WorldWideScience

Sample records for av taalegrenseoverskridelser paa

  1. Ozone and climate - Effects of the excess of critical loads on birches and mountain plants; Ozon og klima - effekter av taalegrenseoverskridelser paa bjoerk og fjellplanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to the environmental effects of high concentrated ozone on the biomass production in Norway. The effects on birches and mountain plants from ozone together with the interaction between ozone and carbon dioxide and their influence on vegetation are discussed

  2. Understanding PaaS

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The least understood feature of cloud computing, Platform as a Service (PaaS), is also the most powerful and cost effective. This concise overview shows you why organizations that properly wield PaaS can quickly gain a strong competitive advantage. You'll learn how PaaS enables developers to pursue low cost R&D projects, lets system administrators focus on systems rather than servers, and helps architects evaluate new technology quickly and directly. Many reliable PaaS providers are available today, including services from Amazon, Red Hat, and Google. This book offers valuable advice for tec

  3. Implementing and Managing framework for PaaS in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Junaid Qayyum; Faheem Khan; Muhammad LaL; Fayyaz Gul; Muhammad Sohaib; Fahad Masood

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet and Cloud computing, there are more and more network resources. Sharing, management and on-demand allocation of network resources are particularly important in Cloud computing. Platform as a Service (PaaS) is one of the key services in Cloud computing. PaaS is very attractive for schools, research institutions and enterprises which need reducing IT costs, improving computing platform sharing and meeting license constraints. However, nearly all current av...

  4. Containerisation and the PaaS Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Pahl, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Containerisation is widely discussed as a lightweight virtualisation solution. Apart from exhibiting benefits over traditional virtual machines in the cloud, containers are especially relevant for Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) clouds to manage and orchestrate applications through containers as an application packaging mechanism. We discuss the requirements that arise from having to facilitate applications through distributed multi-cloud platforms.

  5. Build your own PaaS with Docker

    CERN Document Server

    Hane, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to take full advantage of separating services into module containers and connect them to form a complete platform. It will give you all the insights and knowledge needed to run your own PaaS.

  6. GEMBus based services composition platform for cloud PaaS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Demchenko; C. Ngo; P. Martínez-Julia; E. Torroglosa; M. Grammatikou; J. Jofre; S. Gheorghiu; J.A. Garcia-Espin; A.D. Perez-Morales; C. de Laat

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS) provides an environment for creating and deploying applications using one of popular development platforms. This paper presents a practical solution for building a service composition platform based on the GEMBus (GEANT Multi-domain Bus) that extends the industry a

  7. PaaS manager : a platform-as-a-service aggregation framework

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, David; Neves, Pedro; Sousa, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The advent of Cloud Computing opened new opportunities in several areas, namely in the application development processes. As consequence, nowadays, PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service) service model allows simpler and flexible deployment strategies of applications, avoiding the need for dedicated networks, servers, stor- age, and other services. Within this context, several PaaS providers exist in the market, but each one having specific characteristics, proprietary technologies and Application Progr...

  8. COMPARISON OF OPEN-SOURCE PAAS ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Krishna Varma Nandimandalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a widely used technology with three basic service models such as Software as a Service (SaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS, and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS. This paper focuses on the PaaS model. Open source PaaS model provides choice of cloud, developer framework and application service. In this paper detailed study of four open PaaS packages such as AppScale, Cloud Foundry, Cloudify, and OpenShift are explained with the considerable architectural component aspects. We also explained some other PaaS packages like Stratos, Stakato and mOSAIC briefly. In this paper we present the comparative study of major open PaaS packages.

  9. Implementing and Managing framework for PaaS in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Qayyum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet and Cloud computing, there are more and more network resources. Sharing, management and on-demand allocation of network resources are particularly important in Cloud computing. Platform as a Service (PaaS is one of the key services in Cloud computing. PaaS is very attractive for schools, research institutions and enterprises which need reducing IT costs, improving computing platform sharing and meeting license constraints. However, nearly all current available cloud computing platforms are either proprietary or their software infrastructure is invisible to the research community except for a few open-source platforms. For universities and research institutes, more open and testable experimental platforms are needed in a lab-level with PCs. In this paper, a framework for managing PaaS in a virtual Cloud computing lab is developed. The framework implements the user management, resource management and access management. The system has good expandability and can improve resources sharing and utilization.

  10. NGAP: A (Brief) Update PaaS, IaaS, Onbording, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Brett; Pawloski, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    NASA ESDIS has charged the EED2 program with delivering a NASA-compliant, secure, cloud-based platform for application hosting. More than just a move to the cloud, this has forced us to examine all aspects of application hosting, from resource management to system administration, patching to monitoring, deployment to multiple environments. The result of this mandate is NGAP, the NASA General Application Platform. In this presentation, we will also discuss the various applications we are supporting and targeting, and their architectures including NGAPs move to support both PaaS and IaaS architectures.

  11. Possibilities of Phased Array Antenna (PAA) for Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles of the design and optimal choice of the PAA scheme for fusion researches are considered on the base of high power microwave antennas. Results of the analysis of the electromagnetic field structure in dependence on PAA sizes and radiator type are given

  12. Fine Mapping of qPAA8, a Gene Controlling Panicle Apical Development in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Cheng; Bi-Gang Mao; Su-Wei Gao; Ling Zhang; Jiu-Lin Wang; Cai-Lin Lei; Xin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In rice,one detrimental factor influencing single panicle yield is the frequent occurrence of panicle apical abortion (PAA) under unfavorable climatic conditions.Until now,no detailed genetic information has been available to avoid PAA in rice breeding.Here,we show that the occurrence of PAA is associated with the accumulation of excess hydrogen peroxide.Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping for PAA in an F2 population derived from the cross of L-05261 (PAA line) x IRAT129 (non-PAA variety) identified seven QTLs over a logarithm of the odd (LOD) threshold of 2.5,explaining approximately 50.1% of phenotypic variance for PAA in total.Five of the QTLs with an increased effect from L-05261,were designated as qPAA3-1,qPAA3-2,qPAA4,qPAA5 and qPAA8,and accounted for 6.8%,5.9%,4.2%,13.0% and 12.2%of phenotypic variance,respectively.We found that the PAA in the early heading plants was mainly controlled by qPAA8.Subsequently,using the sub-populations specific for qPAA8 based on markerassisted selection,we further narrowed qPAA8 to a 37.6-kb interval delimited by markers RM22475 and 8-In1 12.These results are beneficial for PAA gene clone.

  13. Carrier PaaS运营商级业务部署与管理控制平台%Carrier PaaS Business Deployment and Management Control Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大鹏

    2013-01-01

    It describes the chal enge of business cloud from the aspects of automatization, professional knowledge, automatic expanding and deployment. It gives the requirement of carrier in the process of business cloud development. Final y it expounds Carrier PaaS design principle and system architecture.%从自动化、专业知识、自动弹性扩展、部署等方面揭示了业务云化所带来的挑战,给出了运营商在进行业务云化过程中的需求,最后阐述了Carrier PaaS设计原则和系统架构。

  14. Protein-protein interactions in the β-oxidation part of the phenylacetate utilization pathway: crystal structure of the PaaF-PaaG hydratase-isomerase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Andrey M; Ajamian, Eunice; Zhang, Linhua; Rouiller, Isabelle; Bostina, Mihnea; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2012-11-01

    Microbial anaerobic and so-called hybrid pathways for degradation of aromatic compounds contain β-oxidation-like steps. These reactions convert the product of the opening of the aromatic ring to common metabolites. The hybrid phenylacetate degradation pathway is encoded in Escherichia coli by the paa operon containing genes for 10 enzymes. Previously, we have analyzed protein-protein interactions among the enzymes catalyzing the initial oxidation steps in the paa pathway (Grishin, A. M., Ajamian, E., Tao, L., Zhang, L., Menard, R., and Cygler, M. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10735-10743). Here we report characterization of interactions between the remaining enzymes of this pathway and show another stable complex, PaaFG, an enoyl-CoA hydratase and enoyl-Coa isomerase, both belonging to the crotonase superfamily. These steps are biochemically similar to the well studied fatty acid β-oxidation, which can be catalyzed by individual monofunctional enzymes, multifunctional enzymes comprising several domains, or enzymatic complexes such as the bacterial fatty acid β-oxidation complex. We have determined the structure of the PaaFG complex and determined that although individually PaaF and PaaG are similar to enzymes from the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway, the structure of the complex is dissimilar from bacterial fatty acid β-oxidation complexes. The PaaFG complex has a four-layered structure composed of homotrimeric discs of PaaF and PaaG. The active sites of PaaF and PaaG are adapted to accept the intermediary components of the Paa pathway, different from those of the fatty acid β-oxidation. The association of PaaF and PaaG into a stable complex might serve to speed up the steps of the pathway following the conversion of phenylacetyl-CoA to a toxic and unstable epoxide-CoA by PaaABCE monooxygenase. PMID:22961985

  15. Evaluation of an agricultural biogas plant at Hagavik; Utvaerdering av gaardsbaserad biogasanlaeggning paa Hagavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstroem, Mats; Nordberg, Aake; Ringmar, Anders

    2005-07-01

    Hagavik is an organic farm (municipality of Malmoe in Sweden) and the grown crops at the farm are sugar-beet, wheat, tritricale and ley crop (for green manure). The farmer has erected a new farm scale biogas plant with a digester volume of 500 m{sup 3}. The motives for building the plant were to produce biogas for cogeneration and digestate for supplying the farm with nutrients. Biogas substrates, harvested at the farm, are ley crop and sugar-beet tops and external substrates are solid manure from horses and organic waste from industrial bakery. Digestion of fibre-rich substrates as ley crop and straw-rich solid manure at farm scale plants is fairly untested in Sweden. The fibre has a rather big impact on the rheological properties of the substrate mixture and digester slurry and can cause problems with pumping and ineffective stirring. To achieve satisfactory function on the pumps and stirrers the fibre-rich substrates the rheological properties has to be improved. This can be done by 1) mixing the fibre-rich substrates with rather large quantities of liquids which can result in low dry mater content both in substrates an digester slurry 2) reduce the fibre size by mechanical disintegration. The Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (JTI) has been in charge of the evaluation of the biogas plant. Evaluation of the start-up phase of the plant, regarding the technical and biological function, was accomplished in July-November 2003. During year 2004 focus has been on practical experience running the plant. The plant electricity demand has been measured. Based on those measurements the calculated electricity demand running the plant with a biogas production at 600 m{sup 3}/d (3,54 MWh/d) corresponds to ca 2-3% of the energy content of the biogas. The calculated heat demand corresponds to 15 % of the biogas. At cogeneration (with assumed electrical efficiency of 34% and thermal efficiency of 55%) the net-energy production is 919 MWh/year where 44% will be electricity and the rest heat. Total investment for the plant is about 2,6 MSEK. The farmer has got a government investment subsidy of 0,6 MSEK. The price of the net-energy production has to be at least 0.40 SEK/kWh in order to balance the costs. This calculation includes the investment subsidy.

  16. Life cycle perspective on recycling of ashes; Livscykelperspektiv paa aatervinning av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to, from a life cycle perspective, discuss the consequences of recycling or disposing combustion ashes. The aim was to regard regional as well as global environmental impacts and point at potential conflicts between different environmental objectives, in order to produce basic information for decision-making on criteria and regulations for ash handling.Three different ashes were studied: bottom ash from waste incineration, fly ash from combustion of peat and from forest fuels. For all ashes three different scenarios were studied, two where the ash is recycled, and one where it is disposed. Focus was put on the difference between the three scenarios during 100 years. The use of bottom ash from waste incineration for roads saved crushed rock and energy, but produced more leaching of metals than the disposal alternative. Using this ash in drainage strata saves sand but causes higher metal leaching too. The same conclusions can be drawn for fly ash from peat, here leaching of Arsenic is the main factor. Using the peat ash as road contraction material saves more resources than the use for drainage blankets. For forest fuel ash, both the use as road construction material and recycling to the forest saves resources and energy. Recycling to the forest saves most energy but also the resources of Zinc, Phosphorous and Dolomite. Leaching of metals is most important for the forest recycling, and the nature of this resource recycling can be argued. The results are most sensitive concerning transports and leaching, but also for maintenance of the constructions where the ash is used. For the forest fuel ash, the suppositions about the necessity of compensation for nutrients removed with the fuel, have important effects for the result. Generally it can be said, for all three cases, that the estimates of leaching of metals are very uncertain, and that there is a need to develop the existing models for long term leaching. The three cases demonstrated the importance of applying a life cycle perspective, since different types of environmental impacts dominated in different stages of the system's and construction's life cycle. While resource consumption, energy use and emissions to the atmosphere dominates at production and transport of materials, the emission to water dominates at the use of the functions. An environmental study focussing on the use of e.g. a road construction will then exclude large parts of the impacts

  17. Salinity, dissolved organic carbon and water hardness affect peracetic acid (PAA) degradation in aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dibo; Steinberg, Christian E.W.; Straus, David L.; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Meinelt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is used in aquaculture under different conditions for disinfection and therapeutic purposes. There is limited information about its environmental fate, particularly its persistence in aquatic systems with different physical–chemical conditions. This study investigated PAA...... hardness had only minor impact. For commercial aquaculture, actual PAA concentration in the raw product needs to be measured; the fate of PAA in individual facilities must be carefully monitored and feasible application strategies need to be investigated to achieve maximal disinfection and therapeutic...

  18. Review of Information Authentication in Mobile Cloud over SaaS & PaaS Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Guha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Revolution has begun; time has come when we no more have to worry about the size, format & storage of data at a single place. Cloud computing is a revolution which has made world of internet more like a place of dynamic storage & facilitator of new methodology, which generates tools for consumers in a very effective style of computations. Cloud Computing has made lots of changes not only in infrastructure side, but has also deeply impacted the software industry. Many Companies, Institutions are moving towards using Cloud computing technology, but with every new technology emerging in this Information technology world, with major issues holds with security models to implement & problem like how we can keep data secured & safe. Cloud Computing; do pose various new security concerns, which have not been well identified & worked on. When we talk about the security of data in Cloud computing the vendor’s has to ensure assurance to get confidence of customer on the security issues. Institutions & organizations are planning to use cloud computing for certain level of confidential issues for their business applications though guaranteeing the security is difficult task for now. With most of companies & IT giants planning to incorporate usage of Mobile technology to enrich their existing services & with more & more advance smart phones available in market, we can think of certain ideas & solutions to use mobile devices as alert medium & help securing use of data & network in cloud environment to an extent? It can also help us to keep a watch on intruders & we can impose checks on illegal access to data & network. So we can think of using Mobile Technology with Cloud Networks. We in this paper, review certain security concerns in Cloud computing technology & also about certain ways to restrict & overcome such issues over SaaS & PaaS Layers using mobile technologies. In this paper we try to focus ourselves to find answers to all such questions

  19. PERI-ANESTHESIA ANAPHYLAXIS (PAA): WE STILL HAVE NOT STARTED POST-PAA TESTING FOR INCITING ANESTHESIA-RELATED ALLERGENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaeri, Taghreed; Gupta, Deepak; Nagabhushana, Ananthamurthy

    2016-02-01

    Anaphylaxis during anesthesia is uncommon. Diagnosis of peri-anesthesia anaphylaxis (PAA) requires anesthesia providers' vigilance for prompt diagnosis and treatment. In this case report, we present a challenging case with suspected PAA including its perioperative management, intensive care unit (ICU) course, and post-discharge follow-up. A 44-year-old female (body mass index = 26) presented for elective abdominal panniculectomy. Post-intubation, severe bronchospasm occurred that was non-responsive to nebulized albuterol and intravenous epinephrine. Continuous infusion of epinephrine was initiated. After aborting surgical procedure, the patient was transferred to ICU on continuous intravenous infusion of epinephrine. Venous blood sampling showed elevated troponin level. Echocardiography revealed ejection fraction of 25% suspicious of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (mid cavitary variant). Tracheal extubation was only possible after three days. Subsequently, patient was discharged home with a cardiology follow-up appointment and a referral to an allergy specialist. Unfortunately at our institution (an academic university hospital in United States) along with neighboring institutions in near-by areas, the only allergy skin tests available are for local anesthetics and antibiotics, while neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) cannot be tested (the suspected anaphylactic agent in our case was presumably rocuronium). In summary, PAA requires and responds to emergent diagnosis and immediate treatment; however there is still a long way to go to ensure post-PAA testing for inciting anesthesia-related allergens. PMID:27382817

  20. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though rather large, which may be caused by variation in particle content in the gas samples

  1. Freshwater dispersion stability of PAA-stabilised cerium oxide nanoparticles and toxicity towards Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aqueous dispersion of poly (acrylic acid)-stabilised cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (PAA-CeO2) was evaluated for its stability in a range of freshwater ecotoxicity media (MHRW, TG 201 and M7), with and without natural organic matter (NOM). In a 15 day dispersion stability study, PAA-CeO2 did not undergo significant aggregation in any media type. Zeta potential varied between media types and was influenced by PAA-CeO2 concentration, but remained constant over 15 days. NOM had no influence on PAA-CeO2 aggregation or zeta potential. The ecotoxicity of the PAA-CeO2 dispersion was investigated in 72 h algal growth inhibition tests using the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. PAA-CeO2 EC50 values for growth inhibition (GI; 0.024 mg/L) were 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than pristine CeO2 EC50 values reported in the literature. The concentration of dissolved cerium (Ce3+/Ce4+) in PAA-CeO2 exposure suspensions was very low, ranging between 0.5 and 5.6 μg/L. Free PAA concentration in the exposure solutions (0.0096–0.0384 mg/L) was significantly lower than the EC10 growth inhibition (47.7 mg/L) value of pure PAA, indicating that free PAA did not contribute to the observed toxicity. Elemental analysis indicated that up to 38% of the total Cerium becomes directly associated with the algal cells during the 72 h exposure. TOF-SIMS analysis of algal cell wall compounds indicated three different modes of action, including a significant oxidative stress response to PAA-CeO2 exposure. In contrast to pristine CeO2 nanoparticles, which rapidly aggregate in standard ecotoxicity media, PAA-stabilised CeO2 nanoparticles remain dispersed and available to water column species. Interaction of PAA with cell wall components, which could be responsible for the observed biomarker alterations, could not be excluded. This study indicates that the increased dispersion stability of PAA-CeO2 leads to an increase in toxicity compared to pristine non-stabilised forms

  2. Effekter av dynamisk skattepolitikk

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Ådne; Jia, Zhiyang; Nesbakken, Runa; Prestmo, Joakim; Thoresen, Thor Olav

    2010-01-01

    Individers atferd påvirkes av endringer i skattesystemet, ofte omtalt som dynamiske effekter. Ved beskrivelser av de økonomiske konsekvensene av skatteendringer er det avgjørende hvor store de dynamiske effektene er og hvilke dynamiske effekter man tar hensyn til. I artikkelen vises det til effekter på offentlige finanser av tre ulike former for reduksjoner i inntektsskatten for personer, beskrevet ved to metodiske innfallsvinkler, en partiell mikrosimuleringsanalyse basert på ...

  3. The advertisement call of the giant spiny frog Paa spinosa

    OpenAIRE

    Baogen YU, Rongquan ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the advertisement call of Paa spinosa at Yuliang Mountain, Lanxi, Zhejiang province, in eastern China. Temporal and spectral call parameters were analyzed, along with call intensity. Calls comprised of three to seven notes, the last of which had the longest duration. Three formants (harmonics) were clearly distinguishable from the audio spectrogram. The dominant frequency ranged from 411-1534Hz, and was either the first or the second formant. The number of notes within a call was ...

  4. Feeding biogas onto the national gas grid - Technical and economical aspects on omitting propane addition; Inmatning av biogas paa naturgasnaetet - Tekniska och ekonomiska aspekter paa slopad propantillsats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsson, Corfitz

    2012-07-01

    Biogas injection into the natural gas grid is a common practice in Sweden today. In order to condition the biogas to the quality matching the natural gas, propane (approx. 8 %) is injected in the biogas. This is a costly procedure which also introduces fossil components into a renewable gas flow. Because of this, it is desired to terminate the propane injection and inject biogas straight into the gas grid. This might affect certain customers and will affect billing procedures and this study has briefly examined the impact of injection of biogas in the gas grid without propane addition. The main findings are: 1. It seems technically possible to inject biogas without propane into the gas grid. Attention has to be paid to the quality requirements of certain sensitive customers, but most customers can accept the quality variations. 2. It is recommended that the minimum methane content of injected biogas is raised to 98 %. This might affect the operation and choice of upgrading equipment and will have to be evaluated from both a technical and an economical viewpoint in each case. 3. Downgrading the natural gas to biogas quality by air injection is not an option. 4. In order to make simplify billing procedures, the geographic location of biogas site injecting gas into the distribution network is crucial. The biogas site should be placed as close to the transmission network as possible. Further, two case studies concerning biogas injection into the transmission network are briefly discussed.

  5. Verdsettelse av Statoil ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Drangsholt, Bjørn Harald

    2011-01-01

    I løpet av denne oppgaven vil jeg utføre en fundamental verdsettelse av Statoil ASA basert på offentlig tilgjengelig informasjon. Med utgangspunkt i en strategisk analyse og en regnskapsanalyse ønsker jeg å finne verdien av Statoil-aksjen. Oppgaven innledes med en kort presentasjon av Statoil ASA, der det gis et innblikk i historie, foretningsområde og organisasjonsstruktur. Deretter følger en metodedel hvor jeg gir en rask innføring i verdsettelsesteori, samt gir en begrunnelse for mitt ...

  6. Ka-Band PAA for Satellite Telemetry System for RLVs & Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development and implementation of passive phased array antennas (PAAs) offers significant performance benefits over the current active arrays. The keys to...

  7. Electrospinning of Bioactive Dex-PAA Hydrogel Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Katherine Boyook

    In this work, a novel method is developed for making nano- and micro-fibrous hydrogels capable of preventing the rejection of implanted materials. This is achieved by either (1) mimicking the native cellular environment, to exert fine control over the cellular response or (2) acting as a protective barrier, to camouflage the foreign nature of a material and evade recognition by the immune system. Comprehensive characterization and in vitro studies described here provide a foundation for developing substrates for use in clinical applications. Hydrogel dextran and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) fibers are formed via electrospinning, in sizes ranging from nanometers to microns in diameter. While "as-electrospun" fibers are continuous in length, sonication is used to fragment fibers into short fiber "bristles" and generate nano- and micro- fibrous surface coatings over a wide range of topographies. Dex-PAA fibrous surfaces are chemically modified, and then optimized and characterized for non-fouling and ECM-mimetic properties. The non-fouling nature of fibers is verified, and cell culture studies show differential responses dependent upon chemical, topographical and mechanical properties. Dex-PAA fibers are advantageously unique in that (1) a fine degree of control is possible over three significant parameters critical for modifying cellular response: topography, chemistry and mechanical properties, over a range emulating that of native cellular environments, (2) the innate nature of the material is non-fouling, providing an inert background for adding back specific bioactive functionality, and (3) the fibers can be applied as a surface coating or comprise the scaffold itself. This is the first reported work of dex-PAA hydrogel fibers formed via electrospinning and thermal cross-linking, and unique to this method, no toxic solvents or cross-linking agents are needed to create hydrogels or for surface attachment. This is also the first reported work of using sonication to

  8. Optical and magnetic properties of PAA@Fe nanocomposite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-jing Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple method to fabricate porous anodic alumina films embedded with Fe is reported. The films exhibit vivid structural colors and magnetic properties after being synthesized by an ac electrodeposition method. The optical properties of the samples can be effectively tuned by varying the oxidation time of aluminum. The coercivity mechanism of the Fe nanowires in our case is consistent with fanning reversal mode. PAA@Fe films can be used in many areas including decoration, display and multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  9. Ni2+-PAA Adsorbent for Purifying 6His-OmpTS Recombinant Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Functional Ni2+-polyacrylic acid (Ni2+-PAA) adsorbent has been prepared for metal chelate affinity chromatography. DNA elements coding for adjacent histidines were fused to the Aeromonas hydrophila ompTS gene. Subsequent expression in E. coli resulted in the production of hybrid protein 6His-OmpTS that could be purified by Ni2+-PAA affinity chromatography.

  10. Disinfection of water in recirculating aquaculture systems with peracetic acid (PAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfection behaviour of peracetic acid (PAA) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was investigated. Peracetic acid is a strong oxidizing agent found in various concentrations in different products. Three Wofasteril PAA products (E400 (c), Lspecical; AC 150) were tested in vitro for the...

  11. Helikoptertransport av farlig gods

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kristian; Hauge, Mats Stoveland

    2004-01-01

    I denne oppgaven var formålet å kartlegge prosedyrer og rutiner for helikoptertransport av farlig gods. Dette inkluderte gjennomgang av lovverk, myndighetskrav og forskrifter. I tillegg har vi sett på bedriftens forhold til andre aktører. Videre har vi kartlagt risiko forbundet med helikoptertransport av farlig gods og sett på hva som kan gå galt med tanke på miljø, materiell og personell. Ut fra dette komt med forslag til hva som kan forbedre helikoptersikkerheten med tanke på transpor...

  12. Akustisk analyse av snorking

    OpenAIRE

    Torsteinbø, Anders

    2007-01-01

    I denne oppgaven har i hovedsak to teorier blitt undersøkt :1) er det mulig ved hjelp av ørepropper med høyttaler og mikrofon ådetektere snorking og deretter spille tilbake lyder som får personen tilå stoppe snorkingen, og2) er det mulig å klassisere ulike snorketyper ved hjelp av analysemetoderbrukt i talegjenkjenning.Først ble det utviklet og testet to forskjellige ørepropper som varbehagelige å sove med. Den ene av de to ble brukt videre i ...

  13. Systemdynamisk analyse av vannkraftsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Rydning, Anja

    2007-01-01

    I denne oppgaven er det gjennomført en dynamisk analyse av vannkraftverket Fortun kraftverk. Tre fenomener er særlig vurdert i denne oppgaven: Sjaktsvingninger mellom svingesjakt og magasin, trykkstøt ved turbinen som følge av retardasjonstrykk ved endring i turbinvannføringen og reguleringsstabilitet. Sjaktsvingningene og trykkstøt beregnes analytisk ut fra kontinuitets- og bevegelsesligningen. Modeller av Fortun kraftverk er laget for å beregne trykkstøt og sjaktsvingninger. En modell e...

  14. Verdsettelse av DOF ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Aalvik, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Formålet med masteroppgaven er å verdsette selskapet DOF ASA den 31.desember 2010. Estimatet vil bli vurdert i forhold til aksjeprisen på Oslo Børs og tilnærmingen er basert på bruk av relevant informasjon og modeller innenfor temaet verdsettelse. I første del av oppgaven presenteres DOF ASA, og det gis en kort introduksjon av offshore supply industrien i Norge som virksomheten driver innenfor. Selskapene Solstad Offshore ASA og Farstad Shipping ASA danner grunnlaget for bransjen og bruke...

  15. Optimization of rhuPAa-melittin fermentation and purification conditions on large scale%rhuPAa-melittin发酵条件及大规模纯化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金世光; 李城; 王大新; 颜炜群

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过rhuPAa-melittin在80 L发酵罐中的发酵表达,优化发酵条件及改进适合大规模纯化的方法,获得纯化的目的蛋白.方法 采用实验制备的rhuPAa-melittin重组质粒,通过电转化法将rhuPAa-melittin-pPICZαC载体转入毕赤酵母(Pichia pastoris)中,用PCR法扩增和检测rhuPAa-melittin基因在毕赤酵母基因组中的整合.利用毕赤酵母进行小量发酵,摸索最佳表达时间、pH及最佳的纯化方法.通过rhuPAa-melittin在80 L发酵罐中的发酵表达,优化发酵条件及改进适合大规模纯化的方法.结果 rhuPAa-melittin发酵条件在温度为28℃~30℃,FM21培养基中添加0.5%的蛋白胨,甲醇最终的流加速度控制在9 mL/(h.L),初始发酵液体积、DO值(溶解氧)在25%~ 30%,发酵时间为12h,pH在6.0~7.0时获得高产量、高纯度、高收率的蛋白.结论 获得产量约350 mg/L,纯度可达96%以上,收率可达65%左右的rhuPAa-melittin蛋白.%Objective To obtain rhuPAa-melittin protein with high-purity,the conditions of rhuPAa-melittin in the fermentation and purification progress were optimized to achieve high productivity.Methods The rhuPAa-melittin to linear was used,and rhuPAa-melittin-pPICZαC was transformed into Pichia pastoris.PCR was used to identify the yeast genome,screening highly effective and stable secretion expression rhuPAa-melittin pichia pastoris strain.The conditions like expression time and pH values in the fermentation progress were optimized within small scale and large scale.Results 28-30 ℃,0.5% were optimized and used in the fermentation of rhuPAa-melittin.Moreover,the running rate of methanol was controlled at 9 mL/ (h · L).The DO value of the initialmedium was used at 25 %-30%.The pH value of fermentation was 6.0-7.0 and the whole progress lasted for 12 hrs.All these conditions were applied to obtain the rhuPAa-melittin protein with high production,high purity and yield rate.Conclusion The rhuPAa

  16. Ombyggnad av motorcykel

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med mitt examensarbete var att bygga en så kallad ”Bobber” av en Yamaha Wildstar 1600. Bobbern är en variant av ombyggda motorcyklar som tog form på 40 och 50talet, när amerikanska servicemän återvänt hem efter andra världskriget. De hade blivit inspirerade av lättare europeiska motorcyklar som de sett och kört. Väl hemma började man plocka bort delar av motorcyklarna som inte gjorde dem snabbare, tillexempel ljuddämpare, skärmar, lampor och blinkers. Andra delar kunde göras mindre, ti...

  17. Verdsettelse av Ekornes ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Brakestad, Anniken Stokvik; Pedersen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Denne oppgaven er en verdsettelse av Ekornes-konsernet. Verdsettelsen er i hovedsak basert på offentlig tilgjengelig informasjon, samt intervju med konsernsjefen i Ekornes Øyvind Tørlen og møbelhistoriker Eldar Høidal. Verdsettelsesmetoden vi har benyttet er kontantstrømsbasert modell. Verdien av konsernet er beregnet med utgangspunkt i en strategisk analyse, en regnskapsanalyse, beregnet avkastningskrav og estimerte fremtidige kontantoverskudd. Problemstillingen for oppgave...

  18. Verdivurdering av BW Offshore

    OpenAIRE

    Kalleberg, Carl-Fredrik; Storebø, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Målet med oppgaven var å gjennomføre en verdivurdering av BW Offshore. Problemstillingen var å finne egenkapitalverdien for en privat investor i BW Offshore og deretter komme med en handelsanbefaling på BWO aksjen. For å gjennomføre verdivurderingen valgte vi en fundamentalanalyse ved bruk av den diskonterte kontantstrømmodellen. Vi supplerte verdivurderingen med en komparativ- og sensitivitetsanalyse. BW Offshore opererer innenfor exploration & production (E&P) i offshorebr...

  19. Verdsettelse av IC Companys

    OpenAIRE

    Brudeseth, Haakon

    2011-01-01

    Denne oppgaven har hatt som mål å verdsette IC Companys. I oppgavens første del ble den forholdsvis korte historien til selskapet, produktene og distribusjonskanalene presentert. Videre i oppgaven har jeg presentert verdsettelsesteori med fokus på fundamental verdsettelse, og forskjellene mellom egenkapitalverdi og selskapsverdi. Del tre omhandlet en strategisk analyse for selskapet, hvor de interne ressursene ble analysert ved hjelp av VRIO modellen, og de eksterne ved hjelp av Porte...

  20. Freshwater dispersion stability of PAA-stabilised cerium oxide nanoparticles and toxicity towards Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Andy, E-mail: andy.booth@sintef.no [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim N-7465 (Norway); Størseth, Trond [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim N-7465 (Norway); Altin, Dag [BioTrix, Trondheim N-7022 (Norway); Fornara, Andrea; Ahniyaz, Anwar [German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Product Safety, Berlin (Germany); Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas [SP Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Drottning Kristinas vag 45, SE-11686 Stockholm (Sweden); Sørensen, Lisbet [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim N-7465 (Norway)

    2015-02-01

    An aqueous dispersion of poly (acrylic acid)-stabilised cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (PAA-CeO{sub 2}) was evaluated for its stability in a range of freshwater ecotoxicity media (MHRW, TG 201 and M7), with and without natural organic matter (NOM). In a 15 day dispersion stability study, PAA-CeO{sub 2} did not undergo significant aggregation in any media type. Zeta potential varied between media types and was influenced by PAA-CeO{sub 2} concentration, but remained constant over 15 days. NOM had no influence on PAA-CeO{sub 2} aggregation or zeta potential. The ecotoxicity of the PAA-CeO{sub 2} dispersion was investigated in 72 h algal growth inhibition tests using the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. PAA-CeO{sub 2} EC{sub 50} values for growth inhibition (GI; 0.024 mg/L) were 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than pristine CeO{sub 2} EC{sub 50} values reported in the literature. The concentration of dissolved cerium (Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}) in PAA-CeO{sub 2} exposure suspensions was very low, ranging between 0.5 and 5.6 μg/L. Free PAA concentration in the exposure solutions (0.0096–0.0384 mg/L) was significantly lower than the EC{sub 10} growth inhibition (47.7 mg/L) value of pure PAA, indicating that free PAA did not contribute to the observed toxicity. Elemental analysis indicated that up to 38% of the total Cerium becomes directly associated with the algal cells during the 72 h exposure. TOF-SIMS analysis of algal cell wall compounds indicated three different modes of action, including a significant oxidative stress response to PAA-CeO{sub 2} exposure. In contrast to pristine CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles, which rapidly aggregate in standard ecotoxicity media, PAA-stabilised CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles remain dispersed and available to water column species. Interaction of PAA with cell wall components, which could be responsible for the observed biomarker alterations, could not be excluded. This study indicates that the increased

  1. rhuPAa-melittin 的生物活性检测%Detection of biological activity of rhuPAa-melittin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李城; 金世光; 李昌熙; 王大新; 颜炜群

    2014-01-01

    目的:利用高纯度的 rhuPAa-melittin 进行人成纤维细胞和卵巢癌细胞进行活性检测,探讨 rhuPAa-melittin 对卵巢癌治疗作用及对正常细胞毒性作用。方法利用高纯度的 rhuPAa-melittin 蛋白分别作用于人成纤维细胞和人卵巢癌细胞 SK-OV348 h,在490 nm 波长处测定其吸光度,以反映活细胞的数量并间接反映 rhuPAa-melittin 对培养中细胞的生长抑制作用。结果人卵巢癌细胞 SKOV3组,在4μg/mL 时对细胞抑制率已经达到了66.59%,在16μg/mL 时,细胞已经全部死亡,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。而人成纤维细胞组,在4μg/mL 时其对细胞的抑制率仅为达到7.3%,8μg/mL 时抑制率为12.3%,16μg/mL 时抑制率为22.0%。结论rhuPAa-melittin 对人卵巢癌细胞 SKOV3细胞有着明显的抑制杀伤作用,而对于人成纤维细胞的抑制作用不明显。%Objective RhuPAa-melittin protein with high-purity was analyzed to investigate its biologic effect on normal and ovarian cancer cells.Methods Preliminary purified rhuPAa-melittin was added in medium normal cells and SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells cultured for 48 hours,and then were measured at 490 nm wavelength absorbance to measure the number of living cells and evalu-ate the inhibitory effect of rhuPAa-melittin on cultured cells.Results The inhibitory rate of rhuPAa-melittin at 4 μg/mL was 66.59% in SKOV3 cancer cell progression.At a concentration of 16 μg/mL, rhuPAa-melittin killed all cancer cells (P <0.05).In normal adult fibrous cells,the inhibitory rate of rhuPAa-melittin at 4 μg /mL was only 7.3%,and 12.3% inhibition rate was obtained by using rhu-PAa-melittin (8 μg/mL).Moreover,inhibition rate topped at 22.0% when used rhuPAa-melittin at 16 μg/mL.Conclusion RhuPAa-melittin has a strong anti-tumor effect on SKOV3 cancer cells.

  2. The advertisement call of the giant spiny frog Paa spinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baogen YU, Rongquan ZHENG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the advertisement call of Paa spinosa at Yuliang Mountain, Lanxi, Zhejiang province, in eastern China. Temporal and spectral call parameters were analyzed, along with call intensity. Calls comprised of three to seven notes, the last of which had the longest duration. Three formants (harmonics were clearly distinguishable from the audio spectrogram. The dominant frequency ranged from 411-1534Hz, and was either the first or the second formant. The number of notes within a call was positively correlated to air temperature, so that calls contained more notes during the day. Also, the dominant frequency appeared to be lower at the highest temperature [Current Zoology 55 (6: 411 –415, 2009].

  3. Utskrift av tredimensionell arkitekturmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    I examensarbetet behandlas modellering av hus anpassade för 3D-skrivning. Uppdragsgivare har varit Purmia Grön, ett företag i Pedersöre som har byggnadsplanering och 3D-modellering som huvudsakliga affärsområde. Målet med examensarbetet var att skapa en modell av ett hus som skulle lämpa sig för 3D-skrivning och inkorporera olika visuella designaspekter. 3D-skrivning är en tillverkningsprocess där ett fysiskt objekt skapas från en digital modell. Metoden har tidigare använts främst av stö...

  4. Avvattning av fettavskiljarslam

    OpenAIRE

    Tolgén, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Fettavskiljarslam är ett avfall som uppstår hos restauranger och på platser där matfett och matoljor används. För att förhindra att fettet sätter igen avlopp fångas det upp med en fettavskiljare. Dessa fettavskiljare töms sedan av slambilar som vidare lämnar slammet antingen för mellanlagring eller direkt för rötning och bildandet av biogas.   Ragn-­‐Sells AB hanterar ungefär 27 000 ton fettavskiljarslam varje år. 6000 ton av dessa placeras i  mellanlagringscistern på  Högbytorp  där  en  set...

  5. Effekter av IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Therése; Ehrnfelt, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Till följd av en ökad harmonisering inom EU skall alla börsnoterade företag inom EU följa och tillämpa International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) i sina koncernredovisningar från och med den 1 januari 2005. Företag som berörs är de som har aktier eller skuldebrev noterade på en reglerad marknad. I Sverige är Aktietorget, North Growth Market samt Stockholmsbörsen reglerade marknader. Den största förändringen till följd av IFRS implementeringen är att värdering av poster i balansräkning...

  6. Analyse av Ulike Akustiske Taleegenskaper for Deteksjon av Artikulatoriske Attributter.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasseland, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Arbeidet bak denne rapporten har omhandlet analysering av egendefinerte taleegenskapers potensial ved detektering av lydenheter (attributter). Et HTK-basert simuleringsverktøy har blitt utviklet for å kunne kartlegge egenskapenes evne til å frembringe gode gjenkjenningsresultater. En har undersøkt muligheten for forbedring av feilraten ved å representere talesignalet vha egenskapsvektorer som er tilpasset hver attributtdetektor. Utvelgelsen av vektorene er gjort ved subjektiv inspeksjon av at...

  7. Verdivurdering av SAS AB

    OpenAIRE

    Gangås, Silje Garberg

    2013-01-01

    Formålet med denne mastergradsavhandlingen har vært å beregne den teoretiske verdien på det børsnoterte selskapet SAS AB og på bakgrunn av denne gi en handlingsanbefaling på selskapets aksje. Forskningsspørsmålet for oppgaven er utledet som følger: ”Hva er verdien av SAS AB?” SAS AB er inne i en fundamental omstillingsprosses hvor den nye strategien, 4XNG, ble presentert og påbegynt november 2012. Omstillingsprosessen innebærer blant annet en omfattende omstrukturering i organisasjonen ...

  8. Automatisert pigging av lastebildekk

    OpenAIRE

    Oppedal, John Magne; Røyseth, Odd Gunnar; Hundere, Roy Helge; Sandvoll, Jøran

    2010-01-01

    Denne rapporten omhandlar løysing av Bacheloroppgåva til fire studentar ved Høgskulen i Sogn og Fjordane 2010. Studentane som utførte oppgåva studerte elektro- og automatiseringsteknikk ved høgskulen si avdeling i Førde. Målet med oppgåva var å utvikle og bygge ei automatisert maskin som kunne utføre montering av piggar i vinterdekk for lastebilar. Utviklingsprosjektet var eit samarbeid mellom prosjektgruppa, høgskulen og oppdragsgjevar Førde Vulk AS. Hovudprosjektrapport...

  9. Hantering av systemdokument

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Ingegerd; Folkesson, Birgitta

    2001-01-01

    All systemdokumentation som finns på Flextronics är dokumenterad på en mall i Word. Utvecklingen inom Flextronics WE, Karlskrona är stor. Många datasystem används på företaget inom olika avdelningar lokalt men även i Europa, och ingen gemensam ruin för hanteringen av systemdokument finns. Helpdesken på Flextronics servar hela Karlskrona och västra Europa på deras datasystem och nätverk. Vår uppgift är att ta fram en kravspecifikation för hantering av systemdokumentationen. För att helpdesken ...

  10. Addition of ash on drained forested peatlands in southern Sweden. Effects on forest production, fluxes of greenhouse gases and water chemistry; Tillfoersel av aska i tallskog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa skogsproduktion, avgaang av vaexthusgaser och vattenkemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Jacobson, Staffan; Ring, Eva [Skogforsk, Uppsala (Sweden); Ernfors, Maria; Klemedtsson, Leif [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences; Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, about one million tones of wood ashes are produced annually, of which about 250,000-300,000 tones originate from biofuels, e.g. forest residues. Some of the ashes produced are deposited today. One alternative use is bringing back the ashes to the forest, recycling the mineral nutrients and base compounds. In bioashes, most essential mineral nutrients for plants are included, except for N, which is gasified at combustion. On most mineral soils in Sweden, plant available nitrogen is the nutrient limiting tree growth. On organic soils, tree growth is usually increased after addition of phosphorous and potassium. Thus, there is a potential for increased forest production on peatlands after ash fertilization. This can be a profitable measure. Nutrient compensation after harvesting involve ash addition with quite low doses. This is especially important in peatlands after whole-tree harvesting in order to prevent nutrient deficiency and reduced tree growth. However, there is a need for better knowledge concerning other environmental effects before ash addition can be put into large-scale practice. The general objective of this project is to study the effects of wood-ash addition on forest production and some other environmental variables on drained, forested peatlands. The studies concern tree growth, emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off). An important issue addressed was if an expected increased accumulation of carbon (CO{sub 2}) due to increased tree growth can compensate for an expected increased emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) from the peat. In addition, the very effective greenhouse gas laughing gas (N{sub 2}O), must be taken into consideration. In 2003, two field experiments were established in the county of Smaaland in southeast Sweden, where wood ashes from biofuels were applied. One experiment was designed as a randomized block experiment (273 Anderstorp) where effects on forest production and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) were studied. The other experiment (274 Bredaryd), 10 km away, was established in two drainage areas where emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off) were studied. At the establishment of the experiments, the forests were dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In the end of the 1980's, the forest stands had been thinned and the soils drained at both experimental sites. Experiment 273 Anderstorp included five treatments: an untreated control, and, one low dose (3.3 tonnes DM/ha) and one high dose (6.6 tonnes DM/ha) of crushed ash and 'granulated' wood ash, respectively. It should be noted that the 'granulated' product was of a poor standard. In experiment 274 Bredaryd 3.1 tonnes DM/ha of crushed ash was applied. Two years after treatment in 273 Anderstorp no effects of the treatments on tree growth was detected, which could be expected considering the short effect period. There was a statistically significant effect of the addition of crushed ash on concentrations of potassium and boron in the Scots pine needles. For potassium there was an effect of the dose. The addition of wood ash did not change the CO{sub 2}-flux from the soil during the first 2.5 years of study. The annual emissions from the control plots were approximately 8,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2004 and 12,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2005. No significant effect of the treatments on the annual CH{sub 4}-flux was detected by analysis of variance, but there was a tendency for increased CH{sub 4}-emissions at the treated plots during late summer and autumn. The annual emissions on the control plots were approximately 3 kg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} during 2004 and 6 kg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} during 2005. N{sub 2}O-flux was only occasionally detected. In 2005, the mean CH{sub 4} emission of the ash fertilized plots was 60% higher (non significant) than the mean of the control plots. This corresponds to an increased emission of 90 kg CO{sub 2}/ha/yr to the atmosphere. To compensate for such an emission, accumulation of tree biomass needs to increase by approximately 2%. In run off, sampled in the main ditches, the electric conductivity increased after addition of 3.1 tonnes of crushed ash, as well as the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, PO{sub 4}-P, S, SO{sub 4}-S and Zn. For most elements, the increase appeared immediately after the ash application, and lasted from a few months to the whole observation period (c. one year). The concentrations of Pb and V was lower than expected during six and nine months, respectively. Thereafter, the Pb-concentration tended to be higher than the control. The concentration of TOC was reduced during eight months, and pH was reduced during three months after the ash addition. The effects on ground water chemistry corresponded to the effects on chemistry in run off. Two months after treatment, the concentrations of B, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl{sup -}, Li, Mn, Na, P, S and SO{sub 4}-S were elevated in the groundwater in the ash treated area. For some of the elements this was evident down to 90-100 cm depth. The concentrations of As and TOC at 30-40 cm tended to be lower in the area treated with ash. The results from this study demonstrate the initial effects (1-2.5 years) of wood ash addition in some drained, oligotrophic peatland forests in southern Sweden. Ash addition may affect the turn over of the peat, and potentially affect other ecosystem properties, for several decades. Hence, in order to confirm the duration of the shown short-term effects, to establish the duration of not yet ceased effects, and, establish effects that might show up in a long-term perspective, continuous follow up of the established experiments is important. This long-term monitoring is also a prerequisite of a more complete evaluation of the benefits and possible detrimental effects on the environment of wood ash addition.

  11. Addition of ash on drained forested peatlands in southern Sweden. Effects on forest production, fluxes of greenhouse gases and water chemistry; Tillfoersel av aska i tallskog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa skogsproduktion, avgaang av vaexthusgaser och vattenkemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Ernfors, Maria; Jacobson, Staffan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Nilsson, Mats; Ring, Eva

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, about one million tones of wood ashes are produced annually, of which about 250,000 - 300,000 tones originate from forest residues. Some of the ashes produced are deposited today. One alternative use is bringing back the ashes to the forest, recycling the mineral nutrients and base compounds. In bioashes, most essential mineral nutrients for plants are included, except for N, which is gasified at combustion. On most mineral soils in Sweden, plant available nitrogen is the nutrient limiting tree growth. On organic soils, tree growth is usually increased after addition of phosphorous and potassium. Thus, there is a potential for increased forest production on peatlands after ash fertilization. This can be a profitable measure. Nutrient compensation after harvesting involve ash addition with quite low doses. This is especially important in peatlands after whole-tree harvesting in order to prevent nutrient deficiency and reduced tree growth. However, there is a need for better knowledge concerning other environmental effects before ash addition can be put into large-scale practice. The general objective of this project is to study the effects of wood-ash addition on forest production and some other environmental variables on drained, forested peatlands. The studies concern tree growth, emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off). An important issue addressed was if an expected increased accumulation of carbon (CO{sub 2}) due to increased tree growth can compensate for an expected increased emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) from the peat. In addition, the very effective greenhouse gas laughing gas (N2O), must be taken into consideration. In 2003, two field experiments were established in the county of Smaaland in south Sweden, where wood ashes from biofuels were applied. One experiment was designed as a randomized block experiment where effects on forest production and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) were studied. The other experiment, 10 km away, was established in two drainage areas where emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off) were studied. At the establishment of the experiments, the forests were dominated by Scots pine. In the end of the 1980's, the forest stands had been thinned and the soils drained at both experimental sites. The first experiment included five treatments: an untreated control, and, one low dose (3.3 tonnes DM/ha) and one high dose (6.6 tonnes DM/ha) of crushed ash and 'granulated' wood ash, respectively. It should be noted that the 'granulated' product was of a poor standard. In the second experiment 3.1 tonnes DM/ha of crushed ash was applied. Two years after treatment in no effects of the treatments on tree growth was detected, which could be expected considering the short effect period. There was a statistically significant effect of the addition of crushed ash on concentrations of potassium and boron in the Scots pine needles. For potassium there was an effect of the dose. The addition of wood ash did not change the CO{sub 2}-flux from the soil during the first 2.5 years of study. The annual emissions from the control plots were approximately 8,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2004 and 12,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2005. No significant effect of the treatments on the annual CH{sub 4}-flux was detected by analysis of variance, but there was a tendency for increased CH{sub 4}-emissions at the treated plots during late summer and autumn. The annual emissions on the control plots were approximately 3 kg CH{sub 4}/ha during 2004 and 6 kg CH{sub 4}/ha during 2005. N{sub 2}O-flux was only occasionally detected. In 2005, the mean CH{sub 4} emission of the ash fertilized plots was 60% higher (non significant) than the mean of the control plots. This corresponds to an increased emission of 90 kg CO{sub 2}/ha/yr to the atmosphere. To compensate for such an emission, accumulation of tree biomass needs to increase by approximately 2%. In run off, sampled in the main ditches, the electric conductivity increased after addition of 3.1 tonnes of crushed ash, as well as the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, PO{sub 4}-P, S, SO{sub 4}-S and Zn. For most elements, the increase appeared immediately after the ash application, and lasted from a few months to the whole observation period (c. one year). The concentrations of Pb and V was lower than expected during six and nine months, respectively. Thereafter, the Pb-concentration tended to be higher than the control. The concentration of TOC was reduced during eight months, and pH was reduced during three months after the ash addition. The effects on ground water chemistry corresponded to the effects on chemistry in run off. Two months after treatment, the concentrations of B, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl{sup -}, Li, Mn, Na, P, S och SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}S were elevated in the groundwater in the ash treated area. For some of the elements this was evident down to 90 - 100 cm depth. The concentrations of As and TOC at 30 - 40 cm tended to be lower in the area treated with ash. The results from this study demonstrate the initial effects (1 - 2.5 years) of wood ash addition in some drained, oligotrophic peatland forests in southern Sweden. Ash addition may affect the turn over of the peat, and potentially affect other ecosystem properties, for several decades. Hence, in order to confirm the duration of the shown short-term effects, to establish the duration of not yet ceased effects, and, establish effects that might show up in a long-term perspective, continuous follow up of the established experiments is important. This long-term monitoring is also a prerequisite of a more complete evaluation of the benefits and possible detrimental effects on the environment of wood ash addition.

  12. Driftsstudie av Lav NOx brennerteknologi

    OpenAIRE

    Skarbø, Kjartan Juul

    2013-01-01

    NOx dannelsen i forbrenning er en komplisert prosess. Den kan bli kategorisert i tre mekanismer; termisk NOx, hurtig NOx og NOx fra nitrogenforbindelser i drivstoffet. Betydning av mekanismene i denne rapporten er henholdsvis. Forbrenning av hydrogen gir høyere flammetemperaturer som igjen kan føre til mer produksjon av termisk NOx. En lav-NOx brenner utviklet av SINTEF er testet for forskjellige blandinger av metan og hydrogen gass. Fem uavhengige operasjonsfaktorer er undersø...

  13. En av gutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Cecilie Basberg; Rysst, Mari; Bjerck, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Hvilken betydning har kjønn og klær for kvinner som arbeider i mannsdominerte arbeiderklasseyrker? Forfatterne av denne artikkelen finner at kvinnene må nedtone sitt kjønn og sin seksualitet gjennom å dekke til kroppen, i klær laget for menn, for å signalisere at de er på jobb for å arbeide...

  14. PaaS理念及其在电信运营中的应用%PaaS Idea and its Application in Telecom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玄平

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, cloud computing basing on the fusion development of network and IT technology is continuously optimizing its technology combination, gradually forming a complete business model. It promotes a breakthrough development of telecom industry and generalized ICT industry, is inevitably becoming an attention focus by the industry and academia. PaaS is one of the three service types about cloud computing. Its representative technology, distributed parallel computing, is a fundamentally contributing factors of complete business model about cloud computing. With the continually improving of the key technology and applications experience about cloud computing, discussion on the PaaS technology essence and its idea application is helping telecom enterprises master to risk aversion by scientifically using this strategy means.%近年来,云计算在网络技术、IT技术融合发展的基础上不断优化自身技术组合,并逐渐形成一种完整的商业模式,促进了电信业及广义ICT产业的突破发展,必然地成为产业界和学术界关注的热点。而PaaS作为云计算三大服务类型之一,其代表性技术分布式并行计算是云计算完整商业模式的基本促成因素,在云计算关键技术和应用经验仍在持续完善的过程中,探讨PaaS的技术实质和其理念的应用思路,有助于电信运营企业科学掌握这一战略手段、规避风险。

  15. Treatment of biofuel ashes for forest recycling; Behandling av aska fraan biobraenslen foer spridning paa skogsmark - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, H.; Sjoeblom, R. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Logging residues are the easiest available fuel for an increased production of energy in Sweden from renewable sources. A consequence of their removal from the forest is that the cycle of mineral nutrients is broken. The purpose of recycling the ash after this fuel to forest land is to compensate for the removal and close again the nutrient cycle. Recycling nutrients and returning the inorganic components of the biomass removed from the forest should be performed in accordance with general principles of environmental protection, health considerations and the good house-keeping of natural resources. The activities should also be carried out in accordance with the needs of the forest and energy plant owners regarding good technology and economy. This implies that functional requirements originating from these principles and needs should be clearly structured and formulated and that such requirements should provide a basis for the continued development work as well as for the implementation of suitable, economical and efficient systems. Returning inorganic constituents implies that the principle of recirculation is followed as well as that nutrients are brought back which improves accretion in the forest. At the same time, the risk of damage to the forest can be assessed as insignificant. Furthermore the risks to human health are also assessed to be insignificant provided that pertinent precautions are taken to avoid dusting. In the present report, technical and economical aspects of importance for the selection of method as well as for the establishment of a system are described and discussed. The need for further development work is identified in the following areas: functional requirements - operational requirements, sampling, testing and quality assurance, granulation, curing processes and drying/sintering. 102 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  16. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants; Kartlaeggning av vittrings- och korrosionsskador paa biologiska behandlingsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios; Aakesson, Urban (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Hanna; Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Problems regarding that leachate from food waste have been corroding vehicles and concrete slabs has been reported by Biogas- and composting plants. This is an issue that has been reported to Swedish Waste Management more often within the same pace as the volume of food waste gathering is increasing all around Sweden. The problem has also been addressed at inspections according to SPCR 120 Biogoedsel and SPCR 152 Kompost, where several plants have requested guidance/support/investigation to help solve their specific issue. Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., has earlier completed some investigations which have been ordered by private plant owners/municipalities and the result from these investigations have often proved that the exposure classification has not been adjusted for its purpose. There is no clear definition regarding construction of concrete that is meant for usage in a receiving hall for food waste. It is likely that concrete for Biogas- and Composting plants are built to meet the demands of agricultural environments. The project will examine the magnitude of the problem regarding corrosion- and weathering damage on concrete slabs and cisterns at biological treatment plants. The project will also culminate to actual solutions for plants that are hit and to give advice to those in the danger zone and those who plan for new constructions. Through a survey handed to Biogas- and composting plants around the country, the width of the problem has been examined and what solutions plants have found and executed to solve this issue. A literature review has been implemented to find specific demands regarding concrete that is meant for a certain environment. Another four treatment plants have been examined. The studies that have been made are chemical analysis of leachate from food waste, analysis of drill cores and analysis of reinforcement corrosion. The results from this project show that concrete doesn't have enough resistance in these environments where food waste is treated. No matter which quality of concrete is put in use these problems will occur, though in different speeds. To ensure the function of the concrete construction, the concrete must be protected with a sealing coat. These sealing coats must be able to endure the aggressive nature from leachate coming from food waste and be resistant to mechanical abrasion from vehicles. In the report several seal coatings are shown that have been used for solving measures. Some of these have worked, while others didn't work as well. To be able to ensure the function within the different seal coatings they have to be tested in 'their proper' environment considering the chemical temperature and composition of the leachate. There are no standard methods to perform this, they have to be developed. There are plans for a new study where you bring out specific demands and standard methods for seal coats in food waste environments. Corrosion problems also occur on gathering vehicles for food waste and mechanic equipment at treatment plants, it is desired also to deal with these issues and a study is recommended regarding the influence from food waste on metal materials that are in contact with food waste

  17. Effects of air pollutants from road traffic on adjacent forests. Effekter av luftfoeroreningar fraan vaegtrafik paa naerliggande skog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrand, S.

    1991-02-01

    Air pollution effects on spruces close to a heavily trafficated road in western Sweden are observed through infrared photography from aeroplanes. About 50% of the old spruces suffer from thinning of the crowns. (L.E.).

  18. Effects of cutting characteristics on sprouting and early growth of willow; Effekter av sticklingsparametrar paa grobarhet och tillvaext hos salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verwijst, Theo; Nordh, Nils-Erik; Lundkvist, Anneli

    2010-06-15

    In plantations of willow, the size- and weight variability of established plants is increasing over time. This size-hierarchy development is enforced by competition for resources between plants, and is preserved by root reserves and maintained over harvest. This long-term development causes mortality of entire willow plants, and thereby to gaps in the stand, and production losses under later cutting cycles. Variations in productivity across a field may be caused by soil fertility- and moisture gradients and by differences in weed pressure. Even difference between adjacent plants during the establishment phase may be caused by small scale differences in the biotic (weeds) and abiotic (moisture, nutrients) direct environment of the plants. But the central question here is whether differences between single cuttings may contribute to the development of a size- and weight hierarchy between willow plants during the early establishment phase? And if so, (i) to what degree do differences between cuttings contribute to the development of a hierarchy and (ii) are we able, in commercial practice, to modify cutting handling and selection to minimise the development of early size variations between plants? This research project aimed to quantify how cutting length and -origin and cutting handling during planting affects survival and growth of plants in a willow stand under establishment. The goal was to identify and quantify cutting characteristics which are of relevance for a high viability and for a fast and equal establishment of a willow stand, and thereby to be able to recommend advice which leads to a faster and more reliable establishment of willows. The study was performed by means of two box experiments under controlled conditions and by means of a field experiment during May 2008 - September 2009, on the Ultuna campus (SLU) nearby Uppsala. In all trials, the clones Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis), Jorr (Salix viminalis), Olof (Salix viminalis x (Salix schwerinii x Salix viminalis)), Sven (Salix viminalis x (Salix schwerinii x Salix viminalis)) and Gudrun (Salix dasyclados) were used. In the box experiment 2008, we studied how cutting characteristics (clone, cutting length, weight and basal diameter, the original position of the cutting on the long shoot, and storage time under field conditions after long-term cold storage) affected survival, sprouting of shoots (emergence time, number of shoots, height growth rate) and shoot size (weight and leaf area development). In the box experiment 2009, we investigated how cutting characteristics and planting conditions, which led to different degrees of damage of the cuttings, affected survival, sprouting and consecutive growth. In the field experiment 2008-2009, we studied how cutting characteristics, in combination with a natural variation in soil conditions, weed pressure and competition from adjacent willows (planted in pure stands and in clonal mixtures) affected sprouting and survival during two seasons. This study showed that the investigated cutting characteristics, including choice of clone, have a profound influence on early establishment and thereby on the competitive ability against weeds. The size (length and diameter) of the cutting determines to a large degree how fast a plant can grow during early establishment. The phenological development rate (rate of bud burst and unfolding) largely depends on the cuttings origin along a long shoot (close to the base or to the top of a long shoot), and cuttings from a basal origin display a later bud burst. Even if large-sized cuttings (from an origin close to a long shoot base) tend to have a later bud burst than cuttings from an apical origin, cutting size is the major determinant for the size of a plant after about six weeks. Storage at field edge may result in bud burst on long shoots prior to planting, and in general those buds die at planting, resulting in burst of secondary buds. This process causes a delay in establishment and results in an increase in the relative size variation within an establishing stand. Planting in compacted soil results in an increased damage frequency in cuttings, and especially thinner cuttings will be damaged. These obtain a poor soil contact and are liable to desiccation. Consequently, we recommend use of relatively long and thick cutting material for the establishment of a willow stand. Storage time of cuttings under field conditions should be minimised, especially at higher temperatures. Particularly during planting in compacted soils and with thinner cuttings, growth and development will be slow, leading to poor establishment and thereby to less productive willow stands

  19. Effects of the investment subsidy for solar cell systems on public buildings; Effekter av investeringsstoedet foer solcellssystem paa offentliga lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmblad, Linus

    2006-08-15

    The support from the Swedish government to the PV sector has so far mainly been focused on research and development. But in May 2005 this changed as the Swedish government introduced an investment support programme directed at grid connected PV systems on public buildings. During the autumn 2005 a Master Thesis was carried out at the department of Environmental Systems Analysis at Chalmers Univ. The purpose of the thesis was to study the effect of the support programme and make an early evaluation of its effects. Information has been gathered by following a number of new projects that have started as a result of the support programme. Interviews have been made with actors in these projects and also with other key actors in the Swedish PV sector. The Swedish translation of the thesis is much shorter and has a popular science character. It focuses on describing the studied projects and the experiences from them. The last part of the translation describes the effects of the investment support programme on the dynamics of the Swedish PV sector. The results of this report shows that the market deployment initiative has lead to the start of a number of new PV projects and grid connected PV systems on buildings is now responsible for the fastest growth also on the Swedish PV market. The support programme has on top of this created many other positive effects on the dynamics of the Swedish PV sector. It is too early to make statements about the occurrence of self-reinforcing mechanisms. But there are some important changes such as the creation of an industry association and that the regulatory framework is questioned. This indicates that these mechanisms can occur and blocking mechanisms be removed.

  20. Accumulation of metals in vegetation established in ash constructions; Ackumulering av metaller i vegetation paa geotekniska askkonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemstroem, Kristian; Wik, Ola (SGI, Statens geotekniska institut (Sweden)); Bramryd, Torleif; Johansson, Michael (Lunds Universitet, Miljoestrategi (Sweden)); Jaegerbrand, Annika (VTI, Statens Vaeg och transportforskningsinstitut (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The overall aim of this study was to investigate how the use of ash in a long-term perspective affects the surrounding flora and fauna with regard to the accumulation of metals in the ecosystem through plant uptake and exposure to grazing animals. The study included a field study and a cultivation experiment. In the field study, the accumulation of metals and metalloids in leaves of trees and shrubs that had self established and grown in lysimeters with aged MSWI bottom ash and aged biofuel ash was determined. In the cultivation experiment, the accumulation of metals and metalloids from the studied materials in ryegrass was determined. Reference materials in the cultivation experiment were two conventional geotechnical materials, crushed rock and excavated soil. Leaves from trees and bushes in the vicinity of the ash lysimeters were used as reference materials in the field study. Contamination of plant samples with particles, through splashing during rain, dusting, or in connection with sampling, proved to have had a major impact on the measured metal and metalloid concentrations in several grass samples in the cultivation experiment. The results also indicate that contamination of plant samples with particles occurred in the field study. In this case, probably due to atmospheric deposition. The particle contamination complicated the evaluation of some of the results in the project since the intention was to study accumulation by roots from the studied ash materials, but, on the other hand, the particle contamination showed the importance of taking into account the spreading of contaminants through particles as an exposure route for grazing animals. In the field study, only Cd and Zn in aspen, willow and birch exhibited elevated levels in the leaves due to root uptake from MSWI bottom ash compared to the reference samples. In addition, elevated levels of As was observed in leaves from trees in the biofuel ash. The total content of As was similar in all studied ashes but the leachability was significantly higher in the biofuel ash. The measured concentrations in the leaves of ash lysimeters were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for cattle for all elements except Zn in willow, birch and aspen, where the levels were in the same range as TDI. However, the lower limit for TDI was exceeded for Zn also in some leaf samples from the reference areas. Thus, TDI for Zn seems rather low compared to concentrations that could normally occur in leaves from fast growing trees. Cultivation experiment showed that levels of Cu, Pb and Zn, and to some extent Cr and Cd, were clearly elevated in the ryegrass that grew in MSWI bottom ash. For Cu, Pb and to some extent Zn the concentrations exceeded the TDI for cattle. However, the measured concentrations were clearly affected by contamination of fine particulate MSWI bottom ash matter. This applied particularly to the grass samples from the pots with 100 % ash or reference material and not to those from with ash or reference material mixed with 50 wt % planting soil. In the grass growing in mixtures with 50 wt% MSWI bottom ash and 50 wt% plantation soil, the concentrations in the grasses were of the same magnitude as in the grasses from the reference materials, and below TDI for cattle

  1. Rebound - Effects on the use of energy and environment by improvements in effectiveness; Effekter av effektivisering paa energibruk og miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepperud, Sverre; Rasmussen, Ingeborg

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate possible long run effects on use of energy and CO2-emissions from improved energy efficiency in various production sectors and for some consumption goods. The results suggest that improved energy efficiency decrease energy consumption, but the initial reduction is modified over time due to Rebound effects which arises from changes in income and prices. Wide differences in changed energy use are observed across the sectors evaluated. The report also include an analysis of possible effects from installing new environmental technology or clean up technology at firm level. The consequences of such new technologies are found to depend on the type of technology implemented, but also on the type of environmental regulation a firm is subjected to. (author)

  2. Demonstration of the vacuum drying technique on sludge from the paper and pulp industry; Demonstration av vakuumtorktekniken paa skogsindustriellt slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, Anders [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a cost effective drying of sludge from the paper and pulp mills can be done by the use of vacuum at a lower water temperature. The purpose was to erect a pilot plant and test different types of sludge. Therefore, advantages and problems with this method could be determined. This work has planned and erected a complete pilot plant for continuous drying of sludge and the pilot plant occupies a hard surface of 10x10 meters. A drum type dryer is in the centre of the pilot plant and it has been modified for lower pressures. Other vital components are: handling of vapours, vacuum pump, hot water generation and materials handling of the sludge, both in wet and dry condition. First, tests where carried out to verify theories and previous laboratory studies. These test successfully confirmed that difficult sludge types could effectively be dried at lower temperatures by the use of vacuum. Then, tests where carried out on 9 different sludges from 7 different mills. Average sample weight was about 170 kg or 250 litres. All sludge samples could successfully be dried but with different levels of complexity. For an easier comprehension of the handling and drying, the different sludges were organised into three classes: sludge with a clear resemblance of clay, sludge with a resemblance of mud or earth and finally, sludge with a majority of fibres. Fibre type sludges were easy to dry to a high degree of dryness. However, they also dusted easily and thus, fibres easily carried over into the condensate. Earth type sludge was in wet condition difficult to handle. The drying was more time consuming and the sludge formed small round balls during the drying. These balls slowed the drying process but they were eventually gradually reduced and a higher degree of drying could continue. Clay type sludges formed already in the handling round balls and during drying these balls formed a hard dry outer layer, which contained moisture inside the balls. By the use of a small grinder these hard balls where crushed into a coarse powder and further drying could effectively take place. Finally, a cost calculation of a full-size plant is presented. However, our opinion is that the next step is to undertake specialised tests at the mills.

  3. Effects of slash harvest on plant diversity in forests. Final report; Effekter av skogsbraensleuttag paa vaexters maangfald. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastroem, Marcus; Nilsson, Christer [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Uminova Science Park

    2003-10-01

    The project evaluates the effects of slash harvest on plant diversity in forests. This is made through comparisons between conventionally clear-cut stands and clear-cut and slash harvested stands. Two different studies have been started. The first study consists of a direct comparison between the two types of clear-cut areas. The results show that the total species richness of vascular plants and bryophytes is not affected by slash removal. On the other hand, mosses and liverworts as a group become more species-poor. In the other study, bryophytes have been transplanted to shady and exposed parts, respectively, of clear-cut areas. Thereafter, half of the plots have been covered by slash and another half has been left exposed. The preliminary results show a considerably reduced vitality for the bryophytes living in the exposed parts of the clear-cut area without slash cover. The slash-covered bryophytes, on the other hand, performed well. On the shady part of the clear-cut area the bryophytes were similarly vital irrespective of slash cover or not. The conclusion is that slash removal can have a negative effect on plant diversity, especially if it is practiced on large exposed areas. If slash harvest is restricted to north-facing, shady, small clear-cut areas the effects could probably be eliminated.

  4. Effects of slash extraction on plant diversity in forests. Final report; Effekter av grotuttag paa vaexters maangfald. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastroem, Marcus; Nilsson, Christer [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2005-09-01

    This project includes three studies designed to investigate the effects of slash extraction on forest plant diversity. The first study explores the previously unknown effects of commercial slash harvest after clear-felling on bryophytes and vascular plants. Differences between conventionally harvested (i.e. slash left) and slash-harvested stands were investigated 5-10 years after clear-cutting through analysis of 28 paired stands. In each stand we studied vegetation patterns in 0.1 ha plots divided into five 0.02 ha subplots. Species composition of mosses and liverworts in 0.1 ha plots was significantly affected by slash harvest, whereas composition of vascular plant species showed no differences between conventional and slash harvested plots. Species richness of liverworts was significantly reduced by slash harvest in plots of both sizes (0.1 ha and 0.02 ha), whereas moss richness was reduced only in the smaller plot size. The loss of liverwort species was largest, with approximately one third of the species disappearing. The species richness of vascular plants was not significantly affected by slash harvest in either plot size. Slash harvest also reduced species richness of forest bryophytes and of bryophytes typically growing on organic substrates in open habitats. Species richness of non-forest bryophytes on inorganic substrates remained unchanged. The second study evaluates the effects of slash-cover on ground living bryophytes in seven different clear-cuts. By transplanting ten different species of bryophytes in manipulated plots located to north-facing forest edges and the centres of the clear-cuts) we evaluated the effects of branch cover and full exposure on bryophyte growth and vitality. In the more sheltered, north-facing plots there was no difference between treatments. In the centre of the clear-cuts, however, both growth and vitality of exposed bryophytes were significantly lowered in exposed compared to covered plots. The third study investigates the effects of stand structure and microclimate on species richness and resilience of wood inhabiting mosses and liverworts. We investigated differences between pairs of mature and recently clear-cut spruce stands located to north- and south-facing slopes, respectively. Bryophyte richness was highest in north-facing stands of both successional stages and in south-facing forests whereas south-facing clear-cuts presented the lowest species numbers. In north-facing slopes there was no difference in liverwort species number between mature and young stands. The mosses, however, presented higher species numbers in young stands. In south-facing slopes liverwort species numbers were significantly lower in young compared to mature stands whereas no difference was detected regarding mosses. Our study indicates that south-facing stands lose species, particularly among liverworts, after disturbance whereas no such loss seems to occur on north-facing slopes. North-facing slopes also appear to be more suitable for establishment of wood inhabiting bryophytes after disturbance. Differences between north- and south facing stands are most likely due to microclimatic differences, in particular available moisture influencing both species persistence and establishment. These studies indicate that commercial slash-harvest affects plant species composition and richness. Effects are most likely linked to loss of substrate and changes in microclimate. Leaving more tree clusters that offer shade and creating or protecting coarse woody debris may mitigate negative effects on particularly wood inhabiting and moisture dependent organisms. Commercial slash harvest should not take place in shaded and moist habitats where the effects of clear-cutting are less severe and where the conditions are suitable for persistence and establishment of wood-inhabiting species.

  5. VISUAL PARALLEL PROGRAMMING AS PAAS CLOUD SERVICE WITH GRAPH-SYMBOLIC PROGRAMMING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    EGOROVA DARYA; ZHIDCHENKO VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the visual approach to parallel programming provided by Graph-Symbolic Programming Technology. The basics of this technology are described as well as advantages and disadvantages of visual parallel programming. The technology is being implemented as a PaaS cloud service that provides the tools for creation, validation and execution of parallel programs on cluster systems. The current state of this work is also presented.

  6. Effects of acidification and cadmium pollution on the populations and habitats of limnetic zooplankton; Effekter av forsuring og kadmium-forurensning paa populasjoner og samfunn av limnisk zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartau, A.K.L. [Norsk Inst. for Naturforskning, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with executed field tests on the adding of cadmium alone or combined with acidification of an enclosed space under different nutrient and predatory conditions. The addition of cadmium changed the biomass and the composition of the phytoplankton. In combination with the added nutrient salts, the biomass of special algae increased in the Cd loaded spaces, and the addition of acid changed the effect of Cd concentration by increased production of the same. The effect of a given Cd concentration on the zooplankton varied in a wide range of environmental conditions. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Analysis of algorithms for detection of resonance frequencies in vibration measurements on super heater tubes; Analys av algoritmer foer detektering av resonansfrekvenser i vibrationsmaetningar paa oeverhettartuber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Combustion of fuel in thermal power plants emits particles which creates coatings on the super heater tubes. The coatings isolate the tubes and impairs the efficiency of the heat transfer. Cleaning the tubes occurs while the power plant is running but without any knowledge of the actual coating. A change in frequency corresponds to a change in mass of the coatings. This thesis has been focusing in estimating resonance frequencies in vibration measurements made by strain gauges on the tubes. To improve the estimations a target tracking algorithm had been added. The results indicates that it is possible to estimate the resonance frequencies but the algorithms need to be verified on more signals.

  8. Introduction to AVS Audio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Jun Ai; Shui-Xian Chen; Rui-Min Hu

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a general audio coding algorithm which has been recently standardized by AVS, China.The algorithm is based on a perceptual coding technique. The codec delivers near CD-quality audio at 128kb/s. This paper describes the coder structure in detail and discusses the reasons for specific design methods. A summary of the subjective test results are presented for the prototype codec. Comparison Mean Opinion Score (CMOS) test indicates that the quality of the AVS audio coder is comparable with MPEG Layer-3 audio coder. A real-time decoder was used for the characterization test,which is based on a 16-bit fixed-point DSP. The performance of the DSP solution was demonstrated, including computational complexity and storage characteristics.

  9. Realtidsuppdatering av lokaltrafik

    OpenAIRE

    Hjälmarstedt, Mattias; Nagy, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    Denna rapport beskriver ett examensarbete utfört vid Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik på Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan i Stockholm. Rapporten behandlar WebSocket som är ett nytt kommunikationsprotokoll som främst är framtaget för att förbättra prestandan inom webbkommunikationen. WebSocket är tänkt som ett substitut till HTTP inom områden som kräver låg responstid och asynkron uppdatering. WebSocket stöds idag av alla moderna webbläsare och har standardiserats av W3C (World Wid...

  10. Summer Student Report - AV Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The AV Workflow is web application which allows cern users to publish, update and delete videos from cds. During my summer internship I implemented the backend of the new version of the AV Worklow in python using the django framework.

  11. Verdsetting av Norsk Hydro ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Truls Ekhorn

    2014-01-01

    I denne oppgaven vil jeg finne ut om Norsk Hydro ASAs egenkapitalverdi gjenspeiles i aksjekursen som vi finner på Oslo Børs. Problemstillingen blir da som følger: "Hva er egenkapitalverdien til Norsk Hydro ASA?" Oppgaven begynner med en presentasjon av Norsk Hydro ASA og dets virke. Etterfulgt av en framlegging av aktuell teori innenfor verdsetting. Videre følger en vurdering av selskapets strategiske posisjon. Til den strategiske analysen benyttes rammeverkene Porters Five Forces og PE...

  12. Energieffektiv hydrogenlagring : eksergianalyse av adsorpsjon

    OpenAIRE

    Berntsen, Trond Einar Egeberg

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenlagring er en nøkkelteknologi for etablering av en hydrogenøkonomi. Adsorpsjon er en av hydrogenlagringsteknologiene som for tiden utforskes sammen med hydrogen lagret som komprimert gass, væske, og i metallhydrider. Omfanget av denne oppgaven har vært eksergianalyse og utvikling av eksergilikninger for hydrogenlagring ved adsorpsjon ved kryogen temperatur. Eksergianalyse utført på kryo-adsorpsjonssystem er i hovedsak basert på det eksperimentelle op...

  13. Utveckling av ett snabblyftblock

    OpenAIRE

    Svensk, Johanna; Schönning, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Detta examensarbete har genomförts i samarbete med Svero Lifting. Företaget säljer och utvecklar lyftanordningar. Svero Lifting arbetar idag med att reducera vikten på företagets komponenter genom ett materialbyte och har påbörjat utveckling av en ny lyftanordning, en blockvagn och ett snabblyftblock. Svero Lifting vill fortsätta utveckla företagets lyftanordning så att komponenterna i lyftanordningen passar varandra och utmärker sig på marknaden. Idag har Svero Lifting inga CAD-modeller elle...

  14. Utveckling av hotspotsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Baktirovic, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    Detta examensarbete är gjort på uppdrag av Fiber Optik Valley. Huvuduppdraget i projektet var att skapa ett fungerande betalningssystem för en hotspot och att utveckla företagets webbsida. Hotspotsystemet som baserades på en gratistjänst från Public IP, är tänkt att kunna fungera delvis autonomt utan ägarens ingripande. Företagets webbsida skapades i en Flex2-utvecklingsmiljö och produkten blev en Adobe Flash-applikation. För att få ett dynamiskt och konfigurerbart system skapades även en kon...

  15. Morphological and Optical Characterization of High Density Au/PAA Nanoarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal nanoarrays of Au nanorods and nanopillar were deposited on nanoporous anodic alumina (PAA membranes utilizing dc electrodeposition. The surface morphologies and optical properties were characterized by using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The optical reflectance spectra of the as-prepared, pore widened, and 2D-Au nanorods-coated PAA membranes were studied in detail. The effects of the angle of incident, pore widening time, and electrodeposition time on the characteristic peaks positions and intensities of the fabricated nanoarrays were addressed. As the angle of incident increased, the interference peaks and transverse surface resonance are shifted to longer wavelengths, but the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance is shifted to shorter wavelengths. Also, the reflected intensities are decreased linearly for the as-prepared sample and decreased exponentially for Au/PAA samples. Using the modified Kubelka-Munk radiative transfer model, the energy gap is increased from 2.83 to 3.06 eV and the refractive index is decreased from 1.84 to 1.36 for the as-prepared and 70 min pore widened PAA membranes, respectively. Based on the advantages of the fabrication approach and the enhanced and controlled properties, this generation of Au/PAA arrays can be used as efficient building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanophotonic devices.

  16. Ultralydfremstilling av fostervekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Lian Johnsen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultralyd billeddanning er i dag den beste undersøkelsesmetoden vi har til å overvåke fosterets utvikling og vekst. Ultralydmåling av fosterets størrelse og biometriske referansetabeller for svangerskapet brukes til å fastsette svangerskapets alder, beregne termin og vurdere fosterets vekst. Optimal studiedesign er ulik for hvert av disse formålene. Det er stor variasjon i fysiologisk vekst og en utfordring å identifisere fostre som har dårlig tilvekst. En enkeltmåling av fosteret kan fortelle oss om det er lite eller stort i forhold til andre fostre, men ikke om størrelsen er passelig i forhold til forventet fysiologisk vekst for dette fosteret. Tilpassede referansemodeller ("customised" justerer forventet størrelse i relasjon til føtale og maternelle faktorer og har vist seg å bedre identifisere sanne veksthemmede fostre enn bare å klassifisere i henhold til 2,5, 5 eller 10 persentilen. Men et foster som i utgangspunktet er stort for alderen, men etter hvert vokser langsomt vil ikke nødvendigvis bli fanget opp ved en slik enkeltmåling. Serielle målinger vil hjelpe, men en slik longitudinell metode blir ikke fullt ut utnyttet før det appliseres betinget ("conditional" vekstberegning. Betingelsesleddene for variasjon i vekst og målemetode kalkuleres ut fra longitudinelle data og kan så anvendes for det enkelte foster. En første måling brukes til å beregne forventet vekst og variasjon for en neste måling. Denne metoden forventes å skjerpe diagnostikken for vekst-avvik i alle vektklasser og kan sammen med tilpasningen av andre faktorer bedre overvåkningen av risikosvangerskapUltrasonographic imaging is today the best method for assessing fetal size and monitoring fetal growth. Ultrasound measurements of fetal size are used for age, size and growth assessment, but the statistical design and analysis are different for each of these purposes. Physiological ranges for fetal growth are wide and the identification of fetal

  17. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by

  18. Projektering av hallbyggnad

    OpenAIRE

    Kankaanpää, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    Detta ingenjörsarbete är utfört åt jordbruksföretaget Maatalousyhtymä Juha Hotakainen. Målet var att få utfört bygglovsritningar till en hallbyggnad som skall betjäna företaget i fråga. Hallen skall bli en varm lagerhall för reparation av maskiner och verktyg. Hallens storlek är 480m² och den skall vara hel varm. Byggnaden delas upp i två sektioner så att man i ena sektionen kan förvara maskinerna och i den andra sektionen kan underhålla maskinerna. Sektionerna har två stora lyftdörrar ...

  19. Dynamisk Analys av scrollkompressorn

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Plaza, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Det svenska företaget Thermia använder scrollkompressorer från det amerikanska bolaget Copeland i sina värmepumpsystem. Trots den betydande ljudminskning som scrollkompressorer ger jämfört med andra kompressorer är ljudtrycksnivån fortfarande 56 dBA. Den här ljudtrycksnivån är inte tillräckligt låg om man vill placera systemet i köket. Företaget önskar minska hela systemets ljudtrycksnivå. Rapporten innehåller en dynamisk analys av de olika möjliga ljudkällorna i kompressorn. Den innehåller d...

  20. Preparation and property characterization of PAA/Fe3O4 nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shanshan; ZHANG Yi; XU Jiarui

    2007-01-01

    PAA/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were prepared by mixing nano-Fe3O4 and polyacrylic acid(PAA)ethanol solution and then evaporating the solvent.The materials were characterized by transmission electron microscope(TEM),Fourier transform infrared spectroscope(FTIR),thermogravimetry analysis (TGA),dynamic ultra-micro hardness tester (DUMHT)and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)magnetometer.Results showed that PAA coordinated with nano-Fe3O4 to form a cross-linking structure.The presence of nano-Fe3O4 enhanced the thermal stability of the nanocomposite.The elasticity and hardness of the nanocomposite increased,and the indentation depth reduced with the increase of Fe3O4 content in the composites.The nanocomposites showed superparamagnetic properties at 300K.

  1. Teratogene effekter av antiepileptika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt A. Engelsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGCa. 1 av 200 gravide har epilepsi. Gravide med epilepsi har økt risiko for visse obstetriske komplikasjonerog for å føde barn med medfødte misdannelser. Risikoen for misdannelser synes koblet til bruk avantiepileptika under svangerskapet, og ikke til selve epilepsien. Alle typer misdannelser er økt, men leppeganespalteog nevralrørsdefekter utgjør særlig viktige misdannelser. Årsakene til misdannelsene er multifaktorielle.Bruk av antiepileptika i monoterapi kan sies å gi en individuell risiko for større misdannelser påca. 4-6%. Karbamazepin og natriumvalproat gir hhv. 0,5-1% og 2-3% risiko for nevralrørsdefekt. Samletrisiko for større og mindre anomalier inkludert dysmorfe ansiktstrekk synes ikke å overstige 10%. ENGLISH SUMMARYEngelsen BA. Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 23-28.Approximately 1 in 200 pregnant women have epilepsy, and 1 in 250 births are to children of mothers whouse antiepleptic drugs (AED. Pregnant women with epilepsy have increased risk for certain obstetricalcomplications, and for giving birth to children with congenital malformations. The increased risk forcongenital malformations seems connected to the use of AED, not to the epileptic syndromes. The etiologyof congenital malformations are multifactorial. Use of AED in monotherapy is associated with anindividual risk of giving birth to a child with a major malformation of 4-6%. The specific risk of spinabifida is 0,5 to 1% for carbamazepine and 2-3% for sodium valproate.

  2. Analysis of primary aromatic amines (PAA) in black nylon kitchenware 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia; Granby, Kit

    Primary aromatic amines (PAA) are chemical compounds, of which some are carcinogenic and allergenic, while others of these compounds are suspected carcinogens. PAA may arise in materials intended for food contact as a result of the occurrence of impurities or degradation products of e.g. aromatic...... isocyanates used in lacquers and adhesives in azocolourants. According to the regulation on plastics EC 10/2011: ‘Plastic materials and articles shall not release primary aromatic amines, excluding those appearing in Table 1 of Annex I, in a detectable quantity into food or food simulant. The detection limit...

  3. Negotiation Mechanism of AVS Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Junbin

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction The mission of the Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS) Working Group of China is to develop AVS standards drafts and deliver them to the national standardization administration authorities. Since its establishment in 2002, the AVS Working Group has developed rapidly, growing from 33 members in 2003 to 153 in 2006. By the end of 2006, it had put forward for approval nine standards drafts (Table 1) with Part 2 of the AVS 1.0 draft approved as a national standard in February 2006.

  4. Helseeffekter ved tap av ektefelle

    OpenAIRE

    Gamre, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Assosiasjonen mellom tap av ektefelle og økt risiko for egen død er godt dokumentert i litteraturen. Ekteskapet er funnet å ha beskyttende effekt på helsen. Effekten av utdanning er med utgangspunkt i litteraturen usikker. Studien vurderer risiko for død ved tap av ektefelle, ved hjelp av Cox-regresjonsanalyse og tidsavhengige kovariater. Risiko for død vurderes i forhold til kjønn, alder, tid etter dødsfall og utdanning. Studien tar utgangspunkt i norske registerdata, og danner en prospektiv...

  5. Temanummer om styring av naturressurser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Thorseth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dette nummeret av Etikk i praksis – Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics er et temanummer om styring av naturressurser. Den tematiske delen inneholder tre artikler, mens den åpne delen har to artikler som drøfter svært dagsaktuelle tema.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v8i1.1799

  6. Læring av erfaring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    Hva skal til for å lære av erfaring? Denne avhandlingen er en empirisk baseret undersøkelse av ungdosmskolelæreres muligheter og betingelser for å "lære av erfaring" i den særlige betydning av begrepet  W. Bion gir i sin psykoanalytiske teori. Undersøgelsen baserer seg på et feltarbeid som strekker...... seg over ett skoleår. Datamaterialet ble samlet inn via observerasjoner og mer eller mindre strukturerte samtaler med lærere ved to forskellige norske ungdsomsskoler. Analysen av materialet foregår i to trinn: først en fenomenologisk analyse, tett på lærernes egne beskrivelser og refleksjoner av...... lærerarbeidet, dets udfordringer og vanskeligheter, og deretter en psykoanalytisk perspektivering av de fenomenologiske analyseresultatene. Analysen viser en almindelig lærerhverdag og en skoleorganisation, hvor lærernes "læring av erfaring" i stor utstrekning blokkeres i et vekselspill mellem lærernes flukt...

  7. IaaS阻碍PaaS云架构发展?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    选择真正PaaS的组织已经部署完毕,因为PaaS能让他们自己部署,并且只需花费少量成本与人力资源就能在内部或IaaS上实施。但足PaaS云架构仍然让企业犹豫不决。美国迈阿密的Choose Digital提供一个数字市场平台,将客户白标签作为忠诚和亲和力计划的一部分。这家公司三年前成立时,评估了一些PaaS方案,发现CloudBees能与其持续集成工具紧密集成,包括Jenkins测试与GitHub源码库,还能让该公司的产品迅速运转起来。

  8. In vivo kinetic analysis of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway using PAA stimulus response experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Amit T; Verheijen, Peter J T; Maleki Seifar, Reza; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2015-11-01

    In this study we combined experimentation with mathematical modeling to unravel the in vivo kinetic properties of the enzymes and transporters of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway in a high yielding Penicillium chrysogenum strain. The experiment consisted of a step response experiment with the side chain precursor phenyl acetic acid (PAA) in a glucose-limited chemostat. The metabolite data showed that in the absence of PAA all penicillin pathway enzymes were expressed, leading to the production of a significant amount of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APA) as end product. After the stepwise perturbation with PAA, the pathway produced PenG within seconds. From the extra- and intracellular metabolite measurements, hypotheses for the secretion mechanisms of penicillin pathway metabolites were derived. A dynamic model of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway was then constructed that included the formation and transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of pathway intermediates, PAA and the product penicillin-G (PenG). The model parameters and changes in the enzyme levels of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway under in vivo conditions were simultaneously estimated using experimental data obtained at three different timescales (seconds, minutes, hours). The model was applied to determine changes in the penicillin pathway enzymes in time, calculate fluxes and analyze the flux control of the pathway. This led to a reassessment of the in vivo behavior of the pathway enzymes and in particular Acyl-CoA:Isopenicillin N Acyltransferase (AT). PMID:26476338

  9. Collaboration processes construction and customization in cloud manufacturing PaaS platform%云制造PaaS平台中协同过程构建与定制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔立真; 刘士军

    2012-01-01

    To realize specialized division and socialized collaboration of industry, many collaboration processes among partners were existed in cloud manufacturing service system. Collaboration process" characteristics such as multi-par- ticipant, long chain and flexibility posed many challenges on process modeling, customization, construction and im- plementation of collaborative technology. Therefore, a Cloud Manufacturing Platform as a Service (CM-PaaS) plat- form architecture was designed, and the collaboration process construction as well as customization method based on CM-PaaS platform were proposed. The verification algorithm of customization was also given. On this basis, the meta collaborative subject and features were defined by operators. ISVs defined collaborative subject and features with delivering manufacturing services to the platform, manufacturing enterprises could tenant manufacturing serv- ices and customize the specific collaborative subject and features. Through cases analysis, the proposed platform and method were proved to construct various collaborative applications easily and meet the large scale collaborative de- mand in cloud manufacturing service system.%云制造服务体系为实现产业专业化分工和社会化协作,存在大量合作伙伴之间的协同过程。协同过程普遍呈现出参与者多、协同链长、灵活多变等特征,对过程建模、定制、构建与执行等协同技术提出了诸多挑战。为此提出云制造PaaS平台架构和基于云制造PaaS平台的协同过程构建与定制方法,并给出定制的验证算法。基于该平台,平台运营商首先定义元协同主体及特征,制造服务独立软件开发商在将制造服务交付到平台上的同时定义协同主体及特征,制造企业可以租赁平台上的制造服务,并定制特定协同主体和特征。通过实例分析证明,基于该平台和方法,可以支持云制造服务的开发者和企业方便地构建各种协同应

  10. Eidangertunnelen: Valg av drivemetode ved forsering av kritisk sone

    OpenAIRE

    Einarson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Entreprisen UFP-08 Eidanger er et komplekst jernbaneprosjekt som er en av fire grunnentrepriser i parsell nr. 12 mellom Farriseidet-Porsgrunn. Eidangertunnelen er hoveddelen i entreprisen UFP-08 Eidanger. Den største utfordringen for prosjektet er den kritiske sonen ved Tveitanlia.Den kritiske sonen består av lav fjelloverdekning med en minste masseoverdekning på 8,0 m. I forbindelse med kartlegging av terrenget har det blitt gjennomført gode forundersøkelser i prosje...

  11. Eidangertunnelen : Valg av drivemetode ved forsering av kritisk sone

    OpenAIRE

    Einarson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Entreprisen UFP-08 Eidanger er et komplekst jernbaneprosjekt som er en av fire grunnentrepriser i parsell nr. 12 mellom Farriseidet-Porsgrunn. Eidangertunnelen er hoveddelen i entreprisen UFP-08 Eidanger. Den største utfordringen for prosjektet er den kritiske sonen ved Tveitanlia.Den kritiske sonen består av lav fjelloverdekning med en minste masseoverdekning på 8,0 m. I forbindelse med kartlegging av terrenget har det blitt gjennomført gode forundersøkelser i prosje...

  12. Analyse av CO2-varmepumper for varmtvannsberedning av boligblokker

    OpenAIRE

    Borge, Mads

    2014-01-01

    SammendragRapporten er skrevet som masteroppgave utført ved NTNU våren 2014 og omhandler det installerte varmtvannsberedningsanlegget ved Tveita borettslag i Oslo. Tveita borettslag ble oppført i 1967, og består av tre boligblokker med totalt 819 leiligheter. Det er nylig utført diverse ENOK-tiltak ved borettslaget. ENOK-tiltakene bestod blant annet av å oppgradere romoppvarmingssystem og varmtvannsberedningssystem. Dette ble gjort ved installering av en 100 kW C...

  13. Crystal structure of phenylacetic acid degradation protein PaaG from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichise, Tomoyasu; Hisano, Tamao; Takeda, Kazuki; Miki, Kunio

    2009-09-01

    Microbial degradation of phenylacetic acid proceeds via the hybrid pathway that includes formation of a coenzyme A thioester, ring hydroxylation, non-oxygenolytic ring opening, and beta-oxidation-like reactions. A phenylacetic acid degradation protein PaaG is a member of the crotonase superfamily, and is a candidate non-oxygenolytic ring-opening enzyme. The crystal structure of PaaG from Thermus thermophilus HB8 was determined at a resolution of 1.85 A. PaaG consists of three identical subunits related by local three-fold symmetry. The monomer is comprised of a spiral and a helical domain with a fold characteristic of the crotonase superfamily. A putative active site residue, Asp136, is situated in an active site cavity and surrounded by several hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues. The active site cavity is sufficiently large to accommodate a ring substrate. Two conformations are observed for helix H2 located adjacent to the active site. Helix H2 is kinked at Asn81 in two subunits, whereas it is kinked at Leu77 in the other subunit, and the side chain of Tyr80 is closer to Asp136. This indicates that catalytic reaction of PaaG may proceed with large conformational changes at the active site. Asp136 is the only conserved polar residue in the active site. It is located at the same position as those of 4-chlorobenzoyl-CoA dehalogenase and peroxisomal Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, indicating that PaaG may undergo isomerization or a ring-opening reaction via a Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase-like mechanism. PMID:19452559

  14. Polyelectrolyte conformational transition in aqueous solvent mixture influenced by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding effects: PAA-water-ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappidi, Praveenkumar; Natarajan, Upendra

    2016-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of poly(acrylic acid) PAA chain in water-ethanol mixture were performed for un-ionized and ionized cases at different degree-of-ionization 0%, 80% and 100% of PAA chain by Na(+) counter-ions and co-solvent (ethanol) concentration in the range 0-90vol% ethanol. Aspects of structure and dynamics were investigated via atom pair correlation functions, number and relaxation of hydrogen bonds, nearest-neighbor coordination numbers, and dihedral angle distribution function for back-bone and side-groups of the chain. With increase in ethanol concentration, chain swelling is observed for un-ionized chain (f=0) and on the contrary chain shrinkage is observed for partially and fully ionized cases (i.e., f=0.8 and 1). For un-ionized PAA, with increase in ethanol fraction ϕeth the number of PAA-ethanol hydrogen bonds increases while PAA-water decreases. Increase in ϕeth leads to PAA chain expansion for un-ionized case and chain shrinkage for ionized case, in agreement with experimental observations on this system. For ionized-PAA case, chain shrinkage is found to be influenced by intermolecular hydrogen bonding with water as well as ethanol. The localization of ethanol molecules near the un-ionized PAA backbone at higher levels of ethanol is facilitated by a displacement of water molecules indicating presence of specific ethanol hydration shell, as confirmed by results of the RDF curves and coordination number calculations. This behavior, controlled by hydrogen bonding provides a significant contribution to such a conformational transition behavior of the polyelectrolyte chain. The interactions between counter-ions and charges on the PAA chain also influence chain collapse. The underlying origins of polyelectrolyte chain collapse in water-alcohol mixtures are brought out for the first time via explicit MD simulations by this study. PMID:26803232

  15. Vox : en studie av endringsprosesser

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Temaet for oppgaven har vært vurderingsprosesser og endringer knyttet nasjonal utdanningsadministrasjon på voksenopplæringsfeltet. Vox ble opprettet i kraft av Kompetansereformen i 2001 for å gi regjeringen og departementet et redskap for å gi voksne den kompetanse som arbeidslivet og den enkelte etterspør. Studien har tatt for seg prosessen rundt opprettelsen av Vox. Den har også sett på prosesser knyttet til utvikling av virksomhetsområde, styring og organisatorisk plassering, samt reorgan...

  16. Lability of the pAA Virulence Plasmid in Escherichia coli O104:H4: Implications for Virulence in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Zhang

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O104:H4 that caused the large German outbreak in 2011 is a highly virulent hybrid of enterohemorrhagic (EHEC and enteroaggregative (EAEC E. coli. The strain displays "stacked-brick" aggregative adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells mediated by aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I encoded on the pAA plasmid. The AAF/I-mediated augmented intestinal adherence might facilitate systemic absorption of Shiga toxin, the major virulence factor of EHEC, presumably enhancing virulence of the outbreak strain. However, the stability of pAA in the outbreak strain is unknown. We therefore tested outbreak isolates for pAA, monitored pAA loss during infection, and determined the impact of pAA loss on adherence and clinical outcome of infection.E. coli O104:H4 outbreak isolates from 170 patients (128 with hemolytic uremic syndrome [HUS] and 42 with diarrhea without HUS were tested for pAA using polymerase chain reaction and plasmid profiling. pAA-harboring bacteria in stool samples were quantified using colony blot hybridization, and adherence to HCT-8 cells was determined. Isolates from 12 (7.1% patients lacked pAA. Analyses of sequential stool samples demonstrated that the percentages of pAA-positive populations in the initial stools were significantly higher than those in the follow-up stools collected two to eight days later in disease (P≤0.01. This indicates a rapid loss of pAA during infections of humans. The pAA loss was associated with loss of the aggregative adherence phenotype and significantly reduced correlation with HUS (P  = 0.001.The pAA plasmid can be lost by E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain in the human gut in the course of disease. pAA loss might attenuate virulence and diminish the ability to cause HUS. The pAA instability has clinical, diagnostic, epidemiologic, and evolutionary implications.

  17. 共混法制备硅酸镁锂/PAAS/KOH/H2O凝胶电解质%Preparing magnesium lithium silicate/PAAS/KOH/H2O gel electrolyte by blending method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜攀敦; 桑商斌; 邓明周; 伍秋美

    2011-01-01

    以硅酸镁锂(M LS)、聚丙烯酸钠(PAAS)及KOH为原料,采用共混法制备了MLS/PAAS/KOH/H2O复合无机碱性凝胶电解质.采用交流阻抗、循环伏安和恒流充放电测试对样品进行研究.室温时,制备的凝胶电解质具有与6 mol/L KOH溶液同一数量级的电导率电化学稳定窗口约为1.6V;以m(MLS)∶m(PAAS)∶m(KOH)∶m(H2O)= 0.6∶ 1.0∶5.0∶ 15.0的MLS/PAAS/KOH/H2O凝胶电解质组装的MH/Ni电池,经250次1.0C恒流循环后,充放电效率仍在95%以上.%The composite inorganic alkaline gel electrolyte of magnesium lithium silicate( MLS)/sodium polyacrylate (PAAS)/ KOH/H2O was prepared from MLS, PAAS and KOH by blending method. The samples were studied by AC impedance, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge test.At room temperature, the conductivity of prepared gel electrolyte was the same order as that of the 6 mol/L KOH solution,its electrochemical stable window was about 1.6 V. The charge-discharge efficiency of the MH/Ni battery assembled with MLS/PAAS/KOH/H2O gel dectrolyte [ m(MLS): ro(PAAS): m(KOH): m(H2O) =0.6:1.0: 5.0:15.0] was still above 95% after 250 cycles(galvanostatic charged-discharged with 1.0 C).

  18. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Mining industry produces 25 Mton mine tailings yearly that are deposited in impoundments in the nature. When this sand, containing sulphur rich minerals, reacts with oxygen and water it starts to weather and acidic metal rich water is formed. To prevent this, the sand can be covered with a sealing layer and a protective cover layer with vegetation. As sealing and cover materials fly ashes and sewage sludge can be used. The aim of this investigation was to find out: 1) how sealing layer of fly ashes with and without sewage sludge, and a cover with sewage sludge can be placed practically on mine tailings in a cold climate. 2) how such a cover should be constructed to minimize the risk of root penetration and leakage of nutrients and metals 3) which vegetation that is most suitable This was investigated in field- and greenhouse tests with a sealing layer of fly ash and/or sewage sludge with a cover layer of sewage sludge in which different plant species were established. The practical application was performed in 0.3-1 ha plots at a mine tailings impoundments at Boliden. The ability of plant roots to penetrate a sealing layer was investigated, as well as the effect of simulated root exudates on the penetration resistance in hardened ash. Leakage of nutrients and metals from cover layer of sewage sludge, in some cases with sealing layers beneath, was investigated in field and greenhouse lysimeters. Various plant species were compared on their ability to affect metal and nutrient leakage as well as root penetration and shattering of the hardened ashes. The project was a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field tests were performed at the impoundment Gillervattnet in Boliden and in Garpenberg. Cooperating were also Iggesund Paperboard, Skellefteaa Kraft, Stora Enso Fors, Umeaa Energi and Vattenfall, all producers of ashes that were used, as well as Stockholm Vatten AB, which produced the sewage sludge. The most important conclusions are that: It is possible to apply a sealing layer of ashes on mine tailings independent of season due to the quick hardening process of the ashes. Sewage sludge can, on the other hand, only be applied when the tailings are frozen. The application leads to a rise in the ground water level in the tailings Covering of mine tailings with sewage sludge and fly ash decreases the metal leakage. The higher proportion of sewage sludge in the cover layer the more N and P and less metals is released. The leakage decreases with time. Plant establishment in general decreases the leakage of metals and nutrients, especially by decreasing the amount of leakage water. Because of great amounts of nitrate in sewage sludge plants with a high uptake of nitrate is to prefer to decrease the nitrogen leakage. Some plant species can loosen up the surface of hardened fly ash, and in that way influence the sealing layer structure. This may lead to increased breaking down of secondary minerals, which can be important for the stability of the sealing layer. It is possible that excretion of sacharids from plant roots can increase shattering of ash, and that such exudation increases in the presence of ash. Estimation of the resistance needed to avoid root penetration were made to approx2,5 MPa. Addition of sewage sludge increases the risk of root penetration of a sealing layer. Since roots can affect a thin sealing layer a thickness of approximately 0.5 meter is recommended

  19. Impact assessment of the impact on nature values of the construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden av anlaeggande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    Construction and operation of a repository at Soederviken in Forsmark, Oesthammar municipality means impact, effects and consequences for the environment. This report describes the natural conditions and natural values in Forsmark with particular focus on Soederviken. Furthermore, an assessment of consequences for the natural environment in the development and operation of a repository at Soederviken. Assessment of impacts from water activities are treated in a special report.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a PaaX-like protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the PaaX-like protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. PaaX is a global regulator of the phenylacetyl-coenzyme A catabolon that adjusts the expression of different operons to that of the paa-encoded central pathway. In this study, the PaaX-like protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. Diffraction data were obtained to a resolution of 3.0 Å using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory. The crystal belonged to space group P321, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.4, b = 86.4, c = 105.5 Å

  1. Electrical conduction of polyimide films prepared from polyamic acid (PAA and pre-imidized polyimide (PI solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical conduction characteristics in two different polyimide films prepared by the imidization of polyamic acid (PAA and pre-imidized polyimide (PI solution were investigated. It is found that the current density of the polyimide film from PAA was higher than that of the polyimide film from PI at the same electric field, even though the conduction mechanism in both polyimide films follows the ionic hopping model. The hopping distance was calculated to be 2.8 nm for PAA type and 3.2 nm for PI type polyimide film. It is also found that the decay rate of the residual electrostatic charges on the polyimide films becomes faster in the PAA type than in the PI type polyimide film.

  2. Betydningen av branding i kommersiell eiendomsutvikling : en studie av place branding i utviklingen av Vulkan

    OpenAIRE

    Østerman, Anne Therese

    2013-01-01

    Betydningen av branding i kommersiell eiendomsutvikling er temaet og tittelen for denne masteroppgaven. Bakgrunnen for studien er å belyse hva som inngår i eiendomsutviklingsprosessen og hvordan branding relateres til prosessen. Ved å definere place branding og hjelp i Simon Anholts City Brand Index Hexagon er målet å finne attraktive kvaliteter som gir identitet til stedet. Studien er tatt med utgangspunkt i Vulkan i Oslo. Vulkan er en omfattende transformasjon av et eldre industriområde til...

  3. Denken over diversiteit in KMO's: een gevalstudie bij Paas Food Industries NV

    OpenAIRE

    Jans, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Jans Joris Master Bedrijfseconomische Wetenschappen ' Beleidsmanagement Denken over diversiteit in KMO's: Een gevalstudie bij Paas Food Industries NV Promotor: Prof. Dr. Patrizia Zanoni Co-promotor: Drs. Hannah Vermaut Academiejaar 2010-2010 2de kans SAMENVATTING België krijgt in toenemende mate te maken met diversiteit in de bevolkingssamenstelling en op de arbeidsmarkt. Diversiteit associëren we vaak met allochtonen, maar het zijn vooral de vrouwelijke allochtonen die v...

  4. Proton conductivity and methanol transport behavior of cross-linked PVA/PAA/silica hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Ho Bum; Lee, Young Moo [National Research Laboratory for Membranes, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Ji Won [Department of Chemical Engineering Hannam University, 133 Ojung-Dong, Daeduk-Gu, Daejon 306-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-01-14

    Cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/silica hybrid membranes were prepared to evaluate the possibility of use as a proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). A chemical cross-linking agent having sulfonic acid group (-SO{sub 3}H) was used to increase proton conductivity, and simultaneously to prevent methanol transport through the cross-linked membranes. In addition, silica particles were dispersed into polymer matrices via sol-gel reaction under acidic conditions, expecting the barrier to the methanol transport. The proton and the methanol transport were investigated in terms of PVA/PAA compositions and cross-linker (sulfosuccinic acid, SSA) concentration. It was found that the compositions of PVA/PAA and the cross-linker concentration affected the transport properties of the membranes. Particularly, the concentration of cross-linker markedly affected the proton and the methanol transport because SSA was used not only as a chemical cross-linker but also as a donor of fixed anionic group (-SO{sub 3}{sup -}H{sup +}). The proton conductivities of the hybrid membrane were in the range of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} S/cm, and the methanol permeabilities ranged between 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s. Noticeably, the methanol permeabilities were reduced by cross-linking between PVA, PAA and SSA chains without a large sacrifice of proton conductivity. Moreover, the silica particles embedded in the cross-linked polymer membranes acted as a reducing material for fraction of free water as well as a methanol barrier to hinder pathway from penetrating methanol molecules.

  5. Enhanced corrosion protective PANI-PAA/PEI multilayer composite coatings for 316SS by spin coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PANI-PAA/PEI multilayers with controllable thickness were fabricated by spin assembly. • PAA matrix results in the homogeneous dispersion of PANI in the composite coatings. • Spin coating combined with heating assures the linear increase in thickness with n. • The corrosion protection property of PANI-PAA/PEI coatings were optimized at n = 20. • Enhanced protection owing to multilayer structure that lengthens the diffusion pathway of ions. - Abstract: In the present study, polyaniline-polyacrylic acid/polyethyleneimine (PANI-PAA/PEI) composite coatings with a multilayer structure for corrosion protection of 316 stainless steels (316SS) were prepared by an alternate deposition. Spin coating combined with heating assists removal of residual water that result in a linear increase in thickness with layer number (n). The combination of PANI-PAA composite with PEI and their multilayer structure provides a synergistic enhancement of corrosion resistance properties as determined by electrochemical measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution. Importantly, the PANI-PAA/PEI coating with an optimized layer number of n = 20 shows improved corrosion protection. The superior performance was attributed to the formation of an interfacial oxide layer as well as the multilayer structure that extend the diffusion pathway of corrosive ions

  6. Bio-inspired self-cleaning PAAS hydrogel released coating for marine antifouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lili; Lu, Xili; Wei, Huan; Long, Ping; Xu, Jina; Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, an antifouling hydrogel coating of slippery hydrogel-released hydrous surface (SHRHS) with the self-cleaning ability of oil-resistance and self-regeneration characters was designed. A physical blending method of loading Sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) powder into the organic silicon resin was employed to prepare the SHRHS coating. The oil-resistance of the intact and scratch SHRHS coatings was performed by time-sequence images of washing dyed beef tallow stain away. The results showed that the SHRHS coating has the greater ability of stain removal. The concentration of Na+ ions released from PAAS hydrogel on the surface of the SHRHS coating was investigated by ion chromatograph (IC). The results revealed that the coating had the ability of self-regeneration by PAAS hydrogel continuously peeling. The biomass of two marine microalgae species, Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima and Navicula climacospheniae Booth attached on the SHRHS was investigated using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the microalgaes attached a significantly lower numbers on the SHRHS in comparison with the organic silicon coating. In order to confirm the antifouling ability of the SHRHS coating, the field trials were carried out for 12weeks. It showed that the SHRHS may provide an effective attachment resistance to reduce biofouling. PMID:24594048

  7. Simulering av muskelaktivitet vid pedalbromsning

    OpenAIRE

    Ejdepalm, Erik; Westerdahl, Walter

    2009-01-01

    En muskeloskeletal kroppsmodell har undersökts med avseende på maximal muskelbelastning genom biomekanisk simulering i programmet AnyBody. En kroppsmodell har låtits interagera med ett reglage i form av en bromspedal från en Saab 9-3 och muskelbelastningen till följd av att pedalen trampas ned har minimerats. De parametrar hos pedalen som har varierats är initialvinkeln och returfjäderns fjäderkonstant. Den sits på vilken kroppsmodellen sitter har flyttats vertikalt och horisontellt i förhåll...

  8. Gjenbruk av materialer i landskapsarkitekturen

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, Even Reinsfelt

    2014-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven søker å gjøre rede for ulike tilnærminger, fordeler, metoder og holdninger knyttet til gjenbruk av materialer i landskapsarkitekturen. Innledningsvis blir det presentert teoretiske overordnede ideer om hva gjenbruk er, hvilke fordeler det kan gi og ulike aspekter knyttet til prosessen i gjenbruksprosjekter. I tråd med begrepet bærekraft undersøkes de økonomiske, miljømessige og sosiale gevinstene av gjenbruk i landskapsarkitekturen. Her konkluderes det med at de største u...

  9. 3D Simulering av pumpeturbinkarakteristikker

    OpenAIRE

    Olimstad, Grunde

    2009-01-01

    I oppgaven har karakteristikkene for en pumpeturbin blitt simulert. Verktøyet for simuleringene har vært OpenFOAM. Griddene til simuleringene ble laget i Gambit og ble importert til OpenFOAM via fluent gridformat. Geometrien til pumpeturbinen som er benyttet i simuleringene ble stilt til rådighet av Rainpower. Det ble simulert for 28 driftspunkt fordelt på tre forskjellige ledeskovlåpninger. For å begrense simuleringstiden ble kun en av turbinens skovler ble tatt med i beregningsområdet. R...

  10. Wood-ash addition on a drained forest peatland in Southern Sweden - Effects on water chemistry; Tillfoersel av biobra ensleaska i tallskog paa en dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige - Effekter paa vattenkemin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, Eva; Broemssen, Claudia von; Losjoe, Katarina; Sikstroem Ulf

    2012-02-15

    Wood ash can be used for forest fertilization on peatlands or for nutrient compensation following intensive harvesting. This project was performed in order to investigate effects on water chemistry of applying wood ash to a Scots pine stand on a drained peatland. Ditch-water chemistry was monitored before and after the application of wood ash. Furthermore, groundwater was collected and chemically analyzed both from the ash-treated peatland and from an adjacent untreated reference peatland. Both short term (a few months) and more long term effects (up to three years after application) were detected on water chemistry

  11. Strategisk regnskapsanalyse og verdsettelse av itslearning

    OpenAIRE

    Lægreid, Asbjørn; Eide, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    I denne utredningen har vi gjennomført en strategisk regnskapsanalyse og verdsettelse av Itslearning AS. Formålet med oppgaven er å gi en verdivurdering av selskapets egenkapital, og deretter vurdere estimatet mot oppgitt verdi av dagens egenkapital. Vi har foretatt en strategisk analyse av Itslearning og LMS-bransjen ved å benytte VRIO-rammeverket, Porters fem krefter og en PESTEL-analyse. Deretter foretok vi en omgruppering og justering av de historiske regnskapstallene for å optimaliser...

  12. Studie av automatisk justering av skjerminnhold avhenging av skjermstørrelse og kontekst.

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Mathias; Gjerde, Njaal Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    Bruken av håndholdte enheter har økt kraftig de siste årene. Som en effekt av dette, har Responsivt Web Design (RWD) fått økt popularitet og bruk i tillegg. Likevel er responsivt design et ganske nytt konsept, så de fleste nettsteder er ikke responsive.Denne oppgaven vil forsøke å utforske begrepet responsivt web design så mye som mulig. Teorien om responsivt web design i seg selv vil bli sett på, i hovedsak basert på boken "Responsi...

  13. Segmentering av hvit substans lesjoner i magnetresonansavbildninger (MRI) av hjernen

    OpenAIRE

    Torgersen, Kjell-Kristian Grane

    2011-01-01

    Automatisk gjenkjenning av hvit substans lesjoner i hjernen vil være nyttig både for å stille diagnose og i forbindelse med annen forskning på forandringer i hjernen. Her vil forskjellige metoder fra literaturen bli utprøvd og ytelsen målt. Hovedvekten av metodevalget vil bli lagt på k-means/fuzzy k-means clustering. Dette gjøres hovedsakelig på FLAIR men og på T1 vektede 3D volum. Dersom man forandrer litt på fuzzy k-means og godtar litt avvik(TPR=0.91 og FPR=0.04 under verifikasjon), så ...

  14. Synthesis and high-efficiency methylene blue adsorption of magnetic PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Zui; Cai, Minhan; Jian, Haitao; Zeng, Zhiqiao; Li, Feng; Liu, J. Ping

    2015-08-01

    MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and ultrasonic mixing process. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and VSM. XRD patterns indicate that the synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have a single cubic spinel phase. SEM images confirm the existence of three types of basic morphology of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles: octahedral, flower-like, and plate-like particles. High saturation magnetization Ms (up to 74.6 emu/g) of the as-synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was obtained. Experiments demonstrate that the variation of the hydrothermal reaction time does not remarkably affect the magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. In PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites, the coating of PAA leads to a slight decrease in magnetization of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Additionally, PAA coating greatly enhances the adsorption properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles for Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Especially, the removal efficiency reaches 96.3%. This research indicates that the as-synthesized PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites exhibit excellent magnetic properties and can be taken as a promising adsorbent for removal of MB dye in industrial scale.

  15. Studies on Complexation of ATMP, PBTCA, PAA and PMAAA with Ca2+ in Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Rui-mei; DENG Shou-quan; ZHU Zhi-liang; FAN Wei; ZHANG Ya-feng

    2004-01-01

    By means of acid-base potentiometric titration and the advanced BEST computer program developed by Martell et al., the deprotonation constants of four inhibitors[Aminotrimethylenephosphoinic acid(ATMP), 2-phosphino-tutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid(PBTCA), polyacrylic acid(PAA, Mw=2000), poly(maleic, acrylic) acid(PMAAA, Mw=3000)], and the stability constants of the complexes of these inhibitors with Ca2+ have been determined. And the distribution curves of ATMP at different pH values in aqueous solutions have also been given out. The result of this study can be applied to explaining the inhibition mechanism.

  16. Comparison the Effect of Disinfection of Yasuj Sewage Effluent with UV/Paa/Naocl Combined Treatment : A Pilot Plant Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Sadat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & objective: Disinfection of effluent swage treatment plant, is one of the the most important stage of treatment effluent that has been done with purpose of water sources protection or water reuse.Chlorine compounds are the most common disinfectants that have been ever used for this idea.Todays,with attention to the production of dangerous by-products,that can cause by using chlorine compounds in water, other disinfections such as H2o2,paa and uv ,o3 combinations of two or three of them has been stated for replacing items. This study designed to compare the disinfection efficiency of combinations of three common disinfectants mentioned above in pilot plant study. Materials & Methods: This is an empirical study that was done on sewage effluent of Yasuj wastewater treatment plant in 1387. During sample operations, through 5 months, each 10 days, two sample sets with different concentrations of each disinfectant compound were experimented on determining total coliforms(TC, fecal coliforms(FC, fecal streptococci(FS according to standard methods for waste water experiments. Reseived data was analysed by SPSS software and ANOVA, statistical test. Results: This study indicates that combined methods Paa/Naocl/UV, Paa/UV, Naocl/UV, in order from left to right, has the most efficiency in decreasing total coliforms and Paa/Naocl/UV have the most efficiency and UV the least efficiency and Paa/UV, Naocl/UV have the same efficiency in decreasing fecal coliforms. all the combined disinifection methods that have been used in this research most times completely eliminate fecal streptococci from swage of Yasouj wastewater treatment plant. Conclusion:The result indicate that combined uses of Paa, Naocl, with UV for disinfection sewage effluent make an intensive effect on disinfectant materials over each other and consequently increasing efficiency of this method in deactivation total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci .

  17. Synteser og studier av propargylterminerte resiner

    OpenAIRE

    Rokvam, Karoline

    2014-01-01

    Formålet med dette prosjektet var utvikling av syntesemetoder for propargylterminerte resiner, en gruppe av høytemperaturbestandige herdeplastmaterialer som har interesse innen forsvars- og romfartssektoren. 4,4´-Bifenolmonopropargyleter ble syntetisert og forsøkt brukt som byggekloss i syntesen av silisiumholdige propargylterminerte monomerer. Inkorporering av silisium hadde til formål å redusere sprøheten til disse resintypene, noe som er et utbredt problem. Disse ble forsøkt syntetisert ve...

  18. Mjukvaruprojekt och konsekvenserna av Scrum

    OpenAIRE

    Stenehall, Johan; Rahmani, Solmaz

    2009-01-01

    Under sent 1990-tal började utvecklare att bli mer och mer missnöjda med rådande arbetsformer i projekt. Utvecklarna upplevde att modeller som vattenfallsmodellen inte längre speglade verkligheten för utvecklingen. Detta missnöje resulterade i att en mängd nya arbetsmodeller uppstod och 2001 samlades de under Agile Manifesto. Agile lägger tyngdpunkten på individfokus, fungerande mjukvara, kundsamarbete och föränderlighet. Scrum är just nu ett av de mest populära ramverken inom ag...

  19. Minimering av risker vid kreditgivning

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Diana; Semenyuk, Tetyana; Turesson, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Nedgångar i världsekonomin med påföljande likviditetsproblem hos företag har medfört negativa konsekvenser för banker, vilket skapade behov av effektiv kreditriskhantering. För att förhindra stora kreditförluster försöker banker ständigt minimera sina risker vid kreditgivning genom att identifiera fallgropar. Syftet är att undersöka vilka faktorer som bidrar till kreditförluster och belysa hur Nordea kan minimera risker vid kreditgivning utifrån dessa faktorer. Datainsamling skedde via gransk...

  20. En analyse av Yoga-kundalini-upanisad

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Avhandlingen En analyse av Yoga-kundalini-upanisad bygger på den indiske asketen Narayanaswamy Aiyers engelske oversettelse av Yoga-kundalini-upanisad, utgitt i Thirty Minor Upanisad-s, Including the Yoga Upanisad-s (Oklahoma, Santarasa Publications, 1980). Denne hinduistiske teksten er omtalt som en av de 21 yoga-upanishadene, den åttisjette av de 108 klassiske upanishadene, og utgjør en del av tekstkorpuset Krsna-Yajurveda. Teksten fungerer som en manual i øvelser fra disiplinene hathayoga,...

  1. Navigering och styrning av ett autonomt markfordon

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Sixten

    2006-01-01

    I detta examensarbete har ett system för navigering och styrning av ett autonomt fordon implementerats. Syftet med detta arbete är att vidareutveckla fordonet som ska användas vid utvärdering av banplaneringsalgoritmer och studier av andra autonomifunktioner. Med hjälp av olika sensormodeller och sensorkonfigurationer går det även att utvärdera olika strategier för navigering. Arbetet har utförts utgående från en given plattform där fordonet endast använder sig av enkla ultraljudssensorer sam...

  2. Bruk av ozon i akvakultur og fiskeforedling

    OpenAIRE

    Liltved, H.; Vogelsang, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Ozon er en sterk oksidant som har et stort potensiale som desinfeksjonsmiddel innen akvakultur og fiskeforedling. Målsettingen med prosjektet som er rapportert her var å komme fram til betingelser for bruk av ozon i disse bransjene. Det er gjennomført forsøk med ozonering av Listeria monocytogenes i biofilm, ozonering av overflater i et lakseslakteri, forsøk med felling av blodprotein med naturlige organiske koagulanter før ozonering av blodvann fra et lakseslakteri, samt forsøk med ulike met...

  3. Koronar CT Angiografi : Optimalisering av protokoll ved bruk av betablokker og en kvantitativ bildeanalyse av koronararteriene hos en selektert pasientgruppe ved hjelp av et semi-automatisk plaquesoftware

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Formål: Formålet med del 1 av prosjektet er å redusere hjertefrekvensen til ≤60 hos pasientene i forkant av CT-undersøkelsen ved hjelp av per orale betablokker, slik at man kan benytte lavdoseprotokollen ”Step and shoot” på flest mulig. Formål med del 2 er å gjøre en kvantitativ bildeanalyse av koronararteriene på en selektert gruppe pasienter som er deltakere i et større prosjekt (RORA-studiet) ved hjelp av et nytt software (Plaque Analysis, Philips Healthcare). Intensjonen er å kartlegg...

  4. Sammenligning og tilpasning av metoder: TOC ved utslippskontroll av organisk stoff fra kommunale renseanlegg

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, H.; Paulsrud, B.

    1983-01-01

    Ved utslippskontroll bør indirekte bestemmelse av organisk stoff i form av biokjemisk og kjemisk oksygenforbruk (BOD, CODcr) erstattes med direkte bestemmelse av totalt organisk karbon (TOC). Basert på sammenlignende analyser av ulike typer kommunalt avløpsvann er det foreslått TOC-verdier som samsvarer med nåværende utslippskrav for BOD

  5. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  6. Stresstesting av banksektoren : en analyse av økonomiske konsekvenser skapt av atferdsendringer

    OpenAIRE

    Ovesen, Anders Hepsø; Eriksen, Marius Koll

    2012-01-01

    Denne utredningen foretar en analyse som skal fremheve konsekvenser av endringer i bankatferd. Den tar utgangspunkt i en stresstest som tilfører banksektoren sjokk slik at kapitaldekningen reduseres. Analysen setter fokus på hva som skjer når bankene får mindre kapitalreserver, og kommer under kravet i Basel III. Utredningen gir forklaringer på hvorfor atferdsendringer varierer innen banktype og størrelse. Videre formidler den mulige forklaringer på hvordan dette utspiller seg i økonomiske te...

  7. Costs for Alternatives to District Heating. A study of real costs on local heating markets; Alternativkostnad till fjaerrvaerme. En studie av verkliga kostnader paa lokala vaermemarknader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Annelie; Lehtmets, Marti; Andersson, Sofie

    2008-07-01

    Heating comprise the major part of the cost of supporting a building with necessities like electricity, heat, refuse collection and water and sewage. As these costs increase, it is becoming more interesting to find other solutions in order to reduce them. One alternative is to convert to another heating system. Several price analyses comparing different heating systems have been performed. Avgiftsgruppen publishes one report on a yearly basis, where the costs to support a building with necessities and how they vary between communities are listed. The latest report states that it is less expensive in 75 % of the communities in Sweden to convert from district heating to a pellets boiler or a ground-source pump. However, other studies have established that the heat market is a local market with local conditions. Therefore you need to compare alternative heating costs that are specific to the area instead of estimated average costs at a national level. The purpose of this survey is to study a local heat market in order to verify the real cost of the alternative heating systems to district heating and if these costs vary between different communities. The hypothesis is that it is not possible to generalize the heating cost on a national level. Instead, a local market should be studied to make an accurate cost comparison between heating options. Three communities are studied in order to find real and verified investment costs in pellet boilers and heat pumps. The investments that are of primary interest are those performed in buildings similar to the multi-dwelling house used in earlier price analyses. Furthermore, the building should be located within the distribution network of district heating in order to illustrate the competition between the heating alternatives. The result of the study illustrates the difficulties to find real and verified costs of completed investments in alternative heating systems in buildings that is of primary interest for this study. Contacts with several participants on the market, with representatives from public authorities, consumers, retailers and others, reveals that if investments in other heating systems than district heating are carried out, the building is located outside the district heating network. Also, few buildings are similar to the standard comparison house. The assignment to list real and verified costs has thereby not succeeded fully. However, information on performed investments has been found at the county administrative boards and their database on application for subsidies for conversion of heating system. Even though this information concerns investments in public premises it can be used to show some attributes of the heat market. The annual total cost for heating has been calculated and the result shows that it differs substantially between the premises, up to -44 % and +129 % compared to an average cost per MWh. One conclusion is that the method for price comparison used today is too rough to give a fair comparison. In the context it is important to clarify that price analyses are useful and of great interest to the market, but the present methods needs to be developed to get improved cost comparisons

  8. Efficiency and effect of different soot blowing methods on boilers using different types of fuels; Sotningsmetodernas effektivitet och konsekvenser paa foerbraenningsanlaeggningar foer olika typer av braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, Anders; Rodin, Aasa

    2004-09-01

    Increased use of recovered wood fuel, waste fuel and new types of wood fuel, have increased the amount of fouling in the superheater and economizer. Deposits in the boilers heat-absorbing banks reduces the boiler efficiency and increases the exit flue gas temperatures. Thus, efficient soot blowing practice is now in focus with the aim of reducing the amount of fouling. This report evaluates the function and efficiency of the commonly used soot blowing methods at boilers in the range of 10 to 130 MW. The investigated soot blowing methods are: steam-, acoustic-, shot-, water-, hammer- and detonation cleaning. Plant experience and data has been acquired from the following six plants: Fortum Hoegdalen, Haesselby and Brista, Stora Enso Hyltebruk, Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping, kraftvaermeverket and C4-Energi, Alloeverket. Participating plants have shown a wide variety in: different boiler designs, different design of superheater and economizer, different kinds of used fuels and different kinds of fouling problems. Soot blowing efficiency is basically a function of three parameters: 1. Characteristics of the deposit regarding to hardness, toughness, homogeneity, amount and coverage, this is often due to the characteristics of the fired fuel. 2. Design of the heat absorbing banks regarding the risk of deposit formation and clogging. 3. Characteristics of the soot blowing method regarding the cleaning effect, bank penetration, high temperature endurance and suitability in different parts of the boiler. These three parameters coincide and together they decide the performance efficiency of the soot blowing method. Used fuel can be divided in to three groups depending on the formed deposits: Firing of mainly wood fuels resulted in no or minor problem with fouling. Firing of waste fuels resulted in hard and tough deposits. Participating waste fired boilers was, however, designed with consideration to these types of deposits and, therefore, these deposits was in reality not a major problem. Firing of recovered fuel types resulted in large amounts of fouling. Boilers originally designed for wood fuels are now more and more firing recovered fuel types. However, their soot blowing equipment and their heat absorbing banks are not designed for these large amounts of deposits. Therefore, fouling is a major problem for these boilers. The heat absorbing banks, mainly the superheater and the economizer, can be designed differently regarding to fouling. In general, straight pipes are used in the superheater but with large amount of fouling, the banks are preferably either hanging or standing. In the economizer it is also common to use flanged piping. Hanging straight tubes, horizontal straight tubes are preferably with large amount of fouling and horizontal flanged tubes are used when little amount of fouling is present. The evaluated soot blowing methods have different properties and are used differently. These methods are: Soot blowing with water is mainly used against hard, ceramic-type of deposits formed at high temperatures mainly before the superheater. Soot blowing with steam is commonly used and can be used both in the superheater and the economizer. At higher temperatures and harder deposits, retractable lances with few nozzles are used, while in the economizer with softer types of deposits, fixed and rotational lances with several nozzles is often used. Hammering is mainly used by waste fired boilers with hanging or standing banks and is a successful practise against hard but brittle deposits. Shot cleaning is mainly used in the economizer when the fouling consists of thick, sintered and dry deposits. Acoustic cleaning can be performed with both audible and infra sound. The method is commonly used against softer deposits at lower temperatures or used as a complement to i.e. steam cleaning. Acoustic cleaning is performed much more often than i.e. steam cleaning, and, therefore, it prohibits the formation of a deposit at an early stage. Detonation cleaning is a relatively new method, which has shown to be efficient against hard deposits. It is, however, used with caution by those boilers that has problems with the formation of a hard permanent deposit during the season. To sum up, several plants can improve their soot blowing equipment by primarily adjusting the soot blowing intervals and determine the change in the exit fume gas temperature. One can also complement existing soot blowing equipment with acoustic or detonation cleaning. However, many boiler fires today fuels with a high risk for the formation of deposits and, therefore, improved soot blowing is the only efficient countermeasure remaining.

  9. Impacts on the receiving states of Norwegian petroleum investments with an emphasis on Angola; Effekter i mottakerlandene av norske petroleumsivesteringer med hovedvekt paa Angola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik; Tvedten, Inge; Wiig, Arne

    1999-07-01

    This report examines how Norwegian petroleum investments may contribute to develop industry and a more even distribution of income in the receiving states. It also examines to what extent such investments may help to improve social development, humane rights, health, the environment and safety. The study concentrates on Norwegian investments in Angola. Offshore petroleum activities are capital-intensive and technologically demanding industry which often becomes an enclave in countries with a weakly developed industrial basis and few skilled workers. The profit from this industry accounts for a very large part of the export earnings and of the earnings of the public sector while at the same time this sector creates relatively few jobs in the local community. Thus, the income from the petroleum industry is not widely distributed. The petroleum sector tends to increase the growth of income during its development period but then causes little further development. This can be remedied by an economic policy that deliberately smoothes differences and by taking macro-economic measures which prevent overheating of the economy and which creates space for development in the private sector in the mainland economy. This is difficult, and few oil-exporting developing countries have succeeded so far. In Angola it is hardly possible under the current circumstances with civil war and the absence of institutions that work. The report emphasises that oil companies can contribute with knowledge transfer to local employees and the local state oil company. They should also help to extract Angola's resources in the most efficient and environmentally friendly way. But the social and economical development is the responsibility of the local authorities. Norwegian authorities may provide technical and economical aid, if desired, but it is stressed that there should be a clear division of roles between the authorities and the oil companies.

  10. Study of flue gas condensers with reference to corrosion risks, biofuel quality, techniques and choice of material; Kartlaeggning av roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar med avseende paa korrosionsrisker, biobraenslekvaliteter, teknik och materialval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenqvist, Per-Aake

    2012-02-15

    Corrosion in flue gas appliances installed in small and medium sized biomass fired boiler plants has become a problem in an increasing number of sites around Sweden. A trend seems to be that the problems are greater in those plants that use so called terminal chips than those that utilize more homogeneous fuels. In pace with the increasing number of biomass power plants in the country, the demand for cheaper fuel is increased. Through the increasing number of fuel terminals the market is provided even with biofuel mixes in the form of traditional wood chips mixed with bark, forest residue, sawdust, willow, returned wood, etc. Both users and suppliers of boiler and flue gas systems, and fuel suppliers have currently no clear rules or guidelines for relationships between different chemical properties of fuels, technologies, operating data and material. In this report has experience in the form of questionnaires completed by field visits, interviews of operational personnel and literature studies been compiled from a number of plants using different types of flue gas condensers for increased energy output from various types of bio fuels. The purpose of this assignment is to survey the flue gas condensation plant in biomass fired boiler plants for the presence of corrosion damage made in relation to the use of technologies and fuel qualities. A milestone is that the report will be able to be used to support the selection of materials and appropriate techniques for both new facilities and for the repair and improvement of existing ones. Another objective is to compile existing experience and assessment criteria which are reported in the literature. This report describes some typical construction techniques, whenever applicable harmful images and links to various substances present in fuels, ash and condensate

  11. Marine wind farms and seabirds. Updated national screening of potential conflict areas; Offshore vindenergianlegg og sjoefugl. Oppdatert screening av potensielle konfliktomraader paa nasjonal skala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Lorentsen, Svein-Haakon; Hanssen, Frank; Systad, Geir Helge

    2011-07-01

    In 2010 NINA performed a screening of areas that may be suitable for the establishment of offshore wind power plants (Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. 2010). The surveyed area ranged from the Swedish border in the south (North Sea/Skagerrak) to the northern tip of Andoeya (Norwegian Sea). Following the publishing of the report the Directorate for Nature management wanted to extend the analysis so that it also covered the Barents Sea (National scale). While the 2010-report also included potential effects on white-tailed eagles, Eurasian eagle owl and waders this geographically extended analysis only covers seabirds. Marine wind farms are a relatively new element in European waters, and at present there have been few investigations carried out to study their short- and long-term environmental effects. While there have been several studies to identify environmental impacts of wind farms in other countries, there is currently only one such study in Norway, on the island of Smoela. So far, four mechanisms have been emphasized with regard to the impact of wind farms on birds: 1) mortality resulting from collisions with wind turbines (tower and wings), 2) avoidance due to interference from installations in operation and from the activity associated with the construction of wind farms; 3) loss and change of habitat, through habitat degradation and fragmentation, and 4) barrier effects, which may increase the flight distance and increase the birds' energy demands. In this report, we have chosen to use a methodology that was developed to evaluate seabird vulnerability to marine wind farms in German waters. This method provides a species-specific vulnerability index (SSI) based on nine factors: flight maneuverability, flight altitude, percentage of time flying, nocturnal flight activity, sensitivity towards disturbance by ship/helicopter traffic, flexibility in habitat use, bio geographical population size, adult survival rate and conservation status. In addition we added a 10’th factor in this analysis; the regional proportions of the national populations of each species involved. Combined with a measure of density or relative proportion of the relevant species in an area, a wind farm sensitivity index (WSI) is created. The WSI can be summed for all species found in the area at different times of the year to give a total WSI for seabirds. The existing data for seabirds in winter and in the breeding season was of sufficient quality to be used for this method. While working with the update of the screening on a National scale we realized that the scope were much more challenging than anticipated. The Norwegian coastline, spanning 13 degrees of latitude, is extremely variable with respect to sea temperatures, sea currents, topography, seabird habitats and the distribution of seabird species (e.g. Barrett et al. 2006; Forsgren et al. 2009). The Barents Sea is known for its large numbers of especially auks, whereas the seabird fauna in the south is dominated by smaller colonies of gulls (Barrett et al. 2006). In order to avoid that the large numbers of seabirds in north completely masked the smaller numbers in south we decided to perform a regional analysis of seabird vulnerability, with the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea as the regions analyzed. The results are presented in maps, where the WSI is given for 10x10 km squares. The results demonstrate a clear difference in vulnerability between the regions and the seasons (overwintering, breeding). Compared with the previous analysis (Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. 2010) the present, regional assessment, caused more areas to be defined as vulnerable. Among the areas that were defined as vulnerable in the current analysis many were breeding areas along the Helgeland coast that were defined as important in earlier work (e. g. Systad et al. 2007, Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. 2008). In the North Sea more areas were identified as vulnerable in the wintering season indicating that the regional assessment caused a more correct reflection of vulnerable areas in the North- and the Norwegian Seas. For the Barents Sea the regional assessment caused many areas to display as apparently less important than areas in south- and mid-Norway. This is because the proportional number of a seabird species in an area was compared with the total regional population of that species. Thus, the large numbers of seabirds in the Barents Sea were reduced to relative numbers and, consequently, a loss of a small number of birds in an area with few birds were on the same footing as a loss of a large number of birds in an area with a large number of birds. An assessment of the importance and the consequences of potential loss of seabirds in different areas due to windpower plants is a challenge for the environmental governments. From a biological point of view this is not a satisfactorily way to assess potential effects and consequences. Therefore, the author’s point of view is that it is pertinent to do regional assessments of vulnerability in order to pinpoint important populations and areas on a smaller scale. The current assessment is not, however, intended to replace an assessment on a national scale where also the dispersion and migration of birds is included. Large scale assessments of the effects of given factors will always be imprinted with uncertainties, simply due to the large scale. In the North Sea the same areas that were identified as vulnerable in relation to marine wind farms in Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. (2010) were also identified as vulnerable in the present analysis. The regional analysis, however, implied a higher level of vulnerability in the northern areas during the breeding season. This was caused by the extending of the buffer zone from the Runde into the North Sea. Thus, the great numbers of auks at Runde influenced the vulnerability assessments in the North Sea were the numbers of auks are small. Also the (small) colonies of auks at Einevarden, Klovningen and Veststeinen got a higher vulnerability score in the Nort Sea region in the present assessment. For the overwintering period the coast of Vestfold got a higher vulnerability score due to the presence of marine ducks, and the Oestfold and Jaeren and Boknafjord area got a higher score due to the presence of Great cormorants and Shags. For the Norwegian Sea there were quite big discrepancies between the previous analysis (Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. 2010) and the present one. This was especially pronounced along the Helgeland coast due to the large numbers of breeding great cormorants and Shags. In addition, the seabird colony at Roest got a lower vulnerability score in the present analysis, probably due to the increased vulnerability in other areas.The Barents Sea area was not treated in Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. (2010). From a general knowledge of the occurrence of seabirds in the area it is clear that the regional division of the Norwegian coast give very different results compared to what a national assessment would have done. On a national scale the large number of seabirds in the Barents Sea would have masked many of the important areas in southern Norway. For seabirds at sea the results from the present analysis is comparable with those in Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. (2010). In our study, the analysis of vulnerability is done for separate areas in relation to the presence of birds. However, in the case of extensive development of large numbers of wind farms in close proximity to one another, different and stronger responses can be expected from both individuals and populations of birds than what has until now been documented for smaller offshore wind power plants. During the future development of wind power plants, both off- and on shore, it will be important to not only consider each wind power plant in isolation, but to focus on what their total or cumulative environmental effects will be. It should be noted that our analysis is for guidance only. It is suitable for large-scale evaluations of the vulnerability of areas. To assess the suitability of specific areas for the development of wind power plants, it is, in addition to this report, necessary to study local occurrences of birds and identify important functional areas for seabirds. The basis for the index should also be assessed and reviewed continuously, so that the latest knowledge about the effects of wind farms can be incorporated in later analysis. (Author)

  12. Effects of small hydropower plants on low-and moss flora. A feasibility study; Virkninger av smaa vannkraftverk paa lav- og mosefloraen: en forundersoekelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihlen, Per G.; Bjelland, Torbjoerg; Vaskinn, Kjetil; Johnsen, Geir Helge

    2012-07-01

    We have established a list of lichen- and moss flora of a waterway to be developed for hydropower production (Vangjolo) and in a control water system (Roesgrovi), both in Voss in Hordaland. The waterways have similar bedrock, exposure, vegetation and elevation. To monitor any change in the flora, it was laid out 20 fixed routes from each river systems where low-and moss flora were recorded. To relate this to the monitoring of potential impacts, l flow, humidity, air temperature, water temperature and dew point temperature were logged. It was recorded 66 species total for Roesgrovi and Vangjolo, and 32 mosses, 29 lichens and 5 vascular plants. The results show that the rivers are so similar to the low-and moss flora that they can form the basis for further investigations. This is also shown by the DCA-analyses. The waterways comprises a combination of species with the same requirements as to moisture, and contains species of high and low Ellenberg indicator values for moisture. There is no statistically significant difference between Roesgrovi and Vangjolo in the fixed routes average values. The hydrological and local climatic measurements also show that the river systems are comparable for further study of possible changes after development. (eb)

  13. Evaluation of future policy instruments - Sub-Project 2; Utvaerdering av framtida styrmedel - Delprojekt 2 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Dahlen, Lisa; Detterfelt, Lia; Edner, Stig; Toren, Johan

    2013-09-01

    There are several recently introduced and future possible policy instruments that are of great interest to study in order to understand the future for the Swedish waste treatment market. In the energy sector, the use of system analysis models has proven to be effective in order to understand the effects and consequences of policy instruments. In the waste sector, however, such analyses have only been conducted sporadically. This in spite of the introduction of highly influential policy instruments such as producer responsibility, landfill tax and landfill ban, which together have contributed to landfilling of Swedish household waste practically has ceased. The goal of this project was, by using system analysis models, to study and evaluate the newly introduced and future possible policy instruments which affect Swedish waste treatment. The assessment was made in terms of how policy instruments affect: - the distribution of treatment technologies, - waste amounts, - greenhouse gas emissions and - the economics of waste treatment. The project was performed during 2011 and 2012 as a part of the research project 'Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment (PFA)'. During the project, discussions have taken place within the working group and the reference group on which instruments are most interesting and relevant to study. Furthermore, opinions have been gathered from the association Swedish Waste Managements policy instrument group and from various players in the industry at conferences, presentations and workshops.

  14. Imports of waste fuels for energy recovery in Sweden - Sub-Project 1; Import av avfall till energiutvinning i Sverige - Delprojekt 1 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlin, Jenny; Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2013-09-01

    Swedish imports of waste fuels may increase to 1.5 million tonnes by 2015, when new waste-fuelled combined heat and power plants are in operation; and to 2.5 million tonnes by 2020, if all planned capacity is built. This is the case if national targets for increased material recycling and biological treatment are reached; which means that smaller amounts of mixed waste remains for incineration. When the import of the waste fuel into Sweden has increased, also need of knowledge has increased, as well as the concerns and fears. The aim of the project 'Imports of waste to energy recovery in Sweden', therefore, is to create an improved basis for decisions and communications concerning the import of waste fuel, as well as to study its conditions, opportunities and obstacles. The target group is interested operators, representatives of public authorities and decision-makers. Data includes analysis of future imported quantities, possible import markets, policy instruments and its effects, concerns and fears, economic aspects and effects on climate change while importing the waste fuel. The project is one of five sub-projects in 'Perspectives on the future waste treatment'. The project has been carried out through data collection, computer modelling, interviews as well as discussion and analysis in the working and reference groups. The goal is estimated to having been reached, the results are already used. From media, there is an interest of the results, and the project has already been referred to and presented at conferences. The results are thus already well-spread.

  15. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport

    2002-02-01

    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  16. Reclamation of peat winning fields - a literature review with special reference to the establishment of forest stands; Efterbehandling av torvtaekter - en litteraturstudie med tonvikt paa alternativet beskogning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haanell, B; Svensson, Johan; Magnusson, Tord

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this study was to review existing knowledge on various methods for reclaiming peat winning fields, in order to assess the present and future potential of the afforestation alternative for Swedish fields. From this, a decision on the best use of an existing series of afforestation experiments established after peat winning in central and south Sweden should be made. The study deals with experiences from e.g. growing crops and energy forests, creating artificial lakes, pastures, and berry fields, wetland restoration, and afforestation by planting and by natural seeding from nearby forests. It was concluded that afforestation most likely will be one of the most common after-use alternatives in near future in Sweden, and that priority will be given to extensive afforestation methods. The studies in the afforestation experiments should therefore be focused on (1) the possibilities of natural establishment of seedlings by seeding from nearby forests, (2) the suitability of various tree species for planting, and (3) the need for plant nutrient amendments to secure sustainable site productivity and the possibilities to meet this need by using wood ash as fertilizer. 129 refs

  17. How much Nitrous Oxide is produced in cultivation of biofuels on arable land in Sweden?; Hur mycket lustgas blir det vid odling av biobraenslen paa aakermark i Sverige?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aasa (Univ. of Goeteborg, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Goeteborg (Sweden). Physical Geography)

    2010-03-15

    Several methods that can be used to estimate the emission of nitrous oxide from arable land are discussed, all of them with their pros and cons. 1 The base for all estimation methods is field measurements, well executed with a technique designed for the production of high quality data. Published field data of good quality were collected from areas in north Europe and America, both from grain and rape crops and unfertilised grasslands where natural background emission is assumed. The compilation shows that grasslands emit in average 0.3 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In crop systems where a high amount of nitrogen is repeatedly added to the soil, the soil N store will contribute to N{sub 2}O emission coming years. This is one reason why emission is higher for unfertilised arable land (where nitrogen have been added previous years) compared to unfertilised grassland, 1 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Fertilised arable lands have higher emission, in average around 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In comparison, field measurements in Sweden have shown lower emission, 0.6 and 2 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year from clay and sandy soil respectively. 2 The IPCC method is the best known, where the emission from arable land is estimated as a function of added nitrogen. In reality there is no correlation between a low N-addition and the emission of nitrous oxide since the N-addition needs to be high to have influence on the nitrous oxide emission..25 or the new factor 1% of added N has been used in many LCA's as an estimator for nitrous oxide and the uncertainty span of 0,3 and 3% is seldom used. The method underestimates the size of nitrous oxide emission in many systems and cannot estimate a true emission from individual fields. 3 Globally there is a connection between the increase in reactive nitrogen and the increase of atmospheric nitrous oxide, which is the base for a method suggested by Crutzen et al. Nitrous oxide emission has been estimated to be 3-5% of both biological nitrogen fixation and fertiliser production. 4 The complexity of nitrous oxide production has caused attempts to include other influencing factors as well. Two statistical methods and the process model PnET-N-DNDC has been taken as examples. Important for these estimations of emission is the amount of available soil nitrogen and the freezing of soil. Nitrous oxide estimation by these methods results in higher emissions than shown by Swedish field data. 5 Stating and motivating a realistic size of the nitrous oxide emission from agriculture and forestry is important. Therefore field measurements and development of the process model Coup are performed. Coup computes processes in the soil and plant system and has, up to now, mostly been used to understand the processes. From now on it can also be used as a tool for assessing nitrous oxide emission from both forest and agricultural land. Since Swedish field data point to lower emission than the estimation methods provide, we are looking for a method better adapted for the estimation of emissions from Swedish agriculture. We must pinpoint clearly which circumstances lead to the high emissions we want to avoid and, in contrast, which ones give low emissions. For this more field data is of need and process based model calculations to give good answers. If everyone uses a method that shows lower emissions without proving the matter of fact, the total nitrous oxide emission from cropping systems in Europe will be underestimated. The use of the IPCC emission factor often results in lower nitrous oxide emission than 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Moreover, with the IPCC method fertilised effective cropping systems having a low emission will not get credit since fertiliser addition is the only factor on which emission is calculated. And in a near future the growing agricultural production of food, feed and energy needs a minimum of nitrous oxide emission, which will be ever-increasingly important. I suggest using local data or estimation methods validated on local data for emission assessment from bio-energy cropping systems. If no local data or process model a re available I suggest the use of a method that calculates emissions around the European average value 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year

  18. The effects of greenhouse gas emissions through increased use biofuels - A literature review; Virkningene paa klimagassutslipp ved oekt bruk av biodrivstoff - en litteraturgjennomgang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart

    2010-10-15

    Production of biofuels is significantly more energy intensive than production of fossil fuels as petrol and diesel (see for example Field et al. 2007). Moreover, during the production process considerable amounts of fossil energy are used as input (Hille et al. 2006). Replacing fossil fuels with biofuels will therefore not lead to emission reductions as significant as one earlier thought, when the fossil fuel input in relation to production of biofuels was ignored. Moreover, during recent years there has been increased attention towards CO{sub 2}- emissions that will occur as farmers worldwide convert grassland and forests to cropland in order to produce biofuels (Fargione et al. 2008). Such emissions are especially significant when tropical rainforests and peatlands are converted to cropland. As the areas are converted to cropland microbial decomposition of organic carbon stored in the soil are released as CO{sub 2}. In some cases such emissions are high and cause a carbon debt that will require many decades or even centuries to be repaid, as biofuels replace fossil fuels. In the meantime the production and use of biofuels have exaggerated climate change. However, there are more promising cases. For example, converting savannas in Brazil for sugarcane production will cause a carbon debt that will be repaid after approximately 17 years (Fargione et al 2008). The seminal article by Timothy D. Searchinger et al. in Science in February 2008 generated additional uncertainty with regard to the emission reducing effects of biofuels. These authors' main argument was that increased use of existing croplands for biofuels reduces food supply and, therefore, causes higher food prices. This increases the pressure towards further deforestation. However, there are considerable areas of abandoned land that was previously used for forestry or agriculture, and has a low content of carbon stored in the soil. A number of studies underline that producing crops for biofuels on these areas is suitable, also because this could cause that the stock of carbon stored in the soil to increase. However, estimates in Field et al. (2007) suggest that even if all such abandoned land are allocated for biofuels production, it could probably not provide biofuels replacing more than 5 - 8 percent of all fossil fuels used in transport today. As it appears from the research discussed in this report, it is uncertain whether increased use of biofuels in Norway will be a contribution to lower global greenhouse gas emissions. From an overall assessment of the research literature on biofuels, it appears that the Norwegian biofuels policy thus far most likely has given increased global greenhouse gas emissions. This will probably also be the result if the policy is maintained. Hence, the blending mandate ought to be reconsidered in the light of new knowledge that has been achieved subsequent to the design of the Norwegian biofuels policy. There are few if any reasons exempting biofuels from ordinary taxes imposed on fossil fuels. Introduction of a carbon tax on biofuels should also be considered. (Author)

  19. Sweden's deployment of cogeneration by 2020 - Focusing on the certificate system effects; Sveriges utbyggnad av kraftvaerme till 2020 - Med fokus paa elcertifikatsystemets effekter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    At the end of 2012, a large number of CHP plants will be phased out of the electricity system. There has been considerable uncertainty about what will happen with this production capacity. The performed investigation shows plans for future CHP in district heating systems and the forest industry to 2020. The survey summary: (A) CHP in district heating systems: 1. Among the facilities that are being phased out of the electricity system 36 facilities has responded that they will run the plant as before. A portion will also be used as backup facilities. Only a few plants will be phased out completely. 2. Some large plants being phased out of the electricity system will be phased out period and therefore there is a significant decommissioning of production. The reduction of production in existing plants is expected to be 3.1 TWh by 2020. For this production 2 TWh has previously been certificate entitled. 3. At the same time there will be large investments in new facilities. A total of 29.4 billion SEK will be invested in new electricity, primarily the years 2012 - 2016, with an overall additive effect of more than 600 MW. Production at these facilities provide an additional 4.6 TWh. 4. Thus there will additional 1.5 TWh (net) of electricity production in CHP in district heating systems up to 2020. 5. The additional production occurs almost exclusively with biomass and waste, while production from fossil fuels and peat is expected to decrease. 6. The extension of the certificate market to include Norway has not affected business plans. (B) Cogeneration in the forest industry: 1. Production continues largely unchanged in the existing facilities, even after a large part of those have been phased out of the electricity system in late 2012. 2. A number of extensions are implemented that provide increased generation of about 1.5 TWh. 3. The use of fossil fuels is reduced further from current low levels - from 4 percent to 1.4 percent of the total fuel use.

  20. Effects of harvest season prolongation on survival and growth of willow; Effekter paa oeverlevnad och tillvaext vid foerlaengd skoerdesaesong av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordh, Nils-Erik

    2010-06-15

    Willow normally is harvested in Sweden during the winter period, when the plants are in dormancy, the soil is frozen and able to carry heavy machinery, and when the chips can be transported directly to the district heating plants. Mild and wet winters often cause harvest delays and may hamper supply of fuel to the heating plants. During the harvest season 2006/2007 only a minor part of the planned harvest could be performed, which resulted in a one-year delay of harvest of about 3000 hectares of willow. Similar problems occurred during the following harvest season. The above experiences stressed the need for a prolonged harvest season, partly to perform harvests before stem dimensions become too large for conventional harvesters, and partly to guaranty security of supply to the heating stations. Many actors on the market have shown a strong interest in prolonging the harvest season. To test the effects of harvest season, two field trials containing the clone 'Tora' were established on the farms Flosta, Altuna, 25 km north of Enkoeping, and on Teda Risberga, about 10 km south of Enkoeping. The plantation at Flosta was about to be harvested for the first time, while the stand at Teda was going to be harvested for the second time. Both plantations are located on clay soils, representative for the Maelardalen district. At both sites, seven harvests were performed, from mid-September until mid-June. Biomass at harvest and regrowth after one season were determined. A phenology study was performed to assess growth cessation and growth start, and at each of the harvests, leaf biomass also was estimated. Plant survival after harvest was nearly 100% in all cases. There was a high correlation between plant weight at harvest and regrowth during the following season. Regrowth after the different harvest occasions varied and was highest for the harvests under January, March and April at both sites. In Flosta, the September harvest and the late spring harvests were lower than the winter harvests. Teda Risberga displayed the same trends, except for the September harvest, which was at the same level as the winter harvests. This project shows that it is possible to harvest the clone 'Tora' both in late spring when growth has commenced and also early in autumn when the plants are not dormant yet, without increasing the risk for plant mortality. However, biomass production during the first season after harvest may be slightly decreased. Under the circumstances were it is necessary to harvest to prevent shoots from attaining too large dimensions to be harvested conventionally, it is possible to harvest 'Tora' from late September until June, without increasing the risk for plant mortality, but with a risk for a slightly deceased regrowth. These observations are valid for the clone 'Tora' in the Maelardalen district

  1. Percutaneous coronary interventions - an investigation of radiation protection in Swedish hospitals; Percutan coronar intervention PCI - en straalskyddsutredning av verksamheten paa landets sjukhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Cederlund, Torsten; Zaar, Britta

    2005-05-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority has investigated the status of radiation protection in connection with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in Swedish hospitals. A questionnaire was send to hospitals concerning basic radiation protection procedures stated in the Swedish regulations. A questionnaire was also sent out to radiologists and cardiologists and the answers from those who performed interventions were analysed. The study indicates a strong need for improving radiation protection, as an example many hospitals could not present any documents describing methods or radiation protection procedures in connection with these interventions. Moreover, the radiation dose to hands and eyes of the personnel is rarely measured and the fluoroscopic time used for the interventions is not properly analysed. SSI is convinced that many hospitals need to improve radiation protection to meet the demands of the regulations. This could be accomplished by more efficient organized radiation protection work in the hospitals.

  2. Air quality and precipitation quality monitoring at Tjeldbergodden October 2009 to September 2010; Maalinger av luftkvalitet og nedboerkvalitet paa Tjeldbergodden oktober 2009 - september 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toennessen, Dag; Haugsbakk, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    Air and precipitation quality is measured and the Tjeldbergodden from October 2009 to October 2010. Most of the components values corresponding levels measured on the basis stations in the monitoring of long air and rain contamination. Local emissions and elevated concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in air to about 2.5 times the background value and to vanadium in precipitation. Components chlorine, sodium and magnesium are also somewhat higher than the background stations.(eb)

  3. How much Nitrous Oxide is produced in cultivation of biofuels on arable land in Sweden?; Hur mycket lustgas blir det vid odling av biobraenslen paa aakermark i Sverige?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aasa (Univ. of Goeteborg, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Goeteborg (Sweden). Physical Geography)

    2010-03-15

    Several methods that can be used to estimate the emission of nitrous oxide from arable land are discussed, all of them with their pros and cons. 1 The base for all estimation methods is field measurements, well executed with a technique designed for the production of high quality data. Published field data of good quality were collected from areas in north Europe and America, both from grain and rape crops and unfertilised grasslands where natural background emission is assumed. The compilation shows that grasslands emit in average 0.3 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In crop systems where a high amount of nitrogen is repeatedly added to the soil, the soil N store will contribute to N{sub 2}O emission coming years. This is one reason why emission is higher for unfertilised arable land (where nitrogen have been added previous years) compared to unfertilised grassland, 1 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Fertilised arable lands have higher emission, in average around 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In comparison, field measurements in Sweden have shown lower emission, 0.6 and 2 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year from clay and sandy soil respectively. 2 The IPCC method is the best known, where the emission from arable land is estimated as a function of added nitrogen. In reality there is no correlation between a low N-addition and the emission of nitrous oxide since the N-addition needs to be high to have influence on the nitrous oxide emission..25 or the new factor 1% of added N has been used in many LCA's as an estimator for nitrous oxide and the uncertainty span of 0,3 and 3% is seldom used. The method underestimates the size of nitrous oxide emission in many systems and cannot estimate a true emission from individual fields. 3 Globally there is a connection between the increase in reactive nitrogen and the increase of atmospheric nitrous oxide, which is the base for a method suggested by Crutzen et al. Nitrous oxide emission has been estimated to be 3-5% of both biological nitrogen fixation and fertiliser production. 4 The complexity of nitrous oxide production has caused attempts to include other influencing factors as well. Two statistical methods and the process model PnET-N-DNDC has been taken as examples. Important for these estimations of emission is the amount of available soil nitrogen and the freezing of soil. Nitrous oxide estimation by these methods results in higher emissions than shown by Swedish field data. 5 Stating and motivating a realistic size of the nitrous oxide emission from agriculture and forestry is important. Therefore field measurements and development of the process model Coup are performed. Coup computes processes in the soil and plant system and has, up to now, mostly been used to understand the processes. From now on it can also be used as a tool for assessing nitrous oxide emission from both forest and agricultural land. Since Swedish field data point to lower emission than the estimation methods provide, we are looking for a method better adapted for the estimation of emissions from Swedish agriculture. We must pinpoint clearly which circumstances lead to the high emissions we want to avoid and, in contrast, which ones give low emissions. For this more field data is of need and process based model calculations to give good answers. If everyone uses a method that shows lower emissions without proving the matter of fact, the total nitrous oxide emission from cropping systems in Europe will be underestimated. The use of the IPCC emission factor often results in lower nitrous oxide emission than 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Moreover, with the IPCC method fertilised effective cropping systems having a low emission will not get credit since fertiliser addition is the only factor on which emission is calculated. And in a near future the growing agricultural production of food, feed and energy needs a minimum of nitrous oxide emission, which will be ever-increasingly important. I suggest using local data or estimation methods validated on local data for emission assessment from bio-energy cropping systems. If no loc

  4. Effects of long-range transported acidification on the bio-diversity in terrestrial ecosystems; Effekter av langtransporterte forsuringer paa biodiversitet i terrestriske oekosystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiland, K. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the environmental effects of long-range transported pollutants on the biodiversity in the terrestrial ecosystems. The paper discusses different chemical substances existing in the atmosphere and their influence on vegetation together with the effects on biodiversity from acidification. 4 refs.

  5. Risk perspective on final disposal of nuclear waste. Individuals, society and communication; Riskperspektiv paa slutfoervaring av kaernavfall. Individ, samhaelle och kommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Inga-Britt (ed.)

    2007-09-29

    This report tries to evaluate the importance of the risk perspective in connection with final storage of nuclear waste. The concept 'risk' has different importance for experts and general public, within different research directions and among stakeholders in the nuclear waste issue. The report has been published in order to give an interdisciplinary scientific perspective on the risk concept. The authors have their background in different disciplines: radiation physics, psychology, media- and communications-science. The report treats four different themes: The first theme concerns perspectives on the risk concept and describes various principles for how risks can be handled in the society. The next theme is about comparing various risks. This section shows that risk comparisons can to be done within the framework of a scientific attitude and during certain given conditions. The third theme elucidates results from research about subjective risk, and shows that a large number of factors influence how risks are considered by individuals, and can influence his risk behavior and also how the individual means that the society will make decisions in risk-related questions. The fourth and last theme is about risk communication. Since the risk concept contains many different aspects it is clear that risk should not only be informed about, but also communicated. If a purely mathematical definition of risk was the only valid form, such information, from experts to the citizens, would possibly be sufficient. But since there are other relevant factors to take into consideration (t.ex the individual's own values), a communicative process must take place, i.e. the citizens should have influence on how risks are compared and managed. In the final theme, the authors have chosen to reflect around the themes above, i.e. different perspectives on the risk concept, risk comparisons, subjective risk view and risk communication are discussed.

  6. Wind power on Gabriel mountain - Follow-up of the consequences for reindeer herding, third year results; Vindkraft paa Gabrielsberget - Uppfoeljning av konsekvenserna foer rennaeringen, tredje aarets resultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabriel Mountain the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabrielsberget the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. The control program was initiated in autumn 2008. Reporting to the County Board will be made annually until the trial period ends. The construction of roads on Gabriel Mountains began in November / December 2008. No construction work was carried out, however, during the period that the reindeer were in the area (January-March 2009). The construction work started again in the summer / fall of 2009. The first 20 wind turbines began operating in January 2011. During these periods, the continuous interviews were held with reindeer herders from grazing district Byrkije. Reindeer herding utilization of the area before the wind farm been built and under construction has thus been mapped. Despite good grazing conditions Byrkije experienced difficulty in reindeer herding in and around wind power construction at Gabriel Mountain, especially during the second winter season (2010/11), when construction has been more extensive. Byrkije had to support feeding and use helicopter, something that previous seasons only was done in poor grazing conditions. The herders were also more people who worked actively with the reindeer and the working day has been longer and more strenuous compared to the seasons before the wind farm was built. The reindeer has moved more and were more spread out. The herders have also been forced to retrieve outside reindeer winter Loegdeaa land, something that has rarely happened in previous seasons. The reindeer's movement patterns and utilization of pastures have been different during the construction of the wind farm than in previous years. This report will be based on the new data over the years monitoring program runs.

  7. Effects of a complete removal of harvest residues on the soil fauna; Effekter av GROT-uttag paa biologisk maangfald hos markfaunan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tryggve; Ahlstroem, Kerstin; Lindberg, Niklas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    2005-02-01

    The aim was to assess the effects of a complete removal of harvest residues (slash) from forest clear-cuts in relation to a situation with 1,2 and 4 times normal amount of harvest residues on the diversity of soil fauna. The study was made at two sites, Asa in Smaaland and Turbo in Dalarna. The comparison also included uncut, mature forests surrounding the clear-cuts. Ideally, the study should have continued for several years, but because of limited economy, the study focused on the period 1.5 year after the clear-cut. The soil fauna groups reported here are Enchytraeidae, Tardigrada, Diptera and Oribatida. The results show that clear-cutting leads to a marked decline in the density and species number of oribatid mites and an increase in the density (but not species) of Enchytraeidae. Slash removal could not be shown to affect the species number of oribatids. Certain species clearly decreased in number after slash removal, but the species were normally present, although in low numbers, 1.5 year after the clear-cut. Some Diptera species (larvae) were solely observed below the heaps of slash, but the results are too circumstantial for a certain conclusion. The short period between the treatment start and the sampling limits the generality of the findings. The generation times of most oribatid mites are one year or more. There are studies indicating that some species have generation times up to 2-3 years. If the sensitive life stages are the juveniles, presence of long-lived adults may hide detrimental effects. This means that the study has covered too short a time to conclude whether removal of slash will affect oribatid diversity. Consequently, we cannot exclude the possibility that removal of harvest residues can result in a threat to the diversity of oribatid mites. To be able to answer the question in a satisfactorily manner, a follow-up study is needed during forthcoming years. In conclusion, removal of slash had small effects on enchytraeid species and reduced the number of certain oribatid species. The decline normally did not result in a total disappearance of the species, but further studies are needed to obtain data on long-term effects.

  8. Deposition of zinc on deposits on tubes in combustion systems - a thermodynamic study; Deponering av zink i belaeggningar paa panntuber - en termodynamisk studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolaeng, Bengt; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2011-02-15

    The use of recovered wood based fuels sometimes leads to a substantial increase in the rate of corrosion with outages and increase in maintenance costs as a consequence. Therefore, Vaermeforsk has financed two framework programmes on recovered wood based fuels. All results, except those from thermodynamical calculations, support the conclusion that enhanced levels of zinc and chlorine is one of the most important reasons for the development of harmful deposits. The system zinc chloride - potassium chloride contains several intermediate phases, out of which K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} has a considerably higher melting point compared to pure zinc chloride. This provides ground for the suspicion that there may be synergetic effects between potassium and zinc and that condensation from the gas phase therefore might take place at a temperature which is higher than that which has been reported earlier. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correctness of this hypothesis by means of thermodynamical calculations. As a first step, the energy of the intermediate phase K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} was modelled utilizing results from electrochemical measurements in salt melt. The thermodynamical calculations were conducted using software which had been developed by BeN Systems including a dedicated database. Thus, all calculations have been carried out independently of those performed previously. In order to ensure full comparability, some calculations were carried out using the same input parameters as used previously and the results were essentially identical. After this, thermodynamical calculations were carried out using a database which included the intermediate phase K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4}. The results show that the influence of this phase corresponds to an increase in condensation temperature for zinc chloride with more than 200 deg C. A prerequisite for the formation of this phase is that the amount of available chlorine exceeds that of potassium. Similar effects can be expected also for chlorides other than potassium chloride. The effect of condensation of chlorides with a low melting point may be counteracted by presence of sulphur provided that the conditions are oxidizing. In such a case sulphates are more stable than chlorides. Thus, the conclusion of this study is that presence of zinc and chlorine can contribute to the development of deposits with low melting point in boilers. This means that thermodynamical calculations now also support the general conclusions from Vaermeforsk's framework programmes on recovered wood based fuels that these elements are potentially harmful

  9. Nanoparticle Loading Induced Morphological Transitions and Size Fractionation of Coassemblies from PS-b-PAA with Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mao, Jun; Xue, Yanhu; Zhao, Ziliang; Zhang, Haishan; Ji, Xiangling

    2016-08-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles play a very important role in the fabrication and regulation of desirable hybrid structures with block copolymers. In this study, polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PS48-b-PAA67) and oleic acid-capped CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are coassembled in tetrahydrofuran (THF) through gradual water addition. QDs are incorporated into the hydrophilic PAA blocks because of the strong coordination between PAA blocks and the surface of QDs. Increasing the weight fraction of QDs (ω = 0-0.44) leads to morphological transitions from hybrid spherical micelles to large compound micelles (LCMs) and then to bowl-shaped structures. The coassembly process is monitored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Formation mechanism of different morphologies is further proposed in which the PAA blocks bridging QDs manipulates the polymer chain mobility and the resulting morphology. Furthermore, the size and size distribution of assemblies serving as drug carriers will influence the circulation time, organ distribution and cell entry pathway of assemblies. Therefore, it is important to prepare or isolate assemblies with monodisperse or narrow size distribution for biomedical applications. Here, the centrifugation and membrane filtration techniques are applied to fractionate polydisperse coassemblies, and the results indicate that both techniques provide effective size fractionation. PMID:27447738

  10. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  11. Amperometric biosensor based on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin in poly-allylamine (PAA) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafi, A.K.M. [Department of Electrical Engineering and CIIPMS, Dong-A University 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Yun [Department of Electrical Engineering and CIIPMS, Dong-A University 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Hyun [Department of Electrical Engineering and CIIPMS, Dong-A University 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Soo [Department of Electrical Engineering and CIIPMS, Dong-A University 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yskwon@dau.ac.kr

    2007-04-23

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized in poly-allylamine (PAA) film onto the gold electrode by layer by layer (LBL) method. The modified electrode exhibited a pair of well-defined peaks during cyclic voltammetry, which was attributed from the direct electron transfer of heme proteins. The immobilized Hb showed an excellent electrocatalytical response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The sensor exhibited a fast response and high sensitivity. Through the use of optimized conditions, the linear range for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection was from 2.5 x 10{sup -6} M to 5 x 10{sup -4} M with detection limit of 0.2 {mu}M. The proposed biosensor showed long-lasting stability and excellent reproducibility.

  12. Synthesis and self-assembly of PAMAM/PAA Janus dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus dendrimers have two differently functionalized segments which are located on opposite sides. They have many excellent properties and broad application prospects. In this study, poly(amido amine)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAMAM/PAA) Janus dendrimers were prepared by click chemistry. One of the first steps taken was the synthesis of N-Boc-G3.0 PAMAM dendrimers with primary amine groups at the periphery. Second, by amide coupling between propargylic acid and N-Boc-G3.0 PAMAM, PAMAM dendrimers with alkyne were successfully synthesized. After being dissolved in aqueous solutions with different pH, Janus dendrimers spontaneously form flowerlike micellar, Janus particles, and spherical micelles due to primary amino, tertiary amino, and carboxyl groups in the dendrimers. This self-assembly behavior depending on pH changes has a number of potential applications in the field of materials. (papers)

  13. Privat behandlingsforsikring og bruk av helsetjenester

    OpenAIRE

    Urkegjerde, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med denne oppgaven er å undersøke om det eksisterer en sammenheng mellom privat behandlingsforsikring og bruk av helsetjenester i Norge. Nærmere 200 000 nordmenn har i dag en slik privat helseforsikring, som sikrer tilgang til behandling i spesialisthelsetjenesten innen kort tid. Majoriteten av forsikringsavtalene er betalt av arbeidsgiver. Internasjonale studier viser at personer som har privat behandlingsforsikring ofte er sysselsatte, med inntekt og utdanning over gjennomsnittet, ...

  14. Evaluering av SkatteFUNN - Sluttrapport

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Ådne; Fjærli, Erik; Foyn, Frank; Hægeland, Torbjørn; Møen, Jarle; Raknerud, Arvid; Rybalka, Marina

    2008-01-01

    SkatteFUNN ble opprettet i 2002 som et tiltak for å øke norsk næringslivs forsknings- og utviklingsinnsats. Statistisk sentralbyrå har siden 2004 evaluert ordningen. Nordlandsforskning har på oppdrag fra SSB gjennomført ett av delprosjektene i evalueringen. Foreliggende rapport er sluttrapporten fra evalueringen. Den inneholder sammendrag av alle delprosjektene hvor det svares på hovedspørsmålene i evalueringsoppdraget og en drøfting av mulige justeringer av ordningen i forhold ti...

  15. FEM-ANALYSE AV INDUSTRIELL ALUMINIUMSPROFILEKSTRUDERING

    OpenAIRE

    Christenssen, Wenche

    2014-01-01

    Avhandlingen er skrevet for å øke forståelsen og kunnskapen rundt materialflyt ved ekstruderingav komplekse og tynnvegde aluminiumprofiler. Det gjennomgås også hvordan ujevn materialflyt utav en matrise kan avbalanseres ved bruk av forkammer.Rapporten tar for seg oppbygning av modeller og simulering for to forskjellige profilgeometrier.Det første profilet er et U-profil som det tidligere er gjort analyser av ved bruk av modellmateriale.Dette ble gjort i en Diplom...

  16. Implementering av en Lua-parser

    OpenAIRE

    Schöldström, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    Avsikten med detta examensarbete är att redogöra för hur parsningen av ett programmeringsspråk fungerar samt att undersöka varför vissa kompilatorer implementerar en handskriven parser medan andra använder en maskingenererad parser. Examensarbetet består av en teoretisk grund samt en praktisk implementation av en handskriven Lua-parser. Den teoretiska delen beskriver hur programmeringsspråk är uppbyggda samt ger en överblick av hur en parser implementeras. Teknikerna som tas upp fokuserar ...

  17. AVS-M: From Standards to Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-Kui Wang

    2006-01-01

    AVS stands for the Audio Video coding Standard Workgroup of China, who develops audio/video coding standards as well as system and digital right management standards. AVS-M is the AVS video coding standard targeting for mobile multimedia applications. Besides the coding specification, AVS also developed the file format and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) payload format specifications to enable the application of AVS-M video in various services. This paper reviews the high-level coding tools and features of the AVS-M coding standard as well as the file format and payload format standards.In particular, sixteen AVS-M high-level coding tools and features, which cover most of the high-level topics during AVS-M standardization, are discussed in some detail. After that, the error resilience tools are briefly reviewed before the file format and RTP payload format discussions. The coding efficiency and error resiliency performances of AVS-M are provided finally.H.264/AVC has been extensively used as a comparison in many of the discussions and the simulation results.

  18. Vekst av patogene mikroorganismer ved ulike temperaturer

    OpenAIRE

    Røine, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven er en del av forskningsprosjektet ”Bedre mattrygghet i hjemmet gjennom risikoanalyse av forbrukerhåndtering av mat og evaluering av risikoreduserende tiltak”, et samarbeid mellom Nofima Mat og SIFO (statens institutt for forbruksforskning). En casestudie utført ved Nofima Mat, hvor 45 frivillige forbrukere ble tildelt temperaturlogger viste at gjennomsnittlig temperatur for kjøttpålegg var 6,2 °C, og at pålegget daglig ble utsatt for temperaturer over 20 °C i gjennomsnittlig 47...

  19. Evaluering av datalagre brukt i distribuert kontekst

    OpenAIRE

    Sælø, Knut Moen

    2010-01-01

    I løpet av de siste årene har relasjonelle databaser mistet litt av sin popularitet hos noen av de mest innflytelsesrike aktørene innen informasjonsteknologi. Sent i 1990-årene, og tidlig i 2000-årene opplevde vi en stor endring innen kommunikasjon. I starten var det meste av nettsider read-only. Typisk ville en person lage en nettside med innhold. Deretter ville brukere lese innholdet. Etterhvert gikk man mer og mer bort fra read-only mønsteret, og skapte sosiale nettverk hvor brukerne selv ...

  20. The Influence of Lyophilized EmuGel Silica Microspheres on the Physicomechanical Properties, In Vitro Bioactivity and Biodegradation of a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Loaded PCL/PAA Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Mabrouk; Yahya Essop Choonara; Pradeep Kumar; Lisa Claire du Toit; Viness Pillay

    2016-01-01

    A new composite poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (PCL:PAA 1:5) scaffold was synthesized via dispersion of PCL particles into a PAA network. Silica microspheres (Si) (2–12 μm) were then prepared by a lyophilized micro-emulsion/sol-gel (Emugel) system using varying weight ratios. The model drug ciprofloxacin (CFX) was used for in situ incorporation into the scaffold. The physicochemical and thermal integrity, morphology and porosity of the system was analyzed by X-Ray Diffr...

  1. A New PAA Sol-Gel Method to Synthesisthe Spinel LiMn2O4 Material for Li-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A PAA sol-gel method, which is based on the chelate effect of PAA polymer, was developed forthe synthesis of the spinel LiMn2O4 material. The pyrolysis process of the PAA-nitrate mixture precursorwas investigated by TG and DTA analysis. It is found that the structure and electrochemical properties ofthe material are sensitive to the atmosphere employed in the synthesis process. Preliminary results showthat the material thus prepared has a good electrochemical performance even at high charge and dischargecurrent.

  2. Konstruksjoner av lederskap i barnehagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Kirsten Nilsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen handler om hvordan barnehagelærere posisjonerer seg som ledere for personalet, gjennom tildeling av aktørstatuser til seg selv og medarbeidere i fortellinger fra barnehagen. Arbeidet har en narrativ tilnærming, og det anvendes en dialogisk performativ analyse på korte tekster om situasjoner og hendelser i barnehagen. Tekstene er opprinnelig skrevet som utgangspunkt for veiledningsøvelser i en opplæringssammenheng. Analysen fører frem til et antall konstruerte hovedkategorier innenfor hver gruppe: barnehagelærere som ledere for personalet, og medarbeidere som utfordrer lederskapet deres.This article is concerned with how preschool teachers position themselves as staff-leaders, giving various kind of agency positions to both themselves and their staff members in narratives from kindergartens. The study takes a narrative perspective using a dialogical and performance analysis strategy in analyzing short texts about situations and events in kindergartens, written for the purpose of training counselling dialogues in an educational setting. The analyzing process resulted in a number of constructed main categories within each group: the preschool teachers as leaders, and the staff members who are challenging their leadership.

  3. Analyse av residuallast ved økende markedsandeler av vind- og solkraftproduksjon i Skandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfiler, Michael Genesis S.

    2015-01-01

    Tidligere studier indikerer utfordringer ved integrasjon av vind- og solkraft. Variabiliteten og lokasjonen av vind- og solkraft knyttes til disse utfordringene. Økende markedsandeler av variabel kraftproduksjon kan forsterke utfordringene dersom kraftsystemet evne til å tilpasse seg disse overstiges. I denne studien brukes varighetskurver for residuallast for å undersøke hvordan økende markedsandeler av vind- og solkraft påvirker følgende systemmessige utfordringer i de ska...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of avenanthramides (AV) from AV-enriched malted oats in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenanthramides (AV) are a unique group of phytochemicals found in oat bran. In vitro studies show both purified AV and concentrated oat AV mixtures have anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory activity, suggesting they may have similar effects in vivo if they are sufficiently bioavailable. The bioav...

  5. Materials in Sweden for future production of fuel pellets. A review of possible materials in short- and medium long-term; Raavaror foer framtida tillverkning av braenslepellets i Sverige. En kartlaeggning av taenkbara alternativa raavaror paa kort och medellaang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Lars [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    The use of fuel pellets, mainly produced from sawdust and shavings from the Swedish sawmill industry, has increased during the 1990s among small-scale users such as private houses as well as large-scale users such as thermal power stations. During the last years this increase has continued for small-scale use. Due to a significant increase of the pellet prices the last couple of years the increase for the large-scale users seems to have stopped. It is reasonable to believe that these higher prices depend mostly on lack of raw materials for the fuel pellet production. The greater part of sawdust from Swedish saw mills is used in the pellet industry, the board industry or as an internal fuel. It is reasonable to assume a small increase of present raw material available for pellet production without a further decrease in the use for the board industry. Another sawmill by-product, dry chips, may increase in importance as a fuel pellet raw material and give a small contribution while the green chips should be for use in the pulp industry only. If the use of fuel pellets should increase there is a need for new raw materials. In the short-term, thinning material and cull tree could be alternatives that could give pellets with similar characteristics as present fuel pellets. For large-scale consumers with greater ability to handle problems concerning ash, such as sintering and fouling, as well as particle and gaseous emissions a further choice of raw materials could be possible, such as bark, peat and logging residues. In the longer term energy crops could be used as well as lignin, derived from energy effective pulp industry and from possible large-scale production of ethanol from woody biomass. Nearly all of the different raw materials studied in this review have higher amounts of substances not desirable in combustion such as potassium, chlorine and nitrogen. However, pelletizing gives an unique opportunity to mix different raw materials and possible additives in order to obtain a fuel more optimized than the raw materials on there own.

  6. Modelling of a hybrid plant and development of a control system for the Vaesthamn plant based on artificial neural networks; Modellering av hybridanlaeggning samt utveckling av oevervakningssystem foer Vaesthamnsverket baserat paa Artificiella Neurala Naetverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen; Fast, Magnus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2006-12-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN). The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The models in the present project are based on operational data from the plant in contrary to previous projects where synthetic (simulated) data has been used in a large extent. The gas turbine represents the subsystem that has received most attention in previous projects, which will also be the case for the present project although models of the HRSG, steam boiler and steam turbine are created since the whole plant is of interest. The completed ANN sub modules are connected in a network, which can be used for e.g. offline simulation and real-time condition monitoring of the plant. A product, including all sub modules, is created in shape of a user-friendly interface in an MS Excel environment. This user interface can be used for continuous monitoring, training personnel and in planning of the operation. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The plant owners interest lies in receiving a product that can assist them when operating the plant, for instance supply them with information about the grade of degradation. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANNs, based on synthetic data, along with their new gas turbines. Vaesthamnsverket have contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their gas turbine, the SGT800. The received data has been examined and filtered before used for training ANN models. The models have been evaluated with independent data. The results are very promising with ANN models showing high prediction accuracy. All subsystems can be modeled with ANN and there are also possibilities of further development. The results have shown that there is potential in developing gas turbine models based on synthetic data but in order to draw any conclusions in this matter further research has to be carried out. A conclusion about the project as a whole is that ANN shows great versatility along with potential to be used within the field of thermal power plants. The project goals are considered to be fulfilled by the authors.

  7. The development of fast reactors - Effects on the Swedish system of management of spent fuel; Utveckling av snabba reaktorer - Paaverkan paa det svenska systemet foer hantering av anvaent braensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Forsstroem, Hans [SKB International AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Since the start of the nuclear power era studies have been performed of how to utilise the uranium energy resource in the most effective way. Only about one percent of the energy potential of uranium is utilised in the light water reactors of today. To improve the utilization other types of reactors are needed. With fast reactors theoretically 50-100 times more energy can be extracted from the uranium. This will require reprocessing of the uranium and multiple recycling of the plutonium. Plutonium and uranium can also be recycled in light water reactors, but this will only improve the uranium utilisation by about 20 %. Recycling of plutonium on a routine basis is presently only done in France. The development of fast reactors has been going on since the end of the 1940ies. During the 1970ies the planning was that a large number of fast reactors and their associated fuel cycle facilities would be in operation by the year 2000. The development has, however, for different reasons been much slower than planned. The general assessment today is that fast reactor, if they will be realised, will hardly give an important contribution to energy production until after 2050. Nuclear power production has instead been dominated by light water reactors similar to the ones in use in Sweden. Light water reactors are believed to continue to dominate during the next decades. To start a fast reactor system plutonium (or highly enriched uranium) will be needed. Such plutonium is contained in spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. This raises the question: Should the spent nuclear fuel be stored so that the potential energy resource in the fuel can be used in the future instead of disposing of it as a waste? The answer to this question will depend on when the material will be useful, i.e. when fast reactors have been introduced on a large scale. It will also depend on the demand for plutonium at this time, i.e. will plutonium be a scarce redundant resource at this point of time. In this context it should be considered that fast reactors will generate their own plutonium, as breeder reactors. Plutonium from other reactors will thus only be needed for the first years of operation. To provide a basis for the answer to the question if the Swedish spent fuel is a resource or a waste this report provides an overview of the present development status for fast reactors and their potential for large scale commercial use. It further describes the impact on the Swedish system for management of spent nuclear fuel if the fuel were to be reprocessed and the uranium and plutonium reused as fuel for fast reactors or for the present reactors.

  8. The relationship between young brown trout density and water quality in tributary streams to lakes in three acidic watersheds; Effekter av vannkvalitet og habitat paa tettheten av aureunger i tilloepsbekker til innsjoeer i tre forsuringsomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthagen, Trygve; Larsen, Bjoern M.; Berger, Hans M.; Forseth, Torbjoern

    1998-09-01

    This publication examines the relationship between young brown trout densities in lake tributaries, and water chemistry and habitat variables. The study was carried out during the autumn in three acidic, freshwater river systems in western and southwestern Norway. The variability in brown trout density in the three watersheds in relation to varying concentrations of calcium and inorganic Al, were investigated. Water chemistry variables seem to limit the density. 38 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Addition of ash in drained peatland forests in southern Sweden - Forest yield and fluxes of greenhouse gases; Tillfoersel av aska i skog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige - Skogsproduktion och emission av vaexthusgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem Ulf (Skogforsk, Uppsala (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Robert G; Klemedtsson, Leif (Goeteborgs universitet (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of wood-ash application (3.3 and 6.6 tonnes d.w. self-harden crushed wood ash ha-1) in forests on drained peatlands in southern Sweden. Tree growth (three sites) and fluxes of greenhouse gases (one site) were measured in field experiments. In the two experiments (Anderstorp and Bredaryd) in Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris L.) on oligotrophic mires, tree growth increased significantly during the seven-eight year long effect periods after ash application. In an earlier study in Anderstorp, the annual emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from the peat were shown to be unaffected by the ash application. In Skogaryd, a Norway spruce stand (Picea abies L. Karst.) on a minerotrophic mire, the growth was indicated to increase during the five-year effect period. In the same experiment, the previously found reduction in emissions of both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O during the first two years after ash application were no longer significant, although the emissions where lower, for N{sub 2}O only in the high dose ash treatment. CH{sub 4} was unaffected during the whole observed period. During the first five years, application of 3-6 tonnes d.w. crushed wood ash ha-1 in the two studied forests on drained peatlands did not render in an increased Global Warming Potential (GWP), but rather a reduction

  10. Impact assessment of the effect of natural values of interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn. Laxemar; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden vid mellanlagring, inkapsling och slutfoervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle i Oskarshamn. Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Magnus (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    The report describes the natural environment and its natural values in Laxemar Simpevarp, the final disposal facility's impacts on the natural environment and measures that can be taken to reduce these. Both terrestrial and aquatic environments are described. Impact on the natural environments of groundwater reduction is not discussed here but described in a separate report, together with consequences of radiation. The report shall serve as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the application according to the Environment Act.

  11. Characterization of limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2} and sulfur capture modelling under fluidized bed combustion conditions; Bestaemning av kalkstensreaktivitet med avseende paa SO{sub 2} och modellering av avsvavling foer foerbraenning i fluidiserad baedd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattisson, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Lyngfelt, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1996-12-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels, SO{sub 2} is released to the atmosphere. Because of environmental concern with acid rain, the capture of SO{sub 2} is a very important process. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a combustion method where limestone may be added to the furnace chamber to capture SO{sub 2} as the stable product CaSO{sub 4}. In the present work a relatively simple laboratory method has been developed for characterizing limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2}. The reactivity data from such investigations are used, together with residence time and particle size distribution, in a sulfur capture model for fluidized bed boilers that predicts the sulfur capture as a function of the Ca/S molar ratio. In addition, the model predicts the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} for all particle sizes present in a boiler. The model was developed and verified using data from two boilers, a 12 and a 40 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler, and showed reasonable agreement for both boilers. In addition to the development of a sulfur capture model, the effects of SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations, particle size, temperature variations, and reducing conditions on the sulfation reaction was studied using a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The sulfation reaction was also studied for long periods of time, up to 60 hours. This was done because of the long residence times of certain particle sizes that may exist in a fluidized bed boiler. From the parameter study it was found that particle size and variations between oxidizing and reducing conditions had a large effect on the sulfation behaviour. The investigation of long sulfation times showed that the reaction continued even at high degrees of conversion, although at a very slow rate. CO{sub 2} concentration had a moderate effect on the sulfation reaction while temperature variations showed no effect on the final conversion between CaO and CaSO{sub 4}. 29 refs, 25 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  13. Monitoring of test roads with MSWI bottom ash in the sub-base. Measurements with falling weight deflectometer on test structures in Malmoe and Umeaa. Analyses of ground water and leachate along test structures in Umeaa; Uppfoeljning av slaggrusprovvaegar. Fallviktsmaetning paa provstraeckor paa Toerringevaegen i Malmoe och Daavamyran i Umeaa. Grundvatten- och lakvattenanalyser paa provstraeckor vid Daavamyran i Umeaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Larsson, Lennart; Tiberg, Charlotta; Lind, Bo; Arvidslund, Ola

    2008-12-15

    A number of test roads and test areas with processed municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash, here called MSWI gravel, have been built in Sweden during the last 10-15 years. The main purpose of the projects reported here was to take advantage of the existing test roads to increase the knowledge of the long-term strength and environmental impact of MSWI gravel, when it is used as a road material. Two test roads with MSWI gravel in the sub-base were monitored through falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measurements and, for one of the roads, by means of sampling and analyses of groundwater and leachate within and along the road. The first road, constructed in 1998, is named Toerringevaegen and is situated outside Malmoe in the south of Sweden. The second road, Daava test road, was constructed in 2001 and is situated outside Umeaa in the north of Sweden. The roads were monitored regarding strength from 2004 to 2008 and Daava test road was also monitored regarding environmental impact from 2006 to 2008. For both roads, comparison was made over time and between the test sections with MSWI gravel and reference sections with crushed rock. Comparison was also made with results from previous studies on these test roads, resulting in a uniquely long monitoring period. The results from Toerringevaegen show that the road section with MSWI gravel in the sub-base retains its strength after several years. The three measurements performed at the Daava road revealed an initially decreasing strength and then a stabilisation. As in previous studies, the strength of the MSWI gravel was found to be about 70% of that of the crushed rock, which has to be taken into account in the design phase. It was concluded that regarding the strength properties MSWI gravel is suitable as sub-base material if the road is properly designed. It can also be used as a filling material, in embankments and as a capping layer. This confirms the conclusions from previous studies. The results from the leachate analyses showed increased cumulative leaching of calcium and sulphate from both sections at the Daava test road, which was surprising. Furthermore, most compounds leached in greater amount from the reference section than from the test section. There was a significant decrease in the leaching of copper, TOC, chloride and sodium over time from the test section, while the decrease of chromium leaching was not as significant. During the first years after construction, the test section leached greater amount of organic compounds analysed than the reference section did, but the concentrations in the leachates decreased significantly and after five-six years they were comparable with those of the reference section. During the last years, the concentrations of organic acids in the leachates from the reference section were higher than in the leachates from the test section. The reason for this is unknown. When results from previous laboratory leaching tests on the MSWI gravel used were compared with the newly proposed maximum values for waste to be used in construction works (general use) and with current limit values for waste disposed in landfills for inert waste, it was clear that chloride, sulphate and copper and initially to some extent chromium were critical compounds. However, all compounds with proposed or fixed limit values were not analysed in the previous study. Comparison between the leachates from the test section and results from previous laboratory leaching of the MSWI gravel showed significantly different patterns. This should be taken into account in the assessment of potential use

  14. En analyse av flervareproduksjonen av melk og storfekjøtt : påvirker prisendringer tilbudet av melk

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Innledning\\Sammendrag Motivasjon Tilbudet av storfekjøtt fra norske bønder har gått ned de senere år. Det er allmenn enighet om at grunnen til nedgangen i storfekjøtt henger sammen med nedgangen i antall melkekyr noe som ikke er motvirket av spesialisert kjøttproduksjon, se Tabell 1. Grunnen er at kyr produserer kjøtt som et biprodukt av melk og dette kjøttet kan ikke i noen særlig grad velges bort og yter derfor et betraktelig bidrag til samlet mengde storfekjøtt. Blant årsake...

  15. Effekter av finanspolitiske tiltak : en sammenlikning av to makroøkonomiske modeller

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Ådne; Prestmo, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Norge er sammen med Danmark et av de få landene med lang tradisjon for bruk av store makroøkonomiske modeller til politikkanalyser og prognoser. I de fleste akademiske forskningsmiljøene har slik modellbruk hatt liten oppslutning i lang tid. Analyser av virkninger av økonomisk politikk på makroøkonomiske variable er imidlertid et høyst levende studiefelt. Finanskrisen kan tenkes å bringe en renessanse for bruken av store makroøkonomiske modeller til analyseformål. Ikke bare ...

  16. Optimalisering av blandingsforhold mellom kugjødsel og matavfall for maksimering av biogassproduksjon

    OpenAIRE

    Gjetmundsen, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Norge har satt seg ambisiøse mål for både økt produksjon av fornybar energi og reduksjon av klimagassutslippene fra landbruket. Det skal etableres 13 TWh ny fornybar energi innen 2020, samtidig skal landbruket kutte utslippene av klimagasser med 1,1 mill tonn CO2 ekvivalenter. For å nå målet om reduserte klimagassutslipp i landbruket må implementering av biogassproduksjon skje i stort omfang. Det vil føre til økt produksjon av fornybar energi. Gårdsbaserte biogassanlegg er ...

  17. The synthesis of spherical calcium carbonate composite in amphiphilic PS-b-PAA solution and its thermal dynamic characteristic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Linhai; JIN Dalai

    2004-01-01

    Spherical calcium carbonate composite is synthesized in the solution of amphiphilic block copolymer of polystyrene(PS) and poly(acrylic acid)(PAA). SEM and XRD measurements show that the diameter of the particulates decreases with the augment of the PS-b-PAA concentration, crystalline in the composite is calcite and its morphology as well as the structure is changed too. TG-DTA together with IR analysis is applied to investigating the thermal dynamic behavior of the composite. The results show that the composite is mainly composed of two phases, that is, the nano- crystalline calcium carbonate and the PS-b-PA-Ca composites. PS phase decomposes first with a large heat release at about 330℃. However, the PAA chains have relatively high thermal stability, probably due to the structural Ca-O bond, and decomposes at above 400℃. Matching opinions are used to explain the possible reasons for the regular as well as the particular characteristics of the composite corresponding to a certain copolymer concentration.

  18. Produktion av bioplast i Värmland? : Fermentering av olika avfallströmmar

    OpenAIRE

    Sundin, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Ett av världens största miljöproblem är plastnedskräpning. På många platser kan spår av mänsklig närvaro ses i form av skräp av plast. År 2011 tillverkades det 280 miljoner ton plast, det motsvarar ungefär 28 000 Eiffeltorn. I Sverige förbrukades år 2010 ungefär 880 000 ton plast. I Asien produceras ungefär 50 % av all världens plast och Kina står för cirka hälften av detta. Nordamerika och Europa står för cirka 40 % av världens plastproduktion. Resterande produktion a...

  19. A New Species of the Genus Gorgoderina (Digenea: Gorgoderidae in the Paa yunnanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Peiren

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gorgoderina lufengensis sp. nov., a new species of the genus Gorgoderina (Digenea: Gorgoderidae, was collected from the urinary bladder of frog Paa yunnanensis in Diaolingshan mountain of Lufeng Yipinglang county, Yunnan province (25°10′N,101°90′E, China. Field investigation shows that 15 out of 22 individuals of P. yunnanensis harboring the trematode G. lufengensis sp. nov., which account to 68.19% of natural infection rate, and the infectiosity was from 1 to 11. Anatomical evidences revealed that there were several significant differences within the new species G. lufengensis sp. nov. and the recorded Gorgoderina species. Such as the species G. lufengensis sp. nov. had two regular testicles and the other Gorgoderina species did not. The sucker ratio and the opening position of the genital duct of the species G. lufengensis sp. nov. were also quite different from recorded species in genus Gorgoderina. Both the original specimen and the paratype of the new species G. lufengensis sp. nov. were deposited in the life science school of Yunnan Normal University. The study will provide the basic information of parasite research on the P. yunnanensis, which has an important significance in the protection of species P. yunnanensis and its economic development and utilization.

  20. Verdsettelse av Renewable Energy Corporation ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlberg, Jonas; Fredriksen, Marius Sletbakk

    2011-01-01

    I denne bacheloroppgaven har vi hatt verdsettelse som tema, der vi har sett nærmere på Renewable Energy Corporation ASA(REC). Problemstillingen vår har vært: “Hva er verdien av Renewable Energy Corporation ASA 1.1.2011?” REC er en vertikalt integrert bedrift som produserer solenergi. De er et konsern som driver i alle deler av verdikjeden, fra produksjon av silisium – wafere – solceller – solcellepanel – solcellemoduler. Selskapet ble notert på Oslo Børs i 2006 til en aksjekurs på 107,5...

  1. Konservering av oljemaleri i privat eie

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Maleriet som ble undersøkt og behandlet er malt av Johannes Marius von Ditten (1848-1924). Maleriet er i privat eie og viser utsikten fra Frognerseteren over Kristiania by og omegn. Den øvre halvdelen består i størst grad av blå himmel med skyer, men også kystlinje, fjord med øyer og byen. Nedre del av maleriet består hovedsakelig av grønne fargeområder med gress og trær. Maleriet har signaturen v Ditten nederst i heraldisk høyre hjørne. Maleriet er for anledningen døpt Utsikt over Kristiania...

  2. Fördröjning av dagvatten

    OpenAIRE

    Hagelin, Robert; Mbanzabugabo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Den ökade mängden hårdgjorda ytor i städerna skapar en större och snabbare avrinning av dagvatten till ledningsnäten. En del av dagens befintliga ledningar klarar inte av att hantera denna ökade mängd dagvatten. En snabb och kortsiktig lösning på lösa detta problem är att anlägga fördröjningsmagasin som avlastar ledningsnäten. Fram till denna tidpunkt har det inte utförs tillräckligt med undersökningar kring de olika effekter som placeringen av ett fördröjningsmagasin medför. Ett fördröjnings...

  3. AVS (Application Visualization System) user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS for image processing software and an animation processing system (video, frame scan converter). This report summarizes the information to use AVS and to develop and maintain computer and network environment for image processing. (author)

  4. Delvis drenert analyse av innvendig avstivet utgraving

    OpenAIRE

    Myhrvold, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven omhandler analyser av de delvis drenerte effektene som kan oppstå ved innvendig, avstivede utgravinger. Formålet med masteroppgaven er å gjennomføre en numerisk studie av prosessen som styrer den tidsavhengige utviklingen ved avstivede utgravinger i lavpermeable jordtyper. Det gir muligheten til å vurdere de delvis drenerte effektene og innflytelsen disse utgjør ved denne typen utgravinger. Ettersom jordens oppførsel ved små tø...

  5. Addition of ash on drained forested peatlands in southern Sweden. Effects on forest production, fluxes of greenhouse gases, peat properties, understorey vegetation and groundwater chemistry; Tillfoersel av aska i skog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa skogsproduktion, floeden av vaexthusgaser, torvegenskaper, markvegetation och grundvattenkemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Bjoerk, Robert G.; Ring, Eva; Ernfors, Maria; Jacobson, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2009-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of wood-ash addition on drained peatlands in southern Sweden. Tree growth, greenhouse gases, peat properties, microbial biomass and processes, understory vegetation and groundwater chemistry were measured in three field experiments (some variables were not measured in all experiments): (i) 168 Perstorp, an oligotrophic mire with Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), where 2.5 tonnes d.w. of wood ash/ha (2.5WA) was added in 1982; (ii) 273 Anderstorp, also an oligotrophic mire with Scots pine, where 3.3 tonnes d.w. crushed ash/ha (3.3KA) and 6.6 tonnes d.w. crushed/ha (6.6KA) was added in 2003; (iii) 278 Skogaryd, a minerotrophic mire with Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), where the same doses of crushed ash as in Anderstorp were added in 2006. Untreated controls were included in all experiments. At Anderstorp, increased tree growth was indicated, at least in the treatment with the highest ash dose during the first five years after treatment. The annual emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH4 and N{sub 2}O from the peat were unaffected. At Skogaryd, the growth was unaffected and the emissions of both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O were reduced during the first two years after treatment. In general, the significant ash effects (2.5WA and 3.3KA evaluated) on peat characteristics, microbial biomass and processes were found in the upper soil (0-5 cm) at the recently treated sites (Anderstorp and Skogaryd), and at greater depths (5-30 cm) at Perstorp, where the ash was added 25 years ago. In the ash treatment at Perstorp, there was a shift in the plant community structure and a decrease in species diversity of the understory vegetation. However, at this point of time, the forest stand had become substantially denser than on the control plots. Hence, these effects on the understory vegetation may have been an indirect effect of the ash-induced altered tree stand properties. In Skogaryd, no shift in the plant community was found, but an increase in species diversity was detected two years after the application of 6.6KA. In Anderstorp, no effect on the understory vegetation was found. The wood-ash application at Skogaryd resulted in very few statistically significant effects on the 43 measured chemical variables in the groundwater. High background concentrations of for instance B, Ca, Mg and PO4-P probably contributed to this. During the first five years, addition of 3-6 tonnes d.w. crushed wood ash/ha on the studied drained peatlands did not render in an increased Global Warming Potential (GWP), but rather a reduction

  6. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering- och tungmetallfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hillevi; Nilsson, Torbjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2001-12-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  7. Spillet om Statoil : En casestudie av beslutningsprosessen som endte med delprivatisering av Statoil

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med denne studien har vært å gjennomføre en analyse av samhandlingen mellom aktørene i prosessen som endte med delprivatisering av Statoil (1999-2001). Prosessen studeres i lys av to teoretiske perspektiver som beskriver ulike samhandlingsmønstre mellom aktørene som deltok, henholdsvis et lukket og et åpent perspektiv.

  8. Implementering av nye styringssystem. En kvalitativ casestudie av Sparebank 1 Nord-Norges regionbank i Harstad.

    OpenAIRE

    Aarsund, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Kritikken av budsjettet som styringsverktøy har ført til at flere organisasjoner har valgt å erstatte det med nye styringsverktøy, deriblant Beyond Budgeting. Studieobjektet i denne studien er Sparebank 1 Nord-Norges regionbank i Harstad. Banken har ikke uttalt at de har innført Beyond Budgeting, men har implementert og tatt i bruk enkeltdeler av konseptet. Studien omhandler implementeringen av disse enkeltdeler. Problemstillingen er: Hvordan er "Beyond Budgeting implementert lokalt i bank?" ...

  9. En teoretisk presentasjon av EVA og Beyond Budgeting i lys av styringspakken

    OpenAIRE

    Gillesvik, Mari Helene; Kristiansen, Brede Borgen

    2010-01-01

    Dette er et utdrag av en konfidensiell utredning som er skrevet om økonomisk styring i Orkla. Her presenteres det teoretiske rammeverket for oppgaven. Vi har benyttet Malmi og Browns (2008) typologi av styringspakken til å strukturere og presentere normativ teori om de økonomiske styringssystemene Economic Value Added (EVA) og Beyond Budgeting. Deretter har vi gjennomført en kortfattet komparativ analyse av styringssystemene, hvor vi kommer frem til at det finnes både likheter og forskjeller ...

  10. Litterære fremstillinger av dyreetikk: En retorisk analyse av Jonathan Safran Foer

    OpenAIRE

    Haugstad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    En retorisk analyse av "Å spise dyr" av Jonathan Safran Foer, om hvordan de etiske spørsmålene rundt temaet å spise dyr blir formidlet i en litterær tekst. Boken handler om Foers reise gjennom ulie standpunkt, familiehistorier og forholdene for dyr innen den industrielle kjøttproduksjonen i USA. Foer formidler sitt budskap gjennom hyppig bruk av tekstuell og visuell retorikk.

  11. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction

  12. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Raab, Udo, E-mail: udo.raab@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lazarus, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lazarus@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Nephrology (Germany); Ruppert, Volker, E-mail: volker.ruppert@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany); Vorwerk, Dierk, E-mail: dierk.vorwerk@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  13. Arbeidshukommelse og prosessering av påtrengende minner

    OpenAIRE

    Holager, Per; Nordaker, Sindre

    2012-01-01

    Formålet med denne oppgaven var å se på sammenhengen mellom forstyrrelse av arbeidshukommelsen og påtrengende minner. En rekke studier viser at forstyrrelse av arbeidshukommelsen gir reduksjon i emosjonell intensitet og livaktighet av ubehagelige mentale bilder. Oppgaven diskuterer forstyrrelse av arbeidshukommelsen opp mot teorier om utviklingen av påtrengende minner, og hvordan dette kan brukes terapeutisk. Teoretisk sett kan forstyrrelse av arbeidshukommelsen forklare reduksjon i sensorisk...

  14. Databasarkivering: En kontroll av metoder för långtidsarkivering av databaser

    OpenAIRE

    Häggblom, Lars Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Databaser är det vanligaste sättet att spara samt representera stora mängder data i dags-läget. Relationerna mellan de olika tabellerna och dataposterna samt mängden olika da-tabasformat försvårar arkiveringsprocessen. Detta examensarbete bakantar vi oss med tillgängliga tekniker för arkivering av databaser samt långtidsbevaring av dessa. Syftet med arbetet är att betrakta de olika existerande verktygen som lämpar sig för långtidsarkivering av databaser, medan den teoretiska delen av arbe...

  15. Bruk av hijab i politi og rettsvesen? : En rammeanalyse av norske institusjoners argumentasjon

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Tema for denne oppgaven er norsk policyutvikling knyttet til bruk av hijab i politi og rettsvesen. Oppgaven tar for seg to institusjonelt avgrensede debatter om bruk av hijab i henholdsvis politiet og domstolene. Det argumenteres for at disse debattene viser en ny måte å tilnærme seg spørsmålet om hijab i norsk offentlighet. Ved hjelp av det tekstanalytiske verktøyet rammeanalyse, studeres norske institusjoners argumentasjon i disse debattene. Hvordan spørsmålet om bruk av hijab rammes inn i ...

  16. Comparison of fluorine determination in biological and environmental samples by NAA, PAA and PIXE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránek, Vladimír; Kučera, Jan; Řanda, Zdeněk; Voseček, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 259, č. 2 (2004), s. 325-329. ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/1297; GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : activation-analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2004

  17. Comparison of fluorine determination in biological and environmental samples by NAA, PAA and PIXE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránek, Vladimír; Kučera, Jan; Řanda, Zdeněk; Voseček, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 259, č. 2 (2004), s. 275-282. ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038; GA ČR GA104/00/1297 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : activation-analysis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2004

  18. Essensen av sjuttio års ledarskapsforskning

    OpenAIRE

    Johannesson, Louice

    2014-01-01

    Uppsatsen undersöker med en systematisk litteraturöversikt centrala teman inom ledarskapsforsk­ningen mellan åren 1940 och 2010. Finns det någon skillnad mellan äldre (1940-1999) och yngre ledarskapsforskning (2000-2010)? Vidare undersöks typ av artik­lar, var de är skrivna och av vem. Uppsatsens analys består av 2815 artiklar som har ordet ”leadership” i titeln, fo­kus var innehållet i titlarna. Utifrån dem analyserades 3910 ord ur titlarna, resultatet blev nio cen­trala teman inom nämnd tid...

  19. Kombination av text och bild i undervisningen

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbom, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Mitt arbete beskriver hur man kan arbeta ämnesövergripande med bild och text i kombination. Jag vill i mitt arbete genom exempel visa vikten av att bild och text vävs samman i undervisningen. Mitt val av arbete grundar sig på att mina elever saknade förståelse av bildspråket. Orden och texterna kom därför in som ett naturligt moment i undervisningen. Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur text och bild i kombination kan ge en djupare förståelse för bildspråket. Ett ämnesövergripande arbete g...

  20. Genetisk analyse av klauvlidelser for NRF

    OpenAIRE

    Guttormsen, Anne Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Klauvlidelser forekommer hyppigere i løsdriftsfjøs enn i båsfjøs. På grunn av stadig økt andel storfe som er oppstallet i løsdrift blir det mer og mer aktuelt å forebygge klauvlidelser. I 2004 ble helsekort klauv innført i Norge. Helsekort klauv er en integrert del av kukontrollen, der veterinærer, klauvskjærer eller bonden selv registrerer hendelser ved klauvskjæring. Helsekort klauv har ti koder, normal, halthet, akutt skade, korketrekkerklauv, v-formet hornforråtnelse, hudbetennelse, klauv...

  1. Variationer av mindfulness i klinisk behandling

    OpenAIRE

    Wetterholm, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Mindfulness i klinisk behandling är ingen enhetlig företeelse. Ett flertal sätt att definiera, operationalisera och tillämpa mindfulness samexisterar i det kliniska rummet. Syftet med denna studie var att åskådliggöra terapeuters kvalitativt varierande sätt att beskriva, använda och uppleva mindfulness i klinisk behandling och att undersöka faktorer av betydelse för dessa variationer. Elva terapeuters arbete studerades genom semistrukturerade intervjuer varpå en teoristyrd tematisk analys av ...

  2. Evaluering av FRAM kultur 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kobro, Lars Ueland; Vareide, Knut; Berge, Ola K.

    2010-01-01

    Rapporten gjengir resultater fra en evaluering av 18 regionale FRAM-K prosjekter gjennomført med ca. 200 deltakerbedrifter fra 2005-2010. Evalueringen viser høy grad av tilfredshet blant deltakerne, spesielt knyttet til den individuelle oppfølgingen de har fått fra FRAM-rådgiver. På de mer systematiske effektmålingene viser programmet mer variable resultater. Et stort flertall deltakere har hatt en betydelig egenrapportert omsetningsøkning, økonomiskhandlingsrom er likevel ikke vesentlig bedr...

  3. Effektiv sikkerhetstesting av webapplikasjoner med rikt innhold

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Ole Jacob Syrdahl

    2008-01-01

    I nyere webapplikasjoner er brukerinnhold, interaktivitet og rask responstid blitt viktig. Kravene medfører nye kommunikasjonsmodeller og applikasjonslogikk på klientsiden. Utviklingen har ført til at tradisjonelle teknikker for sikkerhetstesting ikke lenger gir et helhetlig bilde av de sårbarheter webapplikasjonen er utsatt for. Det blir i oppgaven sett på metoder for å effektivisere sårbarhetsanalysen av web-applikasjoner med rik klientkode. Som et ledd i å effektivisere sårbarhetsanalyse...

  4. Design av bladprofil for en stor ventilator

    OpenAIRE

    Hjetland, Even

    2009-01-01

    Institutt for Energi- og Prosessteknikk ved NTNU gikk, for en tid tilbake, til innkjøp av en fullskala ventilator av typen som Vegdirektoratet i Norge benytter til ventilering i tunneler. Motivasjonen bak innkjøpet var et ønske om å drive utviklingsarbeid rundt impellerdesign, da Vegdirektoratet ved flere anledninger opplevde at innkjøpte ventilatorer ikke overholdt produsentens egne spesifikasjoner. Denne oppgaven er et ledd i dette arbeidet, og har som målsetning å utvikle bladgeometri spes...

  5. Prosjektering og analyse av en spennarmert betongbru

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Elin Holsten; Kaldbekkdalen, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Hensikten med rapporten er å gjennomføre analyse og dimensjonering av en etteroppspent betongbru. Modellering og analyse er gjennomført i NovaFrame 5. En del av oppgaven var å bestemme spennsystem og tverrsnittshøyden i brua. Det ble antatt seks spennkabler i felt, og tolv over støtte. Videre ble tverrsnittshøyden satt lik 1,3 meter. Dimensjoneringen ble gjennomført i henhold til gjeldende Eurokoder, aktuelle dokumenter og Håndbok 185, som er utarb...

  6. Grafisk presentasjon av GPenSim-simulering

    OpenAIRE

    Hofsmo, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    GPenSim er et verktøy for modellering og simulering av diskret hendelsesystemer (DES). GPenSim er integrert i Matlab-plattformen, og har dermed tilgang til innebygde Matlabfunksjoner som plot etc. I GPenSim blir Petri net-grafen definert i Petri netdefinisjonsfiler. Resultatet av en simulering blir vist i tekst. Oppgaven gikk ut på å utvikle et verktøy som skulle presentere både Petri net-grafen og simuleringsresultatet grafisk. En grafisk presentasjon viser tydeligere sammenhe...

  7. Risikostyring av Legionella i Stavanger kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Ingvild Margrete

    2014-01-01

    Temaet for denne oppgaven er risikostyring i offentlig sektor. Jeg vil spesielt se på hvordan Stavanger kommune håndterer risikoen knyttet til Legionella-bakterien. Kommunen ønsker å forbedre den nåværende praksisen. Problemstillingen jeg har arbeidet ut ifra er «Hvilke risikohåndteringsstrategier for Legionella finnes i Stavanger kommune, og hvordan har disse fungert?» Denne masteroppgaven er en del av et større, overordnet prosjekt, «Legionella i kommunale dusjanlegg - Undersøkelse av ut...

  8. Samlokalisering av småbedrifter

    OpenAIRE

    Myhre, Christi Wigenstad

    2012-01-01

    Alle bedrifter, uavhengig av størrelse, har sine oppgaver som må løses, både kjernefaglige og administrative. Imidlertid har ikke små bedrifter samme mulighet til spesialiseringer innen ulike fagfelt, slik som store bedrifter. I de minste bedriftene er det gjerne den som eier og driver bedriften som tar seg av alle oppgaver. For at en virksomhet skal være så konkurransedyktig og effektiv som mulig, er det viktig å utnytte bedriftens kjernekompetanse optimalt, og da kan det være hensi...

  9. Synthesis of PAA-DSPE coated CdSe QDs and its application to protein tagging%PAA-DSPE修饰的CdSe量子点的制备及其对蛋白的标记检测应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余志勇; 魏玉峰; 王怡红

    2008-01-01

    本文采用有机溶剂热法合成了量子效率高的油溶性CASe QDs(quanmm dots).利用自制的水溶性生物,相容性良好的两性PAA-DSPE(聚丙烯酸-1.2-二硬脂酰-sn-丙三醇-3-磷脂酰乙醇胺)低分子聚合物对其表面进行修饰,得到稳定性高、水溶性良好的半导体纳米荧光标记物,并对其进行TTEM,紫外-可见光吸收光谱和荧光光谱的表征.还利用制备的水溶性QDs对NFkB蛋白及其抗体蛋白进行标记,利用荧光显微镜对标记后的结构进行观察,探索标记后量子点对蛋白免疫结合性质的影响.实验结果表明,CdSe/PAA-DSPE的标记对抗原、抗体蛋白的免疫性质未产生明显的影响.

  10. CS/PAA@TPGS/PLGA nanoparticles with intracellular pH-sensitive sequential release for delivering drug to the nucleus of MDR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Kong, Yan-Yan; Shao, Luan-Luan; Zhang, Fen-Yi; Gao, Yu; Mu, Xu; Wang, Jie; Li, Hao-Fan; Yu, Shu-Qin; Xu, Qian

    2016-09-01

    Development of novel nano-drug delivery systems (NDDS) that can transport anticancer drugs into cell nuclei is still a highly desirable strategy for reversing multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer therapy. Herein, we designed and prepared a novel NDDS, designated S@L NPs, in which several smaller nanoparticles are contained within a larger nanoparticle. Our S@L NPs (CS/PAA/VP-16@TPGS/PLGA NPs) possess a structure in which smaller nanoparticles (Chitosan-Poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles, CS/PAA NPs) containing the drug etoposide (VP-16) are loaded within a larger nanoparticle (Vitamin E d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, TPGS/PLGA NPs). The system utilizes intracellular pH gradients to achieve pH-sensitive sequential release within different intracellular domains of MDR cells. S@L NPs could be triggered to degrade and release CS/PAA/VP-16 NPs in the acid environment of the cytosol, endosomes or lysosomes, and CS/PAA/VP-16 NPs were capable of entering the nucleus through nucleopores. It is significant that CS/PAA/VP-16 NPs exhibit disaggregation in the alkaline environment of the nucleus and thereby release the contained anticancer drug. Further mechanistic studies showed that CS/PAA/VP-16 NPs escaped retention and degradation within lysosomes and protected the drug from P-glycoprotein-induced efflux. Simultaneously, S@L NPs enhanced the anticancer effect of the loaded drug by inducing autophagy and apoptosis of MDR cells. This novel NDDS may provide a promising platform for nuclear drug delivery for reversing MDR. PMID:27289313

  11. Internasjonal strafferett : En analyse av menneskerettigheter ved bekjempelse av internasjonal terrorisme sett i lys av to FN-konvensjoner og Sikkerhetsrådets resolusjon 1373 (2001)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Oppgaven består av en analyse om hvorvidt menneskerettigheter kan oppstilles som en skranke i den internasjonale kampen mot terrorisme, herunder hvorvidt norske lovgivere har respektert menneskerettighetenes stilling ved vedtakelsen av de nye norske terror-bestemmelsene.

  12. En studie av organisatoriske og ledelsesmessige utfordringer ved implementering av IO i Statoil

    OpenAIRE

    Gravdal, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Flere forskere understreker at for alle virksomheter, utgjør endringsledelse en avgjørende kompetanse. Stadig flere organisasjoner beveger seg fra sekvensielle arbeidsmetoder mot mer parallelle og integrerte måter å jobbe på. En innføring av IO i oljeindustrien er en del av denne endringsprosessen (OLF, 2007). Statoil ønsker å bli verdensledende innenfor IO. Siden 2005 har Statoil utført en rekke steg for å muliggjøre integrerte operasjoner. Dette inkluderer blant annet innføringen av Fell...

  13. Beyond budgeting i Statoil : en analyse av implementering og bruk av nye prinsipper for virksomhetsstyring

    OpenAIRE

    Grostad, Kjersti Ressem

    2007-01-01

    Denne rapporten er skrevet på oppdrag fra Statoil ASA og inngår i prosjekt 7970 Styringssystemer. Rapporten omhandler innføringen av en ny styringsmodell i Statoil som innebærer å gå vekk fra tradisjonell budsjettstyring. Den nye styringsmodellen er basert på prinsippene for Beyond Budgeting, som beskrevet av Jeremy Hope og Robin Fraser (2003). Rapporten ser på implementering og bruk av den nye styringsmodellen i tre ulike enheter i selskapet, og hvilke endringer som har funnet sted i praksis...

  14. Jacques Lacan i lys av surrealismen : et bidrag til "bildet av Lacan"

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Teksten presenterer den unge psykiater og etter hvert psykoanalytiker, Jacques Lacan, i lys av hans koblinger til den surrealistiske bevegelsen rundt André Breton og Salvador Dalí. Lacans doktorgradsavhandling fra 1932, om den paranoiske psykosen og tilfellet "Aimée", etablerer en kontaktflate mellom Lacan og surrealistene, som følges opp av Lacan i to artikler i surrealistenes tidsskrift "Minotaure". Sentralt står avdekkelsen av den gales perspektiv på virkeligheten, og Lacan og Dalí finner ...

  15. Reglering av energikostnader med hjälp av energilagring i Danmark

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlström, Johan; Björklund, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Energilagring med hjälp av tryckluft (CAES) innebär att luft komprimeras och lagras för att expanderas vid ett senare tillfälle. Tillsammans med pumpkraftverk (pumpning av vatten till en högre liggande vattenreservoar) är komprimerad luft (CAES) de enda kommersiellt gångbara storskaliga energilagringsteknologierna i dagsläget. Utifrån de geologiska förutsättningarna i Danmark utvärderades lönsamheten för två olika typer av CAES-teknologier mer specifikt som teknologi för energihandel. Danmark...

  16. Opplevelser av lederrollen : en Q-metodologisk studie av relasjonsorienterte lederes bevissthet i egen rolle

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Martha Marie Kalvig

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne studien er å bidra til økt forståelse av og bevissthet om hvordan en relasjonsorientert leder opplever seg selv i rollen som leder. Studien vektlegger betydningen av relasjon, og selvbevissthet, blant annet gjennom å undersøke lederes oppfatning av seg selv i ulike perspektiv. Problemstillingen for studien er som følger: «Hvordan opplever relasjonsorienterte ledere seg selv sett fra ulike perspektiv?». Det ble gjennomført et Q-metodologisk forskningsprosjekt hvor det ...

  17. Simulering av urban flom ved bruk av data fra værradar.

    OpenAIRE

    Reinemo, Petter

    2012-01-01

    Urban flom forårsaket av store nedbørsmengder har et omfattende skadepotensiale. Forskning viser at det kan forventes en økt frekvens av tilfeller med store nedbørsmengder i Norge i fremtiden, som øker risikoen for urban flom. For å kunne ta hensyn til den forventede utviklingen i planlegging, dimensjonering og rehabilitering av overvannsystemer er kunnskap om slike situasjoner viktig. Kraftig nedbør opptrer ofte med stor romlig variasjon og over korte tidsp...

  18. Muligheter og utfordringer for etablering av City Cubes : Konseptevaluering og utvikling for etablering av en sunn fastfood kjede

    OpenAIRE

    Lønsetteig, Tomas; Drivdal, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Innledning og formål: Oppgaven med tittelen: Muligheter og utfordringer for etableringen av City Cubes – konseptevaluering og utvikling for etablering av en sunn fastfood kjede, er skrevet med utgangspunkt i å foreta en konseptevaluering og utvikling for City Cubes. Dette er et konsept som er under utarbeidelse av forfatterne av denne oppgaven; Tomas Lønsetteig og Peter Drivdal. Oppgaven har til hensikt å identifisere de mulighetene og utfordringene som foreligger for etableringen av City ...

  19. Produktivitetsutvikling i norsk lakseoppdrett: En analyse av perioden 2006-2013 ved bruk av DEA, Malmquist og Bootstrapping

    OpenAIRE

    Wikeland, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Oppgaven analyserer effektiviteten og produktivitetsutviklingen i norsk lakseoppdrett i perioden 2006-2013. Norge er verdensledende i produksjon av laks, som er en av landets største eksportartikler. Bransjen er preget av økende konkurranse fra andre land, og er i tillegg styrt av reguleringen. Produktiviteten i næringen har i lang tid steget, men viste en stagnering i utviklingen i perioden 2005-2008. Effektiviteten estimeres ved bruk av Data Envelopment Analysis, og produktivitetsutviklinge...

  20. Rollspelares egna erfarenheter av bordsrollspel : Kvalitativa studier om rollspelarnas positiva och negativa effekter av spelandet

    OpenAIRE

    Ekwall, Tinah

    2014-01-01

    Rollspel är en fritidssysselsättning som lockar många ungdomar att börja spela. Det kan dock anses som mer än en hobby för många, då det kan bidra till utvecklat socialliv, stärkt självkänsla och allmänbildning. Det råder dock blandade föreställningar om vad rollspel egentligen innebär. Studiens syfte  är att beskriva och analysera rollspelares egna upplevelser av de sociala effekterna av spelandet. Frågeställningarna är: Vad är rollspelarnas egna upplevelser av negativa konsekvenser av spela...

  1. Troen - med eller uten tradisjon? En analyse av "sannhetens regel" hos Irenaeus av Lyon

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Terje

    2013-01-01

    Når man i teologien snakker om normerende funksjoner, mener man ofte en sum av læresetninger eller bestemte bekjennelsestekster. Disse vil så vise hva som gyldig for kristendommen, eller en viss menighet 5 . Jeg vil vise at hos Irenaeus er perspektivet videre. For kirkefaderen er teologi mer enn terminologi. Teologien griper fatt i hele menneskets eksistens. Teologi dreier seg derfor om det som er virkelig. Når biskopen av Lyon bruker regula veritatis eller regula f...

  2. Reorganiseringen av Horten kommune : En analyse av strukturendringer, og strukturendringenes konsekvenser for kommunens virksomhet

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Mellom 2000-2009 har Vestfold-kommunen Horten hatt to ulike organisasjonsmodeller. Oppgaven studerer tre faser; den gamle strukturen, endringsprosessen og den nye strukturen. Ved bruk av instrumentell og institusjonell teori rettes søkelyset på å avdekke trekk ved fasene, og hvordan aktiviseringen og defineringen ble kontrollert i fasene. Analysen viser en gammel struktur med kollegiale trekk. Den gamle strukturen var primært preget av forhandlingstrekk med delt ledelse og styring over ak...

  3. Strategisk instituttprogram (SIP): Testing og vurdering av metoder for romlig skalering av fosfordata

    OpenAIRE

    T. H. Bakken; Tjomsland, T.; Abelsen, R.

    2006-01-01

    Denne rapporten eksemplifiserer hvordan man kan benytte romlig spredte observasjoner av forsforkonsentrasjoner til å si noe om tilstanden i nærliggende lokaliteter uten observasjoner. Metodene presentert representerer forskjellige tilnærmelser til romlig skalering av fosfordata, fra rene GIS-baserte metoder som bruker nærhet til kjente observasjoner som kriterium ved interpolasjon til en prosess-basert modell som benytter data om kildene og kunnskap om prosessene som påvirker fosfortilførslen...

  4. Atorvastatin hemmer aktiviteten av cysteinproteaser og stimulerer sekresjonen av MMP-9

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    I tillegg til de etablerte kolesterolsenkende effektene av statiner, indikerer nye studier at statiner utviser tilleggseffekter (pleiotrope effekter) som kan forklare deres terapeutiske suksess. Nylig ble det vist at mRNA for cysteinproteasene legumain og cathepsin B ble nedregulert i monocytter/makrofager hos pasienter behandlet med atorvastatin. Makrofager spiller en sentral rolle i utviklingen av aterosklerotiske plakk, og det er nylig gjort funn som viser at legumain og cathepsin B er opp...

  5. Aktivitetsbasert pedagogikk; en studie av bachelorstudenters utvikling av handlingskompetanse gjennom aktivitetsbasert pedagogikk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Margrete Hjelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Målet med artikkelen er å synliggjøre hvordan bachelorstudenter i ergoterapi kan utvikle profesjonell handlingskompetanse gjennom aktivitetsbasert pedagogikk. På bakgrunn av dette gjennomførte vi kvalitative fokusgruppeintervju med 12 ergoterapeutstudenter som hadde deltatt i undervisningsopplegget “Aktivitetsgrupper-lede og delta”. Datamaterialet ble analysert etter retningslinjer for fenomenologisk basert meningskondensering. Studentene diskuterte sine erfaringer og det kom tydelig fram at undervisningsopplegget ga dem muligheter til å bruke sitt engasjement og sin kreativitet i valg av aktiviteter for sin simulerte aktivitetsgruppe. Videre fikk de muligheter til å oppdage sider ved anvendelse av aktiviteter for ulike pasienter, som de ikke kunne forstå uten integrering av teori i praktisk ferdighetstrening. Ved planlegging, gjennomføring og refleksjon over å lede og delta i aktivitetsgrupper, oppøvet de evnen til handlingsrefleksjon. Aktivitetsbasert pedagogikk kan bidra til utvikling av profesjonell handlingskompetanse og det er behov for både teoretiske og praktiske læringsformer. Funnene ble diskutert i lys av pedagogisk handlingsteori. 

  6. Kemisk fällning av sorteringsvatten

    OpenAIRE

    Sernstad, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Lakvatten bildas då regnvatten perkolerar genom en deponi och har en varierande föroreningsgrad. Sorteringsvatten är vatten från hårdbelagda sorteringsytor där avfallet sorteras efter karaktär. För en deponiverksamhet är lak- och sorteringsvatten de i huvudsak största påverkande faktorerna på den omgivande miljön. Sofielunds återvinningsanläggning ägs av SRV återvinning och är belägen vid Gladö kvarn i Huddinge kommun. Anläggningen är en av de största i landet med en å...

  7. Produktion av ljudberättelse

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlöf, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Mitt projekt har gått ut på att producera en ljudberättelse för barn utifrån en befintlig utgiven bok. Jag har varit i kontakt med flertalet svenska bokförlag för att hitta ett lämpligt material att arbeta med samt har kommit överens med ett av dem att få ta del av deras utgivna verk, och bearbeta det enligt de överenskommelser vi arbetat fram tillsammans. Jag har sökt och sållat bland otaliga röstskådespelare runtom i landet efter de röstkaraktärer jag eftersökt för rollerna i ljudberättelse...

  8. Förhandlingen – Av kommersiella hyresavtal

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlberg, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Upprättandet av kommersiella hyresavtal sker i stor utsträckning genom förhandling mellan de inblandade parterna. Detta arbete ger en inblick i hur hyresgäster och hyresvärdar resonerar före och under förhandlingen av avtalet. Arbetet är en kvalitativ studie som baseras på intervjuer med hyresgäster och hyresvärdar med god erfarenhet från marknaden för kommersiella kontorslokaler i Stockholm. Kontrakts- och förhandlingsteori är den huvudsakliga utgångspunkten för arbetet och den främsta probl...

  9. Kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med bröstcancer

    OpenAIRE

    Music, Sanela

    2010-01-01

    Bakgrund: Bröstcancer utgör en tredjedel av all cancer som kvinnor drabbas av. Tidigare studier indikerar att kvinnor upplever mycket starka känslor kring sjukdomen bröstcancer och att de har drabbats av den. Tanken av att förlora ett bröst är en av punkterna som bringar mycket ångest och lidande. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med bröstcancer. Metod: En litteraturstudie med självbiografiska böcker har utförts. Studiens syfte har besvarats genom att t...

  10. Folkefinansiert mikrofinans: Folkefinansiering av biogassanlegg i Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Hegge, Marit Olsen

    2015-01-01

    I denne oppgaven er det fokusert på hva folkefinansiering via organisasjonen Kiva betyr for mikrofinansprosjekter lokalt i Tanzania. Videre blir utfordringer og muligheter knyttet til folkefinansiering av mikrofinans tatt opp. For å utforske dette fokuseres det på den amerikanske organisasjonen Kiva og den tanzaniske organisasjonen TAHUDE. I oppgaven er blant annet disse problemstillingene tatt opp: (1) Hvordan lokale organisasjoner forholder seg til empowerment og «bottom-up» strategier. (2)...

  11. Dokumentasjon av kvensk kultur: bibliografier og databaser

    OpenAIRE

    Sveum, Tor

    1999-01-01

    Denne artikkelen vil i hovedsak dreie seg om litteraturen om kvenene og det bibliografiske arbeidet som er blitt gjort. Vi skal si litt om de planene vi har framover med å lage en database hvor forskjellige typer materiale kan bli registrert. Vi ønsker å dokumentere den kvenske kulturen gjennom tekst, lyd og bilde, dvs gjennom scanning og konvertering av sentrale kvenske tekster, forskjellige typer lydmateriale (musikktradisjon, dialektprøver) og fotografisk materiale. Først sk...

  12. A Novel MBAFF Scheme of AVS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Wen Chen; Guo-Ping Li; Yun He

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive frame/field coding techniques have been adopted in many international video standards for interlaced sequence coding. When the frame/field adaptation is applied on the picture level, the coding efficiency is improved greatly,compared with the pure frame coding or the pure field coding. The picture-level adaptive frame/field coding (PAFF) selects frame coding or field coding once for one picture. If this frame/field adaptation is extended to Macro Block (MB) level, the coding efficiency will be further increased. In this paper, a novel MB-level adaptive frame/field (MBAFF) coding scheme is proposed. In the proposed MBAFF scheme, the top field of the current picture is used as a reference. The experiments are implemented on the platforms of Audio Video coding Standard (AVS) base profile and H.264/AVC, respectively. On the AVS platform, 0.35dB gain can be achieved averagely, compared with AVS1.0 anchor. On the H.264/AVC platform, 0.16dB gain can be achieved averagely, compared with MBAFF scheme of H.264/AVC. Additionally, an extensive subjective quality enhancement can be achieved by the proposed scheme.

  13. Tynn tildekking av forurenset sediment: Småskala diffusjonsforsøk og modellering av diffusjon gjennom ulike dekklagsmaterialer

    OpenAIRE

    Nag, Silje

    2008-01-01

    Fire materialers evne til å redusere utlekking av miljøgiftene PAH og PCB fra forurenset sediment ved tynnsjikts tildekking, ble undersøkt. Materialene bestod av suspendert kalk fra Hustadmarmor, miljøgips fra NOAH, marin leire og pulverisert aktivt karbon (AC). Materialene ble undersøkt ved måling av diffusjonsfluks fra småskala diffusjonsforsøk i laboratorium i 101 dager, og beregning og modellering av diffusjonsfluks og utvikling av diffusjonsfluks på bakgrunn av målte parametere.Metodene ...

  14. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  15. Goodwill : En studie av företags transparens i redovisningen av koncerngoodwill

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Martin; Lind, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Goodwill är en immateriell tillgång som funnits inom redovisningen de senaste hundra åren. Hur goodwill ska behandlas diskuteras flitigt av forskare och yrkesverksamma. Från och med 2005 beslutade EU att alla noterade företag i unionen skulle följa IASB:s standarder vid upprättandet av sin koncernredovisning. Med de nya reglerna följde att goodwill ska värderas till verkligt värde och årligen testas för nedskrivningsbehov. Denna värderingsmetod innehåller subjektiva bedömningar av företagsled...

  16. Betydning av fruktose for kostrelaterte helseproblemer

    OpenAIRE

    Kolderup, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Synet på sukker som næringsmiddel har endret seg de siste ti-årene. Tidligere antakelser, som blant annet at sukker ikke virker fetende, er i dag erstattet med kunnskap om klare sammenhenger mellom sukkerinntak og sykdom. Fruktoses rolle i denne sammenhengen er fortsatt noe uklar. Målet med denne litteraturgjennomgangen er å beskrive kroppens håndtering av fruktose, samt diskutere fruktoses rolle i kostrelaterte helseproblemer, med fokus på blodglukosehomeostase, fedme og karsykdom. På gr...

  17. Verdivurdering av Rundtom Møbelfabrikk AS

    OpenAIRE

    Dalseth, Trond Martin; Fosse, Espen Byberg; Sisic, Nedzad

    2013-01-01

    I denne oppgaven har vi i gruppa anvendt modeller for å verdsette egenkapitalen til Rundtom Møbelfabrikk AS. Vi begynte prosessen med å analysere bedriften internt og eksternt. For internanalysen utførte vi en ressursanalyse og en VRIO-analyse. Til eksternanalysen brukte vi PESTEL-analyse, og Porters analyse av de fem bransjekreftene. Til slutt summerte vi opp dette i en SWOT-analyse. Videre begynte vi å se på hvilke metode vi skulle bruke til verdsettingen. Her kom vi fr...

  18. Konstruktion och utveckling av pneumatisk pressfixtur

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Flextronics Design i Linköping, som ingår i den stora amerikanskägda Flextronics- koncernen, är en industrialiseringsenhet på mobiltelefonsidan. Det innebär att verksamheten kretsar kring att ta fram test- och monteringsprocesser, samt tillhörande utrustning, som sedan implementeras hos högvolymsfabrikerna belägna i olika låg-kostnads-länder. På mobiltelefonerna finns, beroende på modell, ett antal detaljer som pressas fast, antingen för hand, med en manuell press, eller med hjälp av en pneum...

  19. Objektorientert programmering av datastrukturer og grensesnitt (Java)

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Knut W.

    2014-01-01

    Ved Høgskolen i Buskerud og Vestfold, bachelorstudiene i IT, undervises kurset ”Objektorientert programmering av datastrukturer og grensesnitt (”Java 2”)” som gir 7,5 studiepoeng. Studentene har da tidligere hatt ganske mye objektorientert programmering, delvis med Visual Basic (16,5 stp) og delvis med Java (7,5 stp). De har også hatt et kurs i objektorientert analyse og design (UML – 7,5 stp) og databaser (7,5 stp). Kurset ”Java 2” er således et kurs for viderekommende og f...

  20. Kartlegging av organisasjonskultur ved Lyngdal ungdomsskole ; kartlegging av organisasjonskultur med OCAI ett år etter sammenslåing av to likestilte organisasjoner

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Marith Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Kartlegging av organisasjonskultur er i liten utstrekning i dag benyttet som et verktøy for ledelse i offentlig sektor. Denne oppgaven tar for seg kartlegging av organisasjonskulturen ved en ungdomskole ett år etter sammenslåing av to likestilte organisasjoner, to tidligere ungdomskoler. Cameron og Quinns (2013) metode Organzational Cultural Assessment Instrument (OCAI), er benyttet i kartleggingen. Kartleggingen inngikk i et større prosjekt ved Universitetet i Agder (UIA) hvor en kartla ...

  1. Kvantitativ analyse av biooljer fra Ltl-prosessen ved bruk av GC-FID

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Mari Hove

    2015-01-01

    Etter hvert som energiressurser minker og klima endres, blir det nødvendig med en ny fornybar energikilde som ikke tilfører nytt CO2 til atmosfæren, er kompatibel med nåtidens bilmotorer, samt ikke konkurrerer med matproduksjon. Lignocellulose er det fornybare materialet det finnes mest av, og lignin (en av tre hovedkomponenter i lignocellulose) er et biprodukt fra f.eks. papirindustrien. I biomassegruppen til Tanja Barth på kjemisk institutt, UiB har det blitt u...

  2. The Hero's journey: monomyten i Santo Daime : Bruken av ritualer i gjenskapelsen av heltereisen

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Religion omfatter det mest subjektive feltet innen menneskelig adferd. Å ta vare på subjektets egenart er derfor en ytterst viktig del av det å studere religiøse fenomener. Mine observasjoner og mine informanter har derfor vært de viktigste kildene inn i Santo Daimes religiøse univers da det ikke finnes en annen religiøs virkelighet enn den troendes tro. I denne oppgaven benytter jeg meg av Joseph Campbells teori om monomyten, først lansert gjennom boken The Hero with a thousand faces, fr...

  3. Effekt av ulike ensileringsmidler på kvaliteten av grassurfôr

    OpenAIRE

    Holte, Marita

    2012-01-01

    Surfôrkvaliteten påvirkes av mange faktorer, hvor blant annet bruk av tilsetningsmidler er et viktig element med tanke på å sikre ei vellykka gjæring. Det finnes flere typer ensileringsmidler som har ulik virkning på ensileringsprosessen. Mange velger imidlertid å kutte kostnaden forbundet med ensileringsmidler, særlig ved høyt tørrstoffnivå. Selv om høy tørrstoffprosent i seg selv vil begrense faren for feilgjæring, vil problemer knyttet til den hygieniske kvaliteten, som mugg- og gjærsopp, ...

  4. Översättning av riktlinjer : Fallstudier av sjukdomsförebyggande metoders genomslag

    OpenAIRE

    Elg, Mattias; Lindmark, Jan; Wiger, Malin; Wihlborg, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Socialstyrelsen beslutade i november 2011 om nationella riktlinjer för sjukdomsföre­byggande metoder. Riktlinjerna hade tagits fram inom myndigheten för att stärka det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet i vården och för att ändra ohälsosamma levnadsvanor. I riktlinjerna fokuseras fyra områden: tobak, riskbruk av alkohol, fysisk aktivitet och mat­vanor. Vårdens huvudmän, det vill säga landstingen och kommunerna, har sedan intro­duktionen av riktlinjerna arbetat med implementeringen. Socialstyrelsen ...

  5. Outsourcing : En kvalitativ studie av beslutningsgrunnlag og suksessfaktorer ved utsetting av vikartjenester

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Long Thanh

    2011-01-01

    Temaet i denne oppgaven er outsourcing av vikartjenester. Oppgaven tar for seg outsourcingsavtalen mellom DnB NOR og Adecco. Formålet var å finne hvilke kriterier som ligger til grunn for en beslutning om å outsource vikartjenester, og hva som vil være kritisk for å lykkes med en slik prosess. For å klare dette, har jeg forsøkt å tilegne bedre forståelse rundt outsourcing av vikartjenester, hvilke vurderinger som ligger til grunn for en outsourcingsbeslutning, hva som skal til for å lykkes me...

  6. Analyse av konsekvenser ved oppvarming av bygninger i Norge ved vannbåren varme

    OpenAIRE

    Sesseng, Erik Hegseth

    2008-01-01

    I Norge er elektrisitet den mest anvendte energikilden til oppvarming av bygninger. Dette er uvanlig i andre europeiske land, hvor vannbåren varme er det dominerende oppvarmingssystemet. Hovedmålet med denne oppgaven er å analysere potensialet for en omlegging til vannbåren varme i Norge fram til 2020. Ved å studere de tekniske, miljømessige og økonomiske konsekvensene en omlegging vil medføre. I denne rapporten ble det utført økonomiske analyser for lønnsomheten av vannbårene varmesystemer ...

  7. Analyse av klimatilpassningstiltak : en casestudie av avløpsnettet i Veumdalen, Fredrikstad kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Myking, Jakob Severin Eide

    2012-01-01

    Økt forståelse av fortidens klimaendringer og klimasystemet i sin helhet, har gitt forskerne mulighet til å anta fremtidens klimaendringer. Denne økte forståelsen har gitt sikre tegn på at klimaendringene er knyttet til en stor grad av usikkerhet. Det eneste som er sikkert, er at klimaendringer kommer til å skje, og at det er umulig å si med sikkerhet når eller med hvilken kraft de vil inntreffe. Det som derimot kan sies med sikkerhet, er at befolkningen kommer til å øke. Dette vil føre til ø...

  8. Overview of AVS-video: tools, performance and complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Yi, Feng; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Cixun

    2005-07-01

    Audio Video coding Standard (AVS) is established by the Working Group of China in the same name. AVS-video is an application driven coding standard. AVS Part 2 targets to high-definition digital video broadcasting and high-density storage media and AVS Part 7 targets to low complexity, low picture resolution mobility applications. Integer transform, intra and inter-picture prediction, in-loop deblocking filter and context-based two dimensional variable length coding are the major compression tools in AVS-video, which are well-tuned for target applications. It achieves similar performance to H.264/AVC with lower cost.

  9. Faktorer som ligger i fokus vid valet av resa

    OpenAIRE

    Lönnberg, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att klargöra faktorer som ligger i fokus då kunden väljer och planerar sin resa. Som företag är det av stor betydelse att veta vad som påverkar kundernas val av och planering av resan redan före den äger rum. En stor del av undersökningen kommer att beröra rid/aktivitetsresor då examensarbetets uppdragsgivare säljer denna typs resor. Den teoretiska referensramen är uppbyggd av två huvuddelar, konsumentbeteende inom turismbranschen och turismprodukten. Kap...

  10. Kartlegging av tungmetaller i sedimentene i Hortenkanalen for Borre kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Helland, A.

    1993-01-01

    NIVA har nå på oppdrag fra Borre kommune kartlagt innholdet av tungmetaller i bunnsedimentene i Hortenkanalen. Undersøkelsen er utført på bakgrunn av planene om rehabilitering av kanalen. Undersøkelsene viste store overkonsentrasjoner av bly (100 X bakgrunn) og kvikksølv (30 X bakgrunn) i Hortenkanalen og Fyllinga båthavn. Høye verdier ble også registrert i andre deler av kanalen. Tidligere utslipp fra Anker Sønnak til kanalen synes å være kilden til bly og kvikksølvforurensningen. Høye verdi...

  11. Low-Complexity Tools in AVS Part 7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yi; Qi-Chao Sun; Jie Dong; Lu Yu

    2006-01-01

    Audio Video coding Standard (AVS) is established by the AVS Working Group of China. The main goal of AVS part 7 is to provide high compression performance with relatively low complexity for mobility applications. There are 3 main low-complexity tools: deblocking filter, context-based adaptive 2D-VLC and direct intra prediction. These tools are presented and analyzed respectively. Finally, we compare the performance and the decoding speed of AVS part 7 and H.264 baseline profile. The analysis and results indicate that AVS part 7 achieves similar performance with lower cost.

  12. Betydelsen av kompetensutveckling inom olika verksamheter

    OpenAIRE

    Gottfridsson, Anna

    2005-01-01

    För att förändra behövs tillgång till kompetenser. Olika verksamheter har olika behov av kompetensutveckling för att nå sina mål. Att finna behov av kompetenser i förhållande till verksamhetens mål, kan vara en början på att rätt kompetens hamnar på rätt plats utifrån de satsningar som görs. En utvärdering kan göras för att utvisa om verksamheten är på rätt väg mot förändring. Uppsatsens syfte är att skapa förståelse för kompetensutvecklingens betydelse för att verksamheten ska kunna förändra...

  13. Implementeringsforskning: vitenskap for forbedring av praksis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Flottorp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medisinsk forskning har ført til store framskritt de siste tiårene. Det er investert mye mer ressurser på basalforskning og klinisk forskning enn på å utvikle og evaluere metoder for å sikre at pasientene får nytte av forskningen. Formålet med implementeringsforskning er å redusere gapet mellom forskning og praksis, ved å utvikle og evaluere tiltak som kan sikre at behandlingen som pasientene mottar er kunnskapsbasert, at den er omsorgsfull og av god kvalitet.I denne artikkelen gjør vi rede for hva implementering og implementeringsforskning er. Vi belyser historikken til denne unge vitenskapen, og illustrerer mangfoldet i de faglige tilnærmingene og begrepene som brukes om det å få forskning brukt i praksis. Det finnes en rekke teorier om endring av atferd, både på individnivå og på organisatorisk nivå. Teoriene er imidlertid i liten grad testet empirisk, særlig når det gjelder å endre atferd i helsetjenesten.Systematiske oversikter over metodisk gode studier er den beste kilden til informasjon om effekt av implementeringstiltak. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC er en viktig kilde for slike oversikter. De systematiske oversiktene som er utarbeidet på dette feltet viser at passive dissemineringstiltak har begrenset effekt, mens mer aktive tiltak kan ha liten til moderat effekt. Det er ofte betydelig variasjon i effekt på tvers av studiene. Det er derfor viktig å få bedre kunnskap om hvilke faktorer som kan forklare slike forskjeller i effekt.Vi gir eksempler på norske implementeringsstudier, og refererer bidrag fra forskere ved Kunnskapssenteret. Implementeringsforskningen kan, hvis den lykkes, sikre pasientene bedre behandling.Flottorp S, Aakhus E. Implementation research: science for improving practice. Nor J Epidemiol 201 3; 23 (2: 187-196.ENGLISH SUMMARY Medical research has led to major advances in recent decades. More resources have been invested in basic and clinical research

  14. Prosjektanalyse av Kai Kos Dehseh : en bedriftsøkonomisk lønnsomhetsvurdering av Statoil sitt oljesandprosjekt i Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hedenstad, Aleksander; Strøm, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Denne utredningen er en prosjektanalyse av Statoils oljesandprosjekt i Canada. I utredningen gjennomfører vi en bedriftsøkonomisk lønnsomhetsanalyse av prosjektet ved hjelp av utvidet netto nåverdi. Dette innebærer at vi vurderer lønnsomheten til prosjektet på bakgrunn av statisk nåverdi, verdi av fleksibilitet og strategisk verdi. Den statiske nåverdien viser at prosjektet har en positiv netto nåverdi på 2,1 milliarder dollar, og dermed er lønnsomt. I tillegg har Statoil flere realopsjone...

  15. Utveckling av komponenter för att realisera reglering av ett elektrostatiskt ställdon

    OpenAIRE

    Tram, Tommy; Burlin, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    SammanfattningI Higuchi och Yamamoto laboratoriet på Tokyo Universitetet har det utvecklats en elektrostatiskt ställdon som kan förflytta pappersliknande halvledande material med hjälp av elektrostatiska fält.I denna rapport presenteras utvecklingen av ett antal grundlägande komponenter för att realisera reglering av ett elektrostatiskt ställdon. Genom att använda bildbehandlig samt en kamera kan man fastställa positionen av objektet som styrs av det elektrostatiska ställdonet.Två alternativa...

  16. Bruk av amniocenteser og chorionbiopsier i Norge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttorm Haugen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGInvasiv prenatal diagnostikk i form av amniocentese (fostervannsprøve og chorionbiopsi (morkakeprøveutføres i ca. 2% av alle svangerskap i Norge per år. Dette er betydelig færre undersøkelser ennhva som utføres i de andre nordiske land. De fleste får utført amniocentese pga. høy maternell alder(aldersindikasjon som her i landet er ≥ 38 år ved fødselstermin. Chorionbiopsi er forbeholdt kvinnermed kjente arvelige lidelser i familien, dvs. kvinner med høy risiko for å få et affisert foster. De undersøkelsersom foreligger over svangerskapsutfall samt forekomst av komplikasjoner etter amniocenteseog chorionbiopsi er hovedsakelig utført i andre land på kvinner med generelt lavere risiko ( ≥ 35 år ennfor dem som får utført invasiv prenatal diagnostikk i Norge. Pga. vår restriktive praksis kan ikke disseresultatene uten videre overføres til Norge. Vi mangler eksakte data over svangerskapsutfall og evt.komplikasjoner etter disse undersøkelsene i en norsk populasjon.Haugen G, van der Hagen CB. The use of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in Norway.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYAmniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling are performed in about 2% of all pregnancies in Norwaywhich is far less than in the other Nordic countries. Most of the amniocenteses are performed due toadvanced maternal age. In Norway this is defined as maternal age ≥ 38 years at term. Couples withknown chromosomal aberrations or genetic diseases in their families, i.e. women at a high risk of havingan affected fetus, are offered chorionic villus sampling. Earlier studies on complications and pregnancyoutcome following amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling have been performed in other countriesmainly on women at a lower risk ( ≥ 35 years than for the women having such tests in Norway. We donot have data on pregnancy outcome and possible complications following amniocentesis and chorionicvillus sampling in a Norwegian

  17. Prediktion av matchresultat i engelska Premier League

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Att i förväg försöka förutsäga vilket lag som kommer vinna i en fotbollsmatch har nog de flesta försökt sig på någon gång. Att gissa och att faktiskt försöka att analysera båda lagens förutsättningar är två väldigt olika metoder att komma fram till sitt resultat. I och med att datorkraften de senaste åren kraftigt förbättrats har det också kommit fler och framför allt tyngre matematiska modeller för att skatta utfallet av matcher. I detta examensarbete används Pi-ratingsystemet som går ut på ...

  18. Dubbelkassen : En ny typ av matvarukasse

    OpenAIRE

    Palmér, Anna; Morawetz, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Denna rapport syftar till att vidareutveckla produkten Dubbelkassens vilken utvecklades under kursen HM1025 som gavs under hösten 2010 på Kungliga Tekniska högskolan. Tidigare gjordes flera begränsningar som i detta arbete utreds för att skapa en helhetsbild om hur produktframtagningen av Dubbelkassen bör gå till. Dubbelkassen som produkt medför ett ergonomiskt bättre bärsätt. Skillnaden mellan en vanlig bärkasse och Dubbelkassen är att handtagen på Dubbelkassen är förlängda vilket innebär at...

  19. Avvattning av nanocellulosa i en DDA

    OpenAIRE

    Artman, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Genom laborativa försök skulle avvattning och retention av nanocellulosa i en DDA (Dynamic drainage analyzer) undersökas. Detta genom att tillsätta retentionskemikalier i varierande mängder för att se hur det påverkade avvattningen. Uppdragsgivaren var Innventia och laborationerna utfördes på SP:s laboratorium där DDA instrument fanns tillgängligt. DDA instrumentet liknar den maskin som används för papperstillverkning och därför anses det vara möjligt att kunna avvattna nanocellulosa på likna...

  20. Preparation, characterization and ion-exchange behavior of polyantimonic acid-polyacrylonitrile (PAA-PAN) composite beads for strontium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An organic-inorganic composite ion exchanger of polyantimonic acid-polyacrylonitrile (PAA-PAN) was synthesized to remove strontium(II) from radioactive waste water. Ion exchange behavior of the composite toward strontium(II) were investigated and the results indicated that the composite presents excellent performance in 0.1 mol L-1 nitric acid. The maximum uptake capacity of strontium(II) can reach up to 49 mg g-1 on composite. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters showed that the ion exchange was endothermic and spontaneous reaction and equilibrium adsorption data fit well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. In addition, PAA-PAN beads were found to have chemical and adsorption stability under irradiation and acidic media. (author)

  1. Bioseguridad en granjas avícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Ricaurte Galindo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available La bioseguridad es el conjunto de prácticas de manejo diseñadas para prevenir la entrada y transmisión de agentes patógenos que puedan afectar la sanidad en las granjas avícolas. La bioseguridad es una parte fundamental de cualquier empresa avícola ya que proporciona un aumento de la productividad de la parvada y un aumento en el rendimiento económico. En líneas generales, se debe contemplar la localización de la granja, características constructivas de los galpones, control de parvadas extraños a la granja, limpieza y desinfección de los galpones, control de visitas, evitar el stress en las aves encasetadas, evitar la contaminación del pienso, control de vacunaciones y medicaciones y control de deyecciones, cadáveres, etc.The biosecurity is the group of practical of handling designed to prevent the entrance and agents' pathologies transmission that can affect the sanity in the poultry farms. The biosecurity is since a fundamental part of any poultry company it provides an increase of the productivity of the chickens and hens and an increase in the economic yield. In general lines, the localization of the farm should be contemplated, characteristic constructive of the ship, control of strange chickens and hens to the farm, cleaning and disinfection of the ship, control of visits, to avoid the stress in the birds housed, to avoid the contamination of the I think, control of vaccinations and medications and dejections control, cadavers, etc.

  2. Grau de cobertura do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA junto aos agricultores familiares do estado de Minas Gerais¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leonardo Simão

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Indicadores são instrumentos úteis no escopo da gestão pública, haja vista sua capacidade de mensuração da cobertura dessas ações governamentais. O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar um indicador para mensurar o nível de propensão à execução do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA nos municípios de Minas Gerais, em 2011, que englobasse tanto a propensão de insegurança alimentar da população local quanto a necessidade de acesso ao mercado por parte da agricultura familiar local. O indicador, denominado Índice de Propensão à Execução do PAA (IPE-PAA, foi elaborado com a utilização de duas proxies compostas por cinco variáveis. Constatou-se que a maioria dos recursos foi repassada a agricultores dos municípios de maior demanda das ações do programa e que o nível de cobertura total ainda se mostra incipiente diante das necessidades das regiões demandantes. Há também uma taxa de cobertura mesorregional desigual das ações do programa, o que indica que algumas regiões têm sido preteridas, com destaque para a mesorregião da Zona da Mata do estado. O IPE-PAA foi útil, pois aponta como uma política pública inovadora no contexto da gestão pública brasileira tem sido implementada e desenvolvida.

  3. The Influence of Lyophilized EmuGel Silica Microspheres on the Physicomechanical Properties, In Vitro Bioactivity and Biodegradation of a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Loaded PCL/PAA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mabrouk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new composite poly(caprolactone (PCL and poly(acrylic acid (PAA (PCL:PAA 1:5 scaffold was synthesized via dispersion of PCL particles into a PAA network. Silica microspheres (Si (2–12 μm were then prepared by a lyophilized micro-emulsion/sol-gel (Emugel system using varying weight ratios. The model drug ciprofloxacin (CFX was used for in situ incorporation into the scaffold. The physicochemical and thermal integrity, morphology and porosity of the system was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Attenuated Total Refelctance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, SEM, surface area analysis and liquid displacement, respectively. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were measured by textural analysis and in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and pH variations were evaluated by XRD, FTIR and SEM after immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF. The in vitro and in vivo studies of the prepared scaffold were considered as future aspects for this study. CFX release was determined in phosphate buffer saline (PBS (pH 7.4; 37 °C. The incorporation of the Si microspheres and CFX into the scaffold was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, DSC and SEM, and the scaffold microstructure was dependent on the concentration of Si microspheres and the presence of CFX. The system displayed enhanced mechanical properties (4.5–14.73 MPa, in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and controlled CFX release. Therefore, the PCL/PAA scaffolds loaded with Si microspheres and CFX with a porosity of up to 87% may be promising for bone tissue engineering.

  4. AVS 3D Video Coding Technology and System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siwei Ma; Shiqi Wang; Wen Gao

    2012-01-01

    Following the success of the audio video standard (AVS) for 2D video coding, in 2008, the China AVS workgroup started developing 3D video (3DV) coding techniques. In this paper, we discuss the background, technical features, and applications of AVS 3DV coding technology. We introduce two core techniques used in AVS 3DV coding: inter-view prediction and enhanced stereo packing coding. We elaborate on these techniques, which are used in the AVS real-time 3DV encoder. An application of the AVS 3DV coding system is presented to show the great practical value of this system. Simulation results show that the advanced techniques used in AVS 3DV coding provide remarkable coding gain compared with techniques used in a simulcast scheme.

  5. Kreativitet i team : betydningen av ekstroversjon og introversjon

    OpenAIRE

    Lindtveit, Lena Elise

    2014-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven har som formål å studere hvordan personlighet kan påvirke den kreative idegenereringsprosessen i et team. Personlighet er i denne sammenheng begrenset til en av de mest sentrale dimensjonene innenfor personlighetsteorien, introversjon – ekstroversjon. Studien ble gjennomført med bruk av eksperimenter i team på tre som var sammensatt av personer med ekstrovert og introvert personlighetsprofil. Det ble i tillegg benyttet observasjon under eksperimentene, for å kunne un...

  6. Urimelig liberal : en kritikk av John Rawls teori om rettferdighet

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Oppgaven handler om Rawls "theory of justice". Jeg har lagt vekt på teorien som en verdinøytral prosedyre. Jeg kritiserer ulikhetsprinsippet for at det tillater forskjeller som er så store at de underminerer verdien av de politiske frihetene. Videre viser jeg hvordan mennesker er avhengige av å bekreftes gjennom gjensidige relasjoner av anerkjennelse. Rawls begrep om selvrespekt er utilstrekkelig og han kan derfor ikke sikre borgernes autonomi.

  7. Visualization on massively parallel computers using CM/AVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogh, M.F.; Hansen, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    CM/AVS is a visualization environment for the massively parallel CM-5 from Thinking Machines. It provides a backend to the standard commercially available AVS visualization product. At the Advanced Computing Laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been experimenting and utilizing this software within our visualization environment. This paper describes our experiences with CM/AVS. The conclusions reached are applicable to any implimentation of visualization software within a massively parallel computing environment.

  8. Markedsføring av naturmidler- en vurdering

    OpenAIRE

    Tønnesen, Maria Høyland

    2008-01-01

    Hensikten med oppgaven var å undersøke og sammenligne markedsføringen av naturmidler i kommunikasjonskanalene apotek, helsekostforretninger, Internett, ukeblad og magasiner. I løpet av ti uker ble det samlet inn annonser, produktkataloger og annet skriftlig materiale der naturmidler presenteres innen anvendelsesområdene "immunforsvaret", "mage/tarm", "overgangsalderen/PMS" og "urinveiene". Produkter med innhold av dvergpalme (Serenoa repens) og tranebær (Vaccinium macrocarpon) ble vurder...

  9. Evaluering av Leonardo da Vinci og Sokrates i Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Vabø, Agnete; Smeby, Jens-Christian

    2003-01-01

    Norsk institutt for studier av forskning og høyere utdanning har på oppdrag fra Utdannings- og forskningsdepartementet evaluert norsk deltakelse i EUs utdanningsprogrammer Leonardo da Vinci og Sokrates, samt de nasjonale kontorene for disse programmene. Det er utarbeidet fire rapporter; en om norsk deltakelse i Leonardo da Vinci og en om norsk deltakelse i Sokrates, en om nasjonalt kontor for Leonardo som er ivaretatt av Teknologisk institutts (TI) drift av Leonardo og en om nasjonalt kontor ...

  10. Internkommunikation av CSR : - En fallstudie av hur CSR internt förmedlas inom Clas Ohlson

    OpenAIRE

    Imeri, Dodona; Varatharajah, Kajany

    2012-01-01

    Den ökade transparensen i samhället har bidragit till att allt fler företag aktivt arbetar medCorporate Social Responsibility, CSR. Tyvärr är det många verksamheter idag som inte får tillräckligt mycket uppskattning för deras CSR-policy. Detta är för att den externa kommunikationen gentemot konsumenter inte är optimal. När konsumenter inte har kännedom om företagets CSR försvinner mycket av den konkurrenskraft som CSR bidrar med. Samtidigt kan en överdriven marknadsföring av företagets CSR-po...

  11. Lederes bruk av informasjon i styringssystemet : en studie av Beyond Budgeting i StatoilHydro

    OpenAIRE

    Ribe, Susann

    2009-01-01

    StatoilHydro har innført Beyond Budgeting som styringssystem i hele sin virksomhet, og i den forbindelse blant annet gått bort ifra tradisjonell budsjettstyring. Styringssystemet er satt sammen av prinsipper som beskriver hvordan StatoilHydro skal styres, gjennom organisasjonskultur, administrativ oppbygning og økonomisk styring. I disse prinsippene har StatoilHydro-lederne tilgjengelig informasjon, som benyttes som grunnlag for å styre enheten. Denne oppgaven har som formål å beskrive hvo...

  12. Lederes bruk av informasjon i styringssystemet : en studie av beyond budgeting i StatoilHydro

    OpenAIRE

    Ribe, Susann

    2009-01-01

    Denne rapporten omhandler hvordan Beyond Budgeting som styringssystem fungerer og praktiseres i StatoilHydro. StatoilHydro har innført Beyond Budgeting som styringssystem i hele sin virksomhet, og i den forbindelse blant annet gått bort ifra tradisjonell budsjettstyring. Styringssystemet består av en rekke prinsipper som dekker blant annet administrativ oppbygning, økonomiske styringsprinsipper og bedriftskultur. Gjennom disse prinsippene har StatoilHydro-lederne tilgjengelig informasjon som ...

  13. Analyse av varmepumpesystemer for oppvarming og kjøling av større bygninger

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Finn Volla

    2008-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven er skrevet ved Institutt for energi- og prosessteknikk, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet. Hensikten har vært å foretå en detaljert analyse av ett eller flere eksempelbygg med varmepumpeanlegg med hensyn til eventuell feilaktig dimensjonering, komponent- og systemvalg og drift, for å se hva dette har å si for anleggenes energisparing, driftssikkerhet og lønnsomhet. Det analyserte anlegget er varme- og kjølesystemet ved Universitet i Stavanger som har en bygni...

  14. Analyse av tids og kostnadsutvikling for Statoil Leteboring Norge.

    OpenAIRE

    Egeland, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    I denne oppgaven er totalt 903 letebrønner på norsk og britisk sokkel analysert for overordnet tids- og kostnadsutvikling i perioden 2000 til 2013. Totalt er 205 av disse brønnene boret av Statoil, mens de resterende 698 brønnene er boret av konkurrerende operatørselskaper. I tillegg er det gjort en mer detaljert utredning av Statoil sine kostnader i perioden 2009 til 2013, hvor kostnadene til totalt 74 brønner er delt opp i flere undergrupper. Tidsutviklingen viser at det er en 38% nedgan...

  15. Funktionsmodellering av en lastbilsväxellåda

    OpenAIRE

    Calendar Sandegård, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med detta arbete var att skapa en generell CAD-modell av en lastbils växellåda som skall förenkla kommunikationen med olika parter och kompetenser kring utveckling och konstruktion av nya växellådor. Genom att mäta och studera komponenter hos en verklig växellåda byggdes en grund upp och genom vidare diskussion med sakkunniga inom området samt studie av videoklipp har arbetet kunnat färdigställas. Arbetet resulterade i en CAD-modell av en lastbils växellåda gjord i SolidEdge, illustrer...

  16. Reducering av släpförluster

    OpenAIRE

    Långfors, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    För att öka köreffektivitet och säkerhet samt minska bromsarnas slitage är de flesta av Scanias lastbilar och bussar utrustade med en hjälpbroms, så kallad retarder. En retarder arbetar generellt sett enligt någon av följande två principer. Dels en elektromagnetisk variant av retarder som bromsar bilens kardanaxel, drivaxlar eller växellåda genom att utnyttja elektromagnetisk induktion, eller som i Scanias fall där man använder sig av en hydrodynamisk tillsatsbroms som bromsar bilens kardanax...

  17. Karakterisering av immuncellerespons og antimikrobiell effekt hos Dendrobaena veneta

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Fride

    2009-01-01

    Norsk: Studie av det innate immunforsvaret hos meitemark kan brukes til å øke forståelsen av mekanismene som ligger til grunn for immunsystemet hos høyerestående dyr. I dette arbeidet har det blitt etablert og optimalisert metoder for ekstraksjon av immunceller, såkalt coelomocytter, fra meitemarken Dendrobaena veneta. Ulike ekstraksjonsbuffere har blitt testet og optimalisert med hensyn på størst celleutbytte og lavest mulig grad av celleaggregering. Resultatene viste at elektrostimulering v...

  18. Dynamiske analyser av ny distribuert produksjon i Namsskogan

    OpenAIRE

    Svarva, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven omhandler en dynamisk stabilitetsanalyse av et område med mye planlagt distribuert småkraft, og er gitt av NTE Nett AS. Bakgrunnen for oppgaven er en endring av nettet i området, for å tilknytte ny planlagt produksjon.En dynamisk simuleringsmodell av planområdet er utviklet i analyseprogrammet DigSilent PowerFactory. De dynamiske analysene tar utgangspunkt i tre ulike driftssituasjoner; Case A med maksimal produksjon og lavlast, Case B med produks...

  19. Analyse av en platehøyttaler ved elementmetoden

    OpenAIRE

    Sørgjerd, Trond Ågesen

    2010-01-01

    Denne oppgaven tar for seg avstråling fra en platehøyttaler (såkalt Distributed Mo- de Loudspeaker, DML). Ved hjelp av simuleringer av panelet med endelig element- metoden i COMSOL Multiphysics, beregning av avstråling ved det diskretiserte Rayliegh-integralet i MATLAB og sammenligning med tidligere målearbeider, har en kartlagt egenskapene til høyttaleren. Oppgaven er vel så mye en studie i bruk av numeriske verktøy, og deres begrensinger, som med platemekanikk.

  20. Jämförelsestudie av tilläggsisolering

    OpenAIRE

    Elmi, Said; Eskilsson, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    Rapporten behandlar och utvärderar tre olika isolermaterial, Polyisocyanurat (PIR), grafitcellplast och mineralull, vid tilläggsisolering av miljonprogrammets byggnationer.  Stora delar av miljonprogrammet är nu i behov av upprustning. Samhällets skärpta krav gällande energiförbrukning gör att nya rationella metoder och material krävs för att tillgodose ställda krav. Att tilläggsisolera är en del i denna upprustning, och eftersom valet av isolermaterial ofta faller på gamla beprövade metoder ...

  1. Reetablering av laks i Vefsna. Årsrapport 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Holthe, Espen; Jensen, Arne J.; Berg, Marius; Bremset, Gunnbjørn; Jensås, Jan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Espen Holthe, Arne J. Jensen, Marius Berg, Gunnbjørn Bremset & Jan Gunnar Jensås 2016. Reetablering av laks i Vefsna. Årsrapport 2015. - NINA Rapport 1245. 37 s. Veterinærinstituttet (VI) og Norsk institutt for naturforskning (NINA) har på oppdrag fra Statkraft Energi AS i fellesskap ansvaret for evalueringen av tiltak som utføres i Vefsna i forbindelse med reetablering av fiskebestandene av laks og sjøørret etter bekjempelsestiltak for å fjerne parasitten Gyrodactylus salaris fra vassdrag...

  2. Legemiddelbivirkninger – forekomst og vurdering av årsakssammenhenger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Westergren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En gjennomgang av spontanrapportene fra den norske bivirkningsdatabasen viser en betydelig geografisk variasjon når det gjelder innrapportering av bivirkninger. I Norge blir disse meldingene evaluert ved RELIS (Regionale legemiddelinformasjonssentre av tverrfaglige team bestående av leger og farmasøyter. Bivirkningsarbeidet ved RELIS gjøres på oppdrag fra Statens legemiddelverk, som har det overordnede ansvar for legemiddelovervåkningen i Norge. Vurderingene baseres på kjent risikoprofil for mistenkte legemidler, indikasjon, dosering, tidsmessig sammenheng mellom reaksjon og medikamentinntak, effekt av seponering og eventuelle andre risikofaktorer. 3345 legemiddel/bivirkningskombinasjoner ble vurdert på bakgrunn av 1408 rapporter i 2006. De fleste mistenkte bivirkningene ble klassifisert som mulige, ettersom andre faktorer også kunne ha spilt en rolle. Få bivirkninger ble klassifisert som sikre. Informasjon om bivirkninger i litteratur og databaser er i flere tilfeller preget av manglende homogenitet, tilfeldige sammentreff i tid, manglende data og lite vurdering av sammenhengen mellom reaksjonen og medisinbruken. Kliniske studier har begrenset mulighet til å påvise annet enn de vanligste bivirkningene. Det kan ta år etter markedsføring å fastslå sammenhengen med mer sjeldne bivirkninger. Frekvenstabeller for bivirkninger er anslag basert på et begrenset antall pasienter, spesielt for nye legemidler. Evaluering av bivirkningsrapporter fra helsepersonell kan avdekke mangel på lett tilgjengelig informasjon og bidra til ny kunnskap om et legemiddels bivirkningsprofil

  3. Anvendelse av INCA-P og MyLake i tiltaksplanlegging. En vurdering av egnethet og veiledning ved innhenting og formattering av data

    OpenAIRE

    T. H. Bakken; Kaste, Ø.; T. Saloranta; Barkved, L.

    2006-01-01

    Dette studiet har vurdert egnetheten av INCA-P og MyLake i tiltaksplanlegging mot uønsket eutrofiering. Det er gjort en teoretisk vurdering av hvilke typer tiltak som modellene synes å være i stand til å representere, gjennom en tenkt manipulering av inngangsdataserier og/eller modellparametere. Videre har modellenes databehov og -kilder blitt systematisert og omtalt med utførlige beskrivelser om tilgang, datakvalitet, dekningsgrad, osv. Rapporten beskriver også hvordan rådata kan bearbeides ...

  4. Muslimske kvinner sitt medborgarskap i fleirkulturelle og fleirreligiøse samfunn : Ei analyse av partipolitiske representasjonar av bruk av hijab i Noreg og Danmark

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Bruk av hijab har ført til kontroversar over heile Europa, og myndigheitene må finne måtar å handtere konfliktar som har kome opp på grunn av det muslimske hovudplagget. Ulike tilnærmingar har vorte valt. Ei todelt problemstilling knytt til desse kontroversane vert diskutert i oppgåva: Korleis vert bruk av hijab representert i den partipolitiske diskursen i Noreg og Danmark? Og korleis vert medborgarskapet til muslimske kvinner med hijab konstruert i den partipolitiske diskursen? Utgangs...

  5. Spa-typing av stammer av Staphylococcus aureus fra blodkulturer analysert ved UNN Tromsø 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Midtgard, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Staphylococcus aureus er et av de vanligste patogenene som kan skape sykdom hos mennesket. Mange av oss er bærere av bakterien i nese eller hals, og det er vist at persisterende bærere har høyere risiko for å utvikle S. aureus-infeksjoner enn andre. De fleste S. aureus-infeksjonene blant bærere er forårsaket av pasientens egen bakteriestamme. Materiale og metode: 140 blodkulturisolater fra pasienter med S. aureus bakteriemi analysert ved Avdeling for mikrobiologi og smitte...

  6. En strategisk analyse av et taxiselskap i Danmark : en casestudie av 4x48 TaxiNord

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Stine Husum

    2012-01-01

    Danmark ble hardt rammet av finanskrisen, og er fortsatt påvirket av dette. Taxibransjen merket i stor grad denne krisen. Jeg går inn i dybden av taxibransjen i Region Hovedstaden ved å se på taxiselskapet 4x48TaxiNord. Deres vognmenn opplever færre turer og dermed lavere inntjeningen. Samtidig så klarer TaxiNord å oppnå lønnsomhet som selskap og de har klart å ekspandere. Jeg benytter meg av en casestudie for å se på denne bransjen, og har utarbeidet forskningsspørsmålet: Hva er årsake...

  7. Langtidsovervåking av miljøkvalitet i kystområdene av Norge. Hardbunnssamfunn. Datarapport 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Moy, F.; Pedersen, A.; Green, N; Walday, M.

    2002-01-01

    Foreliggende datarapport inneholder tabeller over registrert materiale innsamlet på kystovervåkingens hardbunnstokt gjennomført i tidsrommet 31. mai - 16. juni 2001. Hardbunnsprogrammet for år 2001 omfattet 12 stasjoner på kyststrekningen Færder til Egersund. Toktet ble 1 dag lengre enn planlagt på grunn av sykdom. På alle stasjoner ble det foretatt: registrering av fastsittende algers og dyrs forekomst langs dykketransekt ned til 30 m dyp måling av taretetthet, -alder, stipeslengde av storta...

  8. Effektivitetsanalyse av norske fengsler : en ikke-parametrisk studie av fengslene i 2009 og 2010 ved hjelp av Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Holmbukt, Stein-Bjørnar

    2011-01-01

    I denne oppgaven analyseres effektiviteten til norske fengsler. Fokus er på indre effektivitet, det vil si hvor godt fengslene utnytter sine ressurser i produksjonen av sine daglige aktiviteter. Analysen tar for seg effektiviteten til det enkelte fengsel i 2009 og 2010. Eventuelle skala- og spesialiseringsegenskaper i driften av et fengsel blir analysert. Undersøkelsen tar også for seg om det er noen sammenheng mellom endringer i ressursbruk og effektivitet. Til slutt undersøkes eventuelle ef...

  9. Romistika a Etnologický ústav AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinerová, Renata

    Praha: Etnologický ústav AV ČR, 2006 - (Uherek, Z.), s. 109-130 ISBN 80-85010-82-8 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Romani studies * culture * politics Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  10. AVS/Express (Application Visualization System) user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS/Express for image processing software and Stereo viewing system. This report summarizes the information to use AVS/Express efficiently in the computer environment for image processing. (author)

  11. Introduction to AVS2 Scene Video Coding Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaying Yan; Siwei Dong; Yonghong Tian; Tiejun Huang

    2016-01-01

    The second generation Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS2) is the most recent video coding standard. By introducing several new coding techniques, AVS2 can provide more efficient compression for scene videos such as surveillance videos, conference videos, etc. Due to the limited scenes, scene videos have great redundancy especially in background region. The new scene video coding techniques applied in AVS2 mainly focus on reducing redundancy in order to achieve higher compression. This paper introduces several important AVS2 scene video coding techniques. Experimental results show that with scene video coding tools, AVS2 can save nearly 40%BD⁃rate (Bjøntegaard⁃Delta bit⁃rate) on scene videos.

  12. Addition of ash and PK with or without N on a peatland in southern Sweden. Effects on tree growth and needle element concentrate; Tillfoersel av aska och PK med eller utan N paa en torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa traedtillvaext och aemneshalter i barr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf (Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    In Sweden, about 1.3 million tonnes of ash are produced annually. Out of that amount, 150 000 - 300 000 tonnes have been estimated to originate from forest fuels, i.e. ashes that potentially can be brought back to the forest. Apart from being a compensatory measure after intensive forest harvest (e.g. including tops and branches), the ash may be used to increase the tree growth on peat soils (ash fertilization). On peat soils, tree growth is generally increased after addition of ash or phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers. However, in some cases also nitrogen (N) addition is required. On sparsely stocked mires, fertilization may promote the regeneration as well as increase the growth of the trees. Sufficient drainage and supply of plant-available N are some prerequisites for increasing tree growth by PK-addition. In 1982, Skogforsk established a field experiment (168 Perstorp) located in the province of Scania in a sparsely stocked Pinus Sylvestris (L.) sapling stand on a ditched mire where different nutrient regimes were tested. The experiment had a randomized block design including four blocks and seven treatments. Ash and different dozes of P (raw phosphate) and K (potassium chloride), with or without simultaneous N addition, were included as well as un untreated control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on tree growth and needle elemental concentrations 26 years after treatment. The addition of similar dozes of P (approx. 40 kg P/ha), as ash (2.5 tonnes/ha) or as PK-fertilizer rendered similar growth responses. The increase in stem-wood growth was in the order of 1,6 - 1,9 m3/ha/yr during the 26-year period. The N-addition had no additional effect. On the control plots, the growth was more or less negligible (approx. 0,04 m3sk/ha/yr). On average, the high dozes of raw-phosphate and potassium chloride (40 kg P/ha and 80 kg K/ha) gave a higher growth increase than the low dozes (20 kg P/ha and 40 kg K/ha), although this effect was not statistically significant. In the low doze plots, the height growth of the main stems (to be left after a cleaning) indicated a shorter effect period. The increased tree growth on an area basis due to the nutrient addition was an effect of both an increase in the number of trees and an increased growth of these trees. The needle N concentrations indicated a sufficient N status of the Pinus sylvestris trees, which was in line with the lacking response on growth after N fertilization. In addition, the P- and K-concentrations in the needles increased significantly in the treatments with ash or PK, where the growth responses were substantial. In conclusion, sufficient drainage combined with addition of ash or PK-fertilizer on this type of mires can result in a pole stage Pinus sylvestris stand. However, the sustainability of the growth is an open question

  13. Final disposal of high-level nuclear waste in very deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research of bedrock conditions at great depths; Slutfoervaring av hoegaktivt kaernavfall i djupa borrhaal. En utvaerdering baserad paa senare aars forskning om berggrunden paa stora djup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    This report evaluates the feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of high-level nuclear waste, e.g., spent nuclear fuel, in the light of recent technological developments and research on the characteristics of bedrock at extreme depths. The evaluation finds that new knowledge in the field of hydrogeology and technical advances in drilling technology have advanced the possibility of using very deep boreholes (3-5 km) for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Decisive factors are (1) that the repository can be located in stable bedrock at a level where the groundwater is isolated from the biosphere, and (2) that the waste can be deposited and the boreholes permanently sealed without causing long-term disturbances in the density-stratification of the groundwater that surrounds the repository. Very deep borehole disposal might offer important advantage compared to the relatively more shallow KBS approach that is presently planned to be used by the Swedish nuclear industry in Sweden, in that it has the potential of being more robust. The reason for this is that very deep borehole disposal appears to permit emplacement of the waste at depths where the entire repository zone would be surrounded by stable, density-stratified groundwater having no contact with the surface, whereas a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by upwardly mobile groundwater. This hydro-geological difference is a major safety factor, which is particularly apparent in all scenarios that envisage leakage of radioactive substances. Another advantage of a repository at a depth of 3 to 5 km is that it is less vulnerable to impacts from expected events (e.g., changes in groundwater conditions during future ice ages) as well as undesired events (e.g. such as terrorist actions, technical malfunction and major local earthquakes). Decisive for the feasibility of a repository based on the very deep borehole concept is, however, the ability to emplace the waste without failures. In order to achieve this further research and technological development is required.

  14. Simple permutations of the classes Av(321, 13524) and Av(321, 13452) have polynomial growth

    OpenAIRE

    Lutful Karim; Nargis Khan

    2011-01-01

    A permutation is called simple if its only blocks i.e. subsets of the permutation consist of singleton and the permutation itself. For example, 2134 is not a simple permutation since it consists ofa block 213 but 3142 is a simple permutation. The basis of a permutation is a pattern which is minimal under involvement and do not belong to the permutation. In this paper, we prove that the number of simple permutations an of the pattern class with two basis of length 3 and 5 such as Av(321, 13452...

  15. Upplevelserna av ett coachande ledarskap : och vikten av emotionell intelligens för ledare

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Lina

    2009-01-01

    Det coachande ledarskapet är ett ledarskap som fokuserar på samspelet mellan ledare och medarbetare. För att studera detta ledarskap så har syftet med denna undersökning varit att undersöka upplevelserna av detta ledarskap som personer med beteendevetenskaplig utbildning har. Resultatet visar att undersökningsdeltagarna värderar relationen mellan ledaren och medarbetaren som det grundläggande i ledarskapet. Förutom det coachande förhållningssättet i ledarskapet så handlar det också om hur led...

  16. Effekt av temperatur og fosforkonsentrasjon på celle- og genomstørrelse av Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Hafslund, Ola Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Temperatur og fosforkonsentrasjon spiller inn på cellesyklus til C. reinhardtii. Ikke-synkron cellesyklus gjør størrelsesendringer vanskelig å detekterer. Mulig genomstørrelse endring som følge av reallokasjon av P fra DNA til RNA funnet

  17. The Wind Power Handbook. Planning and approval of wind power plants on shore and in coastal areas; Vindkraftshandboken. Planering och proevning av vindkraftverk paa land och i kustnaera vattenomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    The Wind Power Handbook is designed to make it easier for municipalities and wind energy companies to plan wind power projects. It contains the issues to be considered when planning and review, both the legal bases under essentially Planning and Building Act and the Environmental Code and the environmental assessments. The manual is primarily addressed to the municipalities and various operators. There are many interests to be met at a wind power establishment, which requires knowledge and cooperation of the different actors on the planning and approval process to be effective. Here we have gathered important knowledge base to facilitate the process and to contribute to a balanced decision

  18. Maintenance strategies and safety on a deregulated market. Mapping of changes in maintenance strategies and their possible consequences; Underhaallsstrategier och saekerhet paa en avreglerad elmarknad. En kartlaeggning av foeraendrade underhaallsstrategier och dess moejliga konsekvenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena [MTO Psykologi AB, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    The overall purpose of the project was to make a survey of the changes in the Swedish nuclear power plants over the last five years. There is a risk that nuclear power companies after a deregulation will focus especially on reducing operation and maintenance costs and that the changes could have a negative effect on the reactor safety. The task has involved summarising the actual changes, describing the present situation, the need for future development and the differences between the plants as well as identifying possible reactor safety related risks. The survey has been carried out in a broad perspective, studying the changes in equipment, maintenance strategies and the work situation of the staff. Three case studies were carried out at the Swedish nuclear power plants. Documentation from the companies has been analysed and a selection of in total 27 'informed' employees in different positions have been interviewed in total. The project also included a fourth case study concerning railway traffic. This branch of business is interesting because of its longer experience on a deregulated and competitive market. Conclusions concerning the companies individually as well as similarities and differences between them are presented in this report. Results: There have been more changes both in strategy and organisation in the last five years than during the preceding 5-10-year-period and the pace has been relatively rapid. The deregulation of the electricity market was implemented January 1997 and became the main motive force for the changes. The staffing has been reduced or unchanged and the work demands have increased. The maintenance skills have been redistributed within the organisation. New methods and equipment, i.e. RCM, and programmable systems make increased demands for analytical and theoretical competence. In the short term, job satisfaction and motivation have in some cases been negatively influenced by the new organisation forms, according to several of the interviewed. The results indicate, in accordance with other research results, that rationalisations and changes must be combined with work development and the participation of the employees to be successful. Outsourcing has been used for some activities. All the companies have established a joint maintenance department for their units. The companies have been moving towards lean organization which has increased the work load of the staff. Therefore more planning is required to get a optimal resource allocation, to avoid problems at work peaks. All the plants have abandoned a downright customer-supplier relation for the benefit of one competent maintenance supplier with a comprehensive view. As a result the contractual undertaking of the maintenance department towards the production units is made on a long term basis. The new maintenance strategy is based on status controls for condition based maintenance and on riskbased analysing methods. There are modern computer-based maintenance systems at all the plants. Computer-based instruments are used direct in the production line where they require a competence shift in the staff. Positive effects that appeared in the interviews are better possibilities for experience feed back and methods development, access to a wider and larger competence and a joint working method. The results show that there are already some positive effects and there are more to be expected. But it is also clear that these effects have neither come as easily nor as fast as was expected. Possible negative effects: there is a risk that the staffing might be too scarce, especially in work peaks, e.g. unexpected shutdowns. A high work load and much overtime work mean greater strain on the staff. Problems with job satisfaction and motivation, chiefly after the change to a matrix organisation. Uncertainties as to responsibility and roles in the new organisation. The practical competence might 'disappear' in the present competence shift focusing on analytical, computer based methods. The difficulties of risk based methods are several: they might not correspond with reality, they might not measure what they are intended to measure and it might be that the probabilistic risk assessment approach is allowed to dominate over the deterministic at the expense of a good balance between them. There is also a risk that the methods are not enough developed, that the knowledge of how the results should be interpreted is limited and that this might lead to the wrong conclusions. With tighter priorities there is an increasing risk that the wrong things are left out. The feeling of 'ownership' towards a certain production unit as well as the team feeling might disappear when the employees work on several units. Deficiencies in the maintenance instructions become evident when the staff are transferred. If the work routines have not been thoroughly documented there is a risk that the staff make mistakes or that the measures are forgotten. A number of conditions have been identified that might influenced the reactor safety negatively in the long term if they are not taken care of. Such conditions are an increased pressure on the staff, high work load and too much overtime, uncertainties as to responsibility and roles, lack of job satisfaction and motivation and deficient maintenance instructions. Economic pressure and a high rate of change might also give negative influence. It is, however, important to stress that the results indicate that the changes are not carried out with a one-sided focus on cost reductions but with a focus on both individual and organisational learning and development. Safety culture has also been an important part of the change operations. It seems, though, as if it has been more difficult to balance the economy and safety messages to the staff.

  19. Studies of the drying effect in a moving grate test rig with new types of refractory. Refractory engineering - Stage 2B; Tester av torkeffekten paa roerlig braensleroster med nya murverk i testrigg. Aktiva murverk och braennare - Etapp 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, Anders [AaF-Energi and Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Within this project studies have been carried out how an active choice of refractory and/or addition of support burners can improve the combustion process in solid fuel boilers. The test rig, that was erected in the previous project at Energitekniskt Centrum in Piteaa, was modified with a moving grate and also equipped with a thermo camera for supervision of the drying- and combustion process. The test rig had the following features and equipment: A fuel bin containing wood fuel with a moisture content of 42%; Possible load range between 40 kW up to 160 kW fuel effect; Continuous feeding of the fuel on the grate with a total cycle time of 30 minutes; Zone divided inlets for the primary air to the grate; No secondary combustion air inlets; Exchangeable ceramic roof segments for testing, electrical heated; A support burner either directed towards the fuel bed or towards the ceramic roof; Analysis of CO, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in the exhaust gases; A thermo camera monitoring the grate. Four different types of ceramic brickworks have been tested with different qualities of heat conductivity, emissivity, heating capacity and reflexion of IR-radiation. Aluminium oxide is an extreme good isolating brickwork with low heating conductivity. Silicone carbide (SiC) has high conductivity and emissivity and is also available to a higher price. SiC is also more resistant to chemical reactive gases. A test program has been performed with different loads for the test rig. Same air to fuel ratio has been used for the different refractory material tests. The absolute emissions from the test rig where not optimised since the aim with the test rig was to compare the different ceramics. For example the test rig has no secondary air inlets. A correlation between CO-emission and fuel bed temperature in the drying zone is shown in the report. Andalusite has the lowest CO emission at low load and SiC the lowest emission at higher fuel input. The thermo camera for supervision of the combustion process seems to be an excellent tool. Support burner placed just over the fuel bed (bed burner) has little influence of the temperature of the brickwork. When the burner is closed the temperature decreases relatively fast when new wet fuel is feeded into the rig. Burner close to the brickwork is warming up both the ceramic and the fuel bed. The combination with SiC gives a fast heating up and also large energy storage. When it comes to transient load processes SiC is, at the same time, rapidly cooled down but is also warming up the fuel bed the longest period after stopped fuel feeding. This is, of course, an advantage if, for example, the fuel moisture content changes. Further R and D in the area with deeper understanding of appropriate brickworks for different fuel types are suggested in the rig. The use of thermo camera can also be developed in an interesting way.

  20. Pre-study of dynamic loads on the internals caused by a large pipe break in a BWR; Foerstudie av stroemningsinducerade laster paa interndelar vid brott i huvudcirkulationskretsarna i BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkiewicz, Jerzy; Lindgren, Anders [Det Norske Veritas Nuclear Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Det Norske Veritas Nuclear Technology has performed a literature study of dynamic load on a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) internals caused by a large pipe break. The goal of the study was to improve the knowledge about the physics of phenomena occurring in the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) after pipe break in the main circulation system and also to make a review of calculation methods, models and computer programs including their capabilities when calculating the dynamic loads. The report presents description of relevant parts of a BWR, initial and boundary conditions, and phenomena determining the loads - rapid depressurization and propagation of pressure wave (including none-equilibrium). Furthermore, the report generally describes possible methodologies for calculating the dynamic loads on internals after the pipe break and the experiences from calculations the dynamic loads with different methods (computer programs) including comparisons with experimental data. Fluid-Structure Interaction methodology and its importance for calculation of dynamic loads on reactor internals is discussed based on experimental data. A very intensive research program for studying and calculating the dynamic loads on internals after pipe breaks has been performed in USA and Germany during the seventies and the eighties. Several computer programs have been developed and a number of large-scale experiments have been performed to calibrate the calculation methods. In spite of the fact that all experiments were performed for PWR several experiences should be valid also for BWR. These experiences, connected mainly to capabilities of computer programs calculating dynamic loads, are discussed in the report.

  1. Particles from combustion of fuel with high content of ash - Experimental study of reed canary grass and straw; Partiklar fraan foerbraenning av askrika braenslen - Experimentell studie paa roerflen och halm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baefver, Linda; Ryde, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Domestic combustion of solid fuels is, besides traffic and industry, a major source to particles in the air. Increased biomass combustion means a risk of contributing to high concentrations of particles with respect to the environmental goals. Particles are a health risk. The number of ultrafines and the content of the particles are considered crucial for the effects. Gradually, new solid biofuels with high ash content and different ash composition are used. This means an enhanced risk of high particle emission and a change in the formation of particles. The aim of the project is to contribute to the description of the mechanisms for formation of particles at combustion of biomass with high content of ash. The possibility to decrease the particle emission by the use of additives will be especially investigated. Thereby, problems with particle emissions, as well as formation of deposits may be minimized. The project contains two parts. The first one is about combustion of oat grain, and has already been reported. In this report the second part of the project is presented. Reed canary grass and straw were studied. To decrease the particle emission from combustion of straw, tests with straw and the additive kaolin (clay mineral) were also carried out. The fuels were pelletized and contained 4-5 % ash (dry fuel). Reed canary grass (perennial grass) was chosen because it is has potential and it has also been much studied in Sweden. Straw was chosen because it has high accessibility, and is already fired to a certain degree. Straw contained 2.6 times more chlorine than reed canary grass. Reed canary grass had Si as dominating ash element (79 %), and thereafter it contained K (6 %), Ca (6 %) and P (3 %). A good half of the straw ash contained Si and thereafter K (23 %) and Ca (15 %) were most abundant. The fuels were continuously fired in a multi-stoker from Sonnys Maskiner, connected to a boiler from Centrometal. The particles mass concentration was measured by sampling on filter, and the mass size distribution with a low pressure impactor (LPI). The foil samples from the LPI were chemically analysed. The number concentration and size distribution were measured with an electrical LPI. Combustion of reed canary grass led to the lowest concentrations of particles, both with respect to mass, 12 mg/MJ, and number, 8.2 x 1012/MJ. Mass concentration at straw combustion was 64 mg/MJ, and the number concentration was 14 x 1012/MJ. The case of 3 % kaolin mixed with the straw pellets gave a decrease of the mass concentration, but simultaneously the emission almost doubled with respect to number of particles. However, in the case straw and 6 % kaolin the mass concentration of particles increased, while about the same number concentration as in the other additive case was noted. The following conclusions are drawn from this work: - Pellets from reed canary grass were good to fire in the multi-stoker used. However, the effects of ash in the long-range needs to be further investigated. - It is, because of slagging, not recommended to fire straw pellets in the stoker. - Combustion of straw pellets and the additive kaolin works fine in the stoker. - Combustion of reed canary grass gave very low emission of particles (mass). Mainly fine (< 1mum) particles, dominated by potassium sulphate, were emitted. - Combustion of straw gave much higher emission of particles than combustion of reed canary grass. The particles were mainly fine and dominated by KCl. - The number concentration of particles was almost twice as high at combustion of straw as it was at combustion of reed canary grass. Fine particles dominated. - High content of ash in the fuel combined with high content of chlorine and potassium means a risk of high particle emission. - There is a potential of decreasing the emission of particles by adding kaolin to straw fuel. However, there is a risk of overdosing and thus enhance the emission

  2. Effects of wood-ash addition on nitrogen turnover in a highly nitrogen loaded spruce site. Final project report; Effekter av askaaterfoering paa kvaeveomsaettningen i ett kvaeverikt granbestaand i Halland. Slutrapport foer projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    During two consecutive years, it was studied how a fertilization with 4.2 tonnes pelleted bark ash per ha, made six-seven years earlier, affected soil chemistry, nitrogen turnover and soil-water chemistry on a Norway spruce site in SW Sweden. The actual site has a very acidic soil. At the same time, the supply of inorganic N is rich. Measures against soil acidification, e. g. addition of ash or lime, may significantly influence the turnover of N with a subsequent risk for increased leaching. Thus, there is a potential conflict between two urgent environmental goals, i. e. to decrease acidification and to decrease the N load on aquatic ecosystems. In the humus layer and the upper 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH(H{sub 2}O) had increased with at the most 0.2 units because of the ash addition. The easily extractable amounts of Mg, P and nitrate were slightly increased. The potential nitrification in the humus layer was generally higher in the ash treatment, but the difference. was not statistically significant. The soil water at 50 cm depth was 0.1-0.2 pH-units more acidic where ash had been applied. Simultaneously, there were tendencies for higher concentrations of nitrate, Al and K. This is the first time in Sweden that ash fertilization of a closed forest has given clear indications of an increased N leaching. As expected, the ash fertilization decreased the acidity of the top soil. On the contrary, the runoff became more acidic and more rich in Al. Thus, the ash fertilization has counteracted one of its primary goals, i. e. to produce a runoff less toxic to aquatic life. The acidification of the runoff may partially be because of acid production during nitrification.

  3. Running buses on banana skins - Good examples of the municipalities that make biogas from food waste; Koera buss paa bananskal - Goda exempel fraan kommuner som goer biogas av matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Ulrika; Steinwig, Caroline (BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    The municipalities are responsible for taking care of food waste from households, commercial kitchens and restaurants. So there is ample supply of waste that municipalities can produce biogas, but the path is not easy. In this report we highlight some good examples of municipalities that have come a long way in terms of collecting food waste for anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. The idea is that you will be inspired by these examples and perhaps find new ideas and approaches on how more of the food waste could be biogas and biofertilizer in your community

  4. Ash addition after whole-tree harvesting on fertile sites in southern Sweden Establishment of two field trials; Askaaterfoering efter skogsbraensleuttag paa boerdig skogsmark i soedra Sverige Anlaeggning av tvaa faeltfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Hoegbom, Lars; Jacobson, Staffan; Lundstroem, Hagos; Ring, Eva

    2012-02-15

    In Sweden, the Swedish Forest Agency recommend ash recycling after whole-tree harvest (WTH), i.e. the whole tree above the stump is harvested. If this recommendation is complied, ash recycling will become a quite extensive forestry practice. To gain more knowledge regarding effects of ash on tree growth, storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the upper soil, and soil-water chemistry, two field experiments were established. The experimental design was a randomized block design. Both experiments were installed on quite fertile sites in southern Sweden. On fertile sites (C/N less than 30), ash addition is hypothesized to increase tree growth, reduce the storage of C and N in the upper soil, and increase the concentrations of nitrate in soil water. One experiment (291 Guvarp) was established on a recently harvested clear cut. The sample plots were soil scarified by disc trenching and planted with Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings. Seedling height was measured at planting, and, two months later, seedling survival and height growth in 2011 was recorded. The other experiment (290 Bala) was located to a Norway spruce stand that was thinned by WTH. The initial registration and sampling comprised stand data and sampling of the upper soil (FH-layer). In addition, suction cups were installed at 50 cm depth for sampling of soil water. The experiments were designed for long-term monitoring, comprising several decades. For most of the variables registered, data did not show any significant differences among means for the plots representing different treatments. Pre-treatment data for individual plots showed acceptable comparability among plots within the blocks, which is a good starting point for detecting future changes caused by the treatments

  5. Aviation and Climate - An updated list of status of research on the effects of climate emissions from aircraft; Luftfart og klima. En oppdatert oversikt over status for forskning paa klimaeffekter av utslipp fra fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Marianne T.; Berntsen, Jan S.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S. [Center for international climate and environmental research, Oslo, (Norway)

    2011-07-01

    Today carries approximately 23,000 flights over 2.2 billion passengers annually. On a global basis air travel accounts for almost 2 to 2.5 percent of the total anthropogenic Co2 emissions. Domestic civil aviation in Norway emitted 1.05 million tonnes of Co2 in 2008, according to reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 2011). Emissions from international aviation from Norwegian airports in 2008 was just under 1.2 million tonnes of Co2 (National Inventory Report, 2010). Aviation is a sector that has been growing: in Norway the emissions from domestic aviation increased by 55 percent from 1990 to 2008, and also globally emissions have increased. There has been an even more powerful increase in traffic, but this increase did not been steady: The development is closely linked to the economy and the reduction is observed in periods of economic downturn. New technology and streamlining flight patterns made aircraft more energy efficient, which has helped to reduce emissions, but it has not been enough to compensate for the strong growth in traffic. If this trend continues, the total emissions from aviation increase further. In addition to Co2 consists emissions from airplanes a variety of other components that affect the climate, either directly or indirectly through chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. This is not unique to aviation, but also apply to other sectors. The impact is complex and complicated, some mechanisms provide a cooling, others warming. Some effects are regional and have a geographic (and per day) variation in radiative forcing. Regional heterogeneous forcing can potentially change temperature and pressure distribution in the atmosphere and hence circulation patterns. The various emissions also have very different lifetimes in the atmosphere and affects the climate of the different time scales. For a number of mechanisms providing climate change are the chemical and meteorological conditions in the atmosphere essential. Changes in those areas or heights planes operates, may thus lead to changes in climate.(eb)

  6. Guidelines - guidelines based on the experience gained in the construction and evaluating 'Hamnhuset'; Guidelines - riktlinjer baserade paa de erfarenheter som erhaallits vid uppfoerande och utvaerdering av Hamnhuset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervind, Pernilla; Ruud, Svein

    2011-07-01

    Based on experiences from the construction and evaluation of Hamnhuset guidelines for future project has been compiled in this report. The recommendations are addressed to constructors and entrepreneurs. The recommendations treats both the building envelope, the installations and the management of the building

  7. Radon in indoor environments - a cost-benefit analysis of adoption of the new recommendations of WHO for radon limits; Radon i inomhusmiljoen - en konsekvensanalys av att infoera WHO:s nya rekommendationer paa radonvaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The report's goal is to investigate the consequences of the authorities to adopt the new WHO recommended limit and guideline for radon in homes of 100 Bq/m3. The report's purpose is to provide a basis for decision if the radon and radon guideline limit should be lowered. 400,000 houses and 230,000 apartments in Sweden have a radon concentration of 100-200 Bq/m3, and thus must be decontaminated of radon if the guideline value would be raised. This corresponds to about 1.3 million residents. The cost of such a radon mitigation is estimated at 14-19 billion SEK (2-3 billion USD). The increase in operating costs is estimated at 500 million SEK per year. Remediation measures are not economically reasonable. For the cost to be reasonable, 65-85 lung cancer cases should be prevented per year. Reduction in lung cancer cases, with a reduction in guideline value is estimated at 40 cases. Remediation costs for individual buildings with blue concrete can be very high. Close to 5000 people each year move into newly built homes with radon levels higher than 100 Bq/m3 under the 2010 construction forecast. The cost of mitigation measures necessary to bring down radon below 100 Bq/m3 for new constructions is estimated at 130 million SEK for 2010. These measures are not economically reasonable. For the cost to be reasonable 0.45 lung cancer cases should be prevented per year. The decrease in the number of lung cancers, with a reduction in the limit is estimated at 0.15 cases or new buildings. The Radon Coordinating Group recommends retaining the current target and limit for radon in dwellings of 200 Bq/m3. It is not economically reasonable to implement a tightening of the guide and limit values. The benchmark and the limit for radon should be remain unaltered. To have different guidelines and limits for old and new dwellings will create confusion in the industry and can lead to decreased respect for the limits. It is unclear whether there are ways to get down radon concentrations below 100 Bq/m3 in all homes. Therefore a stricter guideline of 100 Bq/m3 to be an empty gesture. It is also proposed: Create a joint investigation authority regarding public information campaigns on radon, in order to effectively achieve guidelines and limits. The following areas are considered as interesting objects for further research or investigations: A more thorough calculation of the number of lung cancer cases avoided, with a reduction in the target- and threshold; A better estimate of the breakdown between radon sources of land, building materials and water; Development of methods for decontamination of blue concrete buildings to values below 100 Bq/m3; The relation between soil radon and radon levels in homes

  8. Gassmaks. Study of requirement for national focus on research for increased value-added industrial process of natural gas. Final report; Gassmaks. Utredning av behov for nasjonal satsing paa forskning for oekt verdiskaping fra naturgass gjennom industriell foredling. Endelig rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-15

    Final report concludes the importance of establishing the Research and Development program called 'Gassmaks'. The target of this program is increased value added to the natural gas loop. Strengthened know-how, industrial development and international competition force shall contribute to higher value added to community through industrial refining of natural gas. Gassmaks will by research based foundation exploit Norwegian natural gas resources environmental friendly. Highly prioritised are converting and use of natural gas to plastic raw materials, synthesis gas, synthetical fuel, energy processes, carbon materials, metallurgical processes and nutrients as proteins and fat. (AG). 28 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The concentration of heavy metals and PAH's in soot water - suggested methods of treatment; Halten av tungmetaller och PAH:er i sotvatten - foerslag paa behandlingsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Bjoern (TecNet Nordic AB, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-12-15

    What we here call 'soot water' is a contaminated water from seasonal cleaning of the furnace and heating sections with water. Earlier, it was common to discharge this type of water directly to a recipient or to the municipal sewage plant. Today, with new, more restricted regulations, this is not accepted unless the concentrations of different substances is well documented and below official limits. The objective of this project has been to increase the knowledge of soot water from different types of combustion plants and suggest ways to handle/treat this water. The project started with a literature survey of soot water in the Swedish, English and German open literature. The next step was to perform analyses on soot water from combustion of waste, wood chips, wood chips/peat, bio oil and heavy fuel oil. It is very difficult to take a representative sample of soot water. It is especially the amount of particles in the water that may change. Since particles contains high levels of heavy metals, this may severely affect the concentrations of metals in the sample, if included in the analysis. Soot water contains very low concentrations of mercury. The concentrations of PAH is also close to or below the detection limit. On the other hand, all soot water analysed, contains enough concentrations of some metal, to make it unsuitable to be discharged directly to a recipient or drain. Four methods of water treatment have been examined for its capacity to treat soot water with regard to their capacity, operational and economical performance. The result is as follows: Chemical precipitation is the method that is judged to have the highest potential as long as the chlorides and sulphates can be discharged to the recipient or municipal waste plant. Reversed osmosis is judged less suitable for soot water since the water contains calcium, sulfates and carbonates that may clog the membranes. Evaporators is also judged to be of less interest for soot water due to its content of chlorides which will lead to expensive materials and due to its content of calcium and sulfates that may give scaling on heat transfer surfaces. Ion exchange resins can be of some interest for waters that are generally clean, but have one metal with to high concentration. In the report, the use of soot water for cooling of slag, moistening of the fuel, reuse as soot water and cleaning in an existing water treatment plant, have also been discussed. This project have generated a lot of new information about soot water and what soot water contains. Information that is important when discussing its effect on the environment as well as looking for ways to treat the water. The project has also shown the importance of correct sampling and analysis of soot water and discussed ways to treat this water. Information that is requested by personnel on combustion plant, authorities and by companies building treatment plants

  10. Not used to public transport any longer. A study about transport service based on needs and requirements in Siljansnaes; Man har vant sig av med kollektivtrafik. En studie om transportservice baserad paa behov och vanor i Siljansnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warsen, Lisa

    2000-05-01

    The goal of the transport policy is that every citizen shall have a transport service on a reasonable level. In sparsely populated areas the public transport service is on a low level and many groups without a private car will have small possibilities to travel to different activities. Siljansnaes, with nearly 2000 citizens, is a small region in the community Leksand in Dalarna where the transport problem have been more tangible. The aim of this project has been to create a transport system more based on the needs and requirements. Also the people who lives in Siljansnaes in their leisure times are a part in the project. They are almost as many as the permanent living ones. The result also has been built on the goal of a higher care of the environment. The transport solution contains; village-bus, car-pooling, changed price system for public transport, but also a partnership between the citizens, the community and the regional transport company (Dalatrafik). The project as a process has the goal that the people in Siljansnaes should take part of the solution and the responsibility for the operation of the system.

  11. Sweden's primary production and supplies of food - Possible consequences of a lack of fossil energy; Sveriges primaerproduktion och foersoerjning av livsmedel - Moejliga konsekvenser vid en brist paa fossil energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Widerberg, Anna; Landquist, Birgit; Norberg, Ida; Berlin, Johanna; Engstroem, Jonas; Svanaeng, Karin; Lorentzon, Katarina; Cronholm, Lars-Aake; Pettersson, Ola

    2013-07-01

    This report provides an insight into what may be the consequences for Sweden's food supply if the ability to import sufficient quantities of fossil energy decreases. The situation described is an imaginary situation that arose quickly and unexpectedly by political unrest or natural disaster. There has thus been no preparation for the situation. The length of the crisis is set to a period of 3-5 years. During that time, there is assumed no technological development or other structural change, that will change conditions compared to the current situation. If the crisis becomes more prolonged it will however gradually force major changes. Today's food supply in Sweden and much of the world depends on a constant supply of fossil energy. In the production of food is used, for example, large amounts of diesel, heating oil and mineral fertilizers. This applies to primary production of vegetables and animal breeding but also to a high degree of for user-industries , which ensures that the raw materials become finished food products for consumers. Between the different stages there are transport's in many directions that depend on fossil energy. Three different scenarios are termed low deprivation, lack of resources and high deprivation. They represent different failure scenarios where the availability of fossil energy is assumed to decrease. The three levels are tentatively set as a decrease of 25%, 50% and 75% compared with current levels. These percentages are set as initial discussion-levels from which calculations have been made of how the different stages of production will be affected.

  12. BIOKONK. Consequences for the energy sector and forest industry from changes in the demand for biomass - Interim report 1; BIOKONK. Konsekvenser foer energi- och skogssektorn av foeraendrad efterfraagan paa biomassa - Delrapport 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Fritz, Peter; Ryden, Bo; Springfeldt, Per-Erik; Unger, Thomas

    2008-08-15

    Interim report 1 of the Elforsk project deals with assessing the impact of a growing international biomass market on the Swedish biomass market. Furthermore, the development of the energy system and its influence on the biofuel demand are analyzed. Already today there is a significant trade with biofuels between different countries and regions in the world. Sweden, for example, imports pellets from Western Canada and ethanol from Brazil. Also less refined biofuels, e.g. solid waste, is imported from Northern Europe to be incinerated in Swedish heat stations. Trade of roundwood is primarily undertaken in order to supply pulp and saw mills with raw material. However, if prices of solid biofuels (e.g. wood chips) increase this may change. If an increased use of biofuels is to become beneficial for the global climate, it is crucial that the biofuel production is carried out in an environmentally and socially acceptable way. In order to increase trade, issues relating to transport as well as quality and environmental standards have to be resolved. In the international climate negotiations, policy instruments that support afforestation and prevent deforestation are being discussed. In this report three different scenarios have been analyzed. In the fist scenario it is assumed that the international price of biomass is established at a relatively low level. Sweden will, therefore, be able to import at prices lower than indicated by an isolated Swedish market. The second scenario implies that the international prices, considering also transport costs, coincide with Swedish prices. Thus, there will neither be import to nor export from Sweden. In the third scenario it is assumed that international biomass prices are relatively high. A considerable share of the Swedish biofuel supply is sold on the international market, for instance to replace coal in Germany or England. All these three scenarios are investigated by the aid of the energy-systems model MARKAL. For the forest industry, a set of more traditional analyses have been carried out, as well as one specific study on the ability of the industry to endure increasing roundwood prices. This specific study does, however, not include international trade of roundwood and forest products

  13. Partial report 1: Assessment of the consequence evaluation process as an environmental means. Case: 5 developments on Haltenbanken; Evaluering av konsekvensutredningsprosessen som miljoemessig virkemiddel. Case: 5 utbygginger paa Haltenbanken. Delrapport 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leknes, Einar

    1997-12-31

    This is a part of the reporting from the project ``Concretization and analysis of a system of means for the oil- and gas activities adapted for the future``. The requirement that consequence analyses should be worked out for each oil field is a part of today`s environmental management of the petroleum activities. The report aims to find out how the consequence analyses, the executive work and the decision processes work with respect to general criteria for public means, and to lay the foundation of a new system that includes regional consequence analyses. The report summarises the main results for the development of Haltenbanken, then discusses some issues of consequence evaluations as environmental means and finally deals with improvements of the present system. 51 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. The effects of first-year shoot cut back on willow biomass production during the first and second cutting cycle; Effekter av skottnedklippning efter etableringsaaret paa produktionen under foersta och andra omdrevet i salixodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verwijst, Theo; Nordh, Nils-Erik

    2010-05-15

    During the early phase of commercialisation of willow short rotation forestry in Sweden it was considered to be important to cut down the shoots after the establishment year, and this practice still is maintained today. Several reasons then were put forward for cutting down. The primary goal was to stimulate sprouting of more shoots, thereby obtaining a rapidly closing stand which could compete with weeds. Another reason was that it would enable weed control during the second year. In some of the older clones, which exhibited bow-shaped shoots, cutting down was supposed to lead to more straight growing shoots which rendered less biomass loss at harvest. In the meantime, the practice of cutting down has been abandoned in Denmark, and there are reasons to scrutinise the effects of cutting down on available biomass production figures from Swedish field trials. The main goal with this project was to try to quantify the effects of cutting down on the biomass productivity of willow during the first and later cutting cycles. Thus far, efforts in this research topic have not led to a scientifically documented quantification on the effects, and therefore a scientific basis for hands-on recommendations to willow growers is lacking. The purpose of our work consequently was to generate practical recommendations with regard to the management measure of cutting down, and the audience targeted consisted of willow growers (farmers, land-owners and entrepreneurs) who are deciding about and perform the actual management of willow stands to obtain higher yields. This information also is of large relevance for all extension workers in willow growing. Data have been collected from a field trial which was planted in Flosta, Enkoeping, in 2005. As this was the only experiment on cutting down which ran during the project period, we searched the archives which contained material from another experiment which ran from 1992 to 1996 in Ultuna, Uppsala, and from which some date were collected as late as in 2000. Furthermore, the archives contained data from an experiment at the Brunnby experimental farm in Vaesteraas, which ran from 1991 to 1994. Very few papers on cutting down as a management measure were found in peer-reviewed articles, while foreign manuals for willow growers usually referred to the recommendations as described in the Swedish manuals. Results from the three field trials in Sweden, which were established with the aim to quantify the effects of cutting down of willow shoots after one year on subsequent biomass production, show that no positive effects of cutting down on yield have occurred at all. In contrary, the results altogether show that cutting down has an adverse effect on subsequent biomass production in willow during the first cutting cycle, and that cutting down also may cause a lower productivity during later cutting cycles. We conclude that cutting down, apart from being a costly management measure, leads to production losses in willow cultivation. We recommend that cutting down should not be used as a routine measure after the establishment season. This recommendation contradicts the current recommendation which currently is advocated in Sweden. By means of extension work, current practice should be changed to obtain higher biomass yields and better profit in willow short rotation forests

  15. Effects of heavy metals and some biotic factors on ectomycorrhizal Scots pine in northern Finland; Effekter av tungmetaller och naagra biotiska faktorer paa tall och dess ektomykorrhiza i norra Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, U.

    1996-04-01

    In this work, nickel and copper exposure on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied experimentally under field conditions. The significance of some biotic factors was also studied. We wanted to test whether the understorey lichen layer has a protective role against nickel exposure, and whether it has any effects on pine seedlings. Effects of defoliation, simulating sawfly grazing, were also examined, since the reduced photosynthesis can be assumed to affect root growth and ectomycorrhiza negatively. Ectomycorrhizal colonization has been found to decrease in pinyon pine due to defoliation. 19 refs

  16. An evaluation of the project 'City cooperation at Soervestlandet - implementing Energy and environment'; Evaluering av prosjektet 'Storbysamarbeid paa Soervestlandet - iverksetting Energi og miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsund, Arild Aurvaag; Holmen, Ann Karin Tennaas

    2012-11-01

    City Cooperation on the South West Coast, 'Implementing Energy and Environment' has been a short-term project that has spanned from June 2010 to December 2011, with a operational phase of the last six months. Objectives and activities were developed in a collaboration between Stavanger, Business Region Bergen and Kristiansand Municipality. The project intended to provide support for and knowledge of an overall renewable energy industry in southwestern Norway. This evaluation is based on a assessment of whether the objectives and activities outlined in the project description is followed up. This is supplemented with assessments of implementation and benefits for the sector. In general, the activities carried out as described in the project proposal.Through surveys and interviews, activities and positive initiative feedback, but also constructive suggestions that can be helpful for learning the regional funding programs. Study and delegation travel, which formed majority of the activity, is seen as a broad measure that can embrace many. The benefit, however, depends on site added to venues that are of interest to the industry. Journeys are important meeting places for establish or maintain contact with regional and international partners. InBesides networking helps such forums to increase knowledge of the sector, either for specific technological and product knowledge or general knowledge about the industry. This means that this type of travel is useful both for the industry, research communities, developers, funding agencies and policy makers to support the industry. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that some interviewees emphasized that the delegation traveling to those who were carried to Boston Amsterdam should be a main focus of the participants related industry.The major barriers to large cities and industry in their efforts to facilitate for developing a strong renewable sector in southwestern Norway emphasized to be The major barriers to large cities and industry in their efforts to facilitate for developing a strong renewable sector in southwestern Norway emphasized to be associated with national energy policy. Industry players and industry developers experiencing a loss of interest in the field, which affects the development prospects in Norway. New discoveries in the North Sea combined with adequate access to renewable energy, making it difficult to succeed in its arguments about the development of offshore wind. It is stated by some politicians that Norway is not dependent of this renewable energy source. As a result of the policy interest is reduced, the basis to obtain national investors limited. In addition, the industry is experiencing one expertise escape in a time where high activity in the oil industry require the same competence renewable sector. The consequence is that suppliers to the international renewable industry must work individually directly to the relevant market. Regional coordination seems to depend on a common political priorities linked to a domestic market where products can be tested and developed. Until this may be in place, ability largely to assist the industry in its internationalization. In this way the project 'Implementing Energy and Environment' helped both to create arenas and opportunities for knowledge and learning for both players in renewable sector and commercial developers in the region. In connection with development opportunities for cooperation in renewable energy industry between Bergen, Stavanger and Kristiansand we will conclude by returning to the 'engine role' which was widely discussed in the City Project Innovation 2010. Experiences from the project 'Implementing Energy and Environment' appears relevant. First, the three cities continue to make important contributions when it comes to giving industry support and incentives to develop networks regionally and internationally. In the context, quality and relevance to the industry particularly important for the further work with the delegation traveling, either in each city or cooperation between the three cities. Second, apply the aid to clarify the political framework for the industry. If one (still) believe that the oil age will not last forever and that the world needs Norwegian technology that can help make renewable sector more efficient, then measures to raise the political awareness of the industry is important. Visibility of potential is probably the action that can have the best opportunity for breakthroughs, and in such a context, the development of a common test facility could be a road ahead of a more political cooperation between the three cities when it comes to renewable energy.(eb)

  17. Method for evaluation of the effects on air quality from local wood combustion. Experiences from the Biomass-Health-Environment programme; Metodik foer utvaerdering av den lokala vedeldningens paaverkan paa luftkvalitet. Erfarenheter fraan BHM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Christer [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research; Pettersson, Malin [SLB analys, Stockholm (Sweden); Omstedt, Gunnar [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The present report aims at demonstrating how an evaluation can be performed of the effects of local wood combustion on the air quality in a community. One of the important conclusions of the BHM programme is that the air quality norms are not fulfilled regarding PM10 in residential areas where old wood stoves, without, or with too small hot water accumulator tanks are in use. This report reviews procedures for mapping the emissions, and describes the measurements necessary for comparing emissions to the norms.

  18. Long-time effects of run-off water from ash recycling to a planted forest. Final report for a partial study in the project 'Forestry measures - effects on carbon-, nutrients and heavy metal flows' financed by the Swedish Energy Agency; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering och tungmetalIfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Eriksson, Hillevi

    2001-06-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden has been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12 year long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1 ton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH{sub 4}-N, NO{sub 3}-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  19. Å bli ergoterapeut : Dannelse av faglig identitet i ergoterapeututdanningen.

    OpenAIRE

    Nymo, Astrid Vekve

    2008-01-01

    Å være student på en ergoterapeututdanning innebærer å tilegne seg og utvikle kompetanse i ergoterapi. Det handler om etter hvert å oppleve seg kompetent til å starte en yrkeskarriere som ergoterapeut. Det handler om å inneha en opplevd identitet i form av trygghet på egen kompetanse, innsikt i faget og opplevelse av tilhørighet til faggruppen ergoterapeuter. Forskning på opplevelse av faglig identitet hos ergoterapeutstudenter og ergoterapeuter har fokus på at ergoterapeuter/-...

  20. En evaluering av Fosen DMS som kompetanseaktør

    OpenAIRE

    Håland, Erna; Olsen, Marit Schei

    2013-01-01

    ​Denne rapporten oppsummerer resultatene av en evaluering av Fosen DMS som kompetanseaktør i regionen. Kommunene på Fosen har over lengre tid samarbeidet på flere områder. Innenfor helsesektoren ble etter hvert Fosen DMS IKS opprettet og de siste årene har organisasjonen blitt utvidet med blant annet NettOpp Fosen og Folkehelse Fosen. Denne evalueringen har sett på pågående kompetansehevende arbeid i regi av Fosen DMS IKS, samt kartlagt de ulike aktørenes forventninger, erfaringer og ønsker f...

  1. Energieffektivisering i byggenæringen, en vurdering av passivhuskonseptet

    OpenAIRE

    Flaatten, Torgeir

    2011-01-01

    Norske myndigheter har signalisert at det jobbes for å innføre passivhusnivå som forskriftskrav i 2020. Dette er et resultat av internasjonalt fokus på energieffektivisering i bygebransjen, og Norge har forpliktet seg til store kutt gjennom klimaforliket. Det har ført til hyppigere oppdateringer av teknisk forskrift som blant annet inneholder bestemmelser om energibruk i nybygg. Myndighetene har også innført støtteordninger og energimerking av bygninger for å motivere til energireduserende ti...

  2. Envirotainer : Utveckling av kompositdörr till aktiv kylcontainer

    OpenAIRE

    Mellvig, Björn; Jansson, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Detta projekt utgår från en beställning gjord av företaget Envirotainer, vars uppdrag innefattar ett konceptförslag på en kompositdörr till deras utveckling av en aktiv kylcontainer. Projektet är ett samarbete med företaget och en del ur ett större utvecklingsprojekt av den nya kompositutformade aktiva kylcontainern. Envirotainer har tillverkat dessa flygfraktscontainrar i cirka 20 år och är världsledande inom branschen där deras största fraktprodukt är vacciner och mediciner. Dessa produkter...

  3. Norges fusjonskontroll : Konkurransetilsynets praktiseringen av totalvelferdsstandarden over tid

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Katrine Birkeland

    2013-01-01

    I denne masterutredningen tar vi for oss Konkurransetilsynets praktisering av total-velferdsstandarden. Praktiseringen baserer seg på fusjonsvedtak etter 2003. Total-velferdsstandarden legges til grunn i vilkår nummer to for inngrep mot fusjoner i konkurranselovens § 16. Velferdsstandarden tar hensyn til virkningene for alle aktører som følge av en fusjon. Masterutredningen går i dybden av Konkurransetilsynets vedtak om å godkjenne på vilkår fusjonen mellom DnB og Gjensidige i 2003. Vi finner...

  4. Norges fusjonskontroll. Konkurransetilsynets praktisering av totalvelferdsstandarden over tid

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Katrine Birkeland

    2013-01-01

    I denne utredningen tar vi for oss Konkurransetilsynets praktisering av totalvelferdsstandarden. Praktiseringen baserer seg på fusjonsvedtak etter 2003. Total-velferdsstandarden legges til grunn i vilkår nummer to for inngrep mot fusjoner i konkurranselovens § 16. Velferdsstandarden tar hensyn til virkningene for alle aktører som følge av en fusjon. Utredningen går i dybden av Konkurransetilsynets vedtak om å godkjenne på vilkår fusjonen mellom DnB og Gjensidige i 2003. Vi finner at tilsynets...

  5. Tolkning og håndtering av seismiske skivekrefter

    OpenAIRE

    Bøyum, Kristian Olav Sæterdal

    2015-01-01

    Ved innfesting og kraftoverføring mellom horisontale og vertikale skiver, vil hulldekkers manglende horisontale kapasiteter skape utfordringer. Situasjoner med store seismiske laster vil følgelig kunne gi tidkrevende beregninger, først og fremst på grunn av liten kapasitet i dekkeskiven, men også på grunn av at dimensjoneringen i stor grad skjer ved håndberegninger. Tolkning av lastbildet i programmer med FEM-analyse krever også gode forkunnskaper og kan ofte være årsak til ...

  6. Tekniske og økonomiske analyser ved utbygging av fjernvarmesystem

    OpenAIRE

    Gaustad, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Det er i dag sterkt fokus på å bekjempe klimaendringer og for å nå internasjonale utslippsavtaler. I Norge har det nå kommet nye Tekniske Byggeforskrifter, TEK 07, som tar sikte på å redusere energibruken i bygninger med totalt 25 %, og at 40 % av oppvarmingsbehovet skal dekkes av alternative energikilder. Dette gjør bruk av fjernvarme til oppvarmingsformål stadig mer aktuelt, men betyr at fjernvarmeselskapene i teorien vil få solgt mindre mengde energi over året til hver abonnent. Denne oppg...

  7. IC-påverkan av elektromagnetisk puls

    OpenAIRE

    Lindskog, Claes

    2008-01-01

    Detta examensarbete undersöker effekter av en elektromagnetisk puls på IC-kretsar. För att kunna utvärdera inverkan har ett testobjekt, innehållande komponenter som skall testas, konstruerats. Detta testobjekt består av batteri, en enkel komponent och last. Ett pulsaggregat och en antenn användes för att generera de elektromagnetiska pulser som testobjektet utsattes för. Resultaten visar att inverkan på de testade komponenterna är möjlig. Inverkan visade sig vara beroende av bl.a. avståndet t...

  8. Praktisk database-administrasjon med persistens av objektorienterte systemer : kompendium

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Knut W.

    2012-01-01

    Ved Høgskolen i Buskerud, bachelorstudiene i IT, undervises kurset "Praktisk databaseadministrasjon". Kurset består av to hoveddeler: En del fokuserer på teori om store databaser i praksis og en annen del er praktisk med bruk av Oracle (PL/SQL og objekter) og persistens av objektorienterte systemer med Visual C# og NoSQL teknikker. Den teoretiske delen foreleses og er gjenstand for vanlig, skriftlig, individuell eksamen. Den praktiske delen undervises med sterk vekt på det prak...

  9. Konstruktionen av hälsa på Instagram : En studie av unga människors uppfattning av hälsa genom bild och text

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Unga människor är idag väl insatta användare av olika former av sociala medier - det är ofta en självklar del i deras vardag. Det sociala mediet Instagram har blivit oerhört populärt bland såväl barn som vuxna och används dagligen via mobilen för att förmedla ögonblicksbilder till omvärlden. I den här studien kommer Instagram - utifrån begrepp som hälsa, träning och konsumtion - analyseras med hjälp av teorier om makt och genus. Hälsomedvetenheten bland unga har genom spridningen på Instagram...

  10. Förändring av förpackning som utökning av marknadsmixen : En studie av fem snabbrörliga konsumentvaror inom livsmedelsbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Carolina; Eriksson, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Denna uppsats behandlar förändring av förpackning som en möjlig utökning av produktkategorin i Kotler & Kellers utvidgade marknadsmix. I marknadsmixen behandlas förpackningen som statisk under en varas livstid och studiens syfte var att se om förpackningsförändringar istället bör ske vid flertalet tillfällen. Genom existerande litteratur identifierades tre centrala begrepp som ansågs betydelsefulla för studien; förpackning, förändring av förpackning och differentiering. Fem olika företag ...

  11. Hantering av digitala verktygsmodeller : En studie av hur 3D-modeller av monteringsverktyg ska lagras, struktureras och geopositioneras på Scania CV AB inom Chassimontering

    OpenAIRE

    Aldén, Elin

    2012-01-01

    På grund av ökad produktkomplexitet och digitala arbetssätt har fler företag insett nyttan i att implementera och använda sig av bra system för Produkt Lifecycle Management och Product Data Management för att hantera produkten genom dess livscykel. Funktionen hos PLM-system är framförallt att se till att alla har tillgång till den senast uppdaterade datan. Detta uppnås genom ett centralt ställe att lagra produktdata samt möjlighet att strukturera och hantera datan. Scania använder sig av Spec...

  12. Behovsanalys av vad som efterfrågas vid rekrytering av ekonomer : Arbetsgivarnas investering i humankapital

    OpenAIRE

    Lukina, Victoria; Nilsson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Problem:      Vad anser arbetsgivare om vikten av att investera i humankapital genom att anställa välutbildad personal? Vilka kunskaper har rekryterare om ekonomiutbildningarnas innehåll och examensnivåer?   Syfte:            Syftet med denna uppsats är att utreda arbetsgivarnas policy vad gäller investering i humankapital vid anställning, examensnivåns betydelse vid anställning till ekonomitjänster samt rekryterarnas kunskaper om ekonomiutbildningarnas innehåll.   Metod:          En kvalitat...

  13. Forskjell mellom teori og praksis ved bruk av ITIL : Analyse av situasjon i IKT-Seksjonen i Utenriksdepartementet

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Utenriksdepartementet i Oslo (UD) har innført noen av de prosesser som beskrevet i ITIL. Denne rapporten studerer rammeverket for de prosesser som er innført og ser på hvordan UD har valgt å implementere deler av disse prosessene, spesielt "ITIL Service Support: Incident Management og Service Desk”. Men hva er da ITIL? ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library), er et bibliotek med et sett av ”beste praksis” bøker med de beste prosessene, rutinene og erfaringene fra mange bedrif...

  14. Land-sokkel korrelasjon av tektoniske elementer i ytre del av Senja og Kvaløya i Troms

    OpenAIRE

    Thorstensen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Feltarbeid og analyser av batymetriske-, seismiske- og gravimetriske data er sammenstilt for å korrelere tektoniske elementer i ytre del av Senja og Kvaløya i Troms. Berggrunnen i kystområdene på nordøstlige Senja og Kvaløya i Troms tilhører Vest-Troms gneis region og består av neoarkeiske og paleoproterozoiske tonalittisk gneis og mafiske intrusiver (Kattfjordkomplekset), samt metasuprakrustale og metavulkanske bergarter (Torsnes- og Astridalbelte). Foliasjonen stryker NV-SØ og endrer ori...

  15. Langtidsovervåking av miljøkvalitet i kystområdene av Norge. Hardbunnssamfunn. Datarapport 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Moy, F.; Pedersen, A.; Green, N; Walday, M.

    2001-01-01

    Foreliggende datarapport inneholder tabeller over registrert materiale innsamlet på kystovervåkingens hardbunnstokt gjennomført i tidsrommet 31. mai - 18. juni 2000. Hardbunnsprogrammet for år 2000 omfattet 12 stasjoner på kyststrekningen Færder til Egersund. Toktet ble 3 dager lengre enn planlagt på grunn av meget dårlig vær i toktperioden. På alle stasjoner ble det foretatt: registrering av fastsittende algers og dyrs forekomst langs dykketransekt ned til 30 m dyp måling av plantetetthet, a...

  16. Automatiserad inmatning av provsvar på Fertilitetsenheten

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsing, Anna-Natalia; Jill, Rhodin

    2013-01-01

    Fertilitetsenheten på Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset använder sig idag av databasen LinnéFiler för att hantera behandlingsprotokoll för par som behandlas för ofrivillig barnlöshet. Fertilitetsenheten kan inte enbart använda sig av Stockholms Läns Landstings journalsystem TakeCare då tillverkade embryon tillhör både mannen och kvinnan i paret och det behövs därför en sammankoppling mellan deras journaler.   Till Linnéfiler finns behov av en automatisk inmatning av provsvar tagna på provtagni...

  17. Kringgående av skatter i Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om vad kringgående av skatter är och hur man kan få fast företagen som ägnar sig åt detta bättre. Genom att företagen kringgår skatter går Finland miste om stora summor av skattepengar. Därför är jag intresserad av vilka ändringar regeringen har gjort och vad myndigheterna gör för att få fast företagen. Den teoretiska referensramen innehåller skatteplanering och kringgående av skatter. I skatteplaneringen går jag in på vad det innebär och hur man gör det i olika fö...

  18. Utveckling av dagsresepaket för VisitSalo

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    På begäran av VisitSalo har jag utvecklat en ny tjänst i form av dagsreseplaner. VisitSalo ansvarar för marknadsföringen av turismen och turisminformationen i Salo och samlar rese- och fritidstjänster på sina hemsidor. Dagsresepaketens målgrupper är barnfamiljer och vuxna par, det vill säga generation 50+, och de riktar sig till självständiga resenärer. Syftet med den nya tjänsten är att ge turister en intressant bild av Salo som en resedestination samt erbjuda ett färdigt skräddarsytt altern...

  19. Jämförelse av trummixning inom elektronisk dansmusik

    OpenAIRE

    Kuitunen, Jade-Maria

    2015-01-01

    För dagens ljudtekniker finns ett överflöd av rekommendationer för en bra mix. Detta arbete avgränsar sig till mixning av elektroniska trummor inom elektronisk dansmusik(EDM). Syftet är att jämföra tre olika trummixningstekniker utgående från en bok, en undervisvingsvideo från en betaltjänst samt en Youtube undervisningsvideo, alla inom EDM. Detta för att undersöka vilken av dessa tekniker som är att föredra. Avslutningsvis mixar jag tre olika trumversioner av samma låt vartefter tre professi...

  20. Bridge Over Troubled Water : En studie av två svenska bryggeriers bemötande av intressenter med hjälp av CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Ljung, Peter; Muchewicz, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Bakgrund och problem: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) är ett ramverk som beskriver företags sociala ansvar och engagemang. Vidare förknippas CSR även med stakeholder management som handlar om företags bemötande och balansering av sina intressenters intressen. Oenigheter i teoretiska definitioner av CSR tyder på att det empiriskt sett kan uppstå missförstånd kring ramverket. Carlsberg Sverige och Spendrups är två företag som tar ställning och socialt ansvar via CSR men kritiseras trots d...

  1. ISO 26000 som et virkemiddel for institusjonalisering av samfunnsansvar (CSR)

    OpenAIRE

    Ditlev-Simonsen, Caroline D.

    2011-01-01

    Det eksisterer diverse frivillige standarder og verktøy knyttet til bedrifters samfunnsansvar (CSR). Et nytt «skudd på stammen » er ISO 26000 Veiledning om samfunnsansvar. Denne standarden, som er utarbeidet av 500 eksperter fra 40 land, ble lansert i desember 2010. Denne artikkelen presenterer ISO 26000 og vurderer effekten av de viktigste foregående internasjonale standardene og veilederne innen CSR-in...

  2. Den historiske Jesus og dannelsen av alternativ moderne maskulinitet

    OpenAIRE

    Bortne, Steinar

    2006-01-01

    Emne: Den historiske Jesus og dannelsen av alternativ moderne maskulinitet. Problemstilling: Har mannlig og kvinnelig symbolinnhold, slik det fremstår i studiet av den historiske Jesus, betydning for hvorledes vi oppfatter kjønnsroller i dag? Begrepsmessig ligger det i fremstillingen en avgrensning knyttet til kjønnsrolle hvor dette begrepet i større grad integreres og sammenfattes i begrepene kjønnsidentitet og maskulinitet. Videre er det en grunnleggende begrepsmessig erkjennelse at symboli...

  3. EST Table: AV403854 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403854 pg--0133 10/09/28 98 %/123 aa ref|ZP_03045664.1| tail length tape measure ...protein [Escherichia coli E22] gb|EDV82450.1| tail length tape measure protein [Escherichia coli E22] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV404025 pg-- ...

  4. En analyse av det norske markedet for avfallsforbrenning

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Sigrid Hendriks

    2010-01-01

    Eksport av brennbart avfall til Sverige er et sentralt tema i den norske avfallsforbrenningsbransjen. I 2008 ble det eksportert omlag 500 000 tonn brennbart avfall fra Norge til Sverige (Jentoft & Juhler 2009). Eksporten er økende og bransjen frykter en dyster framtid for norsk avfallsforbrenning dersom utviklingen fortsetter. Hovedmålet med denne oppgaven er å analysere sentrale problemstillinger knyttet til eksport av brennbart husholdningsavfall til Sverige. Jeg skal beskrive dagens situas...

  5. Verdsettelse av Odfjell SE: strategisk regnskapsanalyse og verdsettelse

    OpenAIRE

    Stavseng, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    I denne masteroppgaven utføres det en strategisk regnskapsanalyse og verdsettelse av Odfjell SE. Verdsettelsen er basert på offentlig tilgjengelig informasjon. Oppgaven begynner med å presentere Odfjell og kjemikalietankbransjen. Som bransje-grunnlag velges to norske kjemikalietankselskaper; Stolt- Nielsen og Team Tankers (tidl. Eitzen Chemical). Videre presenteres tre ulike teknikker for verdsettelse, før det gjøres en besluttes å utføre en fundamental verdsettelse av Odfjell ...

  6. Akupunktur mot hetetokter ved antiøstrogenbehandling av brystkreftopererte

    OpenAIRE

    Tingsrud, Ruth Helene

    2015-01-01

    Denne oppgaven omhandler akupunktur til kvinner med hetetokter, og problemstillingen er som følgende: Hvilke forhold ved akupunkturbehandlingen har betydning for behandlingsresultatet av hetetokter hos kvinner medisinert med antiøstrogener ved brystkreft? Tradisjonell Kinesisk Medisin bygger på en holistisk tilnærming, der hver pasient får en individuelt tilpasset behandling (2). Symptomene danner grunnlaget for syndromdifferensieringen og valg av punkter og nåleteknikken som benyttes (3). Op...

  7. Vurdering av utslipp av fenol og formalin til Gråelva i Stjørdal for Glava A/S

    OpenAIRE

    Grande, M.

    1995-01-01

    Det er gitt vurdering av utslipp av fenol og formalin til Gråelva i Stjørdal i Nord Trøndelag fra Glava A/S's produksjon av glassullprodukter. Under helt spesielle forhold med lavvannsføring kan konsentrasjonen for begge stoffer i nedre del av Gråelva ligge på grensen til å gi akutteffekter overfor fisk og andre vannorganismer. Langtidseffekter er lite sannsynlig på grunn av stor fortynning og nedbrytning.

  8. Spar paa farten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius;

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes an Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project in Denmark based on Pay As You Drive principles, which means that the ISA equipment both gives a warning when the driver is speeding but also gives penalty points which reduce a promised bonus at 30 % on the insurance rate. In the...... project we have developed an On Board Unit (OBU) for ISA with mobile phone (GPRS) connection to a web server, and with an advanced map matching program, and air based map update function. We have developed a speed map for 22,000 km roads, including a web based maintaining tool. The project will proceed in...

  9. Report from PAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Population Association of America Annual Meeting, held in San Francisco April 6-8, 1995, generated papers on the key demographic themes of marriage, birth, mortality, and migration. In the US 47% of people between the ages of 25 and 44 have lived with an unmarried partner for some period, up from 37% during 1987-1988. For teenagers, absence of contact with fathers is associated with symptoms of depression, becoming a teen parent, and delinquency. Single fathers in 1990 were younger and had lower incomes than in the past. About 40% of nonpaying fathers had children out of wedlock; 30% to 48% had low or no income. The tendency of Whites to leave or avoid minority neighborhoods is due to perceptions about crime, quality of the schools, neighborhood deterioration, and the socioeconomic level of neighbors. Although African-American death rates generally are higher than those of Whites, the pattern seems to reverse itself after age 85. Surprisingly, survival probability at ages 80-95 for US Whites is higher than that in Europe and Japan. When immigrants enter an area, there is not much evidence of low-skilled native-born people moving out. Families with undocumented heads received an average of $6,080 in welfare benefits, while refugees received $10,444. The Social Security system is shifting large amounts of money from regions of the country with younger age structures, such as California, to states with older age structures, such as Florida. Among other topics, the remarkably low total fertility rate of 3.4 in the Bangladesh 1993-1994 Demographic and Health Survey was questioned as biased; the infant mortality data for Tajikistan appeared to be suspect; the diffusion of information about family planning in Africa was mentioned; the significance of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development regarding reproductive health services was hailed; and USAID's designing of indicators in safe pregnancy, breastfeeding, and women's nutrition was related. PMID:12289924

  10. Representasjoner av reality-tv i norsk reklamefilm. En kvalitativ tekstanalyse av reklamefilmer fra TINE, ICA og Gulesider

    OpenAIRE

    Muri, Charlotte Eknes

    2013-01-01

    Dette prosjektet ser nærmere på nyere norsk reklamefilm som benytter seg av et konsept knyttet til reality-tv i sine tv-reklamer. TINE, ICA og Gulesider viser tre forskjellige måter å utnytte en slik appell via ulike former for intertekstuelle henvisninger. Oppgaven analyserer disse reklamene ved hjelp av en kvalitativ tekstanalyse. Følgende overordnete problemstilling ligger til grunn for prosjektet: Hvordan utnyttes reality-konseptet retorisk i norsk kommersiell reklamefilm?

  11. 不同工艺对PANI/PAA复合薄膜的电致变色性能影响%Influence or Synthetic Method on the Electrochromic Properties of PANI/PAA Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏; 沈晓冬; 徐娜; 宋功品

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of PANI/PAA composite films was carried out respectively by the direct polymerization method and by the layer by layer method. The surface structure and the composition of the composite films were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FT1R ); the cyclic voltammetry ( CV ) , the current response characterization ( CA) and the electrochromic characterization were also measurated. The SEM and FTIR results show that there exists difference between the PANI/PAA composite films synthesized by the two methods only in terms of material structure; the PANI/PAA composite film synthesized through the direct polymerization method( PANI/PAA-DP) had a larger particle size and two obvious oxidation and reduction peaks,the response time for oxidation and reduction were respectively 120 ms and 226 ms.and the transmittance modulation of the PANI/PAA composite films reached 10% at 600 ~ 700 nm;the PANI/PAA composite film synthesized through the layer by layer method( PANI/PAA-LP) had a porous network structure, three obvious oxidation and reduction peaks, stable electrochemical property,and improved electrochromic performance,the response time for oxidation and reduction were respectively 45 ms and 67 ms, and the transmittance modulation of the PANI/PAA composite films reached 40% at 600 ~ 700 nra.%采用直接聚合法与逐层镀膜法分别成功制备了聚苯胺(PANI)/聚丙烯酸(PAA)复合薄膜,通过SEM、FTIR考察了两种工艺制备的薄膜的形貌和微结构,并测定了两种复合薄膜的循环伏安性能(CV)、电流响应特性(CA)及电致变色性能.结果表明,SEM与FTIR证实了两种方法制备的PANI/PAA复合薄膜仅在材料结构上有所不同;直接聚合法制备的PANI/PAA复合薄膜(PANL/PAA-DP)表面具有较大颗粒,两对明显的氧化还原峰,氧化态和还原态的响应时间分别为120 ms和226 ms,在600 ~ 700 nm波长处

  12. Utviklingen av Noark-standarden 1984 – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Sirevåg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen behandler utviklingen av Noark – standarden for elektronisk arkivdanning i norsk offentlig forvaltning – fra versjon 1 (1984 til versjon 5 (2008. Den beskriver omstendighetene som medførte at standarden ble til i 1984, og søker å forklare hvorfor og hvordan det lyktes å utbre standarden slik at Noark-systemer ble enerådende i offentlig forvaltning i løpet av 1990-årene. Riksarkivarens strategier i Noark-utviklingen behandles, – de som fra først av fikk Riksarkivaren til å engasjere seg i standardiseringsarbeidet, de som deretter fikk Riksarkivaren til å overta forvalteransvaret for Noark, og de som senere er endret eller justert som resultat av erfaringer med Noark-baserte systemer og av nyåpnede teknologiske muligheter. Særlig vekt legges på å belyse Riksarkivarens motiver for å overta ansvaret for Noark-standarden fra 1990. Noark plasseres også i det internasjonale bildet, og sammenholdes med andre standarder som ISO 15489 og EU-standarden MoReq. Da Noark-utviklingen startet i 1984, pågikk tilsvarende utviklingsprosjekter både i Danmark og i Sverige. Artikkelen søker forklaringer på at en journal- og sakarkivstandard bare ble en realitet i Norge.

  13. Enkel bestemmelse av metylkvikksølv i ekstraherte og dekomponerte biologiske prøvetyper ved bruk av kalddamp atomabsorpsjonsspektroskopi.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanathas, Logana

    2010-01-01

    Hensikten med dette arbeidet var å utvikle en enkel metode for bestemmelse av metylkvikksølv (MeHg) i biologiske prøvetyper som blod, urin og hår. For å utvikle denne metoden ble det tatt i bruk tilgjengelige intrumenter ved Intitutt for plante- og miljøvitenskap, UMB. Totalkvikksølv (T-Hg) bestemmes i dag ved hjelp av kalddamp atomabsorpsjonsspektroskopi (CVAAS). Bestemmelse av MeHg ved bruk av CVAAS, krever en forutgående separasjon av kvikksølvspecier og oksidasjon av MeHg til Hg2+. Hydrog...

  14. Os Desafios dos Assentados na Órbita das Determinações do PAA e a Luta Pela/Na Terra no Pontal do Paranapanema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Cássio Todescato Leal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Introdução: Os apontamentos deste resumo fazem parte da pesquisa “O Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos e a Disputa Territorial em Torno da Luta pela Terra/Na Terra no Pontal do Paranapanema”, financiada pela Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, sob a orientação do professor Antonio Thomaz Junior. Os recursos e inconstantes destinados a Agricultura Familiar são direcionados comumente por meio de Políticas Públicas que não consideram as diversidades territoriais, e na maioria dos casos impõem aos camponeses/assentados os esquemas protagonizados pelos atravessadores e os ditames do mercado, sem contar que não proporcionam apoio técnico efetivo no manejo e na colheita, inviabilizando e/ou encarecendo a produção. Todavia, o ganho diferencial está no fato de se manter enquanto produtor familiar, por contar com a força de trabalho da família; esse é, pois, o salto qualitativo da estrutura camponesa. Nessas circunstâncias, que também se expressam no Pontal do Paranapanema, é que estamos apreendendo os desafios postos para a implementação e territorialização do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA no Pontal do Paranapanema e seus rebatimentos na dinâmica territorial de classe (Thomaz Jr, 2012 considerando-o como um instrumento de política pública do Programa Fome Zero, como também, uma conquista de luta dos movimentos sociais. Estes que no momento, no Pontal do Paranapanema, são um dos principais articuladores dos projetos que envolvem o PAA. O Programa foi instituído em 2003 pelo artigo 19 da Lei nº. 10.696, de 2 de julho de 2003 tem como principal objetivo estimular a agricultura familiar por meio da aquisição de alimentos e sua distribuição em quantidade, qualidade e regularidade necessárias às populações em situação de insegurança alimentar e nutricional por meio de entidades das redes de assistência social. Para

  15. Användbarhetsundersökning av Omenahotels.com

    OpenAIRE

    MALMSTRÖM, OSKAR

    2014-01-01

    Internet spelar en allt större roll i turismindustrin. Konsumentens roll underlättas då det finns ett överflöde av bokningskanaler och forum för information om destinationer, hotell och tjänster. Bara under åren 2007-2011 växte andelen av kunder som handlat över nätet med 20 procentenheter. År 2011 hade dryga 30% av den finska befolkningen handlat antingen resetjänster eller logi över internet. Detta ger stor orsak till tjänsteleverantören att differentiera sig bland massorna. Omenahotels är...

  16. Effekt av beröring på kundupplevelsen

    OpenAIRE

    Claréus, Olivia; Zaring, Mikaela

    2015-01-01

    De stora förändringarna inom det sociokulturella och teknologiska området har bidragit till utvecklingen av en ny dimension av marknadsföring, vilken har inriktat sig på att se och behandla kunderna som levande individer. Kundernas sinne, känslor och humör ställs i centrum. Att involvera människas sinne i tjänsteprocessen kan vara avgörande för kundens direkta upplevelse av olika köp- och konsumtionsprocesser. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur humör och känslotillstånd, servicekvalit...

  17. Upplevelsen av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Louise; Forsander, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes typ 2 är en kronisk sjukdom som ökar över hela världen. Orsakerna till diabetes kan relateras till livsstil. En litteraturöversikt gjordes där elva artiklar med kvalitativ design granskades och analyserades. Syftet var att beskriva upplevelser av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2. I resultatet framkom fyra kategorier: att känna rädsla inför framtiden, känslomässiga konsekvenser av att leva med diabetes typ 2, vikten av att ha tillräcklig kunskap och att må bättre genom förändrade ...

  18. Enklare redovisning : Granskning av Statens Offentliga Utredning 2008:67

    OpenAIRE

    Lexell, Anna; Lindstedt, Kristina; Valkonen-Evertsson, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Regeringen gav år 2007 en grupp i uppdrag att leda förenklingen gällande enklare redovisning som en del av det stora förenklingsarbetet i Sverige. Förenklingsarbetet går ut på att sänka de administrativa lagreglerade kostnaderna för svenska företag med 25 procent till 2010. Under 2008 presenterades en av åtgärderna inom förenklingsarbetet; ”Delbetänkandet om Enklare redovisning – SOU 2008:67”. Några av de föreslagna förändringarna innebära att normgivande organ och i synnerhet Bokföringsnämnd...

  19. Ljudsignalens inverkan på individens uppfattning av varningsmeddelanden

    OpenAIRE

    Malki, Samar; Shatri, Laurela

    2006-01-01

    Uppsatsen behandlar ett antal teorier om vilken påverkan ljudsignaler har på individen. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur individen påverkas av ljudsignaler och kopplar ihop ljudsignaler som en teknisk produkt är avsedd att förmedla. För att på bästa sätt kunna utforska fenomenet utfördes ett experiment med hjälp av musikprogrammet Acoustica Mixcraft och åtta stycken ljudsignaler, varav 16 personer deltog i undersökningen. Fastställning av data presenterades i 3 tre- vägs ANOVA. R...

  20. En presentasjon av MODAG-modellens struktur og egenskaper

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Ådne; Moum, Knut

    1987-01-01

    På slutten av 1970-tallet arbeidet en i forskningsavdelingen i Statistisk sentralbyrå parallelt med tre modellprosjekt; kvartsmodellen KVARTS, årsmodellen MODAG og likevektsmodellen MSG-4. Bakgrunnen for MODAG-modellene var ønsket om å bruke mer aggregerte modeller som kunne løses innenfor programsystemer som sikret raskere og billigere løsninger enn hva var mulig med MODIS IV. Dessuten ønsket man å utvikde beskrivelsen av økonomisk atferd i forhold til MODIS IV, slik at en lettere kunne stud...

  1. Resultater av SkatteFUNN – patentering og innovasjoner

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Ådne; Raknerud, Arvid; Rybalka, Marina

    2007-01-01

    SkatteFUNN ble opprettet i 2002 som et tiltak for å øke norsk næringslivs forsknings- og utviklingsinnsats. Statistisk sentralbyrå har siden 2004 evaluert ordningen og sluttrapport fra evalueringen skal foreligge innen utgangen av 2007. I denne rapporten presenteres effekter av SkatteFUNN-ordningen på foretakenes innovasjonsaktiviteter. Vi studerer endringer i foretakenes innovasjonsvirksomhet i perioden 1999-2001, dvs. før SkatteFUNN ble innført, til perioden 2002-2004 som er årene rett ette...

  2. Avkomsgranskning av bukker : ved naturlig parring eller semin?

    OpenAIRE

    Tveiten, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    Saneringsprosjektet ”Friskere geiter”, avvikling av stadig flere bukkeringer og en jevn nedgang i antall geitebruk har gjort avlsarbeidet på geit vanskelig de siste årene. Norsk Sau og Geit, som har ansvaret for avlsarbeidet på norsk melkegeit, forberedte seg i 2006 på å gå over fra å avkomsgranske bukker i bukkeringer til å ta inn prøvebukker på seminstasjon og bruke kunstig inseminering istedenfor. Imidlertid har ikke salget av sæddoser stått til forventningene, og fremdeles blir kun en lit...

  3. Anonyma internetkulturer : En studie av ”lurkers” upplevelser

    OpenAIRE

    Gidlund, Joakim

    2012-01-01

    Introduktion: Internet består idag av flertalet forum som var och en kan karaktäriseras som en internetkultur. Dessa forum inriktar sig till att antingen anonymisera sina användare för att utnyttja yttrandefrihetens maximala potential, eller icke-anonymitet där användare kan kopplas till personliga uppgifter tillgängliga till de som vistas på forumet. Allt fler svenskar väljer anonymiseringstjänster på grund av de digitala övervakningslagarna som har trätt i kraft under 2000-talet. Syftet: sy...

  4. Livsmedelsval vid vegankost : Intagsfrekvenser av livsmedel och kosttillskott

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Bakgrund Vid vegankost är det viktigt att vara uppmärksam på att man får i sig alla näringsämnen som kroppen behöver. Extra uppmärksam behöver man vara på till exempel vitamin B12, vitamin D, omega-3-fettsyror, järn, kalcium, jod och selen. Få studier belyser livsmedelsval och intagsfrekvenser av livsmedel vid vegankost. Syfte Att undersöka livsmedelsval och intagsfrekvenser av livsmedel samt kosttillskott hos vuxna personer i Sverige som lever på vegankost. Metod Livsmedelsval och intagsfrek...

  5. En studie av Fish-Bird’s navigeringssystem

    OpenAIRE

    Edvinsson, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Fish-Bird är ett pågående vetenskapligt/konstnärligt projekt som genomförs i samarbete mellan konstnären Mari Veloni och Australien Center for Field Robotics. I korthet består projekt av två robotar i form av rullstolar som interagerar med varandra och sin omgivning. Robotarna heter Fish respektive Bird och därav projektnamnet Fish-Bird. Detta examensarbete utvärderar Fish-Birds navigeringssystem. Bakgrunden till utvärderingen är en oklarhet i huruvida navigeringssystem är ofullständigt eller...

  6. Fysisk aktivitet inom rehabiliteringen av anorexi : - En systematisk litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Högnäs, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur fysisk aktivitet påverkar unga flickor (12-24 år) med anorexi, i samband med rehabilitering. Skribenten vill dessutom ytterligare få specificerat vilken typ av fysisk aktivitet som kan vara lämplig för denna målgrupp. Frågeställningarna besvaras genom en systematisk litteraturstudie. Genom databassökning och frisökning hittades 14 relevanta artiklar som genomgick en kvalitetsgranskning, enligt en modifierad metod för kvalitetsgranskning av Forsberg & Wengs...

  7. Bruk av opinionsledere på sosiale medier

    OpenAIRE

    Helle, Oda Minge; Lebedeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Med utgang punkt i den norske motebransjen har vi valgt å se på bruk av opinionsledere i markedsføring på sosiale medier. Bakgrunnen for valget er vår interesse for mote, og det potensiale som ligger i markedsføring på sosiale medier. Sosiale medier får stadig flere brukere som har tilgang store deler av døgnet. Forbrukere blir derfor eksponert for mye indirekte og direkte markedsføring. Vi har valgt det norske merket Tom Wood som utgangspunkt for eksempler i oppgaven da de aktivt bruker sosi...

  8. Utveckling av webbsida med användargränssnittmetoder

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Ulrika; Hallgren, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Restaurangen Knäppingen – Stadsmuseets Café & Kök i Norrköping var i stort behov av en marknadsförande och informativ webbsida med en administrativ del. Syftet med detta arbete var skapa en webbsida med användbarhet enligt Usability Engineerings arbetspunkter. Användbarhet innebär att ett system är ändamålsenligt, effektivt och tillfredsställande. Förutom beställarnas krav hade vi ganska stor frihet att utforma det första designförslaget. Därefter fortsatte utvecklingen av webbsidan utifr...

  9. Verdsettelse av Widerøe's Flyveselskap AS

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Kirsti; Opeide, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Formålet med denne avhandlingen har vært å estimere den teoretiske markedsverdien av Widerøes Flyveselskap AS, med bakgrunn i at morselskapet SAS ble måtte selge på grunn av likviditetsproblemer. Prosessen resulterte i en verdi på egenkapitalen på NOK 2 424 millioner. Verdivurderingen er gjennomført i henhold til rammeverket fundamental analyse. I tråd med dette rammeverket startet vi med å kartlegge selskapet og bransjen de opererer i, luftfartsindustrien, før vi videre gjennomførte uli...

  10. EST Table: AV403981 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available terminase large subunit (DNA packaging protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV403981 pg-- ... ...AV403981 pg--0297 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/265 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packag...ing protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1|

  11. Dans som arkivmaterial : En semiotisk studie av danshandlingar

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Onna

    2015-01-01

    Ämnet för denna uppsats är dans som arkivmaterial. Teckningar, dansnotation, recensioner, fotografier, rörlig bild och motion capture studeras som handlingstyper som dans bevaras genom. Syftet är att ta reda på vad som har hänt mellan dans och danshandling. Vilken slags representanter av dansen är handlingarna? Vidare knyter studien an till ett användarperspektiv och en annan frågeställning lyder: vad får forskare som studerar rörelse som har skett ut av handlingarna? Hur kan handlingstyperna...

  12. Inspeksjon av ikke-piggbare rørledninger

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Maria Sund

    2015-01-01

    Rørledninger er som blodårer i olje- og gassutvinningen, og vi har mange tusen km med rørledninger bare på norsk sokkel. Integriteten av rørledninger er utfordrende for olje- og gassindustrien. For å kunne sikre integriteten må man derfor utføre inspeksjon og overvåkning av rørledningene, noe som må gjøres rutinemessig gjennom hele levetiden. Inspeksjon kan utføres både utvendig og innvendig. Ved innvendig inspeksjon utgjør pigging en vesentlig rolle. I piggbare rørledninger kan piggen betrak...

  13. Tar robotene over? : en casestudie av ASKO Sentrallager AS

    OpenAIRE

    Solbakken, Benedicte; Ramskjell, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Dagligvarehandelen omsatte i 2012 for 148 milliarder kroner og distribusjonen av varer er en utfordrende oppgave i vårt langstrakte land. Effektivisering av forsyningskjeden fra leverandør og ut til kunde er helt sentralt. Robotene som hjelper til med å fordele varer fra paller og over i mindre kasser krever at varene er stablet på helpaller. ASKO SENTRALLAGER AS har siden 2012 endret sine bestillingsmengder for å få flere helpaller inn på det nye høylageret. Endret bestillingsmengde til fle...

  14. Hvordan bruken av budsjett og alternative styringsverktøy påvirker insentivsystem: en studie av norske banker : adopsjon av beyond budgeting som driver for design av insentivsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Granvik, Håkon Alexander; Kallestad, Ole Christian

    2015-01-01

    Temaet for utredningen er hvordan bruken av budsjett og alternative styringsverktøy påvirker design av insentivsystem hos norske bank- og finansaktører. Forskningsobjektene i denne studien er Danske Bank, DNB, Handelsbanken, Nordea og SpareBank 1 Gruppen. Før arbeidet med utredningen startet, kjente vi til at Handelsbanken og SpareBank 1 Gruppen har adoptert styringsfilosofien kjent som Beyond Budgeting. Utredningen søker å gi svar på om banker som har adoptert Beyond Budgeting benytter andre...

  15. Revisjon av anleggskontrakter i henhold til god revisjonsskikk

    OpenAIRE

    Woxen, Hans Jacob; Feng, Yennie Jie Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Prosjektregnskap må føres når anleggskontrakter foreligger. I de tilfelle disse inneholder vesentlig feilinformasjon, påvirker dette årsregnskapet i tilsvarende grad. Hvordan revisor må revidere for å ivareta kravet til god revisjonsskikk, utgjør problemstillingen som ligger til grunn for denne masteroppgaven. Anleggskontrakter er ifølge IAS 11 kontrakter som er særlig fremforhandlet for tilvirkning av en eiendel eller en kombinasjon av eiendeler. Denne definisjonen utdypes ...

  16. Informasjonsgjenfinning og visualisering av relasjoner i norsk popmusikk

    OpenAIRE

    Langseth, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Utforskning i og tilgang til innhold i norsk popmusikk er et stort interesseområde med flere aktive aktører. Akademiske, kommersielle og private aktører er interessert i å forstå norsk popmusikk, oppdage interessante mønstre og utforske relasjoner mellom sanger. For å realisere dette kreves det ofte menneskelig analyse av flere tusener av sanger, noe som er en tidskrevende oppgave. Ved å bruke gjenfinningsmetoder for å finne relasjoner og å visualisere de i et ny...

  17. Organiserande av en konferens - Case: YH-biblioteksdagar i Arcada

    OpenAIRE

    Tuovinen, Tiina; Byman, Pernilla

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med detta praktiska examensarbete var att organisera Yrkeshögskolors biblioteksdagar 2014 tillsammas med en planeringsgrupp, samt redogöra för hur evenemanget genomfördes och hur våra ansvarsområden lyckades. Examensarbetet byggdes upp med hjälp av en teoretisk referensram som baserade sig på evenemangsplaneringsteorier. Ar-betsprocessen dokumenterads i form av definitions-, planerings-, genomförande- och reflektionsfaser. I reflektionsfasen analyserades hela processen både med hjälp a...

  18. Strategisk regnskapsanalyse og verdsettelse av Renewable Energy Corporation ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Søvik, Lene; Sømme, Tore

    2011-01-01

    Hva er vi villige til å betale for en aksje? ”Price is what you pay, but value is what you get” av Professor Stephen H. Penman i boken ”Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation” 2010, poengterer at en aktiv investor ser på prisen for en aksje som kostnaden ved en investering, og ikke verdien av en aksje. I denne utredningen ønsker vi å utfordre markedsverdien til REC, og undersøke om aksjen er over eller underpriset i forhold til børsverdi. Dette har vi gjort ved å foreta en f...

  19. Utveckling av elektronik och solpanel till portabel solcellsdriven lampa

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, David; Wretblad, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Syftet med detta projekt har varit att utveckla en solpanel och elektroniken till en portabel solcellsdriven lampa. Huvuddelarna i systemet är en solpanel, en ljuskälla, ett batteri och ett USB-uttag för att användaren ska kunna ladda t.ex. en mobiltelefon. Målet har varit att leverera produktionsunderlag för en färdig slutprodukt. En solcell är en halvledare som direkt omvandlar solljusets energi till elektrisk energi i form av likström. Den spänning och ström som alstras av en solcell är be...

  20. Oppdragelse etter intensivbehandling av barn : kan eksistensielle kriser endre oppdragelsen?

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    SAMMENDRAG Problemområdet: Når et barn blir akutt/kritisk syk og må intensivbehandles, er det godt mulig at foreldrene ved siden av sterke emosjoner, opplever en krise av eksistensiell art der spørsmål om livsverdier kan oppstå. Det kan være mulig at samspillet innad i familien og foreldrenes oppdragelsespraksis endres når familien kommer hjem. Min erfaring fra klinisk praksis, fra teori og forskningsartikler kan tyde på det. Målet er å få fram mulige utfordringer for familien etter at et ...

  1. Skjulte spillere? En studie av kvinner som spiller dataspill

    OpenAIRE

    Agdestein, Maren

    2009-01-01

    Denne oppgaven undersøker hvordan er det å være en kvinne som spiller dataspill. Spørsmålet kommer på bakgrunn av forskning som har vist at mange forbinder dataspill med menn og gutter, dernest at det hittil er gjort lite forskning på bruk av spill blant voksne. Jo Bryce og Jason Rutter gjør oppmerksom på at at kvinnelige spillere er synlige på statistikkene, men ikke i like stor grad i offentlige spillerom som store datatreff, spillbutikker, spillforum osv. Et motiv for oppgaven er synliggjø...

  2. Utveckling av metod för mätning av Overall Equipment Effectiveness vid Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Andréas; Lönnberg, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT AB) i Finspång är ett företag vars verksamhet är inriktad på tillverkning av gas- och ångturbiner för främst industriella tillämpningsområden. Företaget har cirka 2 100 anställda och är en del av den tyska storkoncernen Siemens AG. Inom SIT AB har det sedan tidigare funnits en delad mening kring vilka orsaker som främst bidrar till förluster inom företagets produktion. I dagsläget genomförs flera olika typer av driftsuppföljningar, ett problem är dock...

  3. Stabilisering av insektsangripna möbler : en jämförande studie av konsolidanter

    OpenAIRE

    Nolin, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Denna rapport är en jämförande studie av utvalda konsolidanter som används till att stabilisera nedbrutet insektsangripet trä. Av de trägnagande skadeinsekter vi har i Sverige är det främst den strimmiga trägnagaren som är intressant i möbelsammanhang. I rapporten beskrivs den strimmiga trägnagaren, en liten skadeinsekt som kan åstadkomma stor skada om den får verka ostörd. Insekten finns utspridd i hela Europa och är ett stort problem då den angriper alla typer av träslag. Nedbrutet insektsa...

  4. Implementering av en BIM-nytta i förvaltning : Systematisk brandskyddskontroll av handbrandsläckare

    OpenAIRE

    Gaouar, Bachir; Kågas Ramström, Elin

    2014-01-01

    ”BIM i staten” är ett initiativ från de fem statliga byggherrarna. Tillsammans har de bestämt sig för att hitta en gemensam strategi som ställer krav på byggnadsinformationsmodeller. Konsultbolaget Tyréns AB har agerat konsultstöd vid framtagandet av denna strategi. Implementering av en BIM-nytta i förvaltning är en undersökning i att effektivisera ärendehantering inom förvaltning. Effektiviseringen görs baserat på bedömningen av dagens förvaltningsprocess och framtidens hypotetiska förvaltni...

  5. Adsorption Properties of PVA/PAA/clay Composite Hydrogel Synthesized by Gamma Radiation and its Application in Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Its Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copolymer hydrogels composed of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poly acrylic acid (PAA) were prepared by γ-irradiation in the presence of N,N’ methylene bis acrylamide (MBAM) as crosslinking agent or bentonite clay. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The dye adsorption experiments for Crystal Violet dye (CV) were carried out by using bath procedure. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the adsorption behavior. The effect of different copolymer composition, clay concentration, ph, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and adsorption temperature were investigated to obtain the best experimental conditions. The adsorption equilibrium was attained after about 24h. of contact time. It was found that the adsorption process was correlated with Freundlich isotherm equation. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of CV dye onto the prepared hydrogels were also evaluated

  6. En kartlegging av det regionale innovasjonssystemet innen IKT/elektronikk Horten - Kongsberg

    OpenAIRE

    Velvin, Jan; Qvenild, Rolf; Branstad, Ole; Uhlin, Åke

    2003-01-01

    Denne rapporten er resultatet av et forprosjekt gjennomført for SND Vestfold og SND Buskerud av Høgskolen i Vestfold og Høgskolen i Buskerud. Den er utført som en del av samarbeidet mellom SND, Forskningsrådet (NFR) og SIVA om utvikling av regionale innovasjonssystemer i ARENA-programmet. Studien av innovasjonssystemet i aksen Horten og Kongsberg viser hvordan store lokale aktører ser på egen innovasjon og regionens innovasjossystem. Resultatet av denne rapporten vil være en del av beslutn...

  7. Konceptrealisering av tappvarmvattenproducerande sol- och luftvärmepump : Framtagning av funktionsprototyp med syftet att tilltala investerare eller samarbetspartner

    OpenAIRE

    Holmén, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Detta arbete har varit ett examensarbete för högskoleingenjörsprogrammet i innovationsteknik och design vid Karlstads universitet. Examensarbetet omfattade 22,5 högskolepoäng och har utförts av Andreas Holmén. Handledare från Karlstads universitet var industridesigner och universitetsadjunkt Lennart Wihk och examinator var proffessor Fredrik Thuvander. Examensarbetet var en del av ett större projekt som involverade ytterligare fem studenter. Projektet var ett industrisamarbete mellan Karlsta...

  8. Elektrifisering av traktoren kombinert med bruk av solenergi produsert på låvetaket. En mulighetsstudie.

    OpenAIRE

    Alve, Heidi Urianstad

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med oppgaven er å beregne hvor store jorder som kan driftes med elektriske traktorer ved hjelp av den elektriske energien produsert av et fotovoltaisk anlegg (PV-anlegg) på låvetaket til en gård. Første del oppgaven beregner virkningsgrad, effekt- og energiflyt for traktoren. Beregningene er gjort for to alternative elektriske traktorer, henholdsvis en batteridrevet og en hydrogendrevet traktor. Grunndataene for analysene hentes fra en konvensjonell dieseltraktors bruksmønster o...

  9. Etableringen av Tesla Motors på det norske bilmarkedet : en empirisk studie av salgsdrivere og konkurranseeffekter

    OpenAIRE

    Asperheim, Hanne Henjum; Vedum, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Denne masterutredningen er en empirisk studie av Tesla Motors’ etablering på det norske bilmarkedet. Vi gjennomfører to separate analyser: Først fokuseres det på geografiske salgsforskjeller, deretter på effekten Tesla Motors har hatt på det norske nybilmarkedet. I vår første analyse utvikler vi en modell for å identifisere Teslas salgsdrivere, i form av geografiske og sosioøkonomiske variabler. Resultatene viser at et fylkes inntektsnivå, utdanningsnivå og miljøbevissthet har en positiv s...

  10. Variasjon mellom optikerstudenters vurdering og gradering av corneal staining og konjunktival staining ved bruk av Efron graderingsska

    OpenAIRE

    Børretzen, Jeanne Marie; Gjervik, Sissel; Heim, Anette; Løwø, Kjetil; Reinfjord, Bertil

    2012-01-01

    Målsetting: Målsetting med denne undersøkelse med tverrsnittsdesign var å samle inn og analysere data om variasjoner mellom optikerstudenters vurdering og gradering av corneal staining og konjunktival staining ved bruk av Efron graderingsskalaer Metode: Fem operatører graderte til sammen førti øyne med èn gjennomsnittligverdi på både corneal staining og konjunktival staining etter Efron graderingsskala. Skalaen går fra null til fire med 0,1-trinn. Deretter ble data analysert i MS Excel. ...

  11. EST Table: AV398500 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398500 NV021883 10/09/28 99 %/150 aa ref|NP_001036916.1| G protein alpha subunit Go isoform 1 ... 7 79 %/149 aa C26C6.2#CE05311#WBGene00001648#locus:goa -1#guanine nucleotide-binding protein#status:Confir ...

  12. EST Table: AV399986 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399986 br--0229 10/09/28 97 %/154 aa ref|NP_001036916.1| G protein alpha subunit Go isoform 1 ... 7 81 %/154 aa C26C6.2#CE05311#WBGene00001648#locus:goa -1#guanine nucleotide-binding protein#status:Confir ...

  13. EST Table: AV400886 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400886 br--1932 10/09/28 100 %/169 aa gb|ADB25316.1| guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) s ... 7 92 %/169 aa C26C6.2#CE05311#WBGene00001648#locus:goa -1#guanine nucleotide-binding protein#status:Confir ...

  14. EST Table: AV405521 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405521 wdV10880X 10/09/28 59 %/121 aa ref|YP_858656.1| 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligas ... e [Aeromonas ... hydrophila subsp. hydrophila ATCC 7966] gb|ABK3971 ... 1.1| 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase [Aeromonas ... hydrophila subsp. hydrophila ATCC 7966] 10/08/28 6 ...

  15. EST Table: AV404246 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404246 pg--0747 10/09/28 91 %/130 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  16. EST Table: AV403752 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403752 pg--0009 10/09/28 100 %/257 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging... protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging

  17. EST Table: AV403922 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403922 pg--0214 10/09/28 91 %/142 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  18. EST Table: AV400925 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400925 br--1989 10/09/28 35 %/122 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...nl|Amel|GB19565-PA 10/09/10 35 %/122 aa gi|91093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  19. EST Table: AV400204 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400204 br--0896 10/09/28 36 %/111 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  20. EST Table: AV402611 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402611 heS30204 10/09/28 54 %/181 aa ref|XP_001657166.1| lupus ... la ribonucleoprotein [Aedes aeg ... ypti] gb|EAT45048.1| lupus ... la ribonucleoprotein [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 50 % ... gi|91082895|ref|XP_972070.1| PREDICTED: similar to lupus ... la ribonucleoprotein [Tribolium castaneum] FS79082 ...

  1. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald;

    of secure data capture, cameras must be gathered together following each simulation event and cabled through a powered USB hub to a laptop (with AV software installed) to enable playback. During playback, sound may be sourced separately from vision to combine the best possible view with the best available...

  2. EST Table: AV404393 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404393 pg--0930 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0008800(beta-lactamase activity)|GO:0030655(beta-lactam antibiotic ... ibiotic catabolic process)|GO:0046677(response to antibiotic ) 10/09/28 100 %/137 aa gb|ADE19118.1| extended-spe ...

  3. EST Table: AV404335 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404335 pg--0851 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0009279(cell outer membrane) 10/09/28 100 %/163 aa ref|YP_0 ... 03517639.1| transposase [Klebsiella ... pneumoniae] gb|ADD63593.1| transposase [Klebsiella ...

  4. EST Table: AV398357 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398357 NV021720 10/09/28 44 %/103 aa ref|XP_002435218.1| charged multivesicular b...ody protein, putative [Ixodes scapularis] gb|EEC08042.1| charged multivesicular body protein, putative [Ixod

  5. EST Table: AV402491 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402491 heS30027 10/09/28 43 %/122 aa gb|AAV91017.1| hemolymph ... proteinase 19 [Manduca sexta] 10 ... i|189239809|ref|XP_970870.2| PREDICTED: similar to hemolymph ... proteinase 19 [Tribolium castaneum] DC545770 heS3 ...

  6. EST Table: AV403656 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403656 msgV0868 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/125 aa ref|NP_040627.1| exclusion protein [Enterob ... [Enterobacteria phage lambda] gb|ACC91723.1| RexA [Cloning ... vector lambdaS2775] gb|EEA83574.1| hypothetical pr ...

  7. EST Table: AV403897 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403897 pg--0180 10/09/28 100 %/129 aa ref|NP_040618.1| host-nuclease inhibitor protein Gam [En ... mb|CAL59725.1| gam protein (bacteriophage lambda) [Cloning ... vector pSC101BADgbaA-ISceI(amp)] gb|ABS88739.1| Ga ...

  8. EST Table: AV404301 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404301 pg--0808 10/09/28 81 %/199 aa ref|ZP_05092873.1| phage tail tape measure p...rotein, lambda family [Carboxydibrachium pacificum DSM 12653] gb|EEB75267.1| phage tail tape measure protein

  9. EST Table: AV404116 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404116 pg--0495X 10/09/28 87 %/148 aa ref|YP_311293.1| putative tail length tape measure... protein [Shigella sonnei Ss046] gb|AAZ89058.1| putative tail length tape measure protein [Shigella s

  10. EST Table: AV404171 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404171 pg--0555 10/09/28 85 %/178 aa ref|ZP_05092873.1| phage tail tape measure p...rotein, lambda family [Carboxydibrachium pacificum DSM 12653] gb|EEB75267.1| phage tail tape measure protein

  11. Rektorers forståelse av mobbing i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    2008-01-01

    PÅ opfordring fra redaktionen gives en kommentar med dansk vinkel til den norske artikel 'Rektorers forståelse av mobbning i skolen'.Den omtalte artikel er at betragte som første trin i indførelse af en nordisk mobbeforståelse med undgangspunkt i Dan Olweus begrebsafgrænsning.Der savnes også en i...

  12. EST Table: AV404020 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404020 pg--0346 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0003700(transcription factor activity)|GO:0005506(iron ion ... ia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655] ref|NP_752833.1| manganese ... transport regulator MntR [Escherichia coli CFT073] ... ref|YP_309778.1| manganese ... transport regulator MntR [Shigella sonnei Ss046] r ...

  13. User guide of AVS/ITBL for numerical environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the ITBL (Information-Technology Based Laboratory) project which is one of e-Japan priority policy programs. The goal of the ITBL project is to create the vertical research environment in which intellectual resources such as remote computers, programs and data can be shared in Japanese research institutions and cooperative studies among researchers can be supported. AVS/ITBL is the visualization tool which has been developed aiming at realizing the efficient visualization in the ITBL environment. This visualization tool is one of the tools of ITBL infrastructure software and operates in cooperation with AVS/Express. Main functions of AVS/ITBL are as follows: it can directly read data files located on remote computers, it can display and control an image on the web browser, it can collaboratively display an image among remote researchers, and it can perform visualization process as a batch. In this paper, utilization of AVS/ITBL to the numerical environmental system, which is one of the applications in ITBL project, is presented. And the outline of the operation in this utilization is indicated. (author)

  14. EST Table: AV401629 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401629 e96h0968 10/09/28 70 %/161 aa ref|XP_002431431.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, ...putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB18693.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, putative [Pediculus humanus cor

  15. EST Table: AV406060 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV406060 wdV30561X 10/09/28 99 %/122 aa gb|ACN86367.1| troponin T transcript variant B [Bombyx m ... 42 %/125 aa C14F5.3d#CE43444#WBGene00006588#locus:tnt - 3#status:Partially_confirmed#UniProt:B9WRS6#prote ...

  16. Analysis of AVS-penogram in 3000 impotent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minn, Young Guy; Choi, Hyung Ki [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-01

    Audio visual simulation penogram(AVS-penogram) is used as a screening method for evaluation of erectile dysfunction. In this study, 3000 patients were evaluated from Dec. 1986 to Dec. 1992 and finally diagnosed by comprehensive diagnostic methods. The patients were classified according to AVS-penogram curves into 4 types and correlated with the patient`s final diagnosis. For 800 patients who were evaluated with combined AVS-penogram and NPT monitoring, compatibility ratios between psychogenic and organic group were compared. After correlating each of the curve type with the patients and comparing erotic and nocturnal erection, following results were obtained. 1. The mean age of the patients was 41.25 years. 2. The overall rate of final diagnosis were 57.5%, 14.3%, 8.9% in psychogenic, arteriogenic and veogenic impotence. 3. Type I group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 87% of the patients. 4. Type IIA group was proved as organic impotence in 79% of the patients and most of them had neurogenic and arteriogenic impotence. 5. Type IIB group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 51%, organic impotence in 49% of the patients. Among the organic impotence group, most of them had arteriogenic, venogenic and neurogenic impotence. The difference of both group was statically insignificant. 6. Type IIC group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 39%, organic impotence in 61% of the patients. Further studies are needed for sub-classification of both groups. 7. The compatibility ratio of the AVS-penogram and NPTM was 85.9% in psychogenic group with normal finding in both tests and 44.7% in organic group with abnormal finding in both tests. In conclusion, AVS-penogram is a primary diagnostic method in screening impotent patients and type I is regarded as psychogenic impotence. In Type IIB and IIC, sub-classification of curve type is needed for differential diagnosis between psychogenic and organic impotence. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Patienters uppfattning av delaktighet i beslutet att lämnas kvar hemma av ambulansen i Uppsala län

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Elin; Sundman, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Introduktion: Vid ca 10 % av alla ambulansuppdrag i Uppsala län åker patienten inte med till sjukhus. Trots att det är viktigt att patienten känner sig delaktig i beslut som tas inom vården finns få studier som undersöker patienters uppfattning av delaktighet i beslutet att lämnas hemma av ambulanspersonalen. Syfte: Att undersöka patienters uppfattningar av delaktighet i mötet med ambulanspersonalen och i beslutet att lämnas kvar hemma av ambulansen i Uppsala län. Metod: En retrospektiv enkät...

  18. Langtidsovervåkning av miljøkvaliteten i kystområdene av Norge. Bløtbunn. Datarapport 1994

    OpenAIRE

    Rygg, B.; Alve, E.

    1995-01-01

    Tokt for innsamling av bløtbunnsfaunaprøver samt prøver av foraminiferer ble gjennomført i mai 1994 på strekningen Egersund - Ytre Oslofjord. Det ble gjort innsamling på 18 stasjoner. Foreliggende datarapport inneholder data for artenes individtall, faunaens artsmangfold, biomasse av tre børstemarkarter, samt sedimentparametre i hver enkelt grabb og for hver stasjon samlet. Primærdataene er, lagret i databaser på NIVA. Videre bearbeidelse av data og vurdering av resultatene blir gitt i 5-årsr...

  19. En analys av agiliteten i Migrationsverkets systemutvecklingsarbete : En utvärdering av Scrum med hjälp av ramverket Agile Software solution framework

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Arbetar organisationen agilt? Det är huvudfrågan i detta arbete. Organisationen har arbetat med den agila utvecklingsetoden Scrum i ett antal år. De har gjortmedvetna och omedvetna val, för att skapa sin version av Scrum. Frågan som studienförsöker svara på är om det verkligen innebär att man arbetar agilt, när man säger attman arbetar med en agil systemutvecklingsmetod.

  20. Modellering av organiskt material i avloppsvatten vid mekanisk tillverkning av pappersmassa : Regressionsanalys baserad på COD- och TOC-analyser vid olika grader av blekning och raffinering

    OpenAIRE

    Carlström, Johan

    2012-01-01

    I avloppsreningen på Hallsta pappersbruk i Hallstavik reduceras dagligen tonvis med organiskt material innan avloppsvattnet släpps ut i den intilliggande Edeboviken. Bruket är ett så kallat integrerat pappersbruk vilket innebär att man tillverkar både pappersmassan och pappret på plats. Det är främst vid framställningen av massa som det organiska materialet löses ut ur veden och hamnar i processvattnet som så småningom når brukets avloppsreningsverk. På bruket tillverkas papper i olika ljushe...

  1. Bosetting av flyktninger : En analyse av bosetting av flyktninger og personer med opphold på humanitært grunnlag i Horten og Lørenskog kommune

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Tema for oppgaven er bosetting av flyktninger og personer med opphold på humanitært grunnlag i Horten og Lørenskog kommune. Bosettingsarbeidet i Norger er basert på kommunal frivillighet. Hvert år sender Integrerings- og Mangfoldsdirektoratet (IMDi) en henvendelse til landets kommuner med en anmodning om å bosette flytkninger. Kommunestyret vedtar deretter hvor mange de ønsker og bosette. Vedtaket om antall flyktninger kommunen velger å bosette er ikke bindende og kommunene er ikke forpliktet...

  2. Radioactive waste from non-licensed activities - identification of waste, compilation of principles and guidance, and proposed system for final management; Radioaktivt avfall fraan icke tillstaandsbunden verksamhet (RAKET) - identifiering av aktuellt avfall, sammanstaellning av relevanta regler och principer, foerslag paa system foer omhaendertagande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Pers, K. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Presently national guidelines for the handling of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities are lacking in Sweden. Results and information presented in this report are intended to form a part of the basis for decisions on further work within the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute on regulations or other guidelines on final management and final disposal of this type of waste. An inventory of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities is presented in the report. In addition, existing rules and principles used in Sweden - and internationally - on the handling of radioactive and toxic waste and non-radioactive material are summarized. Based on these rules and principles a system is suggested for the final management of radioactive material from non-licensed activities. A model is shown for the estimation of dose as a consequence of leaching of radio-nuclides from different deposits. The model is applied on different types of waste, e.g. peat ashes, light concrete and low-level waste from a nuclear installation.

  3. Environmental monitoring program for the Ormen Lange Onshore Processing Plant and the Reserve Power Plant at Nyhamna, Gossa. Monitoring of vegetation and soil: re-analyses and establishment of new monitoring plots in 2010.; Miljoeovervaakingsprogram for Ormen Lange landanlegg og Reservegasskraftverk paa Nyhamna, Gossa. Overvaaking av vegetasjon og jord: gjenanalyser og nyetablering av overvaakingsfelter i 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarrestad, P.A.; Bakkestuen, V.; Stabbetorp, O.E.; Myklebost, Heidi

    2011-07-01

    The Ormen Lange Onshore Processing Plant in Aukra municipality (Moere og Romsdal county) receives unprocessed gas and condensate from the Ormen Lange field in the Norwegian Sea. During processing of sales gas and condensate, the plant emits CO, Co2, Nox, CH4, NMVOC (including BTEX), SO2 and small amounts of heavy metals, as specified in the discharge permit issued by the Climate and Pollution Directorate. The plant started production in 2007, with A/S Norske Shell as operator. In general, emissions of nitrogen and sulphur-containing gasses may affect terrestrial ecosystems through acidification and fertilization of soil and vegetation. The emissions from the onshore plant are calculated to be below the current critical loads for the terrestrial nature types. However, the nitrogen background level in the area of influence is close to the critical loads for oligotrophic habitats. To be able to document any effects of emissions to air on terrestrial ecosystems, a monitoring program for vegetation and soil was established in 2008 in the area of influence from the Ormen Lange Onshore Plant. The monitoring is planned at regular intervals according to the same methods employed in 2008, with the first reanalysis in 2010. The benefits of the monitoring parameters will be continuously evaluated. Statnett has established a Reserve Power Plant with discharge permits of similar substances in the same area as the Ormen Lange Onshore Processing plant, and participates in an extended monitor program from 2010. In 2008 two monitoring sites were established, one with rather high deposition of nitrogen north of the plant within Gule-Stavmyran nature reserve in Fraena municipality (site Gulmyran) and one south of the plant on the island Gossa (site Aukra). Deposition values have been estimated by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). Within each site integrated monitoring of the species composition of the vegetation, plant growth, and chemical content of plants and soil is conducted for three distinct habitats: wet oligotrophic heathland, and hummocks and lawns on raised bogs. The site in hummocks was established in 2010, whereas the other sites were re-analyzed with the same methods as in 2008. The parameters are monitored within delimited plots. The vegetation is monitored in permanently marked plots (0.5m x 0.5m), ten for each vegetation type at each site, in total 60 plots. In each plot the abundance of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens are recorded, as well as the cover of the vegetation layers. Plant growth is measured in each site for 20 individuals of Betula nana, Calluna vulgaris, and Sphagnum capillifolium. Five samples of each of Racomitrium lanuginosum, Sphagnum capillifolium and Cladonia arbuscula from each site are collected and analyzed for plant nutrient content and the heavy metals copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Ten soil samples are collected from each habitat at each site and analyzed for ph, Kjeldahl nitrogen, exchangeable elements, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation, a total of 30 samples from each site. The heavy metals Cu, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Zn are measured in samples of peat mud, 10 samples from each site. Peat water is analyzed for chemical nutrients and heavy metals, 10 samples from each site. The chemical analyses are conducted at the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute and NILU. There is still no indication that any pollution has affected the species composition of the vegetation. The vegetation is stable at both sites, both in wet heathland and in lawns on raised bogs. A few species occurring at low frequency in 2008 were not recorded in 2010, and some previously unrecorded species were found. This is normal for re-analyses of vegetation. There were significant differences in plant growth for Betula nana and Calluna vulgaris between the two sites, with highest growth rate at Aukra. This is most likely due to better climatic. (Author)

  4. Co-combustion of automotive shredder residue (ASR) and sewage sludge with a mixture of industrial and household waste in an 20MW fluidized bed combustor; Samfoerbraenning av bilfluff, roetslam och avfall i en 20 MW fluidbaeddpanna - Studier av braenslesammansaettningens paaverkan paa belaeggningsbildning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskilsson, David; Johansson, Andreas; Johansson, Linda; Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena

    2007-07-01

    In order to prevent a further increased use of resources and to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, organic wastes are today diverted towards material and energy recovery. This creates a waste market with an increasing number of waste fractions that needs to be treated properly. As an example, in Sweden it has recently been prohibited to landfill source separated combustible waste (2002) and organic waste (2005). Wastes as automotive shredder residue (ASR) and sewage sludge can no longer be landfilled and needs to be either material or energy recovered, which challenge the waste treatment sector. This work investigates the effects of ASR and sewage sludge co-combustion in a 20 MW Energy-from-Waste plant (bubbling fluidised bed). The long term objective of the work is to increase the fuel flexibility, the boiler availability and the power production. This report focus on boiler operation and combustion performance in terms of agglomeration, deposit rates and emissions. In addition to the tests with ASR and sewage sludge, repeated measurements were performed during normal load as a reference. The results show that the co-combusted fractions of ASR and sewage sludge, which on mass basis constituted 6 % and 15 % respectively, did not increase the risk for agglomeration or deposits on heat-exchanging surfaces. Instead, compared to the two reference cases, the deposit rates decreased when sewage sludge was added. Only minor variation in the emissions was seen between the different cases. The levels of I-TEQs were far below the legislated values in all cases

  5. Possibilities to achieve better performance at the Pulp and Paper Industry bark boilers by optimised combustion control. Part 2 General possibilities and applications for four chosen plants; Moejligheter till foerbaettrad drift av skogsindustrins barkpannor genom optimerad foerbraenningsteknisk styrning. Etapp 2 Redovisning av generella moejligheter och tillaempning paa fyra utvalda anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert; Lundborg, Rickard [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    This report presents the result of phase 2 of 'Possibilities to achieve better performance at the Pulp and Paper Industry bark boilers by optimised combustion control'. The project was initiated to generate know-how for coping with the special demands that exist for the bark boilers, with rapid changes of loads and fuel quality. The fuel comprises of different types of wood chips, bark and residue fibres with a wide range of moisture contents. In the future it is expected that these boilers, working under difficult conditions, will have the same environmental requirements as district heating boilers. Phase 1 of the project 'Diagnosis and analysis of existing boilers' was published as SVF report 660. The report contains an analysis of 21 Swedish bark boilers. Phase 3 which has already been started and includes the demonstration and evaluation of modified bark boilers. The report describes and explains different types of suitable boiler modifications, based on four selected typical boilers. The work has included measurements in- and outside the furnace, tests and mathematical simulation in two steps. The first basic simulations was made to get a good picture of the present situation and the later modification simulations to test the practical effects of different combustion solutions. The presentation in the report has been aimed at describing concrete solutions, but most of all to give a better understanding of the hows and whys and the general ways of solving existing problems. The opinions of how to modify a boiler to get the best performance will vary, but the basic chemical-physical laws will remain unchanged. The hope of the authors is that this report will serve as a basis for choosing between proposed different solutions and to inspire engineers and owners to modify bark boilers using the technology of tomorrow.

  6. Study on Effects and Mechanism of PAA on Curing Reaction of Epoxy Resin Film%聚酰胺酸对环氧树脂胶膜固化反应的影响及其机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴唯; 刘勇; 陈玉; 刘明昌; 石品品; 吴祥

    2011-01-01

    Liquid and solid epoxy resin were mixed. DDS was used as the curing agent and polyamic acid (PAA) was added to modify the resin matrix. Epoxy resin film was prepared using method of scraping membrane. The effects of solid-to-liquid ratio of epoxy and the amount of PAA on film forming ability, curing temperature and curing rate were studied by means of DSC, plate-wire-drawing method and FFIR. The reaction mechanism of PAA on the curing reaction of epoxy/DDS system was explored as well. The result showed that adding PAA into the resin matrix can improve the toughness of epoxy resin film, reduce the curing temperature and accelerate the curing rate. For this resin system (the mass ratio of solid epoxy to liquid epoxy was 50: 50), while the amount of PAA was 5 wt%, the initial curing temperature was descended from 175.9 ℃to 138.8 ℃ and the gel time was descended from 162 min to 46 min. The resin system was turned from high temperature system into nearly medium temperature system.%以液体环氧树脂与固体环氧树脂混配,4,4′-二氨基二苯砜(DDS)为固化剂,加入聚酰胺酸(PAA)对固液混配环氧树脂进行改性,采用刮膜法制备环氧树脂胶膜.通过DSC分析、平板拉丝法和傅里叶转换红外光谱法,研究了环氧树脂固液比、PAA用量等对环氧树脂胶膜成膜性、同化温度和同化速率的影响,并探索了PAA对环氧树脂/DDS体系固化反应的作用机理.结果表明,PAA可提高环氧树脂胶膜韧性,可降低固化温度,加快固化速度.对于环氧树脂(固/液质量比为50/50)/DDS/PAA体系,当PAA质量分数5%时,同化起始温度由未加PAA时的175.9℃下降到138.8℃,140℃时的固化凝胶时间由162 min下降到46 min,体系由高温固化变为近中温固化.

  7. Utveckling av yteffektivt elfordon för hyrsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Krantz, Hampus; Haglund, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Dagens bilar är gjorda för långa resor med högt ställda krav på bekvämlighet och komfort. Studier har visat att de flesta resor som görs i Storstockholm är korta, och därför är kravet på prestanda och komfort minimalt. Syftet med detta projekt var att ta fram ett enkelt pendlingsfordon som del av ett hyrsystem. Användaren hyr fordonet vid en station och lämnar av den vid en annan. Fokus har legat på att utveckla en parkeringslösning som spar plats. Att bygga parkeringsstationer i förbindelse ...

  8. Ergoterapeuters arbete med hund som en del av ergoterapiprocessen

    OpenAIRE

    Löfroth, Linnéa

    2012-01-01

    Som bakgrund till mitt examensarbete står det positiva bandet människan och hunden emellan samt hundens fördelaktiga påverkan på människans välmående. Syftet med arbetet är att redogöra för hur ergoterapeuter arbetar med hund som en del av klientens ergoterapiprocess samt redogöra för hur ergoterapeuter resonerar kring arbetet med hund som en del av ergoterapin. Föreningen Hundar inom fostran och rehabilitering rf är min undersöknings samarbetspartner. Som teoretisk referensram står den Canad...

  9. Bredbandstjänsternas framtid : En fallstudie av Sydkraft Bredband

    OpenAIRE

    Carmonius, Pär; Nilsson, Jerry; Skandevall, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Vi fann att hushållen i Norrköping har nytta av flertalet tjänster som i framtiden kan komma att erbjudas via Stadsnet.com. Dock är det är svårt att ta betalt för tjänster som tidigare erbjudits gratis via Internet. Vi ser också att Stadsnet.com som nätverk ger kunden ett mervärde om det i framtiden fortsätter att växa, med både fler bredbandsanvändare och fler Service Providers. I undersökningen med Service Providers fann vi att de intervjuade företagen vill använda sig av portaler så som St...

  10. Optimering av blandning och lagerhållning av avfallsbränsle : Optimering av avfallsbränsleblandning och lagerhållning av importerat avfallsbränsle vid Vattenfalls fjärrvärmeverk i Uppsala

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Morin, Magnus; Månsson, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    Fjärrvärmebranschen i Sverige har sedan mitten av 1990-talet varit i en stagnationsfas, där mängden producerad och förbrukad energi i stort sett varit konstant, trots stora investeringar i fjärrvärmenätet. Samtidigt har den höga andelen återvinning gjort att det råder brist på avfallsbränsle till energiåtervinning i Sverige. I kombination med hög konkurrens om avfallsbränslet har detta medfört att aktörerna på marknaden tvingats se sig om efter nya vägar att tillfredsställa behovet av bränsle...

  11. Virtualisering av resurser i en yrkeshögskola

    OpenAIRE

    Rautelius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    I examensarbetet undersöks om Windows Server 2012 Virtual Desktop Infrastrukture går att använda i skolmiljö. Beställaren har som krav en fungerande lösning som är lättare att använda, för både studeranden och lärare. Examensarbetet består av en teoretisk och en praktisk del. I den teoretiska delen beskrivs olika sorter av virtualisering, bl.a. paravirtualisering och operativsystems virtualisering. Windows serverarkitekturen förklaras också, eftersom det är serveroperativsystemet som använ...

  12. Utveckling av system för ledighetsplanering

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlander Wiik, Marcus; Pettersson, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Vacation 2.0 är ett ledighetsansökningssystem utvecklat hos CGI i Linköping för deras Linköping- och Norrköpingskontor. Med Vacation 2.0 kan anställda boka in kommande semester, föräldraledighet samt jour. Vacation 2.0 ger HR-avdelningen en översikt över tillgänglig personal genom en sammanställning av alla arbetsgruppers ledighetsansökningar. Systemet underhålls av en administratör som har behörighet att administrera arbetsgrupper och ändra anställdas existerande ledighetsansökningar. De ans...

  13. Ekologiska viner : En kartläggning av konsumtionsvanor

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Caroline Hermine Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Då försäljningen av ekologiskt vin stiger för varje år, och att köpa ekologiska produkter blir allt mer trendigt så verkar det naturligt att skriva ett arbete som bl.a. behandlar vad ett ekologiskt vin och ekologisk marknadsföring egentligen är. Problemställningen diskuterar hur bekanta finländarna är med Alkos ekologiska vinsortiment vad som är orsaken till att det köps mera ekologiska viner än tidigare. Syftet med arbetet är att redogöra i vilken utsträckning finländarna ärintresserade av e...

  14. Planeringsarbete för byte av skyddsrelä

    OpenAIRE

    Kanckos, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gamla reläskydd kan plötsligt sluta fungera. Därför är Kojola elstation i behov av nya. Elnätet har växt sedan de gamla reläskydden planerades och det betyder att inställningarna behöver uppdateras, men först måste de gamla reläskyddens inställningar och deras funktioner begripas. Genom att undersöka de gamla reläskyddens manualer och elstationens ritningar erhölls en bild av hur det fungerar. Gamla inställningsberäkningar jämförs med litteratur och nya uträkningssätt. Nya inställningar beräk...

  15. Migrering av en applikation till datormolnet Windows Azure

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Linus; Nguyen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Sammanfattning Den här uppsatsen beskriver arbetet bakom migreringen av en .NET webapplikation skriven i C#, kallad AMM, till en molnapplikation som sedan lagts upp på Windows Azure datormoln. Arbetet är gjort på uppdrag av Sogeti Karlstad som är ett konsultföretag för IT-relaterade lösningar. Målet bakom migreringen var att utreda om Windows Azures molntjänst lämpade sig till att användas för mindre applikationer såsom denna. Själva uppgiften var att få applikationen att fungera i Windows Az...

  16. EST Table: AV404185 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404185 pg--0572 10/09/28 98 %/172 aa pdb|2I1J|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugiperda At ... 2.1 Angstroms Resolution ... pdb|2I1K|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugipe ... rda Reveals The Coiled-Coil Domain At 3.0 Angstrom Resolution ... gb|ABK60307.1| moesin [Spodoptera frugiperda] 10/0 ...

  17. EST Table: AV398789 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398789 NV060284 10/09/28 99 %/108 aa pdb|2I1J|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugiperda At ... 2.1 Angstroms Resolution ... pdb|2I1K|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugipe ... rda Reveals The Coiled-Coil Domain At 3.0 Angstrom Resolution ... gb|ABK60307.1| moesin [Spodoptera frugiperda] 10/0 ...

  18. EST Table: AV398126 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398126 NV021158 10/09/28 96 %/194 aa pdb|2I1J|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugiperda At ... 2.1 Angstroms Resolution ... pdb|2I1K|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugipe ... rda Reveals The Coiled-Coil Domain At 3.0 Angstrom Resolution ... gb|ABK60307.1| moesin [Spodoptera frugiperda] 10/0 ...

  19. EST Table: AV403977 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403977 pg--0292X 10/09/28 62 %/111 aa pdb|2I1J|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugiperda At ... 2.1 Angstroms Resolution ... pdb|2I1K|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugipe ... rda Reveals The Coiled-Coil Domain At 3.0 Angstrom Resolution ... gb|ABK60307.1| moesin [Spodoptera frugiperda] 10/0 ...

  20. EST Table: AV398515 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398515 NV021902 10/09/28 99 %/128 aa pdb|2I1J|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugiperda At ... 2.1 Angstroms Resolution ... pdb|2I1K|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugipe ... rda Reveals The Coiled-Coil Domain At 3.0 Angstrom Resolution ... gb|ABK60307.1| moesin [Spodoptera frugiperda] 10/0 ...

  1. EST Table: AV398817 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398817 NV060314 10/09/28 96 %/143 aa pdb|2I1J|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugiperda At ... 2.1 Angstroms Resolution ... pdb|2I1K|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugipe ... rda Reveals The Coiled-Coil Domain At 3.0 Angstrom Resolution ... gb|ABK60307.1| moesin [Spodoptera frugiperda] 10/0 ...

  2. EST Table: AV399141 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399141 NV060715 10/09/28 98 %/166 aa pdb|2I1J|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugiperda At ... 2.1 Angstroms Resolution ... pdb|2I1K|A Chain A, Moesin From Spodoptera Frugipe ... rda Reveals The Coiled-Coil Domain At 3.0 Angstrom Resolution ... gb|ABK60307.1| moesin [Spodoptera frugiperda] 10/0 ...

  3. EST Table: AV400562 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400562 br--1452X 10/09/28 59 %/160 aa ref|XP_001843664.1| neuroendocrine protein ...7b2 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS33875.1| neuroendocrine protein 7b2 [Culex quinquefasciatus] 10/08/28 41 ...47 %/159 aa gi|91081787|ref|XP_973692.1| PREDICTED: similar to neuroendocrine protein 7b2 [Tribolium castaneum] BP115163 br-- ...

  4. EST Table: AV400244 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400244 br--1010 10/09/28 53 %/100 aa ref|XP_001654557.1| neuroendocrine protein 7...b2 [Aedes aegypti] gb|EAT46754.1| neuroendocrine protein 7b2 [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BP115163 br-- ...

  5. Kritik av riskbegreppet - berättigad eller ej?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Halvorsen, Peder; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2009-01-01

    skull". Trots stora framsteg inom medicinen finns det skäl att stanna upp och fråga: Vad håller vi på med egentligen? Redaktörerna och författarna till denna bok lyfter fram behovet av att reflektera över medicinsk praktik och att kritiskt granska de teorier som ligger till grund för vad vi gör. I boken...

  6. EST Table: AV404000 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404000 pg--0319 10/09/28 58 %/129 aa ref|XP_973797.1| PREDICTED: similar to NADH-ubiquinone ox ... subunit, mitochondrial precursor (Complex I-75kD) (CI -75kD) [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA09221.1| hypothe ... subunit, mitochondrial precursor (Complex I-75kD) (CI -75kD) [Tribolium castaneum] CK549469 pg-- ...

  7. Implementering av høyereordens skallelement i Fedem

    OpenAIRE

    Midtflå, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Masteroppgave gjør rede for teori og praksis for oppretting av høyere ordens skall element i FEDEM, ved å oppdatere og tilgjengeliggjøre en allerede eksisterende implementasjon. I særlig grad behandler den de forskjellige rutinene i koden, bakgrunnsinformasjon for 4 noders skall element og testprogrammet som er skrevet for å kvalitetssikre koden. Da elementet skal testes og sammenlignes med tilsvarende element i NX-Nastran, samt de eksisterende skallelementene i FEDEM. Masteroppgaven dokument...

  8. Effekter av endringer i finansieringsansvaret for TNF-hemmere

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Terje P; Bjarkum, Irina; Hobbel, Silje; Orderdalen, Karianne

    2009-01-01

    Tumor necreosis factor alfa (TNF-a) - hemmere, og andre biologiske inflammatoriske modifiserende legemidler blir brukt innen reumatologi, gastroenterologi og dermatologi. I denne rapporten analyseres effekter av endringer i finansieringssystemet for seks legemidler som faller innenfor disse legemiddelgruppene og som langt på vei er substitutter: Humira, Enbrel og Remicade som er TNF-hemmere, Raptiva og Orencia som er registrert under kategorien selektive immunsuppressiver og MabThera som er r...

  9. EST Table: AV403268 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403268 msgV0258 10/09/28 62 %/158 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  10. EST Table: AV403487 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403487 msgV0602 10/09/28 95 %/130 aa ref|NP_001166287.1| sericin 2 isoform 1 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADA84147.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  11. EST Table: AV403467 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403467 msgV0519 10/09/28 85 %/159 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  12. EST Table: AV403698 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403698 msgV0982 10/09/28 85 %/164 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  13. EST Table: AV403504 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403504 msgV0623 10/09/28 98 %/114 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  14. EST Table: AV403709 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403709 msgV0994 10/09/28 61 %/173 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  15. EST Table: AV403443 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403443 msgV0483 10/09/28 62 %/162 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  16. EST Table: AV403123 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403123 msgV0067 10/09/28 65 %/125 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  17. EST Table: AV403508 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403508 msgV0629 10/09/28 79 %/122 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  18. EST Table: AV403444 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403444 msgV0485 10/09/28 80 %/156 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  19. EST Table: AV403247 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403247 msgV0234 10/09/28 91 %/189 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  20. EST Table: AV403374 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403374 msgV0392 10/09/28 86 %/135 aa ref|NP_001166287.1| sericin 2 isoform 1 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADA84147.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  1. EST Table: AV403356 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403356 msgV0366 10/09/28 66 %/121 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  2. EST Table: AV403164 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403164 msgV0119 10/09/28 84 %/120 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  3. EST Table: AV403457 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403457 msgV0503 10/09/28 90 %/177 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  4. EST Table: AV403304 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403304 msgV0310 10/09/28 85 %/165 aa ref|NP_001166287.1| sericin 2 isoform 1 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADA84147.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  5. EST Table: AV403596 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403596 msgV0735 10/09/28 60 %/200 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  6. Å skape nye handlingsrom : - konstituering av kvinnelig, norsk, muslimsk identitet

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Denne oppgaven undersøker dialektikken mellom ekstern kategorisering og intern identifikasjon. Videre analyserer den relasjonen mellom etnisitet, religiøsitet, nasjonalitet og kjønn i en minoritetskontekst. Hovedproblemstillingen er å utforske konstituering av ung, kvinnelig, norsk, muslimsk identitet. Oppgaven er basert på et 11 måneder langt feltarbeid, utført blant unge muslimske kvinner i Oslo med varierende tilknytning til to muslimske organisasjoner, Norges Muslimske Ungdom og Muslimsk ...

  7. Fukttekniske utfordringer knyttet til energieffektivisering av et verneverdig teglbygg

    OpenAIRE

    Bårdsen, Margrete Wik

    2014-01-01

    Denne oppgaven omhandler en verneverdig teglsteinsbygning fra 1921, og belyser de utfordringene som ligger i etterisolering av ytterveggene i en slik bygning. I et energiperspektiv vil en utvendig isolering være det mest gunstige tiltaket, men for bygninger med ornamenter i fasadene og begrenset takutstikk må innvendig isolering vurderes. En innvendig isolering vil endre temperatur- og fuktforhold i veggen som igjen kan påvirke teglfasadenes skadesituasjon. Oppgavens hovedfokus...

  8. Fördelning av pandemivaccin mellan Sveriges landsting : simuleringsresultat

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwers, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    I denna rapport finns en utredning om man genom olika strategier kan påverka hur snabbt en pandemi sprider sig i samhället och rapporten kommer att utgöra en del av grunden för det fortsatta arbetet med att ta fram strategier för hur man ska vaccinera när ett vaccin blir tillgängligt. QC 20130225

  9. Strategisk analyse og verdsettelse av Farstad Shipping ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Fladset, Marit; Gjendem, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Hensikten med denne masteroppgaven var å verdsette egenkapitalen til Farstad Shipping ASA pr. 1.1.2013. Verdien ble beregnet ved anvendelse av fundamental verdsettelse hvor strategiske og regnskapsbaserte analyser utgjorde fundamentet. Komparativ- og opsjonsbasert verdsettelse ble benyttet som et supplement. Farstad Shipping er en betydelig aktør i offshore supply bransjen, og er i dag den 6. største aktøren i det internasjonale markedet for store og mellomstore supplyskip. Offshore supply...

  10. Toward robust AV conferencing on next-generation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haining; Cheng, Liang; El Zarki, Magda

    2005-01-01

    In order to enable a truly pervasive computing environment, next generation networks (including B3G and 4G) will merge the broadband wireless and wireline networking infrastructure. However, due to the tremendous complexity in administration and the unreliability of the wireless channel, provision of hard-guarantees for services on such networks will not happen in the foreseeable future. This consequently makes it particularly challenging to offer viable AV conferencing services due to their stringent synchronization, delay and data fidelity requirements. We propose in this paper a robust application-level solution for wireless mobile AV conferencing on B3G/4G networks. Expecting no special treatment from the network, we apply a novel adaptive delay and synchronization control mechanism to maintain the synchronization and reduce the latency as much as possible. We also employ a robust video coding technique that has better error-resilience capability. We investigate the performance of the proposed solution through simulations using a three-state hidden Markov chain as the generic end-to-end transport channel model. The results show that our scheme yields tight synchronization performance, relatively low end-to-end latency and satisfactory presentation quality. The scheme successfully provides a fairly robust AV conferencing service.

  11. Torsional changes in surgery for A-V phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of torsion in the aetiopathogenesis of A-V phenomena has not been sufficiently emphasized. The success of vertical displacement of horizontal recti in correction of A or V has not been attributed to torsional changes. To evaluate this aspect, 21 cases of A or V phenomena were subjected to monocular recession-resection procedure with vertical shifting. Preoperative and postoperative torsional changes were evaluated on synoptophore (subjective torsion, and confirmed by fundus photography (objective torsion. Intorsion with A phenomenon was seen preoperatively in 5 of 8 cases which increased after surgery and was seen postoperatively in the other 3 cases also. Extorsion was observed in 5 of 13 cases pre operatively in ′V′ phenomenon, but the changes in extorsion after surgery were less dramatic than those in intorsion. The oblique overactions were reduced in cases where they were present. Correction of A-V phenomena by torsion induced by vertical shifting of horizontal recti muscles is proposed, highlighting the role of torsion in A-V phenomena.

  12. Utveckling av ett active vision system för demonstration av EDSDK++ i tillämpningar inom datorseende

    OpenAIRE

    Kargén, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Datorseende är ett snabbt växande, tvärvetenskapligt forskningsområde vars tillämpningar tar en allt mer framskjutande roll i dagens samhälle. Med ett ökat intresse för datorseende ökar också behovet av att kunna kontrollera kameror kopplade till datorseende system. Vid Linköpings tekniska högskola, på avdelningen för datorseende, har ramverket EDSDK++ utvecklats för att fjärrstyra digitala kameror tillverkade av Canon Inc. Ramverket är mycket omfattande och innehåller en stor mängd funktione...

  13. XRF för kvalitetskontroll av farmaceutiska råvaror : - metodutveckling och utbildning av användare

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Linnea

    2012-01-01

    Detta examensarbete dokumenterar arbetet med utveckling, införande och dokumentation av en nymetod för identitetsbestämning av farmaceutiska råvaror med röntgenfluorescens. Metoden ärutvecklad för att användas på laboratorier för kvalitetskontroll på AstraZeneca i Södertälje. Syftetmed arbetet var att utveckla en robust och effektiv metod samt att utbilda användarna i dethanteringssätt som krävs för att utföra snabba och korrekta analyser. Rapporten presenterarteknologin bakom röntgenfluoresc...

  14. Grundandet av ett företag inom hästsportbranschen : En studie om val av verksamhetsform

    OpenAIRE

    Roivainen, Nina; Tuominen, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Hästsporten i Finland ökar konstant och därför ökar också behovet av hästsportsaffärer. Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka möjligheten att grunda ett lönsamt företag inom branschen. Arbetet utförs som ett praktikfall där två olika verksamhetsformer, butik gentemot butiksbil, analyseras med hjälp av modeller för kapitalbindning och materialflöde. Arbetet har gjorts utgående från teori, egna erfarenheter samt antagna värden. Det framgår i detta praktikfall att det är mer lönsamt att grunda en ...

  15. Ambulanssjuksköterskors upplevelser av smärtlindring av barn i en prehospital kontext - en kvalitativ intervjustudie

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Magnus; Hed, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att studera ambulanssjuksköterskors upplevelser av att bedöma och vårda barn under tio års ålder med akut smärta i en prehospital kontext.   Metod: Studien utfördes som en kvalitativ empirisk intervjustudie baserad på fem öppna frågor. Tio ambulanssjuksköterskor intervjuades och fick beskriva positiva och negativa upplevelser av att omhänderta barn 0-10 år med akut smärta i prehospital kontext. Materialet analyserades genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys med en manif...

  16. I Skuggan av Spotify : Har streaming av musik förändrat synen på artisten?

    OpenAIRE

    Hallmark, Beatrice; Nylander, David

    2015-01-01

    Streamingtjänster har förändrat hur människor lyssnar på musik och upptäcker ny musik. Det har också underlättat för mindre artister att nå lyssnare och potentiella fans utan ett skivbolag som distribuerar och marknadsför. Samtidigt har sociala medier förändrat hur artister når ut och upprätthåller relationen med sina fans. Försäljningen av fysiska album når rekordlåga nivåer och streaming av musik gör så att lyssnaren fokuserar på den enskilda låten snarare än artisten bakom den eller ett al...

  17. Värdering av goodwill : - En studie av företag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emilie; Johansson, Louise

    2010-01-01

      Bakgrund: Sedan den 1 januari 2005 ska samtliga noterade bolag i Sverige tillämpa reglerna i IFRS vid upprättande av årsredovisning. Det innebär att goodwill inte längre ska skrivas av med samma belopp varje år över dess nyttjandeperiod, utan anses istället ha obestämbar nyttjandeperiod och ska testas minst årligen för nedskrivningsbehov. I och med denna regelövergång har den svenska redovisningen anpassats till den internationella och syftet är bland annat att öka jämförbarheten mellan bol...

  18. ANALYSE AV SAMVARIASJON MELLOM MÅLT ARBEIDSBELASTNING (NAS) OG DEN SUBJEKTIVE OPPLEVELSEN AV ARBEIDSBELASTNINGEN (NASA-TLX) VED INTENSIVAVDELINGER

    OpenAIRE

    Graarud, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    SAMMENDRAG Sykehus generelt og intensivavdelinger spesielt er under økende press for å kunne drive god og riktig ressursforvaltning. Dermed øker også behov for å kunne dokumentere intensiv-avdelingenes aktivitet og ressursbehov. Nursing Activities Score (NAS) blir ved flere av landets intensivavdelinger brukt som scoringsverktøy for arbeidsbelastning. Det er et verktøy som har til hensikt å kartlegge behovet for antall sykepleiere per pasient. Det er i Norge flere sykepleiere per intensivpasi...

  19. En sammenligning av effekten av Ritalin, Dexedrine og placebo hos et utvalg barn og unge med diagnosen ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Hensikten med denne studien var å sammenligne effekten av Ritalin og Dexedrine hos et utvalg barn med attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Tidligere studier har funnet at ved å la hvert barn prøve begge medikamentene økes sannsynligheten for positiv effekt og reduserer sannsynligheten for bivirkninger. Noen barn responderer bra på Ritalin men ikke på Dexedrine, og omvendt. Denne studien har et randomisert dobbel-blind kryssover design der vi sammenligner Dexedrine, Ritalin og...

  20. Usynlighet og usynlighetsstrategier i klasserommet : en kvalitativ analyse av usynlighet, makt og bruk av usynlighetsstrategier i ungdomsskolen

    OpenAIRE

    Ihle, Merethe

    2015-01-01

    Masteravhandlingen undersøker hvorfor elever blir usynlige i klasserommet og hvilke strategier de tar i bruk for å oppnå denne usynligheten. Usynlighetsfenomenet i skolen er undersøkt gjennom åtte observasjonsøkter og tre gruppeintervjuer av elever i niende klasse. Basert på datamaterialet avdekkes det fire hovedtyper for usynlighetsstrategier: (i) usynlighet gjennom aktivitet, (ii) usynlighet gjennom kropp, (iii) usynlighet gjennom klær og (iv) usynlighet gjennom synlighet. Ve...

  1. Har forhold under svangerskapet betydning for utviklingen av otitis media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari J. Kværner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGMed utgangspunkt i data fra et populasjonsbasert utvalg av 7 992 norske tvillinger ble sammenhengenmellom gjentatte ørebetennelser og forhold under svangerskapet studert. Som parametre på intrauterinevekstforhold ble informasjon om fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder fra Medisinsk Fødselsregister benyttet.Informasjon om rapporterte øreinfeksjoner ble basert på spørreskjemaer som ble besvart av tvillingene ialderen 18–25 år. Først studerte vi individuelle effekter av fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder på forekomsten avotitis media (OM. Rapportert fødselsvekt hos individer med OM var signifikant lavere enn hos kontrollene,med en gjennomsnittsforskjell på 86 gram. Hos de som rapporterte OM var gjennomsnittlig gestasjonsalder3 dager kortere enn i kontrollmaterialet. Deretter beregnet vi effekten av fødselsvekt ved bruk av co-twinkontroll metoden. Blant monozygote (MZ tvillingpar gjenspeiler fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparetintra-uterine miljøforskjeller. Blant dizygote (DZ par kan vektforskjellen være både genetiske ogmiljøbetinget. Ved sammenligning av fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparene er tvillingen som ikkehar gjentatte øreinfeksjoner en matchet kontroll blant OM diskordante par. Resultatene antyder at lavfødselsvekt er en risikofaktor for otitis media. Gjennomsnittlig vektforskjell blant par diskordante for OMvar 48 gram, og den av tvillingen som ikke rapporterte OM hadde signifikant høyere fødselsvekt.Kværner KJ, Tambs K, Harris J, Magnus P. Do pregnancy-related factors influence the development ofotitis media? Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 55-58.  ENGLISH SUMMARYThe association between intrauterine growth, as measured by weight and gestational age, and the occurrenceof recurrent ear infections was studied using data from a population based sample of 7992 Norwegian twins.Perinatal measures were collected from the Medical Birth Registry, and reports of recurrent ear infectionswere based on

  2. Effektivisering av internt materialflöde i tillverkande företag : Effektivisera tillverkningen av hydraulcylindrar genom tillämpning av Lean och logistik

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Sammanfattning Syftet med detta arbete är att utvärdera Lean och logistikmöjligheten av det interna materialflödet i tillverkande företag. Det innebär att undersöka hur företagets resurser kan förbättras och bidra till en effektivare tillverkningsprocess. Arbetets syfte uppnås genom att svara på följande frågeställningar: Hur kan materialhanteringen förbättras så att alla artiklar under förädling och färdiga komponenter finns på rätt plats, vid rätt tid och i rätt mängd? Hur kan man effekti...

  3. Konseptstudie av knutepunkt i limtre og lange aksialbærende treskruer utsatt for brannbelastning

    OpenAIRE

    Westerheim, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Denne oppgaven består av et konseptstudie utført på knutepunkt i limtre og lange aksialbærende treskruer. Et litteraturstudie, dimensjonering og gjennomføring av seks forsøk faller innenfor konseptstudiet. Det ble gjennomført et litteraturstudie som omhandlet tema knyttet til tremateriale, knutepunkt og brann. En viktig del av litteraturstudiet gikk ut på å presentere forskningsresultater med tilknytning til knutepunkt i limtre sammensatt av lange...

  4. Et studium av samfunnsansvar (CSR) for norske utenlandsetablerte akvakulturselskaper; Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream i Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven er et studium av samfunnsansvar for norsk utenlandsetablert akvakulturnæring. Valg av tema er motivert av interessen for den eksisterende samfunnsdebatten omkring næringen og internasjonale næringsstrukturer med fotfeste i utviklingsland. Norsk tilstedeværelse i Chile eksemplifisert ved Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream er anvendt som case studium. Presentasjon og drøfting av Corporate social responsibility (CSR), oversatt til norsk som Selskapers samfunnsansvar, ...

  5. Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument: En studie av dimensjonaliteten i en norsk oversettelse

    OpenAIRE

    Gottenborg, Simon Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Konseptet organisasjonskultur har lenge vært av stor interesse for forskning og organisasjoner, og har blitt knyttet til et antall utfallsvariabler som er av betydning for organisasjoners ytelse. For å studere kulturen og gjøre nytte av de potensielle positive effektene blir kulturen gjerne målt med kvantitative kulturmålingsinstrumenter. Studier har imidlertid funnet at flere av instrumentene som brukes ikke kan vise til tilfredsstillende støtte for dimensjonaliteten i instrumentene, noe som...

  6. «Som å lese en film»: Elevers lesing av elektronisk litteratur

    OpenAIRE

    Børresen, Pål Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Norsk: Denne masteroppgaven er en empirisk undersøkelse av elevers lesing av elektronisk litteratur. Formålet har vært å studere hvilken kompetanse som kreves for at leseren skal få mest mulig ut av denne typen litteratur. Teoretiske tilnærminger inkluderer leserorienterte teorier, der Jonathan Culler og hans begrep litterær kompetanse danner et overordnet utgangspunkt, og mediespesifikke teorier, særlig deler av sosialsemiotikkens multimodalitetsteorier. Med i det teor...

  7. Kampen mot terrorisme i Europa : en analyse av hindringene for og drivkreftene bak etableringen og utviklingen av et anti-terrorisme samarbeid innenfor den Europeiske Union

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    "KAMPEN MOT TERRORISME I EUROPA: EN ANALYSE AV HINDRINGENE BAK OG DRIVKREFTENE FOR ETABLERINGEN OG UTVIKLINGEN AV ET ANTI-TERRORISME SAMARBEID INNENFOR DEN EUROPEISKE UNION". Karakteristika ved terrorismen i Europa. Vest-Europa var i perioden 1968-1985 den regionen i verden som totalt sett var åsted for flest internasjonale terroristaksjoner, og hovedarena for både europeiske og Midtøsten-baserte terroristorganisjoners virksomhet. Av EU-medlemmene er det særlig Tyskland, Storbritann...

  8. Dynamisk MR-avbildning av pasienter med brystkreft : etablering og sammenligning av ulike analysemetoder for vevsperfusjon og kapillær permeabilitet

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Globalt er brystkreft den kreftformen som rammer flest kvinner, og radiologisk avbildning ved bruk av mammografi og ultralyd er i dag primære utredningsmodaliteter for deteksjon og karaterisering av denne kreftformen. Imidlertid demonstrerer disse radiologiske bildemodalitetene begrensninger med hensyn til den diagnostiske prestasjonen og viser generelt en lav spesifisitet, spesielt ved vurdering av unge kvinner. Dynamisk kontrastforsterket MR-avbildning har de siste tiårene fremstått som ...

  9. En obekväm sanning eller en stor bluff? : En analys av den visuella gestaltningen av fenomenet "global uppvärmning" i filmmediet

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anton; Oretoft, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    En uppsats som kritiskt granskar och analyserar den visuella gestaltningen i två dokumentärfilmer. Huvudtemat i filmerna är global uppvärmning och konsekvenserna av detta. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka den visuella gestaltningen av den miljödebatt som filmerna är en del i och genom detta belysa frågor som berör visuell kultur och popularisering av vetenskap.

  10. Langtidsovervåking av miljøkvaliteten i kystområdene av Norge. Bløtbunn. Datarapport 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Rygg, B.

    1997-01-01

    Tokt for innsamling av bløtbunnsfaunaprøver ble gjennomført i mai/juni 1996 på strekningen Egersund - Ytre Oslofjord. Det ble gjort innsamling på 17 stasjoner. Foreliggende datarapport inneholder data for artenes individtall, faunaens artsmangfold, samt sedimentparametre i hver enkelt grabb. Primærdataene er lagret i databaser på NIVA. Videre bearbeidelse av data og vurdering av resultatene blir gitt i årsrapporten for 1996.

  11. Langtidsovervåking av miljøkvaliteten i Kystområdene av Norge. Bløtbunn. Datarapport 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Rygg, B.

    1999-01-01

    Tokt for innsamling av bløtbunnsfaunaprøver ble gjennomført i mai 1998 på strekningen Egersund - Ytre Oslofjord. Det ble gjort innsamling på 18 stasjoner. Foreliggende datarapport inneholder data for artens individtall, faunaens artsmangfold, samt sedimentparametre i hver enkelt grabb. Primærdataene er lagret i databaser på NIVA. Videre bearbeidelse av data og vurdering av resultatene blir gitt i årsrapporten for 1998.

  12. GeoStab: program for beregning av skråninsstabilitet - Versjon 1.0

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Hermann

    2000-01-01

    Rapporten gir veiledning i bruk av stabilitetsprogrammet GeoStab. GeoStab er et windowsbasert program som kan benytte seg av grunnlagsdata fra NovaPoint modulene GeoPlot, Veg, TMOD og VIPS. Brukergrensesnittet til GeoStab er meget fleksibelt og kan tilpasses avhengig av hvilke grunnlagsdata som er tilgjengelig.

  13. A case of reversible third-degree AV block due to Lyme carditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Stefan A J; Boswijk, Dirk J; Kimman, Geert P; Germans, Tjeerd

    2016-01-01

    The most common manifestation of Lyme carditis is a varying degree of atrioventricular (AV) conduction block. This case describes a 45-year-old male with third-degree AV block due to Lyme carditis. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics resulted in complete normalization of AV conduction, thereby averting permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:27215649

  14. Ungdommers opplevelser med overdreven bruk av online-rollespillet World of Warcraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flaaten, Øivind; Torp, Steffen; Aarseth, Espen

    2010-01-01

    Ungdommers bruk av online-rollespill blir ofte problematisert (Falkner 2007). På bakgrunn av kvalitative intervjuer med ti ungdommer og fem pårørendekontakter beskrives i denne artikkelen ungdommenes opplevelser av online-spillet World of Warcraft (WoW). Denne pilotstudien gir en nyansert...

  15. Kunst og kultur som felles møteplass En studie av bruken av kunst og kultur på Verdensmester’n mottaksskole i Larvik.

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Rise Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Denne oppgavens intensjon har vært å vise hvordan kunst og kultur brukes i opplæringen av de fremmedspråkelige elevene på Verdensmester’n mottaksskole i Larvik kommune. I rammen av nye kulturstudier ser jeg på hvordan det å gjøre kunst og kultur bidrar til elevenes utvikling og innhenting av kunnskap. Begrepene opplæring og integrering førte meg til postmoderne tilnærminger til barndom, kropp, bruk av kunst og kultur, kommunikasjon og forståelse. Ulike perspektiver fra blant ...

  16. Fra arbeidsskrift til tidsskrift. En analyse av de første tretti årene av NOA. Norsk som andrespråk.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulbrandstad, Lise Iversen

    2015-01-01

    Det første nummeret av NOA. Norsk som andrespråk ble utgitt i 1985 ved det som den gangen het Institutt for norsk som fremmedspråk ved Universitetet i Oslo. Bakgrunnen var blant annet et behov for å få publisert mer omfattende forskningsarbeider som var relevante for norskopplæringen av innvandrere, et fagområde som hadde vokst fram raskt i tråd med den økte migrasjonen til Norge på slutten av 1970-tallet. I denne artikkelen analyseres utviklingen av NOA som publiseringskana...

  17. Bioakkumulering av miljøgifter fra marine sediment - etablering av et test-system. (Bioaccumulation of sediment-bound contaminants - establishment of a test-system)

    OpenAIRE

    Hylland, K.

    1996-01-01

    Det har blitt etablert et oppsett for testing av biotilgjengeligheten av miljøgifter i marine sedimenter. Test-systemet kan brukes til testing av sediment innhentet fra felt og sediment innblandet en ønsket miljøgift eller blanding av miljøgifter. Test-organismer i oppsettet er børstemarken Nereis diversicolor og nettsnegl Hinia (Nassarius) reticulata. Dette er sentrale arter i økosystemet, de er lette å samle i store antall og det er mulig å holde begge i akvariesystemer over lengre tid. All...

  18. Muligheten av et rom. Pussy Riots punkebønn-performance i lys av Jacques Rancières teori om estetikken som politikk.

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Eva Margarethe Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Dette er en undersøkelse av kunstens politiske potensiale i lys av Jacques Rancières teori om estetikken som politikk. Analyseobjektet er Pussy Riots punkebønn-performance som de fremførte i Frelseren Kristus-katedralen i Moskva den 21. februar 2012. Performancen var ment som en kritikk av de tette båndene mellom Vladimir Putin og den russisk ortodokse kirkens patriark Kirill. For Rancière er likhet og likeverd et utgangspunkt i fellesskapets deling og fordeling av det sansbare. Dobbeltheten ...

  19. Supplerende basisundersøkelser og rutineovervåking i Iddefjorden 1983. Testing av Iddefjordens termotolerante coliforme bakterieflora for innhold av termotolerante Klebsiella

    OpenAIRE

    Ormerod, K.

    1984-01-01

    Det er gjentatte somrer obsrvert at antallet av termotolerante coliforme bakterier, TCB, i Iddefjorden synker i fellesferien når utslippene fra treforedlingsindustrien er midlertidig opphørt. Denne undersøkelsen viser at hovedmengden av TCB i Iddefjorden før fellesferien tilhørte slekten Klebsiella og Enterobacter, og at Klebsiella forsvant fra fjorden i løpet av fellesferien. Enkelte arter av Klebsiella forårsaker urin- og luftveisinfeksjoner hos mennesker, og utgjør derfor en annen hygienis...

  20. Vil et forbud mot bruk av hijab på offentlige skoler være en krenkelse av «religionsfriheten» etter EMK art. 9 ?

    OpenAIRE

    Hussaini, Shokhan

    2014-01-01

    Problemstillingen i denne oppgaven går ut på om et generelt forbud mot bruk av hijab i offent-lige skoler vil være en krenkelse av religionsfriheten etter Den europeiske menneskerettskon-vensjonen art.9 (heretter EMK). Hijab er et stykke tøy også kalt hodetørkle, som blir båret av muslimske kvinner i alle aldersgrupper. Formålet med hijab er å dekke kvinnens hår og hals hovedsakelig i det offentlige. I Norge har vi per dags dato ingen lov som forbyr bruken av hijab eller andre religiøs symbol...