre) within a closed and an exposed canopy to assess leaf morphological traits at similar heights but different light conditions. Contrary to our expectations and recent findings in the literature, we found strong evidence that light was the primary driver of vertical gradients in leaf morphology. At similar heights (13-23 m), LMA was greater within the exposed canopy than the closed canopy, and light had a stronger influence over LMA compared with ΨPre. Light also had a stronger influence over both leaf thickness and density compared with ΨPre; however, the increase in LMA within both canopy types was primarily due to increasing leaf thickness with increasing light availability. This study provides strong evidence that canopy structure and crown exposure, in addition to height, should be considered as a parameter for determining vertical patterns in LMA and modeling canopy function.

  5. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  6. Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus with intact or mutant transcriptional activator proteins: complexity of cotton leaf curl disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Alok, Anshu; Lalit, Adarsh; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Roy, Joy K; Singh, Sudhir P

    2015-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton on the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, three cotton leaf curl viruses, cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) and cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), and their associated satellites, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA), were detected. CLCuBuV with either intact (CLCuBuV-1) or mutant (CLCuBuV-2) transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) were detected in different plants. Agroinoculation with CLCuBuV-1 or CLCuBuV-2 together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, resulted in typical leaf curling and stunting of tobacco plants. Inoculation with CLCuKoV or an isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-2), together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, induced severe leaf curling, while the other isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-1), which was recombinant in origin, showed mild leaf curling in tobacco. To investigate the effect of intact or mutant TrAP and also the recombination events, CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2, CLCuMV-1 or CLCuMV-2 together with the satellites (CLCuMA and CLCuMB) were transferred to cotton via whitefly-mediated transmission. Cotton plants containing CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2 or CLCuMV-2 together with satellites showed curling and stunting, whereas the plants having CLCuMV-1 and the satellites showed only mild and indistinguishable symptoms. CLCuBuV-1 (intact TrAP) showed severe symptoms in comparison to CLCuBuV-2 (mutant TrAP). The present study reveals that two types of CLCuBuV, one with an intact TrAP and the other with a mutant TrAP, exist in natural infection of cotton in India. Additionally, CLCuMuV-1, which has a recombinant origin, induces mild symptoms in comparison to the other CLCuMV isolates.

  7. Explicit Nonlinear Finite Element Geometric Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Springs under Various Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the effects of bounce, brake, and roll behavior of a bus toward its leaf spring suspension systems. Parabolic leaf springs are designed based on vertical deflection and stress; however, loads are practically derived from various modes especially under harsh road drives or emergency braking. Parabolic leaf springs must sustain these loads without failing to ensure bus and passenger safety. In this study, the explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element (FE method is implemented because of the complexity of experimental testing A series of load cases; namely, vertical push, wind-up, and suspension roll are introduced for the simulations. The vertical stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is related to the vehicle load-carrying capability, whereas the wind-up stiffness is associated with vehicle braking. The roll stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is correlated with the vehicle roll stability. To obtain a better bus performance, two new parabolic leaf spring designs are proposed and simulated. The stress level during the loadings is observed and compared with its design limit. Results indicate that the newly designed high vertical stiffness parabolic spring provides the bus a greater roll stability and a lower stress value compared with the original design. Bus safety and stability is promoted, as well as the load carrying capability.

  8. Analgesic, anti-inflmmatory and antipyretic activities of methanolic leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Christian Akuodor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia in mice and rats. Methods: Acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion methods were used to assess analgesic activity, while xylene and carrageenan-induced paw oedema methods were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extract. Yeast and amphetamine-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the antipyretic activity. The phytochemical analysis and oral acute toxicity of the methanolic leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia were also evaluated. Results: The leaf extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg showed a dose dependent and significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of pain in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory activity in both paradigms. A significant (P < 0.05 reduction in hyperpyrexia was also observed with the leaf extract. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, steroids, resins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The oral median lethal dose of the leaf extract was estimated to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg in rats. Conclusions: The findings confirmed its ethnomedical use in the treatment of pains and feverish conditions.

  9. Metabolomics-Based Screening of Biofilm-Inhibitory Compounds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Burdock Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixiang Lou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Screening of anti-biofilm compounds from the burdock leaf based on metabolomics is reported here. The crystal violet assay indicated 34% ethanol elution fraction of burdock leaf could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1 mg·mL−1. Then, the chemical composition of burdock leaf fraction was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS and 11 active compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, ursolic acid, rutin, cynarin, luteolin, crocin, benzoic acid, and Tenacissoside I were identified. Lastly, UPLC-MS analysis was employed to obtain the metabolic fingerprints of burdock leaf fractions before and after inhibiting the biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic fingerprints were transformed to data, analyzed with PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis and the peaks whose area was significantly changed were found out. Thus, 81 compounds were screened as potential anti-biofilm ingredients. Among them, rutin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were identified and confirmed as the main anti-biofilm compounds in burdock leaf. The study provided basic anti-biofilm profile data for the compounds in burdock leaf, as well as provided a convenient method for fast screening of anti-biofilm compounds from natural plants.

  10. A hairy-leaf gene, BLANKET LEAF, of wild Oryza nivara increases photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Yasui, Hideshi; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Yoko; Furuya, Naruto; Araki, Takuya; Ueno, Osamu; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    High water use efficiency is essential to water-saving cropping. Morphological traits that affect photosynthetic water use efficiency are not well known. We examined whether leaf hairiness improves photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice. A chromosome segment introgression line (IL-hairy) of wild Oryza nivara (Acc. IRGC105715) with the genetic background of Oryza sativa cultivar 'IR24' had high leaf pubescence (hair). The leaf hairs developed along small vascular bundles. Linkage analysis in BC 5 F 2 and F 3 populations showed that the trait was governed by a single gene, designated BLANKET LEAF (BKL), on chromosome 6. IL-hairy plants had a warmer leaf surface in sunlight, probably due to increased boundary layer resistance. They had a lower transpiration rate under moderate and high light intensities, resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. Introgression of BKL on chromosome 6 from O. nivara improved photosynthetic water use efficiency in the genetic background of IR24.

  11. Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choat, Brendan; Ball, Marilyn C; Luly, Jon G; Donnelly, Christine F; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations were examined in tree species of contrasting leaf phenology growing in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest in north-eastern Australia. Two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret. were studied. The deciduous species had higher specific leaf areas and maximum photosynthetic rates per leaf dry mass in the wet season than the evergreens. During the transition from wet season to dry season, total canopy area was reduced by 70-90% in the deciduous species and stomatal conductance (g(s)) and assimilation rate (A) were markedly lower in the remaining leaves. Deciduous species maintained daytime leaf water potentials (Psi(L)) at close to or above wet season values by a combination of stomatal regulation and reduction in leaf area. Thus, the timing of leaf drop in deciduous species was not associated with large negative values of daytime Psi(L) (greater than -1.6 MPa) or predawn Psi(L) (greater than -1.0 MPa). The deciduous species appeared sensitive to small perturbations in soil and leaf water status that signalled the onset of drought. The evergreen species were less sensitive to the onset of drought and g(s) values were not significantly lower during the transitional period. In the dry season, the evergreen species maintained their canopies despite increasing water-stress; however, unlike Eucalyptus species from northern Australian savannas, A and g(s) were significantly lower than wet season values.

  12. Leaf area index from litter collection: impact of specific leaf area variability within a beech stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouriaud, O. [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches Forestieres de Nancy, Champenoux (France); Soudani, K. [Univ. Paris-Sud XI, Dept. d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale, Lab. Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay Cedex (France); Breda, N. [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches Forestieres de Nancy, Champenoux (France)

    2003-06-01

    Litter fall collection is a direct method widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in broad-leaved forest stands. Indirect measurements using radiation transmittance and gap fraction theory are often compared and calibrated against litter fall, which is considered as a reference method, but few studies address the question of litter specific leaf area (SLA) measurement and variability. SLA (leaf area per unit of dry weight, m{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup -1}) is used to convert dry leaf litter biomass (g .m{sup -}2) into leaf area per ground unit area (m{sup 2}{center_dot}m{sup -2}). We paid special attention to this parameter in two young beech stands (dense and thinned) in northeastern France. The variability of both canopy (closure, LAI) and site conditions (soil properties, vegetation) was investigated as potential contributing factors to beech SLA variability. A systematic description of soil and floristic composition was performed and three types of soil were identified. Ellenberg's indicator values were averaged for each plot to assess nitrogen soil content. SLA of beech litter was measured three times during the fall in 23 plots in the stands (40 ha). Litter was collected bimonthly in square-shaped traps (0.5 m{sup 2}) and dried. Before drying, 30 leaves per plot and for each date were sampled, and leaf length, width, and area were measured with the help of a LI-COR areameter. SLA was calculated as the ratio of cumulated leaf area to total dry weight of the 30 leaves. Leaves characteristics per plot were averaged for the three dates of litter collection. Plant area index (PAI), estimated using the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyser and considering only the upper three rings, ranged from 2.9 to 8.1. Specific leaf area of beech litter was also highly different from one plot to the other, ranging from 150 to 320 cm{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup -1}. Nevertheless, no relationship was found between SLA and stand canopy closure or PAI On the contrary, a significant

  13. Leaf area index from litter collection: impact of specific leaf area variability within a beech stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouriaud, O.; Soudani, K.; Breda, N.

    2003-01-01

    Litter fall collection is a direct method widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in broad-leaved forest stands. Indirect measurements using radiation transmittance and gap fraction theory are often compared and calibrated against litter fall, which is considered as a reference method, but few studies address the question of litter specific leaf area (SLA) measurement and variability. SLA (leaf area per unit of dry weight, m 2 ·g -1 ) is used to convert dry leaf litter biomass (g .m - 2) into leaf area per ground unit area (m 2 ·m -2 ). We paid special attention to this parameter in two young beech stands (dense and thinned) in northeastern France. The variability of both canopy (closure, LAI) and site conditions (soil properties, vegetation) was investigated as potential contributing factors to beech SLA variability. A systematic description of soil and floristic composition was performed and three types of soil were identified. Ellenberg's indicator values were averaged for each plot to assess nitrogen soil content. SLA of beech litter was measured three times during the fall in 23 plots in the stands (40 ha). Litter was collected bimonthly in square-shaped traps (0.5 m 2 ) and dried. Before drying, 30 leaves per plot and for each date were sampled, and leaf length, width, and area were measured with the help of a LI-COR areameter. SLA was calculated as the ratio of cumulated leaf area to total dry weight of the 30 leaves. Leaves characteristics per plot were averaged for the three dates of litter collection. Plant area index (PAI), estimated using the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyser and considering only the upper three rings, ranged from 2.9 to 8.1. Specific leaf area of beech litter was also highly different from one plot to the other, ranging from 150 to 320 cm 2 ·g -1 . Nevertheless, no relationship was found between SLA and stand canopy closure or PAI On the contrary, a significant relationship between SLA and soil properties was observed. Both SLA

  14. Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf growth, leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic capacity in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    1998-01-01

    Literature reports show little effect of nitrogen supply on radiation use efficiency in potato and in other dicotyledonous C3 species. This paper tests the hypothesis that potato reduces leaf size rather than leaf nitrogen concentration and photosynthetic capacity when nitrogen is in short supply.

  15. Leaf Area Estimation Models for Ginger ( Zingibere officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to develop leaf area estimation models for three cultivars (37/79, 38/79 and 180/73) and four accessions (29/86, 30/86, 47/86 and 52/86) of ginger. Significant variations were observed among the tested genotypes in leaf length (L), leaf width (W) and actual leaf area (ALA). Leaf area was highly ...

  16. Plant allometry, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry, and interspecific trends in annual growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J

    2006-02-01

    Life forms as diverse as unicellular algae, zooplankton, vascular plants, and mammals appear to obey quarter-power scaling rules. Among the most famous of these rules is Kleiber's (i.e. basal metabolic rates scale as the three-quarters power of body mass), which has a botanical analogue (i.e. annual plant growth rates scale as the three-quarters power of total body mass). Numerous theories have tried to explain why these rules exist, but each has been heavily criticized either on conceptual or empirical grounds. N,P-STOICHIOMETRY: Recent models predicting growth rates on the basis of how total cell, tissue, or organism nitrogen and phosphorus are allocated, respectively, to protein and rRNA contents may provide the answer, particularly in light of the observation that annual plant growth rates scale linearly with respect to standing leaf mass and that total leaf mass scales isometrically with respect to nitrogen but as the three-quarters power of leaf phosphorus. For example, when these relationships are juxtaposed with other allometric trends, a simple N,P-stoichiometric model successfully predicts the relative growth rates of 131 diverse C3 and C4 species. The melding of allometric and N,P-stoichiometric theoretical insights provides a robust modelling approach that conceptually links the subcellular 'machinery' of protein/ribosomal metabolism to observed growth rates of uni- and multicellular organisms. Because the operation of this 'machinery' is basic to the biology of all life forms, its allometry may provide a mechanistic explanation for the apparent ubiquity of quarter-power scaling rules.

  17. A Global Data Set of Leaf Photosynthetic Rates, Leaf N and P, and Specific Leaf Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This global data set of photosynthetic rates and leaf nutrient traits was compiled from a comprehensive literature review. It includes estimates of Vcmax...

  18. A Global Data Set of Leaf Photosynthetic Rates, Leaf N and P, and Specific Leaf Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This global data set of photosynthetic rates and leaf nutrient traits was compiled from a comprehensive literature review. It includes estimates of Vcmax (maximum...

  19. Leaf area index drives soil water availability and extreme drought-related mortality under elevated CO2 in a temperate grassland model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future.

  20. 75 Easy Life Science Demonstrations. Teacher Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Thomas

    This book is a collection of life science classroom demonstrations. Explanations that review key concepts are included. Topics are: stimulus and response; gravitropism; phototropism; living organisms; carbon dioxide; gases emitted by plants; greenhouse effect; stomata; transpiration; leaf skeletons; seed growth; water evaporation in plants; carbon…

  1. Yielding of leaf celery Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum Alef. depending on the number of harvests and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Rożek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf celery (Apium graveolensvar. secalinum is a vegetable with medicinal and spicy properties. Its numerous intensely fragrant leaves can be cut several times during the plant growing period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation and number of harvests on leaf celery yield of the cultivars ‘Afina’ and‘Gewone Snij’. Plant irrigation significantly increased leaf yield and plant height of leaf celery. Higher total yield was obtained from non-irrigated plants when leaves were harvested three times, whereas for irrigated plants yield was higher in the case of two leaf harvests. Irrespective of the experimental factors, higher yield was obtained from the cultivar ‘Gewone Snij’.

  2. Leaf habit does not determine the investment in both physical and chemical defences and pair-wise correlations between these defensive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, X; Pearse, I S

    2017-05-01

    Plant life-history strategies associated with resource acquisition and economics (e.g. leaf habit) are thought to be fundamental determinants of the traits and mechanisms that drive herbivore pressure, resource allocation to plant defensive traits, and the simultaneous expression (positive correlations) or trade-offs (negative correlations) between these defensive traits. In particular, it is expected that evergreen species - which usually grow slower and support constant herbivore pressure in comparison with deciduous species - will exhibit higher levels of both physical and chemical defences and a higher predisposition to the simultaneous expression of physical and chemical defensive traits. Here, by using a dataset which included 56 oak species (Quercus genus), we investigated whether leaf habit of plant species governs the investment in both physical and chemical defences and pair-wise correlations between these defensive traits. Our results showed that leaf habit does not determine the production of most leaf physical and chemical defences. Although evergreen oak species had higher levels of leaf toughness and specific leaf mass (physical defences) than deciduous oak species, both traits are essentially prerequisites for evergreenness. Similarly, our results also showed that leaf habit does not determine pair-wise correlations between defensive traits because most physical and chemical defensive traits were simultaneously expressed in both evergreen and deciduous oak species. Our findings indicate that leaf habit does not substantially contribute to oak species differences in plant defence investment. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  4. Availability of Life Support Equipment and its Utilization by Ambulance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Rija; Badhu, Angur; Shah, Tara; Shrestha, Sharmila

    2017-09-08

    An effective ambulance is a vital requirement for providing an emergency medical service. Well-equipped ambulances with trained paramedics can save many lives during the golden hours of trauma care. The objective was to document the availability and utilization of basic life support equipment in the ambulances and to assess knowledge on first aid among the drivers. Descriptive design was used. Total of 109 ambulances linked to B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled using purposive sampling method. Self- constructed observation checklist and semi structured interview schedule was used for data collection. More than half of the respondents had less than five years of experience and were not trained in first aid. About two-third of the respondents had adequate knowledge on first aid. About 90% of the ambulance had oxygen cylinder and adult oxygen mask which was 'usually' used equipment. More than half of ambulance had equipment less than 23% as compared to that of national guidelines. There was significant association of knowledge with the experience (p = 0.004) and training (p = 0.001). Availability of equipment was associated with training received (p = 0.007),organization (p= 0.032)and district (p = 0.023) in which the ambulance is registered. The study concludes that maximum ambulance linked to BPKIHS, Nepal did not have even one fourth of the equipment for basic life support. Equipment usually used was oxygen cylinder and oxygen mask. Majority of driver had adequate knowledge on first aid and it was associated with training and experience.

  5. Leaf structural characteristics are less important than leaf chemical properties in determining the response of leaf mass per area and photosynthesis of Eucalyptus saligna to industrial-age changes in [CO2] and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Salih, Anya; Ghannoum, Oula; Tissue, David T

    2012-10-01

    The rise in atmospheric [CO(2)] is associated with increasing air temperature. However, studies on plant responses to interactive effects of [CO(2)] and temperature are limited, particularly for leaf structural attributes. In this study, Eucalyptus saligna plants were grown in sun-lit glasshouses differing in [CO(2)] (290, 400, and 650 µmol mol(-1)) and temperature (26 °C and 30 °C). Leaf anatomy and chloroplast parameters were assessed with three-dimensional confocal microscopy, and the interactive effects of [CO(2)] and temperature were quantified. The relative influence of leaf structural attributes and chemical properties on the variation of leaf mass per area (LMA) and photosynthesis within these climate regimes was also determined. Leaf thickness and mesophyll size increased in higher [CO(2)] but decreased at the warmer temperature; no treatment interaction was observed. In pre-industrial [CO(2)], warming reduced chloroplast diameter without altering chloroplast number per cell, but the opposite pattern (reduced chloroplast number per cell and unchanged chloroplast diameter) was observed in both current and projected [CO(2)]. The variation of LMA was primarily explained by total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) concentration rather than leaf thickness. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (light- and [CO(2)]-saturated rate at 28 °C) and light-saturated photosynthesis (under growth [CO(2)] and temperature) were primarily determined by leaf nitrogen contents, while secondarily affected by chloroplast gas exchange surface area and chloroplast number per cell, respectively. In conclusion, leaf structural attributes are less important than TNC and nitrogen in affecting LMA and photosynthesis responses to the studied climate regimes, indicating that leaf structural attributes have limited capacity to adjust these functional traits in a changing climate.

  6. The Design and Implementation of the Leaf Area Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quick and accurate acquisition of crop growth parameters on a large scale is important for agricultural management and food security. The combination of photographic and wireless sensor network (WSN techniques can be used to collect agricultural information, such as leaf area index (LAI, over long distances and in real time. Such acquisition not only provides farmers with photographs of crops and suggestions for farmland management, but also the collected quantitative parameters, such as LAI, can be used to support large scale research in ecology, hydrology, remote sensing, etc. The present research developed a Leaf Area Index Sensor (LAIS to continuously monitor the growth of crops in several sampling points, and applied 3G/WIFI communication technology to remotely collect (and remotely setup and upgrade crop photos in real-time. Then the crop photos are automatically processed and LAI is estimated based on the improved leaf area index of Lang and Xiang (LAILX algorithm in LAIS. The research also constructed a database of images and other information relating to crop management. The leaf length and width method (LAILLW can accurately measure LAI through direct field harvest. The LAIS has been tested in several exemplary applications, and validation with LAI from LAILLW. The LAI acquired by LAIS had been proved reliable.

  7. Leaf arrangements are invalid in the taxonomy of orchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jakubska-Busse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection and validation of proper distinguishing characters are of crucial importance in taxonomic revisions. The modern classifications of orchids utilize the molecular tools, but still the selection and identification of the material used in these studies is for the most part related to general species morphology. One of the vegetative characters quoted in orchid manuals is leaf arrangement. However, phyllotactic diversity and ontogenetic changeability have not been analysed in detail in reference to particular taxonomic groups. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of leaf arrangements in the taxonomy of the genus Epipactis Zinn, 1757. Typical leaf arrangements in shoots of this genus are described as distichous or spiral. However, in the course of field research and screening of herbarium materials, we indisputably disproved the presence of distichous phyllotaxis in the species Epipactis purpurata Sm. and confirmed the spiral Fibonacci pattern as the dominant leaf arrangement. In addition, detailed analyses revealed the presence of atypical decussate phyllotaxis in this species, as well as demonstrated the ontogenetic formation of pseudowhorls. These findings confirm ontogenetic variability and plasticity in E. purpurata. Our results are discussed in the context of their significance in delimitations of complex taxa within the genus Epipactis.

  8. Diel time-courses of leaf growth in monocot and dicot species: endogenous rhythms and temperature effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Richard; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Parent, Boris; Mielewczik, Michael; Schurr, Ulrich; Tardieu, François; Walter, Achim

    2010-06-01

    Diel (24 h) leaf growth patterns were differently affected by temperature variations and the circadian clock in several plant species. In the monocotyledon Zea mays, leaf elongation rate closely followed changes in temperature. In the dicotyledons Nicotiana tabacum, Ricinus communis, and Flaveria bidentis, the effect of temperature regimes was less obvious and leaf growth exhibited a clear circadian oscillation. These differences were related neither to primary metabolism nor to altered carbohydrate availability for growth. The effect of endogenous rhythms on leaf growth was analysed under continuous light in Arabidopsis thaliana, Ricinus communis, Zea mays, and Oryza sativa. No rhythmic growth was observed under continuous light in the two monocotyledons, while growth rhythmicity persisted in the two dicotyledons. Based on model simulations it is concluded that diel leaf growth patterns in mono- and dicotyledons result from the additive effects of both circadian-clock-controlled processes and responses to environmental changes such as temperature and evaporative demand. Apparently very distinct diel leaf growth behaviour of monocotyledons and dicotyledons can thus be explained by the different degrees to which diel temperature variations affect leaf growth in the two groups of species which, in turn, depends on the extent of the leaf growth control by internal clocks.

  9. Optimization and Static Stress Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Muhammed Ali Ismaeel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A monofiber reinforced composite leaf spring is proposed as an alternative to the typical steel one as it is characterized by high strength-to-weight ratio. Different reinforcing schemes are suggested to fabricate the leaf spring. The composite and the typical steel leaf springs are subjected to the same working conditions. A weight saving of about more than 60% can be achieved while maintaining the strength for the structures under consideration. The objective of the present study was to replace material for leaf spring. This study suggests various materials of hybrid fiber reinforced plastics (HFRP. Also the effects of shear moduli of the fibers, matrices, and the composites on the composites performance and responses are discussed. The results and behaviors of each are compared with each other and verified by comparison with analytical solution; a good convergence is found between them. The elastic properties of the hybrid composites are calculated using rules of mixtures and Halpin-Tsi equation through the software of MATLAB v-7. The problem is also analyzed by the technique of finite element analysis (FEA through the software of ANSYS v-14. An element modeling was done for every leaf with eight-node 3D brick element (SOLID185 3D 8-Node Structural Solid.

  10. Leaf phenotypic variation and developmental instability in relation to different light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Venâncio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For pioneer plants, shaded habitats represent a stressful condition, where sunlight exposure is below the optimum level and so leaves expand in order to intercept a greater amount of light. We investigated changes in both phenotypic variation and stress of Bauhinia brevipes in sunny and shaded microhabitats. Leaf area was used as a measure of phenotypic variation, whereas leaf asymmetry (difference between right and left sides of leaves, was used as a measure of stress. We hypothesized an increase in leaf area and stress in shaded locations, which might indicate that B. brevipes was compensating for low light absorption, and elevated levels of stress, respectively. Plants in the sun fitted a fluctuating asymmetry pattern (normal distribution of right minus left sides, while shaded plants were clearly antisymmetric (bimodal distribution of leaf side differences. Leaf asymmetry and area were 5% and 26.8% higher in plants in the shade compared to plants in the sun, respectively. These results were expected since B. brevipes is found predominantly in open areas; so sunlight exposure is important for its development. The presence of antisymmetry is rare in studies of developmental instability, and here it might indicate higher stress compared to plants with fluctuating asymmetry.

  11. Leaf and inflorescence axis anatomy of Brazilian species of Rapateoideae (Rapateaceae, Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela L. Daltin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of leaves and inflorescence axes of Spathanthus (2 spp., Rapatea (2 spp., Cephalostemon(1 sp., and Duckea(1 sp. (Rapateoideae, Rapateaceae was studied to identify useful characters for taxonomy. The cross-section shape of inflorescence axis differentiates the genera, while the cross-section shape and structure of leaf midrib has a specific value. The following characteristics are exclusive of Spathanthus: silica cells randomly distributed in the leaf epidermis; plicate chlorenchyma in the leaf blade; presence of fiber bundles in the mesophyll and in the inflorescence axis parenchyma. Spathanthus is also distinguished by the number, type and distribution of vascular bundles in the inflorescence axis. The genus Rapatea is characterized by the presence of stomata and silica cells only on the abaxial epidermis of the leaves and chlorenchyma composed of arm cells in the leaf blade. Characteristics with diagnostic value for Cephalostemon riedelianusare: leaf epidermal cells with straight to slightly sinuous walls in frontal view, inflorescence axes presenting a defined cortex, fiber bundles facing the larger vascular bundles and a fistulous pith. The anatomical characteristics of the leaves and inflorescence axes thus proved to be of taxonomic value in generic and specific levels. They are also useful to differentiate Rapateoideae from other subfamilies of Rapateaceae.

  12. Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia Leaf Extract Against Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynda F. Pariñas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ampalaya leaf extract against gastrointestinal parasites of native chicken. Specifically, it aimed to:(1to evaluate the anthelmintic property of ampalaya leaf extract in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken;(2 find out the most effective variety of ampalaya leaves as purgatives for native chicken; and(3 to compare the efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract with commercial purgative in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites. A total of fifteen (15 experimental native chickens were used in each study which was distributed into five (5 treatments. For study 1 and 2, Commercial purgative (Piperazine dihydrocloride and commercial purgative (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole were used respectively as positive control. Based on the result of the study, ampalaya leaf extract shows comparable effect to positive control (Piperazine dihydrochloride in treating and controlling gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken. However, commercial purgative with triple ingredient (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole shows more effective than the ampalaya extract. The researcher concludes that efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract as purgative is comparable to the effect of commercial purgative with single active ingreadient (Piperazine dihydrochloride, commercial purgative with triple active ingredients ( mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole excelled over the ampalaya extract because of its multi-ingredients.

  13. Leaf anatomy of the South African Danthonieae (Poaceae. XIII. Pentameris macrocalycina and P. obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf blade anatomy of Peniameris macrocalycina (Steud. Schweick. and P. obtusifolia (Hochst, Schweick. is described and illustrated. The leaf anatomy of these two species shows many similarities suggesting a close relationship between them. A slight problem appears to exist with the circumscription of P. obtusifolia and a minor taxonomic adjustment may result in a classification which agrees totally with that based on leaf anatomy. This would result in details of the leaf outline being diagnostic for these two taxa. The nomenclature of P. obtusifolia is also very confusing and clarification is needed by reference to the relevant type specimens. P. macrocalycina and P. obtusifolia together with  P. longiglumis (Nees Stapf, appear to form a distinct genus and do not bear close anatomical resemblances to either P. thuarri Beauv. or P. dregeana Stapf.

  14. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  15. Leaf out times of temperate woody plants are related to phylogeny, deciduousness, growth habit and wood anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchen, Zoe A; Primack, Richard B; Nordt, Birgit; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Stevens, Albert-Dieter; Renner, Susanne S; Willis, Charles G; Fahey, Robert; Whittemore, Alan; Du, Yanjun; Davis, Charles C

    2014-09-01

    Leaf out phenology affects a wide variety of ecosystem processes and ecological interactions and will take on added significance as leaf out times increasingly shift in response to warming temperatures associated with climate change. There is, however, relatively little information available on the factors affecting species differences in leaf out phenology. An international team of researchers from eight Northern Hemisphere temperate botanical gardens recorded leaf out dates of c. 1600 woody species in 2011 and 2012. Leaf out dates in woody species differed by as much as 3 months at a single site and exhibited strong phylogenetic and anatomical relationships. On average, angiosperms leafed out earlier than gymnosperms, deciduous species earlier than evergreen species, shrubs earlier than trees, diffuse and semi-ring porous species earlier than ring porous species, and species with smaller diameter xylem vessels earlier than species with larger diameter vessels. The order of species leaf out was generally consistent between years and among sites. As species distribution and abundance shift due to climate change, interspecific differences in leaf out phenology may affect ecosystem processes such as carbon, water, and nutrient cycling. Our open access leaf out data provide a critical framework for monitoring and modelling such changes going forward. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Leaf litter traits of invasive species slow down decomposition compared to Spanish natives: a broad phylogenetic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Oscar; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Leaf traits related to the performance of invasive alien species can influence nutrient cycling through litter decomposition. However, there is no consensus yet about whether there are consistent differences in functional leaf traits between invasive and native species that also manifest themselves through their "after life" effects on litter decomposition. When addressing this question it is important to avoid confounding effects of other plant traits related to early phylogenetic divergences and to understand the mechanism underlying the observed results to predict which invasive species will exert larger effects on nutrient cycling. We compared initial leaf litter traits, and their effect on decomposability as tested in standardized incubations, in 19 invasive-native pairs of co-familial species from Spain. They included 12 woody and seven herbaceous alien species representative of the Spanish invasive flora. The predictive power of leaf litter decomposition rates followed the order: growth form > family > status (invasive vs. native) > leaf type. Within species pairs litter decomposition tended to be slower and more dependent on N and P in invaders than in natives. This difference was likely driven by the higher lignin content of invader leaves. Although our study has the limitation of not representing the natural conditions from each invaded community, it suggests a potential slowing down of the nutrient cycle at ecosystem scale upon invasion.

  17. Dependence of fluence errors in dynamic IMRT on leaf-positional errors varying with time and leaf number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygmanski, Piotr; Kung, Jong H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Chin, Lee

    2003-01-01

    In d-MLC based IMRT, leaves move along a trajectory that lies within a user-defined tolerance (TOL) about the ideal trajectory specified in a d-MLC sequence file. The MLC controller measures leaf positions multiple times per second and corrects them if they deviate from ideal positions by a value greater than TOL. The magnitude of leaf-positional errors resulting from finite mechanical precision depends on the performance of the MLC motors executing leaf motions and is generally larger if leaves are forced to move at higher speeds. The maximum value of leaf-positional errors can be limited by decreasing TOL. However, due to the inherent time delay in the MLC controller, this may not happen at all times. Furthermore, decreasing the leaf tolerance results in a larger number of beam hold-offs, which, in turn leads, to a longer delivery time and, paradoxically, to higher chances of leaf-positional errors (≤TOL). On the other end, the magnitude of leaf-positional errors depends on the complexity of the fluence map to be delivered. Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to determine the actual distribution of leaf-positional errors either by the imaging of moving MLC apertures with a digital imager or by analysis of a MLC log file saved by a MLC controller. This leads next to an important question: What is the relation between the distribution of leaf-positional errors and fluence errors. In this work, we introduce an analytical method to determine this relation in dynamic IMRT delivery. We model MLC errors as Random-Leaf Positional (RLP) errors described by a truncated normal distribution defined by two characteristic parameters: a standard deviation σ and a cut-off value Δx 0 (Δx 0 ∼TOL). We quantify fluence errors for two cases: (i) Δx 0 >>σ (unrestricted normal distribution) and (ii) Δx 0 0 --limited normal distribution). We show that an average fluence error of an IMRT field is proportional to (i) σ/ALPO and (ii) Δx 0 /ALPO, respectively, where

  18. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  19. Influence of leaf retention on cutting propagation of Lavandula dentata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation of lavender offers several advantages over sexual propagation, among them crop homogeneity and yield of higher quality essential oil. However, Lavandula species have been propagated mostly by seeds and are said to be recalcitrant to rooting when propagated by cuttings. During cutting propagation, one of the important variables that influence the rooting capacity of cuttings is the leaf retention. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of leaf retention on rooting of L. dentata cuttings. Apical cuttings of L. dentata of 10 cm in length, keeping approximately 1/3, 1/2 or 2/3 of their leaves were planted in commercial substrate Plantmax HT® under intermittent mist. After two months, averages of root number, length of the longest root, root fresh and dry weights, and the survival percentage were evaluated. Root length and fresh weight were statistically greater with 2/3 of leaf retention and when fewer leaves were kept on the cuttings, lower means of root dry weight was observed. Under the conditions applied in this study, greater leaf retention was better for rooting of L. dentata cuttings.

  20. Study of HPLC-DAD characteristic chromatogram of Pyrrosia leaf formula granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing HA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection method of characteristic chromatogram of Pyrrosia leaf Formula granules by HPLC-DAD is established. The analysis is performed on a Inertsil ODS-2 C18 column(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm with a gradient mobile phase of methanol-0.5% formic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength is 265 nm, the column temperature is 30 ℃, and the injection is 10 μL. The Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM (Version 2012A is used for the 10 batches of Pyrrosia leaf formula granules quality assessment, and cluster analysis is obtained based on characteristic peaks in detected samples. Two peaks are confirmed by comparison with the chromatograms of the standard substances. Nine characteristic peaks are found through multipoint revise and the similarity evaluation system. Similarities of 10 batches of Pyrrosia leaf formula granules are all more than 0.85 and the analyzed samples are geographically classified into three classes. The method has good characteristics and specificity of accuracy, reliability, and repeatability, and can be used for the quality control of Pyrrosia leaf formula granules.

  1. Microwave Pretreatments of Switchgrass Leaf and Stem Fractions to Increase Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of microwave pretreatments on methane production from two switchgrass tissues (leaf vs. stem. The methane production from the leaf fraction was significantly affected by the microwave final temperature, while production from the stem fraction was affected by the combination of the microwave final temperature and heating rate. Thus, the highest methane yield from the leaf (134.81 mL CH4/g of volatile solids (VS was obtained at 100 °C, while the highest yield from the stem (99.35 mL CH4/g VS was obtained at 150 °C, with a heating rate of 10 °C/min. Although methane production from the leaf fraction was merely enhanced by 9.1% after microwave pretreatments, the time required to reach 80% of ultimate methane production was reduced by 12 days. For the stem fraction, methane production was improved by 5.2% after microwave pretreatment, and the time to obtain 80% of ultimate methane production increased.

  2. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: Global patterns and paleoclimatic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppe, D.J.; Royer, D.L.; Cariglino, B.; Oliver, S.Y.; Newman, S.; Leight, E.; Enikolopov, G.; Fernandez-Burgos, M.; Herrera, F.; Adams, J.M.; Correa, E.; Currano, E.D.; Erickson, J.M.; Hinojosa, L.F.; Hoganson, J.W.; Iglesias, A.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Johnson, K.R.; Jordan, G.J.; Kraft, N.J.B.; Lovelock, E.C.; Lusk, C.H.; Niinemets, U.; Penuelas, J.; Rapson, G.; Wing, S.L.; Wright, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    Paleobotanists have long used models based on leaf size and shape to reconstruct paleoclimate. However, most models incorporate a single variable or use traits that are not physiologically or functionally linked to climate, limiting their predictive power. Further, they often underestimate paleotemperature relative to other proxies. Here we quantify leaf-climate correlations from 92 globally distributed, climatically diverse sites, and explore potential confounding factors. Multiple linear regression models for mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) are developed and applied to nine well-studied fossil floras. We find that leaves in cold climates typically have larger, more numerous teeth, and are more highly dissected. Leaf habit (deciduous vs evergreen), local water availability, and phylogenetic history all affect these relationships. Leaves in wet climates are larger and have fewer, smaller teeth. Our multivariate MAT and MAP models offer moderate improvements in precision over univariate approaches (??4.0 vs 4.8??C for MAT) and strong improvements in accuracy. For example, our provisional MAT estimates for most North American fossil floras are considerably warmer and in better agreement with independent paleoclimate evidence. Our study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional leaf traits that are functionally linked to climate improves paleoclimate reconstructions. This work also illustrates the need for better understanding of the impact of phylogeny and leaf habit on leaf-climate relationships. ?? 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist ?? 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. The Nissan LEAF electric powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Shinsuke [Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    The need for CO{sub 2} reduction as a countermeasure to global warming, and to move away from our dependence on fossil fuels as a countermeasure to energy security are urgent issues. One of the ultimate goals to achieving these targets is to develop a 'Zero emission car' such as an electric vehicle or a fuel cell vehicle, along with the manufacturing of clean energy. Nissan have developed a new powertrain for the electric vehicle, and have installed it in the Nissan LEAF. Sales of the Nissan LEAF started in North America, Europe and Japan in 2010, with plans to sell it globally by 2012. In order to achieve an improved driving range, power performance and drivability performance, Nissan have adapted a high efficiency synchronous motor, a water-cooled inverter, and reducer. Moreover, the Nissan LEAF has the capability of a 3.3kW AC charge and a 50kW DC quick charge. This presentation will introduce the features of the electric powertrain adopted for Nissan LEAF. (orig.)

  4. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  5. Modeling canopy-level productivity: is the "big-leaf" simplification acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprintsin, M.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The "big-leaf" approach to calculating the carbon balance of plant canopies assumes that canopy carbon fluxes have the same relative responses to the environment as any single unshaded leaf in the upper canopy. Widely used light use efficiency models are essentially simplified versions of the big-leaf model. Despite its wide acceptance, subsequent developments in the modeling of leaf photosynthesis and measurements of canopy physiology have brought into question the assumptions behind this approach showing that big leaf approximation is inadequate for simulating canopy photosynthesis because of the additional leaf internal control on carbon assimilation and because of the non-linear response of photosynthesis on leaf nitrogen and absorbed light, and changes in leaf microenvironment with canopy depth. To avoid this problem a sunlit/shaded leaf separation approach, within which the vegetation is treated as two big leaves under different illumination conditions, is gradually replacing the "big-leaf" strategy, for applications at local and regional scales. Such separation is now widely accepted as a more accurate and physiologically based approach for modeling canopy photosynthesis. Here we compare both strategies for Gross Primary Production (GPP) modeling using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) at local (tower footprint) scale for different land cover types spread over North America: two broadleaf forests (Harvard, Massachusetts and Missouri Ozark, Missouri); two coniferous forests (Howland, Maine and Old Black Spruce, Saskatchewan); Lost Creek shrubland site (Wisconsin) and Mer Bleue petland (Ontario). BEPS calculates carbon fixation by scaling Farquhar's leaf biochemical model up to canopy level with stomatal conductance estimated by a modified version of the Ball-Woodrow-Berry model. The "big-leaf" approach was parameterized using derived leaf level parameters scaled up to canopy level by means of Leaf Area Index. The influence of sunlit

  6. Baby leaf lettuce germplasm enhancement: developing diverse populations with resistance to bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby leaf lettuce cultivars with resistance to bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) are needed to reduce crop losses. The objectives of this research were to assess the genetic diversity for BLS resistance in baby leaf lettuce cultivars and to select early gen...

  7. Estimativa da área foliar de Crambe abyssinica por discos foliares e por fotos digitais Estimate leaf area of Crambe abyssinica for leaf discs and digital photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Toebe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A área foliar é importante na determinação do crescimento e desenvolvimento das culturas agrícolas. Assim, os objetivos do trabalho foram comparar os métodos de discos foliares e de fotos digitais na estimativa da área foliar de Crambe abyssinica e modelar a área foliar em função do comprimento (C, da largura (L e ou do produto comprimento vezes largura (CxL de diferentes tamanhos de folhas. Para isso, em 308 folhas, foram determinados a área foliar, o comprimento, a largura e o produto comprimento vezes largura por meio dos métodos de discos foliares e de fotos digitais. Em seguida, foram comparados os métodos por meio do coeficiente de correlação linear entre a área foliar. A seguir, em cada método, modelou-se a área foliar (Y em função do C, da L e do CxL, por meio dos modelos: linear, linear simples, quadrático, geométrico e exponencial. Os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson e de Spearman entre a área foliar dos métodos de discos foliares e de fotos digitais foram de 0,9917 e 0,9889, respectivamente, o que revela métodos concordantes. Em ambos os métodos, os modelos quadráticos e geométricos apresentaram os melhores coeficientes de determinação da área foliar em função do comprimento e da largura das folhas. A largura da folha é a variável que melhor estima a área foliar. O método de fotos digitais pode ser utilizado para estimar a área foliar de crambe.Leaf area is important in determining the growth and development of agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to compare the methods of leaf discs and digital photos in estimating leaf area of Crambe abyssinica, and model leaf area according to length (C, width (L and/ or the product of length width (CxL for different sizes of leaves. For this, in 308 leaves it was determined the leaf area, length, width and the product of length width using the methods of leaf discs and digital photos. Then the methods were compared using the linear

  8. Leaf glands of Banisteriopsis muricata (Malpighiaceae: distribution, secretion composition, anatomy and relationship to visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lays Araújo Nery

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaf glands are common structures in Malpighiaceae and exhibit great morphological diversity, yet information on their anatomy, secretion and type of visitors remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution, anatomical development and chemical and functional properties of leaf glands of Banisteriopsis muricata (Malpighiaceae. Leaves at different stages of development were collected and processed according to standard techniques for light and scanning electron microscopy. Secretion composition was determined by histochemical tests and test-strips, while gland funciton was determined by field observation of interactions with visitors. Leaf glands were located on the petiole and on the abaxial base of the leaf blade. The gland secretion was found to be a protein-rich nectar that was foraged upon by ants ( Solenopsis; it was found accumulated in subcuticular spaces without pores or stomata for its release. Leaf glands were found to develop from protoderm and ground meristem, and consisted of typical secretory epidermis, nectariferous parenchyma and vascularized subnectariferous parenchyma. Therefore, it can be concluded that the distribution, chemical nature of secretion and anatomy of leaf glands of B. muricata characterize them as EFNs, while foraging by ants indicate a mutualistic relationship that possibly protects the plant against herbivores.

  9. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Late Neogene leaf assemblage from Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobiec Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf macroremains collected in the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland were investigated. The fossil assemblage consists of leaves of Acer, Betula, Carpinus, Dicotylophyllum, Fagus, ?Magnolia, “Parrotia”, Pinus, Quercus, and Zelkova. Mesophytic (zonal elements dominate, with admixture of riparian (azonal leaf taxa. The floristic composition points to late Neogene (late Miocene to late Pliocene age and suggests favourable temperate climate with mild winters.

  11. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf...

  12. Canopy gradients in leaf functional traits for species that differ in growth strategies and shade tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Fogel, Marilyn L; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2017-10-01

    In temperate deciduous forests, vertical gradients in leaf mass per area (LMA) and area-based leaf nitrogen (Narea) are strongly controlled by gradients in light availability. While there is evidence that hydrostatic constraints on leaf development may diminish LMA and Narea responses to light, inherent differences among tree species may also influence leaf developmental and morphological response to light. We investigated vertical gradients in LMA, Narea and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ13C) for three temperate deciduous species (Carpinus caroliniana Walter, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liriodendron tulipifera L.) that differed in growth strategy (e.g., indeterminate and determinate growth), shade tolerance and leaf area to sapwood ratio (Al:As). Leaves were sampled across a broad range of light conditions within three vertical layers of tree crowns to maximize variation in light availability at each height and to minimize collinearity between light and height. All species displayed similar responses to light with respect to Narea and δ13C, but not for LMA. Light was more important for gradients in LMA for the shade-tolerant (C. caroliniana) and -intolerant (L. tulipifera) species with indeterminate growth, and height (e.g., hydrostatic gradients) and light were equally important for the shade-tolerant (F. grandifolia) species with determinate growth. Fagus grandifolia had a higher morphological plasticity in response to light, which may offer a competitive advantage in occupying a broader range of light conditions throughout the canopy. Differences in responses to light and height for the taller tree species, L. tulipifera and F. grandifolia, may be attributed to differences in growth strategy or Al:As, which may alter morphological and functional responses to light availability. While height was important in F. grandifolia, height was no more robust in predicting LMA than light in any of the species, confirming the strong role of light availability in

  13. Leaf physico-chemical and physiological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) populations from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Álvarez-Iglesias, Lorena; Medina, Eva T; Cavero, José

    2016-10-01

    In this study we evaluated the leaf surface properties of maize populations native to different water availability environments. Leaf surface topography, wettability and gas exchange performance of five maize populations from the Sahara desert, dry (south) and humid (north-western) areas of Spain were analysed. Differences in wettability, stomatal and trichome densities, surface free energy and solubility parameter values were recorded between populations and leaf sides. Leaves from the humid Spanish population with special regard to the abaxial side, were less wettable and less susceptible to polar interactions. The higher wettability and hydrophilicity of Sahara populations with emphasis on the abaxial leaf surfaces, may favour dew deposition and foliar water absorption, hence improving water use efficiency under extremely dry conditions. Compared to the other Saharan populations, the dwarf one had a higher photosynthesis rate suggesting that dwarfism may be a strategy for improving plant tolerance to arid conditions. The results obtained for different maize populations suggest that leaf surfaces may vary in response to drought, but further studies will be required to examine the potential relationship between leaf surface properties and plant stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [GPC Fingerprint Chromatograms of Aloe vera Leaf Gel Polysaccharides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao-e; Xie, Dan; Qian, Jie; Dong, Yin-mao

    2015-10-01

    To establish the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) fingerprint chromatograms of polysaccharides in Aloe vera leaf gel from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats for evaluating the quality of Aloe vera leaf gel products commercially available and testing common adulterated substances. The samples were prepared by water-extraction and alcohol-precipitation method. GPC separation was performed on a Shodex SUGAR KS-805 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 7 μm) column and a Shodex SUGAR KS-803 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 6 μm) column at the temperature of 60 degrees C by eluting with 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 (containing 0.2 per thousand NaN) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the chromatographic effluent was detected by refractive index detector (RID) at the temperature of 50 degrees C. The common pattern of GPC fingerprint chromatograms was established and four common peaks were demarcated. The similarities of samples from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats were over 0.9. Taking the GPC fingerprint chromatograms for the qualified model, three commercially available aloe products were evaluated to be made of Aloe vera by the different manufacturing processes and four common adulterated substances of aloe polysaccharides were identified effectively. The method is simple and accurate with a good reproducibility, and it can be used for the identification and quality evaluation of Aloe vera leaf gel products.

  15. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Green

    Full Text Available Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  16. Pinus taeda clones and soil nutrient availability: effects of soil organic matter incorporation and fertilization on biomass partitioning and leaf physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Tyree; John Seiler; Chris Maier; Kurt Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    The combined effects of intensive management and planting of improved seedlings have led to large increases in productivity on intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States. To best match clones to particular site conditions, an understanding of how specific clones respond to changes in nutrition in terms of biomass partitioning, leaf physiology...

  17. What Is a Leaf? An Online Tutorial and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A leaf is a fundamental unit in botany and understanding what constitutes a leaf is fundamental to many plant science activities. My observations and subsequent testing indicated that many students could not confidently and consistently recognise a leaf from a leaflet, or recognise basic leaf arrangements and the various types of compound or…

  18. LEAF RESIDUE DECOMPOSITION OF SELECTED ATLANTIC FOREST TREE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Dias Arato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biogeochemical cycling is essential to establish and maintain plant and animal communities. Litter is one of main compartments of this cycle, and the kinetics of leaf decomposition in forest litter depend on the chemical composition and environmental conditions. This study evaluated the effect of leaf composition and environmental conditions on leaf decomposition of native Atlantic Forest trees. The following species were analyzed: Mabea fistulifera Mart., Bauhinia forficata Link., Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell, Luehea grandiflora Mart. et. Zucc., Croton floribundus Spreng., Trema micrantha (L Blume, Cassia ferruginea (Schrad Schrad ex DC, Senna macranthera (DC ex Collad. H. S. Irwin and Barney and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae. For each species, litter bags were distributed on and fixed to the soil surface of soil-filled pots (in a greenhouse, or directly to the surface of the same soil type in a natural forest (field. Every 30 days, the dry weight and soil basal respiration in both environments were determined. The cumulative decomposition of leaves varied according to the species, leaf nutrient content and environment. In general, the decomposition rate was lowest for Aegiphila sellowiana and fastest for Bauhinia forficate and Schinus terebinthifolius. This trend was similar under the controlled conditions of a greenhouse and in the field. The selection of species with a differentiated decomposition pattern, suited for different stages of the recovery process, can help improve soil restoration.

  19. Moisture availability constraints on the leaf area to sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian evergreen angiosperm trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Henrique; Prentice, Colin; Evans, Bradley; Forrester, David; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. Pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease towards drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. We found considerable scatter in LA:SA among species. However quantile regression showed strong (0.2availability constrains the envelope of minimum and maximum values of LA:SA typical for any given climate. Interspecific differences in plant hydraulic conductivity are probably responsible for the large scatter of values in the mid quantile-range, and may be an important determinant of tree morphology.

  20. Morphological and moisture availability controls of the leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Henrique Furstenau; Prentice, Iain Colin; Evans, Bradley John; Forrester, David Ian; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. The pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease toward drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. Despite considerable scatter in LA:SA among species, quantile regression showed strong (0.2 < R1 < 0.65) positive relationships between two climatic moisture indices and the lowermost (5%) and uppermost (5-15%) quantiles of log LA:SA, suggesting that moisture availability constrains the envelope of minimum and maximum values of LA:SA typical for any given climate. Interspecific differences in plant hydraulic conductivity are probably responsible for the large scatter of values in the mid-quantile range and may be an important determinant of tree morphology.

  1. The effects of leaf litter nutrient pulses on Alliaria petiolata performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Heckman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pulses can facilitate species establishment and spread in new habitats, particularly when one species more effectively uses that nutrient pulse. Biological differences in nutrient acquisition between native and exotic species may facilitate invasions into a variety of habitats including deciduous forest understories. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb. Cavara & Grande is an important invader of deciduous forest understories throughout much of North America. These understory communities contain many species which perform the majority of their growth and reproduction before canopy closure in spring. Because A. petiolata is a wintergreen biennial that can be active during autumn and winter, it may utilize nutrients released from decaying leaf litter before its competitors. To investigate this we manipulated the timing of leaf litter addition (fall or spring and experimentally simulated the nutrient pulse from decaying leaves using artificial fertilizer. To determine whether A. petiolata affected the abundance of understory competitors, we also removed A. petiolata from one treatment. A. petiolata that received early nutrients exhibited greater growth. Treatments receiving fall leaf litter or artificial nutrients had greater A. petiolata adult biomass than plots receiving spring nutrient additions (leaf litter or artificial nutrients. However, fall leaf litter addition had no effect on the richness of competitor species. Thus, wintergreen phenology may contribute to the spread of A. petiolata through deciduous forest understories, but may not explain community-level impacts of A. petiolata in deciduous forests.

  2. Effects of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea on leaf litter decomposition processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleid F. Abd El-Wakeil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaf litter decomposition is carried out by the combined action of microorganisms and decomposer invertebrates such as earthworms, diplopods and isopods. The present work aimed to evaluate the impact of terrestrial isopod on leaf litter decomposition process. In Lab experimental food sources from oak and magnolia leaves litter were prepared. Air dried leaf litter were cut to 9 mm discs and sterilized in an autoclave then soaked in distilled water or water percolated through soil and left to decompose for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. 12 groups from two isopods species Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare, were prepared with each one containing 9 isopods. They were fed individually on the prepared food for 2 weeks. The prepared food differed in Carbon stable isotope ratio (δ13C, C%, N% and C/N ratios. At the end of the experiment, isopods were dissected and separated into gut, gut content and rest of the body. The δ13C for the prepared food, faecal pellets, remaining food, gut content, gut and rest of isopod were compared. The feeding activities of the two isopods were significantly different among isopods groups. Consumption and egestion ratios of magnolia leaf were higher than oak leaf. P. scaber consumed and egested litter higher than A. vulgare. The present results suggested that the impact of isopods and decomposition processes is species and litter specific.

  3. Joint leaf chlorophyll content and leaf area index retrieval from Landsat data using a regularized model inversion system (REGFLEC)

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-01-19

    Leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) represent key biophysical and biochemical controls on water, energy and carbon exchange processes in the terrestrial biosphere. In combination, LAI and Chll provide critical information on vegetation density, vitality and photosynthetic potentials. However, simultaneous retrieval of LAI and Chll from space observations is extremely challenging. Regularization strategies are required to increase the robustness and accuracy of retrieved properties and enable more reliable separation of soil, leaf and canopy parameters. To address these challenges, the REGularized canopy reFLECtance model (REGFLEC) inversion system was refined to incorporate enhanced techniques for exploiting ancillary LAI and temporal information derived from multiple satellite scenes. In this current analysis, REGFLEC is applied to a time-series of Landsat data.A novel aspect of the REGFLEC approach is the fact that no site-specific data are required to calibrate the model, which may be run in a largely automated fashion using information extracted entirely from image-based and other widely available datasets. Validation results, based upon in-situ LAI and Chll observations collected over maize and soybean fields in central Nebraska for the period 2001-2005, demonstrate Chll retrieval with a relative root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) on the order of 19% (RMSD=8.42μgcm-2). While Chll retrievals were clearly influenced by the version of the leaf optical properties model used (PROSPECT), the application of spatio-temporal regularization constraints was shown to be critical for estimating Chll with sufficient accuracy. REGFLEC also reproduced the dynamics of in-situ measured LAI well (r2 =0.85), but estimates were biased low, particularly over maize (LAI was underestimated by ~36 %). This disparity may be attributed to differences between effective and true LAI caused by significant foliage clumping not being properly accounted for in the canopy

  4. Measurement of Leaf Mass and Leaf Area of Oaks In A Mediterranean-climate Region For Biogenic Emission Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlik, J.

    Given the key role played by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in tro- pospheric chemistry and regional air quality, it is critical to generate accurate BVOC emission inventories. Because several oak species have high BVOC emission rates, and oak trees are often of large stature with corresponding large leaf masses, oaks may be the most important genus of woody plants for BVOC emissions modeling in the natural landscapes of Mediterranean-climate regions. In California, BVOC emis- sions from oaks may mix with anthropogenic emissions from urban areas, leading to elevated levels of ozone. Data for leaf mass and leaf area for a stand of native blue oaks (Quercus douglasii) were obtained through harvest and leaf removal from 14 trees lo- cated in the Sierra Nevada foothills of central California. Trees ranged in height from 4.2 to 9.9 m, with trunk diameters at breast height of 14 to 85 cm. Mean leaf mass density was 730 g m-2 for the trees and had an overall value of 310 g m-2 for the site. Consideration of the surrounding grassland devoid of trees resulted in a value of about 150 g m-2, less than half of reported values for eastern U.S. oak woodlands, but close to a reported value for oaks found in St. Quercio, Italy. The mean value for leaf area index (LAI) for the trees at this site was 4.4 m2 m-2. LAI for the site was 1.8 m2 m-2, but this value was appropriate for the oak grove only; including the surrounding open grassland resulted in an overall LAI value of 0.9 m2 m-2 or less. A volumetric method worked well for estimating the leaf mass of the oak trees. Among allometric relationships investigated, trunk circumference, mean crown radius, and crown projec- tion were well correlated with leaf mass. Estimated emission of isoprene (mg C m-2 h-1) for the site based these leaf mass data and experimentally determined emission rate was similar to that reported for a Mediterranean oak woodland in France.

  5. Ozone Flux Measurement and Modelling on Leaf/Shoot and Canopy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Grünhage

    Full Text Available The quantitative study of the ozone effects on agricultural and forest vegetation requires the knowledge of the pollutant dose absorbed by plants via leaf stomata, i.e. the stomatal flux. Nevertheless, the toxicologically effective dose can differ from the stomatal flux because a pool of scavenging and detoxification processes reduce the amount of pollutant responsible of the expression of the harmful effects. The measurement of the stomatal flux is not immediate and the quantification of the effective dose is still troublesome. The paper examines the conceptual aspects of ozone flux measurement and modelling in agricultural and ecological research. The ozone flux paradigm is conceptualized into a toxicological frame and faced at two different scales: leaf/shoot and canopy scales. Leaf and shoot scale flux measurements require gas-exchange enclosure techniques, while canopy scale flux measurements need a micrometeorological approach including techniques such as eddy covariance and the aerodynamical gradient. At both scales, not all the measured ozone flux is stomatal flux. In fact, a not negligible amount of ozone is destroyed on external plant surfaces, like leaf cuticles, or by gas phase reaction with biogenic volatile compounds. The stomatal portion of flux can be calculated from concurrent measurements of water vapour fluxes at both scales. Canopy level flux measurements require very fast sensors and the fulfilment of many conditions to ensure that the measurements made above the canopy really reflect the canopy fluxes (constant flux hypothesis. Again, adjustments are necessary in order to correct for air density fluctuations and sensor-surface alignment break. As far as regards flux modelling, at leaf level the stomatal flux is simply obtained by multiplying the ozone concentration on the leaf with the stomatal conductance predicted by means of physiological models fed by meteorological parameter. At canopy level the stomatal flux is

  6. Detritivores enhance the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf-litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Masashi; Suzuki, Takahiro [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest ecosystems, {sup 137}Cs was mostly deposited and accumulated on the land surface of forest. The fate of radioactive materials accumulated on the leaf litters should be conscientiously monitored to understand the future distribution and the spread to the surrounding landscapes. Because the accident took place on 11 March 2011, just before the bud-break of deciduous trees, the {sup 137}Cs are highly accumulated on the surface of leaf litter on the forest floor. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through the detritus food chain. However, on the litter surface, {sup 137}Cs considered to be strongly and immediately fixed and highly immobilized. Decomposition processes in the forest floor can re-mobilise the nutritional elements which are contained within detritus and make them available for the organisms. In the present study, the feeding effect of detritivore soil arthropods on the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf litter was experimentally examined. Furthermore, the effect of detritivores on the plant uptake of {sup 137}Cs was examined by small-scale nursery experiment. Decomposition experiment in the small microcosms was performed using a larvae of Trypoxylus dichotomus, whichis a detritivores feeding on dead plant materials such as wood debris and leaf litters. Contaminated leaf litters were collected in a forest of the Kami-Oguni River catchment in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The leaf litters at A0 layers which are highly contaminated by {sup 137}Cs were utilized for the experiment. The contaminated leaf litter was fed to the larvae for ten days. The litter with larvae excreta was washed by 2 M KCl and deionized water. The {sup 137}Cs concentration was measured

  7. Identification of Alfalfa Leaf Diseases Using Image Recognition Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qin

    Full Text Available Common leaf spot (caused by Pseudopeziza medicaginis, rust (caused by Uromyces striatus, Leptosphaerulina leaf spot (caused by Leptosphaerulina briosiana and Cercospora leaf spot (caused by Cercospora medicaginis are the four common types of alfalfa leaf diseases. Timely and accurate diagnoses of these diseases are critical for disease management, alfalfa quality control and the healthy development of the alfalfa industry. In this study, the identification and diagnosis of the four types of alfalfa leaf diseases were investigated using pattern recognition algorithms based on image-processing technology. A sub-image with one or multiple typical lesions was obtained by artificial cutting from each acquired digital disease image. Then the sub-images were segmented using twelve lesion segmentation methods integrated with clustering algorithms (including K_means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering and K_median clustering and supervised classification algorithms (including logistic regression analysis, Naive Bayes algorithm, classification and regression tree, and linear discriminant analysis. After a comprehensive comparison, the segmentation method integrating the K_median clustering algorithm and linear discriminant analysis was chosen to obtain lesion images. After the lesion segmentation using this method, a total of 129 texture, color and shape features were extracted from the lesion images. Based on the features selected using three methods (ReliefF, 1R and correlation-based feature selection, disease recognition models were built using three supervised learning methods, including the random forest, support vector machine (SVM and K-nearest neighbor methods. A comparison of the recognition results of the models was conducted. The results showed that when the ReliefF method was used for feature selection, the SVM model built with the most important 45 features (selected from a total of 129 features was the optimal model. For this SVM model, the

  8. Leaf-jams - A new and unique leaf deposit in the ephemeral Hoanib River, NW Namibia: Origin and plant taphonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Christa-Ch. [University of Vienna, Department of Palaeontology, Palaeobotany Studies Group, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Rice, A. Hugh N. [University of Vienna, Department of Geodynamics and Sedimentology, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-08-01

    This paper documents a previously unrecorded type of leaf deposit, comprising essentially monospecific linear accumulations of Colophospermum mopane leaves on a point bar of the ephemeral Hoanib River, NW Namibia. In these 'leaf-jams', leaf laminae stand on edge, orientated more-or-less normal to bedding. Leaf-jams, which formed upstream of cobbles, clumps of grass and sticks wedged against the former two, were orientated subparallel to the adjacent meandering river-bed, such that over the 40 m of their occurrence, their mean azimuth changed by 59 anticlockwise downstream. The longest leaf-jam was 50 cm and contained approximately 500 leaves, as well as grass culms, twigs (C. mopane, Tamarix usneoides and unidentified) and medium- to fine-grained sand and silt. Individual leaf-jams were partially buried in the point bar sediments up to a depth of 3 cm. Leaf-jam formation occurred in the austral summer of 2006, during the waning stage of a major flood caused by anomalous tropical to extra-tropical storms. Their monospecifity is due to the overwhelming preponderance of the zonal taxon C. mopane in the catchment area, although the Khowarib Gorge contains a quite diverse azonal plant association due to the presence of a permanent water-seep. During leaf-jam formation, the water depth was less than the height of the cobbles (0.1 m), with stream flow-rates competent to transport medium-grained sand (velocity estimated at 0.5 m s{sup -} {sup 1}). Leaves must have been partially or fully waterlogged to inhibit buoyancy forces tending to lift them out of the developing leaf-jams, which propagated upstream in a manner comparable to longitudinal bars in a braided river. If fossilised, such deposits would probably lead to a very biased interpretation of the composition of the surrounding flora; the correct interpretation would be the one least favoured by palaeobotanists. (author)

  9. Chromosome-damaging effect of betel leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, G; Rani, G; Kumari, C K

    1978-05-01

    The chewing of betel leaf with other ingredients is a widespread addiction in India. The chromosome damaging effect was studied in human leukocyte cultures. There was an increase in the frequency of chromatid aberrations when the leaf extract was added to cultures.

  10. Leaf Wetness Evaluation Using Artificial Neural Network for Improving Apple Scab Fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Stella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture represents a promising technological trend in which governments and local authorities are increasingly investing. In particular, optimising the use of pesticides and having localised models of plant disease are the most important goals for the farmers of the future. The Trentino province in Italy is known as a strong national producer of apples. Apple production has to face many issues, however, among which is apple scab. This disease depends mainly on leaf wetness data typically acquired by fixed sensors. Based on the exploitation of artificial neural networks, this work aims to spatially extend the measurements of such sensors across uncovered areas (areas deprived of sensors. Achieved results have been validated comparing the apple scab risk of the same zone using either real leaf wetness data and estimated data. Thanks to the proposed method, it is possible to get the most relevant parameter of apple scab risk in places where no leaf wetness sensor is available. Moreover, our method permits having a specific risk evaluation of apple scab infection for each orchard, leading to an optimization of the use of chemical pesticides.

  11. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical vs temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ard& #243; n; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to measure leaf chemistry. We used standardized analytical techniques to measure chemistry and breakdown rate of leaves from common riparian tree species at 2 sites, 1...

  12. A New Method to Quantify the Isotopic Signature of Leaf Transpiration: Implications for Landscape-Scale Evapotranspiration Partitioning Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Good, S. P.; Caylor, K. K.

    2010-12-01

    Characterizing the constituent components of evapotranspiration is crucial to better understand ecosystem-level water budgets and water use dynamics. Isotope based evapotranspiration partitioning methods are promising but their utility lies in the accurate estimation of the isotopic composition of underlying transpiration and evaporation. Here we report a new method to quantify the isotopic signature of leaf transpiration under field conditions. This method utilizes a commercially available laser-based isotope analyzer and a transparent leaf chamber, modified from Licor conifer leaf chamber. The method is based on the water mass balance in ambient air and leaf transpired air. We verified the method using “artificial leaves” and glassline extracted samples. The method provides a new and direct way to estimate leaf transpiration isotopic signatures and it has wide applications in ecology, hydrology and plant physiology.

  13. Leaf area index estimation of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill. in plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubal Papamija-Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimated leaf area index (LAI in Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill. plantations in four farms in the Smurfit Kappa Carton de Colombia (SKCC with three farms located in the city of Popayan (Cauca and one located in the municipality of Restrepo (Valle del Cauca. Each farm had three fertilized and three unfertilized plots with 64 individuals in each. We used three methods, Plant Canopy Analyzer 2000 (PCA 2000, flat photograph PIPEcv software and a destructive method, which was generated using a mathematical model. The first two methods were measured bimonthly for a year and the final method required trees being cut to measure their diameter. Estimation of leaf area index was 2.01 for PCA 2000, 3.12 for PIPEcv and 2.83 for the mathematical model. These values correspond to the average and range of leaf area indices obtained for each method on all farms. Statistically the three methodologies developed in this study were not closely related.

  14. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists...

  15. LEAF SURFACE COMPARISON OF THREE GENERA OF ARACEAE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Erlinawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alocasia, Colocasia and Remusatia are the genera of Araceae family which have high economic value, such as for food and ornamental plants. Those three genera, previously treated as Colocasieae tribe. Later, based on Nauheimer, L. et al. study in 2012, using plastid and nuclear DNA, Alocasia is placed in different tribe. Study on leaf anatomy of Araceae is still poor known. Comparison of three genera of Araceae, indicates a difference in the epidermis. Alocasia and Colocasia have stomata on both leaf surfaces (amphistomatic but Remusatia has stomata only limited on the lower surface. The three genera can be distinguished from epidermal cell shape, stomata complex and the presence of stomata.

  16. Is Shape of a Fresh and Dried Leaf the Same?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Tomaszewski

    Full Text Available Plants kept as dried herbarium specimens share many characteristics with their living counterparts, but there are some substantial differences between them. Due to dehydration, leaves of herbarium specimens change not only their mass and colour, but in many cases change their dimensions, too. The present study aimed to determine whether leaf shape changes during the drying process. A total of 794 pairs of fresh and dried leaves or leaflets of 22 plant taxa were studied. The shape of the blades was quantified using elliptic Fourier analysis combined with principal component analysis. In addition, area and mass of the leaves were measured. Statistical tests were applied for comparing fresh and dried leaves. The results indicate that the preservation process of pressing and drying plants for herbarium purposes causes changes in leaf shape. In general, the shape changes were directional. As the shape of fresh and dried plants is different, it is strongly recommended that shape analyses should be performed on datasets containing either of the leaf types.

  17. Phytochemical analysis and gastroprotective activity of an olive leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA ARSIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Some medicinal features of olive leaf have been known for centuries. It has been traditionally used as an antimicrobial and to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and heart disease. Whether olive leaf, a natural antioxidant, influences the gastric defense mechanism and exhibits gastroprotection against experimentally-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. In this study, the content of total phenols, total flavonoids and tannins in olive leaf extract (OLE were determined. Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified (oleuropein, caffeic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin, and chryseriol. Furthermore, the protective activity of the OLE in gastric mucosal injury induced by a corrosive concentration of ethanol was investigated. In relation to the control group, pretreatment with OLE (40, 80 and 120 mg kg-1 significantly (p < 0.001 attenuated the gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The protective effect of the OLE was similar to that obtained with a reference drug, ranitidine. The results obtained indicate that OLE possesses significant gastroprotective activity, and that the presence of compounds with antioxidative properties would probably explain this effect.

  18. Rosemary and Pitanga Aqueous Leaf Extracts On Beef Patties Stability under Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carolina Vargas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because processing and storage conditions affect several beef quality attributes, the food industry uses a variety of synthetic antioxidants. However, some synthetic antioxidants have been questioned regarding its safety, and thus the interest in using natural antioxidants in food products is increasing. This paper aimed at assessing leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus as antioxidants in beef cold storage. After 48h storage, patties added of Rosemary leaf extracts showed increased pH. Patties added of Pitanga extracts had the lowest a* color values. Oxymyoglobin levels were significantly higher for Negative control, than for Pitanga treatment. The 10% extract addition increased lipid oxidation of beef patties. Correlation coefficients between lipid and myoglobin oxidations were all above 0.85. Pitanga leaf extracts negatively influenced beef color, probably because of its higher chlorophyll content. Lipid oxidation of beef patties was increased with the addition of leaf extracts. The inclusion of 10% leaf extract into beef patties seems not suitable, because it may enhance the amount of prooxidant compounds, as well as the amount of substances capable of reacting with lipid secondary products. Correlations between lipid and myoglobin oxidations demonstrated strong relationship.

  19. Impact of anatomical traits of maize (Zea mays L.) leaf as affected by nitrogen supply and leaf age on bundle sheath conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retta, Moges; Yin, Xinyou; van der Putten, Peter E L; Cantre, Denis; Berghuijs, Herman N C; Ho, Quang Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Struik, Paul C; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of photosynthesis in C 4 crops depends on the archetypal Kranz-anatomy. To examine how the leaf anatomy, as altered by nitrogen supply and leaf age, affects the bundle sheath conductance (g bs ), maize (Zea mays L.) plants were grown under three contrasting nitrogen levels. Combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were done on fully grown leaves at two leaf ages. The measured data were analysed using a biochemical model of C 4 photosynthesis to estimate g bs . The leaf microstructure and ultrastructure were quantified using images obtained from micro-computed tomography and microscopy. There was a strong positive correlation between g bs and leaf nitrogen content (LNC) while old leaves had lower g bs than young leaves. Leaf thickness, bundle sheath cell wall thickness and surface area of bundle sheath cells per unit leaf area (S b ) correlated well with g bs although they were not significantly affected by LNC. As a result, the increase of g bs with LNC was little explained by the alteration of leaf anatomy. In contrast, the combined effect of LNC and leaf age on S b was responsible for differences in g bs between young leaves and old leaves. Future investigations should consider changes at the level of plasmodesmata and membranes along the CO 2 leakage pathway to unravel LNC and age effects further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Herbert dos Santos Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Leaf-litter may be an important factor in structuring ponerine ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in tropical rainforests. We specifically examined how leaf-litter affects the structure of a ponerine ant community in primary Amazonian rainforest sites at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil. A total of 53 species belonging to eight genera of three ponerine tribes were collected with mini-Winkler extractors. The amount of leaf-litter positively affected the abundance and richness of the ponerine ant community, and also influenced species composition. Nearby samples often had low species similarity, especially when adjacent samples differed in the amount of leaf-litter. Leaf-litter availability in Amazonian primary forests is a key factor for distribution of ground-dwelling ponerine species, even at small scales.

  1. Photoperiod-H1 (Ppd-H1) Controls Leaf Size1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Benedikt; Tavakol, Elahe; Verderio, Gabriele; Xu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Leaf size is a major determinant of plant photosynthetic activity and biomass; however, it is poorly understood how leaf size is genetically controlled in cereal crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). We conducted a genome-wide association scan for flowering time, leaf width, and leaf length in a diverse panel of European winter cultivars grown in the field and genotyped with a single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The genome-wide association scan identified PHOTOPERIOD-H1 (Ppd-H1) as a candidate gene underlying the major quantitative trait loci for flowering time and leaf size in the barley population. Microscopic phenotyping of three independent introgression lines confirmed the effect of Ppd-H1 on leaf size. Differences in the duration of leaf growth and consequent variation in leaf cell number were responsible for the leaf size differences between the Ppd-H1 variants. The Ppd-H1-dependent induction of the BARLEY MADS BOX genes BM3 and BM8 in the leaf correlated with reductions in leaf size and leaf number. Our results indicate that leaf size is controlled by the Ppd-H1- and photoperiod-dependent progression of plant development. The coordination of leaf growth with flowering may be part of a reproductive strategy to optimize resource allocation to the developing inflorescences and seeds. PMID:27457126

  2. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  3. The hydraulic conductance of Fraxinus ornus leaves is constrained by soil water availability and coordinated with gas exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortan, Emmanuelle; Nardini, Andrea; Gascó, Antonio; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2009-04-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) is known to be an important determinant of plant gas exchange and photosynthesis. Little is known about the long-term impact of different environmental factors on the hydraulic construction of leaves and its eventual consequences on leaf gas exchange. In this study, we investigate the impact of soil water availability on Kleaf of Fraxinus ornus L. as well as the influence of Kleaf on gas exchange rates and plant water status. With this aim, Kleaf, leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), leaf water potential (Psileaf) and leaf mass per area (LMA) were measured in F. ornus trees, growing in 21 different sites with contrasting water availability. Plants growing in arid sites had lower Kleaf, gL and Psileaf than those growing in sites with higher water availability. On the contrary, LMA was similar in the two groups. The Kleaf values recorded in sites with two different levels of soil water availability were constantly different from each other regardless of the amount of precipitation recorded over 20 days before measurements. Moreover, Kleaf was correlated with gL values. Our data suggest that down-regulation of Kleaf is a component of adaptation of plants to drought-prone habitats. Low Kleaf implies reduced gas exchange which may, in turn, influence the climatic conditions on a local/regional scale. It is concluded that leaf hydraulics and its changes in response to resource availability should receive greater attention in studies aimed at modelling biosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  4. Gene expression in response to Cotton Leaf Curl Virus infection in Gossypium hirsutum under variable environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Iqra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton Leaf Curl Disease (CLCuD is one of the threatening constrains of cotton production in Pakistan for which no adequate remedy is available until now. Local variety of Gossypium hirsutum (FH-142 was grown in field and infected naturally by CLCuV under variable range of temperature and humidity. Plants showed thickening of veins in lower leaf surface at 34°C and 60% relative humidity at 15days post infection (dpi and curling of leaf margins at 33°C with 58% relative humidity at 30dpi. Remarkable leaf darkening was observed with reduced boll formation at 45dpi at 26°C and 41% relative humidity. Enation developed, severe thickening and curling of leaves intensified and plants showed dwarf growth at 60dpi at 24°C with 52% relative humidity. PCR amplification of Rep associated gene confirmed the presence of CLCuD-associated begomovirus in the infected samples. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification and differential expression of a number of pathogen stress responsive genes at different levels of temperature and humidity. This observation predicts that Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV interacts with several host genes that are upregulated to make plants susceptible or suppress other genes to overcome host defense responses.

  5. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  6. Leaf phenology and wood formation of white cedar trees (Melia azedarach L. and their responses to climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsadapan Palakit

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the response of leaf phenologies and wood increments of Melia azedarach L. on climate variability. The visual estimation indicated the leaf flushing in January-July, the leaf maturation in January-November, and the leaf abscission in May-June and October-December. Monthly wood investigations of the inside bark diameters (IBD indicated an annual-ring formation with the wood increment in February-November and the dormancy in December-January. The outside bark diameter (OBD exhibited growth variations with phases of slow increment in September-October, shrinkage in December-February, and fast increment in March-August. The relationship among monthly climates, leaf phenologies and wood increments, indicated the significant correlations of the soil moisture and the abundances of mature dark green leaves on the IBD, while the OBD was fluctuated due to the direct effect of the IBD and the indirect effect of the soil moisture and mature dark green leaf abundances.

  7. Characterization of leaf waste based biochar for cost effective hydrogen sulphide removal from biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Shivali; Vijay, Virendra Kumar; Subbarao, P M V; Chandra, Ram; Ghosh, Pooja; Shah, Goldy; Kapoor, Rimika; Vijay, Vandit; Koutu, Vaibhav; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2018-02-01

    Installation of decentralized units for biogas production along with indigenous upgradation systems can be an effective approach to meet growing energy demands of the rural population. Therefore, readily available leaf waste was used to prepare biochar at different temperatures and employed for H 2 S removal from biogas produced via anaerobic digestion plant. It is found that biochar prepared via carbonization of leaf waste at 400 °C effectively removes 84.2% H 2 S (from 1254 ppm to 201 ppm) from raw biogas for 25 min in a continuous adsorption tower. Subsequently, leaf waste biochar compositional, textural and morphological properties before and after H 2 S adsorption have been analyzed using proximate analysis, CHNS, BET surface area, FTIR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. It is found that BET surface area, pore size, and textural properties of leaf waste biochar plays a crucial role in H 2 S removal from the biogas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlations Between Degree of Petal Fusion, Leaf Size and Fruit Size: A Case in Syzygium (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUDJI WIDODO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium is one of large genera of the flowering plants. In order to simplify the identification, a classification is required, e.g. based on degree of petal fusion, leaf size and fruit size. Due to variations of vegetative and generative characters, a correlation analysis was carried out. The aim of this research is to know the correlation between degree of petal fusion, leaf length and fruit diameter. The result of this research showed that there is positive correlation between those three variables. The increase of leaf size will increase fruit size and petal lobe depth.

  9. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2351.) ...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or...

  11. Skill and wisdom of craftsman of gold leaf; Kinpaku shokunin no waza to chie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, K. [Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-01-05

    In the mid-sixth century, Buddhism was introduced from the Chinese Continent and accompanying therewith, gold leaves began to be used for large dry-japanned images of Buddha and artifacts. Also japan has been used widely for improvement of durability of wooden products and for the purpose of decoration, since japan is the best adhesive for the gold leaf and the gold leaf has an effect to retard deterioration of japan. In this article, technological elucidation has been made on the leaf making technique using Japanese papers unrivaled in the world. The traditional technique of manufacturing a gold leaf in Japan is the technique to manufacture extremely thin gold leaves, each of or less than 0.1 {mu}m thick, in an unit of 1500-1600 sheets at one time manually by the craftsman`s skill using Japanese papers, which are viscoelastic substances, as media and is unique among the traditional industries in Japan. Even by the currently available highest metal rolling technique, it is impossible to prepare metal leaves, each of which has a thickness of an order of submicron. The present leaf making processes are divided roughly into 3 processes and the gold leaf making method is described in detail together with the really skillful hunch and wisdom of the ancestors. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Inheritance of okra leaf type in different genetic backgrounds and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... discontinuous variation for leaf shape in F2 generations of three crosses .... Variable classes in leaf types (a) Normal leaf (b) Okra leaf (c) Sub-okra leaf. ..... insect pests on different isogenic lines of cotton variety H-777. J.

  13. Detection of plant leaf diseases using image segmentation and soft computing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity is something on which economy highly depends. This is the one of the reasons that disease detection in plants plays an important role in agriculture field, as having disease in plants are quite natural. If proper care is not taken in this area then it causes serious effects on plants and due to which respective product quality, quantity or productivity is affected. For instance a disease named little leaf disease is a hazardous disease found in pine trees in United States. Detection of plant disease through some automatic technique is beneficial as it reduces a large work of monitoring in big farms of crops, and at very early stage itself it detects the symptoms of diseases i.e. when they appear on plant leaves. This paper presents an algorithm for image segmentation technique which is used for automatic detection and classification of plant leaf diseases. It also covers survey on different diseases classification techniques that can be used for plant leaf disease detection. Image segmentation, which is an important aspect for disease detection in plant leaf disease, is done by using genetic algorithm.

  14. Identification of Leaf Promoters for Use in Transgenic Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqer S. Alotaibi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat yields have plateaued in recent years and given the growing global population there is a pressing need to develop higher yielding varieties to meet future demand. Genetic manipulation of photosynthesis in elite wheat varieties offers the opportunity to significantly increase yields. However, the absence of a well-defined molecular tool-box of promoters to manipulate leaf processes in wheat hinders advancements in this area. Two promoters, one driving the expression of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase and the other fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA from Brachypodium distachyon were identified and cloned into a vector in front of the GUS reporter gene. Both promoters were shown to be functionally active in wheat in both transient assays and in stably transformed wheat plants. Analysis of the stable transformants of wheat (cv. Cadenza showed that both promoters controlled gus expression throughout leaf development as well as in other green tissues. The availability of these promoters provides new tools for the expression of genes in transgenic wheat leaves and also paves the way for multigene manipulation of photosynthesis to improve yields.

  15. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S.; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. PMID:27548217

  16. Leaf Epidermis of the Rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Maria Lobo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant’s rheophytic habitat. The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes. While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment.

  17. Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with leaf spot of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nurul Husna; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Mohamed Nor, Nik Mohd Izham; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2018-01-01

    Leaf spot diseases are mainly caused by fungi including Fusarium. In the present study several species of Fusarium were isolated from the leaf spot lesion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) Based on morphological characteristics, TEF-1α sequences and phylogenetic analysis, five species were identified as F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. mangiferae, F. solani and F. chlamydosporum. Pathogenicity test indicated that representative isolates of F. proliferatum, F. semitectum and F. chlamydosporum were pathogenic on mango leaves causing leaf spot with low to moderate virulence. Nevertheless, abundance of spots on the leaf can disrupt photosynthesis which in turn reduced growth, and lead to susceptibility to infection by opportunistic pathogens due to weakening of the plant. Fusarium solani and F. mangiferae were non-pathogenic and it is possible that both species are saprophyte which associated with nutrient availability on the surface of the leaf through decaying leave tissues. The occurrence of Fusarium spp. on the leaf spot lesion and the effect from the disease needs to be considered when developing disease management method of mango cultivation as numerous spot on the leaves could effect the photosynthesis process and finally giving low yield and less quality of mango. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Waiting for the Leaf; Warten auf den Leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2012-01-15

    Nissan will be the first manufacturer to launch an electric vehicle of the VW Golf category in the German market. With a mileage of about 170 km and a roomy passenger compartment, the Leaf promises much comfort. In the US market, it was launched two years ago. Was it worth while waiting for?.

  19. A finger leaf design for dual layer MLCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Weijie; Dai Jianrong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To introduce a finger leaf design that is applied to dual layer MLCs. Methods: An optimization model was firstly constructed to describe the problem of determining leaf end shapes,and the corresponding problems were then solved by the simplex search method or the simulated annealing technique. Optimal parameters for arc shapes of leaf end projections were obtained, and a comparison was done between optimized MLCs and conventional MLCs in terms of field conformity. The optimization process was based on 634 target fields selected from the patient data base of a treatment planning system. Areas of these fields ranged from 20.0 to 602.7 cm with a mean and its standard deviation of (125.7 ± 0.0) cm 2 . Results: The optimized leaf end shapes projected to the isocenter plane were semicircles. With the finger leaf design, the total area of discrepancy regions between MLC fields and target fields was reduced by 32.3%. Conclusions: The finger leaf design improves the conformity of the MLC shaped fields to the desired target fields. (authors)

  20. Leaf Wetness within a Lily Canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Klok, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    A wetness duration experiment was carried out within a lily field situated adjacent to coastal dunes in the Netherlands. A within-canopy model was applied to simulate leaf wetness in three layers, with equal leaf area indices, within the canopy. This simulation model is an extension of an existing

  1. How Does Temperature Impact Leaf Size and Shape in Four Woody Dicot Species? Testing the Assumptions of Leaf Physiognomy-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M.; Royer, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The physiognomy (size and shape) of fossilized leaves has been used to reconstruct the mean annual temperature of ancient environments. Colder temperatures often select for larger and more abundant leaf teeth—serrated edges on leaf margins—as well as a greater degree of leaf dissection. However, to be able to accurately predict paleotemperature from the morphology of fossilized leaves, leaves must be able to react quickly and in a predictable manner to changes in temperature. We examined the extent to which temperature affects leaf morphology in four tree species: Carpinus caroliniana, Acer negundo, Ilex opaca, and Ostrya virginiana. Saplings of these species were grown in two growth cabinets under contrasting temperatures (17 and 25 °C). Compared to the cool treatment, in the warm treatment Carpinus caroliniana leaves had significantly fewer leaf teeth and a lower ratio of total number of leaf teeth to internal perimeter; and Acer negundo leaves had a significantly lower feret diameter ratio (a measure of leaf dissection). In addition, a two-way ANOVA tested the influence of temperature and species on leaf physiognomy. This analysis revealed that all plants, regardless of species, tended to develop more highly dissected leaves with more leaf teeth in the cool treatment. Because the cabinets maintained equivalent moisture, humidity, and CO2 concentration between the two treatments, these results demonstrate that these species could rapidly adapt to changes in temperature. However, not all of the species reacted identically to temperature changes. For example, Acer negundo, Carpinus caroliniana, and Ostrya virginiana all had a higher number of total teeth in the cool treatment compared to the warm treatment, but the opposite was true for Ilex opaca. Our work questions a fundamental assumption common to all models predicting paleotemperature from the physiognomy of fossilized leaves: a given climate will inevitably select for the same leaf physiognomy

  2. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  3. Effects of Psidium guajava Leaf Infusion on Streptococci viridans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Yi Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is recognized as the most important oral burden. It is caused by the formation of lactate acid formed through reaction of bacteria and carbohydrates. Streptococci viridans has been proven as the primary etiologic agents for dental caries. Low accessibility in oral care services leads the Indonesian community to use plants in order to prevent dental caries. One of those plants is Psidium guajava (pink guava. The leaves were suggested to have antimicrobial effects on some gram-positive bacteria. When the organism is resistant to specific substance tested on media, a circular/inhibition zone around a disc containing antimicrobial substance was formed. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of inhibition zones by infusion of Psidium guajava leaf on Streptococci viridians in vitro. Methods: This laboratory experiment was carried out in September to October 2014 at the Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Infusions of Psidium guajava leaf were made into four different concentrations (10%, 25%, 50% and 100%, respectively and the identification of inhibition zones on Streptococci viridans obtained from the laboratory was tested using modified disk diffusion test. Distilled water acted as negative control. The results were then interpreted after 24 hours of incubation. Every procedure was repeated three times. Results: All four concentrations of Psidium guajava leaf infusions have formed inhibition zones on the media, with the highest concentration (100% producing largest average diameter. Conclusions: The infusion of Psidium guajava leaf produces inhibition zones on Streptococci virdans in vitro.

  4. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  5. Chemical Compositions and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf Essential Oils of Four Lauraceae Tree Species from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Palazzo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf essential oils of four members of the Lauraceae Licaria excelsa, Licaria triandra, Perseaschiedeana, and Rhodostemonodaphne kunthiana, from Monteverde, Costa Rica, were obtained byhydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The leaf oil of L. excelsawas dominated by the monoterpenes a-pinene (42.9%, b-pinene (22.0% and myrcene (17.2%, while L.triandra was also rich in pinenes (40.9% and 28.5%, respectively. Persea schiedeana had considerableamounts of the sesquiterpenes d-cadinene (18.5%, a-copaene (15.1%, and (E-caryophyllene (13.3%.Rhodostemonodaphne kunthiana leaf oil had germacrene D (64.4% and bicyclogermacrene (17.6% as themajor components. The leaf essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231and Hs 578T human tumor cells. R. kunthiana leaf oil showed notable activity against MDA-MB-231.

  6. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of...

  7. Leaf Physiological and Morphological Responses to Shade in Grass-Stage Seedlings and Young Trees of Longleaf Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Samuelson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Longleaf pine has been classified as very shade intolerant but leaf physiological plasticity to light is not well understood, especially given longleaf pine’s persistent seedling grass stage. We examined leaf morphological and physiological responses to light in one-year-old grass-stage seedlings and young trees ranging in height from 4.6 m to 6.3 m to test the hypothesis that young longleaf pine would demonstrate leaf phenotypic plasticity to light environment. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under ambient levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR or a 50% reduction in ambient PAR and whole branches of trees were shaded to provide a 50% reduction in ambient PAR. In seedlings, shading reduced leaf mass per unit area (LMA, the light compensation point, and leaf dark respiration (RD, and increased the ratio of light-saturated photosynthesis to RD and chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll expressed per unit leaf dry weight. In trees, shading reduced LMA, increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll on a leaf dry weight basis, and increased allocation of total foliar nitrogen to chlorophyll nitrogen. Changes in leaf morphological and physiological traits indicate a degree of shade tolerance that may have implications for even and uneven-aged management of longleaf pine.

  8. Novel fiber design with the characteristics similar to LEAF

    CERN Document Server

    Tewari, R; Jakubczyk, Z J

    2002-01-01

    A novel fiber design has been proposed for a (+d) non zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZDSF). The obtained characteristics of this fiber (such as Petermann II-mode field diameter, group delay, group velocity dispersion, dispersion slope, and effective area) are in good agreement with the commercially available (+D) NZDSF with the trade name LEAF. (6 refs).

  9. Influence of nutrient solutions in an open-field soilless system on the quality characteristics and shelf life of fresh-cut red and green lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María C; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Selma, María V; Tudela, Juan A; Baixauli, Carlos; Gil, María I

    2013-01-01

    Little information is available about the impact of nutrient solution ion concentration on quality characteristics and shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce grown in soilless systems in open field. Three lettuce genotypes, lollo rosso and red oak leaf as red-leafed genotypes and butterhead as green-leafed genotype, were studied. The influence of three nutrient solutions with low, medium and high ion concentrations, which varied in the macroanion (NO₃⁻) and macrocations (K⁺, Ca²⁺ and NH₄⁺), were compared in summer and winter. The nutrient solutions evaluated in this study for the production of lettuce in a soilless system did not strongly influence the quality characteristics of the raw material. When the ion concentration of the nutrient solution was increased, fresh weight decreased, although it depended on the genotype and season. Maturity index and dry matter content varied with the season but independently of the nutrient solution. In summer, maturity index was higher and dry matter lower than in winter. Initial texture and visual quality were not influenced by the nutrient solution. Medium ion concentration provided the highest content of vitamin C and phenolic compounds. Our observations pointed out that the genotype had a strong influence on the shelf life of the fresh-cut product with minor differences among nutrient solutions. In general, red-leafed lettuces showed the highest antioxidant content, helping the maintenance of sensory characteristics throughout storage. The combination of optimal nutrient solution ion concentration and suitable cultivar is considered essential to ensure lettuce post-cutting life. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus nomius ASR3, a pathogen isolated from the leaf-cutter ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Afonso da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspergillus spp. cause economic impacts due to aflatoxins production. Although the toxicity of aflatoxins is already known, little information about their ecological roles is available. Here we investigated the compounds produced by Aspergillus nomius ASR3 directly from a dead leaf-cutter queen ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa and the fungal axenic culture. Chemical analyses were carried out by high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were detected in both the axenic culture and in the dead leaf-cutter queen ant. The presence of these mycotoxins in the dead leaf-cutter queen ant suggests that these compounds can be related to the insect pathogenicity of A. nomius against A. sexdens rubropilosa.

  11. Leveraging multiple datasets for deep leaf counting

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrescu, Andrei; Giuffrida, Mario Valerio; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A

    2017-01-01

    The number of leaves a plant has is one of the key traits (phenotypes) describing its development and growth. Here, we propose an automated, deep learning based approach for counting leaves in model rosette plants. While state-of-the-art results on leaf counting with deep learning methods have recently been reported, they obtain the count as a result of leaf segmentation and thus require per-leaf (instance) segmentation to train the models (a rather strong annotation). Instead, our method tre...

  12. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  13. Diversity, Mutation and Recombination Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Geminiviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Saleem

    Full Text Available The spread of cotton leaf curl disease in China, India and Pakistan is a recent phenomenon. Analysis of available sequence data determined that there is a substantial diversity of cotton-infecting geminiviruses in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that recombination between two major groups of viruses, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV, led to the emergence of several new viruses. Recombination detection programs and phylogenetic analyses showed that CLCuMuV and CLCuKoV are highly recombinant viruses. Indeed, CLCuKoV appeared to be a major donor virus for the coat protein (CP gene, while CLCuMuV donated the Rep gene in the majority of recombination events. Using recombination free nucleotide datasets the substitution rates for CP and Rep genes were determined. We inferred similar nucleotide substitution rates for the CLCuMuV-Rep gene (4.96X10-4 and CLCuKoV-CP gene (2.706X10-4, whereas relatively higher substitution rates were observed for CLCuMuV-CP and CLCuKoV-Rep genes. The combination of sequences with equal and relatively low substitution rates, seemed to result in the emergence of viral isolates that caused epidemics in Pakistan and India. Our findings also suggest that CLCuMuV is spreading at an alarming rate, which can potentially be a threat to cotton production in the Indian subcontinent.

  14. Efficient Method for Calculating the Composite Stiffness of Parabolic Leaf Springs with Variable Stiffness for Vehicle Rear Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ku Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite stiffness of parabolic leaf springs with variable stiffness is difficult to calculate using traditional integral equations. Numerical integration or FEA may be used but will require computer-aided software and long calculation times. An efficient method for calculating the composite stiffness of parabolic leaf springs with variable stiffness is developed and evaluated to reduce the complexity of calculation and shorten the calculation time. A simplified model for double-leaf springs with variable stiffness is built, and a composite stiffness calculation method for the model is derived using displacement superposition and material deformation continuity. The proposed method can be applied on triple-leaf and multileaf springs. The accuracy of the calculation method is verified by the rig test and FEA analysis. Finally, several parameters that should be considered during the design process of springs are discussed. The rig test and FEA analytical results indicate that the calculated results are acceptable. The proposed method can provide guidance for the design and production of parabolic leaf springs with variable stiffness. The composite stiffness of the leaf spring can be calculated quickly and accurately when the basic parameters of the leaf spring are known.

  15. MONITORING ON PLANT LEAF WATER POTENTIAL USING NIR SPECTROSCOPY FOR WATER STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diding Suhandy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the calibration model with temperature compensation for on-plant leaf water potential (LWP determination in tomato plants was evaluated. During a cycle of water stress, the on-plant LWP measurement was conducted. The result showed that the LWP values under water stress and recovery from water stress could be monitored well. It showed that a real time monitoring of the LWP values using NIR spectroscopy could be possible.   Keywords: water stress, real time monitoring of leaf water potential, NIR spectroscopy, plant response-based

  16. PROTEOMIC PROFILE REVEALS THE DIVERSITY AND COMPLEXITY OF LEAF PROTEINS IN SPINACH (BETA VULGARIS VAR. ALL GREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf is a source organ that serves dual function in photosynthesis and transpiration. As a primary interface between plant and ecosystem, it performs a range of biological processes from carbon assimilation and metabolite partitioning to plant productivity. Basic features of the leaf functionality are conserved in angiosperms exhibiting common and unique characteristics. Spinach has been the model crop for studying leaf function, primarily photosynthesis. It is a reservoir of several hundreds of primary and secondary biomolecules. To better understand the molecular basis for photochemical reaction and metabolic partitioning, we developed leaf proteome of Indian spinach (Beta vulgaris var. all green. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified 639 proteins exhibiting discrete molecular features and functions, including photosynthesis, transpiration, gaseous exchange, transport, redox status, cell defense, and floral induction besides the presence of proteins with unknown function. This represents the first comprehensive foliage proteome of green leafy vegetable. Together, this work provides important insights into the molecular networks underlying spinach leaf biological processes.

  17. The antioxidant activity of Beta vulgaris leaf extract in improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory disorders in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadie Hajihosseini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medicinal plants have attracted global attention due to their safety as well as their considerable antioxidant content that helps to prevent or ameliorate various disorders including memory impairments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of beet root (Beta vulgaris leaf extract on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairments in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10: Control (C, scopolamine 1 mg/kg/day (S, scopolamine+50 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 50, scopolamine+100 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 100 and scopolamine+200 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 200. Morris water maze task was used to assess spatial memory. Serum antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde (MDA level were also measured. Results: Group S spent significantly less time in the target quadrant compared to the control group, and the administration of B. vulgaris leaf extract (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased this time (p

  18. Molecular Characterization of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Korea and the Construction of an Infectious Clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Choon Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several tomato production regions in Korea were surveyed for tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD. Tomato leaf samples showing TYLCD-like symptoms were collected from Tongyeong (To, Geoje (Gi, and Gimhae (Gh cities of the southern part of Korea. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV was detected and the full-length genomes of the isolates were sequenced. The TYLCV isolates found in Korea shared high sequence identity (> 99% with TYLCV-IL [JR:Omu:Ng] (AB110217. Phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that they formed two groups (with little genetic variability, and the To, Gj, and Gh isolates belonged to the TYLCV-IL group. An infectious clone of TYLCV-To (JQ013089 was constructed and agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi, Petunia hybrida, Capsicum annuum, and Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Hausumomotaro. Agroinfection with a dimeric infectious clone of TYLCV-To induced severe leaf curling and stunting symptoms in these plants, excluding C. annuum. Tomato plants then developed typical yellow leaf curl symptoms.

  19. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-12-28

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  20. Morphological variation in leaf dissection of Rheum palmatum complex (Polygonaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Mei Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: Rheum palmatum complex comprises all taxa within section Palmata in the genus Rheum, including R. officinale, R. palmatum, R. tanguticum, R. tanguticum var. liupanshanense and R. laciniatum. The identification of the taxa in section Palmata is based primarily on the degree of leaf blade dissection and the shape of the lobes; however, difficulties in species identification may arise from their significant variation. The aim of this study is to analyze the patterns of variation in leaf blade characteristics within and among populations through population-based sampling covering the entire distribution range of R. palmatum complex. METHODS: Samples were taken from 2340 leaves from 780 individuals and 44 populations representing the four species, and the degree of leaf blade dissection and the shape of the lobe were measured to yield a set of quantitative data. Furthermore, those data were statistically analyzed. IMPORTANT FINDINGS: The statistical analysis showed that the degree of leaf blade dissection is continuous from lobed to parted, and the shape of the lobe is also continuous from broadly triangular to lanceolate both within and between populations. We suggested that taxa in section Palmata should be considered as one species. Based on the research on the R. palmatum complex, we considered that the quantitative characteristics were greatly influenced by the environment. Therefore, it is not reliable to delimitate the species according to the continuously quantitative vegetative characteristics.

  1. [Latitude variation mechanism of leaf traits of Metasequoia glyptostroboides in eastern coastal China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei Hong; Wang, Hua; Yu, Mu Kui; Wu, Tong Gui; Han, You Zhi

    2017-03-18

    We analyzed the rules of Metasequoia glyptostroboides along with latitude, including leaf length, leaf width, leaf perimeter, leaf area, ratio of leaf length to width, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry mass based on eight stands growing at different latitudes in the coastal area of eastern China, as well as their relationships with climatic and soil factors. The results showed that the leaf length, leaf width and leaf perimeter increased with increasing latitude, while the leaf area and SLA firstly increased and then decreased. The mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were the major environmental factors affecting the leaf traits along latitude gradient. With the increase of soil N content, the SLA decreased firstly and then increased, while the leaf mass decreased significantly. With the increase of soil P content, the SLA increased, and the leaf mass decreased significantly.

  2. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  3. Predicting vegetation type through physiological and environmental interactions with leaf traits: evergreen and deciduous forests in an earth system modeling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ensheng; Farrior, Caroline E; Dybzinski, Ray; Pacala, Stephen W

    2017-06-01

    Earth system models are incorporating plant trait diversity into their land components to better predict vegetation dynamics in a changing climate. However, extant plant trait distributions will not allow extrapolations to novel community assemblages in future climates, which will require a mechanistic understanding of the trade-offs that determine trait diversity. In this study, we show how physiological trade-offs involving leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf lifespan, leaf nitrogen, and leaf respiration may explain the distribution patterns of evergreen and deciduous trees in the temperate and boreal zones based on (1) an evolutionary analysis of a simple mathematical model and (2) simulation experiments of an individual-based dynamic vegetation model (i.e., LM3-PPA). The evolutionary analysis shows that these leaf traits set up a trade-off between carbon- and nitrogen-use efficiency at the scale of individual trees and therefore determine competitively dominant leaf strategies. As soil nitrogen availability increases, the dominant leaf strategy switches from one that is high in nitrogen-use efficiency to one that is high in carbon-use efficiency or, equivalently, from high-LMA/long-lived leaves (i.e., evergreen) to low-LMA/short-lived leaves (i.e., deciduous). In a region of intermediate soil nitrogen availability, the dominant leaf strategy may be either deciduous or evergreen depending on the initial conditions of plant trait abundance (i.e., founder controlled) due to feedbacks of leaf traits on soil nitrogen mineralization through litter quality. Simulated successional patterns by LM3-PPA from the leaf physiological trade-offs are consistent with observed successional dynamics of evergreen and deciduous forests at three sites spanning the temperate to boreal zones. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Consequences of leaf calibration errors on IMRT delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre-Padro, M; Welleweerd, J; Malinen, E; Eilertsen, K; Olsen, D R; Heide, U A van der

    2007-01-01

    IMRT treatments using multi-leaf collimators may involve a large number of segments in order to spare the organs at risk. When a large proportion of these segments are small, leaf positioning errors may become relevant and have therapeutic consequences. The performance of four head and neck IMRT treatments under eight different cases of leaf positioning errors has been studied. Systematic leaf pair offset errors in the range of ±2.0 mm were introduced, thus modifying the segment sizes of the original IMRT plans. Thirty-six films were irradiated with the original and modified segments. The dose difference and the gamma index (with 2%/2 mm criteria) were used for evaluating the discrepancies between the irradiated films. The median dose differences were linearly related to the simulated leaf pair errors. In the worst case, a 2.0 mm error generated a median dose difference of 1.5%. Following the gamma analysis, two out of the 32 modified plans were not acceptable. In conclusion, small systematic leaf bank positioning errors have a measurable impact on the delivered dose and may have consequences for the therapeutic outcome of IMRT

  5. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes Christian

    2011-01-01

    of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different...... punctures left by adults were marginally more frequent on male plants, whereas egg scars and mines were more common on females. Overall survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was higher on female plants. Egg density was negatively correlated with hatching, while mine density was positively...... stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size...

  6. Effects of some growth regulating applications on leaf yield, raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of repetitive applications of herbagreen (HG), humic acid (HA), combined foliar fertilizer (CFF) and HG+CFF performed in the Müsküle grape variety grafted on 5 BB rootstock on fresh or pickled leaf size and leaf raw cellulose content. HA application increased leaf area and leaf water ...

  7. Patterns of leaf morphology and leaf N content in relation to winter temperatures in three evergreen tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Sonia; Gallardo-López, Victoria; González-Zurdo, Patricia; Escudero, Alfonso

    2012-09-01

    The competitive equilibrium between deciduous and perennial species in a new scenario of climate change may depend closely on the productivity of leaves along the different seasons of the year and on the morphological and chemical adaptations required for leaf survival during the different seasons. The aim of the present work was to analyze such adaptations in the leaves of three evergreen species ( Quercus ilex, Q. suber and Pinus pinaster) and their responses to between-site differences in the intensity of winter harshness. We explore the hypothesis that the harshness of winter would contribute to enhancing the leaf traits that allow them to persist under conditions of stress. The results revealed that as winter harshness increases a decrease in leaf size occurs in all three species, together with an increase in the content of nitrogen per unit leaf area and a greater leaf mass per unit area, which seems to be achieved only through increased thickness, with no associated changes in density. P. pinaster was the species with the most intense response to the harshening of winter conditions, undergoing a more marked thickening of its needles than the two Quercus species. Our findings thus suggest that lower winter temperatures involve an increase in the cost of leaf production of evergreen species, which must be taken into account in the estimation of the final cost and benefit balance of evergreens. Such cost increases would be more pronounced for those species that, like P. pinaster, show a stronger response to the winter cold.

  8. Sensitivity of three tree ferns during their first phase of life to the variation of solar radiation and water availability in a Mexican cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño, Karolina; Briones, Oscar

    2015-09-01

    Regeneration niche differentiation promotes species coexistence and diversity; however, the ecological implications for the initial life phases of the majority of pteridophytes are unknown. We analyzed the sensitivity of gametophytes and juvenile sporophytes of the tree ferns Alsophila firma, Cyathea divergens, and Lophosoria quadripinnata to variation in light and water availability. We evaluated gametophyte desiccation tolerance using saturated salt solutions and gametophyte solar radiation tolerance by direct exposure. We also transplanted juvenile sporophytes in environments with 7% and 23% canopy openness and two watering levels. The response of photosynthetic efficiency and water content suggest that the gametophytes of the three species require high relative humidity, tolerate direct solar radiation for up to 30 min and that the response is not species-dependent. Sporophyte size and gas exchange were greater in the more open site, but decreased watering had a lesser effect on these variables in the more closed site. Relative growth rate correlated with the net assimilation rate and leaf weight ratio. Juvenile sporophytes of A. firma were more shade tolerant, while those of C. divergens and L. quadripinnata acclimatized to both environments. Specialization to humid habitats in the tree fern gametophyte restricts the species to humid forests, while differences in the plasticity of the sporophyte facilitate coexistence of the species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Availability of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, And Cr) in agriculture from commercial fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, H; Gonçalves, A C; Schwantes, D; Nava, I A; Strey, L; Coelho, G F

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the availability of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr) to soil and maize plants fertilized with different sources and doses of zinc (Zn) in a Rhodic Eutrudox soil. For that purpose, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Cr were evaluated in leaf tissue and grains of maize plants and in 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers after fertilization with four doses of Zn from eight different sources of fertilizer. There was no accumulation of Cd, Pb, and Cr in maize grain and Cd and Cr in leaf tissue of the plants; nevertheless, there was accumulation of Pb in leaf tissue, showing its availability throughout different sources of Zn and consequent uptake by plants. Regarding the soil, it was observed that fertilizer from the different sources made Cd, Pb, and Cr available at increasing amounts proportional to increased Zn doses. Under experimental conditions, fertilization with Zn increased concentrations of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in soil, further highlighting the importance of conducting more studies related to the application of mineral fertilizers for micronutrient supply and the availability of heavy metals.

  10. Predicting tropical plant physiology from leaf and canopy spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E

    2011-02-01

    A broad regional understanding of tropical forest leaf photosynthesis has long been a goal for tropical forest ecologists, but it has remained elusive due to difficult canopy access and high species diversity. Here we develop an empirical model to predict sunlit, light-saturated, tropical leaf photosynthesis using leaf and simulated canopy spectra. To develop this model, we used partial least squares (PLS) analysis on three tropical forest datasets (159 species), two in Hawaii and one at the biosphere 2 laboratory (B2L). For each species, we measured light-saturated photosynthesis (A), light and CO(2) saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), respiration (R), leaf transmittance and reflectance spectra (400-2,500 nm), leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, and leaf mass per area (LMA). The model best predicted A [r(2) = 0.74, root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1))] followed by R (r(2) = 0.48), and A(max) (r(2) = 0.47). We combined leaf reflectance and transmittance with a canopy radiative transfer model to simulate top-of-canopy reflectance and found that canopy spectra are a better predictor of A (RMSE = 2.5 ± 0.07 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) than are leaf spectra. The results indicate the potential for this technique to be used with high-fidelity imaging spectrometers to remotely sense tropical forest canopy photosynthesis.

  11. Limited acclimation in leaf anatomy to experimental drought in tropical rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Dry periods are predicted to become more frequent and severe in the future in some parts of the tropics, including Amazonia, potentially causing reduced productivity, higher tree mortality and increased emissions of stored carbon. Using a long-term (12 year) through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment in the tropics, we test the hypothesis that trees produce leaves adapted to cope with higher levels of water stress, by examining the following leaf characteristics: area, thickness, leaf mass per area, vein density, stomatal density, the thickness of palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and both of the epidermal layers, internal cavity volume and the average cell sizes of the palisade and spongy mesophyll. We also test whether differences in leaf anatomy are consistent with observed differential drought-induced mortality responses among taxa, and look for relationships between leaf anatomy, and leaf water relations and gas exchange parameters. Our data show that trees do not produce leaves that are more xeromorphic in response to 12 years of soil moisture deficit. However, the drought treatment did result in increases in the thickness of the adaxial epidermis (TFE: 20.5 ± 1.5 µm, control: 16.7 ± 1.0 µm) and the internal cavity volume (TFE: 2.43 ± 0.50 mm 3 cm -2 , control: 1.77 ± 0.30 mm 3 cm -2 ). No consistent differences were detected between drought-resistant and drought-sensitive taxa, although interactions occurred between drought-sensitivity status and drought treatment for the palisade mesophyll thickness (P = 0.034) and the cavity volume of the leaves (P = 0.025). The limited response to water deficit probably reflects a tight co-ordination between leaf morphology, water relations and photosynthetic properties. This suggests that there is little plasticity in these aspects of plant anatomy in these taxa, and that phenotypic plasticity in leaf traits may not facilitate the acclimation of Amazonian trees to the predicted future reductions in dry

  12. The Effect of Leaf Stacking on Leaf Reflectance and Vegetation Indices Measured by Contact Probe during the Season

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neuwirthová, E.; Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku 1202. ISSN 1424-8220 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : broadleaved trees * leaf optical properties * leaf traits Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  13. Leaf optical properties shed light on foliar trait variability at individual to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. N.; Serbin, S.; Dietze, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent syntheses of large trait databases have contributed immensely to our understanding of drivers of plant function at the global scale. However, the global trade-offs revealed by such syntheses, such as the trade-off between leaf productivity and resilience (i.e. "leaf economics spectrum"), are often absent at smaller scales and fail to correlate with actual functional limitations. An improved understanding of how traits vary within communities, species, and individuals is critical to accurate representations of vegetation ecophysiology and ecological dynamics in ecosystem models. Spectral data from both field observations and remote sensing platforms present a potentially rich and widely available source of information on plant traits. In particular, the inversion of physically-based radiative transfer models (RTMs) is an effective and general method for estimating plant traits from spectral measurements. Here, we apply Bayesian inversion of the PROSPECT leaf RTM to a large database of field spectra and plant traits spanning tropical, temperate, and boreal forests, agricultural plots, arid shrublands, and tundra to identify dominant sources of variability and characterize trade-offs in plant functional traits. By leveraging such a large and diverse dataset, we re-calibrate the empirical absorption coefficients underlying the PROSPECT model and expand its scope to include additional leaf biochemical components, namely leaf nitrogen content. Our work provides a key methodological contribution as a physically-based retrieval of leaf nitrogen from remote sensing observations, and provides substantial insights about trait trade-offs related to plant acclimation, adaptation, and community assembly.

  14. Silver nano fabrication using leaf disc of Passiflora foetida Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Bipin D.; Patil, Anita S.

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of the experiment is to develop a greener low cost SNP fabrication steps using factories of secondary metabolites from Passiflora leaf extract. Here, the leaf extraction process is omitted, and instead a leaf disc was used for stable SNP fabricated by optimizing parameters such as a circular leaf disc of 2 cm (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) instead of leaf extract and grade of pH (7, 8, 9, 11). The SNP synthesis reaction is tried under room temperature, sun, UV and dark condition. The leaf disc preparation steps are also discussed in details. The SNP obtained using (1 mM: 100 ml AgNO3+ singular leaf disc: pH 9, 11) is applied against featured room temperature and sun condition. The UV spectroscopic analysis confirms that sun rays synthesized SNP yields stable nano particles. The FTIR analysis confirms a large number of functional groups such as alkanes, alkyne, amines, aliphatic amine, carboxylic acid; nitro-compound, alcohol, saturated aldehyde and phenols involved in reduction of silver salt to zero valent ions. The leaf disc mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles, minimizes leaf extract preparation step and eligible for stable SNP synthesis. The methods sun and room temperature based nano particles synthesized within 10 min would be use certainly for antimicrobial activity.

  15. Leaf anatomical traits of non-arboreal savanna species along a gradient of tree encroachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Souza Pinheiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado of Brazil, fire suppression has transformed typical savanna formations (TS into forested savanna (FS due to the phenomenon of encroachment. Under encroachment, non-arboreal plants begin to receive less light due to greater tree density and canopy closure. Here we aim to evaluate if leaf anatomical traits of non-arboreal species differ according to the degree of tree encroachment at the Assis Ecological Station - São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, we evaluated leaf tissue thickness and specific leaf area (SLA in representative non-arboreal species occurring along a gradient of tree encroachment. Leaves of TS species showed a trend towards xeromorphism, with traits reported to facilitate survival under high luminosity, such as thick leaves, thick epidermis and mesophyll, and low SLA. In contrast, FS species exhibited mesomorphic leaves, with thin mesophyll and high SLA, which are able to capture diffuse light in denser environments. Thus, non-arboreal understory species with mesomorphic leaf traits should be favored in environments with denser vegetation in contrast to typical savanna species. The results suggest that typical non-arboreal savanna species would not survive under tree encroachment due to the low competitiveness of their leaf anatomical strategies in shady environments.

  16. Two Inexpensive and Non-destructive Techniques to Correct for Smaller-Than-Gasket Leaf Area in Gas Exchange Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M. Savvides

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology, like the widely-used off-the-shelf portable photosynthesis systems, for the quantification of leaf gas exchange rates and chlorophyll fluorescence offered photosynthesis research a massive boost. Gas exchange parameters in such photosynthesis systems are calculated as gas exchange rates per unit leaf area. In small chambers (<10 cm2, the leaf area used by the system for these calculations is actually the internal gasket area (AG, provided that the leaf covers the entire AG. In this study, we present two inexpensive and non-destructive techniques that can be used to easily quantify the enclosed leaf area (AL of plant species with leaves of surface area much smaller than the AG, such as that of cereal crops. The AL of the cereal crop species studied has been measured using a standard image-based approach (iAL and estimated using a leaf width-based approach (wAL. iAL and wAL did not show any significant differences between them in maize, barley, hard and soft wheat. Similar results were obtained when the wAL was tested in comparison with iAL in different positions along the leaf in all species studied. The quantification of AL and the subsequent correction of leaf gas exchange parameters for AL provided a precise quantification of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance especially with decreasing AL. This study provides two practical, inexpensive and non-destructive solutions to researchers dealing with photosynthesis measurements on small-leaf plant species. The image-based technique can be widely used for quantifying AL in many plant species despite their leaf shape. The leaf width-based technique can be securely used for quantifying AL in cereal crop species such as maize, wheat and barley along the leaf. Both techniques can be used for a wide range of gasket shapes and sizes with minor technique-specific adjustments.

  17. Genomic Dissection of Leaf Angle in Maize (Zea mays L. Using a Four-Way Cross Mapping Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Ding

    Full Text Available Increasing grain yield by the selection for optimal plant architecture has been the key focus in modern maize breeding. As a result, leaf angle, an important determinant of plant architecture, has been significantly improved to adapt to the ever-increasing plant density in maize production over the past several decades. To extend our understanding on the genetic mechanisms of leaf angle in maize, we developed the first four-way cross mapping population, consisting of 277 lines derived from four maize inbred lines with varied leaf angles. The four-way cross mapping population together with the four parental lines were evaluated for leaf angle in two environments. In this study, we reported linkage maps built in the population and quantitative trait loci (QTL on leaf angle detected by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM. ICIM applies a two-step strategy to effectively separate the cofactor selection from the interval mapping, which controls the background additive and dominant effects at the same time. A total of 14 leaf angle QTL were identified, four of which were further validated in near-isogenic lines (NILs. Seven of the 14 leaf angle QTL were found to overlap with the published leaf angle QTL or genes, and the remaining QTL were unique to the four-way population. This study represents the first example of QTL mapping using a four-way cross population in maize, and demonstrates that the use of specially designed four-way cross is effective in uncovering the basis of complex and polygenetic trait like leaf angle in maize.

  18. Protoplast isolation, transient transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts and improved Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc infiltration of Phaseolus vulgaris: tools for rapid gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Blanco, Lourdes; Arellano, Elizabeth S; Lara, Miguel

    2016-06-24

    Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most extensively studied model legumes in the world. The P. vulgaris genome sequence is available; therefore, the need for an efficient and rapid transformation system is more imperative than ever. The functional characterization of P. vulgaris genes is impeded chiefly due to the non-amenable nature of Phaseolus sp. to stable genetic transformation. Transient transformation systems are convenient and versatile alternatives for rapid gene functional characterization studies. Hence, the present work focuses on standardizing methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple tissues and transient transformation protocols for rapid gene expression analysis in the recalcitrant grain legume P. vulgaris. Herein, we provide methodologies for the high-throughput isolation of leaf mesophyll-, flower petal-, hypocotyl-, root- and nodule-derived protoplasts from P. vulgaris. The highly efficient polyethylene glycol-mannitol magnesium (PEG-MMG)-mediated transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts was optimized using a GUS reporter gene. We used the P. vulgaris SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (PvSnRK1) gene as proof of concept to demonstrate rapid gene functional analysis. An RT-qPCR analysis of protoplasts that had been transformed with PvSnRK1-RNAi and PvSnRK1-OE vectors showed the significant downregulation and ectopic constitutive expression (overexpression), respectively, of the PvSnRK1 transcript. We also demonstrated an improved transient transformation approach, sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT), for the leaf disc infiltration of P. vulgaris. Interestingly, this method resulted in a 90 % transformation efficiency and transformed 60-85 % of the cells in a given area of the leaf surface. The constitutive expression of YFP further confirmed the amenability of the system to gene functional characterization studies. We present simple and efficient methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple P

  19. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arib, R.M.N.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ahmad, M.M.H.M.; Paridah, M.T.; Zaman, H.M.D. Khairul

    2006-01-01

    Pineapple leaf fibre, which is rich in cellulose, relative inexpensive and abundantly available has the potential for polymer-reinforced composite. The present study investigates the tensile and flexural behaviours of pineapple leaf fibre-polypropylene composites as a function of volume fraction. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the composites were found to be increasing with fibre content in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The tensile modulus and tensile strength with a volume fraction 10.8% are 687.02 and 37.28 MPa, respectively. The flexural modulus gives higher value at 2.7% volume fraction. The flexural strength of the composites containing 5.4% volume fraction was found to be higher than that of pure polypropylene resin by 5.1%. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fibre-matrix adhesion and fibre breakage

  20. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arib, R.M.N. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sapuan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)]. E-mail: sapuan@eng.upm.edu.my; Ahmad, M.M.H.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zaman, H.M.D. Khairul [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    Pineapple leaf fibre, which is rich in cellulose, relative inexpensive and abundantly available has the potential for polymer-reinforced composite. The present study investigates the tensile and flexural behaviours of pineapple leaf fibre-polypropylene composites as a function of volume fraction. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the composites were found to be increasing with fibre content in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The tensile modulus and tensile strength with a volume fraction 10.8% are 687.02 and 37.28 MPa, respectively. The flexural modulus gives higher value at 2.7% volume fraction. The flexural strength of the composites containing 5.4% volume fraction was found to be higher than that of pure polypropylene resin by 5.1%. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fibre-matrix adhesion and fibre breakage.

  1. Up-scaling of water use efficiency from leaf to canopy as based on leaf gas exchange relationships and the modeled in-canopy light distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderson, Maj-Lena; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ibrom, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which water use efficiency (WUE) at leaf scale can be used to assess WUE at canopy scale, leaf WUE being assumed to be a constant function of vapor pressure deficit and to thus not be dependent upon other environmental factors or varying leaf...... properties. Leaf WUE and its variability and dependencies were assessed using leafgas-exchange measurements obtained during two growing seasons, 1999 and 2000, at the Soroe beech forest study site on Zealand in Denmark. It was found that the VPD-normalized leaf WUE, WUEnormleaf, although dependent...

  2. Study of the Properties of Bearberry Leaf Extract as a Natural Antioxidant in Model Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aini Mohd Azman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. Sprengel is a ubiquitous procumbent evergreen shrub located throughout North America, Asia, and Europe. The fruits are almost tasteless but the plant contains a high concentration of active ingredients. The antioxidant activity of bearberry leaf extract in the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay was 90.42 mmol Trolox equivalents/g dry weight (DW. The scavenging ability of the methanol extract of bearberry leaves against methoxy radicals generated in the Fenton reaction was measured via electron paramagnetic resonance. Lipid oxidation was retarded in an oil–water emulsion by adding 1 g/kg lyophilised bearberry leaf extract. Also, 1 g/kg of lyophilised bearberry leaf extract incorporated into a gelatin-based film displayed high antioxidant activity to retard the degradation of lipids in muscle foods. The present results indicate the potential of bearberry leaf extract for use as a natural food antioxidant.

  3. Linear relations between leaf mass per area (LMA) and seasonal climate discovered through Linear Manifold Clustering (LMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Haralick, R. M.; Diky, A.; Kattge, J.; Su, X.

    2016-12-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a critical variable in plant carbon allocation, correlates with leaf activity traits (photosynthetic activity, respiration), and is a controller of litterfall mass and hence carbon substrate for soil biogeochemistry. Recent advances in understanding the leaf economics spectrum (LES) show that LMA has a strong correlation with leaf life span, a trait that reflects ecological strategy, whereas physiological traits that control leaf activity scale with each other when mass-normalized (Osnas et al., 2013). These functional relations help reduce the number of independent variables in quantifying leaf traits. However, LMA is an independent variable that remains a challenge to specify in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), when vegetation types are classified into a limited number of plant functional types (PFTs) without clear mechanistic drivers for LMA. LMA can range orders of magnitude across plant species, as well as vary within a single plant, both vertically and seasonally. As climate relations in combination with alternative ecological strategies have yet to be well identified for LMA, we have assembled 22,000 records of LMA spanning 0.004 - 33 mg/m2 from the numerous contributors to the TRY database (Kattge et al., 2011), with observations distributed over several climate zones and plant functional categories (growth form, leaf type, phenology). We present linear relations between LMA and climate variables, including seasonal temperature, precipitation, and radiation, as derived through Linear Manifold Clustering (LMC). LMC is a stochastic search technique for identifying linear dependencies between variables in high dimensional space. We identify a set of parsimonious classes of LMA-climate groups based on a metric of minimum description to identify structure in the data set, akin to data compression. The relations in each group are compared to Köppen-Geiger climate classes, with some groups revealing continuous linear relations

  4. Method for continuous measurement of export from a leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, D.R.; Fondy, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Export of labeled material derived by continuous photosynthesis in 14 CO 2 was monitored with a Geiger-Mueller detector positioned next to an exporting leaf blade. Rate of export of labeled material was calculated from the difference between rates of retention and net photosynthesis of labeled carbon for the observed leaf. Given certain conditions, including nearly constant distribution of labeled material among minor veins and various types of cells, count rate data for the source leaf can be coverted to rate of export of carbon. Changes in counting efficiency resulting from changes in leaf water status can be corrected for with data from a transducer which measures leaf thickness. Export data agreed with data obtained by monitoring the arrival of 14 C in the sink region; isolated leaves gave values near zero for export of labeled carbon from a given leaf on an intact plant. The technique detects changes in export with a resolution of 10 to 20 minutes

  5. The influence of leaf anatomy on the internal light environment and photosynthetic electron transport rate: exploration with a new leaf ray tracing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-11-01

    Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm. We studied the influence of leaf anatomy and ambient light on internal light conditions and J The results show that (i) different chloroplasts can experience drastically different light conditions, even when they are located at the same distance from the leaf surface; (ii) bundle sheath extensions, which are strips of parenchyma, collenchyma or sclerenchyma cells connecting the vascular bundles with the epidermis, can influence photosynthetic light-use efficiency of leaves; and (iii) chloroplast positioning can also influence the light-use efficiency of leaves. Mechanisms underlying leaf internal light heterogeneity and implications of the heterogeneity for photoprotection and for the convexity of the light response curves are discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Leaf Potential Productivity at Different Canopy Levels in Densely-planted and Intermediately-thinned Apple Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying SUN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most apple orchards in the apple production districts in China were densely planted with vigorous rootstocks during the 1980s. These orchards have suffered micro-environmental deterioration and loss of fruit quality because of the closed canopy. Modification of the densely-planted orchards is a priority in current apple production. Intermediate thinning is a basic technique used to transform densely-planted apple orchards in China. Our goal was to provide theoretical basis for studying the effect of thinning on the efficiency of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, fruit quality, and yield. We measured leaf area, solar radiation, and leaf air exchange at different tree canopy levels and by fitting relevant photosynthetic models, vertical distribution characteristics of leaf photosynthetic potentials and PAR were analyzed in various levels within canopies in densely-planted and intermediately-thinned orchards. Intermediate thinning significantly improved the radiant environment inside the canopies. PAR distribution within the canopies in the intermediately-thinned orchard was better distributed than in the densely-planted orchards. The invalid space under 30.0% of relative photosynthetically active radiation (PARr was nearly zero in the intermediately-thinned orchard; but minimum PARr was 17.0% and the space under 0.30 of the relative height of the canopy was invalid for photosynthesis in the densely-planted orchard. The leaf photosynthetic efficiency in the intermediately-thinned orchard was improved. Photosynthetic rates (Pn at the middle and bottom levels of the canopy, respectively, were increased by 7.80% and 10.20% in the intermediately-thinned orchard. Leaf development, which influences photosynthetic potential, was closely related to the surrounding micro-environment, especially light. Leaf photosynthetic potentials were correlated with leaf nitrogen content (Nl and specific leaf weight (Ml at various levels of canopies. Compared

  7. Effect of Mahogany (Khaya senegalensis L) Leaf Extract on Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Available online at http://ajol.info/index.php/njbas/index. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (2010), 18(2): 272-276. ISSN 0794-5698. Effect of Mahogany (Khaya senegalensis L) Leaf Extract on Root-Knot Nematode of. Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) B. Liman. 1. , M. Ibrahim. 1. , N.T. Ibrahim. 1.

  8. ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAF EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The anxiolytic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was studied in mice. O.sanctum leaf extract produced significant anxiolytic activity in plus – maze and open field behaviour test models. The effect was compared with diazepam, a standard antianxiety drug.

  9. [Seasonal differences in the leaf hydraulic conductance of mature Acacia mangium in response to its leaf water use and photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Sun, Gu-Chou; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, measurements were made on the leaf water potential (psi1), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate, leaf area index, and sapwood area of mature Acacia mangium, aimed to understand the relationships of the leaf hydraulic conductance (K1) with the leaf water use and photosynthetic characteristics of the A. mangium in wet season (May) and dry season (November). The ratio of sapwood area to leaf area (A(sp)/A(cl)) of the larger trees with an average height of 20 m and a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 0.26 m was 8.5% higher than that of the smaller trees with an average height of 14.5 m and a DBH of 0.19 m, suggesting that the larger trees had a higher water flux in their leaf xylem, which facilitated the water use of canopy leaf. The analysis on the vulnerability curve of the xylem showed that when the K1 decreased by 50%, the psi1 in wet season and dry season was -1.41 and -1.55 MPa, respectively, and the vulnerability of the xylem cavitation was higher in dry season than in wet season. The K1 peak value in wet season and dry season was 5.5 and 4.5 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1) x MPa(-1), and the maximum transpiration rate (T(r max)) was 3.6 and 1.8 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. Both the K1 and T(r max), were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Within a day, the K1 and T(r), fluctuated many times, reflecting the reciprocated cycle of the xylem cavitation and refilling. The leaf stomatal closure occurred when the K1 declined over 50% or the psi1 reached -1.6 MPa. The g(s) would be maintained at a high level till the K1 declined over 50%. The correlation between the hydraulic conductance and photosynthetic rate was more significant in dry season than in wet season. The loss of leaf hydraulic conductance induced by seasonal change could be the causes of the decrease of T(r) and CO2 gas exchange.

  10. Genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in common bean leaves and pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Constantino Borel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic control of plant reaction to pathogens is essential in plant breeding programs focusing resistance. This study aimed to obtain information about genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. line ESAL 686. This line was crossed with cultivars Jalo EEP 558 (resistant, Cornell 49-242 (resistant and Carioca MG (susceptible. Generations F1, F2 and backcrosses (BC11 and BC21 were obtained. In the dry season (2009, parents and respective populations were evaluated for angular leaf spot reaction under field conditions. Disease severity was evaluated on leaves and pods using diagrammatic scales. Severity scores were obtained and mean and variance genetic components were estimated for both. Segregation of F2 generation was analyzed for some crosses. Different genes control angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods. Mean and variance components showed predominance of additive effects. Heritability was high, however, was greater on pods than on leaves which indicated that leaf reaction is more influenced by the environment.

  11. Sound Absorption and Friction Properties of Nano-Lotus Leaf Coated Concrete for Rigid Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo GONZALEZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility of superhydrophobic films to create the nano-lotus leaf effect on concrete surface and their influence on sound absorption and friction properties of concrete for application in rigid pavements. The study involved an evaluation of nanomaterials at the laboratory scale to analyze the effects of microtexture modification on the friction and sound absorption of concrete pavement. A number of laboratory specimens were produced by applying different amounts of nano-lotus leaf coating on the top of the textured concrete surface. The British pendulum test was used to measure the friction number, and an impedance tube was used to determine the sound absorption coefficient. Laboratory results indicate that nano-lotus leaf coated concrete can maintain the required friction property for rigid pavement, but may not increase the noise absorption. Further research must be carried out to determine possible benefit of the lotus leaf effect for reducing hydroplaning, particularly during heavy rainfall.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7638

  12. Effect of root and leaf applications of soluble silicon on blast development in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Severino Cacique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is the most important fungal disease of rice worldwide. This study aimed to compare root and foliar supply of soluble silicon (Si on rice resistance to blast. The application of soluble Si to the roots increased Si concentration in leaf tissues as compare to plants grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. There was no increase in leaf Si concentration after soluble Si spray, regardless if the leaves were washed or not before analysis. X-ray microanalysis revealed that Si deposition was very similar on the leaf epidermis of plants sprayed with soluble Si, root amended with soluble Si or grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. The lesion size, the number of lesions per cm² of leaf and the area under blast progress curve were reduced for rice plants grown in soil that received the application of soluble Si or was amended with calcium silicate. The results of this study showed that the supply of soluble Si to the roots or its spray onto to the rice leaves can decrease blast symptoms.

  13. Indirect Estimations of Lentil Leaf and Plant N by SPAD Chlorophyll Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zakeri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter can be used to screen for leaf nitrogen (N concentration in breeding programs. Lentil (Lens culinaris L. cultivars were grown under varied N regimes, SPAD chlorophyll meter readings (SCMR were recorded from the cultivars leaves, and leaf N concentration was measured by combustion. Linear regression and the nonlinear Radial Basis Functions (RBF neural networks models were employed to estimate leaf N concentration (LNC based on the SCMR values. The closest estimates of LNC were obtained from the multivariate models in which the combination of plant age, leaf thickness, and SCMR was employed as the independent variable. In comparison, SCMR as the single independent variable in both models estimated less than 50% of LNC variations. The results showed significant effects of soil moisture and plant age on the association of LNC –SCMR as well as the relationship of LNC with plant N, grain yield, and days to maturity. However, the effect of cultivar on the measured variables was negligible. Although lentil N can be diagnosed by comparing SCMR values of the crop with those from a well-fertilized (N fixing plot, the results did not support using SPAD chlorophyll meter for screening lentil LNC.

  14. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical versus temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ardon; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to...

  15. Capability of leaf interdigitation with different inverse planning strategies in Monaco: an investigation of representative tumour sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Jinghao; Meng, Xiangjuan; Liu, Tonghai; Yin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally assess the dosimetric impact of leaf interdigitation using different inverse treatment strategies for representative tumour sites and to identify the situations in which leaf interdigitation can benefit these tumour sites. Sixty previously treated patients (15 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), 15 multiple brain metastasis (MBM), 15 cervical cancer and 15 prostate cancer) were re-planned for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), sliding window IMRT (dMLC) and step-and-shoot IMRT (ssIMRT) with and without leaf interdigitation. Various dosimetric variables, such as PTV coverage, OARs sparing, delivery efficiency and planning time, were evaluated for each plan. In addition, a protocol developed by our group was applied to identify the situations in which leaf interdigitation can achieve benefits in clinical practice. Leaf interdigitation produced few benefits in PTV homogeneity for the MBM VMAT plans and NPC ssIMRT plans. For OARs, sparing was equivalent with and without leaf interdigitation. Leaf interdigitation showed an increase in MUs for dMLC plans and a decrease in MUs for ssIMRT plans. Leaf interdigitation resulted in an increase in segments for dMLC plans and a decrease in segments for NPC and MBM ssIMRT plans. For beam on time, leaf interdigitation showed an increase in MBM dMLC, NPC ssIMRT and prostate ssIMRT plans. In addition, leaf interdigitation saved planning time for VMAT and dMLC plans but increased planning time for ssIMRT plans. Leaf interdigitation does not improve plan quality when performing inverse treatment strategies, regardless of whether the target is simple or complex. However, it influences the delivery efficiency and planning time. Based on these observations, our study suggests that leaf interdigitation should be utilized when performing MBM VMAT plans and NPC ssIMRT plans. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-016-0655-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  16. The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@ua.ac.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@ugent.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode (Melle) (Belgium); Van Dongen, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.vandongen@ua.ac.be [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Baeten, Lander, E-mail: lander.baeten@ugent.be [Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode (Melle) (Belgium); Kardel, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.kardel@ua.ac.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode, Melle (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@ua.ac.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%, respectively, of the total variability. FAA was not influenced by air pollution or environmental factors such as shading, herbivory, air temperature and humidity. SLA was increased by an increase in shadow, while NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} concentrations had only a marginal influence. The influence of SO{sub 2} concentration was negligible. Although our data analysis suggests a relationship between SLA and NO{sub x}/O{sub 3} concentration, the absence of a straightforward relationship between FAA and SLA and air pollution still questions the usefulness of these bio-indicators for monitoring air pollution. - Highlights: > Leaf characteristics of white willow as possible bio-indicators for air quality. > Fluctuating asymmetry is not a good bio-indicator for monitoring the air quality. > Shadow increases specific leaf area. > NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} change specific leaf area of white willow. - Specific leaf area of S. alba increased with increasing shade and, in less extent, with increasing NO{sub x} and decreasing O{sub 3} concentration, while leaf asymmetry did not respond to air pollution

  17. The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Wuyts, Karen; Van Dongen, Stefan; Baeten, Lander; Kardel, Fatemeh; Verheyen, Kris; Samson, Roeland

    2011-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%, respectively, of the total variability. FAA was not influenced by air pollution or environmental factors such as shading, herbivory, air temperature and humidity. SLA was increased by an increase in shadow, while NO x and O 3 concentrations had only a marginal influence. The influence of SO 2 concentration was negligible. Although our data analysis suggests a relationship between SLA and NO x /O 3 concentration, the absence of a straightforward relationship between FAA and SLA and air pollution still questions the usefulness of these bio-indicators for monitoring air pollution. - Highlights: → Leaf characteristics of white willow as possible bio-indicators for air quality. → Fluctuating asymmetry is not a good bio-indicator for monitoring the air quality. → Shadow increases specific leaf area. → NO x and O 3 change specific leaf area of white willow. - Specific leaf area of S. alba increased with increasing shade and, in less extent, with increasing NO x and decreasing O 3 concentration, while leaf asymmetry did not respond to air pollution

  18. Use of NAP gene to manipulate leaf senescence in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Susheng; Guo, Yongfeng

    2013-04-16

    The present invention discloses transgenic plants having an altered level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plants display an altered leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-transgenic plant, as well as mutant plants comprising an inactivated NAP gene, where mutant plants display a delayed leaf senescence phenotype compared to that of a non-mutant plant. The present invention also discloses methods for delaying leaf senescence in a plant, as well as methods of making a mutant plant having a decreased level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a delayed leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. Methods for causing precocious leaf senescence or promoting leaf senescence in a plant are also disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of identifying a candidate plant suitable for breeding that displays a delayed leaf senescence and/or enhanced yield phenotype.

  19. Seasonal changes in plant-water relations influence patterns of leaf display in Miombo woodlands: evidence of water conservative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Brown, Nick D; Fisher, Joshua B; Brodribb, Timothy; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2018-06-15

    Water availability has frequently been linked to seasonal leaf display in seasonally dry ecosystems, but there have been few ecohydrological investigations of this link. Miombo woodland is a dominant seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem type in southern Africa; however, there are few data on the relationship between seasonal dynamics in plant-water relations and patterns of leaf display for Miombo woodland. Here we investigate this relationship among nine key Miombo woodland tree species differing in drought tolerance ability and leaf phenology. Results of this study showed that seasonal patterns of leaf phenology varied significantly with seasonal changes in stem water relations among the nine species. Leaf shedding coincided with the attainment of seasonal minimum stem water potential. Leaf flush occurred following xylem rehydration at the peak of the dry season suggesting that endogenous plant factors play a pivotal role in seasonal leaf display in this forest type. Drought-tolerant deciduous species suffered significantly higher seasonal losses in xylem hydraulic conductivity than the drought-intolerant semi-evergreen tree species (P water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests selects for water conservative traits that protect the vulnerable xylem transport system. Therefore, seasonal rhythms in xylem transport dictate patterns of leaf display in seasonally dry tropical forests.

  20. A better way of representing stem area index in two-big-leaf models: the application and impact on canopy integration of leaf nitrogen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Butler, E. E.; Wythers, K. R.; Kattge, J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Atkin, O. K.; Flores-Moreno, H.; Reich, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better estimate the carbon budget of the globe, accurately simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) in earth system models is critical. When upscaling leaf level photosynthesis to the canopy, climate models uses different big-leaf schemes. About half of the state-of-the-art earth system models use a "two-big-leaf" scheme that partitions canopies into direct and diffusively illuminated fractions to reduce high bias of GPP simulated by one-big-leaf models. Some two-big-leaf models, such as ACME (identical in this respect to CLM 4.5) add leaf area index (LAI) and stem area index (SAI) together when calculating canopy radiation transfer. This treatment, however, will result in higher fraction of sunlit leaves. It will also lead to an artificial overestimation of canopy nitrogen content. Here we introduce a new algorithm of simulating SAI in a two-big-leaf model. The new algorithm reduced the sunlit leave fraction of the canopy and conserved the nitrogen content from leaf to canopy level. The lower fraction of sunlit leaves reduced global GPP especially in tropical area. Compared to the default model, for the past 100 years (1909-2009), the averaged global annual GPP is lowered by 4.11 PgC year-1 using this new algorithm.

  1. Normal Incidence of Sound Transmission Loss of a Double-Leaf Partition Inserted with a Microperforated Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Putra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-leaf partition in engineering structures has been widely applied for its advantages, that is, in terms of its mechanical strength as well as its lightweight property. In noise control, the double-leaf also serves as an effective noise barrier. Unfortunately at low frequency, the sound transmission loss reduces significantly due to the coupling between the panels and the air between them. This paper studies the effect of a microperforated panel (MPP inserted inside a double-leaf partition on the sound transmission loss performance of the system. The MPP insertion is proposed to provide a hygienic double-leaf noise insulator replacing the classical abrasive porous materials between the panels. It is found that the transmission loss improves at the troublesome mass-air-mass resonant frequency if the MPP is located closer to the solid panel. The mathematical model is derived for normal incidence of acoustic loading.

  2. Timing and duration of autumn leaf development in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmgren, Kjell

    2014-05-01

    The growing season is changing in both ends and autumn phases seem to be responding in more diverse ways than spring events. Indeed, we know little about autumn leaf phenological strategies and how they are correlated with fitness components or ecosystem properties, and how they vary between species and over bioclimatic gradients. In this study more than 10 000 students were involved in observing autumn leaf development at 378 sites all over Sweden (55-68°N). They followed an image based observation protocol classifying autumn leaf development into five levels, from summer green (level 0) to 100% autumn leaf colored (level 4) canopy. In total, they submitted almost 12 000 observations between August 9 and November 15. 75% of the observations were made on the common species of Populus tremula, Betula pendula/pubescens and Sorbus aucuparia. The expected (negative) correlation between latitude and start of leaf senescence (level 2) was found in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. The duration of the leaf senescence period, defined as the period between 1/3 (level 2) and 100% (level 4) of the canopy autumn leaf colored, was negatively correlated with latitude in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. There was also a strong (negative) correlation of the start (level 2) and the duration of the leaf senescence in the early senescing Sorbus and Betula, while this effect was weaker in the late senescing Populus.

  3. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  4. Applications of the Addition of extract and cinnamon leaf flour in the Diet on the Quality of Meat of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Laheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii leaf flourin the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Catfish with a weight of319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 daysof maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1%cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 times a day with the feeding rate of3% of the average weight of the body. The results showed the treatment of leaf extract and flour, cinnamoncapable of decreasing levels of body fat, fat meat by 10,31-12,27%, 37,26-50,23%, respectively, compared tocontrols (p<0,05, however, cinnamon leaf extract treatment is more effective in improving the quality ofmeat catfish that looks meat texture compact, white flesh color and a slightly sweet taste.Keywords: cinnamon leaf, meat quality, Pangsianodon hypopthalmus

  5. Species discrimination of African savannah trees at leaf level using hyperspectral remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majeke, B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available , Combretum zeyheri, Gymnosporia buxifolia, Gymnosporia senegalenses, Lonchocarpus capassa, Terminalia sericea) were measured using the ASD spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Radiometer (ASD) (350-2500 nm)). Ten (10) leaf reflectances were collected for each...

  6. Evaluation of two methods of predicting MLC leaf positions using EPID measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M.; Dance, David R.; Fielding, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration. The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the 'central leaf method', is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the ''individual leaf method,'' involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., and 270 deg

  7. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels

  8. Trophic discrimination of stable isotopes and potential food source partitioning by leaf-eating crabs in mangrove environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Lee, Shing Yip; Mangion, Perrine

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition of leaf-eating mangrove crabs is a puzzle among mangrove ecologists. Nutrient-poor leaf litter can in most cases not support animal growth. Food partitioning (mangrove leaves, animal tissue, and microphytobenthos [MPB]) of sesarmid and ucidid mangrove crabs from eight locations...... here for crabs foraging on leaf litter to identify discrimination values that provide a balanced diet with sufficient nutrients (i.e., N) when combined with other food sources. The data from all mangrove locations suggest that sesarmid and ucidid crabs ingest and assimilate mixtures of available food...... is probably caused by metabolic disparities between these two crab families. Deviations in 15N discrimination have in most cases only minor influence on the model-based 13C discrimination thresholds. The present findings lead us to suggest a modified Optimal Foraging Theory for leaf-eating mangrove crabs....

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of the Leaf and Bark Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of the leaf and bark extracts of Tarchonanathus campharatus.. Methods: The antioxidant activity of the aqueous leaf extract (Aq LF), methanol leaf extract (MET LF), dichloromethane leaf extract (DCM LF), methanol bark extract (MET BK), dichloromethane bark ...

  10. Effects of microhabitat on leaf traits in Digitalis grandiflora L. (Veronicaceae growing at forest edge and interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołodziejek J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, anatomical and biochemical traits of the leaves of yellow foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora Mill. from two microhabitats, forest interior (full shade under oak canopy and forest edge (half shade near shrubs, were studied. The microhabitats differed in the mean levels of available light, but did not differ in soil moisture. The mean level of light in the forest edge microhabitat was significantly higher than in the forest interior. Multivariate ANOVA was used to test the effects of microhabitat. Comparison of the available light with soil moisture revealed that both factors significantly influenced the morphological and anatomical variables of D. grandiflora. Leaf area, mass, leaf mass per area (LMA, surface area per unit dry mass (SLA, density and thickness varied greatly between leaves exposed to different light regimes. Leaves that developed in the shade were larger and thinner and had a greater SLA than those that developed in the half shade. In contrast, at higher light irradiances, at the forest edge, leaves tended to be thicker, with higher LMA and density. Stomatal density was higher in the half-shade leaves than in the full-shade ones. LMA was correlated with leaf area and mass and to a lesser extent with thickness and density in the forest edge microsite. The considerable variations in leaf density and thickness recorded here confirm the very high variation in cell size and amounts of structural tissue within species. The leaf plasticity index (PI was the highest for the morphological leaf traits as compared to the anatomical and biochemical ones. The nitrogen content was higher in the “half-shade leaves” than in the “shade leaves”. Denser leaves corresponded to lower nitrogen (N contents. The leaves of plants from the forest edge had more potassium (K than leaves of plants from the forest interior on an area basis but not on a dry mass basis; the reverse was true for phosphorus.

  11. Estimating leaf photosynthetic pigments information by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis and a leaf optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pudong; Shi, Runhe; Wang, Hong; Bai, Kaixu; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Leaf pigments are key elements for plant photosynthesis and growth. Traditional manual sampling of these pigments is labor-intensive and costly, which also has the difficulty in capturing their temporal and spatial characteristics. The aim of this work is to estimate photosynthetic pigments at large scale by remote sensing. For this purpose, inverse model were proposed with the aid of stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis. Furthermore, a leaf radiative transfer model (i.e. PROSPECT model) was employed to simulate the leaf reflectance where wavelength varies from 400 to 780 nm at 1 nm interval, and then these values were treated as the data from remote sensing observations. Meanwhile, simulated chlorophyll concentration (Cab), carotenoid concentration (Car) and their ratio (Cab/Car) were taken as target to build the regression model respectively. In this study, a total of 4000 samples were simulated via PROSPECT with different Cab, Car and leaf mesophyll structures as 70% of these samples were applied for training while the last 30% for model validation. Reflectance (r) and its mathematic transformations (1/r and log (1/r)) were all employed to build regression model respectively. Results showed fair agreements between pigments and simulated reflectance with all adjusted coefficients of determination (R2) larger than 0.8 as 6 wavebands were selected to build the SMLR model. The largest value of R2 for Cab, Car and Cab/Car are 0.8845, 0.876 and 0.8765, respectively. Meanwhile, mathematic transformations of reflectance showed little influence on regression accuracy. We concluded that it was feasible to estimate the chlorophyll and carotenoids and their ratio based on statistical model with leaf reflectance data.

  12. Leaf area prediction models for Tsuga canadensis in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; R.S. Seymour

    1999-01-01

    Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (eastern hemlock) is a common species throughout the Acadian forest. Studies of leaf area and growth efficiency in this forest type have been limited by the lack of equations to predict leaf area of this species. We found that sapwood area was an effective leaf area surrogate in T. canadensis, though...

  13. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of SAR effects on budding, flowering, leaf abscission and pollen development revealed that ... Keywords: Simulated acid rain, Helianthus annuus, flowering, leaf abscission, pollen germination, sunflower. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Investigating the Alometric Relationships between Leaf Area and Some of Vegetative Characteristics in SC704 Corn Hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Zeinali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the leaves are the main source of production of photosynthetic substances in plants, dry matter production and crop yield potential is largely dependent on the leaf surface, and many environmental changes affect growth and yield through changes in leaf area. Hence, green leaf area per plant and leaf area index is measured in almost all studies of crop physiology to understand the mechanism of yield alteration. However, measurement of leaf area compared with the other traits such as plant height and total plant dry weight is very difficult, need to precision instruments and spend more time and cost. Therefore, according to the allometric relationships in plants, extensive studies were done to find the relationship between leaf area and the other plant traits that their measurement is easier, faster and cheaper, and does not require expensive equipment. Using these relationships will be used to estimate plant leaf area with acceptable accuracy without measuring. Plant traits that have high correlation with leaf area and usually use to estimate the plant leaf area are the number of leaves or nodes per main stem, plant height, leaf dry weight and dry weight of vegetative parts of the plant. Allometric equations was used successfully to calculate leaf area for various crops such as cotton, wheat, chickpea, faba bean, peanuts, soybean and sweet sorghum. This study was conducted to obtain the allometric relationships between green leaf area (cm2 per plant with number of leaves or nodes per main stem, plant height, green leaf dry weight and dry weight of vegetative parts of the plant (gram per plant, and investigating the effect of plant density and planting date on these relationships in SC704 corn (Zea mays L. hybrid. Materials and Methods This study was conducted at Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources farm located at latitude 36 o 51’ N, longitude 54 o27’ E and altitude of 13 meters above sea level

  15. Why Does Not the Leaf Weight-Area Allometry of Bamboos Follow the 3/2-Power Law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principle of similarity (Thompson, 1917 states that the weight of an organism follows the 3/2-power law of its surface area and is proportional to its volume on the condition that the density is constant. However, the allometric relationship between leaf weight and leaf area has been reported to greatly deviate from the 3/2-power law, with the irregularity of leaf density largely ignored for explaining this deviation. Here, we choose 11 bamboo species to explore the allometric relationships among leaf area (A, density (ρ, length (L, thickness (T, and weight (W. Because the edge of a bamboo leaf follows a simplified two-parameter Gielis equation, we could show that A ∝ L2 and that A ∝ T2. This then allowed us to derive the density-thickness allometry ρ ∝ Tb and the weight-area allometry W ∝ A(b+3/2 ≈ A9/8, where b approximates −3/4. Leaf density is strikingly negatively associated with leaf thickness, and it is this inverse relationship that results in the weight-area allometry to deviate from the 3/2-power law. In conclusion, although plants are prone to invest less dry mass and thus produce thinner leaves when the leaf area is sufficient for photosynthesis, such leaf thinning needs to be accompanied with elevated density to ensure structural stability. The findings provide the insights on the evolutionary clue about the biomass investment and output of photosynthetic organs of plants. Because of the importance of leaves, plants could have enhanced the ratio of dry material per unit area of leaf in order to increase the efficiency of photosynthesis, relative the other parts of plants. Although the conclusion is drawn only based on 11 bamboo species, it should also be applicable to the other plants, especially considering previous works on the exponent of the weight-area relationship being less than 3/2 in plants.

  16. Effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves on soil organisms involved in leaf degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins

    Full Text Available The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5-20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25-5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6-41.2 mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates.

  17. A leaf gas exchange model that accounts for intra-canopy variability by considering leaf nitrogen content and local acclimation to radiation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Jorge A; Louarn, Gaëtan; Perez Peña, Jorge; Ojeda, Hernán; Simonneau, Thierry; Lebon, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the distribution of gas exchange within a plant is a prerequisite for scaling up from leaves to canopies. We evaluated whether leaf traits were reliable predictors of the effects of leaf ageing and leaf irradiance on leaf photosynthetic capacity (V(cmax) , J(max) ) in field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L). Simultaneously, we measured gas exchange, leaf mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen content (N(m) ) of leaves at different positions within the canopy and at different phenological stages. Daily mean leaf irradiance cumulated over 10 d (PPFD(10) ) was obtained by 3D modelling of the canopy structure. N(m) decreased over the season in parallel to leaf ageing while LMA was mainly affected by leaf position. PPFD(10) explained 66, 28 and 73% of the variation of LMA, N(m) and nitrogen content per area (N(a) ), respectively. Nitrogen content per unit area (N(a) = LMA × N(m) ) was the best predictor of the intra-canopy variability of leaf photosynthetic capacity. Finally, we developed a classical photosynthesis-stomatal conductance submodel and by introducing N(a) as an input, the model accurately simulated the daily pattern of gas exchange for leaves at different positions in the canopy and at different phenological stages during the season. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The heterogeneity and spatial patterning of structure and physiology across the leaf surface in giant leaves of Alocasia macrorrhiza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    Full Text Available Leaf physiology determines the carbon acquisition of the whole plant, but there can be considerable variation in physiology and carbon acquisition within individual leaves. Alocasia macrorrhiza (L. Schott is an herbaceous species that can develop very large leaves of up to 1 m in length. However, little is known about the hydraulic and photosynthetic design of such giant leaves. Based on previous studies of smaller leaves, and on the greater surface area for trait variation in large leaves, we hypothesized that A. macrorrhiza leaves would exhibit significant heterogeneity in structure and function. We found evidence of reduced hydraulic supply and demand in the outer leaf regions; leaf mass per area, chlorophyll concentration, and guard cell length decreased, as did stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. This heterogeneity in physiology was opposite to that expected from a thinner boundary layer at the leaf edge, which would have led to greater rates of gas exchange. Leaf temperature was 8.8°C higher in the outer than in the central region in the afternoon, consistent with reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration caused by a hydraulic limitation to the outer lamina. The reduced stomatal conductance in the outer regions would explain the observed homogeneous distribution of leaf water potential across the leaf surface. These findings indicate substantial heterogeneity in gas exchange across the leaf surface in large leaves, greater than that reported for smaller-leafed species, though the observed structural differences across the lamina were within the range reported for smaller-leafed species. Future work will determine whether the challenge of transporting water to the outer regions can limit leaf size for plants experiencing drought, and whether the heterogeneity of function across the leaf surface represents a particular disadvantage for large simple leaves that might explain their

  19. Optimal leaf sequencing with elimination of tongue-and-groove underdosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-02-07

    The individual leaves of a multileaf collimator (MLC) have a tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design to minimize leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. This design element has a drawback in that it creates areas of underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct exposures of the leaf pairs. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of a leaf sequencing algorithm for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery that completely eliminates areas of underdosages due to tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design of the MLC. Simultaneous elimination of tongue-and-groove effect and leaf interdigitation is also studied. This is an extension of our previous work (Kamath et al 2003a Phys. Med. Biol. 48 307) in which we described a leaf sequencing algorithm that is optimal for monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation. Compared to our previously published algorithm (without constraints), the new algorithms increase the number of sub-fields by approximately 21% and 25%, respectively, but are optimal in MU efficiency for unidirectional schedules. (note)

  20. Optimal leaf sequencing with elimination of tongue-and-groove underdosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Palta, Jatinder; Ranka, Sanjay; Li, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The individual leaves of a multileaf collimator (MLC) have a tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design to minimize leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. This design element has a drawback in that it creates areas of underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct exposures of the leaf pairs. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of a leaf sequencing algorithm for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery that completely eliminates areas of underdosages due to tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design of the MLC. Simultaneous elimination of tongue-and-groove effect and leaf interdigitation is also studied. This is an extension of our previous work (Kamath et al 2003a Phys. Med. Biol. 48 307) in which we described a leaf sequencing algorithm that is optimal for monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation. Compared to our previously published algorithm (without constraints), the new algorithms increase the number of sub-fields by approximately 21% and 25%, respectively, but are optimal in MU efficiency for unidirectional schedules. (note)

  1. Leaf micromorphology of some Phyllanthus L. species (Phyllanthaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solihani, N. S., E-mail: noorsolihani@gmail.com; Noraini, T., E-mail: norainitalip@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Azahana, A., E-mail: bell-azahana@yahoo.com [Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Nordahlia, A. S., E-mail: nordahlia@frim.gov.my [Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Comparative leaf micromorphological study was conducted of five chosen Phyllanthus L. (Phyllanthaceae) species, namely P. acidus L., P. elegans Wall. ex Müll. Arg., P. emblica L., P. urinaria L. and P. pulcher Wall. ex Müll. Arg. The objective of this study is to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification. The procedures involve examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings of this study have demonstrated variations in the leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in the types of waxes present on adaxial and abaxial epidermis surfaces, in the stomata and types of trichome. Common character present in all species studied are the presence of a thin film layer and buttress-like waxes on epidermal leaf surfaces. Diagnostics characters found in this study are the presence of papilla in P. elegens, amphistomatic stomata in P. urinaria and flaky waxes in P. pulcher. The result of this study has shown that leaf micromorphological characters have some taxonomic significance and can be used in identification of species in the genus Phyllanthus.

  2. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  3. Leaf Characteristics and Photosynthetic Performance of Floating, Emergent and Terrestrial Leaves of Marsilea quadrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hong Lin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of Marsilea quadrifolia, an amphibious fern, experiencing extreme variation in environment develop heterophyll. In this study, we compared stomatal and trichome density on upper and lower surfaces, leaf and petiole area mass ratio, spectral properties and photosynthetic performance of floating, emergent and terrestrial leaves of M. quadrifolia, to explore the ecological advantages of producing different leaf types. Morphological measurement reveals that these three types of leaf display highly differences in stomatal density on lower epidermis, trichome density on both surfaces and petiole dry mass per length, and reflectance coefficient between 500 and 650 nm. In contrast, no significant difference was found in the PSII electron transport rate of the three types of leaves. The analysis of stable carbon isotope ratio of the three types of leaves indicates that they all use C3 photosynthetic pathway.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Vernonia amygdalina Leaf Extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    (Bitter leaf), Allium sativum (Garlic), O. gratissimum. (Scent leaf) ... complex active components that are useful ... hydroxide was added. .... KEY: CPX-Ciprofloxacin, Ro-Rocephin, St-Streptomycin, AU-Augmentin, SXT-Septrin, SP- Sparfloxacin, ...

  5. Shrub type dominates the vertical distribution of leaf C : N : P stoichiometry across an extensive altitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding leaf stoichiometric patterns is crucial for improving predictions of plant responses to environmental changes. Leaf stoichiometry of terrestrial ecosystems has been widely investigated along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. However, very little is known about the vertical distribution of leaf C : N : P and the relative effects of environmental parameters, especially for shrubs. Here, we analyzed the shrub leaf C, N and P patterns in 125 mountainous sites over an extensive altitudinal gradient (523–4685 m on the Tibetan Plateau. Results showed that the shrub leaf C and C : N were 7.3–47.5 % higher than those of other regional and global flora, whereas the leaf N and N : P were 10.2–75.8 % lower. Leaf C increased with rising altitude and decreasing temperature, supporting the physiological acclimation mechanism that high leaf C (e.g., alpine or evergreen shrub could balance the cell osmotic pressure and resist freezing. The largest leaf N and high leaf P occurred in valley region (altitude 1500 m, likely due to the large nutrient leaching from higher elevations, faster litter decomposition and nutrient resorption ability of deciduous broadleaf shrub. Leaf N : P ratio further indicated increasing N limitation at higher altitudes. Interestingly, drought severity was the only climatic factor positively correlated with leaf N and P, which was more appropriate for evaluating the impact of water status than precipitation. Among the shrub ecosystem and functional types (alpine, subalpine, montane, valley, evergreen, deciduous, broadleaf, and conifer, their leaf element contents and responses to environments were remarkably different. Shrub type was the largest contributor to the total variations in leaf stoichiometry, while climate indirectly affected the leaf C : N : P via its interactive effects on shrub type or soil. Collectively, the large heterogeneity in shrub type was the most

  6. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L. DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50=35.88 μg/mL and CVA16 (IC50=42.91 μg/mL. Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions.

  7. Study on postpartum estrus of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the postpartum estrus cycle of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials and Methods: Materials used were 8 males and 8 females of C. cobaya with body weight ranged 400-450 g. Mating ratio applied was 1:1. Treatments given were 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg of A. cordifolia leaf extract/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Two females were subjected for each treatment. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Observation of mating behavior, vulva morphology, and vaginal smear preparation was done in the afternoon for 10 days subsequence postpartum. Data were analyzed by univariate method and descriptively. Results: The results showed that the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract 50 mg orally could accelerate the time of postpartum estrus based on the average frequency of mating behavior consisting of behavioral approach, allow the buck to sniffing her, mating positions, standing heat, lordosis position, and copulation. During estrus, vulva morphology was red color, had much mucus and no thin membrane covering vagina. There were a lot of superficial cells on vagina. Conclusion: The best treatment to accelerate occurring postpartum estrus was the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract as many as 50 mg/head weight (T2 orally.

  8. Estimation of leaf area in tropical maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area development of six tropical maize cultivars grown in 1995 and 1996 in several tropical environments in Mexico (both favourable and moisture-and N-limited) was observed and analysed. First, the validity of a bell-shaped curve describing the area of individual leaves as a function of leaf

  9. Effect of olive leaf alcoholic extract on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadreza nasirzade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is present at various degrees in kidney transplants. Several studies suggest that renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR can induce acute kidney injury.  Liver diseases and neurological disorders related to kidney injury is a common clinical problem. Olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. They have better antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging. In this study 50 male rats were allocated randomly into 5 groups: control (intact animals, group-1(I/R 60min+olive leaf extract, group-2 (I/R 60min, group-3(I/R 120min+olive leaf extractand group-4(I/R 120min.The animals  received 100 mg/kg olive leaf extract in0.5 ml drinking water using gavage for 28 days. Other animals received 0.5 ml normal saline by gavages. At the end of the treatment, the level of antioxidant enzymes including TAC, MDA, SOD and GPX were determined in renal tissue. Administration of olive leaf extract can significantly increase activity of TAC, GPX and SOD in group1and 3compared with group2and4. Also, MDA level in renal tissue of treated groups was significantly lower than ischemia-reperfusion groups (p

  10. Short communication: Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANURAG SUNPAPAO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sunpapao A, Pitaloka MK, Arikit S. 2015. Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand. Biodiversitas 17: 31-35. Algal leaf spot disease of Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan was observed in southern Thailand. The algae were isolated on Bold’s basal medium (BBM and identified based on appearance of the lesions, algal morphology and molecular properties. Characteristics of the filamentous thallus cells, sporangiophores, sporangia, gametes and zoospores were clarified. A portion of the 18S small subunit rRNA was amplified to validate the morphological identification by sequence similarity. To summarize the main results, the plant parasite causing algal leaf spot was identified as Cephaleuros virescens, and in sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis the Cephaleuros PSU-R5.1 isolate from rambutan grouped with the algae in genus Cephaleuros. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand.

  11. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall R Corbin

    Full Text Available Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like--rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47-50% w/w and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16-22% w/w, and whole leaves were low in lignin (9-13% w/w. Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85-95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41-48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition.

  12. DIURNAL CHANGES IN LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATIVE WATER CONTENT OF GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in light intensity, air temperature and relative air humidity leads to diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and leaf relative water content. In order to determine the diurnal changes in net photosynthetic rate of vine plants and influence of the main environmental factors, gas exchange in the vine leaves were measure using a portable plant CO2 analysis package. The results show that diurnal changes in photosynthetic rate could be interpreted as single-peak curve, with a maximum at noon (10.794 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Leaf relative water content has maximum value in the morning; the values may slightly decrease during the day (day of June, with normal temperature, no rain, no water restriction in soil.

  13. Leaf-morphology-assisted selection for resistance to two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kousuke

    2016-10-01

    The development of a cultivar resistant to the two-spotted spider mite has provided both ecological and economic benefits to the production of cut flowers. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of resistance to mites using an inbred population of carnations. In the resistant and susceptible plants selected from an inbred population, a difference was recognised in the thickness of the abaxial palisade tissue by microscopic examination of the damaged leaf. Therefore, it was assumed that mites displayed feeding preferences within the internal leaf structure of the carnation leaf. The suitability of the host plant for mites was investigated using several cultivars selected using an index of the thickness from the abaxial leaf surface to the spongy tissue. The results suggested that the cultivar associated with a thicker abaxial tissue lowered the intrinsic rate of natural increase of the mites. The cultivars with a thicker abaxial tissue of over 120 µm showed slight damage in the field test. The ability of mites to feed on the spongy tissue during an early life stage from hatching to adult emergence was critical. It was possible to select a cultivar that is resistant to mites under a real cultivation environment by observing the internal structure of the leaf. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Measured and modelled leaf and stand-scale productivity across a soil moisture gradient and a severe drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J K; Williams, M; Starr, G; McGee, J; Mitchell, R J

    2013-02-01

    Environmental controls on carbon dynamics operate at a range of interacting scales from the leaf to landscape. The key questions of this study addressed the influence of water and nitrogen (N) availability on Pinus palustris (Mill.) physiology and primary productivity across leaf and canopy scales, linking the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) model to leaf and stand-scale flux and leaf trait/canopy data. We present previously unreported ecophysiological parameters (e.g. V(cmax) and J(max)) for P. palustris and the first modelled estimates of its annual gross primary productivity (GPP) across xeric and mesic sites and under extreme drought. Annual mesic site P. palustris GPP was ∼23% greater than at the xeric site. However, at the leaf level, xeric trees had higher net photosynthetic rates, and water and light use efficiency. At the canopy scale, GPP was limited by light interception (canopy level), but co-limited by nitrogen and water at the leaf level. Contrary to expectations, the impacts of an intense growing season drought were greater at the mesic site. Modelling indicated a 10% greater decrease in mesic GPP compared with the xeric site. Xeric P. palustris trees exhibited drought-tolerant behaviour that contrasted with mesic trees' drought-avoidance behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Intake of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract Decreases IL-1 and TNF-α Levels in Dyslipidemic Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in consumption behavior to instant food cause various health problems, such as obesity, dislipidemia, and atherosclerosis. A study was conducted to investigate Moringa oleifera extract as an anti-inflammation product that decreases the levels of biochemical markers IL-1 and TNF-a. This experiment was done with randomized pre- and posttest control-group design, employing 40 Wistar rats separated into five groups: control group 0% M. oleifera leaf extract (P0, treatment group 1 with 10% M. oleifera leaf extract (P1, treatment group 2 with 15% M. oleifera leaf extract (P2, treatment group 3 with 20% M. oleifera leaf extract (P3, and treatment group 4 with 25% M. oleifera leaf extract (P4. This research observed that intake of 20% M. oleifera leaf extract results in the highest significant decrease of 15.42% of IL-1 level (134.64 ± 1.98 to 113.87 ± 4.30 pg/mL and decrease of 45.63% of TNF-α level (28.62 ± 1.25 to 15.56 ± 7.20 pg/mL. Therefore, it can be concluded that intake of M. oleifera leaf extract by Wistar rat has anti-inflammatory effects on chronic dyslipidemia through decrease of IL-1 and TNF-α levels and histopathology profile. Further research is required to determine whether the application of M. oleifera leaf extract (daun kelor in humans will have similar anti-inflammation effects.

  16. The relative roles of local climate adaptation and phylogeny in determining leaf-out timing of temperate tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Desnoues

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Leaf out times of temperate forest trees are a prominent determinant of global carbon dynamics throughout the year. Abiotic cues of leaf emergence are well studied but investigation of the relative roles of shared evolutionary history (phylogeny and local adaptation to climate in determining the species-level responses to these cues is needed to better apprehend the effect of global change on leaf emergence. We explored the relative importance of phylogeny and climate in determining the innate leaf out phenology across the temperate biome. Methods We used an extensive dataset of leaf-out dates of 1126 temperate woody species grown in eight Northern Hemisphere common gardens. For these species, information on the native climate and phylogenetic position was collected. Using linear regression analyses, we examine the relative effect of climate variables and phylogeny on leaf out variation among species. Results Climate variables explained twice as much variation in leaf out timing as phylogenetic information, a process that was driven primarily by the complex interactive effects of multiple climate variables. Although the primary climate factors explaining species-level variation in leaf-out timing varied drastically across different families, our analyses reveal that local adaptation plays a stronger role than common evolutionary history in determining tree phenology across the temperate biome. Conclusions In the long-term, the direct effects of physiological adaptation to abiotic effects of climate change on forest phenology are likely to outweigh the indirect effects mediated through changes in tree species composition.

  17. ACTIVITY TEST OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L. LEAF METHANOL EXTRACT AS CONTRACEPTION ANTIFERTILITY TO WHITE MICE (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Retno Dwi Ariani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about if the guava (Psidium guajava L. leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a positive test as contraception antifertility to white mice (Rattus norvegicus. The sample is guava leaf from Mungkid, Magelang Central of Java Indonesia. The animals experiment are the white mice on 140-300 g for female, 200-250 g for male and about 3 months of age in average. The steps of this research are : (1 preparing  sample, i.e. washing, drying on to indirect sunlight and make the sample into powder, (2 isolation the guava leaf powder in soxhlet instrument with hexane, (3 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf hexane extract produced, (4 maseration the sample with methanol, (5 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf methanol extract produced, (6 conducting contraception antifertility activity test to guave leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages to mice white. The results of this research are guava leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a negative contraception antifertility test to white mice but in these dossages have indicated that an antiimplantation effect (the total natality of fetus is less than the total implantation site in mice white.   Keywords: Guava leaf, contraseption antifertility, methanol extract, white mice, implantation

  18. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  19. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration of three bioenergy crops in relation to temperature and leaf nitrogen: how conserved are biochemical model parameters among crop species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archontoulis, S. V.; Yin, X.; Vos, J.; Danalatos, N. G.; Struik, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the need for parallel increases in food and energy production from crops in the context of global change, crop simulation models and data sets to feed these models with photosynthesis and respiration parameters are increasingly important. This study provides information on photosynthesis and respiration for three energy crops (sunflower, kenaf, and cynara), reviews relevant information for five other crops (wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, and grape), and assesses how conserved photosynthesis parameters are among crops. Using large data sets and optimization techniques, the C3 leaf photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) and an empirical night respiration model for tested energy crops accounting for effects of temperature and leaf nitrogen were parameterized. Instead of the common approach of using information on net photosynthesis response to CO2 at the stomatal cavity (An–Ci), the model was parameterized by analysing the photosynthesis response to incident light intensity (An–Iinc). Convincing evidence is provided that the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate or the maximum electron transport rate was very similar whether derived from An–Ci or from An–Iinc data sets. Parameters characterizing Rubisco limitation, electron transport limitation, the degree to which light inhibits leaf respiration, night respiration, and the minimum leaf nitrogen required for photosynthesis were then determined. Model predictions were validated against independent sets. Only a few FvCB parameters were conserved among crop species, thus species-specific FvCB model parameters are needed for crop modelling. Therefore, information from readily available but underexplored An–Iinc data should be re-analysed, thereby expanding the potential of combining classical photosynthetic data and the biochemical model. PMID:22021569

  20. Characterization of leaf area of Agave fourcroydes Lem. plants obtained from asexual propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Sosa del Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The henequen (Agave fourcroydes Lem. is a crop of great economic importance. This study was aimed to characterize the leaf surface of henequen plants variety `Sac Ki' obtained by asexual propagation methods. In vitro plants, shoots of bulbils of in vitro plants, shoots of rhizomes of in vitro plants, shoots of bulbils of field plants and shoots of field rhizomes were used. At 7 and 15 months after planting in the nursery, the epidermis was characterized through the stomatal index and stomatal density. Moreover, the conductor vessels and fiber bundles in leaf mesophyll, were characterized. It was found that the leaf surface of henequen plants variety `Sac Ki' obtained by different methods of asexual propagation showed similar anatomical structures. However, it was observed that in vitro plants were different from the rest in terms of stomatal index and stomatal density in both time points. It was suggesting a accommodate response to environmental conditions. Key words: stomatic density, stomatic index, in vitro plants

  1. Fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence induced by methyl jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me applied in lanolin paste on the bottom surface of intact tulip leaves causes a rapid and intense its senescence. The aim of this work was to study the effect of JA-Me on free and bound fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence. The main free and bound fatty acids of tulip leaf, in decreasing order of their abundance, were linolenic, linoleic, palmitic, oleic, stearic and myristic acids. Only the content of free linolenic acid decreased after treatment with JA-Me during visible stage of senescence. ß-Sitosterol (highest concentration, campesterol, stigmasterol and cholesterol were identified in tulip leaf. Methyl jasmonate evidently increased the level of ß-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol during induced senescence. It is suggested that the increase in sterol concentrations under the influence of methyl jasmonate induced changes in membrane fluidity and permeability, which may be responsible for senescence.

  2. MicroRNA profiling of tomato leaf curl new delhi virus (tolcndv infected tomato leaves indicates that deregulation of mir159/319 and mir172 might be linked with leaf curl disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Qazi MR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV, a constituent of the genus Begomovirus, infects tomato and other plants with a hallmark disease symptom of upward leaf curling. Since microRNAs (miRs are known to control plants developmental processes, we evaluated the roles of miRNAs in Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV induced leaf curling. Results Microarray analyses of miRNAs, isolated from the leaves of both healthy and ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv Pusa Ruby, revealed that ToLCNDV infection significantly deregulated various miRNAs representing ~13 different conserved families (e.g., miR319, miR172, etc.. The precursors of these miRNAs showed similar deregulated patterns, indicating that the transcription regulation of respective miRNA genes was perhaps the cause of deregulation. The expression levels of the miRNA-targeted genes were antagonistic with respect to the amount of corresponding miRNA. Such deregulation was tissue-specific in nature as no analogous misexpression was found in flowers. The accumulation of miR159/319 and miR172 was observed to increase with the days post inoculation (dpi of ToLCNDV agroinfection in tomato cv Pusa Ruby. Similarly, these miRs were also induced in ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv JK Asha and chilli plants, both exhibiting leaf curl symptoms. Our results indicate that miR159/319 and miR172 might be associated with leaf curl symptoms. This report raises the possibility of using miRNA(s as potential signature molecules for ToLCNDV infection. Conclusions The expression of several host miRNAs is affected in response to viral infection. The levels of the corresponding pre-miRs and the predicted targets were also deregulated. This change in miRNA expression levels was specific to leaf tissues and observed to be associated with disease progression. Thus, certain host miRs are likely indicator of viral infection and could be potentially employed to develop viral resistance strategies.

  3. Nitrogen availability effects on gas exchange measurements in field-grown maize (Zea mays L.) under irrigated Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isla, R.; Guillén, M.; Salmerón, M.

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies about the effect of nitrogen (N) deficiency on leaf growth, N status, and photosynthetic capacity of maize grown under field conditions in a Mediterranean climate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different levels of mineral N availability on leaf gas exchange parameters of sprinkler irrigated maize. The experiment was conducted in a conventional maize field located in the central part of the Ebro valley (Spain) during two seasons. Using a portable LICOR-6400 equipment, instantaneous measurements and light response curves to gas exchange were conducted in plots with different levels of N supply ranging from deficient (no fertilized) to over-fertilized (300 kg N/ha). In addition to gas exchange measurements, mineral soil N content, chlorophyll meter readings (CMR), leaf N content, and grain yield were measured in the different plots. Results showed that grain yield reached a plateau (14.5 Mg/ha) when the mineral N available was about 179 kg/ha. CMR were linearly and highly related to total N in ear leaves. The relationship between light-saturated leaf photosynthesis measurements and CMR was significant but very weak (R2=0.13) at V8 and V14 stages but increased later in the growing season (R2=0.52). Plants with intermediate levels of N supply (48available N increased, the saturation point, the light compensation point and significant increases of dark respiration rate were observed. Under the conditions of the study, leaf N contents of 1.9% in the ear leaf were enough to maximize leaf assimilation rates with no need to over-fertilize the maize crop.

  4. Nitrogen availability effects on gas exchange measurements in field-grown maize (Zea mays L.) under irrigated Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, R.; Guillén, M.; Salmerón, M.

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies about the effect of nitrogen (N) deficiency on leaf growth, N status, and photosynthetic capacity of maize grown under field conditions in a Mediterranean climate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different levels of mineral N availability on leaf gas exchange parameters of sprinkler irrigated maize. The experiment was conducted in a conventional maize field located in the central part of the Ebro valley (Spain) during two seasons. Using a portable LICOR-6400 equipment, instantaneous measurements and light response curves to gas exchange were conducted in plots with different levels of N supply ranging from deficient (no fertilized) to over-fertilized (300 kg N/ha). In addition to gas exchange measurements, mineral soil N content, chlorophyll meter readings (CMR), leaf N content, and grain yield were measured in the different plots. Results showed that grain yield reached a plateau (14.5 Mg/ha) when the mineral N available was about 179 kg/ha. CMR were linearly and highly related to total N in ear leaves. The relationship between light-saturated leaf photosynthesis measurements and CMR was significant but very weak (R2=0.13) at V8 and V14 stages but increased later in the growing season (R2=0.52). Plants with intermediate levels of N supply (48< CMR<54) tended to have slightly higher assimilation rates than plants with higher CMR readings. As the available N increased, the saturation point, the light compensation point and significant increases of dark respiration rate were observed. Under the conditions of the study, leaf N contents of 1.9% in the ear leaf were enough to maximize leaf assimilation rates with no need to over-fertilize the maize crop.

  5. Ontogeny of the sheathing leaf base in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Leiboff, Samuel; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Leaves develop from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) via recruitment of leaf founder cells. Unlike eudicots, most monocot leaves display parallel venation and sheathing bases wherein the margins overlap the stem. Here we utilized computed tomography (CT) imaging, localization of PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transport proteins, and in situ hybridization of leaf developmental transcripts to analyze the ontogeny of monocot leaf morphology in maize (Zea mays). CT imaging of whole-mounted shoot apices illustrates the plastochron-specific stages during initiation of the basal sheath margins from the tubular disc of insertion (DOI). PIN1 localizations identify basipetal auxin transport in the SAM L1 layer at the site of leaf initiation, a process that continues reiteratively during later recruitment of lateral leaf domains. Refinement of these auxin transport domains results in multiple, parallel provascular strands within the initiating primordium. By contrast, auxin is transported from the L2 toward the L1 at the developing margins of the leaf sheath. Transcripts involved in organ boundary formation and dorsiventral patterning accumulate within the DOI, preceding the outgrowth of the overlapping margins of the sheathing leaf base. We suggest a model wherein sheathing bases and parallel veins are both patterned via the extended recruitment of lateral maize leaf domains from the SAM. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Activity of cell wall degrading glycanases in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was shown that JA-Me markedly increased the total activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectinase and xylanase in petioles, but did not affect activities of these enzymes in the blades and apical part of shoots of K. blossfeldiana. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate promotes the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides in the abscission zone and in this way induces leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  7. Using a Chlorophyll Meter to Evaluate the Nitrogen Leaf Content in Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Castelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In flue-cured tobacco N fertilizer is commonly applied during pre-planting, and very often applied again later as a growth-starter. It is generally held that the efficiency of N-fertilizer use can be improved by evaluating the leaf Nstatus after transplanting and until flowering stage. N use efficiency in this context does not refer merely to the yield but also to the quality, in the meanwhile minimizing the negative effects on the environment. To investigate these aspects, we evaluated the capacity of a Minolta model