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  1. Manliga och kvinnliga teknologers självbilder och deras stereotypbilder av teknologer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Soneson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Självbild och bilden av en typisk teknolog undersöktes hos civilingenjörsstudenter på LTH med personlighetstestet Adjective Check List. Vi fann stora skillnader mellan självbild och stereotypbild. Undersökningen visade också att dessa skillnader till viss del såg olika ut bland manliga och kvinnliga studenter, och skillnaden mellan kvinnornas genomsnittliga självbild och deras genomsnittliga bild av en typisk teknolog var då större än motsvarande skillnad bland männen.

  2. Förebyggande och rehabilitering av Osgood- Schlatter och Sinding-Larsen−Johanssons syndrom : Utformande av en handbok

    OpenAIRE

    Karenko, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Detta arbete är ett praktiskt inriktat examensarbete där slutprodukten är en handbok med ett förebyggande och rehabiliterande träningsprogram för Osgood-Schlatter och Sinding-Larsen–Johanssons syndrom (SLJ). Syftet med arbetet är att öka kunskapen om syndromen och utforma ett träningsprogram som kan användas vid förebyggande och rehabiliteringen av dessa. Arbetet bygger på Vilkka och Airaksinens modell för praktiskt inriktat examensarbete som beskrivs i boken Toiminnallinen opinn...

  3. Bland prinsessor och soldater : En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av genus och stereotyper i två Disneyfilmer

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Syfte: Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka hur genus representeras och hur feministisk kritik syns i Disneyfilmerna Mulan och Frost. Arbetet behandlar kopplingen till tidigare Disneyfilmer och stereotypa framställningar av manligt och kvinnligt. Det utgår från ett genusperspektiv som tar hänsyn till könsroller som är resultatet av sociala konstruktioner. Metod: Filmerna har studerats i sin helhet och sedan har specifika scener och sekvenser valts ut för närmare studie. De har analys...

  4. Högstadieelevers upplevelse av sex- och samlevnadsundervisning : en intervjustudie

    OpenAIRE

    Ejder, Alina; Karlsson, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    En god sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i skolan är central för att ha möjlighet att utveckla en god hälsa, vilken dock enligt tidigare forskning har visats vara av bristande kvalitet. Syftet med studien är att undersöka högstadieelevers upplevelse av sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen på deras skola, med fokus på pedagog ledda lektioner. Studiens metod var en kvalitativ intervjustudie, där sex högstadieelever intervjuades individuellt. Resultatet visade att eleverna upplevde att undervisningen...

  5. Digital kommunikation : En undersökning av bruket och attityder till emojis och smileys i elektronisk konversation

    OpenAIRE

    Leijonberg, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Emojis har fått en allt större roll i elektronisk konversation. Den här studien undersöker bruket av emojis och smileys i sms- och chattspråk samt vad det finns för attityder till dessa. Detta undersöks genom en enkätundersökning som har distribuerats på sociala medier. Under-sökningen är uppdelad i två delar, där den första delen syftar till att kartlägga bruket av emojis och smileys utifrån ålder, utbildning och kön och den andra delen syftar till att undersöka attityder till användningen a...

  6. ARTISTS - huvudgator för alla : Vägledning för planerare och beslutsfattare vid utformning och ombyggnad av huvudgator

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Åse; Marshall, Stephen; Jones, Peter; Hydén, Christer; Draskoczy, Magda; Papaioannou, Panos; Thomsen, Hytte; Boujenko, Natalya

    2004-01-01

    Konventionella guider för utformning och förvaltning av trafikleder och stadsgator har vanligtvis inriktats antingen mot huvudtrafikleder eller mot lokala stadsgator. Det är för närvarande brist på ett tydligt och konsekvent angreppssätt för arbetet med utformning av huvudgator där signifikant genomfartstrafik och lokala funktioner kombineras. Målet är att denna rapport ska avhjälpa den bristen genom att presentera riktlinjer för utformning och förvaltning av huvudgator – med människan i foku...

  7. En undersökning av Norwegians kriskommunikation under flygstrejken 2015. : En textanalys av Facebookinlägg och pressmeddelanden.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma, Mickelsson

    2016-01-01

    Numera lever vi i ett krissamhälle där vi nästan varje dag nås av budskap från olika typer av kriser. När en organisation drabbas av en kris är det viktigt att tänka på vilken kommunikation man använder för att nå ut med sitt budskap. Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka hur en organisation använder sig av olika försvarsstrategier och retoriska appeller i sin kriskommunikation. Organisationen som valdes ut var flygbolaget Norwegian och deras hantering av den 11 dagar långa flygs...

  8. Erfarenheter av portfoliometodiken inom nätutbildning – Kritiska reflektioner och ”halleluja moments”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Adenling

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vid Pedagogiska institutionen vid Umeå universitet har nätutbildningen expanderat kraftigt under de senaste två och ett halvt åren, då institutionen började ge fristående helfartskurser i pedagogik via Internet. Vårterminen 2008 läste cirka 60 studenter och inför varje termin har sedan studenttillströmningen ökat, för att under våren 2010 uppgå till 240 studenter. Hösten 2008 infördes, med stöd av interna utvecklingsmedel, examinerande portfoliouppgifter på samtliga nätbaserade kurser med målsättningen att möta de utmaningar som både formen (nätundervisning och den utökade och heterogena studentgruppen innebar. Syftet var att stärka studenternas förmåga att synliggöra sitt eget lärande, samt att minska anonymiteten mellan lärare och student. Uppgifterna var av självreflekterande karaktär där studenterna uppmanades att relatera det egna lärandet till kursinnehållet och att exempelvis identifiera framtida tillämpningsområden inom studier och arbetsliv. Studenterna fick under terminen individuell återkoppling av en och samma lärare. Intentionen med återkopplingen var bland annat att guida och uppmuntra studenterna till att inta ett personligt förhållningssätt till kursinnehållet. I artikeln argumenteras det för att portfoliometodik i flera avseenden kan sägas harmoniera väl med ett rådande synsätt på examination där ett sociokulturellt synsätt på lärande dominerar och livslångt lärande och självständighet framhålls som eftersträvansvärt. Detta medför att, det både utifrån ett student- och ett lärarperspektiv, kan kännas naturlig och relevant att använda portfolio som examinationsform inom nätutbildning. Samtidigt är det viktigt att problematisera och kritiskt reflektera över portfoliometodik som examinationsform och de förhållningssätt och ideal som skapas, vilket görs i artikeln med hjälp av en Foucaultinspirerad tolkningsram. I artikeln presenteras alltså både ett

  9. Employer branding. : - En fallstudie vid Sandvik AB om uppfattningar av begreppet employer branding och hur detta tillämpas idag och i framtiden.

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding är ett begrepp som är aktuellt bland företagen just nu och allt fler väljer att satsa på employer branding som marknadsföringsstrategi. Den här studien handlar om employer branding på Sandvik och begreppet employer branding.Syftet med denna fallstudie av en global koncern är att förklara och beskriva begreppet employerbranding, samt hur man arbetar med detta och vilka framtidsvisioner man har på Sandvik.Studien genomfördes med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer med ett antal ny...

  10. Unga reumatikers upplevelser av sin sjukdom : En kvalitativ intervjustudie av unga kvinnor och män med reumatism

    OpenAIRE

    Blomberg, Catrin; Helle, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med den här studien är att få en inblick i hur unga kvinnor och män med reumatismupplever sin sjukdom. Vi vill jämföra dessa upplevelser mellan män och kvinnor genomatt undersöka om det finns skillnader och likheter i återgivna beskrivningar ochupplevelser. Vi vill undersöka om könsspecifika skillnader på upplevelser kringreumatism skulle kunna kopplas till det faktum att fler kvinnor än män diagnostiseras.Vidare vill vi undersöka om samhällets bemötande av individer med reumatism kank...

  11. Emojis som ett universellt språk : En studie om Apple och Samsungs omvandling av universella koder

    OpenAIRE

    Tenggren, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Denna studie undersöker hur operativsystemen Apple och Samsung omvandlar universella koder till emojis och om de samspelar utseendemässigt. Med en semiotisk ansats fokuserar forskaren på att analysera emojis och dess visuella aspekter som skapar känslouttryck. Känslouttryck som i sin tur skapar tolkning och förståelse i människors digitala kommunikation. Studien baseras på tidigare forskning av Paul Ekman, Jaram Park, Young Min Baek, Meeyoung Cha och Rachel Scall. Genom en kvantitativ innehål...

  12. För vilka finns kroppspositivismen? : En diskursanalytisk och semiotisk studie av hur kroppsaktivister på Instagram artikulerar kroppspositivism

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Denna studie har genomförts med syfte att undersöka hur kroppsaktivister artikulerar kropp och kroppspositivitet genom bilder och texter på deras Instagramkonton. Studien syftar även till att undersöka om, och i så fall hur, artikulationerna av kroppspositivitet skiljer sig mellan olika kroppsaktivister. Slutligen syftar studien till att studera hur kroppsaktivisterna artikulerar syftet med rörelsen. Det teoretiska ramverket består av tidigare forskning och etablerade teorier i postmodern fem...

  13. "With great power comes great responsibility" : En studie av teknik och biologi i superhjältefilmer

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Niklas; Karlsson, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Vår tids syn på teknik ser vi tydliga spår av i dagens filmer, och kanske framförallt superhjältefilmer. Där använder sig både hjältar och skurkar av avancerad teknik i sin kamp mot varandra. Men även synen på biologi avspeglas i dessa filmer, och det mest intressanta är när dessa ställs mot varandra. Vi har jämfört två av vår tids största hjältar, en som använder sig av teknik och en som har biologiska krafter, för att se vilka likheter och skillnader som finns. Hjältarna det rör sig om är S...

  14. Jämförelse av Vuokkoset varumärkets image och profil

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att jämföra Vuokkoset produkternas profil och image, samt att utreda hur konsumenten upplever förpackningen. Uppdragsgivaren för arbetet var Delipap Oy, vars varumärke Vuokkoset intimhygienprodukterna är. Företaget hade aldrig tidigare undersökt förpackningarnas funktionalitet på konsumenter. Som teori har använts både elekroniska källor och böcker. Examensarbetet utfördes som en kvalitativ undersökning. Undersökningen gjordes med hjälp av individuella intervj...

  15. Lean Construction applicerat på betongkonstruktion : The Last Planner och visuell metodik för reducering av produktionstidsvariationer

    OpenAIRE

    Udroiu, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Bakgrunden till detta examensarbete är byggföretagens utmaningar med att bedriva byggprojekt där nya och unika objekt skall konstrueras, med många nya förutsättningar och allt som oftast även en ny sammansättning av personalstyrkan. Ett gemensamt behov för dessa byggprojekt är att effektivt kunna hantera en mängd av olika och nya variationer. Oden anläggningsentreprenad AB presenterade ett problem gällande oönskade variationer av produktionstider för betongmonoliter som innefattar mycket repe...

  16. Den blivande förskollärarens formering. En studie av verksamhetsförlagda handledningssamtal, argumentationstraditioner och metaforik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Hjort

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I denna studie analyserar vi hur erfarna förskollärare i rollen som handledare introducerar förskollärarstudenter i professionen. Studien genomförs mot bakgrund av ett delvis nytt uppdrag som förskolan fått under senare år, som bland annat yttrar sig i att förskolan nu är en del av utbildningssystemet. Med utgångspunkt i det teoretiska begreppet argumentationstraditioner och genom att analysera metaforiken i deltagarnas resonerande, studeras hur erfarna och blivande förskollärare navigerar spänningar centrala för professionen. Deltagarnas betoning av vissa argumentationstraditioner och användningen av viss metaforik diskuteras i termer av vad de implicerar för utvecklingen av de barn som deltar i en förskoleverksamhet som formas av dessa.

  17. Varumärkesvärdering : Implementeringen av IAS 38 och IFRS 3

    OpenAIRE

    Calmfors, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Den 1:a januari 2005 infördes nya redovisningsregler gällande företagsförvärv. Samtliga svenska börsnoterade företag skall redovisa i enlighet med IFRS 3 Företagsförvärv och IAS 38 Immateriella tillgångar. De nya reglerna innebär bland annat att varumärken och andra immateriella tillgångar skall värderas separat från goodwill i balansräkningen. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka effekten av IAS 38 på svenska företags redovisning av immateriella tillgångar, med fokus på varumärken. Studien ...

  18. Övervakning av switchar och övrig nätverksutrustning

    OpenAIRE

    Björknäs, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Mitt examensarbete har gått ut på att förena trafikgrafer och alarmering av nätverksutrustning som inte är nåbar till samma ställe, samt underlätta processen att lägga till eller ta bort en enhet från övervakningen. Tidigare har två olika program använts för uppgifterna, vilket betyder enheterna ska läggas till på två olika ställen samt att en del enheter inte har varit möjliga att övervaka där. I arbetet jämförde jag programmen Nagios, Icinga, openNMS och Observium. Vissa av dessa program va...

  19. Multifaktormodeller på den svenska marknaden - En studie av OMX Stockholm mellan 1996 och 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarfrid, Peter; Henningsson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund:CAPM räcker i flera tillfällen inte till för att estimera framtida avkastning. Vissa av prisavvikelsernafrån CAPM är väldokumenterade och har bestått över tid, vilket har lett till uppkomsten avkorrigerande faktorer. En modell som använder sig av två sådana korrigerande faktorer är Fama ochFrenchs tre-faktormodell. Den har testats flertalet gånger på den svenska marknaden där den visat gehögre förklaringsgrader än CAPM. År 2012 samt år 2014 presenterades två nya multifaktormodeller,s...

  20. Erfarenhetens och reflektionens betydelse för lärandet av molekylära processer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Larsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lärande om molekylära processer kan innebära vissa svårigheter dels för att dessa processer inte går att direkt erfara och dels för att de är dynamiska i sin natur. Ett sätt att överbrygga problematiken är att använda sig av olika representationer, vilket i sig medför ytterligare utmaningar. Studenters förkunskaper och intuitiva idéer som härstammar från vardagserfarenheter kan också ge upphov till svårigheter i meningsskapandet. Syftet med denna artikel är att diskutera erfarenhetens och reflektionens betydelse för undervisning och lärande med representationer av molekylära fenomen i högre utbildning. I artikeln presenteras empiriska resultat från forskningsstudier som ligger till grund för de idéer och resonemang som förs fram. Vi presenterar två exempel där studenter arbetar i grupp med representationer av de molekylära processerna ATP-syntes och självassociation. Grunden för grupparbetet och meningsskapandet är fokuserade frågor där egna tankar och idéer får ta plats. Reflektionen i grupparbetet ger också studenterna möjligheter att generalisera sina erfarenheter (abstrakt tänkande och underlättar förståelsen av tröskelbegrepp.

  1. Komplexitet för kvalitet i lärande och undervisning: bedömning av komplexa problem och studenters resonemang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kjellström

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vi utbildar studenter för att de ska ha möjlighet att lösa mycket komplexa samhällsproblem,men hur vet vi att de har utvecklat de former av tänkande och handlande som krävs? Forskning visar att vuxna tänker, talar och handlar utifrån olika nivåer av komplexitet, och att utbildning i hög grad påverkar människors förmågor. Model of Hierarchical Complexity(MHC är en teori som beskriver hur komplext information sätts samman och hur komplext personer resonerar i en fråga, vanligtvis på någon av nivåerna konkret, abstrakt, formellt, systematiskt eller metasystematisk. Syftet med denna artikel är att introducera MHC och visa på dess relevans som verktyg inom högre utbildning. Med hjälp av teorin är det möjligt att analysera både hur komplex en uppgift är och hur studenter klarar av att lösa den, vilket speglar förståelse inom ett ämne. Med modellen som mått på komplexitet tydliggörs svårighetsgraden i det som ska läras och på vilken nivå studenterna klarar att ta till sig kunskapsinnehållet. Avslutningsvis diskuteras hur studenter kan stödjas att utvecklasina förmågor till komplext resonerande och därmed skapa kvalitet i både lärande och undervisningOne of the aims of higher education is to teach students to solve complex problems, but what is the complexity of problems and the reasoning of students? The Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC is a theory applicable to all domains in which information is organized and accounts for increases in behavioral complexity which includes cognitive or reasoning complexity. The paper is a theoretical introduction to MHC as a tool for teaching in higher education. The model clarifies and shows the gap between the complexity in the subject and the students understanding of the same subject. We also discuss how to support the development of more complex reasoning in students.

  2. Relationen mellan prokrastinering och upplevd stress : Effekter av cognitive behavioral stress management i stor grupp hos sjuksköterskestudenter

    OpenAIRE

    Vetso, Emelie

    2015-01-01

    Prokrastinering innebär att individen trots medvetenhet om negativa konsekvenser skjuter upp en handling. Den bidrar till stress, färre hälsofrämjade beteenden och sämre prestation. Demografiska faktorer och pågående utbildning påverkar sannolikheten för prokrastinering. Relationen mellan stress och prokrastinering behöver utforskas, speciellt hur interventioner riktade mot stress påverkar fenomenet. En longitudinell interventionsstudie med upprepad mätning undersökte effekten av ett KBT-base...

  3. Prevalens av ADHD bland fängelsedömda män och kvinnor : Vilka skillnader och likheter finns mellan könen?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur stor del av de män och kvinnor som döms till fängelse som har uppmärksamhetsstörning (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD). Den skall även besvara frågan om huruvida det finns skillnader mellan könen i prevalens, samt om det finns korrelation mellan ADHD och Antisocial personlighetsstörning (ASPD). Metoden som används är självskattningsformulär som är välbeprövade inom detta område, Wender-Utah rating Scale (WURS) och Mini Neuropsykiatrisk Interv...

  4. Exklusiva urmärken : en branschundersökning med avseende på positionering och val av urverk

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Marknaden för armbandsur är stor, och den del av denna marknad som utgörs av exklusiva ur med högt pris tycks ha helt andra egenskaper än den för armbandsur i övrigt. Hur övertygas en konsument om att ett mekaniskt ur som avviker flera sekunder per dygn är att föredra framför ett elektroniskt som avviker några sekunder på ett år? Syftet med denna rapport är att ge en övergripande bild av marknaden för exklusiva ur och urverk, samt att analysera ett antal av de aktörer som finns på marknaden u...

  5. Rehabilitering efter dekompression och diskoperation - framställandet av en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning : Ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Examensarbetet är ett praktiskt inriktat examensarbete med fokus på rehabiliteringen efter en dekompressions- och diskoperation. Det är ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus med syftet att framställa en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning. Önskemål från uppdragsgivare var att utforma en tydlig patientanvisning för ryggopererade bestående av skriftliga instruktioner angående postoperativ rehabilitering i form av vardagliga aktiviteter, fysisk aktivitet, ryggens viloställningar, vi...

  6. Bankvärldens framtid : En studie kring hur banker utnyttjar den teknologiska utvecklingen och digitaliseringen av tjänster, samt dess påverkan på kundrelationer, förtroende och lojalitet

    OpenAIRE

    Grip, Sebastian; Hellström, Gustav; Skyttevall, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Titel: Bankvärldens framtid: En studie kring hur banker utnyttjar den teknologiska utvecklingen och digitaliseringen av tjänster samt dess påverkan på kundrelationer, förtroende och lojalitet   Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi   Akademi: Akademin för Ekonomi, Samhälle och Teknik, Mälardalens Högskola   Författare: Sebastian Grip, Gustav Hellström och Tobias Skyttevall (92/04/22), (94/02/28), (95/05/21) Handledare: Hadjikhani, Annoch   Datum: 05–06–17   Bakgrund: Att skapa en lojal kun...

  7. Analys av skillnader och likheter i EU-länders långsiktiga klimatstrategier

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    De internationella klimatförhandlingarna handlar om att hitta lösningar för att stabilisera halten av växthusgaser i atmosfären och att uppnå tvågradersmålet. För att uppnå målet finns olika utsläppsmål att sträva mot. Ett är ett utsläppstak där varje land inte får släppa ut mer än 2 ton CO2-ekv/capita per år för att tvågradersmålet ska uppnås. Ett annat utsläppsmål är att minska de nationella utsläppen med en viss procentsats. EU:s del i minskningen ligger på 80-95 % till 2050. Som en del av...

  8. [Minna Ahokas. Valistus suomalaisessa kirjakulttuurissa 1700-luvulla. Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk 188] / Tuija Laine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laine, Tuija, 1964-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Minna Ahokas. Valistus suomalaisessa kirjakulttuurissa 1700-luvulla. Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk 188. Diss. Sasatamala : Finska Vetenskaps-societeten. (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2011)

  9. Att vara förälder till barn med funktionsnedsättning : erfarenheter av stöd och av att vara professionell stödjare.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Britt-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Avhandlingens övergripande syfte är att tolka och beskriva innebörder av stöd, utifrån att vara förälder till barn med funktionsnedsättning och att vara professionella stödjare. Datainsamling har skett i form av berättande intervjuer med 39 föräldrar (23 mödrar och 16 fäder) och 9 professionella (7 kvinnor, 2 män) från olika verksamheter. Samtliga intervjuer har analyserats med hjälp av fenomenologisk hermeneutisk metod. Innebörder av att vara förälder till barn med funktionsnedsättning (stud...

  10. IFRS 3 och IAS 38 : Redovisning av immateriella tillgångar vid företagsförvärv

    OpenAIRE

    Palmér, Viktor; Olsson, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    Från och med 2005 ska svenska börsnoterade bolag använda sig av IFRS/IAS-regelverken, detta är ett steg i den konvergering av redovisningsregler som sker inom EU. Den här uppsatsen behandlar IFRS 3 som rör företagsförvärv och IAS 38 som innehåller regler om immateriella tillgångar. Efter en genomgång av teori och regelverk ser vi närmare på några stora svenska företag som gjort förvärv efter att de nya reglerna införts, och se hur förändringarna påverkat företagens redovisning. Detta har vi g...

  11. Mål och mått : En dokumentation och utvärdering av en resultatbaserad ersättning inom primärvården

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsson, Fredric

    2008-01-01

    Att författa denna rapport har varit ett intressant och trevligt arbete. Bristen på mätvärden från tiden innan mål och mått programmet startade i Östergötland har dock inneburit en hel del jagande efter alternativa värden för att hitta något att jämföra med. Stora mängder data och information har behövt samlas in. Trots att detta har medfört att jag behövt hjälp med insamling av data från en mängd personer och dessutom grävt i ”deras” siffror har jag hela tiden fått den hjälp jag behövt och d...

  12. En socialpsykologisk analys av samkönat partnervåld ur ett makt- och normativitetsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Thérèse

    2009-01-01

    Uppsatsens syfte var att nå en större teoretisk förståelse av samkönat partnervåld, genom att analysera olika forskningsartiklars narrativa konstruktioner av våldet. De två frågeställningarna var: 1. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen samkönat partnervåld med fokus på temana relationsdynamik, karaktär hos parterna, kön, genus och sexualitet samt betydelsen av social kontext? 2. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen det professionella bemötandet av samkönat partnervåld? De 21 valda primärdo...

  13. I betraktarens ögon – Betydelsen av kön och ålder för studenters läraromdömen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Karlsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Under senare år har studenters läraromdömen allt mer hamnat i fokus inom skola såväl som högre utbildning. Parallellt med dessa utvecklingar har olika typer av internettjänster genom vilka studenter kan betygsätta sina lärare dykt upp i flera länder. I Sverige lanserades 2008 tjänsten ”Studenter tycker till” (STT där studenter kan registrera sig och fylla i bedömningar av lärare enligt kriterierna utlärningsförmåga, kunskap, engagemang och lärandestöd. I denna studie undersöks betydelsen av lärarens kön och ålder för studenters läraromdömen genom en kvantitativ analys av omdömen av 98 högskole- och universitetslärare som givits på hemsidan STT. Syftet är att synliggöra hur sociala markörer, i detta fall om läraren är man eller kvinna, ung eller gammal, spelar en stor roll för hur en lärare utvärderas. Resultaten visar att kvinnor och unga lärare systematiskt ges lägre betyg av studenter, än män och äldre lärare. Studenter är således inte könsblinda eller oberoende av föreställningar om förhållandet mellan ålder och kompetens i sina bedömningar. Studien aktualiserar betydelsen av sociala markörer så som kön och ålder måste synliggöras och tas i beaktning när studenters utvärderingar av lärare och kurser behandlas inom högre utbildning.

  14. Ett arbete om förändringen sedan införandet av IAS36 och IAS38

    OpenAIRE

    Widing, Robert; Söderberg, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Sedan införandet av IFRS har en rad nya regler tillkommit. Den här uppsatsen beskriver förändringarna kring införandet av IAS 36 och 38. Den empiriska undersökningen avser intervjuer med två revisionsbyråer samt ett företag. Vår slutsats har visat att sedan införandet av IFRS 3 så har det inte behövts göras några nedskrivningar. Till grund för detta ligger den rådande högkonjunkturen. När konjunkturen vänder kan vi vänta oss att företagen kommer att behöva skriva ner sina tillgångar. Dock har...

  15. EKODESIGN I INDUSTRIN : En lägesanalys av producenters problem, drivkrafter och framtida utmaningar inom ekodesign

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsten, Karolina; Langborg, Ida

    2012-01-01

    SammanfattningProdukter produceras idag i stor utsträckning för att tillfredsställa konsumenters behov varpåmiljöbelastningen eskalerar i takt med efterfrågan och produktionen som sker därefter. Lösningenpå problemet kan sammanfattas i ekodesign där miljöoptimering av produktutvecklingen skerutifrån ett helhetsperspektiv; råvaruutvinning, produktion, användning, återvinning, slutligtomhändertagande samt transporter.Teknik-konsultföretaget ÅF uppmärksammade detta problem hos svenska producente...

  16. The basis for decisions in the nuclear waste issue. Experiences of the legislative basis and the EIA process; Grunden foer beslut i kaernavfallsfraagan. Upplevelser av lagstiftningsgrund och MKB-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskitalo, Carina; Nordlund, Annika; Lindgren, Urban (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the multi-level governance process in conjunction with the siting and design of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Since no similar activities have ever been implemented in Sweden, there is no available practice for how different laws should be coordinated and interpreted. The study sheds light on three general questions: 1) What is the formal decision-making mandate and what are the decision-making bodies at different levels (municipal level, regional or county level, and national level) according to the legislation, and what interpretation problems have these actors experienced with regard to the legislation and the EIA process? 2) What 'broader public' and organizations besides groups within the formal decision-making mandate have participated in the consultations, and what viewpoints have they expressed regarding the EIA process and consultations? 3) How have judgements and understanding of, and reactions to, risk related to the final repository been handled in the process? The study is mainly based on two different sources of material. A literature review with a focus on nuclear fuel management has been carried out within the social sciences field. Special interest has been devoted to discussing the content of legislation in relation to the EIA process and licensing, and the background and design of the EIA process. The EIA process is of special interest here, since it brings in both formal decision-making bodies and participation by broader groups. Furthermore, the literature review deals with theoretical perspectives regarding perceptions and communication of risk assessments. Literature reviews have also been conducted on minutes from EIA consultations during the period 2001 to 2007. The main source of the material used in the study is interview studies. The interview subjects represent both government authorities and non governmental organizations at the national, regional and local level. The results of the studies show that there are differences in participation between actors at different levels. The interviews show that the municipal level and local environmental organizations have played an active role in the process, while the role played at the regional level by the county administrative boards has been more limited. On the national level, particular attention is given to the state's impact on the EIA process via recommendations for research and financial support for the participation of different groups via the Nuclear Waste Fund. A universal perception of the legislation is that most of the actors feel secure in their own role within their particular profession, but that the interaction between sectoral laws and the Environmental Code is unclear in some respects when it comes to the complex issue of nuclear waste. The interview subjects express the view that the process for EIA and consultations has been based on practice established between the parties who have participated in the site selection process since the early 1990s. The forms for the consultation were thus worked out before the beginning of the formal consultation process in 2001. Many of the environmental organizations perceive that they have entered this process after the consultation form had already been developed, which has somewhat curtailed their chances to influence it. The broadening of participation via the Environmental Code has, however, given the environmental organizations access in another way than they have had via their traditional oppositional role as non governmental organizations outside the establishment. The environmental organizations and established parties have, however, largely had different perspectives on EIA and the role of the consultations. Here established parties, including regulatory authorities, can to some extent be seen as representing a planning paradigm (where the project itself and political decisions about it are in focus), while many environmental organizations traditionally represent an environmental paradigm that focuses on the precautionary principle for potentially environmentally hazardous processes. These differences have characterized much of the consultation process, and can also be seen as symptomatic for inclusion of parts of an environmental paradigm within legislation such as the Environmental Code. The results of the interviews also show that non-profit organizations and private citizens have difficulty participating in the process on the same terms as government authorities and activity operators, and that the resources of the developer cannot be matched by any other party when it comes to information, participation and expertise. Some believe that the County Administrative Board should play a more central role in this context, given its overall responsibility for coordination under the law.

  17. 1770-talets fria marknad : En skildring om finansminister Johan Liljencrantz frisläppande av spannmålshandeln 1775 och 1780

    OpenAIRE

    Wålfors, Carl

    2018-01-01

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka de ideologiska motiven bakom frisläppandet av spannmålshandeln 1775 och 1780. Utgångspunkten är det funktionalistiska synssättet med handlingsaxiom inom det praxeologiska läran som komplement för att undersöka individernas situation. Tillvägagångssättet blir att undersöka böndernas och statens ekonomiska situation och syn på marknaden före och efter tidigare nämnda årtal.    Under tidiga 1700-talet var Sverige ett samhälle med starkt statlig kontroll ...

  18. Effektivisering av materialhantering inom hälso- och sjukvård : En fallstudie på Barnonkologen, Uppsala Akademiska sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Marcus; Tådne, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Barnonkologen vid Uppsala Akademiska sjukhus är en barnavdelning för blod- och tumörsjukdomar. Avdelningen hanterar dagligen en stor mängd förbrukningsvaror för att kunna utföra en högkvalitativ och säker vård för patienterna. Ett identifierat behov är att effektivisera det nuvarande inventerings- och beställningsförfarandet på avdelningen, samt att organisera förråden efter personalens behov. Denna studie utreder och ger förslag på hur Barnonkologen kan förbättra sin hantering av förbrukning...

  19. Sol och stränder eller bra bibliotek? : En studie över vilka faktorer som påverkar utlandsstudenters val av destination och lärosäte

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Charlotta; Halling, Lisa Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Sammanfattning Akademi:     Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling, Mälardalens högskola. Nivå:             Kandidatuppsats i marknadsföring, 15 hp. Datum:         2009-05-18 Författare:   Lisa Kristin Halling och Charlotta Jokinen. Handledare: Lars Albert. Bakgrund:   I dagens samhälle är det vanligt att åka utomlands på semester och tidigare forskning har gjorts för att undersöka vilka faktorer det är som påverkar en resenär vid val av destination. Det är även vanligt förekomma...

  20. BEHOVEN KRING ETT ANVÄNDBART BELÄGGNINGS- OCH BEMANNINGSSYSTEM : En användarcentrerad utveckling av ett internt beläggnings- och bemanningssystem på ett medelstort IT-konsultföretag.

    OpenAIRE

    Morberg, Frida; Schyl, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    I detta examensarbete genomförs en användarcentrerad designprocess med mål att utvärdera olika arbetsmetoder som används för att skapa ett förslag till ett beläggnings- och bemanningssystem, i form av en prototyp, för IT-konsultföretaget Valtech AB. Under arbetet har vi försökt att utreda hur bra dessa arbetsmetoder är för att identifiera användarna och deras behov men även att analysera vilka designmoment som är viktiga för att systemet ska bli användbart. Företaget har ett beläggnings- och ...

  1. Läs- och skrivinlärning i förskoleklass och årskurs 1 : En studie av hur Wittingmetoden, Läsning på talets grund, Whole language och Tragetonmetoden används i skolan

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Linnéa

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka läs- och skrivinlärningen i förskoleklass och årskurs 1. Studien undersöker när elevers läs- och skrivinlärning påbörjas och hur lång tid denna inlärning tar. Dessutom undersöker studien vilka metoder som lärarna använder sig av i sin undervisning för att utveckla elevers läs- och skrivförmåga. En enkät skickades ut för att samla data om hur verksamma lärare i förskoleklass och årskurs 1 arbetar med läs- och skrivinlärningen med hjälp av Läsning på tal...

  2. Distriktssköterskans arbete med, och erfarenhet av livsstilsförändringar hos patienter med pre-diabetes : En kvalitativ intervjustudie

    OpenAIRE

    Erlandsson, Emma; Johnson, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva distriktssköterskans arbete med, och erfarenhet av livsstilsförändringar hos patienter med pre-diabetes inom primärvården. Metod var en empirisk intervjustudie med en kvalitativ ansats. Åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes, intervjumaterialet analyserades utifrån Graneheim och Lundmans innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade att patienter med pre-diabetes oftast upptäcktes i samband med årskontrollen hypertoni eller då de sökte för andra besvär. Blods...

  3. Kvalitetsutvärdering av biomedicin och närliggande huvudområden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffler, Hakon; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa; Emgård, Mia

    2014-01-01

    UKÄ:s utvärdering av biomedicinutbildningar visar på en mycket varierad kvalitet. Nio av 21 utbildningar håller toppklass medan mer än hälften bedöms vara bristande. 21 utbildningar inom biomedicin har satts under lupp. Kvaliteten bedöms som vanligt efter en tregradig skala: mycket hög kvalitet, ...

  4. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This project aims to characterize chemical and subsequently odor emissions from a digester plant located closed to Boraas in Sweden (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB). The digestion produces mainly 2 by-products, biogas and high quality organic biofertilizer. Biogas is a renewable source of electrical and heat energy and subsequently digester have a promising future. Unfortunately, release of unpleasant odours is one of the problems that may limit development of the technique as odours strongly influence the level of acceptance of the neighbours. The number of complaints due to odours depends mostly, upon the degree of odour release, the weather condition and plant environment (which influence the risks for spreading out), and the tolerance of the neighbours. These parameters are strongly variable. Many processes inside the plant distributed on a large surface may contribute to odour release. Chemical emissions were studied, in this project, by extensive sampling inside the plant. Results were then evaluated regarding risk for odour releases. The goal was to suggest controls and routines to limit releases. The conditions leading to the higher risks for odour emissions were studied by performing sampling at different periods of the year and subsequently different weather conditions. At first, places for measurement were chosen together with personal of the plant. Three zones are considered to mainly contribute to the odour emissions: the landfill region, the cisterns region and the leaching lake region. Totally 13 places were studied with regard to odour and chemical emissions under 2008-2009 at different weather conditions. Some results from a previous project (2007) are also presented here. Results show that the spreading out of can be maintained to an acceptable level as long as the plant is functioning without disturbances. The early stages of the treatment of waste should be confined in locals with closed doors to avoid spreading out of odours. Through controlled

  5. Inläsning av match- och dragningsinformation med användning av node.js : Ett arbete utfört vid företaget Svenska spel

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Rasmus; Ramadanovic, Alen

    2013-01-01

    Detta examensarbete har genomförts hos det statliga spelföretaget Svenska Spel i Sundbyberg. Svenska Spel har övervägt att använda sig av en ny plattform, Node.js, för att utveckla sina läsmoduler som läser match- och dragningsinformation. Idag används läsmoduler implementerade i programmeringsspråken C# och C för detta ändamål. Svenska Spel vill nu ha en utvärdering av hur lämpligt det är för dem att använda Node.js implementerade läsmoduler. Målet med detta examensarbete har varit att under...

  6. Kreativitet och innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard; Skov, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Kreativitet i arbetsterapi beskriver och analyserar kreativitetens många uttryck ur flera olika perspektiv: dels som en etablerad dimension av arbetsterapeutiska arbetsmetoder och yrkeskunskap, dels som en aktuell och efterfrågad grund för ny utveckling och innovation inom framtidens vård. Boken...... innehåller många praktiska exempel på hur vi kan se krea­tiviteten i arbetsterapeutens arbete såväl med klienter som när det gäller de system och den miljö människor lever och arbetar i. Boken beskriver också hur arbetsterapeuter arbetar och tänker kreativt samt hur de använder sig av kreativa strategier...

  7. Vem vill betala för musik? : En studie om populariteten av digitala musiktjänster och illegal fildelning bland Generation Y i en svenskspråkig yrkeshögskola

    OpenAIRE

    Hjort, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Generation Y skiljer sig mycket från tidigare generationer enligt många forskare och inte minst då när det gäller konsumtionsbeteende och värderingar. Till Generation Y tillhör de personer som är födda från åttiotalets början till mitten av nittiotalet. Under de senaste tio åren har sättet vi konsumerar musik ändrat mycket drastiskt. Genom internet och digitaliseringen av musiken har de flesta och inte minst Generation Y gått över från att köpa Cd-skivor i butiken till att ladda ner, båd...

  8. Redovisning är sällan ren och aldrig enkel : En studie om svårigheter och komplexitet vid framtagning av IFRS 15

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Linnea; Stenberg, Frida

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund Som en följd av den ökade globaliseringen strävar normgivare ständigt efter en harmonisering av internationella redovisningsstandarder. I maj 2014 publicerade normgivaren IASB (International Accounting Standards Board) en ny standard för intäktsredovisning – IFRS 15. Vid framtagning av nya redovisningsstandarder ska normgivare utgå från en generell föreställningsram. Det faktum att kapitalmarknadens aktörer under de senaste åren har fått betydligt mer inflytande skulle kunna påverka ...

  9. Framgångsfaktorer och barriärer vid integrering av klimatanpassning i  kommunal RSA : En undersökning av Värmlands småkommuner

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    Att klimatet förändras är konstaterat, skulle utsläppen av växthusgaser kraftigt minskas kan de påbörjade klimatförändringarna ändå inte helt förhindras. Förändringarna innebär att extremväder kommer inträffa oftare men med geografiska skillnader. Till seklets slut väntas i Värmland exempelvis nuvarande tioårsregn istället inträffa var femte år. Vänern kommer i och med detta utgöra en av de största översvämningsriskerna. Hur dessa förändringar påverkar samhället varierar beroende på samhället...

  10. Face to Face : Marknadsföring på Facebook - en studie av åsikter från ett inifrån- och utifrånperspektiv.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensson, Annika; Hedborn, Jenny; Källberg, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Sociala nätverk, eller så kallade communityn är ett fenomen som fått större betydelse idag och snabbt spridit sig runt om i världen. Communityn Facebook har blivit känd för att den samlar många användare och har en god målgruppskännedom, vilket gör Facebook till en attraktiv marknadsföringsplats som har uppmärksammats av en rad olika företag och organisationer. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka möjligheter och begränsningar Facebook har som marknadsföringskanal, samt undersöka s...

  11. Impressionism och Digitala Spel

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlrot, Erik; Fransson, Kristofer Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Abstrakt För att utveckla och förändra spelmediet behandlar detta arbete impressionism och digitala spel. Båda ämnena diskuteras och belyses från olika vinklar för att undersöka hur de två ämnena kan sammanföras i en spelproduktion. Spelproduktionen har testats av spelstudenter för att få deras åsikter om hur spelet fungerar och deras syn på kopplingen mellan impressionism och digitala spel. Arbetet avslutas med en diskussion och slutsats där alla fakta som tagits in under kandidat-arbetet an...

  12. Att skaffa barn i samkönade relationer : -       En studie av ett diskussionsforum för homo- och bisexuella föräldrar/ blivande homo- och bisexuella föräldrar

    OpenAIRE

    Tecle, Mary

    2010-01-01

    I denna c- uppsats har en undersökning gjorts om interaktionen och samspelet mellan medlemmarna på ett forum som är ett av de främsta diskussionsforumen för homo- och bisexuella föräldrar/blivande homo- och bisexuella föräldrar. Syftet med undersökningen var att är få ökad insikt om den sociala interaktionen på forumet med hjälp av dessa tre frågeställningar: Hur ser interaktionen/samspelet ut mellan medlemmarna på forumet? Går det att utläsa särskilda teman utifrån inläggen? På vilket sätt k...

  13. Methodology - evaluation of strategies -and the system for taking care of spent nuclear fuel; Metodval - utvaerdering av strategier och system foer att ta hand om anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports 'Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, 'Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and 'Utvecklingen av KBS-3-metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete' ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the

  14. Teckensnitt och dess personlighetsdrag

    OpenAIRE

    Linnarsson, Johan; Borja, Mårten

    2014-01-01

    När du arbetar med teckensnitt, vare sig du skapar – eller helt enkelt väljer ett teckensnitt, finns det konsekvenser till följd av skapandet och/eller valet. Läslighet och läsbarhet ligger i hjärtat av teckensnitts utformning – men principerna kring läslighet och läsbarhet är flexibla och kan komma att bortses ifrån, beroende på den tänkta kontexten för teckensnittet. Ett grepp om historiken bakom användningen av vissa teckensnitt, såväl som kunskap om de möjliga associationer de kan väcka ä...

  15. Barnkonventionen och ansvarsfördelningen mellan barn och vuxna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolz, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    konvention pekar den ut rättigheter och skyldigheter för barn, föräldrar och stater på mycket specifika sätt. Men ansvarsfördelningen mellan dessa aktörer är oklar när man t ex kombinerar rätten till utbildning och till deltagande. I slutet av kapitlet kommer jag att ge exempel på utbildningspolitiska...

  16. "Att leva ett meningsfullt liv med skuggan" : en kvantitativ, longitudinell och jämförande undersökelse av självbemästringsprogrammet "Att leva ett friskare liv"

    OpenAIRE

    Engell, Lena Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Fler och fler får kroniska sjukdomar, också yngre människor. Om man tar i betraktning den belastning som kronisk sjukdom kan ge, ser man att det är behov för en välfungerande utbildning för denna växande grupp av människor. Det amerikanska självhjälpsprogrammet Att leva ett friskare liv placerar personer med olika kroniska tillstånd och kombinationer av tilläggsjukdomar i samma program. Programmet söker att ge kursdeltagarna bistånd till att bli självhjälpta i sin strävan att bemästra sitt ...

  17. Hot och våld i kriminalvården – kollegors betydelse för hanteringen av känslor : En intervjustudie med kriminalvårdare från häktesverksamheten

    OpenAIRE

    Linnarsson, Liisa; Wilander, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    I denna studie uppmärksammas hotfulla och våldsamma situationer i kriminalvården. Syftet har varit att undersöka vilka känslor som uppstår hos kriminalvårdare i dessa situationer. I samband med detta har studien syftat till att få en djupare förståelse för vilken betydelse kollegor har för de känslor som uppstår och för hur känslorna hanteras. Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer av halvstrukturerad karaktär. Totalt genomfördes tio intervjuer med yrkesverksamma kriminalvårdare från häktes...

  18. Om tidskriften, bidragstyper och granskningsprocessen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Sonesson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Högre utbildning är en vetenskaplig e-tidskrift som är fritt tillgänglig enligt open access-principen. Tidskriftens övergripande syfte är att stödja framväxten av kunskap om lärande och undervisning inom högre utbildning och därigenom bidra till utvecklingen av svensk högskoleundervisning. Tidskriften utgör ett praktiknära forum för idé- och kunskapsutbyte och debatt för alla som är engagerade i högre utbildning i Sverige såsom lärare och handledare, studenter och doktorander, pedagogiska utvecklare och ledare samt forskare med inriktning mot lärande i högskolan.Samtliga bidrag av typen Artiklar granskas kollegialt (peer review. Övriga bidragstyper granskas normalt av redaktionen, som dock förbehåller sig rätten att nyttja kollegial granskning vid behov.

  19. Om tidskriften, bidragstyper och granskningsprocessen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Sonesson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Högre utbildning är en vetenskaplig e-tidskrift som är fritt tillgänglig enligt open access-principen. Tidskriftens övergripande syfte är att stödja framväxten av kunskap om lärande och undervisning inom högre utbildning och därigenom bidra till utvecklingen av svensk högskoleundervisning. Tidskriften utgör ett praktiknära forum för idé- och kunskapsutbyte och debatt för alla som är engagerade i högre utbildning i Sverige såsom lärare och handledare, studenter och doktorander, pedagogiska utvecklare och ledare samt forskare med inriktning mot lärande i högskolan.Samtliga bidrag av typen Artiklar granskas kollegialt (peer review. Övriga bidragstyper granskas normalt av redaktionen, som dock förbehåller sig rätten att nyttja kollegial granskning vid behov.

  20. Om tidskriften, bidragstyper och granskningsprocessen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Sonesson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Högre utbildning är en vetenskaplig e-tidskrift som är fritt tillgänglig enligt open access-principen. Tidskriftens övergripande syfte är att stödja framväxten av kunskap om lärande och undervisning inom högre utbildning och därigenom bidra till utvecklingen av svensk högskoleundervisning. Tidskriften utgör ett praktiknära forum för idé- och kunskapsutbyte och debatt för alla som är engagerade i högre utbildning i Sverige såsom lärare och handledare, studenter och doktorander, pedagogiska utvecklare och ledare samt forskare med inriktning mot lärande i högskolan.Samtliga bidrag av typen Artiklar granskas kollegialt (peer review. Övriga bidragstyper granskas normalt av redaktionen, som dock förbehåller sig rätten att nyttja kollegial granskning vid behov.

  1. Om tidskriften, bidragstyper och granskningsprocessen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Sonesson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Högre utbildning är en vetenskaplig e-tidskrift som är fritt tillgänglig enligt open access-principen. Tidskriftens övergripande syfte är att stödja framväxten av kunskap om lärande och undervisning inom högre utbildning och därigenom bidra till utvecklingen av svensk högskoleundervisning. Tidskriften utgör ett praktiknära forum för idé- och kunskapsutbyte och debatt för alla som är engagerade i högre utbildning i Sverige såsom lärare och handledare, studenter och doktorander, pedagogiska utvecklare och ledare samt forskare med inriktning mot lärande i högskolan.Samtliga bidrag av typen Artiklar granskas kollegialt (peer review. Övriga bidragstyper granskas normalt av redaktionen, som dock förbehåller sig rätten att nyttja kollegial granskning vid behov.

  2. Sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i Sörmlands skolor

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Öjemalm, Karolina

    2009-01-01

    Sexualitet är ett grundläggande behov hos människor och påverkar individens upplevelse av hälsa och välbefinnande. Skolan fungerar som en viktig arena för att främja unga vuxnas sexuella hälsa och sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen i skolan kan ha stor betydelse för unga vuxnas utveckling. Sex- och samlevnadsundervisning har varit obligatorisk i svenska skolor sedan år 1955. Trots det visar en kvalitetsgranskning av sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen i svenska skolor från år 1999 att kvaliteten...

  3. Pulsmätning och stegräkning från Android Wear : Utveckling av en applikation för att spara mätdata

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Detta examensarbete beskriver utvecklingen av en applikation för att överföra data från en Android Wear smartklocka till en Android smarttelefon som sedan skickar datan vidare till en server. Servern sätter in datan i en MySQL-databas. Android Wear smartklockornas sensorer undersöks även. Smartklockorna har sensorer för stegräkning och pulsmätning. I examensarbetet beskrivs det hur sensorerna fungerar. Därtill genomgås Androids historia i korta drag samt basfunktionerna i Android operativsyst...

  4. Barn och konst - samtal, kommunikation och demokrati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Lindh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln fokuserar på förskolebarns möte med konst i form av offentlig utsmyckning. Femåriga förskolebarn besöker sex skulpturer, interagerar med dem, med varandra och med sin lärare. De tecknar av skulpturerna på plats. Ett sociokulturellt och demokratiskt perspektiv används för att belysa barnen möte med konsten där leken tar stor plats. Deras egna tolkningar och samspelet med konsten undersöks med hjälp av partiell etnografi där deltagande  pedagoger möter konsten, tolkar den, samspelar med den, kopplar den till sin egen verklighet och dessutom engagerar sig i konsten.This article focuses on pre-school children and their meeting with public art in the form of sculptures. Together with their teacher they interact with the artworks, with each other, and they do their own interpretation at site by making drawings of the sculptures. The playful meeting between children and public art is described from a sociocultural and democratic perspective. The children’s own interpretations and interactions with the art are investigated using ethnographic method through participant observation. The result shows that pre-school children with the assistance of a proficient teacher meet the art, interpret it, interact with it, and connect it to their every-day lives, besides truly engaging in the artprocess.

  5. Lärplatta som verktyg för elever i behov av särskilt stöd! : En specialpedagogisk studie om hur elever i åk 4-7 använder lärplatta i klassrummet och hur uppföljning av användningen sker

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Ditte; Nordström, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    Studiens syfte var att få kunskap om hur lärplatta används som verktyg för elever i behov av särskilt stöd i åk 4-7, samt om lärplattan används utifrån specialpedagogens syfte för den enskilda eleven med den. Använda datainsamlingsmetoder är kvalitativa intervjuer med specialpedagoger, lärare och elever, samt elevobservationer. De frågeställningar som studien sökt svar på är: i vilket syfte valdes lärplatta som verktyg av specialpedagog för elever i behov av särskilt stöd, hur använder elever...

  6. Betydelsen av taktil massage i omvårdnaden av dementa patienter- En systematisk litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Wetterström, Marina; Swan, Emelie

    2008-01-01

    Syftet med denna systematiska litteraturstudie var att se vilka effekter taktil massage ger hos personer med demens. Sökning av artiklar har gjorts på databaserna CINAHL, ELIN@Dalarna och PubMed där sökorden dementia, massage, nursing, older people, Therapeutic touch och touch användes i olika kombinationer. Litteraturstudien består av kvantitativa och kvalitativa artiklar. Artiklarna skulle vara vetenskapliga och inte publicerade före 1995, de skulle även svara på syfte och frågeställning. F...

  7. Mobbning av icke-heterosexuella i skolan : En empirisk undersökning med exempel på elever som p.g.a. sin sexuella läggning är mobbade och lärarnas motverkan mot detta.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekhem, Regina

    2006-01-01

    Denna studie handlar om icke-heterosexuella* ungdomars upplevelser av mobbning i skolan p.g.a. deras sexuella läggning och ungdomarnas upplevelser om vad som görs av lärarna för att motverka denna mobbning. Studien genomfördes i två delar: förstudie och huvudstudie. I förstudien studerades lärarestuderandes åsikter om utbildningen som de får om mobbningen av icke-heterosexuella elever i skolan på lärareprogrammet. I förstudie medverkade 11 lärarestuderande, alla var kvinnor. I huvudstudien st...

  8. Konsten att uppträda : En studie i Marina Abramović och Ulays performance ur ett performativt och psykoanalytiskt perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Zara, Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    Denna studie avser att utforska identitetsskapandet inom den komplexa konstformen performance. Genom att fokusera på Marina Abramovićs och Frank Uwe Laysipens (Ulay) liv och kollaborativa performance ur ett performativt och psykoanalytiskt perspektiv angrips handlingarnas tyngdpunkt i skapandet av jaget under diverse omständigheter och sammanhang. This study aims to investigates the creation of identity within the complex artform performance. By observing the life’s and collaborative perf...

  9. Optimization of lime addition in a dry air pollution control device; Optimerad rening av HCl och SO{sub 2} med minskade kalktillsatser vid torr roeasrening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena; Samuelsson, Jessica; Ohlsson, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The focus of this project is to optimize the absorption of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (SO{sub 2}) in a dry air pollution control device system connected to a waste combustor. A significant amount of absorbent are generally added into the processes to achieve an efficient cleaning of the flue gas. Reduced absorbent consumption has double benefits on the operative expenses due to decreased purchase and landfilling costs. The objective was to study the affect of flue gas temperature and moisture, (relative humidity, RH), on the efficiency of HCl and SO{sub 2} absorption on hydrated lime. Additionally, the efficiency of a pre-treated hydrated lime with larger specific surface and pore volume was investigated. The measuring campaign was conducted on the 20 MW fluidized bed waste incinerator own by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB in Sweden. Results from 26 experimental days with normal hydrated lime showed a positive correlation between the efficiency of the lime and RH in the flue gas. Four levels of RH between 3.28% to 4.84% were tested. The levels were adjusted by lowering the flue gas temperature and/or by adding water to the waste fuel. The smallest effect where achieved by solely adding water to the waste fuel. RH increased solely to 3.62% and the amount of lime consumption was reduced with only 5% compare to normal condition. By lowering the flue gas temperature 10 deg C to 143 deg C, RH increased to 4.06% and the amount of lime added was reduced with 13%. The largest impact was found when both the flue gas temperature and the moisture content were changed. At those process conditions RH reach 4.84 % and the usage of lime were reduced with 26%. Additional 12 experimental days were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a pretreated hydrated lime with larger specific surface and pore volume. The results showed that the surface enlarged absorbent was almost twice as effective as the normal hydrated lime. Moreover, the results indicated an equal

  10. Tryckerimomsmålen : En utredning av de skatterättsliga och civilrättsliga konsekvenserna ur rättssäkerhetsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Haglund, Emma; Olsson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    2010 lämnade EU-domstolen ett förhandsavgörande i mål C-88/09 Graphic Procédé gällande huruvida vissa tryckeriprodukter ska anses utgöra varor eller tjänster enligt EU:s mervärdesskattedirektiv. Domen innebar för svensk lagstiftning att mervärdesskattesatsen för vissa tryckeriprodukter sänktes från 25 procent till 6 procent. Konsekvensen blev att skatteverket fick återbetala miljonbelopp till svenska tryckerier på grund av att de redovisat för hög mervärdesskatt. Skatteverket godtog återbetal...

  11. Utskrift av tredimensionell arkitekturmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    I examensarbetet behandlas modellering av hus anpassade för 3D-skrivning. Uppdragsgivare har varit Purmia Grön, ett företag i Pedersöre som har byggnadsplanering och 3D-modellering som huvudsakliga affärsområde. Målet med examensarbetet var att skapa en modell av ett hus som skulle lämpa sig för 3D-skrivning och inkorporera olika visuella designaspekter. 3D-skrivning är en tillverkningsprocess där ett fysiskt objekt skapas från en digital modell. Metoden har tidigare använts främst av stö...

  12. Addition of ash on drained forested peatlands in southern Sweden. Effects on forest production, fluxes of greenhouse gases and water chemistry; Tillfoersel av aska i tallskog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa skogsproduktion, avgaang av vaexthusgaser och vattenkemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Ernfors, Maria; Jacobson, Staffan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Nilsson, Mats; Ring, Eva

    2006-04-15

    , accumulation of tree biomass needs to increase by approximately 2%. In run off, sampled in the main ditches, the electric conductivity increased after addition of 3.1 tonnes of crushed ash, as well as the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, PO{sub 4}-P, S, SO{sub 4}-S and Zn. For most elements, the increase appeared immediately after the ash application, and lasted from a few months to the whole observation period (c. one year). The concentrations of Pb and V was lower than expected during six and nine months, respectively. Thereafter, the Pb-concentration tended to be higher than the control. The concentration of TOC was reduced during eight months, and pH was reduced during three months after the ash addition. The effects on ground water chemistry corresponded to the effects on chemistry in run off. Two months after treatment, the concentrations of B, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl{sup -}, Li, Mn, Na, P, S och SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}S were elevated in the groundwater in the ash treated area. For some of the elements this was evident down to 90 - 100 cm depth. The concentrations of As and TOC at 30 - 40 cm tended to be lower in the area treated with ash. The results from this study demonstrate the initial effects (1 - 2.5 years) of wood ash addition in some drained, oligotrophic peatland forests in southern Sweden. Ash addition may affect the turn over of the peat, and potentially affect other ecosystem properties, for several decades. Hence, in order to confirm the duration of the shown short-term effects, to establish the duration of not yet ceased effects, and, establish effects that might show up in a long-term perspective, continuous follow up of the established experiments is important. This long-term monitoring is also a prerequisite of a more complete evaluation of the benefits and possible detrimental effects on the environment of wood ash addition.

  13. Vad och hur gör de? − att synliggöra lärande i grundskolans slöjdpraktik via videoetnografi och mikroanalys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln bygger på resultat och erfarenheter av etnografiskt insamlade videoinspelningar från grundskolans slöjdundervisning utgående från tre studier; dels vid ett projekt med förstudier under slutet av 1990-talet (Johansson, 1996, dels vid avhandlingsprojektet Slöjdpraktik i skolan (Johansson, 2002 och dels inom forskningsprojektet Kommunikation och lärande i slöjdpraktiker, (”Komolär-projektet”, under 2005−2010 (Lindström, Borg, Johansson & Lindberg, 2003.Att insamla empiri i autentiska slöjdmiljöer är av intresse då lärandesituationer kan synliggöras när elever med hjälp av material och redskap arbetar med att tillverka artefakter. Utifrån detaljerade analyser av slöjdaktiviteter går det att upptäcka det som utspelar sig och möjligheter ges att uppfatta något annat jämfört med vad man kan tro känna väl eller ha förenklade och till och med felaktiga uppfattningar om. Videoobservationer möjliggör att antaganden istället görs på empiriskt grundat datamaterial. Med risk att videofilma och analysera det man tror sig veta och söka har forskningsprojektens insamlingar mer förutsättningslöst arbetat efter vad och hur elever och lärare gör i slöjdpraktik och vad man får veta när slöjdaktiviteter analyseras mer ingående. Videomaterialen har analyserats både på en mer övergripande nivå och detaljerat med hjälp av mikroanalyser. Därefter har lärandet synliggjorts och beskrivits bland annat i teman för att visa hur personerna är resurser för varandra och hur lärandet utvecklas genom olika språkanvändning och med slöjdpraktikens fysiska redskap och material.Sökord: metod, slöjd, klassrumsforskning, videoetnografi, mikroanalysURN:NBN:no-29955

  14. Elliptiska kurvor och Lenstras faktoriseringsalgoritm

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Johan

    2009-01-01

    En elliptisk kurva består av nollställena till ett kubisk polynom i två variabler, sådant att det existerar åtminstone en punkt på kurvan och kurvan är icke-singulär. Punkterna på en sådan kurva bildar en abelsk grupp och olika egenskaper hos dessa grupper beskrivs i den här uppsatsen. Bland annat presenteras Mordell-Weils sats som säger att en elliptisk kurva över en talkropp är en ändligt genererad grupp. Nagell-Lutz sats ger nödvändiga villkor för att en punkt på en rationell elliptisk kur...

  15. Belöningssystem : En studie om belöningar och motivation hos Handelsbanken

    OpenAIRE

    Sepulveda Moradinassab, Natalie; Gebretsadkan, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    Sammanfattning Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi med inriktning mot hållbar verksamhetsutveckling och management, Mälardalens Högskola i Västerås.   Datum: 2011-06-07   Författare: Yosef Gebretsadkan och Natalie Sepúlveda Moradinassab   Handledare: Peter Selegård   Titel: Belöningssystem - En studie om belöningar och motivation hos Handelsbanken   Problemformulering: Belöningssystem har i dagsläget blivit oerhört modernt och de flesta banker använder sig av det. Till följd av detta har studie...

  16. Grekisk mytologi i The Lightning Thief av Rick Riordan

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att genom en komparativ studie med utgångspunkt i teorier om dialogicitet, hyptertextualitet och transformation, analysera förekomsten av grekisk mytologi i The Lightning Thief (2005) – vilken påverkan dessa har och hur de tar sig uttryck i Riordans roman. De grekiska myterna i The Lightning Thief har jämförts med de som beskrivs i Grekisk Mytologi (1977) av Giovanni Caselli och Michael Gibson, En introduktion till grekisk mytologi (1989) av David Bellingham, ...

  17. Förpackning av keramiska substrat

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om forpackning av keramiska substrat. Canning ar det universella namnet pa forpackning av keramiska substrat. Keramiska substrat kan vara katalysatorer eller partikelfilter som anvands som ett efterbehandlingssystem i bensin och Diesel applikationer. Examensarbetet genomfordes hos Scania CV AB. I installationsprocessen sveps en keramisk fibermatta runt det keramiska substratet. Substratet inkapslas sedan med ett metalholje. Rapporten inleds med att beskriva olika i...

  18. Konkurrens och samverkan i storstaden : Bostadsmarknaden som nyckel

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, Anders

    1991-01-01

    Med fördelningen av bostäder till hushåll följer inte bara de variationer i boende­kostnader och förmögenhetsbildning som blivit mycket uppmärksammade i massmedia under senare år. Med fördelningen av bostäder följer också fördelningen av mycket annat av detta livets goda. Bostadsmarknaden beskrivs som ett knippe sorteringsmekanismer där en matchning sker mellan bostäder och hushåll. Det stora beroendet mellan människor i en storstad påtalas och frågan om hur bostadskrisen ska kunna lösas ges ...

  19. Miljöcertifieringen 14001 – ett nödvändigt ont. : En kvalitativ studie om svenska små- och medelstora företags upplevelser av ISO 14001 efter 2015 år uppdatering.

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Anton; Melkersson, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Bakgrund: Det är problematiskt att implementera hållbara styrmedel i små- och medelstora företag (SMF) enligt tidigare forskning. Miljöledningssystem är ett populärt hållbart styrmedel där många svenska SMF har certifierat sig mot miljöledningsstandarden ISO 14001. I och med uppdateringen ISO 14001:2015 tillkom nya krav där organisationer har tre år på sig att uppdatera standarden. Det är därmed relevant att studera svenska SMF som nyligen uppdaterat sin miljöcertifiering samt att få ta del a...

  20. Wonder Woman – den ultimata hjälten? : En karaktärsanalys av Wonder Woman i två olika gestaltningar med utgångspunkt från dygdeetik och hjälteresan

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlund, Evelina; Kärsbo Svanerud, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Syftet med denna uppsats är först och främst att undersöka om Wonder Woman är en komplett hjälte. Utefter Aristoteles dygdeetik och Voglers hjälteresa analyserar vi filmen Wonder Woman från 2017 samt ett icke producerat manus med samma titel. I uppsatsens sista kapitel diskuterar vi sedan kring hur genus har påverkat Wonder Womans möjlighet att framstå som en komplett hjälte. I analysen kommer vi fram till att filmen i jämförelse med manuset är nästintill strukturellt perfekt gällande hjälter...

  1. Planering och fotografering för fotorealistiska digitala montage

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Tommi

    2012-01-01

    Med fotorealistiska digitala montage avser man bilder, som är sömlöst sammansatta av två eller flera utgångsbilder. Sammansatta bilderna skall se fotorealistiska ut, som om de fångats på en och samma exponering. Fotorealistiska digitala montage används bland annat i tidningsreklamer, pärmblad och filmplanscher. Då man skapar denna typ av bil-der börjar allting med väl planerade och fotograferade utgångsbilder. Syftet med arbetet är att reda ut hur man kan gå till väga med planerings- och foto...

  2. Sambandet mellan stress mindset och upplevd stress hos gymnasieungdomar

    OpenAIRE

    Edblad, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Studien undersökte sambandet mellan stress mindset (individens övertygelser om stress) och upplevd stress hos gymnasieungdomar. 122 deltagare i åldrarna 16-19 år deltog i studien genom att svara på ett elektroniskt formulär. Frågorna bestod av Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), som undersökte upplevd stress, och Stress Mindset Measure (SMM), som undersökte deltagarnas mindset om stress. Resultatet visade en signifikant negativ korrelation mellan stress mindset och upplevd stress. Detta gav stöd...

  3. Kritik av den negativa uppbyggligheten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik; Thomsen, Søren Ulrik

    Under efterkrigstiden har ett märkligt fenomen fått fäste i kulturen. Ett konstverk, en handling, en utsaga bedöms inte längre efter om de är sköna, goda och sanna, utan efter om de bryter mot regler, gör uppror mot det konventionella eller angriper etablerade tänkesätt. Överskridandet av normer...... och provokationen mot inrotade uppfattningar framställs som viktigare än de positiva resultaten, avståndstagandet viktigare än ställningstagandet. Från att ha varit idéer hos ett fåtal filosofer, konstnärer och bohemer har denna negativism efterhand blivit en ideologi för den breda massan. Den...

  4. Armbandsbaserad pulsoximetri : Ett egenkonstruerat system med reflekterande teknik och jämförelse mot traditionell mätteknik vid normal och nedsatt hudtemperatur

    OpenAIRE

    Edström, Linnéa

    2016-01-01

    I rapporten presenteras en lågkostnads, portabel och bärbar design av ett nytt system med reflekterande teknik för pulsoximetri. Arbetet har utförts som ett projekt, inkluderande elektronikkonstruktion, mjukvaruutveckling, design av inkapsling för prototypen samt fortlöpande tester av både hård- och mjukvara under arbetets gång. Resultatet av arbetet är ett egenkonstruerat system för pulsoximetri. Med hjälp av bluetooth-teknik kan systemet kommunicera trådlöst med en PC, laptop eller mobiltel...

  5. Invigning av Orgel Acusticum

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Hans-Ola; Weman Ericsson, Lena; Hannus, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Invigning av Orgel Acusticum, Studio Acusticum, konsertsalenHans-Ola Ericsson, orgel; Lena Weman, traversflöjt; Anders Hannus, klangregi; Birgitta Svendén, konferencièreOlivier Messiaen 1908-1992Apparition de l'Église éternelle (1932)Hans-Ola Ericsson f. 1958Nytt verk (2012) för förstärkt traversflöjt och orgelJohann Sebastian Bach 1685-1750Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ (BWV 639) ur OrgelbüchleinHans-Ola EricssonPostludium - "Spikar" ur orgelmässan "De fyra varelsernas Amen" (1999-2000) fö...

  6. Att arbeta tillsammans - utvärdering av nytt kursupplägg av examensarbeten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Thorsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grupphandledning av examensarbete inom geografi, med fokus på naturgeografi, vid Göteborgs Universitet infördes 2012 som ett komplement till den individuella handledningen i syfte att öka genomströmningen av studenter samt kvaliteten på arbetena. I denna artikel presenteras och utvärderas det aktuella kursupplägget. Såväl genomströmningen som kvaliteten (bearbetning och tolkning av materialet, teorianknytning, disposition och språk ökade efter införandet av grupphandledning, vilket i linje med tidigare studier visar att grupphandledning är ett bra komplement till den traditionella individuella handledningen.

  7. Fotboll och huliganism i Skandinavien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian

    De skandinaviska länderna är lika i en rad hänseenden, exempelvis samhällsstruktur, lagstiftning och kultur. Också när det gäller fotboll finns stora likheter ? Danmark, Norge och Sverige introducerades ungefär samtidigt under 1970- och 80-talen till den engelska fotbollen och dess supporterkultu...

  8. Den försvunna vaginan : Fetischer och gestaltning i transsexuell amatörinternetpornografi

    OpenAIRE

    Nino Cortés, Daniel M.; Oscarsson, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Denna uppsats undersöker hur transsexuella individer gestaltas på den amatörinternetpornaografiska webbsidan XVIDEOS - den största internetpornografiska webbsidan. Vi har tittat på hur XVIDEOS som webbsida är med i denna gestaltning och process och hur XVIDEOS och dess innehåll återger en bild av vad den transsexuella kroppen - och sexualiteten förväntas vara. Det effektivaste sättet att föra denna undersökning på, är i vårt fall att analysera mainstream amatörinternetpornografi med transsexu...

  9. Plackavlägsnande effekt : jämförelse mellan manuell och elektrisk tandborste

    OpenAIRE

    Kösedag, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    Munhälsan är en viktig del av allmänhälsan som kan påverka livskvaliteten. Plack har betydelse för munhälsan och kan vara en bidragande faktor till utveckling av parodontala sjukdomar och karies. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att jämföra den plackavlägsnande effekten med användning av manuell och elektrisk tandborste. Studien utfördes som en allmän litteraturstudie och materialet samlades in genom sökning av vetenskapliga artiklar i databasen Pub Med. Sökorden var ”dental plaque”, ”plaque”...

  10. Att vara ung vuxen med reumatism : Psykologiska aspekter av reumatisk sjukdom

    OpenAIRE

    Fröberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    Kunskapen gällande hur det upplevs att vara ung vuxen och samtidigt ha en reumatisk sjukdom är begränsad. Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie var att utifrån individens eget perspektiv försöka fånga in och beskriva olika psykologiska aspekter av att vara ung vuxen och samtidigt ha reumatism, i en svensk kontext. Studien utfördes på sju reumatiker i åldern 18-40 och datainsamligen bestod av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Analysen följde ett induktivt tematiskt mönster. I studien identifierades ...

  11. Inverkan av alkalisilikareaktion (ASR) på lamelldammars bärförmåga

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Sara; Sawasa, Hadeel

    2014-01-01

    Dammar är en viktig konstruktion i Sverige och i världen bland annat för vattenförsörjning, reglering av flöden och elproduktion. En expansion på grund av en alkalisilikareaktion (ASR) i en betongdamm kan leda till många problem. Bland annat kan det uppstå läckage av vatten och problem med öppning och stängning av luckor. Mycket forskning har lagts ner på att ta reda på hur ASR påverkar hållfastheten och bärförmågan hos betong. Detta examensarbete syftar till att genom en litteraturstudie vis...

  12. Högskolepedagogik som anpassning och motstånd i historia, nutid och framtid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Aldrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Denna artikel är en reflektion över högskolepedagogikens historia, nutid och framtid. I den identifieras två strategier som kan ses som syftet med en högskolepedagogisk utbildning för universitetslärare: motstånd mot negativa konsekvenser av den oerhörda förändring som skett av universiteten de senaste decennierna, samt anpassning till en överlevnad och sökandet efter styrka i dessa förändringar. Artikeln för även fram en framtidsvision om en starkare skrågemenskap inom universitetslärarkåren med fokus på lärarskap genom empatisk dialog snarare än negativt ifrågasättande. På så sätt skulle de olika vetenskapsdisciplinerna tillsammans utgöra kärnan i reflektionen och agerandet för en fortsatt högskolepedagogisk utbildning för universitetslärare. Disciplinerna kan liknas vid dialekter inom ett språk – högskolepedagogik. På samma sätt som ingen enskild dialekt kan definiera hela språket, är det i den disciplinära mångfalden som högskolepedagogiken skapas och där den hämtar styrka för motstånd och anpassning.

  13. Gymnasierektors ledarskapsparadox: att vara verksamhetschef och pedagogisk utvecklare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Johansson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Forskning om rektors ledarskap är omfattande, men studier som undersöker gymnasierektors arbetssituation och ledarskap är mer sällsynta. Avsikten med den föreliggande studien var att bidra till att denna kunskapslucka fylls igen. Semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio gymnasierektorer genomfördes med fokus på rektors arbetsuppgifter, möjlighet att planera och styra arbetet, förväntningar kring ledarskapet, samt möjlighet att utvecklas och lära i arbetet. I resultaten av den tematiska analysen framträdde fyra teman: (1 ledarskapsideal, (2 kollegialt stöd, (3 ledarskap i en förändringsbenägen organisation, och (4 begränsat utrymme för reflektion. Ett övergripande, gemensamt tema: "Ledarskapsparadox" speglar de högst varierande omständigheter och förhållanden i vardagen som en gymnasierektor ska kunna hantera, vilka också präglar resultatet av analysen. Ett något oväntat resultat var att gymnasierektor upplevde stort, eget ansvar för elevernas bästa. Studien kastar nytt ljus på gymnasierektorers ledarskap, och bidrar till ökad förståelse för vad rollen som ledare för en komplex organisation som gymnasieskolan kan innebära. Genom att knyta an till en arbetspsykologisk ledarskapsteori och formulera en arbetspsykologisk hypotes kan studien bidra till forskningen om arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL.

  14. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes

  15. Vid era sinnens fulla bruk - en kvantitativ enkätundersökning om ungdomars kunskaper om och attityder till alkohol. Utvecklingsarbete: Minderårigas tillgång till alkohol - en kvalitativ studie med fokus på orsakerna bakom utköpen/förmedlingen av alkohol till minderåriga samt hur langningen av alkohol till minderåriga kan minskas.

    OpenAIRE

    Ström, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Examensarbete: I det här examensarbetet har ämnet alkohol och ungdomar behandlats. Syftet med denna studie var att kartlägga vilken kunskap och vilka attityder ungdomar har gällande alkohol och alkoholbruk. För att kunna förebygga eventuella alkoholproblem behövs kunskap om hur unga förhåller sig till alkoholrelaterade frågor. När kunskapen ökar går det bättre att ta itu med det här växande problemet och även få hål på de myter om alkohol som fortfarande cirkulerar. Studien genomförde...

  16. ”Varken E=mc2 eller Det förlorade paradiset rafsades ihop av en festprisse” : En kvalitativ studie om introvert beteende i skolan

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Sofie; Nordqvist, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Denna studie syftar till att lyfta fram begreppet introvert i skolvärlden genom att undersöka hur introverta beteenden kan påverka elevers utbildning. Vi lyfter även fram lärares tillskrivande av introvert beteende. Vi utgår ifrån Jung och H.J. Eysencks definitioner av begreppet introvert samt tar upp olika beteendeteorier och perspektiv på introvert beteende för att kunna identifiera och analysera våra resultat. Studiens metod är en empirisk datainsamling i form av observationer och intervju...

  17. Att tillämpa återkommande mätning av kundnöjdhet i IT-projekt : En vidareutvecklad modell baserad på modellerna American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) och SERVQUAL

    OpenAIRE

    Karlmats, Roberg; Karlsson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    I dagens samhälle är det allt viktigare för företag att behålla sina existerande kunder då konkurrensen blir allt hårdare. Detta medför att företag försöker vidta åtgärder för att vårda relationer med sina kunder. Detta problem är även högst relevant inom IT-branschen. Inom IT-branschen är det vanligt att arbeta agilt i IT-projekt. Vår samarbetspartner har sett ett ökat behov av att mäta servicekvalitet på ett återkommande sätt inom IT-projekt, detta för att mäta relevanta variabler som sträc...

  18. Starbucksfenomenet i Finland : Hur uppfattar och upplever finska konsumenter tillhörande generation Y och Z varumärket Starbucks?

    OpenAIRE

    Emtö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    I den här undersökningen har jag undersökt hur finska konsumenter uppfattar och upplever varumärket Starbucks. Jag har utfört undersökningen genom att använda mig av fokusgruppintervjuer. Intervjuerna utfördes på basen av min frågeguide som utvecklats kring de relevanta teoriområden som är presenterade i arbetet. Mitt urval för intervjuerna var finska konsumenter tillhörande generationerna Y och Z i och med att dessa vuxit upp med varumärket samt upplevt inflytandet av sociala medier i vardag...

  19. Helhetsorienterad utvärdering av kollektivtrafikåtgärder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiselius, Lena Winslott; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    Under hösten 2008 och våren 2009 har forskare vid Avd. Trafik och väg vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, DTU Transport vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet samt National-ekonomiska institutionen vid Lunds Universitet genomfört ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera tillämpningen av en sammansatt...... (helhetsorienterad) analys av kollektiv-trafikåtgärder....

  20. Jämförelse av vertikala accelerationer av järnvägsbroar för höghastighetståg.

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaibi, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Under de senaste decennierna parallellt med klimatdiskussionen har det vuxit fram ett stort intresse för höghastighetståg och en förbättrad infrastruktur i Sverige. I delar av Europa men speciellt i Kina och Japan har utvecklingen av höghastighetståg fått ett enormt lyft. Ett problem vid höjda tåghastigheter är att broarna vid en kombination av låg massa och låg egenfrekvens riskerar att orsaka resonans och höga accelerationsnivåer vid passage. Ballastspår är namnet för det traditionella järn...

  1. Den interaktiva teknikens egenskaper : En litteraturstudie om interaktiv teknik i matematikundervisning med fokus på teknikutveckling, teknikens användning och teknikens gynnsamma egenskaper

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Detta arbete handlar om utvecklingen av interaktiv teknik och dess användning i utbildningssyfte inom matematikundervisningen. Studien diskuterar även olika typer av elevgrupper med särskilda behov som kan gynnas av interaktiv teknik för sin inlärning. Studien är baserad på forskning som publicerats mellan åren 2009 och 2014. Mellan dessa år införde skolverket Matematiksatsningen vilket bland annat syftade till att ge skolor medel för att kunna införskaffa och använda interaktiv teknik i mate...

  2. Konstruktion av vertikaltransportör för materialhantering

    OpenAIRE

    Furu, Micke

    2012-01-01

    Rotab Rostfria Transportörer AB tillverkar och utvecklar material- och godshanteringsutrustning. Företaget levererar även kompletta materialhanteringslösningar i form av godshanteringsanläggningar som ofta består av transportband och paketeringsutrustning. Examensarbetets mål är att utveckla en vertikaltransportör som ska transportera gods mellan två transportband belägna på olika höjder, transporten ska kunna varieras mellan 1000 - 3000 mm. Transportören ska undvika de två stora nackdelarna ...

  3. Flervalsprov för effektiv styrning mot sammansatta kunskaper och bättre projektarbeten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Lindskog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Projektintensiva kurser i tillämpad matematik med stort deltagarantal och krävande lärandemål ställer höga krav på en effektiv kursutformning. Lärarens tid bör främst ägnas åt att leda väl förberedda studenter till att utveckla sin förmåga att kombinera matematisk teori, kreativ problemlösning och ingenjörsfärdigheter. Organiserat kamratlärande som stödjer projektarbetet kan fungera väl men förutsätter att studenterna har grundläggande kunskaper och ser fördelar med ett aktivt deltagande i aktiviteterna. Det finns ett behov av effektiva läraktiviteter som stödjer inlärning av grundläggande tekniker och begrepp och förbereder studenterna för projektarbete, men endast tar begränsade lärarresurser i anspråk. I den här artikeln förespråkar vi att tidigt i kursen använda ett flervalsprov som stödjer inlärning och styr studenterna till lämpliga läraktiviteter. Baserat på litteraturen för utformning och validering av flervalsprov studerar vi effekterna av införandet av ett sådant prov i en kurs i tidsserieanalys.

  4. Marknadsföring av Corporate Social Responsibility : En studie i Generation Y:s attityder till CSR samt attityder till marknadsföring av CSR inomsnabbmatsbranschen i Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Pahkamaa, Tobias; Hamrin, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Denna uppsats undersöker konsumentgrupp Generation Y:s attityd till Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR) samt marknadsföring av CSR. Vidare undersöks i uppsatsen Generation Y:sattityder till CSR samt marknadsföring av CSR gällande detaljister inom snabbmatsbranschen iSverige. Uppsatsens teoribildning baseras på teorier om attityder från framförallt Fishbein ochAjzen (1975), samt teorier om CSR och marknadsföring av CSR. Teorin knyts samman i enanalysmodell baserad på Wang och Andersons (2011)...

  5. Mångfald bortom identifikationer: studentpopulationens diversifiering och vetenskapens arbetssätt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina Dodou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under de senaste två decennierna och som svar på politiska beslut om bland annat breddad studentrekrytering och en tydligare skrivning av högskolans etiska värdegrund har mångfald i högskolepedagogiska sammanhang identifierats som en fråga om identitet, makt och tillgänglighet. I en kritisk överläggning av studentmångfaldens behandling påtalar artikeln ett bristande beaktande av mångfaldsrekryteringens konsekvenser i förhållande till den högre utbildningens vetenskapliga grund. Överläggningen görs mot bakgrund av en studie utförd vid Högskolan Dalarna, vilken exemplifierar pedagogiska utmaningar kopplade till den ökade studentmobiliteten på avancerad nivå. I fokus står studenters tidigare träning i vetenskapsprocesser och vad deras varierade förkunskaper innebär vid mötet med den existenta magisterutbildningen. I artikeln positioneras relationen mellan mångfald och utbildningen i vetenskapliga arbetssätt som mittpunkten för högskolepedagogiska diskussioner om mångfaldsrekryteringens innebörder.

  6. Vinkelegenskapsklassificering av svetsglas : Angående utvecklingen av en conometerbaserad klassifikationsutrustning.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundell, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Denna rapport är skriven för optikgruppen på 3M Svenska ABs forsknings- och utvecklingsavdelning i Gagnef. Rapporten beskriver den driftsatta tekniken för vinkelegenskapsklassificeringar av ADFer samt den berörda fysiken. Rapporten avser att underlätta det ofullständiga arbetet av att ackreditera optikgruppens förmåga att genomföra dessa klassifikationer. Rapporten inleds med att beskriva fysiken relaterad till mätning av mänsklig ljusupplevelse. Därefter presenteras bland annat tekniken krin...

  7. Mini-SOL Språka och Lek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylander, Helle Iben

    Ju tidigare man börjar med en medveten språklig stimulering, desto bättre är det. I denna praktiska handbok finns pedagogiska tips och lekar för de allra yngsta barnen (0–3 år). Boken är sprängfull av roliga aktiviteter som alla stimulerar språkutvecklingen. Mini-SOL följer de språkliga områdena...

  8. Från yrkesvalslärare till karriärvägledare : Studie- och yrkesvägledaryrket i ett professionaliseringsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Holmsten, Nina; Lehninger, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    I Sverige finns det idag ett stort antal yrken och en del av dessa är i en professionaliseringsprocess. Studie- och yrkesvägledaryrket är ett exempel på ett yrke i denna process. Syftet är att beskriva utvalda aktörers syn på studie- och yrkesvägledaryrkets avgränsningar, kompetens samt eventuella auktorisation i ett professionaliseringsperspektiv. En kvalitativ metod har använts och fem elitintervjuer har genomförts med representanter från Lärarförbundet, Lärarnas Riksförbund, Sveriges vägle...

  9. Läromedel på villovägar : Styrdokumentens korrelation med läromedel med utgångspunkt i begreppen funktionell och formell grammatikundervisning

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    I denna studie undersöks om styrdokument och läromedel korrelerar i sättet att se på grammatik i kursen Svenska 2 på gymnasiet, med utgångspunkt i begreppen funktionell respektive formell grammatikundervisning. Svenskämnets syfte, kunskapskrav och kommentarsmaterial tillsammans med grammatikavsnitten i läromedlen Svenska rum 2 och Svenska impulser 2 undersöks genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten är en begreppsdefinition av funktionell och formell grammatik som in...

  10. Solcellsparkeringen : En jämförande fallstudie för elbilar och bensinbilar

    OpenAIRE

    Myrén Andersson, Isac; Yttermyr-Sütt, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Av Sveriges totala växthusgasutsläpp är det i nuläget transportsektorn som står för den största andelen och står för mer än 30 % av alla utsläpp. Med ett ökande fordonsbestånd och ett fortsatt behov av transporter blir lösningar som minskar utsläppen från denna sektor avgörande för Sveriges hållbara utveckling. Eftersom 93 % av Sveriges drygt 4,7 miljoner personbilar drivs av fossila bränslen skulle investeringar i alternativa färdmedel såsom elbilar kunna leda Sverige i rätt riktning. Förfat...

  11. En studie om pojkar och flickors levnadsvanor i årskurs sex i en kommun i södra Sverige : en kvantitativ studie

    OpenAIRE

    Göransson, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Barn och ungdomars uppväxtförhållanden är en avgörande faktor för deras fortsatta fysiska och psykiska hälsa i vuxen ålder. Levnadsvanorna grundläggs under barndomen och följer individen under hela livet. Tidigare forskning visar att barn och ungdomars levnadsvanor skiljer sig åt i olika åldersgrupper. Symtom på ohälsa syns oftast inte förrän barnen kommer upp i gymnasieåldern och därför är det av stor vikt att belysa problematiken och sätta in lämpliga insatser i tidig ålder. Syftet med stud...

  12. Dwivedi, AV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dwivedi, AV. Vol 3, No 2 (2014) - Articles Linguistic realities in Kenya: A preliminary survey. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 2 (2014) - Articles Note: Contributors to this Issue Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2026-6596. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  13. Maxflödesalgoritmer i Java : En studie av vikten att välja rätt algoritm och datastruktur för att minimera körtiden för exakta maxflödesalgoritmer

    OpenAIRE

    Borgström, Erik; Grape, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Maxflödesproblemet har många praktiska tillämpningar och probleminstanserna kan bli mycket stora. Effektiva implementationer är därför nödvändigt för att körtiden inte ska bli alltför hög. I den här studien har två maxflödesalgoritmer, Edmonds-Karps algoritm och Goldberg-Tarjans push-relabel-algoritm, implementerats i Java med två olika da- tastrukturer och jämförts med varandra. Det framkommer att det är fördelaktigt att implementera en mer komplex, objektbaserad, grafre-...

  14. Boiler system lay-up; Avstaellning och konservering av pannanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2007-04-15

    Corrosion in power plant equipment is to a large extent a result of poor lay-up procedures. This applies for all equipment on the water and steam side e.g. condensers, boilers, turbines, heat exchangers etc. In theory, lay-up procedures are quite straightforward. The main objective is to avoid a combination of water and oxygen on the steel surfaces within the system. When using dry lay-up procedure, a totally dry environment is essential. The corrosion of steel cannot take place if there is no humidity; in spite of the abundance of oxygen i.e. air. As an alternative the steam side system can be purged with nitrogen so that no air ingress can take place. When using wet lay-up procedures it is important to achieve an oxygen free environment. Creating a slight over-pressure thus avoiding air in leakage can achieve this. Oxygen scavengers might be used as an alternative. Usually problems of maintaining the above mentioned conditions are rarely of technical art. More likely it is due to a lack of knowledge and commitment or short sighted economical considerations. This report summarises the experiences gathered at several visits at plants and discussions with vendors, users and consultants in the power industry. In addition to that, guidelines from well-reputed organisations, international and domestic, have been studied. In many cases the power plant managers believe they have proper lay-up routines but often the routines just regard long time lay-up. This may be regarded as the most important case. However, a number of shorter plant outages in combination with poor lay-up routines can result in severe damages. There is a consensus that a proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. Each unit is unique in terms of needs and requirements. In order to have as low corrosion as possible a systematic review to evaluate and revise lay-up procedures is preferred. A high in-house knowledge of the power plant enhances the possibility to maintain the equipment in good condition. Lay-up control is an important part of the life extension of the plant. In the literature there are many guidelines regarding lay-up procedures. However an overall scheme that applies to all kind of boilers will either become very complex or too superficial to be user friendly. The objective of this report is to give information and know-how of current lay-up practices. Furthermore the report describes the considerations to be taken when designing a plant specific guideline for lay-up.

  15. Konkurrensklimat och dynamik : en studie av interaktion mellan konkurrenter

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Maria

    1994-01-01

      A partly new train of thought has emerged during the last few years, which claims that national conditions are of importance for company strength in relation to international competitors. National competition has stood out as one of the most important explanatory factors, and is seen as the catalyst or motor in dynamic industrial environments. The demands and pressures that evolve from competition between geographically proximate companies stimulate the innovativeness within the industry. T...

  16. Utvärdering av aktuella rehabiliteringsinsatser. Problem och metodval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, B; Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation of rehabilitation potential is discussed in the context of the recent allocation by the Riksdag of substantial funds for rehabilitation purposes, a measure designed to generate savings to social insurance at least comparable to the allocation. In the article are discussed the diffi......The evaluation of rehabilitation potential is discussed in the context of the recent allocation by the Riksdag of substantial funds for rehabilitation purposes, a measure designed to generate savings to social insurance at least comparable to the allocation. In the article are discussed...... to the community, incorporates indicators capable of identifying gains due to a rehabilitation programme that are important determinants of the changes of target groups returning to a productive and meaningful life....

  17. Ljudrum : En studie av ljud och lyssnande som kulturell praktik

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson-Aras, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how sound creates distinct, cognitive and spatial entities, sound spaces, and to find out how sound spaces constitute forms of human interaction. A further aim is to establish concepts used when studying sound spaces, thus contributing to a Swedish terminology for describing and analysing sound and sound spaces.   The analysis follows a hermeneutic spiral, alternating between inductive and deductive methodology, between the individual and the genera...

  18. Skador, skadeprevention och psykosociala faktorers betydelse för träning inom truppgymnastik : En intervjustudie med tränare för barn 8-12 år

    OpenAIRE

    Kammerfors, Emilia; Emilsson, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad tränare inom truppgymnastik för barn mellan 8-12 år har för erfarenheter av skador och skadeförebyggande träning och hur man på bästa sätt främjar en stimulerande och motiverande träningsmiljö. Design och metod: Deskriptiv och explorativ kvalitativ design. Semistrukturerade intervjuer av fem tränare inom truppgymnastik för barn i åldern 8-12 år. Data bearbetades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman. Resultat: Tränarna ...

  19. Bilderboken ur ett genusperspektiv : En bilderboksanalys av tre svenska böcker som utmanar stereotypa könsroller

    OpenAIRE

    Malmqvist, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att se hur några bilderböcker utmanar de stereotypa könsrollerna. Jag kommer att granska hur pojkar och flickor framställs ur ett genusperspektiv och även titta på hur text och bild kompletterar varandra, med hjälp av Nikolajevas (2000) analysmodell för bilderböcker. Jag har valt att analysera tre stycken böcker och två av dessa har pojkar som huvudkaraktärer och en har en flicka som huvudkaraktär. Med den medvetenhet man har idag kring genus så kan dessa böcker var...

  20. GER DE NYA REGLERNA DEN RÄTTA BILDEN? : En studie kring immateriella tillgångar och goodwill

    OpenAIRE

    Franzén, Liza; Johansson, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    I dagens mer globaliserade värld blir problemet med olika redovisningsmetoder ett allt större problem för investerare och finansiärer. För att motverka detta har IASB introducerat nya internationella redovisningsrekommendationer. För den Europeiska unionen, i och med det även Sverige, gäller från och med 1 januari år 2005 dessa standarder, IAS/IFRS, för samtliga börsnoterade bolag. Denna studie kommer att inrikta sig på de redovisningsrekommendationer som gäller redovisning av immateriella ti...

  1. Självkänsla och idrottslig kompetens hos idrottare inom Special Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Sandra; Dalsmyr, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Individer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar (IF), IK<70, tenderar att ha lägre självkänsla än individer utan IF. Låg självkänsla korrelerar med psykisk ohälsa, såsom depression, ångest och ätstörningar. Global självkänsla, en individs generella uppfattning av sig själv och sitt värde, påverkar och påverkas av undergrupper, såsom idrottslig kompetens (Shavelson, Hubner, & Stanton, 1976). Studier utanför Sverige visar att deltagande i organiserad idrottsverksamhet ökar global sjä...

  2. Tekniken bakom Bluetooth Low Energy och dess användningsområden

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Arbetet behandlar Bluetooth Low Energy, som är en ny egenskap i Bluetooth 4.0. Arbetets syfte att kartlägga hur den nya lågenergitekniken fungerar och få en bild på dess användningsområden. Bluetooth har varit i över 10 år påmarknaden har fått en stark marknad inom telefonbranschen. Den har visat sig passa bra för överföring av filer samt strömning av video och ljud. Under åren har det dock dykt upp en efterfrågan på små apparater som skulle ha sensorer och låg energiförbrukning. Bluetoo...

  3. SVÅRIGHETER VID CERTIFIERING AV KVALITETSLEDNINGSSYSTEMET ISO 9001:2015 FÖR SMÅ FÖRETAG

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Molly; Andersén, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    Studien syftar till att upptäcka svårigheter vid implementering av kvalitetsledningssystemet ISO 9001:2015 på små företag. För att uppnå studiens syfte samlades teorier om kvalitetsledningssystemet ISO 9001 och dess implementerings- och certifieringsprocess in. En fallstudie genomfördes på två analysenheter för att sedan jämföras mot det teoretiska ramverket och erhålla ett resultat. De mest bidragande faktorerna till icke-certifiering av ISO 9001 hos små företag visade sig vara tidsbrist, re...

  4. Nätverksövervakning av trådlösa accesspunkter

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att analysera, implementera och utvärdera metoder för nätverksövervakning av trådlös kommunikationsutrustning i företaget Fibras nätverk. I dag sköts driften av cirka 2300 accesspunkter i Västerås stads trådlösa nätverk av Fibra. I nätverket ingår ett antal Wireless LAN Controller (WLC), vars uppgift är att hantera och konfigurera alla accesspunkter. Varje WLC kan hantera upp till 400 accesspunkter och sköter exempelvis autentiseringen av användarna. Dessutom finn...

  5. Vad var det som hände? Efterbearbetning av en simulering för utvecklande av professionell kunskap hos polisstudenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sjöberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Att öva för att lära sig att hantera polisiära situationer utgör ett viktigt inslag i polisstudenters utbildning. Lärandet sker genom praktiska övningar t.ex. drillövningar och övningar av specifika moment men även via simuleringar där studenter agerar som polis i mera komplexa situationer. Simuleringar är inte unika för polisutbildning utan utgör ett vanligt inslag i professionsutbildning genom sin koppling till "verkliga" situationer (Peters och Vissers, 2004; Lederman, 1984. Under de senaste årtiondena har simuleringar använts för utbildning inom så skilda professionsfält som medicin och hälsovård, flyg och blåljusverksamhet. Simuleringar kan vara av skiftande karaktär t.ex. fysiska i form av rollspel men även datorbaserade. Simuleringar kan syfta till att utveckla en specifik färdighet (se t.ex. Windsor, 2009; Stefanidis, Acker, och Heniford, 2008; Wallin, Meurling, Hedman, Hedengård, och Felländer-Tsai, 2007, som t ex att lära sig hur man avläser röntgenbilder (se t.ex. Söderström, Häll, Nilsson, och Ahlqvist 2012 eller till att lära hur man ska agera i komplexa situationer (Andersson, Carlström, och Berlin, 2013; Bauman, Gohm och Bonner, 2011, t.ex. vid svåra olyckshändelser med många personer inblandade (se t.ex. McConnell och Drennan, 2006. Simuleringar av komplexa situationer med många inblandade brukar benämnas som fullskaliga (se t.ex. Andersson, Carlström, och Berlin, 2013. Simuleringar antas träna och utveckla professionell kunskap genom att förbereda studenter på att hantera komplexa och ibland farliga situationer som de kan komma att ställas inför i en kommande yrkespraktik. Användningen av simuleringar i utbildningar bygger således på ett antagande om överföring av erfarenheter och kunskaper från ett sammanhang till ett annat (se t.ex. Söderström, Åström, Anderson och Bowles, 2014. I den här artikeln utgår vi från simulering som en utbildningsresurs där deltagarna

  6. Analys av nickel med ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Wallman, Karin; Löfgren, Stefan; Sonesten, Lars; Demandt, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Vid en granskning av nickelhalter för perioden 1985-2007 upptäcktes ett nivåskifte i tidsserierna på flera stationer mellan 2001 och 2002. Skiftet visade sig bero på att prover innan 2002 inte korrigerades för kalciuminterferens, medan prover under åren 2002-2007 korrigerades. Syftet med denna rapport är att utreda om resultaten före 2002 i efterhand kan korrigeras för kalciuminterferensen. Från 2002 finns ett antal prover (N=347) med resultat som både är kalciumkorrigerade och som inte är de...

  7. Mot ett okänt mål: Humanistisk forskarhandledning och doktoranders deltagande i forskningsdebatten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hägerland

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Enligt Högskoleförordningen skall den som avlägger doktorsexamen kunna uppvisa en färdighet att i både tal och skrift delta i nationell och internationell forskningsdebatt. I denna artikel uppmärksammas några av de särskilda utmaningar som denna inriktning ställer forskarhandledare i humaniora och teologi inför. Intervjuer med tre rutinerade handledare redovisas och analyseras. Det framkommer att styrdokumentens formuleringar i mycket liten grad påverkar den konkreta utformningen av forskarutbildning och handledarskap, samt att handledarnas principiella inställning till doktoranders insocialisering i olika forskningssammanhang uppvisar stor variation. Där hållningen är avvaktande eller avvisande kan den i hög grad härledas till en upplevd konflikt mellan olika aspekter av utbildningen och handledarskapet. Ett antal förekommande eller tänkbara strategier för att uppnå examensordningens mål diskuteras också i artikeln.

  8. Förbättring av tjänsteleverans för konsultbolag

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Martin; Törnvall, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Lönsamheten för konsultbolag är beroende av antalet timmar konsulter arbetar vad gäller leveranser i kunduppdrag. Att timmar ej levereras på grund av sjukdom eller överbeläggning påverkar resultatet för bolaget. Konsultbolag där konsulter samma vecka arbetar mot olika kunder och uppdrag, kan ha svårt att synliggöra och följa upp leveranserna vilket kan resultera i inkomstbortfall och försenade leveranser. Hypotesen för detta examensarbete är att visualisering och uppföljning minskar risken ti...

  9. ”Mer handledning och feedback hade varit bra”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Mickwitz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available I denna studie granskas studenters upplevelser av sin förmåga till självreglering under en kurs i akademiskt skrivande vid Helsingfors universitet. På kursen användes lärformen självständigt lärande (eng. autonomous learning, som innebär att studenterna själva måste ta ansvar för sitt eget lärande i högre grad än på en traditionell kurs.Materialet bestod av 31 enkäter med öppna frågor som insamlats år 2014 och 2015. Jag ville framför allt veta om studenterna upplevde att de kunde a sätta upp realistiska mål för sina studier, b hitta lärstrategier för att nå dessa mål, c hade en effektiv tidsanvändning och om de kunde d utvärdera sitt lärande.Enkätsvaren analyserades med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade att studenterna ansåg att de kunde använda sig av i första hand två självregleringsfärdigheter: de kunde hantera sin tid effektivt, även om en del av dem uppfattade detta som utmanande, och de klarade av att sätta upp egna mål för lärandet. En del studenter upplevde också spontant att de blev mer motiverade att lära sig tack vare att de själva fick ta så mycket ansvar för sitt lärande.Ett annat resultat var att nästan hälften av studenterna på kursen hade problem med att hitta lärstrategier för att kunna utveckla sin skrivkompetens, och samma studenter ansåg att de allmänt sett skulle ha behövt mer stöd från en lärare. De ansåg att de hade behövt respons på sina texter och handledning av en lärare under kursen för att kunna utveckla sitt skrivande.Även om en majoritet (23 av 30 av studenterna ansåg att de föredrar att lära sig på egen hand, var det en stor del av dessa som också, i kombination med självstudier, ansåg sig behöva lärarens stöd.Orsaken till att lärarstödet upplevs som så viktigt just på skrivkurser är att det är svårt för studenterna att själva ta reda på hur vetenskapliga texter skrivs, eftersom normerna är implicita.

  10. Upplevelser av "Employer Branding" : En kvalitativ fallstudie av anställda hos BA

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Otto; Elisabeth, Mackenhauer

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur medarbetarna på BA (fiktivt namn) upplever organisationens interna Employer Branding-arbete samt att belysa de aspekter som eventuellt skiljer strategi mot upplevelse. Det gjordes ett målinriktat urval av organisation medan valet av deltagare var ett slumpmässigt urval vilket resulterade i åtta respondenter (n= 8). Studien var en kvalitativ fallstudie med ett psykologiskt angreppssätt och innehöll en ostrukturerad intervju som tillsammans m...

  11. Revisorns oberoende och analysmodellen : Utifrån klientens perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmsson, Carl; Jonsson, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Inledning Revisorns oberoende är och har varit en omdiskuterad fråga under en lång tid. I Sverige ska en revisor, enligt lag, bekräfta sitt oberoende inför varje nytt uppdrag eller i ett befintligt uppdrag när anledning föreligger, vilket görs med hjälp av analysmodellen. Istället för revisorns uppfattning om sitt oberoende förklarar denna studie hur klienter uppfattar revisorns oberoende med utgångspunkt i analysmodellen. Studien blir unik, dels i och med att klientens uppfattningar är det c...

  12. Sambandet mellan bransch och ledarskap : En studie av den amerikanska och svenska TV-produktionsbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Malin; Klarin, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a result of globalisation, there are indications that national cultural differences between countries are becoming increasingly vague. Research shows that industries develop similarities, as a result of the integration between corporations that has followed the internationalisation. The aim of this study was thus to investigate whether different countries in the same industry can develop similar perceptions regarding what is considered effective leadership. The study also aimed to...

  13. Mannen och kvinnan i reklamen. : En studie av annonserna i tidskrifterna Café och Elle.

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Men and women in advertising - a study of the ads in the magazines Café and Elle is an essay in media and communication studies covering 15hp. The author examines what is considered masculinity and femininity in a variety of advertisements, and which products are linked to masculinity and femininity. Besides this, the author also examines the production of happiness, and how this may differ between men and women. Although stereotypes, myths and metaphors are examined. The essay is examined on...

  14. "Enkelt uttryckt är svaret krig, krig och återigen krig"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Hans-Åke

    2016-01-01

    EU är det senaste i en lång rad av försök att på olika sätt ena Europa. De flesta har kommit till som fredsprojekt. Idag kan den tanken uppfattas som otidsenlig för nya generationer av européer, som sätter möjligheten till jobb och en egen meningsfull framtid i första rummet. Det skriver Hans...

  15. Digitala backspeglar - Fysisk-ergonomiska konsekvenser av arrangemang av digitala backspeglar i en lastbilshytt

    OpenAIRE

    LUNDIN, ARVID; ZAIMOVIC, NEDIM

    2016-01-01

    Backspeglar på dagens lastbilar bidrar till fordonets bränsleförbrukning på grund av det luftmotstånd som de orsakar. Detta bidrag kan minskas om de fysiska speglarna ersätts av digitala motsvarigheter, i form av kameror monterade på lastbilens utsida och bildskärmar placerade inuti lastbilshytten. Ett sådant ingrepp medför en rad möjligheter för förbättring av inte bara fordonets verkningsgrad utan även förarmiljön. Med digitala backspeglar så skulle det vara möjligt att visa stödjande grafi...

  16. Att lära sig se trådraken – om tvekan och fokusförskjutning på väg mot förändrat kunnande

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Ann-Marlene; Lindberg, Viveca

    2017-01-01

    Utgångspunkten i denna artikel är empiriskt förankrade exempel från textilslöjdspraktiker i den svenska skolan; grundskolans slöjdundervisning årskurs 8 och ett specialutformat program inom gymnasieskolan med textil inriktning i årskurserna 1 och 3. Artikelns videoutdrag handlar alla om principiellt samma handling – trådrak mönsterutläggning på tyg – men, dels finns det två olika inramningar (grundskolan och gymnasieskolan), och dels exemplifierar de olika skeden av kunnande. Syftet är att be...

  17. Handelsbankens användande av CRM -Är det lönsamt?

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Kanbar, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Frågeställning: På vilket sätt används CRM av Handelsbanken och hur påverkar det bankens lönsamhet? Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att kunna öka kunskapen om hur Handelsbanken tillämpar CRM och för att undersöka om användandet av CRM i bankens verksamhet är lönsamt eller inte. Metod: För att svara på studiens syfte blev en intervju utförd med Handelsbanken. Ännu en anledning till varför en intervju gjordes var på grund av att det var nödvändigt för att få det primärdata som behövdes och fö...

  18. Miljöanalys av arbetsmoment i vägprojekt

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin, Jonathan; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Klimatpåverkan och energiförbrukning är ett av de stora miljöproblemen runt om i världen idag. Sedan den industriella revolutionens start har mängden utsläpp av bland annat koldioxid ökat exponentiellt med årens lopp och skapat obalans i klimatet, inte minst på grund av restprodukter och skadliga ämnen som används inom bland annat byggindustrin. Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vilka arbetsmoment som har störst påverkan på miljön för att sedan, om möjligt, ta fram förslag på hur det ...

  19. Millennials- Den nya och krävande generationen

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Josefin; Öljefors, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Psykologisk forskning visar på att unga medarbetare, den så kallade Millennialgenerationen, efterfrågar en annan typ av ledarskap än deras äldre föregångare. Syftet med studien var att undersöka unga medarbetares föreställningar om transformativt ledarskap samt i vilken utsträckning dessa föreställningar motiverar dem i arbetet. Hypotes: Transformativt ledarskap är gynnsamt för unga vuxnas motivation på arbetsplatsen jämfört med andra ledarstilar så som laissez-faire och transaktionellt ledar...

  20. Ripsteg mot spetskunskap i samisk matematik:lärares perspektiv på transformeringsaktiviteter i samisk förskola och sameskola

    OpenAIRE

    Jannok-Nutti, Ylva

    2010-01-01

    Syftet med föreliggande avhandling är att utifrån lärarperspektiv beskriva, analysera och försöka förstå transformering av utbildning i matematik så att ett samiskt perspektiv blir utgångspunkt för utbildningen. Avhandlingen genomfördes såsom ett aktionsforskningsprojekt med fokus på lärares perspektiv avseende transformering och genomförande av transformeringsaktiviteter i matematik. Teoretiska utgångspunkter togs utifrån Smiths teori om urfolksperspektiv, Banks teori för integrering av mult...

  1. Webb Couture : En studie om hur modedesign kan inspirera och förändra webbdesignprocessen för att utmana User Experience standarder

    OpenAIRE

    Carlfjord, Adam; Gustavsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Webbdesign är ett hantverk med potential till oändlig variation och oräkneliga möjligheter, men det är även en process styrd av standarder och förhållningssätt för att optimera resultatet för slutanvändaren. Begrepp så som user experience och framför allt user experience design har i och med utvecklingen blivit allt viktigare aktörer inom webbdesign. Samtidigt som de underlättar i utvecklingsprocessen genom att diktera hur design bör utformas, skapar de inte också då begränsningar av potentia...

  2. Jämnt Lärande : Ett illustrerat hjälpmedel till normkritisk granskning av läromedel

    OpenAIRE

    Denninger, Johan

    2017-01-01

    I detta examensarbete undersöks normbildande och reproducering av normer i samband med bilder i läromedel som används av modersmålslärare i Eskilstuna Kommun. Arbetet bygger på problematiken att stereotyper och reproducering av normer är vanligt förkommande i läromedlen samt att lärarnas brist på tid och möjlighet att granska läromedlen normkritiskt. Syftet med arbetet är att formge ett gestaltningsförslag till ett illustrerat hjälpmedel för normkritisk granskning av läromed...

  3. Wirevagn : Utvecklingen av en utrullare för hisslinor

    OpenAIRE

    Rehnsfeldt, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Kandidatexamensarbetet som utgick från en förfrågan från företaget Irongrip AB hade som mål att utveckla ett produktförslag på en utlindare av stålvajer för hissmontörer. Irongrip AB som tillverkar och säljer verktyg för hantering av stålvajer hade uppmärksammat att en efterfrågan på en sådan produkt fanns på marknaden då befintliga lösningar var bristfälliga och inte hade alla de funktioner som är önskvärda hos en sådan produkt.Arbetet inleddes med en förstudie där studiebesök vid lindragnin...

  4. Fredsmuseer & Försvarsmuseer : Två perspektiv på fred och säkerhet inom kulturvården

    OpenAIRE

    Ribohn, Mio

    2016-01-01

    Uppsatsen undersöker huruvida freds- och konfliktvetenskapliga teorier kan kopplas till freds- respektive försvarsmuseer. Tidigare forskning som kopplar dessa två tvärvetenskapliga ämnesområden till varandra är ytterst bristfällig, vilket kan ge negativa konsekvenser på det museer förmedlar till sina besökare. Är freds- och försvarsmuseerna inte medvetna om vilka teoretiska utgångspunkter de faktiskt har kan de omedvetet ge besökarna en snedvriden och ensidig bild av verkligheten. I uppsatsen...

  5. Vem leder organisationens narrativ? : En jämförelse mella Kvinnojouren Emblas och Rädda Barnens kommunikation på Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Pakola Monsen, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Det är inget nytt att undersöka interaktioner på Facebook, dock är det oftast ur privatpersoners synvinkel Facebook undersöks och inte lika ofta ur en organisations synvinkel. Den här studien syftar till att fylla en del av gapet i medie- och kommunikationsforskningen om hur ideella organisationer beter sig på Facebook genom att undersöka den narrativa processen hos två ideella organisationer och hur delaktiga användare är i organisationernas berättelse beroende på organisationens storlek, Kv...

  6. Bör Barnkonventionen bli lag i Sverige? : En komparativrättslig studie om barnets rättigheter i Sverige och Norge.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Wendela

    2014-01-01

    Abstrakt ”Bör barnkonventionen bli lag i Sverige? – En komparativrätts-lig studie on barnets rättigheter genom barnkonventionen i Sverige & Norge” Uppsatsen diskuterar med en komparativrättslig metodik implementeringen och inkorporering av barnkonventionen i Sverige och Norge. I tre steg ämnar uppsatsen att undersöka huruvida barnkonventionen bör implementeras till fullo och göras till svensk lag på samma sätt som Norge har valt att göra.Uppsatsen fokuserar på FN:s barnrättkommittés yttra...

  7. It´s called being fabulous! : Genus och sexualitet i de visuella praktikerna kring Youtube-fenomenet Pewdiepie

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Denna uppsats behandlar hur olika föreställningar kring genus och sexualitet tar sig uttryck, dels i de videos som producerar på internet av karaktären Pewdiepie men också i det material som fansen genererar. Studien fokusera på en specifik videohändelse, en sekvens där Pewdiepie ikläder sig en rosa boa och bland annat säger säger ”It’s not called being gay. It’s called being fabulous!” samt vad som görs med denna händelse, hur den remedieras och tas i bruk av fansen. Detta har jag gjort geno...

  8. IAS 40 i ljuset av ägarförhållanden : Värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i börsnoterade respektive statliga bolag

    OpenAIRE

    Klarin, Olof; Sandell, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Redovisningen av förvaltningsfastigheter enligt IAS 40 har tidigare beskrivits i ett stort antal olika vetenskapliga alster. Merparten av dessa har dock tittat på börsnoterade bolag men det finns även andra företag som tillämpar IAS-reglerna. En grupp företag som gör det är de bolag som ägs av svenska staten. Ett av målen med IFRS är att skapa jämförbarhet och då bör inte ägarformen ha någon betydelse för redovisning och värdering. Denna studies syfte är därför att skapa insik...

  9. Djur som stöd i demensvården : Hur personer med demenssjukdom påverkas av djur i omvårdnaden

    OpenAIRE

    Olménius, Fanny; Boström, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Bakgrund: Varje år insjuknar uppskattningsvis 25 000 personer i Sverige i någon form av demenssjukdom. Behovet av anpassad vård för denna specifika grupp kräver nya och även utvecklade omvårdnadsmetoder. I nuläget finns ingen botande behandling för de olika demenssjukdomarna, utan fokus ligger vid att mildra besvären av sjukdomsbundna symtom. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) och Animal-assisted activity (AAA) har blivit allt mer populärt inom olika områden av omvårdnadsarbete. Djur kan inverka p...

  10. Texter, läsförståelse och läsundervisning i Norge och Sverige - en översikt [VISIONS 2011: Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Reichenberg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I denna komparativa litteraturöversikt har jag jämfört norsk och svensk läsforskning. Detta mot bakgrund av resultaten i PISA 2009 . Svenska elevers läsförståelse har försämrats avsevärt och de allra svagaste läsarna har ökat i antal. Så är inte fallet i Norge. Det finns få svenska lässtudier som fokuserat mellanåren och högstadiet. Den svenska forskningen karaktäriseras vidare av den näst intill totala fokuseringen på skönlitterära texter. De norska forskarna har däremot riktat uppmärksamheten mot främst mellanåren och högstadiet, dvs. de år då antalet faktatexter intar en alltmer dominerande roll i skolarbetet och då svårighetsgraden på faktatexterna ökar. Sverige har ingen institution som motsvarar det norska ”Nasjonalt senter for leseforsking og leseopplæring”. På Lesesenteret har man utarbetat ett om-fattande fortbildningsmaterial, som bygger på kompetensmålen i Kunnskapsløftet. Stora norska satsningar har också gjorts för att översätta läsdidaktisk forskning till skolpraktik. Några motsvarande svenska satsningar där man knutit så mycket forskarkompetens till sig finns inte.

  11. Kopplingen mellan Lean och kraftergonomi inom tillverkningsindustrin

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson Egeman, Mathilda; Pettersson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Syfte – Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för kopplingen mellan Lean och kraftergonomi inom tillverkningsindustrin samt undersöka varför de, inom viss forskning, anses oförenliga. För att uppfylla syftet har det gemensamma snittet mellan Lean och kraftergonomi undersökts samt vilka konflikter som kan uppstå mellan Lean och kraftergonomi vid arbete inom tillverkningsindustrin. Metod – Litteraturstudier, med fokus på samverkan mellan Lean och kraftergonomi, har utgjort ett teoretis...

  12. Clapping hands : En analys av emojis i politisk kommunikation på Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Junefjäll, Jonathan; Nurro, Linnéa

    2017-01-01

    Emojis är ett digitalt uttryckssätt baserade på smileys och emoticons som introducerades i smarta telefoner under 2011 och har sedan dess blivit en integrerad del av många människors vardagliga kommunikation. De används också i politisk kommunikation på sociala medier på samma sätt som en del i ett modernt uttryckssätt. Den här undersökningen tittar på 557 emojis i 300 inlägg gjorda av tre ledande politiska partier – Høyre i Norge, Socialdemokraterna i Sverige och Venstre i Danmark. Syftet är...

  13. Tjernobyl och rennäringen - Lägesrapport från Sverige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Åhman

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Status report about Chernobyl and reindeer husbandry in Sweden including participants' discussion.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Den 1 juli hojdes grånsvårdet for Cs-137 i bl a renkott från 300 till 1 500 Bq/kg. Efter hojningen av grånsvårdet friklassades nåstan alla samebyar i Norrbottens lån under sarvslakten. Samtliga fjållsamebyar i Norrbottens lån utom den sydligaste år tills vidare helt friklassade. Tre samebyar i sodra delen av Jåmtlands lån var friklassade under sarvslakten. I ovrigt omfattas all renslakt i Våsterbottens och Jåmtlands lån av kontroll betråffande Cs-137. Under juli - aug i år var cesiumhalten lågre ån vid motsvarande tidpunkt i f jol (tabell 1 och figur 1. Under juli - aug slaktades drygt 1 000 renar i skogslandet i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3. Fr.o.m. andra veckan i juli godkåndes de fiesta slaktkropparna. Halveringstiden for Cs-137 i renarna, som betade i skogslandet kring inlandsbanan i sodra delen av Våsterbottenslån, har beråknats till ca en vecka. Genom tidigarelåggning av sarvslakter i Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3 och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån (tabell 5 minskades kassationen med ett par tusen slaktkroppar. Under senare delen av september steg cesiumhalten till ungefår samma nivå som i f jol. En långsiktig prognos har utarbetats betråffande halten Cs-137 i renar på naturbete. Prognosen visar att omfattande åtgårder kommer att behova vidtagas under de nårmaste 15 - 25 åren om ren-kottet från samebyarna i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån skall kunna god-kånnas som livsmedel vid ett riktvårde på 1 500 Bq Cs-137/kg kott.

  14. Design av infotainment-system styrt av ögonrörelser i bilar : En explorativ studie för att ta fram ett förslag på hur man kan designa ett infotainment-system som har ögonrörelser som huvudsakliga interaktionsmetod med fokus på den funktionella designen.

    OpenAIRE

    Anzén, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Denna studie har som syfte att ta fram ett designförslag på ett ögonrörelsestyrt infotainment-system samt utvärdera detta. Fokusen ligger på den funktionella design och dess för- och nackdelar. Studien tar upp tre olika designförslag varav ett valdes att göra en prototyp av. Prototypen skapades med hjälp av HTML5, Javascript och Python. Detta kopplades sedan samman med ett ögonrörelsesystem tillhörande Smart Eye AB. Prototypen användartestades och utvärderades med hjälp av en bilsimulator. Ut...

  15. En utredning av meddelande-orienterade lager för Twingly

    OpenAIRE

    Säll, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Att flera datorer används för att gemensamt lösa problem är inte någonting nytt. Det finns många distribuerade system i bruk och många olika lösningar för hur dessa ska kommunicera med varandra. Vissa använder sig av meddelande-orienterade lager för kommunikation vilket det finns väldigt många implementationer av. RabbitMQ är ett exempel där att kommunikation går genom en (eller ett kluster av) central nod och kommunicerar med hjälp av protokollet Advanced Message Queue Protocol, AMQP. I en h...

  16. Sverige, EU och Brexit – effekter, våndor och vägval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fägersten Björn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brexit sätter Sverige i svår strategisk situation. Storbritannien har varit en nära partner i EU-samarbetet och har på olika områden skyddat Sverige och dess preferenser. Denna artikel utgår från Sveriges förhållande till EU och analyserar sedan djupet och bredden i det svensk-brittiska samarbetet och vilka effekter Sverige kan räkna med efter Brexit. Vidare diskuteras hur Sverige har debatterat och förberett sig för denna situation och vilka framtida vägval landet står inför. Det konstateras att priset för att ta över Storbritanniens roll som skeptiker inom säkerhetspolitiken och som vakthund gentemot eurozonen är högt och att Sverige lär tvingas hushålla med sitt politiska kapital. Ett mer lojalt Sverige är att vänta, och kanske också en medlem som sent omsider hittar sin egen roll inom den europeiska integrationen.

  17. UTVÄRDERING AV UTVALDA SD-WAN PRODUKTER

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerblom, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Denna jämförelsestudie ämnar att undersöka marknadens leverantörer av nätverksutrustning de- finierade som Software Defined Wide Area Networks(SD-WAN). SD-WAN är en innovativ teknik som applicerar virtualisering och Software defined networking koncept i Wide Area Networks (WAN) för att skapa kostnadseffektiva nätverk. Studien har utförts på företaget Curitiba som idag arbetar med konsulttjänster inom utvalda WAN-optimering och SD-WAN-produkter. Arbetets syfte är att utvärdera SD-WAN-lösningar...

  18. Undernäring hos äldre patienter med höftfraktur: orsaker och omvårdnadsåtgärder : En litteraturöversikt

    OpenAIRE

    Stridbo, Andreas; Karlsson-Goth, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att beskriva orsaker till undernäring hos äldre patienter med höftfraktur i det postoperativa skedet, samt vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan användas för att förebygga undernäring. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt och artiklarna söktes via databaserna PubMed och CINAHL. 15 artiklar hittades och ligger till grund för resultatet. 14 av dessa var av kvantitativ ansats och en var kvalitativ. Resultat: Orsaker till undernäring posto...

  19. Låt inte gästen få sista ordet. : En kvalitativ studie om hur tjänsteföretag inom besöksnäringen arbetar och skulle kunna arbeta med Sociala medier, WOM och eWOM

    OpenAIRE

    Braunander, Joacim; Olofsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Internet har utvecklats snabbt de senaste åren och med utvecklingen har sociala medier blivit en stor del av Internet. Sociala medier innebär all form av kommunikation som sker på Internet så som exempelvis Tripadvisor, Facebook, Twitter, Booking.com eller Instagram. Konsumenter som väljer att kommentera upplevelser och produkter på sociala medier ökar. Enligt forskning så litar framtida konsumenter mer på andra konsumenters kommentarer än vad de litar på företagets marknadsföring över deras ...

  20. "Alla är inte som jag?" : En diskussion kring kommunikation och samarbete som aktuella kompetenser för restonomen i turistbranschen utifrån en förståelse för personlighetstyper

    OpenAIRE

    Björkgren, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att diskutera kommunikation och samarbete som aktuella sociala kompetenser för restonomen i turistbranschen. I diskussionen kommer personlighetsformuläret Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®) presenteras som ett verktyg för restonomen att utveckla sina kommunikations- och samarbetsfärdigheter. En del av syftet är även att anordna en temadag för restonomstuderande som behandlar och främjar dessa kompetenser. Metoden som använts är litteraturgenomgång. Teor...

  1. Faktorer som påverkar gäster under en restaurangupplevelse : En fallstudie om den fysiska omgivningen på restaurangen Indigo och hur den kan påverka gäster

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Ida

    2016-01-01

    I denna studie undersöks det specifika för den fysiska omgivningen och hur den påverkar gäster vid en restaurangupplevelse. Avhandlingen bygger på redan befintliga teorier om olika aspekter av den fysiska omgivningen, upplevelserummet och sinnesmarknadsföring. Teorierna inkluderar Mary Jo Bitners teorier om servicescape (även Lena Mossbergs svenska teorier om upplevelserummet baserade på bland annat Bitners teorier) och Hulténs teorier om sinnesmarknadsföring. Undersökningen består...

  2. Lärares yrkesetiska dilemman och den ökande juridifieringen i Sverige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Colnerud

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Följande artikel under temat “Etikbølgen i yrkesutdanning og praksis” beskriver och diskuterar etik och juridik i läraryrket med utgångspunkt i det dilemma som lärare själva anser vara ett av de svåraste enligt två svenska empiriska studier – att ingripa mot en kollega som handlar etiskt klandervärt mot elever. Artikeln diskuterar vidare den dygdetiska kritik mot regeletik som förekom vid tillkomsten av de etiska principerna. Vidare pekar den på de problem som följer av att lärarna är föremål för en tilltagande juridifiering. En våg, en bølge, kan beröra endast ytan som en krusning eller vara en djupgående och energirik rörelse. För att använda den aktuella metaforen på mitt studieobjekt skulle jag vilja påstå att diskussionen av lärares yrkesetik och medvetenheten om svenska lärares etiska riktlinjer utvecklades till en våg av endast blygsam storlek. I dagsläget (2014 har den ersatts av en juridisk våg med stor kraft.Nyckelord: etik i läraryrket, etiska dilemman, juridifiering av lärarpraktikenEnglish summary: Teachers’ ethical dilemmas and the juridification of the Swedish schoolIn this article, ethics and law in the teaching profession are described and discussed, starting with the ethical dilemma that teachers point to as the most difficult, according to referred empirical studies – intervention when a colleague acts in an ethically incorrect way towards students. Furthermore the author discusses the critique coming from virtue ethics in relation to ethical principles and shows that even Aristotle suggests ethical principles under certain circumstances. Swedish teachers’ ethical principles had very little time to be achieved before an increasing juridification of teaching took place. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of professional autonomy and professional judgement.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v8i2.1856

  3. She’s the Boss – HR och kvinnligt chefskap : Hur Human Resources kan arbeta för att främja kvinnorschefskarriärer

    OpenAIRE

    Linderfyhr, Jessica; Malm, Mikaela

    2017-01-01

    Enligt undersökningar som chefsorganisationen Ledarna publicerar årligen finns det en återkommande problematik med att rekrytera unga kvinnor till chefspositioner. Syftet med examensarbetet är att undersöka vad som kan inverka på kvinnors vilja att söka en chefstjänst och att utforma en HR strategi som främjar och motiverar kvinnor att söka chefstjänster. Unga kvinnor kan känna tvekan inför chefskap på grund av känslan av bristande erfarenhet och svårighet med att identifiera sig med den ster...

  4. Ämnesinnehåll och genusmedvetenhet i samspel för en mer inkluderande naturvetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Hussénius

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Den här artikeln beskriver ett forsknings- och interventionsprojekt på lärarprogrammet där genusmoment integrerats i naturvetenskapliga kurser och genusteorier ingått som en del av kunskapsinnehållet. Vår utgångspunkt är ett antagande om att fördjupade kunskaper om naturvetenskapernas kultur, det vill säga vilka föreställningar och normer som är knutna till de naturvetenskapliga ämnena, kan ge blivande förskole- och tidigarelärare tillgång till nya sätt att förhålla sig till och arbeta med naturvetenskap. I fokus finns framförallt den maktordning som kan identifieras inom naturvetenskapen, vilken vi närmar oss utifrån genusteorier och feministisk vetenskapskritik. Artikeln behandlar interventionens praktiska genomförande, dvs. beskriver hur den naturvetenskapliga kulturen har problematiserats och hur genusteorier integrerats i naturvetenskapliga kurser på lärarprogrammet. Resultaten visar att när studenter med negativa erfarenheter av naturvetenskaplig undervisning får syn på ämneskulturen och förstår hur den påverkat dem, så ger det dem ett annat förhållningssätt till ämnena och kan medföra att de utvecklar undervisningsstrategier som motverkar uppkomsten av sådana negativa känslor hos sina framtida elever. Dessutom framkommer även platsens betydelse för att förstå den känsla av alienation gentemot naturvetenskaplig undervisning som många lärarstudenter är bärare av. Ytterligare ett resultat som står fram är att genus är en faktor som har betydelse för vilka områden barn/elever får tillgång till. Lärares (omedvetna föreställningar kan innebära att de tolkar och styr barns/elevers aktiviteter, vilket i sin tur får till följd att barnen/eleverna kan engageras alternativt hämmas i dessa aktiviteter. På så sätt får lärarens genusmedvetenhet ämnesdidaktiska konsekvenser. Med utgångspunkt från det empiriska materialet har vi konstruerat en modell som illustrerar l

  5. Undersöka och förbättra Brother Finlands kommunikation, prissättning och leveransserviceelement

    OpenAIRE

    Forssell, Ronny; Nordström, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Den nuvarande ekonomiska situationen har förorsakat en allt hårdare konkurrens på marknaderna vilket har lett till att företag hamnar kämpa för sina kundrelationer kraftigare. För Brother Finlands verksamhet spelar återförsäljarna en stor roll och därmed vill Brother Finland vara säker på att återförsäljarna är nöjda också i framtiden. Detta var orsaken till att Brother Finland blev intresserad av ett projekt i kundundersökningssyfte. Tre teman som Brother Finland såg som viktiga för en funge...

  6. AVS on satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang

    2005-07-01

    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  7. Resurseffektivare energi- och växthusföretag genom industriell symbios

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Stina

    2010-01-01

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att utreda vilken potential det finns för en samverkan mellan Tekniska Verken och växthus. Målet är att genom industriell symbios skapa en resurseffektiv systemlösning där Tekniska Verkens produktionsanläggningars miljöprestanda förbättras samtidigt som växthusets klimatpåverkan minskas. Tekniska Verken har överskottsvärme i sina produktionsanläggningar. Under 2007 hade Gärstad- och Kraftvärmeverket 54 GWh överskottsvärme. Största delen av överskottsvärmen fanns p...

  8. Köpbeteende i integrerade handelskanaler : En kvantitativ studie om integrerade handelskanaler & dess påverkan på kundens köp av elektronikprodukter

    OpenAIRE

    Hedenström, Lisa; Jakobsen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Uppkomsten av internet och smarta teknologier har lett till en strukturomvandling kring kom-munikationen mellan kunder och företag. Internet har inneburit nya handelskanaler så som on-line butik, mobila applikationer med mera. Företag erbjuder således allt fler olika handels-kanaler för att nå ut till kunder. Detta har i sin tur lett till att kunder använder olika handels-kanaler i processen av att genomföra ett köp, kundens köpbeteende har således förändrats.  I och med uppkomsten av fler ha...

  9. Caresam : åldrande och utmaningar i Öresundsregionen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    gäller organisation och strukturer. Men framför allt kan vi skönja idémässiga likheter och inte minst bevittnar vi äldreomsorg och äldrepolitik som är dynamisk i så måtto att äldres och omsorgspersonals behov får en alltmer framskjuten plats. Om detta bevittnar de talrika lokala projekt som redovisats i...

  10. Den ljudlösa bilen : En undersökning om buller, bång och brummande bilar

    OpenAIRE

    Bigun, Christopher; Sjöstrand, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Examensarbetet kommer undersöka aktiv ljuddesign för tysta personbilar. Utifrån tidigare forskning om hur elbilen utsätter människor i tätområden för fara på grund av avsaknaden av auditiv information, ska vi utveckla förslag på dynamiska billjud som förhåller sig till trafiksäkerhet, design och minskade ljudföroreningar. Den totala ljudnivån i städer är långt över rekommendationen och följden blir ett hälsoproblem i större städer. Den här undersökningen kommer därf...

  11. Mot en professionalisering av det pedagogiska ledarskapet vid Umeå universitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven B Eriksson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Det pedagogiska ledarskapet inom högre utbildning fokuseras allt mer. Det understryks genom att flera lärosäten föreskriver såväl att pedagogiska ledare ska finnas på olika nivåer, som vilka övergripande uppgifter dessa ska ha. Denna artikel är ett resultat av en fallstudie av hur de tillägnade kunskaperna och färdigheterna från kursen Pedagogiskt ledarskap, en kurs för målgruppen studierektorer/pedagogiskt ansvariga eller motsvarande arrangerad av Universitetspedagogiskt centrum, har bidragit till deltagarnas professionalisering av det pedagogiska ledarskapet ett år efter kursens slut. Fallstudien genomfördes genom gruppintervjuer. Respondenterna uttryckte att de fått ett stärkt självförtroende i rollen som pedagogiska ledare samt att kursen bidrog till en professionalisering av rollen som pedagogiska ledare genom att stärka identiteten, att skapa en början till en handlingsetik bestående av delvis delade värderingar kring det pedagogiska ansvaret samt ge utbildning och träning i färdigheter som har sin grund i teoretisk kunskap. Kursen Pedagogiskt ledarskap ger därmed ett stöd i en process mot en professionalisering av det pedagogiska ledarskapet vid Umeå universitet.

  12. Är prostitution en kränkning av mänskliga rättigheter? : Eller finns "den lyckliga horan"?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Att människohandel för sexuell exploatering utgör ett brott mot mänskliga rättigheter står klart. Människohandel kränker flertalet av individens rättigheter och staters skyldigheter gentemot dessa individer finns således stadgade i flertalet internationella konventioner. Palermoprotokollet stadgar den första internationellt gemensamma definitionen av människohandel och stadgar vidare ett krav på att definitionen utgör ett brott i konventionsstaternas nationella lagstiftning. Om prostitution a...

  13. Control and follow-up of fly ash roads - Communication and Acceptance; Kontroll och uppfoeljning av askvaegar - Kommunikation och acceptans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Edeskaer, Tommy; Hellman, Fredrik

    2011-10-15

    The report is aimed at those who perform or plan to perform stabilization of the unbound layers or terrace gravel roads or industrial areas, with binder where a major binder component is fly ash from bio-peat or coal fuel. Stabilization of unbound layers of road structures is a promising technique from technical, economical and environmental point of view. The need of demonstration projects on road sections to show the relationship of laboratory measurements and field measurements are great in order to promote this stabilization technique. Results from follow-up of several stabilized distances and industrial surfaces are presented, where the fly ash is a binder component. The results complement the guidance, Munde et al. (2006) respect to durability, environmental characteristics on several years of perspective. Our hope is that report will serve as a support for the implementation of demonstration projects of stabilized terrace or unbound layers of fly ash as binder component.

  14. Presence and effects of copper in water and soil; Upptraedande och effekter av koppar i vatten och mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternbeck, J.

    2000-01-01

    Copper is one of the most common metals in society. Although Cu is essential to all forms of life, high exposure can lead to toxic effects. It is difficult to assess the risk for eco toxicological effects to appear in a certain situation, because Cu is largely present in chemical species with low bioavailability. In this report it is analysed how the bioavailability of Cu is regulated in natural environments, and how different organism groups may be affected bu Cu. Significant emission sources and exposure pathways are briefly described. It appears that the relationship between concentration and bioavailability is highly dynamic in natural environments. Relatively moderate increases of total-Cu can lead to strongly increasing bioavailability. The ability to control Cu intracellularly differs between different organism groups. This brings about that the sensitivity toward Cu differs widely between different organism groups.

  15. Uppsamling och lagring av natursnö för kyla och smältvattenrening i Uppsala

    OpenAIRE

    Lundahl, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the possibility to provide cooling for the Uppsala University Hospital by using a snow cooling plant. The reason for this is to increase the cooling system's resilience and decrease the dependence on district cooling. This is done by modelling the possible share of the hospital's cooling demand that can be covered with snow cooling. Furthermore it's investigated if the pollution levels in the snow can decreased by treating the meltwater in the snow cooling plant and if it...

  16. Depression och stress hos kranskärlspatienter

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Daniel; Christovski, Minja

    2011-01-01

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur vanligt det är med stress och depression efter genomgången hjärtinfarkt. Vidare planeras att undersöka samband mellan stress och depression samt också eventuella skillnader mellan könen för hur stress och depression upplevs efter genomgången hjärtinfarkt. Metod: Patienter som varit inlagda för hjärtinfarkt vid Akademiska sjukhuset i Uppsala inkluderas i studien. Patienterna skall ha genomgått hjärtinfarkt och/eller PCI och/eller CABG. De tre enk...

  17. Otium : Trender inom mode och herrkläder

    OpenAIRE

    Weckström, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trender sprider sig allt snabbare och uppkommer allt mer i samhället idag. De påverkar våra konsumtionsvanor och vad vi kommunicerar till personer i vår omgivning genom t.ex. trender inom mode. Syftet med mitt examensarbete är utreda hur trender utformas, kartläggs och identifieras för att sedan kunna tillämpas inom olika användningsområden, men även hur sociala medier påverkar dagens trender och skillnaden mellan kvinno- och herrmodet. I mitt examensarbete fördjupar jag mig i trender ino...

  18. Mätosäkerhet vid kalibrering av referensutrustning för blodtrycksmätning : En modell för framtagning av mätosäkerhet för referensmanometer WA 767

    OpenAIRE

    Patzauer, Rebecka; Wessel, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Avdelningen för Medicinsk teknik på Akademiska sjukhuset har uppdaterat befintliga kalibreringsprotokoll för Welch Allyn 767 som används som referensmanometer vid kalibrering av blodtrycksmätare. I protokollet ska det enligt ISO 9001 och ISO 13485 ingå att vid varje kalibreringspunkt ange mätosäkerheten.  Rutiner kring detta var inte definierade. En modell för att ta fram mätosäkerhet utformades utifrån standardiserade metoder från “Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement” och a...

  19. Optimering av nanocellulosa för tillämpning som papperstyrkeadditiv

    OpenAIRE

    Englöf, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med projektet var att undersöka hur homogeniserings förhållanden (tryck antal passager och därmed energiinsatsen) vid framställning av MFC (mikrofibrillär cellulosa), från enzymatiskt förbehandlade pappersmassafibrer påverkar hållfastheten av papper förstärkt med MFC. Arbetsgivaren för projektet var Innventia och det laborativa arbetet har utförts i deras lokaler. Fördelen med att använda MFC som tillsats i papper är att arket blir starkare [1]. Detta medför att en mindre mängd materia...

  20. Experiences of co-combustion and quality control of industrial waste in Sweden and Europe; Erfarenheter av samfoerbraenning och kvalitetssaekring av verksamhetsavfall i Sverige och Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Ekvall, Annika; Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Sundqvist, Jan-Olov [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst. (SP), Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    From a European perspective, co-combustion of certain waste fractions provides a possibility to reduce the use of fossil fuels and consequently the emissions of CO{sub 2}. The interest for alternative waste fuels also comes from the possibility to charge a fee for waste treatment. Further, prohibitions on landfilling of combustible waste fraction create a demand for alternative treatment methods. This report aims at contributing a compilation of information on technical issues and maintenance experiences from co-combustion plants in Sweden and Europe and thus provides a basis for decision-making regarding co-combustion. Information about co-combustion has been collected by telephone interviews with representatives from Swedish combustion plants and other organisations, both in Sweden and in other countries. Also, information in reports and other publications has been compiled. Besides combustion experiences, information about material quality and contents, fuel production, preparation, handling and quality assurance, fuel feeding to the boiler, effects on emissions to air and ash quality is included. In total, experiences of co-combustion have been gathered from 20 different boilers in Sweden by telephone interviews. The material includes small to large grate and fluidized bed boilers, one boiler for pulverized fuel and one oil boiler. The following waste types are included: Waste wood; Rubber; RDF; Paper; Plastic; Animal residues; Olive waste. Handling, preparation and feeding of waste fuels to the boiler can result in an increased risk for interruptions and breakdown of equipment. Similar problems can occur in equipment for ash feeding. Stable combustion of mixed fuels requires good possibilities for adjusting the combustion process. Also, it is important that the feeding of the fuel to the boiler can be regulated. It is often advantageous with two or more parallel fuel feeding systems. Further, it is important that different fuel fractions are well mixed, that the fuel has a stable quality over time, and that fuel particle size is even and suitable. In several cases, problems with slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces and also corrosion has been experienced. The content of zinc and chlorine e.g. in surface coatings as well as PVC plastics plays a significant role. Sorting out such material as well as pre-treatment improve the situation considerably. In other cases, co-combustion can lead to positive synergistic effects, e,g, concerning emissions. In most cases, complete QA systems for the fuel are not employed. However, some kind of specification of heating value, PVC content, content of CCA treated wood etc are often used, which are mainly controlled by the eye. QA systems which correspond to those used in Finland and Germany has not yet been established in Sweden. The report is concluded by an assessment of the need for further R and D within the field.

  1. Operation and maintenance of waste incinerators - A comparison of two techniques and strategies; Drift och underhaall av avfallsfoerbraenningsanlaeggningar - En jaemfoerelse av tvaa tekniker och strategier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Andreas [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden); Niklasson, Fredrik [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Johnsson, Anders [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Fredaeng, Julia [Dalkia, Stockholm (Sweden); Wettergren, Hans [Renova AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    This work has developed and demonstrated a simple method for comparison of operation and maintenance cost for various waste combustion techniques and plants. The principal of the method is to coarsely and initially divide cost into comparable posts. Post of specific interest is thereafter compared on a more detailed level. This procedure allows comparison with a modest consumption of time and effort. There is a lack of such comparison because of the effort needed to in detail compare the, often for each plant unique, selection of techniques and strategies. A consequence of the lack of comparisons is that success stories become invisible. The same can be said about common research needs. The demonstrated method visualizes the effects of various selections of techniques and strategies. It also points out bottlenecks for further improvement of the investigated units. The method has been simple to use and it is therefore considered as suitable to use in a larger investigation covering several waste combustion units. Thus, the project has accomplished its aims.

  2. "Vem är jag nu?" Känslor och betydelser av genus och plats i digitalt spelande : Affektiva dimensioner av spelande i XCOM: Enemy Within

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I analyze the ways in which gender and space are shaped and made sense of through digital gameplay. Specifically in the turn based strategy game XCOM: Enemy Within for the MacBook Air with a computer mouse as the primary input device. Using a mixed methods approach consisting of gameplay sessions of XCOM and qualitative interviews with two players regarding their gameplay I argue that earlier research on space within game studies has overlooked the ways in which the shaping of s...

  3. Rörelseövningar och närmelsesätt i anpassad gruppgymnastik för unga barn med cerebral pares : En systematisk litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Wessberg, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Barn med motorisk funktionsnedsättning har vanligen begränsade möjligheter att röra på sig i grupp tillsammans med andra barn. De största barriärerna är tillgången till, och säkerheten med, en gruppgymnastik som passar deras specialbehov. Detta examensarbete var ett beställningsarbete av en barnfysioterapeut. Syftet med arbetet var att genom en litteraturstudie utforska rekommenderade rörelseövningar och närmelsesätt för en anpassad gruppgymnastik för barn mellan 3 och 6 år, med motorisk f...

  4. Skyddsrum och kärnvapen : En diskursanalys av 1950- och 1960-talets försvars- och civilförsvarsdebatt i svensk press

    OpenAIRE

    Bennesved, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Shelters and Nuclear weaponsA discourse analysis of the Swedish defense and civil defense debate during the Cold war Sweden during the Cold War set into motion one of the world’slargest civil defense policies at the time, second only to neutral Switzerland. The governments expenditure was far greater per capita than both that of USA and Soviet Union and included massive evacuation plans for Stockholm and other large cities in Sweden, with the hopeful expectation to bring down the amount of pe...

  5. Phil Ochs: No Place in This World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    Phil Ochs was a prominent topical songwriter and singer in the 1960s. He was conventionally considered second only to Bob Dylan in terms of popularity, creativity and influence in the specific genre of contemporary folk music commonly known as "protest music." Whereas Dylan successfully reinvented himself many times in terms of his musical style…

  6. Objektorienterad programmering på teknikprogrammet. : Vad lär sig gymnasieelever av programmering vidC-sharplektioner?

    OpenAIRE

    Barsk, Ulla-Maija

    2013-01-01

    Studien problematiserade gymnasieelevers lärande i perspektivet: Lär sig elever förmågan att programmera eller lär de sig enbart programmeringsspråket? Syftet var att undersöka och analysera hur elever lär sig att programmera och om de lär sig tankesättet för att praktiskt tillämpa sina kunskaper av ett objektorienterat språk. Frågeställningar var: Hur uppfattar elever programmeringen och på vilket sätt lär de sig att programmera,dvs. kan de ta till sig programmeringsspråket för att lösa prob...

  7. Forensisk analys av volatilt minne från operativsystemet OS X

    OpenAIRE

    Ogeskär, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Behovet av att analysera volatilt minne från Macintosh-datorer med OS X har blivit allt mer betydelsefull på grund av att deras datorer blivit allt populärare och att volatil minnesanalysering blivit en allt viktigare del i en IT-forensikers arbete. Anledningen till att volatil minnesanalysering blivit allt viktigare är för att det går att finna viktig information som inte finns lagrad permanent på datorns interna hårddisk. Problemet som låg till grunden för det här examensarbetet var att det...

  8. Utveckling av hygienfunktioner i diskmaskiner : Desinfektion med hjälp av UV-ljus och ozon

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Linus

    2008-01-01

    This thesis within the field of Integrated Product development at the Royal Insitute of Technology, performed at Primary Development Dishcare at AB Electrolux, is supposed to find a solution to enhance the hygiene inside an Electrolux dishwasher. The outcomes of this thesis are functional prototypes to evaluate the efficiency of disinfection by the use of Ultra Violet Light and Ozone. The thesis has followed Electrolux Primary Development process, with delivarables and checkpoints. Ultra viol...

  9. Environmental and socio-economic analysis of treatment of biological waste; Miljoe- och samhaellsekonomisk analys av behandling av biologiskt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungkvist, Hanna

    2008-01-15

    Biogas is a renewable fuel that can be extracted from anaerobic digestion of many different substrates, for example biological household waste. An alternative handling of the waste is to mix it with other wastes and incinerate it in a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This study uses life cycle assessment to investigate which type of waste handling that is better from an environmental point of view, anaerobic digestion with biogas production or incineration. The results are based on a case study of a biogas production plant owned by the company Ragn-Sells in Vaenersborg. The alternative is incineration at a CHP plant in Gothenburg. Three different weighting methods were used, which produced different results on the detailed level. Overall however, the alternative with digestion and biogas production had significantly lower potential environmental impact than incineration according to all three methods. An economic valuation of the biogas production potential showed that the biggest societal savings would result from using all the produced biogas in heavy vehicles or to replace fuel oil for heating. However, since biogas is a high quality fuel it should be used as transportation fuel rather than for heating. By digestion and biogas production many potential services are gained from the organic waste. Waste volumes are reduced, emissions from the transport sector are reduced, local air quality is improved and valuable nutrients are returned to farmland through the organic fertilizer produced. The infrastructure and knowledge built up around the biogas system is also very valuable as a bridge to future gas based transport systems

  10. En studie och analys av omorganiseringen av de svenska honorärkonsulaten efter inträdet i EU

    OpenAIRE

    Joelsson, Linda

    2003-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyse the problems concerning the reorganization of the Swedish consulary system, which took place right after the Swedish entry in the European Union in 1995. This thesis shows the underlying debate in the Parliament before the changes. It also discusses which factors caused the reorganisation. My work focuses on the Swedish consulary representation in Spain which exist of an embassy in Madrid and 20 underlying honorary consulates. The consulates are not foreign author...

  11. Detektion av “troll” i Twitterflöden med hjälp av klusteralgoritm : Metod för att detektera personer som sprider desinformation

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef, Andy; Lansner, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sociala medier har alltid varit en plats där personer kan diskutera fritt om sina åsikter och dela nyheter med många. Lätt spridning av nyheter från alla hörn i världen kan komma vara användbart för att ha möjlighet att få opartiska nyheter. Även om det finns klara fördelar med exempelvis Twitter så kan det vara problematiskt med falska och uppgjorda nyheter. Ryktesspridning eller uppgjorda nyheter förekommer i stor utsträckning fortfarande, här testas metod(er) för att upptäcka vilka som kan...

  12. Redovisning till verkligt värde : En studie om IAS 40:s inverkan på aktievärderingen av noterade fastighetföretag på Stockholmsbörsen

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    De senaste decenniernas globalisering har medfört att redovisningen behöver bli mer harmoniserad. Både företag och användare av redovisningsinformation är idag i större behov av att kunna jämföra redovisningsinformation inte bara mellan företag nationellt utan även mellan länder och mellan världsdelar. Detta är bakgrunden till införandet av IASB: s redovisningsregler i hela EU. En av de standarder som har påverkats mest av införandet av IASB: s regler benämnda IFRS/IAS är redovisningsstandard...

  13. Skyggedom av enkepensjonsdommen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognlien, Ida Gundersby

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven undersøker om bortfall av ektefellepensjon ved lovendring med tilbakevirkende kraft er i strid med retten til eiendom etter EMK TP 1 art 1. Skyggedommetoden/ Feminist Judgments -metoden brukes for å gjenskrive enkepensjonsdommen Rt.2006.262 i et feministisk perspektiv. Da mannen døde.......1975.220. I spørsmålet om inngrepet er proporsjonalt ble vektlagt at det ikke foreligger en transparent avveining av de relevante interessene. Videre er hensynene bak og behovene for den opprinnelige ektefellepensjonen fortsatt tilstede, og de er ikke tilstrekkelig avveid mot formålene med inngrepet...

  14. Vårddjur och deras effekter på hälsan : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg Kalmering, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Bakgrund: Ett grundläggande emotionellt behov hos människan är fysisk beröring, som vid vissa sjukdomstillstånd kan vara svåra att tillfredsställa inom vården. Effekten av beröringen gör att människan blir mer avslappnad, samma effekt kan en person få från fysisk beröring av sällskapsdjur. Djurassisterad terapi kan användas som en kompletteringsbehandling inom sjukvården. Syfte: Att beskriva vilka djurarter som används i djurassisterad terapi och på vilket sätt de kan användas i vården för re...

  15. Forenkling av tekniske systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne; Bramslev, Katharina; Halderaker, Ingrid

    De fleste moderne kontorbygg har omfattende tekniske installasjoner. Mange byggeiere opplever at dagens kompliserte tekniske anlegg ikke fungerer som de skal. De ender med å få reklamasjoner, høyt energiforbruk og klager på inneklima. Kan en kraftig forenkling av ventilasjons-, oppvarmings- og...

  16. Lönsamhet av CRM hos företag : En fallstudie på vilka mått företag i Sverige använder för att beräkna sin lönsamhet av CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Al-walai, Sabrin; Snismark- Karlsson, Kimbo

    2015-01-01

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) har beskrivits som en filosofi, en teknologi, en strategi, en process och ett IT-system. Det finns ingen allmängiltig definition av CRM vilket har lett till svårigheter att identifiera och definiera tillförlitliga mått vid mätning av dess effektivitet. Detta har lett till att företag skämtsamt brukar benämna att CRM står för ”Can‟t Really Measure”. Oavsett har flertalet modeller, mått och system tagits fram för att kunna göra CRM-insatser mätbara. Ett sä...

  17. Naturvetenskap för yngre barn – kunskapsinnehåll i lärarstudenters beskrivningar av sin framtida undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna T. Danielsson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Syftet med artikeln är att utforska vilket kunskapsinnehåll som lärarstudenter inriktade mot förskolan och grundskolans tidigare år framställer som centralt för undervisning av yngre barn i naturvetenskap. Detta utgår från antagandet att kunskap om lärarstudenters relation till naturvetenskap är en viktig del i naturvetenskapliga lärarutbildares ämnesdidaktiska kompetens. Studien använder Roberts (1982 kunskapsemfaser som ett analysverktyg för att tematisera vad lärarstudenter inriktade mot förskolan och grundskolans tidigare år framställer som centralt för naturvetenskaplig undervisning. Det empiriska materialet består av en essäuppgift där lärarstudenter (N=144 reflekterar över sina egna erfarenheter och upplevelser av naturvetenskap och naturvetenskaplig undervisning samt sin framtida undervisning. De två teman som allra starkast präglar essämaterialet är den starka fokuseringen på vardagsanknytning samt att grundlägga ett naturvetenskapligt intresse hos yngre elever, medan andra aspekter av naturvetenskaplig undervisning till stor del osynliggörs. Vi menar att det att utgå från lärarstudenternas beskrivningar av naturvetenskaplig undervisning kan vara stärkande (empowering för denna studentgrupp, då talet om förskollärares och tidigarelärares deltagande i naturvetenskapliga aktiviteter ofta fokuserar antingen brister i kunskaper eller i självförtroende.

  18. Digitalt interaktivt läromedel för nya användare genom text och bild i samverkan

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Utgångspunkten i det här arbetet var att studera hur ett digitalt interaktivt läromedel för nya användare kan utformas genom text och bild i samverkan. Arbetet gjordes i uppdrag av Eskilstuna kommun med syftet att informera min målgrupp om Geografiska informationssystem (GIS). Den primära målgruppen för det här arbetet är anställa i Eskilstuna kommun som är nya användare av GIS. GIS är digitala kartor i 2D eller 3D som kan användas för insamling, lagring, analysering och pres...

  19. En av gutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Cecilie Basberg; Rysst, Mari; Bjerck, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Hvilken betydning har kjønn og klær for kvinner som arbeider i mannsdominerte arbeiderklasseyrker? Forfatterne av denne artikkelen finner at kvinnene må nedtone sitt kjønn og sin seksualitet gjennom å dekke til kroppen, i klær laget for menn, for å signalisere at de er på jobb for å arbeide. Hvor...

  20. Influencer marketing : En analys av en marknadsrättslig gråzon

    OpenAIRE

    Haglund Holst, Maximilian; Jorikson, Ludvig

    2017-01-01

    Uppsatsen kommer att behandla den relativt nya marknadsföringsmetoden influencer marketing. Influencer marketing innebär att en person å en näringsidkares vägnar marknadsför en viss produkt på sina sociala medier, till exempel en blogg. Denna metod har på senare tid vuxit och blivit ett framgångsrecept för många näringsidkare då de, med hjälp av influencern, kan nå ut direkt till en önskad målgrupp. I och med att Influencer marketing är en ny marknadsföringsmetod, innebär det att stor oklarhe...

  1. Beaktande av sinnena inom restaurangen

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med detta lärdomsprov är att framföra hur de olika sinnena fungerar och hur de påverkar vår restaurangupplevelse. De olika sinnen som arbetet berör är syn-, hörsel-, känsel-, lukt- och smaksinnet. Arbetet framför hur man kan använda kunskapen om de olika sinnena till en restaurangs fördel. Genom att beakta de olika sinnena kan man ge kunderna en bättre upplevelse. I arbetet framgår även kunskap om sinnesmarknadsföring. Arbetet fördjupar sig till en viss del i hörselsinnet genom att om...

  2. Gröna tankar i Oy J-Trading Ab : En utredning av nivån på miljöarbetet med tanke på ett miljöledningssystem

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Miljöfrågor har redan nu en stor betydelse i samhället och deras betydelse växer oavbrutet. Många företag och organisationer har förstått att miljöarbetet är en strategisk framgångsfaktor och tiotusentals företag har valt att införa certifierade miljöledningssystem. Trots att inledandet av miljöledningssystem inte är obligatoriskt finns det flera motiv till att inleda ett sådant, bl.a. kan kunderna kräva miljöhänsyn och det kan vara ekonomiskt lönsamt för ett företag. Dessutom är det också mö...

  3. Vad ledare anser om personligt varumärke : - En kvalitativ studie av det personliga varumärkets betydelse för ledarskap.

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda Moradinassab, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Magisteruppsats i ledarskap och hållbar utveckling, Mälardalens Högskola i Eskilstuna. Datum: 2014-06-11 Författare: Natalie Sepúlveda Moradinassab Handledare: Lennart Bogg Titel: Vad ledare anser om personligt varumärke Problemformulering: Sedan decennier tillbaka har begreppet varumärke varit attraktivt och uppmärksammat. Under den senaste tiden har observationer av det personliga varumärket som individer har blivit mer intressant, eftersom det har visat sig leda till positi...

  4. Finansiering av investeringar i immateriella tillgångar

    OpenAIRE

    Voltaire, Christian; Gillebrink, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Vid en bedömning av ett kreditärende ser banken till projektets företagsekonomiska förutsättningar. För företag som har immateriella tillgångar som de viktigaste tillgångarna i sin redovisning kan det uppstå problem när de ansöker om kredit hos banker. Detta beror på att immateriella tillgångar inte fungerar på samma sätt som materiella och därigenom tillbringar vag säkerhet för en beviljad kredit. Syftet med denna uppsats är att söka finna vad det är som krävs för att ett tjänsteföretag ska ...

  5. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though rather large, which may be caused by variation in particle content in the gas samples

  6. Production and use of biogas year 2009; Produktion och anvaendning av biogas aar 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    In the present study, a total of 230 biogas-producing sites were identified. These produced a total of 1363 GWh of energy. The 230 biogas-producing plants were distributed in 136 sewage treatment plants, 57 landfills, 21 co-digestion plants, four industries and 12 farm sites. The number of upgrading plants amounted to 38 and at seven locations injection of upgraded biogas into the natural gas network took place. 44% of the biogas generated in sewage treatment plants, 25% were produced in landfills, 22% of co-digestion plants, 8% in industrial plants and 1% on farm installations. The total biogas production in 2009 was slightely higher than last year, but the division between the different plant types has changed. Production increased for co-digestion plants and farm installations, while production was relatively unchanged for sewage treatment plants. Production in landfills and industrial sites decreased compared with 2008. A larger proportion of the biogas came to use in 2009 compared with previous years. 667 GWh (49%) was used for heating, which also includes heat loss, 488 GWh (36%) were upgraded, 64 GWh (5%) of electricity was generated and 135 GWh (10%) was torched. The main substrates for biogas production were different types of waste such as sewage sludge, source separated food waste and waste from food industry. In addition to biogas, co-digestion plants and the farm plants together produced 537 403 tonnes (wet weight) biofertilizer, and the waste water treatment plants 214 000 tonnes (dry weight) sludge. The provincial breakdown shows that biogas production was greatest in metropolitan areas

  7. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Clas (Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The overall vision of the project has been to produce likely development scenarios for various electricity and heat generation techniques, to indicate the possibilities provided by their implementation, and to give an indication of when implementation could be effected. The aim has been to identify possible technical advances in electricity and district heating generation techniques from a 2020 and 2030 time perspective. As a basic scenario, the project chose SwedEnergy's analysis of how the European Commission's aims for reducing carbon dioxide emissions and increasing renewable energy and energy efficiencies could be implemented in Sweden. Based on results, the project's findings regarding potentially competitive techniques are as follows: Capacity increases in Swedish nuclear power plants and a further two Finnish nuclear reactors mean that there will be no need for new large-scale electricity generation for base load in the Nordic region until it becomes necessary to replace existing nuclear power plants. The most attractive alternatives are as follows: Nuclear power could prove to be the most competitive alternative, especially if fuel prices rise and/or technically neutral climate-related control measures continue to be in place. If new nuclear power is not accepted in Sweden, the most attractive alternative would appear to be large fossil fuel fired plants equipped with CCS. According to the analyses in Elforsk's 'Roadmap' project, the EU's aims for carbon dioxide reduction and renewable energy, signify that almost all new power capacity erected in the Nordic area in the next two decades will be renewable. The most attractive alternatives for Sweden are as follows: Environmentally-adapted hydropower appears to be the most competitive alternative. Its potential is however restricted by demands that there should be minimal - if any - encroachments on landscape and nature, and by ecological concerns arising from the EU's Water Framework Directive. Combined heat and power with a steam cycle is currently the most cost-effective alternative for biofuel based power production, and it also provides optimal utilization of fuel. The potential here is restricted mainly by the amount of available district heating demands. Gasification with gas turbines or gas engines ensures higher electricity efficiency for plants up to 50 MW, although costs are currently high. Wind power has become competitive owing to fast international expansion, although only on the strength of effective climate-related control measures and measures favouring renewable energy production. Its potential is restricted by the quantities that can be integrated into the electricity network, given that production is reliant on wind conditions. The possibility of storing electricity/energy could increase its usability. Wave power is a promising future alternative, although currently at an early stage of development. Its potential is restricted by the quantities that can be integrated into the electricity network, given that production is entirely reliant on waves. Combined plants with combined heat and power or district heating improve the overall utilization of fuel. Upgrading solid biofuels to pellets is currently a competitive option, and torrefication could prove an interesting option should there be a demand for prolonged storing ability and improved grindability. Pyrolysis oil can be burned in simple plants, and would also enable a cost-effective use of 'problematic' biofuels. Infrastructure and handling must however be adapted to the fact that pyrolysis oil is corrosive and unstable for storing. The competitiveness of all biofuel based automotive fuel alternatives studied pre-supposes that future control measures within the transport sector are equally effective as those currently in place. Under current conditions biogas is a competitive alternative to petrol, but its potential is curbed by the restricted availability of natural gas networks or other suitable infrastructure for distribution. Provided ongoing RandD is successful, ethanol can potentially be produced at competitive costs in plants suitably sized for biofuel. In order to make liquid fuels produced through a process of thermal gasification potentially cost competitive, considerably larger plants are required. Currently not commercial techniques for small-scale electricity generation: The techniques which appear most promising for Sweden have various fields of application: ORC is currently not competitive, but could potentially be used for producing electricity from waste heat at competitive costs, and small biofuel powered ORC combined heat and power plants have the potential to become competitive if effective climate-related control measures and control measures favouring the production of renewable energy are in place.

  8. Regulations for storage and transport of biofuels; Regler foer foervaring och transport av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmefors, Elin; Karlsson, Emelie

    2012-07-01

    The trend towards a fossil-free agriculture is of great importance. Partly due to the fossil fuel energy is finite but also because of the importance of agriculture to reduce the environmental impact of food production. There are also an economic aspect. It is likely that in the near future will be economically burdensome being limited to fossil fuels. Therefore, it is important that agriculture is well prepared to move towards alternative biofuels. The introduction of alternative fuels in agriculture as a substitute for diesel has proven more difficult than in other industrial sectors, depending on both the specific technical conditions and a regulatory framework that may not have been written with agriculture as target. LRF, Farmers' Association, has instructed the JTI, Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, identifying which rules, laws and regulations that will affect farmers at the farm level that for their own use stores and manages one of the most likely future biofuels for agricultural tractors.

  9. Corrosive wear. Evaluation of wear and corrosive resistant materials; Noetningskorrosion. Utvaerdering av noetnings- och korrosionsbestaendiga material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H.; Hjertsen, D.; Waara, P.; Prakash, B.; Hardell, J.

    2007-12-15

    With a new purchase of a waste conveyer screw at hand, for the 'A-warehouse' at the combined power and heating plant at E.ON Norrkoeping, the request for improved construction materials was raised. The previous screw required maintenance with very short intervals due to the difficult operation conditions. With the new screw the expectation is to manage 6 months of operation without interruption. The environment for the screw has two main components that sets the demand on the materials, on one hand the corrosive products that comes along and which forms at digestion of the waste and on the other hand the abrasive content in the waste. The term of the mechanism is wear-corrosion and can give considerably higher material loss than the two mechanisms wear and corrosion separately. Combination of a strong corrosive environment together with extensive wear is something that we today have limited knowledge about. The overall objective of the project has been to establish better wear and corrosive resistant construction materials for a waste conveyer screw that will lead to reduced operational disturbance costs. The evaluation has been performed in both controlled laboratory environments and in field tests, which has given us a better understanding of what materials are more suitable in this tough environment and has given us a tool for future predictions of the wear rate of the different material. The new conveyer screw, installed in February 2007 and with which the field test have been performed, has considerably reduced the wear of the construction and the target of 6 month maintenance-free operation is met with this screw for all the evaluated materials. The wear along the screw varies very much and with a clear trend for all the materials to increase towards the feeding direction of the screw. As an example, the wear plate SS2377 (stainless duplex steel) has a useful life at the most affected areas that is calculated to be 1077 days of operation with the assumption that a 60% reduction of the thickness is acceptable. The changes of the operation conditions, particularly the lower rotating speed that the new design led to, have shifted the wear/corrosion condition so that corrosion is more dominating in the wear-corrosion. This is obvious as the SS2377, one of the softest of the evaluated materials, shows low wear rate due to its good corrosion resistant characteristics. The design of the screw has proved to be very crucial for wear-corrosion. The results from the wear-corrosion test show a number of effects that are more or less difficult to explain. One example is that the SS2377 have better wear resistance than the harder materials in both corrosion and in non-corrosive environment. The general conclusion from these testing is that the conditions at the screw have not been successfully imitated. For the prediction of the useful life, a wear-corrosion model has been developed to be used with operation data to follow and/or predict the wear-corrosion. Especially with SS2377, where the synergy effects between corrosion and abrasion is small, a good conformance can be reached. The model needs however further verification to become more general

  10. Nationella prov i NO och lärares val av undervisningsinnehåll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lundqvist

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available From 2009/10, all pupils in Year 9 in Sweden are obliged to take a national test in one of the science subjects physics, chemistry or biology. There are several aims of the national test system, among others to support teachers’ work by concretizing the curriculum and syllabi. In this article, we examine how the introduction of national tests in science education could affect the content selection teachers express that they do in their teaching. The data consists of interviews with 29 teachers teaching science in the upper years of compulsory school. The result shows that there are three themes of contents that teachers highlight as new in the national tests; scientific argumentation, the history of science and laboratory work. In an analysis, looking through the lens of curriculum emphases, it is shown that what unites these three content areas is that emphasis put on the intellectual skills of the scientific craftsmanship. An explanation for this could be that many teachers recognize this as a key content in scientific activities, but a content that they did not teach to a large extent.

  11. Att bygga manlig kropp och identitet : Mediabilder av bodybuilding i 1960-talets Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkert Egrenius, Ida

    2016-01-01

    This study is about how bodybuilders in the 1960s are produced in the Swedish media image. The purpose of the study is to clarify how the male, muscular, body and identity is portrayed in the media image. Through an analysis of how daily- and evening newspapers reported, negotiated and linguistically produced bodybuilding and its practitioners, I hope to access these representations which together can be considered to form a specific discourse about bodybuilding. The language used by journali...

  12. Cs-137 in biofuel and reuse of the ash; Radiocesium i biobraenslen och aateranvaendning av askan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, K. J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-07-01

    The activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs in sheep fescue grown in pots where ashes had been added to forest soil were studied. The added ash corresponded to 3000 kg per hectare and were either mixed into the forest soil or spread above the soil. The results were expressed as percentage of control value from sheep fescue grown on the same forest soil but without adding ash. In the first harvest the {sup 137}Cs were 60 and 33 % of the control value in the pots where fly ash respectively wet ash was mixed with the forest soil before starting the experiment. In the pots where the ash was spread on the soil 80 and 76 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash pots. In the second harvest 87 and 10 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash in the pots where ash were mixed with soil. The corresponding values in pots where the ash was spread on the soil were 31 respectively 42 %. The results show that we probably can expect at least a 50 % decrease in the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations after adding ash particularly if the ash is spread on the soil. There will take a certain time before the optimal reduction occur and after spreading in the forest there will probably take one year before maximum reduction is obtained. In a field experiment using potassium fertilization we obtained about the same reduction in {sup 137}Cs levels in bilberry, lingonberry and heather and also in some fungal species. The reduction could be seen even after 7 vegetation periods. It thus seems that the adding of ash to forest soil should be a rather effective counter measure with expected reduction of {sup 137}Cs levels of about 50 %.

  13. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Status and trends; Upparbetning av anvaent kaernbraensle. Laege och trender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultgren, Aa.

    1993-01-01

    The report gives a short review of the status for industrial reprocessing and recycling of Uranium/Plutonium. The following countries are covered: Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Japan, Russia, USA. Different fuel cycle strategies are accounted for, and new developments outlined. 116 refs, 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  14. Inventory of mammals at Forsmark and Haallnaes; Inventering av daeggdjur i Forsmark och Haallnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-08-15

    A selection of terrestrial mammals was surveyed in the SKB site investigation areas near Forsmark and Haallnaes between January and April 2012. The methods that were used include snow tracking along line transects, snow tracking along water, aerial survey and fecal pellet counts. The same species were found in 2012 as in previous surveys performed in 2002, 2003 and 2007. Some species show a large variation in density between years and it is difficult to draw any conclusions about their long term development. Several carnivores, i.e. lynx, fox and otter show a positive growth rate in both areas. The wild boar population is also growing whilst moose density remains fairly stable and roe deer are becoming less numerous.

  15. Utvärdering av kvalité och dess behov inom förprovtryck

    OpenAIRE

    Bergander, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    It always has been a need for the abiltiy to create color proofs. When an error occurs late in the production process, itis allways complicated and difficult to correct the error. In this project, digital proofs been made and discussions havebeen held with several people in the printing industry, in order to examine how well excisting digital proofs, meet thedemand of the market. And how close the digital proofs can come to the actual printsheat from the press. The study hasbeen shown that th...

  16. UTVECKLING AV INTERN KOMMUNIKATION MELLAN BYGG OCH ANLÄGGNING INOM ENTREPRENADFÖRETAG

    OpenAIRE

    Storås, Kim; Adam, Johansson

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: There are many ways to make the construction process more efficient and one of these ways is to streamline communication. The purpose of this bachelor thesis  is to analyze and develop communication between building and plant works on large construction companies. One of the most key factors for implementing a successful project is that there is a well-functioning communication. There is a terrific opportunity to save both time and money by streamlining communication.  Method: This w...

  17. Commercial kitchens - Feasibility study of energy consumption and food wastage; Storkoek - Foerstudie av energifoerbrukning och livsmedelssvinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfsman, Lennart; Pettersson, Ulrik; Barr, Ulla-Karin; Sund, Veronica

    2010-07-01

    A pre project aiming at the end to create demonstration examples of full scale professional kitchens is reported. To create a big impact school meals were chosen for the investigation. In Sweden all children are during the day given a cooked lunch. For that reason large kitchens exist in all schools. There are two main different organizations. A central kitchen delivers hot meals to each school where the meals are served to the children. The other model is local kitchens in each school. There are more non technical differences between different communities making the need to analyze more than one kitchen of each type. The two parameters in the study are energy and wasted food

  18. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased implementation of different bioenergy systems based on a review of existing environmental systems analyses. This part also includes a description of the consequences of choosing different methods for the analysis of the environmental effects. The final part of the report consists of some calculations showing how much heat, electricity and/or transportation fuels Swedish agriculture can deliver, depending on how much of the residues and by-products are recovered, how much agricultural land is utilised for energy production and what kind of conversion systems are utilised.

  19. Leaching of wood ash - Laboratory and field studies; Lakning av vedaska - Laboratorie- och faeltstudier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik

    2012-02-15

    High forest production leads to diminishing amounts of base cations and micro nutrients in forest soils. This is due to uptake in, and harvest of, the trees. Losses can be compensated for by spreading stabilized wood ash on the forest ground, which means recycling of base cations and micro nutrients. Chemical composition of wood ash can easily be described by standard methods in the laboratory. However, this does not include the process of leaching in nature, such as which components and leaching rate for different compounds. During field conditions several factors are added, which are not available in the laboratory. After almost 10 years in the forest soils there still remains large quantities of the original product. Only 10-30 % of the wood ash products and 5 % of the lime product has been leached. In the laboratory study the leached amount was slightly larger, at the most 35 % for wood ash and 20 % for lime. Both studies indicate long time for weathering of the products in forest soils. Slower leaching rate from pellets of wood ash compared to leaching rate from crushed wood ash in the laboratory study is not verified by the field study. This indicates limited possibilities to control rates of leaching in the environment

  20. Självkörande fordon : En analys av energianvändning och kapacitet

    OpenAIRE

    Örarbäck, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Self-driving cars are soon to become a reality to the commercial market. A self-driving car does not have a human operator, which enables some interesting characteristics. The main benefits are considered to be: The number of accidents and traffic jams should be reduced. Enhanced comfort. Energy usage could be decreased while capacity could be increased. This study concerns the causes for improved energy efficiency. The reason for improved energy efficiency is mainly because of the variation...

  1. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  2. Technical and financial evaluation of agricultural based vehicle gas; Teknisk och ekonomisk utvaerdering av lantbruksbaserad fordonsgasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Peter; Bohman, Mathias; Svensson, Magnus [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Johan Benjaminsson [Gasefuels AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    This study has examined two concepts for producing vehicle gas from farm based feedstock like manure: (1) Centralized production where the biogas is produced in a large scale biogas plant where the biogas is upgraded to vehicle gas adjacent the biogas plant; (2) Decentralized or farm based production where the biogas is produced on several farms and the gas is then transported via a gas grid to a centralized upgrading unit. The investigation has focused on the differences between the two concepts, from three different perspectives; technically, economically and legally. The economic calculations concerning the decentralized system has considered a governmental financial support of 1,8 Mkr or 30 % of the investment. This generates two different scenarios for the decentralized production system (with or without financial support). The study and the calculations are based on 100 000 ton manure which is either digested in one large biogas plant or 20 small scale farm based biogas units, which each digest 5000 tons. 100 000 tons farm based feedstock corresponds to 18 GWh in our calculations. Technically there are few differences between the concepts except the gas grid for decentralized production. Legally, the main differences are the environmental permits and the requirements concerning sterilization, which is necessary for a centralized vehicle gas production Financially, there are relatively large differences between the two vehicle gas production systems. With a centralized system the production cost is around 0,80 kr/kWh compared to over 1,00 kr/kWh for decentralized production when including governmental financial support. Without financial support the costs exceed 1,20 kr/kWh. Nonetheless, a production cost over 0,60 kr/kWh is problematic due to the prize of natural gas, which indicate that none of the systems would be profitably without more extensive governmental financial support. The study also presents two scenarios based on real cases. Both this cases indicates that a centralized production system is financially preferable even though the transportation costs increases significantly.

  3. Demonstration and evaluation of dual-fuel technology; Demonstration och utvaerdering av dual-fuel-tekniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalhammar, Per; Erlandsson, Lennart; Willner, Kristina (AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (Sweden)); Johannesson, Staffan (Ecoplan AB (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    There is an increased interest for Dual Fuel (methane-Diesel) applications in Sweden since this technology is seen as one of the more interesting options for a fast and cost effective introduction of biomethane as fuel for HD engines. The Dual Fuel technology has been used for many years, mainly for stationary purpose (generators, pumps and ships) while the Spark Ignited (SI) 'Otto' technology has been used for trucks and busses. One obstacle for introducing Dual Fuel technology for busses and trucks is the EU legislation that don't allow for HD on road certification of Dual Fuel applications. Challenges with the Dual Fuel technology is to develop cost effective applications that is capable of reaching low emissions (especially CH{sub 4} and NO{sub x}) in combination with high Diesel replacement in the test cycles used for on road applications. AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (hereinafter called AVL) has on commission by SGC (Swedish Gas technical Centre) carried out this project with the objectives to analyze the Dual Fuel (Diesel-methane) technology with focus on emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges. One important part of this project was to carry out emission tests on selected Dual Fuel applications in Sweden and to compile experiences from existing Dual Fuel technology. This report also summarizes other commonly used technologies for methane engines and compares the Dual Fuel with conventional Diesel and Otto technologies. The major challenges with Dual Fuel applications for on road vehicles will be to develop robust and cost effective solutions that meet the emission legislations (with aged catalysts) and to increase the Diesel replacement to achieve reasonable reduction of green house gases (GHG). This is especially important when biomethane is available as fuel but not Bio-Diesel. It will probably be possible to reach EURO V emission limits with advanced Dual Fuel systems but none of the tested systems reached EURO V emission levels for HD gas engines when tested according to the FIGE chassis test cycle on vehicle. Our conclusion is however that most Dual Fuel systems for HD on road applications will need further development to meet existing emission limits and to increase the Diesel replacement.

  4. Genmodifierade livsmedel och kommunikativ etik : En analys av etisk oenighet i debatten om genmodifierade livsmedel

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the Swedish debate regarding genetically modified food products. What does the moral disagreements within this debate entail? In which way would it be possible to obtain and maintain a true dialogue? Is consensus a plausible or even a desirable goal? Can communicative ethics contribute? These questions are analysed in this research project. The project focuses on three themes of the debate on genetically modified food 1990-2000 in Sweden. The first the...

  5. Production and Distribution Planning in District Heating Systems; Produktions- och distributionsplanering av fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvarnstroem, Johan; Dotzauer, Erik; Dahlquist, Erik

    2006-12-15

    To produce heat and power is costly. Therefore it is important for the district heating companies to plan and optimize the production. The aim with the present project is to find out how also the distribution of heat can be considered in the planning. The principal procedure is to first construct a prediction of the heat demand, and then, given the demand prediction, construct the production plan. Due to the complexity of the problem, the need for mathematical models is obvious. The report gives a survey introduction to production planning in district heating systems and presents a model for the purpose. The model is developed for one of the district heating systems in Stockholm owned by the energy company Fortum. Traditionally, models for production planning do not consider the distribution network. In such models, usually the methodology Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is used. The report suggests how the distribution network can be modeled as a MIP; it shall be possible to link the network model to existing software that models the production plants as MIP. The model is developed in the programming language GAMS. Analysis and results are presented. The results show that the suggested plans vary depending on if the distribution network is considered or not. The report also suggests how a simple sensitivity analysis of the production plans can be performed. This is necessary since there are always uncertainties associated with weather- and load predictions.

  6. The production and use of biogas in 2012; Produktion och anvaendning av biogas aar 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents an annual survey on the production and use of biogas. The survey aims to provide policy makers, industry associations, researchers, journalists, municipalities and the general public information on annual production and use of biogas. Statistics are used as the basis for Sweden's overall reporting of renewable energy to the EU and as a basis in various government investigations. In the present study, a total of 242 biogas-production plants have been identified in Sweden. These produced a total of 1,589 GWh of energy. The 242 biogas-producing plants were distributed by 135 wastewater treatment plants, 55 landfills, 26 farm biogas plants, 21 co-digestion plants and five industrial plants. The main substrates for biogas production were different types of waste such as sewage sludge, manure, source separated food waste and waste from butchers and food industries. Energy crops constituted a very small fraction of the total substrate similarly no. The geographic distribution shows that most of the biogas production was centered in a few counties. Skaane, Stockholm and Vaestra Goetaland accounted for over 50 % of the country's biogas production.

  7. Implementering av ARINC429 testutrustning med 16 kanals kommunikationskort och dataSIMS

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    This bachelor thesis includes two different manuals and design of an interface box between a test object and a general test station (computer) with ARINC429 communication. There are three different purposes with this project: The first is to setup a general test station with ARINC429 communication using a communications card from DDC (DD-42916i3-300) and software from Ampol Technologies (dataSIMS). The second is to design a new interface between the test computer and the test object. As well ...

  8. Spridning av bekämpningsmedel i banvall : Modellutveckling och känslighetsanalys

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The stability of railway embankment is essential for safe transport. In order to ensure safe transport, water should be allowed to freely drain. Furthermore, as the engine driver has to be able to see signs, and people working on the embankment are supposed to easily see flaws on the rails to ensure safety for the passing trains, plants should not be allowed to grow on the embankment. In Sweden there are 12 000 kilometers of railway tracks and 25–30 % of them are treated for weed control ever...

  9. Inramning av klimatförändringar : I svensk dagspress 2012 och bland unga vuxna

    OpenAIRE

    Hedström, Daniel; Lundborg, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Something that all people have come across and more or less experienced is climate change. Climate change in itself is a very complex problem since there are no borders between countries that can stop the problem. The link between science and the public is largely in the hands of the media, since the media play an important role in defining environmental issues and to inform the public about research findings. In recent years, reports from the media showed a slightly skeptical and uncertain p...

  10. Mediekritik och mediemakt : Bidrag till en kartering av mediekritikens fält

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Göran

    1998-01-01

    Media power and media criticism: Towards a mapping of the field of media criticism In the late 90s critical debate and research on the media have gained wide attention. Media criticism and critique is becoming a central political, social and scientific issue. In the article the concept of media criticism is discussed. Media criticism is interpreted as public discourse assessing the media and media impact. Beyond a dialogue on media policy and media practice, criticism offers highly polarized ...

  11. Measurements on and simulations of a biogas-fuelled bus; Maetningar paa och simulering av biogasbuss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, L.O.; Nilsson, Johan

    1995-03-01

    Mathematical models for torque/fuel consumption and emissions have been studied for a biogas-fuelled bus used in urban traffic in Linkoeping, Sweden. It is noted that the cycle ECE R-49 is not representative for city buses, but that the Braunschweig cycle gives rather good agreement. 2 refs, 37 figs

  12. Öppenhet och medvetenhet:en fenomenologisk studie av musikdidaktisk interaktion

    OpenAIRE

    Ferm, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    My interest in the problem I have chosen has grown from my practise as a music teacher in Swedish compulsory schools. My ontological and epistemological standpoints belong to a life-world-phenomenological way of thinking. By this I mean that the world is around us and in us, we are in the world, but experience it in different ways from our earlier experiences. An assumption in the study is that method and theory can hardly be separated from each other. When it comes to my view on teaching and...

  13. Den komplexa väven Att organisera för barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ackesjö

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how children's transitions to and from preschool classes are organized in different schools. Principal’s arguments for this organization were sought via a web-based survey and analyzed using the frame factor theory in addition to theories of practical sense and the concept of continuity. The results show that children tend to make more transitions between social communities the younger they are. The distribution of the principal’s answers show that the majority of them, because of external conditions, split the preschool groups to new classes in the transition to preschool class. However, the same movements are not indicated in the transition to first grade. The results show how the work of organizing chidren’s transitions represent a complex web of external actual conditions as the number of children and the recruitment area of the school, the internal logics and ideas about what is best for children and best for continued learning as well as the school's own traditions of working with transitions. Föreliggande studie fokuserar på hur barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass organiseras på olika skolor. Via en webbaserad enkät söks skolledares argument för denna organisering. I analysen nyttjas ett ramfaktorteoretiskt tänkande som kompletteras med teorier om praktiskt förnuft samt kontinuitetsbegreppet. Resultaten visar att barn tenderar att göra fler övergångar mellan barngrupper och sociala gemenskaper ju yngre de är. Fördelningen av skolledarnas svar visar att majoriteten, på grund av yttre villkor, delar förskolegrupperna till nya klasser i övergången till förskoleklass. Däremot indikeras inte samma rörlighet i övergången till årskurs 1. Resultaten visar hur arbetet med att organisera övergångarna utgör en komplex väv av yttre faktiska villkor som barnantal och upptagningsområdets storlek, av inre logiker och föreställningar om vad som är det bästa för barnen och det b

  14. Summer Student Report - AV Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The AV Workflow is web application which allows cern users to publish, update and delete videos from cds. During my summer internship I implemented the backend of the new version of the AV Worklow in python using the django framework.

  15. AV dissociation, an inevitable response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kyuhyun; Benditt, David G

    2011-07-01

    The independent activation of the atria and ventricles, AV dissociation, is a common phenomenon that occurs during a wide variety of electrophysiologic circumstances. The clinical significance of AV dissociation is often misunderstood. This article examines the basis and clinical implications of AV dissociation. AV dissociation is often an obligatory, secondary phenomenon, and should not be construed as the primary disorder; it may be due to either the AV conduction system being completely blocked (3° AV block) or the P wave and the QRS complex being generated from separate sources (usually, the AV junction or ventricle) but occurring close together during the physiologic refractory period of each other. The latter may happen in junctional or ventricular arrhythmias including escape or accelerated rhythm, tachycardia, or premature beats. The crucial clinical point is not the AV dissociation itself, but that an underlying triggering primary disorder is present and should be identified. ©2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Inventory and calculation potential and real emissions of HFCs, FCs and SF{sub 6} in Sweden; Kartlaeggning och beraekning av potentiella och faktiska utslaepp av HFC, FC och SF{sub 6} i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K.; Haeger Eugensson, M.; Persson, Karin

    2001-08-01

    On behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) has made an inventory of the flow of HFCs, FCs and SF{sub 6} in Sweden. Calculations of annual emissions of these substances have been made according to procedures given in the IPCC, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Two methods of calculations have been used, the Tier 1b method for potential emissions, and Tier 2 covering actual emissions. According to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, countries may report either potential or actual emissions. Until now only potential emissions have been calculated and reported from Sweden. HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} are used in different applications in Sweden, such as: Refrigeration and air conditioning: HFCs, PFCs; Foam blowing: HFC-134a and HFC-152a; Fire extinguishing: HFCs; Aerosol propellant: HFCs; Solvent: PFC; Semiconductor industry: PFC, HFC, SF{sub 6}; Aluminium production (byproducts in process): PFCs; Magnesium smelting: SF6; Electrical insulation: SF6; Double glazing: SF{sub 6}; Jogging shoes: SF{sub 6}. Necessary data, in order to make the calculations of emissions, was collected for all above mentioned applications. As far as possible a 'bottom up' approach has been used, where the number of units containing the substances, or the total annual amount installed or used within a particular area of application, has been used as a basis for the calculations. Information as to amount of chemical per unit, emission factors at production, during usage and at disposal, as well as figures on imported and exported number of units or amount of chemical is also necessary. Data collected consists of information compiled from trade associations, industrial users of the substances, retailers, from official statistical databases and also from the register at the Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate where imported and exported amounts of the chemicals in bulk are registered. The potential emissions were considerably higher, corresponding to 1.5-2 million ton CO{sub 2}-eqv. in 1998/99, than the actual emissions which were almost 0.8 Mton CO{sub 2}-eqv. A large amount of the chemicals imported into the country, contributing to the potential emission figures, have been installed in products which have not yet been disposed of, so the actual emissions will occur later in time. The actual emissions have, according to the calculations, increased by approx. 50% from 1990-1999 (from 0.52 to 0.78 Mton CO{sub 2}-eqv). The largest increase has been of emissions within the areas of refrigeration and air conditioning, mobile AC and foam blowing. Projections of future actual emissions show that the emissions might increase to a total of approximately 1.1 Mton CO{sub 2}-eqv. in 2010, with a later decrease to 0.89 Mton in 2020. Emissions of HFCs, dominated by emissions from mobile AC, will increase considerably, while FCs and SF{sub 6} will decrease until 2020 as compared to in 1999.

  17. Främja medarbetarnas engagemang : Ett ledarskapsverktyg för att öka engagemang och undvika utbrändhet

    OpenAIRE

    Järnström, Ida

    2016-01-01

    De senaste åren har engagemang varit ett mycket omtalat ämne, då forskning har visat att engagemang har en positiv inverkan på organisationens framgång. Dagens turbulenta värld tvingar dock organisationerna att kräva högre prestationer av sina medarbetare trots färre resurser, vilket kan resultera i oengagemang och utbrändhet. Detta bekräftas utgående från gallupundersökningar, vilka visar att en endast en liten del av medarbetarna verkligen är engagerade på sina arbetsplatser. Syftet med...

  18. Dynamisk Analys av scrollkompressorn

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Plaza, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Det svenska företaget Thermia använder scrollkompressorer från det amerikanska bolaget Copeland i sina värmepumpsystem. Trots den betydande ljudminskning som scrollkompressorer ger jämfört med andra kompressorer är ljudtrycksnivån fortfarande 56 dBA. Den här ljudtrycksnivån är inte tillräckligt låg om man vill placera systemet i köket. Företaget önskar minska hela systemets ljudtrycksnivå. Rapporten innehåller en dynamisk analys av de olika möjliga ljudkällorna i kompressorn. Den innehåller d...

  19. Teratogene effekter av antiepileptika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt A. Engelsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGCa. 1 av 200 gravide har epilepsi. Gravide med epilepsi har økt risiko for visse obstetriske komplikasjonerog for å føde barn med medfødte misdannelser. Risikoen for misdannelser synes koblet til bruk avantiepileptika under svangerskapet, og ikke til selve epilepsien. Alle typer misdannelser er økt, men leppeganespalteog nevralrørsdefekter utgjør særlig viktige misdannelser. Årsakene til misdannelsene er multifaktorielle.Bruk av antiepileptika i monoterapi kan sies å gi en individuell risiko for større misdannelser påca. 4-6%. Karbamazepin og natriumvalproat gir hhv. 0,5-1% og 2-3% risiko for nevralrørsdefekt. Samletrisiko for større og mindre anomalier inkludert dysmorfe ansiktstrekk synes ikke å overstige 10%. ENGLISH SUMMARYEngelsen BA. Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 23-28.Approximately 1 in 200 pregnant women have epilepsy, and 1 in 250 births are to children of mothers whouse antiepleptic drugs (AED. Pregnant women with epilepsy have increased risk for certain obstetricalcomplications, and for giving birth to children with congenital malformations. The increased risk forcongenital malformations seems connected to the use of AED, not to the epileptic syndromes. The etiologyof congenital malformations are multifactorial. Use of AED in monotherapy is associated with anindividual risk of giving birth to a child with a major malformation of 4-6%. The specific risk of spinabifida is 0,5 to 1% for carbamazepine and 2-3% for sodium valproate.

  20. Prototyptillverkning i plast med FriFormFramställning : - handledning vid val av FFF-metod

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlman, Maria; Olsson, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    FriFormFramställning är en additiv tillverkningsteknik, vilken innebär att detaljen byggs upp lager för lager, genom att material successivt tillförs. En vanlig tillämpning av denna metod är tillverkning av prototyper i plast. Metoden har blivit populär främst tack vare dess möjlighet att reducera ledtiden. Teknikens förmåga att skapa komplexa geometrier, vilka inte alltid kan tillverkas med klassisk tillverkning som bygger på svarv- och fräsoperationer, har också bidragit till dess popularit...

  1. Helseeffekter av byluftpartikler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Refsnes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Svevestøv i byluft består av forbrenningspartikler og mineralpartikler med svært forskjellige størrelser og kjemiske egenskaper. Svevestøvet kan deles inn i størrelsesfraksjoner som PMAmbient particulate matter (PM comprises particles from different combustion processes and a variety of mineral particles. The particles vary widely in size distribution and chemical/physical characteristics. PM is often divided into size fractions with different aerodynamic diameters: PM10 (PM ! 10 mm, PM2.5 (PM ! 2.5 mm and PM0.1 (PM ! 0.1 mm. Recent population studies have found an association between an increase in mortality and morbidity due to lung and/or cardiovascular disease and short-term increases in PM. The relative risk (RR was approximately 1.005 for an increase in 10 mg/m3 PM10, without an observed threshold even at concentrations below 10 mg/m3. Chronic exposure has been investigated to a lesser extent, but longterm exposure to PM2.5 has been found to be associated with an approximately 10-fold greater increase in RR than short-term exposures. Experimental studies with volunteers in chamber and field studies show mild lung or cardiovascular responses at concentrations of ambient particles (PM2.5/PM10: 100-200 mg/m3 that may occur during episodes of air pollution. Animal studies at higher concentrations have shown stronger responses. The experimental studies support the epidemiological evidence for an adverse health effect of PM. Both population- and experimental studies indicate the existence of vulnerable individuals. At low to average ambient concentrations there seems to exist a discrepancy between the results of population- and experimental studies that might be due to the absence of the most vulnerable individuals in the experimental studies. Together with cell culture experiments, human and animal studies indicate the importance of physical and chemical properties of the particles (size, content of metals, organics, endotoxins, etc. for

  2. "AV nodal" reentry: Part II: AV nodal, AV junctional, or atrionodal reentry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, M. A.; Janse, M. J.; Ross, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The classical model of "atrioventricular (AV) nodal" reentrant tachycardia suggests that the reentrant circuit is entirely within the compact AV node and that AV nodal tissue is present proximal and distal to the circuit. Recent evidence from mapping studies and from examination of the effects of

  3. Læring av erfaring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    Hva skal til for å lære av erfaring? Denne avhandlingen er en empirisk baseret undersøkelse av ungdosmskolelæreres muligheter og betingelser for å "lære av erfaring" i den særlige betydning av begrepet  W. Bion gir i sin psykoanalytiske teori. Undersøgelsen baserer seg på et feltarbeid som strekk...... nydefinering av lærerprofesjonalitet, må lærerne gå til kjernen av problemet, nemlig den sårbare lærer-elev relasjonen. Kun da kan det sosiale forsvarssystemet i skolen brytes ned, og den enkelte lærer kan gies rom til å lære av erfaring....

  4. Om forskarhandledningens mål, samförfattarskap och meritering: Några dilemman inom det utbildningsvetenskapliga fältet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Puskás

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Utbildningsvetenskap är ett relativt nytt forskningsfält, men det har redan genomgått en stor förändring sedan sin tillkomst i slutet av nittiotalet. Syftet med att utforma ett nytt vetenskapsområde för lärarutbildning, pedagogisk yrkesverksamhet och lärande i arbetslivet var att utveckla praktiknära forskning i en svensk kontext. Utbildningsvetenskapen har dock utvecklats till ett internationellt orienterat och teoriförankrat fält som liknar de närliggande vetenskapsfälten samhällsvetenskap och humaniora. Skillnaden mellan idéerna kring vad utbildningsvetenskap ursprungligen var tänkt att vara och vad den sedan utvecklades till kan bland annat ses mot bakgrund av ”hetsen” kring publicering, som har medfört att det har blivit allt vanligare att skriva sammanläggningsavhandlingar på engelska än monografier på svenska. Dessa förändringar har i sin tur påverkat hur forskarhandledare ser på sina doktoranders resa mot att bli självständiga forskare. I denna reflektion problematiseras några av de dilemman som forskarhandledare inom fältet möter. Reflektionen utgår från fyra intervjuer med forskarhandledare inom fältet. Forskarhandledningens dilemman kopplas till publiceringsstrategiernas samt hela fältets förändrade karaktär under de senaste tio åren.

  5. Atmospheric Chemistry of CH3CH2OCH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Bjørn Svendsen, Sissel; Østerstrøm, Freja From

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of methyl ethyl ether, CH3CH2OCH3, was examined using FT-IR/relative-rate methods. Hydroxyl radical and chlorine atom rate coefficients of k(CH3CH2OCH3+OH) = (7.53 ± 2.86) × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k(CH3CH2OCH3+Cl) = (2.35 ± 0.43) × 10−10 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were...

  6. Om samband mellan musikpedagogers fackspråk och definitionsmakt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddholm, Mats

    Detta föredrag baseras på ett forskningsprojekt om hur sambandet mellan musikpedagogisk teori och definitionsmakt kan beskrivas och problematiseras utifrån Lev S. Vygotskijs hypotes om språkligt tänkande. Pedagogisk definitionsmakt kan förstås som pedagogens medvetenhet omkring lärandesituationen...... samt förmågan att handla strategiskt utifrån denna medvetenhet. I detta föredrag berörs och bemöts även den kritik som bland annat Roger Säljö riktat mot Vygotskij....

  7. Att lära sig se trådraken – om tvekan och fokusförskjutning på väg mot förändrat kunnande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Utgångspunkten i denna artikel är empiriskt förankrade exempel från textilslöjdspraktiker i den svenska skolan; grundskolans slöjdundervisning årskurs 8 och ett specialutformat program inom gymnasieskolan med textil inriktning i årskurserna 1 och 3. Artikelns videoutdrag handlar alla om principiellt samma handling – trådrak mönsterutläggning på tyg – men, dels finns det två olika inramningar (grundskolan och gymnasieskolan, och dels exemplifierar de olika skeden av kunnande. Syftet är att beskriva skillnader i kunnande och vad som framstår som svårt för elever med liten eller ingen erfarenhet av att lägga ut mönster på ett tyg inför tillklippning och hur kunnandet förändras med ökande erfarenhet, liksom vilka nya svårigheter som följer med att elever arbetar med mönster av ökande komplexitet. Det som vid en första blick kan framstå som samma handling utvecklas över tid från något som framstår som enkel handling till att utvecklas i komplexitet. I de tvekan-situationer som beskriv finns potential för ett förändrat deltagande, där förändringen idealt är ett mer kompetent deltagande där ingen tvekan förekommer. Med ökad förtrogenhet kan uppmärksamheten förflyttas till något annat. Det vi är förtrogna med blir till rutiner och därmed behövs det en avvikelse för att fånga uppmärksamheten. I avvikelsen ligger möjligheterna till fortsatt lärande. Artikelns empiriska exempel synliggör dessa skillnader i kunnande som annars oreflekterat kan uppfattas som lika. Eleverna bygger in kunskap i sina handlingar, fokus flyttar från att inte veta vad man tittar på till självklarheten i handlingen. Eleverna lär sig se och urskilja.

  8. Vilka faktorer inverkar vid valet av transportföretag? : En fallstudie om företagskunders resonemang och prioriteringar vid köp av transporttjänster och val av transportföretag.

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Linda; Kjellman, Anna-Karin

    2005-01-01

    During the last couple of years the focus for many businesses have moved from just being price oriented to include such factors as quality, flexibility, service, delivery precision and environmentally friendliness. The shift in viewpoint arises from the increasingly competition on the market and the hard economic atmosphere. It has become more important to differentiate the company and its products to be able to increase market share. The purpose with this master’s thesis was to get a better ...

  9. Den jordanska ekvationen : Islamister och kungahuset på väg mot demokrati?

    OpenAIRE

    Göndör, Eli

    2005-01-01

    Jordanien ser sig som en arabiskmuslimsk stat på väg mot en demokrati. Med en sådan självbild blir islam en integral del av samhället. Det stöd som det jordanska samhället gav det Muslimska Brödraskapet i valen november 1989 och 1993 visade dessutom att organisationen blivit något som kungahuset måste ta med i beräkningen i den demokratiska processen. För det Muslimska Brödraskapet kan det upplevas som en tilltalande idé då man genom ett samarbete med kungahuset både kan bevara sin maktbas oc...

  10. Införandet av IAS 41 : Hur har kapitalfördelningen mellan intressenter i den norska laxodlingsbranschen utvecklats?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlén, Jonas; Josefsson, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Införandet av IAS 41 medförde att redovisningsprinciperna för värderingen av ett företags biologiska tillgångar förändrades. Det finns forskning på hur införandet av IAS 41 påverkat olika aktörer inom skogsindustrin men lite är skrivet om dess påverkan på laxodlingsindustrin. Denna uppsats ämnar undersöka hur kapitalfördelningen till intressenter utvecklats sedan införandet av IAS 41. Studien fokuserar på intressenterna ägare och anställda. Vi har tillämpat en kvantitativ metod där vår empiri...

  11. Förändringen av Incoterms klausulerna samt deras användning bland finländska företag

    OpenAIRE

    Storås, Tea; Granberg, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    Lärdomsprovet behandlar förändringen av Incoterms klausuler samt deras användning bland finländska företag. Ämnet behandlar företag i Finland och dess användning av Incoterms 2010 klausuler vid export och import. Vi avgränsar vårt arbete till att utreda hur Incoterms 2010 påverkat finländska företag samt hur övergången skett från de gamla Incoterms 2000 klausulerna till de nya Incoterms 2010 klausulerna. Lärdomsprovet är uppdelat i en teoretisk del samt i en empirisk del. Den teoretiska delen...

  12. Fysisk träning som vård av muskuloskeletala störningar bland datorarbetande : - en litteraturöversikt

    OpenAIRE

    Renvall, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sammandrag: Ämnet för denna litteraturöversikt är fysisk träning som vård av muskuloskeletala funktionsstörningar bland datorarbetande. Dessa arbetsrelaterade muskuloskeletala funktionsstörningar är mycket vanliga. Arbetsförhållandena nuförtiden gör att tiden som används vid datorn förlängs och att minska belastningen med endast rätt arbetsergonomi kan orsaka andra problem. Förlängda arbetspass, låg variation i muskelns kontraktionsnivå och ökad monotoni kan bli följden av optimerad erg...

  13. I kölvattnet av Dekaden : En undersökning om hur hållbar utveckling undervisas mot årskurserna 4–6

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Linus

    2017-01-01

    Hållbar utveckling som begrepp har sedan mitten av 1990-talet fått en starkare roll i samhället. Skolan är inget undantag och undervisning för hållbar utveckling ses idag som en av tre miljöundervisningstraditioner. Inom årkurserna 4–6 är däremot forskningen inom området begränsat och läraren får oftast förlita sig på metoder för äldre årskurser samt att fortbildning inom området är begränsat. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur lärare bedriver miljöundervisningen för hållbar utveckling i...

  14. Lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    En miljømessig effektiv lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger sikter mot å begrense - og helst redusere - biltrafikk og miljøproblemer knyttet til bytransport, sammenliknet med alternative lokaliseringer. En effektiv transportmessig lokalisering kan også bidra til å redusere tap av verdifulle...... arealer (f eks jordbruksareal eller natur- og friluftsområder) utenfor dagens tettstedsgrense. Tiltaket må samtidig utformes slik at en kan bevare viktige bomiljøkvaliteter og så mye som mulig av de grønne arealene innenfor tettbebyggelsen....

  15. Restaurang i vardagsrummet : En kvalitativ undersökning av fenomenet middagsklubbar

    OpenAIRE

    Ridderheim, Karin

    2012-01-01

    I följande studie undersöks fenomenet middagsklubbar, ett slags hemma-hos-restauranger där matglada amatörkockar bjuder in okända människor på middag i sitt hem. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka som lockas av att driva och besöka middagsklubbar samt varför fenomenet blir alltmer populärt i det senmoderna samhället. Materialet utgörs av kvalitativa djupintervjuer med fyra personer som själva driver middagsklubbar. Genom innehållsanalys hittades gemensamma teman, vilka sedan analyserad...

  16. Prediktion av översvämningsrisken vid vägar - En undersökning av två översvämningar i Östersunds kommun 2008.

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Emil; Persson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Pågående klimatförändringar med påföljande ökad nederbörd ger förhöjd risk för översvämningar. Det är därför viktigt att kunna göra förutsägelser för var översvämning riskerar att ske. Förutsättningarna att göra sådana prediktioner med geografiska informationssystem ökar då Sveriges geografi karteras i allt större utsträckning. Syftet med uppsatsen är att utföra och analysera en modell för kartering av översvämningsrisk av väg. Det görs genom GIS-analys av geografiska data, baserade på platss...

  17. Vad behöver eleverna undervisning i för att utveckla sitt skrivande? Förväntningsnormer och didaktiska beslut i svensklärares bedömningssamtal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Blomqvist

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available I studien samtalar tre lärargrupper om elevers skrivande och skrivundervisning i ämnet svenska på gymnasiet. Det teoretiska perspektiv som läggs på dessa samtal är didaktiskt och inriktas på hur lärare formulerar och använder bedömningsinformation om elevers skrivande för beslut om skrivundervisningens innehåll. Resultatet visar att lärares bedömningar av elevers skrivande behandlar fler och delvis andra aspekter av skrivförmåga än vad deras didaktiska beslut sedan omfattar. De kvalitetsuppfattningar och förväntningsnormer som lärarna uttrycker i sina bedömningar av elevers skrivande inriktas huvudsakligen på texters kommunikativa kvaliteter, den stilistiska utformningen och textuppbyggnaden, följt av ämnesinnehåll och källanvändning. De didaktiska beslut som fattas utifrån bedömningen av elevers texter inriktas däremot i stort sett enbart på att eleverna behöver skrivundervisning i att disponera text och att använda källor. Detta gör att överensstämmelsen är låg mellan lärarnas beslut om skrivundervisningens inriktning och deras förväntningar på vad eleverna ska kunna. De didaktiska besluten omfattar i begränsad utsträckning den bedömningsinformation som lärarna själva har formulerat.Nyckelord: Skrivbedömning, kvalitetsuppfattningar, förväntningsnormer, didaktiska beslut, formativ bedömning, svenskämnets didaktik, svenska på gymnasietAbstractThis article presents an analysis of teacher group discussions about students’ writing in the subject of Swedish in upper secondary school. The study adopts a pedagogical perspective on these discussions and focuses on examining teachers’ expressed assessment criteria and relating them to their pedagogical decision-making. The results reveal that the teachers’ assessments of students’ writing focus on much more, and partly other, criteria than their pedagogical decisions. The quality standards that teachers express in the discussions about

  18. Samband mellan övervikt och självkänsla bland ungdomar

    OpenAIRE

    Fallenius, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Barnens och ungdomarnas fysiska och psykiska välmående är ett viktigt delområde inom hälsovården. Inom den förebyggande vården finns utmaningar i och med barnens och ungdomarnas ökande övervikt och försämrade psykiska hälsa. Syftet med detta examensarbete var att kartlägga sambandet mellan ungdomars övervikt och självkänsla. Den centrala frågeställningen i arbetet var, precis som syftet, om det finns ett samband mellan ungdomars övervikt och självkänsla. Arbetet avgränsades till 11-15 åriga u...

  19. "AV nodal" reentry: Part I: "AV nodal" reentry revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M. J.; Anderson, R. H.; McGuire, M. A.; Ho, S. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This review is the first of a two-part series of articles on "atrioventricular [AV] nodal reentry." The early clinical literature as well as the experimental studies are reviewed, and more recent morphologic data are presented, with the aim of clarifying whether the reentrant circuit is confined to

  20. Alkalization of steam and condensate with 2-amino-1-butanol and hydrazine; Alkalisering av aanga och kondensat med butanolamin och hydrazin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I. [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    To maintain a low corrosion level in steam- and condensate systems at power and industrial plants, an alkalization of the steam is needed. A low corrosion level lowers the risk of operation disturbances and reduces the cost of the condensate clean up. A better knowledge in the behavior of the alkalis will improve the possibilities to avoid the corrosion attacks. In this work experimental measurements have been carried out during steam boiler conditions as temperature, continuous steam generation and condensation. It has been found that the volatility of 2-amino-1-butanol is very low during stationary dynamic conditions at 250 deg C and 120 deg C. To achieve a high ph-value in the final condensate a very high concentration of 2-amino-1-butanol is thus needed especially when the steam contains acidic compounds. The alkalization effect is obtained from ammonia which is created by thermal decomposition of hydrazine in the boiler water. It is necessary to carry out experimental investigations showing the thermal stability of organic compounds in boiler water before it is possible to recommend them as better volatile alkalis than ammonia and hydrazine. 6 refs, 13 figs

  1. Inverkan av pH på fiber- och pappersegenskaper : Olika pH-nivåer vid malning och arkformning

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pH on fiber and paper properties, during beating and sheet formation, was investigated for three different pulps. The pulps were pH adjusted to four different pH levels between 3 and 9. Isotropic laboratory sheet were made of both unbeaten and beaten pulps. The beaten neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulp and bleached softwood kraft pulp were affected by changes in pH; bleached softwood kraft pulp in a minor extent due to less fiber surface charges. Compared to the other pH levels,...

  2. Demokratins pris och litteraturens värde : böcker, politik och marknad i ljuset av 2002 års svenska bokmomssänkning

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The Price of Democracy and the Value of Literature : Books, Politics, and the Literary Market with Respect to the 2002 Reduction in VAT on Books in Sweden In 2002 the VAT (value added tax) on books in Sweden was reduced from 25% to 6 %. The reduction was effected in response to a cultural policy, whose aim was to ”improve the conditions for literature and reading” and ”stimulate a diversifed output of high quality literature and increase access to and interest in literature among all ...

  3. Uppkopplad eller nedkopplad? -Konflikt mellan förnuft och känsla : En etnografiskt inspirerad studie av fyra studenters vardag online och offline

    OpenAIRE

    Saller, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this thesis has been to study and obtain greater understanding of the consequences of active social media use. Specifically, in terms of social identity, social life and the sense of belonging. Secondly, the thesis studies the consequences of disconnecting and for a limited amount of time opt out of the social media context. Method/material:  The study is based on an explorative, cultural ethnographically-inspired method, in which four respondents were studied: two men and...

  4. Inventory of vegetation and benthos in newly laid and natural ponds in Forsmark 2012; Inventering av vegetation och bottenfauna i nyanlagda och naturliga goelar i Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvarfordt, Susanne; Wallin, Anders; Borgiel, Micke [Sveriges Vattenekologer AB, Vingaaker (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    SKB plans to build a repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The repository is planned to be built in Forsmark and constitutes installations above and below ground. The building and operation of the construction will involve activities that might affect the nature in the area. The impact means, among other things, that a small water body, which today is a reproduction site for the red listed pool frog (Rana lessonae), will disappear. The lost locality for the pool frog has been compensated by creating four new ponds in the Forsmark area. This study is part of the follow-up of these new habitats. The aim is to describe the plant and animal communities in the ponds, and follow the succession, i.e. the development of the habitats. The study also includes two natural ponds that will serve as reference objects. The survey of vegetation and invertebrate fauna in the ponds was conducted in October 2012. The results show that the new ponds had low coverage of submersed vegetation and the species composition in the plant communities differed between the ponds. The reference ponds also had different plant communities, both in terms of species composition and coverage. This indicates that the species composition of the plant communities in the new ponds will likely depend on physical factors specific to the respective pond, but that higher vegetation coverage can be expected over time in all new ponds. The reference ponds had similar animal communities that differed from the animal communities in the new ponds. The similar species composition in the reference ponds, despite the variety of plant communities, suggests that similar animal communities are likely to develop in the new ponds, even if the plant communities continues to be different. Water chemical sampling has also been conducted in the ponds during 2012. A comparison of the inorganic environment (with regard to analysed ions) showed that the reference ponds had relatively similar ion compositions with little variation compared to the new ponds. The organic environment with respect to nutrients and organic carbon was similar in five of the ponds. The pond, AFM001420, differed from the others, with higher levels of total nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC) and total phosphorus during the sampling period. The sampling methods used in the survey gave results that describe the ponds plant and animal communities well. The results are also suited for statistical analysis, which means that changes in communities over time is likely to be detectable.

  5. Wood ash and lime. Effects on uptake of nutrients and heavy metals in bilberries; Vedaska och kalk. Effekter paa upptag av naeringsaemnen och tungmetaller i blaabaer. Ramprogram Askaaterfoering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Eriksson, H.M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    1998-09-01

    Ten km north of Uppsala in eastern Sweden a field plot (2x2 m) experiment, with different ash and lime treatments, was established in June 1993 in a 70-year old mixed stand of Norway spruce and Scots pine on a sandy soil. The experiment included twelve treatments and one control, all with four replicates. The treatments were; a well-combusted loose wood ash, well-hardened ash granules, hardened and then crushed and sieved mixed ash, a mixture of hardened ash and lime, hardened wood ash and finally, lime. The normal dose was 4 tons per hectare. Two and thirteen months after treatment, bilberries were sampled. Bilberries sampled two months after treatment were analyzed for Ca, Mg, K, P, Al, Mn, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn for nine treatments. Two months after treatment, the variation in the contents of different elements was very large, especially for K, P, Mn and Zn. Bilberries in the control had, on an average, lower contents of Ca, Mg, K and Cu than bilberries from the treated plots. Contents of Zn and Cd were, on an average, highest in the control plots. However, no significant differences between treatments were found. Thirteen months after treatment, the variation in content of all the heavy metals analyzed had decreased as well as the content of Pb and Zn. However, the contents of Cd and Cu had increased somewhat. No significant differences between treatments were found. It was concluded that the different treatments had a negligible effect on the content of heavy metals in bilberries the first year after treatment 122 refs, 10 figs, 15 tabs

  6. Carbon and nitrogen pools in soil and vegetation at afforestation of a cutover peatland; Kol- och kvaevefoerraad i mark och vegetation vid beskogning av en avslutad torvtaekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Lundin, Lars

    2006-02-15

    There are a number of land-use alternatives for cutover peat areas after finished peat cutting. One land-use alternative is afforestation. In this investigation it was studied how drainage, soil treatments including fertilization, and plantation affected the carbon storage 20 years later. The studied area is located on the mire Flakmossen in the county of Vaermland, SW Sweden. Peat was harvested on 34 hectare of this mire up to 1945. The major part of the cutover area was abandoned until 1982 when after-use activities started. The depth of the remaining peat varied between a few decimeters up to about two meters. Prior to any soil measures, determination of peatland conditions was carried out. Important to this investigation was, a priori, the carbon store, i.e. remaining peat thickness was crucial. Therefore, peat depth was thoroughly investigated on 14 hectares of the cutover area in summer 1983. The remaining peat was also sampled at different depths within 18 plots of the whole cutover peat area. These samples were analyzed on i.a. concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. As bulk density also was determined, the amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the remaining peat could be estimated. A very good correlation was found between peat depth and the carbon pool in the peat. After-use activities included two afforestation projects that in the beginning of the 1980's were set up on the abandoned peat cutover area. One project was a conventional pine plantation on 19 hectares, where the effects of different drain spacings and PK-fertilizer doses were studied. The other project was an intensively managed forest experiment carried out on 14 hectares. This area was first drained and then fertilized with on average 23 tonnes of wood fly ash, 0.4 tonnes of raw phosphate and 0.25 tonnes of superphosphate per hectares. The applied fertilizers and the uppermost 30-40 cm of the peat were then mixed by a tractor-drawn rotovator in one meter wide strips. In these strips, on the 97 established plots, six different tree species were planted. In autumn 2003, twenty years after the establishment of the intensively managed forest experiment, peat depth was measured in totally 49 plots on the two afforestation experimental areas. Peat was sampled from up to 6 depths on 30 plots and analyzed on bulk density, and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. On 48 plots the tree biomass were estimated by measurement of breast height diameter on trees within ca 100 m2 sample plots. The carbon concentration in the tree biomass was assumed to be 50 % of dry weight, while nitrogen concentration was assumed to vary between 0.2 and 0.8 % of dry weight, depending on tree compartment and tree species. At the intense cultivation area, the peat depth was on average 8 cm smaller in autumn 2003 compared to the depth in summer 1983. If the humus layer with an accumulation of on average 4.6 cm during the 20 years until autumn 2003 would be included, the depth of organic material was only 3 cm smaller in 2003. The carbon pool in the peat had decreased by on average 2.4 kg C/m{sup 2}. With the humus layer included the decrease was only 0.5 kg C/m{sup 2}. The total tree biomass (above and under ground) contained on average 5.4 kg C/m{sup 2}. During the 20 years, since the establishment of the intense cultivation area, the total carbon pool (soil + biomass) had increased with, on average, 10 % or 4.9 kg C/m{sup 2}. However, the variation was large between the plots within this area. Some plots showed a negative carbon balance, but most plots showed a net accumulation of carbon during these 20 years. The values for the nitrogen pools in peat and biomass are more uncertain, but the total nitrogen pool (soil + biomass) might have increased somewhat 20 years after the plantation. This investigation shows that already 20 years after drainage and an extensive soil treatment including fertilization and rotovation, and planting on an abandoned peat cutover area, the carbon balance can be positive, i.e. a net accumulation of carbon was achieved within the area. Thus, afforestation of abandoned peat harvested areas can be one after-use activity to increase the carbon pool in these ecosystems in a long term perspective.

  7. Effects of energy and climate advisory service in 2012, to individuals, businesses and organizations; Effekter av energi och klimatraadgivningen 2012, till privatpersoner, foeretag och organisationer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency has government mandate to finance energy and climate consultancy in the country's municipalities. Energy and climate advisors' mission is to provide local and regional custom information about energy efficiency, renewable energy, transportation, energy and climate change and on the potential to transform energy use in commercial and residential premises. The target group for counsel ing are households, businesses and organizations. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the effects of counsel ing, in the advice seekers perspective, with an emphasis on measurable energy savings in kWh. The aim is that the Agency should have a deeper understanding of what effect the counsel ing interventions have. The evaluation highlights the issues covered and the measures taken to reduce energy use and, where possible, an estimate / calculation of the energy saving made by measures taken.

  8. Minskad miljöpåverkan av kapslar för kaffe, te och choklad : med avseende på materialval och utformning

    OpenAIRE

    Hollsten, Petra

    2012-01-01

    During the spring semester of 2012 did Petra Hollsten independently a thesis on reducing the environmental impact of capsule for coffee, tea and chocolate. The work was performed at Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science under the Bachelor of Science program in innovation, technology and design. The project's scope is at 22.5 points. The employment for this project is the company Löfbergs Lila AB in Karlstad. Supervisor at the Principal has been Maria Herou Wallner and Sandra ...

  9. Objektiv kumulasjon av voldgiftsregulerte krav

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Andreas Skjevik

    2013-01-01

    Oppgaven omhandler adgangen til objektiv kumulasjon etter tvl. § 15-1 når ett eller flere krav er regulert av voldgiftsavtale, jf. vogl. §§ 9 og 10. En voldgiftsavtale reiser flere spørsmål i tilknytning til objektiv kumulasjon for domstolene. For det første må det tas stilling til den prinsipielle stillingen til voldgiftsregulerte krav ved domstolene. For det andre reiser objektiv kumulasjon særlige tolkningsspørsmål ved tolkningen av voldgiftsavtalen. Oppgavens kjerne er dermed å redegjøre ...

  10. Regulering av termineringspriser i telebransjen

    OpenAIRE

    Lilloe-Olsen, Espen

    2010-01-01

    Denne oppgaven analyserer konkurranse mellom mobile nettverk i telebransjen. Formålet med oppgaven er å gi en samlet gjennomgang av litteraturen både om hvorfor termineringspriser burde reguleres på dagens måte basert på langsiktige merkostnader (LRIC), og på en alternativ måte kalt 'bill-and-keep'. Det vil argumenteres for at regulering av termineringspriser basert på langsiktige merkostnader vil føre til et ineffektivt høyt prisnivå, og bidra til å forsterke ...

  11. Hybridapputveckling med Ionic Framework : Utveckling av en matbeställningsapplikation för Friends & Brgrs

    OpenAIRE

    West, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Det här arbetet beskriver planerandet, utvecklandet och testandet av en prototyp för en mobilapplikation (app) för hamburgerrestaurangen Friends & Brgrs. Olika teknologier för app-utveckling presenteras tillsammans med teorin för mobil appdesign. För utveckl-ingen användes ramverket Ionic Framework som genom hybridteknologin gör det möjligt att bygga en applikation med redan etablerade webstandarder. Som stöd under utveckl-ingen användes både det officiella hjälpmaterialet samt användargenera...

  12. Bruk av kartleggingsresultater i forbedringsarbeid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Thomas; Hansen, Line Skov

    . Barnehagen har gjerne tilgang på informasjon fra kartlegginger, men det er ikke alltid denne informasjonen blir systematisk analysert og aktivt brukt i forbedringsarbeid. Forfatterne viser hvordan slike analyser kan gjennomføres på forskjellige nivåer i den enkelte barnehage, og vektlegger viktigheten av...

  13. Bruk av RPAS til kartlegging av avdekket fjell

    OpenAIRE

    Arnesen, Jonas Gjersaas

    2014-01-01

    NORSK: Denne bacheloroppgaven omhandler Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) og ønsker å finne svar på om dette er et verktøy som kan benyttes til kartlegging av avdekket fjell – ”Use of RPAS for surveying revealed rocks”. Kartlegging med RPAS har mange likhetstrekk med tradisjonell flyfotografering fra fly og helikopter, og det er flybilder som er utgangspunktet for å generere de triangulerte terrengmodellene. Resultatene fra RPAS-flygningen vil bli sammenliknet med refera...

  14. Forebygging av trykksår

    OpenAIRE

    Norderhaug, Inger Natvig; Lauvrak, Vigdis; Juvet, Lene Kristine

    2010-01-01

    NORSK: Bakgrunn En nasjonal pasientsikkerhetskampanje, med planlagt oppstart i 2011, er under forberedelse. For å støtte beslutningsprosessen rundt valg av innsatsområder og tiltak, har vi foretatt en hurtigoppsummering av kunnskapsgrunnlaget om effekt av et utvalg av tiltak for å forebygge trykksår hos pasienter i sykehjem og sykehus. Oppdrag Oppdraget ble gitt av Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten, sekretariatet for pasientsikkerhetskampanjen 2011. Hovedkonklusjoner ...

  15. Diabetes mellitus typ 2 bland barn och tonåringar : en kvalitativ litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Sandra; Östman, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att genom enkvalitativ litteraturstudie ta reda på de förebyggande åtgärderna mot diabetes mellitus typ 2 bland barn och tonåringar. För att förtydliga och skapa förståelse för de förebyggande åtgärderna för typ 2 diabetes bland barn och tonåringar har respondenterna valt att ta reda på orsaker och riskfaktorer till typ 2 diabetes bland barn och tonåringar. Litteraturstudien görs för att lyfta fram kunskap om typ 2 diabetes bland barn och tonåringar. För att...

  16. Luhmanns masmedieteori och Internet som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system Luhmanns massmedieteori och Internet som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system [Luhmann’s mass-media theory and Internet as an artificial intelligent semiotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kåhre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln diskuterar hur en modern form av AI-programmering, som kallas Konnektionism i en design som kallas Distribuerad AI (DAI, påverkar den uppfattning Luhmann har om massmediernas roll för den andra ordningens observationer. DAI använder noder för att skapa aktivitet i systemen och inte de koder som styr processerna i den klassiska eller symboliska formen av AI. Luhmanns teori kan utvecklas genom att ersätta systemens koder med noder som förändras beroende på i vilken relation de står till andra noder. På så sätt kan kommunikationsbegreppet utvecklas så att det också omfattar systemens interaktioner med omvärlden. Det skapar en bättre förutsättning för att observationsmöjligheter direkt uppstår genom systemens relationer till omvärlden. Internet och AI-programmerade söksystem och robotar kan då fungera som ett artificiellt semiotiskt system som skapar möjligheter att göra observationer.The article discusses how a modern form of AI programming, known as Connectionism in a design known as Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI, affects the perception Luhmann has on mass media's role concerning second-order observations. DAI uses nodes to create activity in the systems and not the codes used by the Classic or Symbolic form of AI. Luhmann’s theory can be developed by replacing the systems codes with nodes that change depending on their relations to other nodes. In this way, we can reformulate the concept of communication, so that it includes the systems interactions with the environment. It creates better conditions so that observing opportunities may arise directly from these interactions. Internet and AI-programmed search systems and robots can then act as an artificial semiotic system that creates opportunities for making observations.

  17. Övergående eller bestående? : En uppföljningsstudie av 15-18åringar med språkstörning i förskoleåldern

    OpenAIRE

    Löfstedt, Annika; Nilsson, Charlotta

    2005-01-01

    I logopediskt arbete med förskolebarn med språkstörning är kunskap om hur den språkliga utvecklingen fortskrider mycket väsentlig. Är svårigheterna av övergående karaktär eller blir de bestående i något avseende? Kännedom om vilka konsekvenser språkstörning får i ett längre perspektiv och vilka språkliga faktorer som samverkar behövs bland annat för att tidigt kunna sätta in rätt åtgärder och senare tillgodose behovet av stöd i skolan. Syftet med undersökningen är att närmare beskriva hur bar...

  18. Överensstämmelsen mellan ett företags önskade employer brand och den faktiska uppfattningen bland de anställda.

    OpenAIRE

    Leander, Kajsa; Johannesson, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Employer branding (som kan ses som ett företags arbetsgivarvarumärke) är ett begrepp som det under det senaste decenniet riktats mycket uppmärksamhet mot och i denna uppsats undersöks hur ett företags önskade interna employer brand överensstämmer med uppfattningen de anställda har om företaget i fråga. För att undersöka den interna uppfattningen har en kvantitativ undersökning genomförts i form av enkäter som sedan kompletterats med en kvalitativ undersökning bestående av intervjuer för att p...

  19. Characterization of solid heterogeneous waste fuel - the effect of sampling and preparation method; Karaktaerisering av fasta inhomogena avfallsbraenslen - inverkan av metoder foer provtagning och provberedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena; Franke, Jolanta; Johansson, Ingvar

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the project is to evaluate the possibilities to simplify the methods used during sampling and laboratory preparation of heterogeneous waste materials. Existing methods for solid fuel material is summarized and evaluated in the project. As a result of the project two new simplified methods, one for field sampling and one for laboratory preparation work has been suggested. One large challenge regarding waste sampling is to achieve a representative sample due to the considerable heterogeneity of the material. How do you perform a sampling campaign that will give rise to representative results without too large costs? The single largest important source of error is the sampling procedure, equivalent to about 80% of the total error. Meanwhile the sample reduction and laboratory work only represents 15 % and 5 % respectively. Thus, to minimize the total error it is very important that the sampling is well planned in a testing program. In the end a very small analytical sample (1 gram) should reflected a large heterogeneous sample population of 1000 of tons. In this project two sampling campaigns, the fall of 2006 and early winter 2007, were conducted at the waste power plant Renova in Gothenburg, Sweden. The first campaign consisted of three different sample sizes with different number of sub-samples. One reference sample (50 tons and 48 sub-samples), two samples consisting of 16 tons and 8 sub-samples and finally two 4 tons consisting of 2 sub-samples each. During the second sampling campaign, four additional 4 ton samples were taken to repeat and thus evaluate the simplified sampling method. This project concludes that the simplified sampling methods only consisting of two sub-samples and a total sample volume of 4 tons give rise to results with as good quality and precision is the more complicated methods tested. Moreover the results from the two sampling campaigns generated equivalent results. The preparation methods used in the laboratory can as well be simplified, especially by effective sample and particle size reduction through gradually grinding processes. Consequently, the plant owner can reduced their cost for each sampling campaign by using the simplified methods described in this project. A finding that either can be used to lower the cost for waste sampling or to increase the number of samples and sampling frequency which will increase the plant owners knowledge about the waste composition, properties and qualities. Increased quality and an even quality of the waste mixture has an large impact on the life cycle cost of the plant since it's affect the accessibility as well as the cost of maintenance.

  20. Biological effects in limed forests; Biologiska effekter i kalkad skog. Aarsrapport 1998. Effektuppfoeljning av Skogsstyrelsens program foer kalkning och vitaliseringsgoedsling av skogsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik; Akselsson, Cecilia; Bengtsson, Roland; Bjelke, Ulf

    1999-10-01

    The Swedish Board of Forestry experimental work with liming and vitalising (nutrient compensation) of forest soil includes an extensive review program of the effects of this work. Results from the experimental work are presented in annual reports. This report gives an account of the review program carried out to indicate the results of the biological effects. The studies are performed within the Swedish Board of Forestry's large-scale experiments with the liming and vitalising fertilisation of forest soil. The report covers the time period, or parts of the period, from 1991 to 1998. The results in short are as follows: (1) Benthic invertebrate: The investigation revealed that a dose of 3 tonnes per hectare was insufficient to have a substantial effect on the fauna in acidified streams during the first seven years after treatment. An increase in the number of species and taxon or larger bio-diversity could not be confirmed. No indications of harmful effects on the fauna, caused by high lime concentrations, were found., (2) Benthic algae: Changes to benthic flora in streams after soil treatment was minimal. The total number of species increased slightly after lime treatment. At the same time the number of acid indicating species diminished. In other words, the decrease in acidity has improved the water quality. No negative effects, as a result of soil treatment were found., (3) Nutritional status in needles: The trees reacted quickly to the treatments. The soil treatment led to an increase in levels of calcium in the needles. Treatment using wood ash and the vitalising agent 'Skogvital' led to an increase in calcium and boron levels. Treatment using a mixture of wood ash and lime resulted in increased magnesium and manganese levels. Samples were taken one and three years respectively after treatment. A longer period of time is required to carry out a detailed evaluation of the nutritional status of the needles., and (4) Tree vitality: It is not possible to identify any variations in needle loss comparing limed areas and untreated reference areas during the six-year study. Similarly in the observation areas set up by the Swedish Board of Forestry, there was no evidence of any reductions in needle loss in spruce forest during the test period.

  1. Evaluation and optimization of a method for pretreatment of sorted household wastes for biogas production; Utvaerdering och optimering av metod foer foerbehandling av kaellsorterat hushaallsavfall till biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Irene (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden)); Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden)); Eriksson, Ylva; Holmstroem, David (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    At NSR in Helsingborg, Sweden, organic household waste is digested and converted into biogas and bio-fertiliser. The incoming waste contains a small fraction of non-sorted waste such as plastics, metal and paper. These materials, especially plastics, can cause operational problems in the digester and pollution of the bio-fertiliser. In order to separate these particles from the digestion substrate, the waste requires pre-treatment. For two years, a screw press has been applied for pre-treating the waste at NSR. In the pre-treatment process, food waste is grounded and mixed with water to form a slurry. The slurry is separated into a dry fraction (reject) and a liquid fraction in the press. The liquid fraction is the digestion substrate and is sent to the digester while the reject is sent to combustion. Though, the separation in the screw press is not complete and thus organic, easily degradable matter ends up in the reject. In order to evaluate the efficiency in the screw press and to estimate the loss of easily degradable matter (and thus loss of methane), an assessment of the mass- and energy balances was carried out. The composition of the in- and outgoing fractions was analysed with the purpose of determining the distribution of organic material in the two outgoing fractions. The methane potential in the liquid fraction was compared with the methane potential in the slurry so as to estimate the loss of methane. The results of the mass balances showed that 63 % of the organic material that enters the screw press ends up in the liquid fraction and 37 % ends up in the reject. One ton of waste that enters the pre-treatment facility will eventually result in 1.5 tons of liquid and 0.2 tons of reject. Analysis of the composition was carried out in the slurry, the liquid fraction and the reject. These analyses showed that the liquid fraction contains a higher concentration of easily degradable matter such as fat and protein than the reject. In the incoming material, as well as in the reject, visual plastic objects and large fibres were present, while no visual large particles occurred in the liquid fraction. Analyses of the methane yield in the three streams showed that the liquid fraction has the highest methane potential. However, a considerable amount of methane can be produced from the reject and thus, a large amount of potential methane is lost in the present situation. Approximately 65 % of the methane that potentially can be produced in the slurry can be produced from the liquid fraction. Methane is a gas with a high energy value and can be converted to vehicle fuel. The energy in the reject is converted into heat and electricity when combusted in a combined heat and power plant. Just over 12 GWh of methane could be produced from digestion of the slurry. The corresponding energy production from the liquid fraction is 8 GWh. From combustion of the reject, almost 2 GWh of electricity can be produced and close to 4 GWh of heat. The total amount of energy that can be produced by applying the screw press is therefore larger when the screw press is applied. However, the energy in the gas is considered as a higher form of energy and the selectivity in the screw press should therefore be increased in order to achieve a higher methane production from the liquid fraction. Though, pre-treatment in the screw press gives benefits in terms of increased operational stability and a possibility to use the digestion sludge as a bio-fertiliser. A lab scale study was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of increasing the methane production from the liquid fraction. By increasing the temperature in the mixing tank, more fat can be dissolved in the liquid phase in the slurry and be separated to the liquid fraction. According to the results of the study, the energy production could increase with close to 40 % if the fat concentration in the liquid fraction is increased by 35 %. Experiments carried out with electroporation of the waste show that an increase of the dissolved organic matter can possibly be achieved but th at the energy input that is required exceeds the benefit. The conclusion is that the screw press is efficient in separating unwanted material but that improvements are required in order to minimise the loss of methane

  2. Optimized production of vehicle gas - an environmental and energy system analyses of Soederaasens biogas plant.; Systemoptimerad produktion av fordonsgas - En miljoe- och energisystemanalys av Soederaasens biogasanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael; Ekman, Anna; Boerjesson, Paal

    2009-06-15

    In this study, an environmental and energy system analysis for a specific biogas plant is presented as well as suggestions and cost calculations for measures that could be implemented in order to optimise the system. The overarching purpose is also to present a model for similar studies of specific biogas plants. The analysis performed includes direct effects such as use of energy and emissions from the production of biogas, upgrading to vehicle gas, transport of substrate and digestate and storage and handling of digestate. Furthermore, indirect effects such as reduced methane leaching from conventional storage of manure, replacement of mineral fertilizers with digestate etc. are included as well. The energy balance for production and distribution of vehicle gas from Soederaasens biogas plant is calculated to 5,5 which could be compared to the energy balance for ethanol from wheat which is normally between 2 and 3. The greenhouse gas emissions are 16 gram CO{sub 2}-ekv./kWh, approximately 95 % lower compared to gasoline. In comparison, ethanol from wheat and RME reduce the emissions with some 80 % and 65 % respectively. The result is mainly affected of the methane leakage from the upgrading plant, reduced emissions of N{sub 2}O when digestate replaces mineral fertilizers and the assumptions made of how the electricity used in the system was produced. Regarding eutrophication, the emissions are calculated to 6 gram NO{sub 3}--ekv./kWh, primarily originating from storage and handling of digestate, which is somewhat lower than the reported emissions from production of ethanol and RME. Covering the digestate storages and produce process heat with wood chips, measures estimated to be cost neutral or even profitable for the biogas producer, is calculated to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to -13 gram/kWh. If all measures identified would be implemented, the emissions are reduced with 120 % with an extra cost of some 0.01 SEK/kWh vehicle gas

  3. Additive as inhibitor of dioxin during co-combustion of wood and recovered fuel; Minskad dioxinbildning med hjaelp av additiv vid sameldning av skogsbraensle och returbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurell, Johanna; Marklund, Stellan [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Environmental Chemistry; Kling, Aasa; Myringer, Aase [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    During co-combustion of biofuel and Refused Derived Fuels (RDF) there is a risk that the future level of allowed dioxin emissions could be exceeded. Dioxin can be reduced by primary combustion measures or secondary measures such as active carbon. The active carbon method is used in plants with high levels of dioxin and has a relatively high operation cost. To operate active carbon there is also need for fabric filter in the plant. The aim of the project was to investigate the potential of inhibition of dioxin formation during co-combustion of wood and recovered fuels by additives containing sulphur and nitrogen. The study was mainly conducted in pilot-scale but verifying measurements was also done in a full-scale boiler. Costs and synergy effects of the additives have been investigated. In the pilot-scale experiments a 5 kW fluidised bed reactor was used and the full-scale experiment was done at Johannes heat plant (bubbling fluidised bed). The additives ammonium sulphate, sulphur dioxide and ammonia were added in gas or liquid state. The additives containing sulphur had an inhibiting effect on the formation of dioxin in the study. The largest effect gave SO{sub 2} added with the primary air. It reduced the formation of dioxins and chloro benzenes by 58% and 73% respectively. The addition of ammonium sulphate reduced 41% of the dioxin formation and 77% of the chloro benzene formation. Nitrogen additives did not inhibit the formation of dioxin. The dioxin content in the full-scale, when co-combusting up to 25% recovered fuel, was very low (0,02-0,03 ng/Nm{sup 3}). A higher content of dioxin was measured when ammonia sulphate was added. This was probably due to the higher amount of recovered fuel (double amount) during the period when the ammonium sulphate was added. That changed the conditions of dioxin formation between the samples. The addition of sulphur was lower in the full-scale experiment compared to the pilot-scale experiments. In the full-scale experiments a sulphur:chlorine ratio of 1:1 was added, which gave about 25 ppm SO{sub 2} in the flue gas. This can be compared with the pilot-scale experiments with a sulphur:chlorine ratio of 4-6:1 that resulted in 200-300 ppm SO{sub 2}. These high amounts of sulphur in the flue-gas demand some sort of sulphur cleaning if it would be used in a full-scale plant. Based on the uncertainness in the experiments and the small amount of measurements no conclusions can been drawn concerning recommended amount additive to reduce the formation of dioxin. The conclusion is instead that the study should be complemented with further experiments. The addition of SO{sub 2} (or elementary sulphur in full-scale) is (individually) the most cost effective additive. The cost for sulphur is about 1,7 SEK/MWh, which can be compared to ammonia sulphate that cost about 2,3 SEK/MWh. Ammonia and urea are the most expensive additives and did not give any inhibited effect of the dioxin formation. The costs for the additives cannot be compared directly. The additives are often already used in the plant or, if a decision is made to use additive, there are other positive effects than dioxin inhibition. A complete cost-benefit valuation should therefore be carried out before making the choice of additive.

  4. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine); . the method was relatively simple; . the method could include an anaerobic step if needed; the method could include food; knowledge of the method existed in Sweden; and the method had been compared and evaluated in a scientific publication. In the experimental part of the study the bioaccessibility of antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and zinc in seven different ashes at two different particle size fractions (<63 mum and <2 mm) was investigated. These fractions were chosen to represent voluntary (<2 mm) and involuntary (<63 mum) ingestion of ash. The investigated ashes were produced in different incineration plants and represented different categories, i.e. type of ash (fly ash or bottom ash), fuel and incinerator. In the experimental part the influence of total concentration of the elements on their bioaccessibility was also investigated, as well as the influence of particle size fraction on total content of the elements. The influence of type of ash on both bioaccessibility and total concentration of the specific elements was also investigated. The bioaccessible fraction of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in a selection of ashes showed a higher variation between the different elements than between the different ashes. With the exception of arsenic in two of the investigated ashes, the bioaccessible concentration was substantially less than the total concentration of all elements in all ashes. The bioaccessible fraction of arsenic was high both in fly ashes (>85%) and in bottom ashes (40-85%). The bioaccessible fraction of lead was also relatively high and varied between 14 and 60% in the different ashes. Cadmium also had a high bioaccessible fraction which varied between 50-75% in the investigated ashes. The bioaccessible fraction of chromium was much smaller compared to the bioaccessible fraction of the other elements, and was with two exceptions less than 12%. The bioaccessible fraction of copper was relatively high and varied between 20 and 70% in the different ashes. In this study, particle size fraction only had an effect on the bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, chromium, and copper. For these elements, bioaccessibility was higher in the smaller particle size fraction representing involuntary ingestion. Particle size fraction also had an effect on the total concentration of cadmium, nickel, antimony and zinc, with higher total concentrations in the smaller particle size fraction. Total concentration only had an effect on the bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, copper and lead, with higher bioaccessible fractions at lower total concentrations. The type of ash had an influence on the bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, cadmium, chromium and antimony, with a higher bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, chromium and antimony in fly ashes compared to in bottom ashes, and a higher bioaccessible fraction of cadmium in bottom ashes compared to in fly ashes.

  5. Small scale combustion of reed canary grass - inventory and evaluation of available technology; Smaaskalig foerbraenning av roerflen - inventering och vaerdering av tillgaenglig teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Paulrud, Susanne

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of commercially available boilers in the interval 50 kW to 1 MW for use with reed canary grass (RCG) as fuel has been preliminary evaluated. The capacity to handle the large ash volumes generated by RCG both in terms of ash withdrawal and combustion quality was used as the main criteria. Nine boilers and two burners were identified and classified in a three-step scale from verified functioning on RCG to possible functioning with some design changes

  6. Tid till att bli svensk: En studie av mottagandet av nyanlända barn och familjer i den svenska förskolan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunneblad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is from a study about the integration of young refugee children and their families in Sweden. The preschool has here a special responsibility in this mission for children in the age 1-5. The setting for the study is a multiethnic area located on the outskirts of the city. Methodologically an extended case is used. The study has so far been conducted during a period of 14 months doing fieldwork 1-2 days a week. The analyse focus on how the educators educate practice and talk about how the immigrant parents raise and foster their children. This is described as part of a wider ambition to integrate immigrants in Swedish society.

  7. Effects of intensive silviculture on the soil diversity and carbon retention. Final report; Effekter av intensiv skogsodling paa markens biologiska maangfald och retention av kol. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tryggve; Lindberg, Niklas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    2002-11-01

    Soil samples were taken in the forest fertilisation experiments Skogaby (SW Sweden), Asa (S Sweden), Straasan (C Sweden) and Flakaliden (N Sweden), all with replicated plots, to evaluate effects of intensive production of Norway spruce trees by repeated fertiliser application, on soil fauna diversity. The species-rich groups of Oribatida, Mesostigmata and Collembola were studied at all sites. Repeated additions of solid fertilisers mostly reduced the total number of individuals of soil fauna, whereas addition of liquid fertiliser did not result in any marked effects on totals densities. Forest fertilisation had small or insignificant effects on species numbers or diversity indices, but resulted in large changes in the composition of individual species. Generally, the most common oribatid species decreased in numbers, whereas less common species did not seem to decrease. Thus, intensive forest fertilisation did not seem to reduce the number of species but had a great effect on the community level by reducing some of the commonest species and favouring some sparsely occurring species. This indicates that forest fertilisation, if performed in a patchy manner, can increase the soil fauna diversity in the forest landscape as a whole.

  8. Miljönyttan med att dumpstra : En livscykelanalys av återvinning och användning av matavfall från livsmedelsbutiker i Uppsala

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The high level of food waste is a problem that arises along the production of food and is a contribution to climate change. Tons of food is unneccessary produced and in supermarkets large amounts of food that is perfectly edible is thrown away, because they are considered not salable. A lot of the food waste is still of good quality and possible to re-use. The gain of recycling food waste to its intended purpose as food has risen the interest of this project. A life cycle analysis has been ma...

  9. Evaluation and development of methods for determining methane emissions from biogas plants - Literature Study; Vaerdering och utveckling av maetmetoder foer bestaemning av metanemissioner fraan biogasanlaeggningar - Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Willen, Agnes; Rodhe, Lena (JTI, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Previous work in areas such as framework of voluntary commitment shows that there is a need for techniques for measurement of methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources in the handling of organic residuals. There are no established methods for determining for instance emissions of methane from open or partially open tanks and cisterns, typically residue storage and the like. This report gives results from Phase 1 of this project, in which literary studies, market research studies, interviews and site visits have been made to identify a number of methods applied for the determination of emissions from open areas, such as liquid surfaces, but also land. Focus is on methods that can be applied to plants for biological treatment, which also includes the water treatment process at the treatment plants, but also the procedures used in measurements on land, landfills and processing plants are studied. First, the report gives a brief overview of a large number of measurement methods, where more detailed descriptions of four methods are given. The four methods are considered to be the most promising to pursue in the following phases of the project: - chamber technology; - sampling hood; - plume measurement with DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar); - air input in a covered storage.

  10. Safety analysis of final disposal of nuclear waste - significance, development and challenges; Saekerhetsanalys av slutfoervaring av kaernavfall - roll, utveckling och utmaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell; Norrby, Soeren; Simic, Eva; Wene, Clas-Otto

    2007-05-15

    The report starts with a review of the role and development of safety assessments from the middle of the 70's up until today. Then follows a section on how the assessment is performed today. The demands from the licensing authorities is then described. The report ends with a chapter on conclusions and reflections.

  11. Follow up of test areas with FSS liners. Gaerstad and Sofielund landfills; Uppfoeljning av provytor med taetskikt av FSA. Gaerstad deponi och Sofielunds deponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laendell, Maerta; Carling, Maria; Haakansson, Karsten; Myrhede, Elke; Svensson, Bo

    2009-03-19

    In the coming years, a large number of landfills will be closed as a result of new environmental legislation and more stringent requirements. The availability of suitable material for covering and sealing is limited, especially in large urban areas. Sludge and ash are potentially useful materials for this purpose. The project 'Covering landfill with sludge and ash' was carried out from 2003 to 2005. The project involved the establishment and monitoring of different test areas having liners (sealing layers) of sewage sludge and fly ash. The experience gained from this project has also been used in the development of guidelines for using fly-ash-stabilised sewage sludge (FSS) as a liner. In the current project, two test areas have been monitored for a three-year period. Investigations have focused on the permeability of the materials, chemical properties of both runoff water and percolating water, resistance to decomposition, subsidence/compaction, strength, etc. The project was financed by Vaermeforsk, Svensk Vatten Utveckling and the two participating facilities (Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping and SRV Aatervinning in Huddinge). The study was carried out by Geo Innova in collaboration with both facilities, and the Department for Water and Environmental Studies at Linkoeping University. The project involved sampling and analysis of water, pore gas and solid material. In the field, subsidence and water levels have been measured. The results have been compared with the guideline levels for surface water, between different sampling and measurement locations (above and below the liner, with and without drainage, steep and flat areas, etc), and at different times. The results show that the FSS liner is impermeable. The requirement for landfills for non-hazardous waste is satisfied; in some cases the permeability is on a par with the requirement for hazardous waste landfills. Some decomposition of the material occurs, as indicated by the detection of methane and carbon dioxide in the pore gas. It was not possible to quantify the magnitude of the decomposition, although results of measurements of organic content in the material suggest that decomposition is limited. Effects of decomposition on the function of the liner have not been observed. The runoff water from the liner surface contains high concentrations of metals, nutrients and organic carbon compared to the Swedish EPA's threshold values for surface water. This water corresponds to that which will eventually reach a watercourse, lake, etc, possibly after treatment. The concentrations have decreased during the follow-up period. In summary, the liner composed of the FSS mixture is judged to function well as regards permeability and durability. The investigated test areas are only 3-4 years old, and further follow-up studies of permeability, durability, and properties of the runoff water should provide valuable information. Concentrations in the runoff water have not stabilized. It would be of particular interest to investigate if the permeability can meet the requirements for hazardous waste landfills and to verify the trend towards lower concentrations in the runoff water

  12. Follow-up of availability for cogeneration- and heating plants - a joint platform of experiences; Uppfoeljning av tillgaenglighet inom vaerme- och kraftvaermeverk - en branschgemensam plattform av erfarenheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Mats; Sfiris, George [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Sven-Olof; Pettersson, Lasse [Vattenfall Energisystem AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    The report before is a co-operation between Vattenfall Utveckling AB and Vattenfall Energisystem AB. Together with five biomass fueled heat plants or combined heat and power plants a database of operating experience from the operating seasons 1997-98 was built up. The plants that have contributed to the project are Haesselby Kraftvaermeverk, Naessjoe Kraftvaermeverk, Motala Vaermeverk, Kraftvaermeverket Heden 2 in Karlstad and Flintraennans Fjaerrvaermecentral in Malmoe. Even though all plants are biomass fueled, they still represent different techniques and sizes. With support of the data program TGU (Till Gaenglighets Uppfoeljning = Availability Follow-up) all faults that have an effect on the availability performance are registered by the staff on each plant. The data has been sent to Vattenfall where all fault events have been translated from the locally used terms to a common system standard according to the German KKS (Kraftwerk-Kennenzeichensystem). The data has been entered into a joint Microsoft Access database where all fault events from all plants can be saved and compared. The database also presents various search and report possibilities. The overall goal with this project was to create a platform to be able to structurally analyze unavailability and thereby on the long run increase the profitability for the owners of the plants. Even if the contents of the database still not are sufficient to draw any general conclusions from, the goals have been met. In spite of the fact that there have been problems in the course of the project, a functioning working routine has been prepared. If more plants will join in the second stage of the project, surely more valuable experiences will be brought back to the owners of the plants. The report period include all 1997 and 1998 (for Flintraennan and Motala only 1998). The observation period was 51,312 hours counted as calendar time, excluding revision periods. During that time a total of 201 faults have occurred which led to production losses. That corresponds to 40 faults per plant. The faults have caused a time of fault for 2,891 hours, which gives an average unavailability of 5.6% for the plants. Please note that the unavailability only applies for operation with the main fuel. Even reduced redundancy at doubled system is part of the shown figure. Though, only five plants took part in this project, it is difficult to draw any general conclusions for different types of plants. For this information will be needed from more plants that all have similar fuel, combustion and boiler system. From the base in this project following items ought to be noted: * The greatest threat against the plants is a large-scale fire. Inspection of fire prevention arrangements and modifications of plants to prevent fire, call out and check the fire, ought to be noticed; * Erosion and corrosion problems in tubes ought to be noticed when the plants are running and at inspection of the plants; * Predictive maintenance and dimensioning of chain driven rotary feeders and ash and slag handling ought to be noticed.

  13. Vi hoppar över helvetesgapet och vi skyddar oss mot vildvittrorna : En kvalitativ studie om verksamma lärares aktiva arbete med högläsning

    OpenAIRE

    Gillberg, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur verksamma lärare ser på användning av högläsning som pedagogiskt redskap för att utveckla elevers läs- och skrivförmåga. I studien har fyra lärare som arbetar i årskurserna F-2 intervjuats kring högläsning som pedagogiskt redskap. Studien följde en semistrukturerad intervjuform och lärarna valdes ut genom ett så kallat snöbollsurval. Resultat visar att lärarna, precis som forskning visar att högläsning som pedagogiskt redskap har positiva effekter på el...

  14. Skattetillägg i internprissättningsprocesser : En studie av begreppet oriktig uppgift

    OpenAIRE

    Baaz, Christoffer; Wahlbeck, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    Av globaliseringen följer en ökad handel mellan stater och inom multinationella koncer-ner där så kallade internprissättning sker. Genom internprissättningen ser företagen en möjlighet att överföra vinster till lågbeskattade länder. För att förhindra detta har regler som ska se till att marknadsmässiga villkor styr prissättningen upprättats. De svenska bestämmelserna för internprissättning utgår från korrigeringsregeln i 14 kap. 19 IL som ger uttryck för armlängdsprincipen. Principen innebär ...

  15. Förvärmning av tilluften med återvunnen värme

    OpenAIRE

    Kader, Aza; Yousif, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Idag är det vanligt för fjärrvärmebolagen att basera sin taxa på effektbehovet för fastigheten. Effekttaxeringsmetod skiljer sig mellan olika fjärrvärmeleverantörer. Dock är toppeffektbehoven för fastigheterna en gemensam nämnare för bolagen när debiteringsunderlag beslutas.I Sverige finns det idag befintlig teknik som sänker effektbehovet genom förvärmning av uteluft, vilket reducerar frostbildning i värmeväxlaren och förbättras dess verkningsgrad. Denna teknik utnyttjar geoenergi som värmek...

  16. Status, remaining service-life and quality assurance of PP-materials in flue-gas applications; Status, kvarvarande livslaengd och kvalitetssaekring av PP-material i anlaeggningar foer rening och kondensering av roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Karin

    2011-10-15

    Background: The project is intended to provide a better understanding of how the service life of PP-materials is affected when used in flue-gas applications. It intends to form a basis for the development of relevant techniques and a methodology from which it is possible to give advice and guidance so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. In addition it aims as being able to assess the status and remaining life of PP-materials in current components. Project outline - An inventory, contact and choice of facilities for closer cooperation. Plants with high proportions of PP in the equipment have been prioritised. - Visits to the chosen sites during shut-down periods for inspection and collection of samples from different PP details for further analysis in the laboratory. Collection of operating data and experiences of the use of PP (operating time/exposure conditions in different parts, component substitutions that have been made, etc.). - Systematic studies of the processes and mechanisms for stabiliser consumption over time. - Developing methods and methodology on which advice and guidance can be based so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. The goal is to be able to assess the status and remaining service-life of the PP-materials in flue-gas applications. Results and Conclusions: It has been found that corrosion is relatively rare and that the main factors limiting the use and longevity of polypropylene are the thermal properties (thermal expansion and heat distortion). Leaching of stabilisers from the material is also commonly found but only a few cases of oxidative degradation, as a result of this, have been observed. An important part of the project has been to develop techniques and methodologies to assure the quality PP-material for a desired service life, and to assess the status and remaining life of the PP- materials in flue-gas applications. To do this, samples that had been exposed in the Brista and Igelsta works for an earlier Vaermeforsk Project (Materials for flue gas condensation, Stage 2, M4-303, 2004) were very useful for this. Here the OIT method, which has traditionally been the most commonly used to assess the remaining service life with respect to stabiliser concentration, was compared with FTIR and FTIR line-scan. It turned out that, especially the latter method, gives a clearer and fuller picture of the remaining amount of stabiliser than OIT. It also has the potential to be even more sensitive by further method development. However, none of the methods can provide a clear picture of the remaining life. It turned out that one material which would have been recommended to be taken out of service after only eight months in operation (according to all three techniques) survived another 3 years without detecting even the smallest decline in material properties. News value The results from the method development are interesting not only for the use of PP in flue-gas applications, but for all environments where PP is used. Further development of the line-scan FTIR technique may provide new opportunities for more correct lifetime predictions.

  17. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste; Fud-program 2010. Program foer forskning, utveckling och demonstration av metoder foer hantering och slutfoervaring av kaernavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    The RD and D programme 2010 gives an account of SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas - the programme for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (the Loma program) and the Nuclear Fuel Program. The RD and D Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I: Overall Plan, Part II: Loma program, Part III: Nuclear Fuel Program, Part IV: Research on analysis of long-term safety, Part V: Social Science Research. The 2007 RD and D programme was focused primarily on technology development to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The actions described were aimed at increasing awareness of long-term safety and to obtain technical data for application under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent fuel and under the Environmental Code of the repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this program. An overall account of the results will be given in the Licensing application in early 2011. The authorities' review of RD and D programme in 2007 and completion of the program called for clarification of plans and programs for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for waste, SFL. This RD and D program describes these plans in a more detailed way

  18. Våld- och kvinnoskildringar i TV-spel

    OpenAIRE

    Bodling, Karolin

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title: Violence and women representation in video games (Vålds‐ och kvinnoskildringar i TV‐spel) Number of pages: 42 Author: Karolin Bodling Tutor: Göran Svensson Course: Media and Communication Studies D Period: Autumn 2005 University: Division of Media and Communication, Department of Information Science, Uppsala University. Purpose/Aim: The aim is to investigate how violence and women are presented in video games and in game reviews. Material/Method: The study includes theories th...

  19. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  20. District heating - description of its current status and research issues; Fjaerrvaermens omvaerld - beskrivning av kunskaps- och forskningslaege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Sven; Skoeldberg, Haakan

    2007-07-01

    FVB Sweden and Profu have compiled the current knowledge and possible research issues for the Framework Council of the Swedish District Heating Association concerning major prevailing conditions from the fundamental idea of district heating, the benefits of district heating, and institutional conditions. A short survey of international district heating research is also given. With support from this compilation, the following 9 long term research issues and 5 short term issues for analysis are recommended for further work: Long term research issues: What principles, market values and definition are valid for surplus heat from the energy system? How will the future market for biomass fuels develop in Northern Europe? What are the future heat demands in the Swedish buildings? What are the optimal district heat price with respect to price elasticity, CHP, waste incineration, and industrial surplus heat? What are the overall risks with district heating and how shall these risks be assessed? How shall the energy efficiency for district heating systems be expressed in a simply way? How can the severe electricity dependency be reduced in district heating systems? Consequences and mitigation of really large accidents in district heating systems? What are the combined effects from all energy EC-directives for the Swedish district heating sector? Short term issues for analysis: Elimination of reduction of CHP operation at cold weather? Possible ways of increasing the power-to-heat ratio in existing CHP plants? Which Swedish and international branch rules are used in district heating systems? What are the experiences about tax and market induced incentives from the Swedish district heating systems? What are available knowledge and expectations of third party access in district heating systems?

  1. Degradation rate of sludge/fly ash mixture used as landfill liner; Nedbrytningshastigheten foer taetskikt uppbyggda av slam och aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    In order to be able to use mixtures of ash and sludge as landfill liner an important aspect is to demonstrate that the degradation of organic matter is slow enough. Therefore, the goal of this project has been to find out for how long a landfill liner material of sludge and ash will be stable and keep its function. The degradation of organic material in two different mixtures of sludge and ash has been studied in laboratory experiments. The rate of degradation was then estimated for barriers of sludge and ash, taking into account construction techniques (mixture, compaction, water content), climate conditions (freezing, drying) and biological processes (NaN{sub 3} additive). The effect of the degradation on the permeability has also been quantified. Organic material may disappear for the landfill liner material through 1) initial leaching of soluble organic material, 2) leaching of organic material after chemical reactions or 3) evaporation during biological degradation. Bacterial activity was not found in the sludge/ash mixtures during the experiments. Therefore, the organic material is probably reduced mainly though leaching according to 1) and 2). The leached amount of TOC (total organic carbon) was measured for all samples of sludge/ash in several experimental cycles. The leached amount of TOC was compared to the initial amount of TOC in the material. The results show a small initial reduction of organic material through leaching but the TOC content in the material is then stabilized. In relation to the total weight of the material the leaching of TOC was similar for the mixtures with 80 % ash and 20 % ash. However, this means that a larger amount of TOC was leached out from the mixtures with a high ash content since the initial amount of organic material was smaller. General conclusions about which ash-sludge ratio that is suitable for a landfill liner material could not be drawn from the experiments from a degradation point of view. If the initial permeability is low enough (<1x10{sup -9} m/s) the results indicate that the leaching of TOC will be of less importance for the function of the barrier layer. The hydraulic conductivity was independent of the change in TOC, i.e. even though the organic material was reduced through chemical degradation and leaching the permeability was not negatively affected. Instead, the permeability was reduced in time and affected mainly by the compaction grade. Therefore, it is important to compact the landfill liner material and to mix the ash and sludge to a homogeneous mixture. Drying of the material increased the hydraulic conductivity: the barrier layer should therefore be kept moist. Freezing through cycles did not affect the permeability. Calculations on the basis of results from experiments with columns with an initial hydraulic conductivity of <1x10{sup -9} m/s show that the leaching of TOC stops after 38 years (NSR-Oeresundskraft) and 14 years (Bromma-Maelarenergi). The combination of reduced percolation and more immobilized TOC is expected to lead to very low leaching rates for organic material after this time. On basis of this study it is recommended to change the landfill liner material at Filborna in Helsingborg from clay to ash/sludge on a test area. During such large-scale tests it is suitable to control changes in the material to verify the results from the experiments.

  2. Technical description - interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Teknisk beskrivning - mellanlagring, inkapsling och slutfoervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of the annex Technical description is, in accordance with Chapter 22 paragraph 1 Environmental Code to describe the candidate operations and facilities. In particular, things that are important for their environmental impact are described. SKB's goal of the appendix is to describe the facilities, activities, pollution sources, land usage and more during construction, operation and decommissioning, to the extent and on a level of detail, so that the Environment Court without requiring additions can prepare the matter for the government's admissibility test

  3. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from road traffic - regulations, emissions and effects; Vagtrafikens utslaepp av kvaeveoxider - reglering, utslaepp och effekter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedin, Aake; Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Manne [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Forsberg, Bertil [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Public Health and Clinical Medicine; Ahlvik, Peter [Ecotraffic ERD3 AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Erlandsson, Lennart [AVL MTC AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    The report is a review that aims to improve the basis for additional measures against the road traffic emissions of, in particular, NO{sub x}. An important question in the context is whether health effects of NO{sub 2} should serve as a norm for the actions for emission reductions of NO{sub x}, or if the environmental effects of NO{sub x}-emissions in the form of acidification, eutrophication and ozone should play this role. WHO notes, in its latest review of health effect research, that one cannot demonstrate that NO{sub 2} alone has any direct effects in concentrations at the current whole-year mean norm (40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). Such health effects that has been demonstrated in epidemiologic studies at these concentrations are caused by other traffic related emissions (e. g. particles) for which NO{sub 2} constitutes a good indicator. WHO indicates the need for additional sharpening of the norms for ozone and particles. In this context, it is important to note that emissions of NO{sub x} on a regional scale contributes to formation of ozone as well as particles. Therefore there exist reasons to decrease the emissions of NO{sub x} in order to reach future recommended values for ozone and particles emissions. In the evaluations that will be done during 2004-2005 of the so called Goeteborg protocol, the EU's Ceiling Directives and the CAFE-programme, it is expected that new emissions objective for NO{sub x} will be suggested for 2015-2020, to cope with health and environment objectives in Europe. The report shows that that development that currently happens within the vehicle industry, for engines and exhaust emission control system are pursued to meet future exhaust requirement in the USA gives good conditions for the road traffic sector to contribute to that these objectives will reached.

  4. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants; Kartlaeggning av vittrings- och korrosionsskador paa biologiska behandlingsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios; Aakesson, Urban (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Hanna; Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Problems regarding that leachate from food waste have been corroding vehicles and concrete slabs has been reported by Biogas- and composting plants. This is an issue that has been reported to Swedish Waste Management more often within the same pace as the volume of food waste gathering is increasing all around Sweden. The problem has also been addressed at inspections according to SPCR 120 Biogoedsel and SPCR 152 Kompost, where several plants have requested guidance/support/investigation to help solve their specific issue. Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., has earlier completed some investigations which have been ordered by private plant owners/municipalities and the result from these investigations have often proved that the exposure classification has not been adjusted for its purpose. There is no clear definition regarding construction of concrete that is meant for usage in a receiving hall for food waste. It is likely that concrete for Biogas- and Composting plants are built to meet the demands of agricultural environments. The project will examine the magnitude of the problem regarding corrosion- and weathering damage on concrete slabs and cisterns at biological treatment plants. The project will also culminate to actual solutions for plants that are hit and to give advice to those in the danger zone and those who plan for new constructions. Through a survey handed to Biogas- and composting plants around the country, the width of the problem has been examined and what solutions plants have found and executed to solve this issue. A literature review has been implemented to find specific demands regarding concrete that is meant for a certain environment. Another four treatment plants have been examined. The studies that have been made are chemical analysis of leachate from food waste, analysis of drill cores and analysis of reinforcement corrosion. The results from this project show that concrete doesn't have enough resistance in these environments where food waste is treated. No matter which quality of concrete is put in use these problems will occur, though in different speeds. To ensure the function of the concrete construction, the concrete must be protected with a sealing coat. These sealing coats must be able to endure the aggressive nature from leachate coming from food waste and be resistant to mechanical abrasion from vehicles. In the report several seal coatings are shown that have been used for solving measures. Some of these have worked, while others didn't work as well. To be able to ensure the function within the different seal coatings they have to be tested in 'their proper' environment considering the chemical temperature and composition of the leachate. There are no standard methods to perform this, they have to be developed. There are plans for a new study where you bring out specific demands and standard methods for seal coats in food waste environments. Corrosion problems also occur on gathering vehicles for food waste and mechanic equipment at treatment plants, it is desired also to deal with these issues and a study is recommended regarding the influence from food waste on metal materials that are in contact with food waste

  5. The pulverization and handling of soft plastics for energy recovery; Soenderdelning och hantering av mjuka plaster foer energiutvinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Sven-Erik

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the project has primarily been to investigate suitable equipment (mills, crushers, shredders) for the pulverization of different types of soft plastics from the agricultural sector (large sacks and silage plastic) and the peat extraction industry (plastic covers) with the aim of being able to use the plastic material as fuel in conventional solid waste-fired plants. Many of the mills that are used for pulverizing different types of biofuel have proved not to be particularly suitable for soft plastics. The project has comprised the following: * Contact with a number of plant owners with different types of plants (grate, CFB and BFB boilers) for a review of existing fuel handling and fuel feed equipment as well as the demands they make on the fuel that is to be fired. * Contact with Trio Plast concerning previous tests carried out in connection with the collection, baling, handling, pulverization and combustion of plastics from the agricultural sector. * Contact with mill suppliers for participation in the tests and for feedback on experience gained in connection with the pulverization of soft plastics. * Choice of a suitable plant for practical trials based on contact with the above plant owners as a reference group. * Practical trials in 5 mills with the pulverization of soft plastics from agriculture (silage plastic and large sacks) as well as plastic from peat extraction (plastic covers) and * Evaluation of technical, economic, energy-related and environmental preconditions. Following contact with several owners of solid waste-fired combustion plants, and after hearing their opinions, it became clear that many of them were doubtful about the combustion of plastic. They are primarily afraid of tripping superheaters, etc. Consequently, two plants without superheaters, one in Oestersund and the other in Malmoe, were chosen for the tests. The mills that were tested were: * A SIM mill from WahIkvist, Oedeshoeg Plant - a mobile slow-action pulverizer for different types of waste. * A Willibald mill from Svenska Neuero - a mobile hammer mill with a drive system mounted on a trailer frame. * An Untha mill from Presona - a mobile, slow-action, electrically-operated mill with cutting tools. * A Satum mill from Ekoteknik - a stationary mill of the slow-action type with rotating knife cutters, and * A Doppstadt mill from OP-maskiner - a mobile slow-action mill with hammers. Other mills been tested for milling soft plastics by Lunds Energi in Lomma and Soederenergi in SoedertaeIje are: * Lindner- kvarn from Franssons Recycling Machine. A low- speed machine with turnable teeth. (Lomma), and * Eco- crusher from Babcock. A low- speed waste crusher with two-rotor. (Soedertaelje). The results of the tests showed that those mills/crushers/shredders that can cope with the demand to pulverize plastic material with only one or two grinding runs are slow action units with cutting tools. Hammer mills do not function as effectively for the type of plastic material investigated. Tests of whether it was possible to fire the Jamtkraft plant in Oestersund with pulverized plastic showed that with a proportion of approximately 5 per cent of plastic fuel mixed together with other solid fuel, mainly sawdust, bark and wood chips, plant operation was for the most part satisfactory. The running period amounted to approximately two weeks. Among the problems that occurred, however, were that somewhat excessively long strips of plastic hung down in front of the level sensors that control the supply from the day silos and that the overfilling sensor in the fuel screw was affected by the plastic. These problems would probably have been more serious if a larger proportion of plastic had been used. In order to be able to complete the tests in Oestersund, relatively extensive contacts was needed with the municipal environmental and community planning office, which in turn obtained the views of the County Administrative Board in the county of Jaemtland. Finally, a permit was granted to fire approximately 300 tonnes of plastic material, although with certain reservations. The costs of handling plastics for transportation, pulverization and combustion will be relatively high and amount to between SEK 350 and 700 per tonne, the largest cost component of which being the pulverization cost. To this shall be added the costs of collecting the plastic. With a fuel valuation for the plastic as biofuel, lower costs are achieved corresponding to approximately SEK 500-1000 per tonne.

  6. Preparation of recovery fuel - assumptions, quality, technology and cost; Upparbetning av returbraenslen - foerutsaettningar, kvalite, teknik och kostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njurell, Rolf; Gyllenhammar, Marianne [SEP Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    New laws and restrictions, in Sweden and within the EU, will change the handling of waste within the next years. The combustible wastes going to landfill today, have to be dealt with in another way in the future. The knowledge about fuel preparation has been accentuated. Preparation of wastes - properly executed - will make it a useful fuel and increase energy recovery. S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB has by the assignment of the Thermal Engineering Research Institute made this survey of required conditions technology and quality costs related to fuel preparation of recovered waste like wood, paper and plastic. Only a few fuel preparation plants for recovered waste exist in Sweden today. Most of the municipalities do not have any waste treatment except for landfill. In the future regional preparation plants will most likely be built. In that way recovered wastes can be treated in a cost-effective way and be converted into useful fuel. Transportation will increase when landfills, presently in use, will close and the waste has to be transported to regional plants. Recovered fuel can be divided into two types depending on their content. Recovered Wood Fuel is what we call RWF in this report. Recovered Commercial waste Fuel containing plastic, paper, textiles etc, is called RCF in this report. To receive a suitable fuel for a special combustion plant, the nature, quality and content of the fuel must be known. The choice of preparation equipment is guided both by the type of waste and the quality of fuel needed for the combustion plant. Different contaminations in waste are presented in the report, together with technology to separate them from the fuel. The report also focuses on some type of equipment that are available for fuel preparation in different applications. In general the waste has to be shredded or crushed and the tramp iron has to be removed. If required the waste also has to be screened. The non waste incineration plants firing RWF today and intend to continue, must probably be rebuilt to meet the future requirements, or be replaced. There will also be a demand on new waste incineration plants burning both MSW and RWF/RCF due to an increasing flow of combustible waste. Recovered fuels will compete with household wastes and wood fuel about the combustion capacity available in Sweden. The handling of recovered fuels, i.e. collecting, treatment, transport and storing is more costly than for regular wood fuel. On the other hand recovered fuels can utilise the negative cost the responsibility of waste deposition creates. This could result in competitive recovered fuels burned in plants made for prepared fuels. In traditional waste incineration plants for MSW, the recovered fuels will with difficulty be competitive more than as a dilution fuel.

  7. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Energy storage; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Energilagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Lars; Lindahl, Sture (Gothia Power AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    In this report a survey of different techniques for storage of electrical energy. The following alternatives are described regarding method, characteristics, potential and economy. Batteries; Capacitors; Flywheels; Pump storage hydro power plants; Hydrogen gas generation; Air compression. Regarding evaluation of methods for storage of electrical energy. Battery storage: The development of Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest. In the present situation it is however difficult of classify battery storage as a good alternation in applications with frequent re-charging cycles and re-charging of large energy volumes. The batteries have limited life length compared to other alternatives. Also the power is limited at charging and discharging. Energy storage in capacitors: 'Super-capacitors' having large power capacity is considered to be of interest in applications where fast control of power is necessary. The ongoing development of based on carbon-nanotubes will increase the energy storage capacity compared with the today existing super-capacitors. This can in the future be an alternative to battery storage. Of further interest is also the idea to combine battery and capacitor based storage to achieve longer life-time of the batteries and faster power control. Flywheel energy storage: The energy storage capacity is relatively limited but power control can be fast. This system can be an alternative to capacitor based energy storage. Pump-storage hydro power plant: This type of energy storage is well suited and proven for time frame up to some days. In the Swedish power system there is today not any large demand of energy storage in this time frame as there is a large capacity in conventional hydro power plants with storage capacity. Pump-storage can however be of interest in the southern part of Sweden. In some operation stages the grid is loaded up to its limit due to large power transmission from the north. The pump-storage can reduce this power transfer during critical periods and can therefore be an alternative to new power lines. Hydrogen energy storage: The handling (storage and transfer) of hydrogen is considered to be difficult and dangerous. Air-compression energy storage: This method is combined with gas turbine plants. During periods with surplus of energy in the power system this surplus energy is used to compress air and store it. This compressed air is used in the operation of gas turbine power plant where the compressed air is used instead of the normal use where the gas turbine makes the compression. The possibility should be considered in the future if new gas turbine power plants are to be built in Sweden. This is not the situation today. Different application areas where the energy storage can be used are discussed, such as: Electrical supply quality improvement; Improvement of power system transient stability; Damping of electromechanical oscillations in the power system; Spinning disturbance power reserves; Power system frequency control; Fast disturbance power reserves (activated within 15 minutes); Optimization of energy production dispatch; Increase of power grid transmission capacity. In the scientific world the technical development is very active within areas regarding batteries, capacitors with very large storage capacity, flywheels, etc. As the progress is very fast and this report gives only a brief survey of the research within the area, there is a need to continuously follow the technical development. The judgement is done that there is demand for evaluation of the value of energy storage for different applications and to identify suitable methods to be used in the different applications. Regarding conditions and demands in Sweden and the other Nordic countries research and development activities should be done as: Identify application areas where there are requirements of improvements in the power system. From the identified demands it should be analysed if electrical energy storage can be used to achieve the required improvements. For each application area different alternatives for energy storages are evaluated regarding technical feasibility, environmental influence and economy. During the next 2-4 years conceptual solutions should be presented for application where electrical energy storage is considered to be technically and economically feasible. These applications should be linked to new requirements in the power system due to increased volume of distributed power generation (for example wind power), increased consumptions of electrical energy due to new load objects (for example electrical cars), changed structure of the distribution grids, etc. Evaluation of the different concepts is done as soon as the above described conceptual studies allow. Prioritization of realization should be done. Within 5 years from now realization of pilot projects are started.

  8. När ord målar bilder : En komparativ läroboksanalys av islam och buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnegård, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Western scholars have since the colonial times been gathering knowledge about religious expressions outside the Western context. Representation of the “orient” have been widely influenced by the Western world’s interests and perceptions. Research today shows that Swedes tends to have fragmented attitudes towards various religions. While Buddhism is often met with widely positive attitudes, Islam is often met with negative attitudes. This study intends to examine if it's possible to identify d...

  9. Field study of methane and other important substances from wood boilers; Faeltstudie av metan och andra viktiga komponenter fraan vedpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Linda; Persson, Henrik; Johansson, Mathias; Tulllin, Claes; Gustavsson, Lennart [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sjoedin, Aake; Cooper, David; Potter, Annika; Paulrud, Susanne; Brorstroem Lunden, Eva [The Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Padban, Nader; Nyquist, Lena; Becker, Alberto [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    Residential bio-fuel combustion represents about 35 % of the total combustion related methane emissions in Sweden according to Sweden's report to the UN's climate convention of emissions of greenhouse gases. The basis for calculations of national emissions from residential biofuel combustion has been deficient, as it has been consisting of a few studies which mainly have been performed in laboratory. This work aims at improving the knowledge about emissions from residential wood combustion through take out new emission data for methane, NMVOC, PAH/benso(a)pyrene and dust for wood-fired residential boilers. The goal of the work is to improve the basis for today's and the future's calculations of annual emissions from residential biofuel combustion. The project has been performed in two stages. Stage 1 comprised 25 field measurements and stage 2 comprised 10 more detailed field measurements and a questionnaire study. This report encloses both stage 1 and 2. The work has been limited to two main boiler groups. In group 1 (IBG) the boilers are not fulfilling the emission limits according to the Swedish National Board of Housing Building and Planning and fired without a thermal heat storage tank. In group 2 (BGA), the boilers fulfill the emission limits and are equipped with thermal heat storage tanks. Half of the measurements were undertaken in Boraas and half in Nykoeping. At each measurement the house inhabitant fired as usual while emissions were measured and notes on the boiler installation, firing-behaviour and fuel quality taken. In stage 1, all measurement campaigns had sampling periods of 1.5 - 2 hours and were suited to include the entire firing cycle i.e. sample started during ignition and stopped when the wood charge had burnt out. In stage 2, 10 measurements were performed for which sampling of methane and NMVOC was split between sampling at start-up and combustion phase. However, at stage 2 dust and PAH/benso(a)pyrene were sampled during whole cycles. The questionnaire complements by data about firing behavior, intervals for chimney sweeping and boiler types in a larger group of users. Much new information of emissions from wood combustion and new knowledge about firing behavior has been obtained. Emission data are examples from real firing conditions at interested wood users. Still there is an uncertainty about how the share of wood users not participating in the study fire, i.e. those who did not answer the questionnaire (41 %). The following general conclusions can be drawn: The questionnaire study and field measurements indicate that most of the residential wood users with boilers that do not fulfill the emission limits according to the Swedish National Board of Housing Building and Planning are favourably fired with small wood batches during the days. But, it is uncertain if this is valid throughout the twenty-four hours all the year round as it gives a strongly decreased indoor temperature in the mornings, especially cold days. The lowest emissions and most efficient combustion were obtained from the best cases in the group which fulfill the emission limits and are connected to heat storage tanks. These cases have down draught combustion, a drawing fan and grate in ceramics in common. It can also be noted that the two eco labelled boilers that were included in the study belong to the five boilers with lowest emissions. However, the differences between emissions from the group IBG and BGA are small. The emissions from the median BGA boiler tend to be somewhat lower, except for methane for which the median IBG boiler shows somewhat lower emission. The measurement cases included in the field study have methane emissions (in CO{sub 2}-equivalents) which give a climate change effect considerably lower than for an oil boiler. In the cases where the measurements were split up between start-up and combustion phases, no large differences between emissions from the two phases were noticeable. This result is unexpected. It can probably be explained by a quicker start-up phase than expected and thus a quicker beginning of the operation phase. In the bag samples taken during the first half-hour or hour the effect of start-up disappeared as the start-up became a small fraction of the sample. The questionnaire indicates that 13 % of the residential wood users might be practicing throttle firing. However, they might as well be representing households that use the house itself as a heat storage tank, thus accepting temperature variations indoors during the day.

  10. Quantification and characterization of emissions from small-scale biofuel combustion; Kvantifiering och karakterisering av faktiska utslaepp fraan smaaskalig biobraensleeldning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Linda; Gustavsson, Lennart; Johansson, Mathias; Oesterberg, Stefan; Tullin, Claes; Persson, Henrik [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Cooper, David; Sjoedin, Aake; Potter, Annika; Brorstroem-Lunden, Eva [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report is the final report of a project within the BHM research program. A comprehensive set of emission measurements has been conducted on domestic biomass boilers for wood logs and wood pellets. Within the project development of a simple method for field sampling has also been included. During the emission studies, different boilers with respect to age, design, and biomass fuels are included in the study, which also covers two oil-fired boilers for comparison. The total number of measurements cases was 29, from which 25 were measured at the laboratory and the remaining in field. Two of the cases were domestic oil burning, and were included as a comparison. The gas measurements comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ), oxygen (O{sub 2} ), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). Particle emissions were characterised by mass concentration, number concentration, and the corresponding particle size distributions. The mass concentration of particles ranged from 13 mg/MJ (wood pellets) up to 2200 mg/MJ for a water cooled wood boiler without heat storage tank. The CO emission increased with increased air ratio, which indicates that air supply was not the limiting parameter for CO burnout. Poor combustion conditions could instead be explained by poor mixing conditions, or that the excess air was that large that it can be suspected to cool the combustion chamber, resulting in high CO emissions. The TOC emission was shown to correlate to the CO emission. TOC varied between 1 and 4800 mg/MJ, presented as methane-equivalents, and CO-emissions between 30 and 16400 mg/MJ. Both TOC and CO are indicators of combustion conditions. The large variations in concentrations can be explained by the large differences in combustion devices, operation of the equipment, and fuel-quality, investigated. Methane made up the largest fraction of the VOC emissions in all of the measurements cases. In general, the pellet burners were more equal in performance with lower emissions than the wood boilers. The lowest emissions from wood boilers were obtained from combustion of dry wood logs in modern, ceramic-lined boilers connected to heat storage tanks. It was also observed that most emissions could be considerably lowered by connecting an old-type wood boiler to a heat storage tank, (however increased flue gas temperature was observed) or by firing small (in relation to the combustion chamber) batches of wood. A simple method for measurement of CO, CO{sub 2} , O{sub 2} , OGC/TOC, NO{sub x} , and VOC has been developed and verified within this project. With the simple method flue gas from the chimney on a roof can be collected in foil balloons. The method does not need electricity.

  11. Integration of heat treatment of wood with cogeneration production and district heating; Vaermebehandling av trae integrerad med kraftvaermeproduktion och fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delin, Lennart; Essen, Henrik (AaF, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    Heat treatment of wood changes the properties of wood so that the moisture uptake is reduced and the wood movements are reduced at variations in the ambient air humidity. The wood gets an increased resistance to rot and can therefore replace impregnated wood in certain applications. Heat treated wood is however not suitable for direct contact with soil. The strength is also reduced by heat treatment, so it is not recommended for supporting constructions. No additives whatsoever are used in the treatment, so the heat treated wood is very advantageous from an environmental point of view. The wood is dried completely at the heat treatment and heated to about 200 deg C. The question has hence been put, if it is advantageous to collocate a heat treatment plant with district heating or a power cogeneration plant. The aim of the study is to assess the value of such a collocation. Existing heat treatment plants are both few and small and the calculations have hence been made for how a large plant could be designed. A market study is included to assess the market for this type of plants. This shows that the present market for heat treated wood is very small. A full scale treatment plant of the type discussed in this study could probably not be built, since even single plants of this size would require a too large part of the market. The potential to replace impregnated wood is on the other hand very large. The cost for large scale heat treatment should be significantly lower than for impregnated wood and the cost for handling hazardous waste (which impregnated wood is classified as) is also removed. There should therefore be a potential for a future much larger volume of heat treated wood. The study shows that the energetic profit of collocation of a heat treatment plant for wood with district heating or power cogeneration plants is of lower importance. Maximally about 0.5 MSEK/year can be saved for a 25 000 m3/year plant. The initial drying of all sawn lumber has much more to gain from a collocation and this is yet very unusual today. The main conclusion of the study is that heat treatment of wood seems to be very interesting, but collocation with district heating or power cogeneration plants is not a decisive or even important factor. The author therefore believes the study answers the question of the value of collocation

  12. Materialflödesanalys av kasserade plastförpackningar i Stockholm : Hantering, återvinning, och framtida scenarier

    OpenAIRE

    Grass, Marcus; Karlströmer, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Sweden has for a long time worked towards improving its sustainability, and reducing negative climate impact (Naturvårdsverket, 2016). According to research performed by robecosam, Sweden was the most environmentally sustainable country in the world, as of May 2017 (Robecosam, 2017). An important step in the direction of further improving environmental sustainability is reducing the usage of fossil fuels, and in extension plastics. In Europe between 4 to 6 percent of oil or natural gas goes i...

  13. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for pasteurization and increase the organic loading rate of the post-digester.

  14. Grate monitoring systems - New methods for surveillance and control; Rostoevervakning - Nya metoder foer reglering och oevervakning av foerbraenningsroster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodin, Aasa; Jacoby, Juergen; Blom, Elisabet

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this project has been to practically test and evaluate new measurement methods for surveillance of grate combustion systems as well as to investigate the feasibility and applicability of different instruments with respect to repetitive and continuous measurement signals. Finding adequate measurement techniques will enable a better control of the combustion grate which will result in an even combustion. This in turn will reduce the overall emissions and will increase the average load on the entire system. This aim can however only be reached if the momentary conditions on the grate are known. Three different laser systems and one ultrasonic system have been tested during the course of the project. None of these instruments however was suitable for continuous measurements in such an environment. It is expected that the very high concentration of dust and particulates inside the incinerator caused a too intense dispersion of the measurement signals. All units that have been tested are commercially available and are not specifically designed for measurements in a waste incinerator. The exact signal processing within each system was not known and its effect on the measurement results could thus not be estimated. Due to the high concentration of particulates and dust, any measurement system should have an intensity of its measurement signal higher than for low-dust applications. However, commercial instruments have been developed in the opposite direction, i.e. lower intensities in order to improve that safety of the working environment. Radar-based systems have been considered as a possible measurement technique. However, the fuel needs to be conductive in order to act as a radar-reflector. This is not the case in a waste incinerator, hence radar was excluded as a suitable technique. Gamma-radiation measurement systems are commonly applied for level surveillance applications. Usually the measurement direction is horizontally. Placing such a system vertically may provide improved grate monitoring possibility at the fuel feeding location. Laser and gamma-radiation measurement systems seem to offer the greatest potential as monitoring measurement systems. It can be recommended that continued development of such systems is needed. This should be done in close cooperation with manufacturers in order to develop a tailor-made monitoring system.

  15. Attitudes and participation at establishment of wind power offshore; Attityder och delaktighet vid etablering av vindkraft till havs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldo, Aasa (Inst. of Sociology, Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden)), e-mail: Asa.Waldo@soc.lu.se; Mikael Klintman (Research Policy Inst., Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    Wind power has previously been regarded as small-scale in character, as it has often been built as small groups of windmills. In recent years, wind power projects on a larger scale have been developed and established, making wind power more significant for the local community and its inhabitants. The present report is based on a study of views expressed by locals as regards offshore wind power. The report aims at examining the coordination between different stakeholders; decision-makers, communities and entrepreneurs concerning two wind power projects: Lillgrund in The Sound (Oeresund), and Utgrunden II in the Kalmar Strait (Kalmarsund). The report is intended to provide an understanding of attitudes and perceptions of risks and possibilities of various local stakeholders in these two cases. Conceptual tools are borrowed from our own studies as well as other researchers' previous studies of attitudes, values, and forms of public participation. Since the study objective has been to seek the stakeholders' own formulations of problems and opportunities concerning the projects, we have used a qualitative research design. Three types of techniques have been used to gather information: document analysis, field observations and in-depth interviews. Positive as well as negative attitudes towards the two wind power projects have been analyzed in both regions. The positive attitude is mainly based on ethical values, and for some also on material values (projects can create jobs and economic growth in the local community). The negative attitude is partly based on aesthetic values and a combination of substantive and ethical values (wind power is seen as unprofitable and inefficient). The analysis shows that there is need for increased knowledge, both through the provision of facts about economic and technical conditions of wind power and, by better understanding of local stakeholders' conceptions of wind power projects. Criticism of wind power is largely based on a view that it could not be an effective way to produce energy, and that it could not possibly bear its own costs. Thus, wind power entrepreneurs should clearly show environmental benefits, profitability and efficiency in a specific project draft. Moreover, negative emotions towards wind power projects are closely associated with aesthetic values. How people perceive the relative weight between opportunities and risks of the wind power establishment should be taken as a central part of the dialogue related to wind energy projects. It is crucial that the risks experienced by various stakeholders are identified and get substantial room in the planning and decision-making process, even if the entrepreneurs or authorities do not share these risk perceptions. In the local context, views of opportunities may function as a counter-weight to the negative effects that may be associated with the wind power project. It is highly preferable that these opportunities be identified in dialogue with the local community, and elucidated by the entrepreneurs and authorities. In this study, as well as in previous studies, it has been evident that limited potential for the local society to participate in the planning and decision process often overshadows the final result, in this case the physical wind power plant. The two projects studied were based on central political decisions. Given the increased role that wind power is supposed to play in Swedish energy supply, it is perhaps inevitable that some decisions are taken centrally. Yet, this entails limitations concerning the possibilities of participating and influencing the planning and decision-making process. Moreover, the high, political level of certain decisions is a challenge for entrepreneurs in creating public participation in such parts of the issue that people find meaningful to engage in. However, the possibility of using municipal veto against wind power projects is one main principle where influence can be exercised on a local level. This principle creates pressure on central authorities to secure support for the national objectives of wind power expansion, and on the entrepreneurs to get support for specific projects in the local community. Our analysis shows the importance of people knowing about a plant early in the process - and indeed to be part of some decision making - to create legitimacy for the process, and ultimately legitimacy for the specific wind farm. In order to create participation it is important to have a dialogue where all participants take part in the discussion with an open mind to new facts and perspectives, and that all experiences and concerns are treated with respect. In this report we have stressed the economic part as being a potential for active, local involvement in wind energy issues. From this study however, we want to emphasize the importance of distinguishing between different forms of economic participation.

  16. Effects of cutting characteristics on sprouting and early growth of willow; Effekter av sticklingsparametrar paa grobarhet och tillvaext hos salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verwijst, Theo; Nordh, Nils-Erik; Lundkvist, Anneli

    2010-06-15

    In plantations of willow, the size- and weight variability of established plants is increasing over time. This size-hierarchy development is enforced by competition for resources between plants, and is preserved by root reserves and maintained over harvest. This long-term development causes mortality of entire willow plants, and thereby to gaps in the stand, and production losses under later cutting cycles. Variations in productivity across a field may be caused by soil fertility- and moisture gradients and by differences in weed pressure. Even difference between adjacent plants during the establishment phase may be caused by small scale differences in the biotic (weeds) and abiotic (moisture, nutrients) direct environment of the plants. But the central question here is whether differences between single cuttings may contribute to the development of a size- and weight hierarchy between willow plants during the early establishment phase? And if so, (i) to what degree do differences between cuttings contribute to the development of a hierarchy and (ii) are we able, in commercial practice, to modify cutting handling and selection to minimise the development of early size variations between plants? This research project aimed to quantify how cutting length and -origin and cutting handling during planting affects survival and growth of plants in a willow stand under establishment. The goal was to identify and quantify cutting characteristics which are of relevance for a high viability and for a fast and equal establishment of a willow stand, and thereby to be able to recommend advice which leads to a faster and more reliable establishment of willows. The study was performed by means of two box experiments under controlled conditions and by means of a field experiment during May 2008 - September 2009, on the Ultuna campus (SLU) nearby Uppsala. In all trials, the clones Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis), Jorr (Salix viminalis), Olof (Salix viminalis x (Salix schwerinii x Salix viminalis)), Sven (Salix viminalis x (Salix schwerinii x Salix viminalis)) and Gudrun (Salix dasyclados) were used. In the box experiment 2008, we studied how cutting characteristics (clone, cutting length, weight and basal diameter, the original position of the cutting on the long shoot, and storage time under field conditions after long-term cold storage) affected survival, sprouting of shoots (emergence time, number of shoots, height growth rate) and shoot size (weight and leaf area development). In the box experiment 2009, we investigated how cutting characteristics and planting conditions, which led to different degrees of damage of the cuttings, affected survival, sprouting and consecutive growth. In the field experiment 2008-2009, we studied how cutting characteristics, in combination with a natural variation in soil conditions, weed pressure and competition from adjacent willows (planted in pure stands and in clonal mixtures) affected sprouting and survival during two seasons. This study showed that the investigated cutting characteristics, including choice of clone, have a profound influence on early establishment and thereby on the competitive ability against weeds. The size (length and diameter) of the cutting determines to a large degree how fast a plant can grow during early establishment. The phenological development rate (rate of bud burst and unfolding) largely depends on the cuttings origin along a long shoot (close to the base or to the top of a long shoot), and cuttings from a basal origin display a later bud burst. Even if large-sized cuttings (from an origin close to a long shoot base) tend to have a later bud burst than cuttings from an apical origin, cutting size is the major determinant for the size of a plant after about six weeks. Storage at field edge may result in bud burst on long shoots prior to planting, and in general those buds die at planting, resulting in burst of secondary buds. This process causes a delay in establishment and results in an increase in the relative size variation within an establishing stand. Plant

  17. Biofuel Drying - Literature Study and Definitions, Concepts and Terms; Torkning av biobraensle - litteraturstudie samt definitioner, begrepp och termer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanati, Mehri; Faghihi, Mostafa

    2001-09-01

    The report contains one section with definitions and explications of terms in the field of drying of biofuels. The second section presents, in english, the result of a literature study in the same subject, based on 90 literature references.

  18. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Energy combines; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Energikombinat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunman, Henrik; Lind, Fredrik; Johnsson, Filip (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report treats different ways to produce various upgraded biofuels from lignocellulosic materials in so called polygeneration processes. Furthermore the different upgrading technologies are also investigated with respect to co-production of heat and power. The processes investigated are linked to production of - bio pellets (or lignin pellets), dried, grinded and compressed biomass (or lignin); - torrified bio pellets, dried, grinded, heat treated and compressed biomass; - bio-oils or pyrolytic oils, liquefied biomass with crude oil quality; - ethanol via hydrolysis (process where the biomass is divided into sugars and lignin) followed by fermentation; - methane via hydrolysis and fermentation; - methane via indirect gasification and methane via indirect or suspension gasification, - DME (dimethyl ether) via indirect or suspension gasification; - methanol via indirect or suspension gasification; - DME and methanol via methane produced via indirect gasification. Lignocellulosic biomasses are, for example, forest residues or biomass that can be cultivated on degraded lands. The result from this report shows that it is only the production of bio pellets that is fully commercially available today. For all the other polygeneration processes investigated the production of bio-oil and torrified bio pellets stands out from the other processes investigated, as it is the market for the product that holds back the introduction of the technology. For the other technologies one or several components are still not commercialized and the challenges for these technologies are described in the report. Summarizing the efficiencies for the different processes, the processes that produces biofuels for stationary applications, bio pellets, torrified bio pellets and bio-oil, show the highest efficiencies. Accounted for the co-generated power, efficiencies up to 90 % based on ingoing lower heating values of the dry substance fed to the process could be achieved. For the processes that produce biofuels suitable for the transport sector efficiencies between 45 and 55 % can be reached, independent of product. However, there is one exception, which is methane produced via gasification that can reach efficiencies between 70 and 75 %. What differs more between the biofuel producing processes for the transport sector is the amount of biofuel that is possible to get out from the ingoing biomass, which can be anything between 20 and 70 %. Here, ethanol gives the lowest and methane via gasification the highest values. With respect to the costs to produce the different products the lowest costs are obviously related to the production of biofuels to be used in the stationary energy system. The total production cost of these products is between 40 and 90 % higher than the cost for biomass feedstock (Swedish forest residues). The production cost for the other biofuels is 2.5 to 3.5 times higher than the cost for the feedstock (Swedish forest residues), independent of product. However, some polygeneration schemes show very high cost, up to 9 times the cost for the feedstock. The uncertainty in these figures is, nevertheless, high and the real costs are dependent on if there are any supplier of the technology, which availability that is possible to achieve and the costs for the operation and maintenance. As one or several of the components included in these plants are still at a research or at a demonstration stage, it is not possible to give any more precise estimation on the costs or availability of such plants

  19. Översikt och detaljstudium av hårdvara för laborationer i datorteknik

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Detta kandidatexamensarbete avser att bidra till att hålla utbildningen i datorteknik på KTH i Stockholm uppdaterad. Möjligheten undersöks att i laborationer i datorteknik ersätta Alteras DE2-kort med enkortsdatorn Chipkit Uno32. Den centrala frågan är vilken effekt ett sådant byte skulle ha på utvecklingsmiljön i kursen. För att ta fram beslutsunderlag kring Uno32, experimenterar jag med att utveckla relevanta program på enkortsdatorn. Detta arbete samlar min erfarenheter. Jag beskriver två ...

  20. Environmentally adapted energy production and working environment. Manufacture of wood pellets; Miljoeanpassad energiproduktion och arbetsmiljoe. Tillverkning av traepellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez de Davila, Eliana

    2002-04-01

    The working environment at three wood pellet production plants was studied. Measurements were made of dust, microorganisms (bacteria and molds) and terpenes. Both stationary and personal sampling equipment were used. Dust sources and dust diffusion were mapped. Work in the raw material storage rooms and at the semi-automatic sack-filling stations can give high exposure to wood dusts (max. 4.7 mg/m{sup 3}). These high levels might cause irritations in the respiratory tract. Relatively high levels of terpenes were detected in the plant that did not dry wood shavings or sawdust. Pressing of non-dried shavings probably leads to emission of terpenes and other gaseous substances in the plant. Recommendations for improvements of the working conditions are given in the report.

  1. Att förstå mediekritik : Begreppsliga, empiriska och teoretiska studier av svensk mediekritik 1998-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Media criticism is studied as a concept, as critical expression and as a force for social change. The concept of media criticism is developed in relation to different forms of critical practice, theory about criticism and critique and as a part of theories about media accountability. Media criticism as a force of social change is approached by exploring concepts for the analysis of social and cultural forms of media criticism. Four kinds of media texts published in Sweden between 1998 and 201...

  2. SCR during co-combustion of biofuel and recycled fuels; SCR vid sameldning av biobraenslen och returbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, Aasa; Myringer, Aase [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Aurell, Johanna; Marklund, Stellan [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Environmental Chemistry

    2005-06-01

    An increased cost for wood fuels in combination with higher taxes on fossil fuels have led to an increased interest for less costly recycled fuels. Two examples on recycle fuels are demolition wood and refuse energy waste. These fuels are becoming a larger amount of the heat and electricity production in Sweden, not the least since the prohibition against deposition of combustible waste 2002. One of the environmental problems with combustion of bio based fuels are emissions of nitrogen oxides, NO{sub x}. The commercial flue gas cleaning method that gives the highest reduction in NO{sub x} is SCR, selective catalytic reduction, which can reduce more than 90% of the emissions. The planned raise in NO{sub x}-fee from 40 SEK to 50 SEK per kg/NO{sub x} increases the potential for advanced flue gas cleaning techniques. Today there is unique knowledge about SCR in combination with biofuel in Sweden. During cocombustion of recycle wood and wood fuels there is however, besides the deactivating compounds that dominate during wood combustion, mainly alkali, also other potentially poisonous compounds that can deactivate the catalyst. The goal for the study was to investigate the potential and risk with SCR during cocombustion of wood fuels and recycle wood. The project aimed at describing which components in the fuel/flue gas that leads to an eventual increase in deactivation and compare this with previous studies on wood fuels. The project also aimed at in full scale verify reduction of dioxin over a SCR deNO{sub x} catalyst during combustion of wood fuels and recycle wood. The deactivation of a SCR catalyst increases with an increased amount of recycled wood. During co-combustion of bark and 30 % demolition wood the deactivation increased from 30 % loss of catalytic activity during pure wood fuel combustion to 40 % loss of catalytic activity after 1500 hours of exposure. During combustion of 100% refuse energy fuel the loss of activity was 80% after 1500 hours of exposure. The deactivation was mainly due to alkali poisoning of the catalyst. Alkali (and lead during combustion of refuse energy fuel) was accumulated linearly during the time of exposure. The amount of lead was however so low that it only marginally contributed to the deactivation. It is the amount of chloride in the flue gas particles (and not the alkali content) that correlates with the deactivation of the catalyst. The alkali compounds are easily soluble in water, which makes it possible to regenerate the catalyst and prolong the lifetime. The catalyst reduces, beside NO{sub x}, also up to 70 % of the dioxin amount in the flue gas before dust collection (calculated as I-TEQ). This increases the potential for the technique in plants that combustion chlorine containing fuels where the dioxin amount can exceed the new emission threshold value from the EU-directive for waste combustion.

  3. Hund i vården : Fysiska, Psykiska och Sociala effekter av arbete med vårdhund

    OpenAIRE

    Martelleur, Elin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pet therapy has existed as a concept since 1964 when the American child psychologist Boris Levinson coined the term. Nowadays Animal Assisted Activity (AAA) and Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) are both recognized concepts, and with progressed research the science of pet therapy increases. Purpose: To summate the most recent science in pet therapy (therapy dog) research with focus on physical, psychical, and social effects. Methods: Literature study/review with descriptive design, re...

  4. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Nuclear Power; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Kaernkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders (Vattenfall Research and Development, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report is a subproject of the project 'Energy system feasibility study - Future concepts for heat- and power production' regarding nuclear power. The following topics are covered; nuclear power of today in Sweden and Europe, the environmental and economic aspects of nuclear power, development and RandD of nuclear power and the sustainability of nuclear power. The conclusions are that nuclear power has an important role to play in terms of the objectives of EU regarding energy viz, Security of Supply, Competitiveness and reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. In terms of economy, nuclear power is one of the most attractive options that are available on the market today. This is manifested by the great activity in the market the last years leading to a number of nuclear projects in Europe and elsewhere. In the near future the RandD efforts are dominated by means of life extension of the existing nuclear fleet. In a longer perspective the RandD programs are heading towards a sustainable nuclear energy society. This includes research areas in materials engineering, reprocessing technologies, fast breeder reactors and, possibly, transmutation

  5. Turister som sexköpare : En etnografisk studie av interaktionen mellan turister och sexindustrin i Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Hellstrand, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how it is possible that tourists who are not actively seeking child prostitutes still account for the majority of child sex tourists. The study includes tourists, locals, people working in the sex industry and staff from Swedish embassy and ECPAT international in Bangkok. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach and an ethnographic method, using field observations and interviews to collect the empirical data. The data has then been categorize...

  6. Requirements for drilling and disposal in deep boreholes; Foerutsaettningar foer borrning av och deponering i djupa borrhaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, Anders [QTOB, Haesselby (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report experience from drilling at great depth in crystalline rock is compiled based on project descriptions, articles and personal contacts. Rock mechanical effects have been analyzed. The report also describes proposals made by SKB and other agencies regarding the disposal of and closure of deep boreholes. The combination of drilling deep with large diameter in crystalline rocks have mainly occurred in various research projects, such as in the German KTB project. Through these projects and the increased interest in recent years for geothermal energy , today's equipment is expected to be used to drill 5000 m deep holes , with a hole diameter of 445 mm , in crystalline rock. Such holes could be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. With the deposition technique recently described by Sandia National Laboratories in USA, SKB estimates that it might be possible to implement the disposal to 5000 m depth. Considering the actual implementation, drilling and disposal, and the far-reaching requirements on nuclear safety and radiation protection, it is considered an important risk getting stuck with the capsule-string, or part of it, above deposition zone without being able to get it loose. In conclusion, even if the drilling and the deposit would succeed there remains to verify that the drill holes with the deposited canisters meet the initial requirements and is long-term safe.

  7. Visioner av världen : hädelse och djävulspakt i justitierevisionen 1680-1789

    OpenAIRE

    Olli, Soili-Maria

    2007-01-01

    In early modern Sweden, intentional blasphemy was regarded as one of the most serious crimes one could commit. Blasphemy was termed “Crimen Laesae Majestatis Divinae” – “a crime against Our Heavenly Majesty” and was subject to the death penalty. From the 1680´s it was possible to be pardoned from death sentences already delivered by the courts of appeal by applying to the “Judiciary Inspection”, (Sw. Justitierevisionen) In early modern times the definition of blasphemy was influenced by the m...

  8. Life time assessment and repair of dissimilar metal welds. Part 2; Livslaengdsbedoemning och reparation av blandsvetsskarvar. Etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Weilin Zang; Vinter Dahl, Kristian; Borggreen, Kjeld; Hald, John

    2007-12-15

    Phase 1 of the project showed that the research on dissimilar metal welds mainly has focussed on those including austenitic stainless steels. In addition, it was found that damage in dissimilar metal welds in Swedish and Danish power plants were frequent. In the present project the common type of dissimilar welds in the Nordic countries were studied; those between heat resistant low alloy steels and martensitic 9-12 % Cr steels. Three trial welds with three different filler materials were fabricated. The parent metals were 2,25Cr1Mo and 12Cr1MoV (X20) steels. The filler materials were 5Cr1Mo, 12Cr1MoV and a Ni-base alloy. One half of each weld was post weld heat treated (PWHT) at 650 deg C and the other half at 750 deg C. Then, a number of heat treatments at 600-660 deg C/1000 h to simulate service exposure for 50,000 to 200,000 h at 540 deg were carried out on test samples from the welds. The samples were studied metallographically, including measurements of hardness profiles and carbon content profiles. Thermodynamical simulations and creep damage simulations of butt welds were performed with data of the trial weld as a starting point. The purpose of the study was to get a throughout understanding of the creep behaviour of dissimilar metal welds, how their groove and fabrication can be improved, how their life time can be prolonged and how dissimilar weld should be non-destructively tested with respect to creep damage. From the results the following results may be drawn: - Carburised and decarburised zones develop during the PWHT. The zones are small with a PWHT at 650 deg C and relatively large at 750 deg C. They appear as measurable zones in the microstructure. 5Cr weld metal gives smaller zones than 12Cr weld metal. With the Ni-base weld metal intermittent decarburised zones could be observed across the wall after PWHT at 750 deg C. - The thermodynamical simulations predicted carburised and decarburised zones with sizes in agreement with corresponding heat treated welds. - The results of the thermodynamical simulations could be verified by the carbon content profiles. The simulations show that the widths of the carburised and decarburised zones increased with increasing heat exposure. In the microstructure, however, such increases were hardly observable. The difference can be explained by the fact that the nucleation, growth and final size of carbides can be distinguished in the microstructure but not in the simulated carbon profiles. - The creep simulations showed that the decarburised zone contributed to large reductions of the creep life time, particularly in combination with V-groove. By use of a U groove or a tulip groove, a big root face and a wide top layer, the creep life may be significantly improved. - Use of strongly over matched weld metals, such as X20 or Ni-base against a low alloy steel will, according to the simulations, give damage development inside the wall. It may therefore be more difficult to reveal and monitor creep damage in such dissimilar metal welds compared to those where damage appear at the surface, as in the cases of 5Cr weld metal. - The creep simulations resulted in significantly longer life times for the dissimilar metal weld with 5Cr consumable than for the other ones with 12Cr or Ni-base consumables. - From the results, it has been possible to make recommendations of preferred joint groove geometries, consumable material selection, welding, heat treatment, repair welding and testing and monitoring of creep damage non-destructively, which was the main purpose of the project

  9. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Wind Power; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Joergen; Morthorst, Poul Erik (Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment cost of 1.230 Euro/kW with a typically variation from approximately 1000 Euro/kW to approximately 1400 Euro/kW. The calculated costs per kWh wind generated power range from approximately 0.07-0.10 Euro/kWh at sites with low average wind speeds to approximately 0.05-0.065 Euro/kWh at good coastal positions, with an average of approximately 0.07 Euro/kWh at a medium wind site. Offshore costs are largely dependent on weather and wave conditions, water depth, and distance to the coast. The cost of wind generated power is higher for offshore wind farms that for on land ones ranging from approximately 0.06 Euro/kWh to more than 0.09 Euro/kWh. Assuming a learning rate at 10% and a doubling time of total installed capacity of four years the cost interval would in 2015 be approximately 0.048 to 0.055 Euro/kWh for a coastal and inland site, respectively

  10. Life time assessment and repair of dissimilar metal welds. Part 1; Livslaengdsbedoemning och reparation av blandsvetsskarvar. Etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld

    2005-04-01

    Research on the performance of dissimilar metal welds in high temperature plant has been performed for many years. Nevertheless damages are frequent in such welds. In order to decrease the damage problems and make it possible to estimate residual lifetimes of dissimilar metal welds in our Nordic countries it is first essential to i) collect the knowledge in the literature and ii) map current dissimilar metal welds and their condition in Swedish and Danish plants. The present report describes this first part of the work. There is a comprehensive literature of she subject. Most work has been performed on ferritic/austenitic dissimilar welds. In Swedish and Danish plants the dominating type is ferritic/martensitic dissimilar welds. The damage mechanisms are about the same in the two types, creep is the dominating mechanism, but plant experience indicates that the ferritic/austenitic combination is more prone to damage than the ferritic/martensitic one. An important difference between the two types is that Ni-base weld metal generally prolongs the lifetime for ferritic/austenitic dissimilar welds whereas it shows an opposite effect in ferritic/martensitic ones. In the latter case use of a 5 % Cr weld metal seems to be the best choice but the experiences of such welds are limited. The mapping of dissimilar welds indicates that there are predominantly special kinds of welds which fail whereas ordinary butt welds and branch welds are relatively free from damage.

  11. Survey of failure mechanisms for tube heat exchangers in heat pumps; Sammanstaellning av skadeorsaker och skadefoerlopp i tubvaermevaexlare till vaermepumpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Leif; Haegerstedt, Lars-Erik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Larger heat pumps have been used for district heating production during 10-20 years and have become an important complement to other heat production sources. However, after a long time of problem free operation, the heat pumps start to show an increasing amount of ageing problems, especially in the heat exchangers, which can result in damages and leaks of cooling media. Because of this, Vaermeforsk has financed a survey over the most predominant damages and how they depend on heat exchanger tube materials and testing techniques. The result is based on an inquiry to more than 20 heat pump owners with pumps larger than 5 MW (nominal capacity), and the results of tests and damages of ca. 200 heat exchangers have been assembled. The data has been collected by inquiries but almost every production person has also been contacted by phone or e-mail. The result has been compiled in tables and an Access database. The result shows that the service life of stainless tubes in evaporator tube exchangers is much longer than for Cu-alloyed tubes. Titanium tubes in the same application will even resist in the most difficult environments such as geothermal waters. Condenser tubes of carbon steel in district heating water applications show damages from pitting corrosion already after a few years of service. Cu-alloyed tubes show a considerable longer time before damages and stainless steel tubes give a very long service life and very few damages are reported. It must be noticed that by regularly scheduled tests of the tube bundles, attacks on the tube material can be located and taken care of before they result in leakage, and the life time of the heat exchangers is by that prolonged. Smooth tubes may give advantages in comparison to finned tubes. This is based on the fact that the finned tubes show an unlucky combination of a high notch effect and a weak structure in the bottom of the fins. Smooth tubes also decrease the possibility of tube decontamination from impurities in the refrigerator. The deposits decrease the tube heat transfer. This may give a higher investment cost, but that has to be compared to a longer service life. Tubes partially without fins at the baffle plates are recommended. Upgraded materials should be chosen for new tubes in tube heat exchangers if ammonia or chlorides are present in the heat source. Special attention shall be paid to vibrations and self-oscillation that will cause rapid wear and fatigue cracking of the tube bundle. Eddy Current Testing is the most common method of testing of tubes in heat pump heat exchangers. The tests shall always bee preceded by a calibration against identical sized specimens and, if possible, identical defects. Finned tubes shall be calibrated against identical sized specimens with measurements against length and sizes as measured from the bottom of the fins. It is also of importance that some tubes with indicated defects are subtracted and examined in connection with the test to get an impression of the correspondence between measurement and result. The report gives recommendations regarding i.a. choice of material and tests.

  12. Analyses of copper from a prototype capsule 5 and 6; Analyser av koppar fraan prototypkapsel 5 och 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, Claes; Lundholm, Martin; Persson, Dan; Jakobsson, Dan; Sedlakova, Miroslava; Randelius, Mats; Karlsson, Oskar; Rydgren, Pontus; Kimab, Swerea

    2012-12-15

    'Prototype' is a series of experiments where SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, expose the full scale copper canisters under conditions intended to be representative of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, however, without radioactivity (SKB 2012) . Copper from one of these installations, deposition 5, has been studied for corrosion . Samples were also taken from the capsule that had been exposed in deposition 6. Drill cores across the capsule wall has been documented regarding microstructure. All samples have been exposed for about seven years in the prototype repository. Studies carried out leads to the following conclusions: Regarding the ring on top of the capsule from the deposition 5; There are local corrosion with a depth of 3-5 microns. The general or uniform corrosion that has occurred can not be quantified. The relatively sharp traces of processing of the material before exposure indicates that the general corrosion was minor. Small amounts of corrosion product has been detected in surface analysis. The surface profile on the copper surface, aside from the grooves after processing and areas of local corrosion, are relatively even. Metallographic examination of cross section shows no tendency to pitting or intergranular corrosion. Analysis for hydrogen by melting a quantity of metal does not show any increased hydrogen content. Regarding the material of the capsule from the deposition 6: The capsule has not been specifically tested for corrosion. Cross sections of drill cores through the copper canister has been documented and metallo graphically exhibits nothing remarkable.

  13. Homo religiosus – den religiösa mannen? : en kvantitativ och diskursiv analys av kön och sexualitet i läromedels kapitel om buddhism och hinduism.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlander, Petra; Dahlgren, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyse how sex and sexuality are presented in the Buddhism and Hinduism chapters of religious studies textbooks for upper secondary school. The chosen textbooks are all linked to the new curriculum Lgr 11 which was implemented in the Swedish school system in the spring of 2012. The textbooks were analysed by using two methods; content analysis and discourse analysis. Content analysis was used to examine with which frequency sexes and sexualities appear in the textbooks, wh...

  14. Risker och möjligheter i samband med Bitcoin : Bitcoin - ett pyramidspel eller en finansbubbla?

    OpenAIRE

    Rutanen, Emmi

    2015-01-01

    I denna undersökning har jag undersökt risker och möjligheter som finns i samband med den virtuella valutan Bitcoin. Syftet med undersökningen var att reda ut hurdana risker och möjligheter det finns i samband med Bitcoin samt jämföra Bitcoin med pyramidspel och finansbubblor. Analysen är utfört i två delar, den första med en SWOT analys och den andra genom att utvärdera valutans särdrag med finansbubblor och pyramidspel. Analysen strävar till att besvara de största riskerna samt möjlighetern...

  15. Dans i skolan : om genus, kropp och uttryck

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of my licentiate thesis from 2007 “Dansens plats i skolan. Tradition, utveckling och lärande i Skellefteå kommun” [‘The place of dance in schools. Tradition, development and learning and teaching in the Municipality of Skellefteå’]. The overarching aim of the thesis is to interpret and understand dance as a form of expression and phenomenon in schools, which comprises dance teaching, learning in dance, and dance teachers’ attitudes, experiences and ideas. Dance t...

  16. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  17. Fler perspektiv, höjd vetenskaplig nivå, ökad trygghet: grupphandledning av självständiga arbeten i laboratoriemiljö.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Setterud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syftet med denna artikel är att diskutera formerna för hur grupphandledning kan arrangeras inom utbildningar med starkt fokus på laborativ verksamhet. Jag presenterar data från vårt projekt om stöd för handledning, varav delar tidigare har beskrivits i slutrapporten. Jag argumenterar för att nätbaserade grupper är ett på många sätt bättre alternativ än grupper som möts fysiskt då projekten utförs i laborativ miljö. Detta är ett sätt att anpassa grupphandledningen till de förhållanden som råder inom en utbildningsmiljö med närvarokrävande laborativ verksamhet, där både studenter och handledare har mycket svårt att planera in fysiska möten. Handledningsgrupper skapades med studenter som tillsammans med en grupphandledare, frikopplad från deras egna projekt, diskuterade det självständiga arbetet samt fick möjlighet att ge och ta återkoppling på varandras texter vid ett flertal tillfällen under processens gång. Slutsatsen är att grupphandledning på nätet kan vara ett bra komplement till individuell handledning av självständiga arbeten i laborativ miljö. Studenterna i vår studie kände en ökad trygghet i arbetet, kvaliteten på deras skriftliga rapporter ökade och deras lärande förbättrades. Handledarna som deltog utvecklade sin pedagogiska kompetens och fick ökad insikt i handledningsprocessen

  18. Syncope and Idiopathic (Paroxysmal) AV Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis

    2015-08-01

    Syncope due to idiopathic AV block is characterized by: 1) ECG documentation (usually by means of prolonged ECG monitoring) of paroxysmal complete AV block with one or multiple consecutive pauses, without P-P cycle lengthening or PR interval prolongation, not triggered by atrial or ventricular premature beats nor by rate variations; 2) long history of recurrent syncope without prodromes; 3) absence of cardiac and ECG abnormalities; 4) absence of progression to persistent forms of AV block; 5) efficacy of cardiac pacing therapy. The patients affected by idiopathic AV block have low baseline adenosine plasma level values and show an increased susceptibility to exogenous adenosine. The APL value of the patients with idiopathic AV block is much lower than patients affected by vasovagal syncope who have high adenosine values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliabilitet av den norske versjonen av Timed Up and Go (TUG)

    OpenAIRE

    Botolfsen, Pernille; Helbostad, Jorunn L.

    2010-01-01

    Hensikt: Vurdere intratester-, intertester-, og test-retest reliabilitet av den norske versjonen av «Timed Up and Go» (TUG). Design: Metodestudie som benytter tverrsnittsstudie-design. Materiale og metode: Tretti personer (20 kvinner og 10 menn) over 75 år (gjennomsnitt 82,5) gjennomførte TUG tre ganger. To fysioterapeuter skåret deltagerne. For utregning av relativ reliabilitet ble intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) anvendt, og for utregning av absolutt reliabilitet b...

  20. Vilka typer av nyheter har drivit stora prisförändringar hos börsnoterade europeiska fotbollsklubbar? : Är prisförändringarna ekonomiskt rationella?

    OpenAIRE

    Dagberg, Michael; Yap, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Det som skiljer fotbollsbranschen från övriga företag är att framgång i inte enbart mäts i ökade marknadsandelar eller intäkter utan även utifrån sportsliga framgångar. Traditionell finansteori med utgångspunkt i ekonomisk rationalitet kontrasterar en känslobaserad beteendeekonomi för att förklara vad som driver fotbollsklubbars aktiepriser. Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att identifiera och kartlägga vilka typer av nyheter som har drivit stora prisförändringar och analysera om det ...

  1. Årsredovisningens påverkan : En studie ur företagens och aktieägarnas synvinkel

    OpenAIRE

    Schou Vassbotn, Johanne; Bergström, Linnéa

    2012-01-01

    Årsredovisning är en lagstadgad finansiell rapport skapad för att ge intressenter inblick i företagens verksamhet. Det finns lagar över vad en årsredovisning bör innehålla för att säkerställa dess kvalitet inför dess intressenter. Trots detta uppmanas aktieägare att vara kritiska i sin läsning av årsredovisningen. Vi ställde oss frågan varför. Syftet med denna uppsats var att få en djupare förståelse för hur årsredovisningar används för att påverka aktieägare och hur kritiska aktieägare är vi...

  2. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Mining industry produces 25 Mton mine tailings yearly that are deposited in impoundments in the nature. When this sand, containing sulphur rich minerals, reacts with oxygen and water it starts to weather and acidic metal rich water is formed. To prevent this, the sand can be covered with a sealing layer and a protective cover layer with vegetation. As sealing and cover materials fly ashes and sewage sludge can be used. The aim of this investigation was to find out: 1) how sealing layer of fly ashes with and without sewage sludge, and a cover with sewage sludge can be placed practically on mine tailings in a cold climate. 2) how such a cover should be constructed to minimize the risk of root penetration and leakage of nutrients and metals 3) which vegetation that is most suitable This was investigated in field- and greenhouse tests with a sealing layer of fly ash and/or sewage sludge with a cover layer of sewage sludge in which different plant species were established. The practical application was performed in 0.3-1 ha plots at a mine tailings impoundments at Boliden. The ability of plant roots to penetrate a sealing layer was investigated, as well as the effect of simulated root exudates on the penetration resistance in hardened ash. Leakage of nutrients and metals from cover layer of sewage sludge, in some cases with sealing layers beneath, was investigated in field and greenhouse lysimeters. Various plant species were compared on their ability to affect metal and nutrient leakage as well as root penetration and shattering of the hardened ashes. The project was a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field tests were performed at the impoundment Gillervattnet in Boliden and in Garpenberg. Cooperating were also Iggesund Paperboard, Skellefteaa Kraft, Stora Enso Fors, Umeaa Energi and Vattenfall, all producers of ashes that were used, as well as Stockholm Vatten AB, which produced the sewage sludge. The most important conclusions are that: It is possible to apply a sealing layer of ashes on mine tailings independent of season due to the quick hardening process of the ashes. Sewage sludge can, on the other hand, only be applied when the tailings are frozen. The application leads to a rise in the ground water level in the tailings Covering of mine tailings with sewage sludge and fly ash decreases the metal leakage. The higher proportion of sewage sludge in the cover layer the more N and P and less metals is released. The leakage decreases with time. Plant establishment in general decreases the leakage of metals and nutrients, especially by decreasing the amount of leakage water. Because of great amounts of nitrate in sewage sludge plants with a high uptake of nitrate is to prefer to decrease the nitrogen leakage. Some plant species can loosen up the surface of hardened fly ash, and in that way influence the sealing layer structure. This may lead to increased breaking down of secondary minerals, which can be important for the stability of the sealing layer. It is possible that excretion of sacharids from plant roots can increase shattering of ash, and that such exudation increases in the presence of ash. Estimation of the resistance needed to avoid root penetration were made to approx2,5 MPa. Addition of sewage sludge increases the risk of root penetration of a sealing layer. Since roots can affect a thin sealing layer a thickness of approximately 0.5 meter is recommended

  3. Impact assessment of the impact on nature values of the construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden av anlaeggande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    Construction and operation of a repository at Soederviken in Forsmark, Oesthammar municipality means impact, effects and consequences for the environment. This report describes the natural conditions and natural values in Forsmark with particular focus on Soederviken. Furthermore, an assessment of consequences for the natural environment in the development and operation of a repository at Soederviken. Assessment of impacts from water activities are treated in a special report.

  4. Results from a full scale application of ashes and other residuals in the final cover construction of the Tveta landfill; Utvaerdering av fullskaleanvaendning av askor och andra restprodukter vid sluttaeckning av Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Gustav (Telge AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden)); Andreas, Lale (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    In 2000 Telge Aatervinning - a waste management and recycling company - started investigating ashes from incineration of industrial and biowaste waste. The company was given a permit from the Swedish Environmental Court to cover four hectares of the house hold waste landfill area. In 2006 the company received an unlimited permit to cover the remaining part of the landfill when the works end some thirty years later. Ashes were used the first time in 1966 for testing. Literature studies indicated the ashes can have a low hydraulic conductivity under certain conditions. In 1999 collaboration started with the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleaa University of Technology. Residuals from household and industrial waste were subject to investigation. Initially, biowaste incineration products were subject to testing and were later extended to other waste products, e.g. sludge, contaminated soils, foundry, and compost material. Several different sub-fractions of ashes were included in the investigation e.g. bottom and fly ash, various slag products after up-grading including dewatering, separation and sifting. Subsequently, a complete covering system of a landfill consists of residuals. Six test areas were outlined in order to give a good representation for cover construction in flat and steep areas with different compositions of liner material. The results show that in all areas the hydraulic conductivity construction yields less then 50 liters per square meters and years and can be less the than 5 liters in a repository for hazardous waste if required. In accordance with literature data the field observations show the liner material constructed only by ash material under certain conditions can form a monolithic structure due to very slow processes thus indicating small pore volumes that unable water air to interact with other media. The concept of using ash can be related to natural analogues of volcanic ashes and has been used in old defence walls and other buildings thousand years back. The last part of the report brings a number of topics for future research and a discussion about problems to with the authorities to use residuals for covering landfills

  5. Gestaltningar av genus i förskolemiljö : En kvalitativ text- och bildanalys av hur genus gestaltas i ett bestämt urval av bilderböcker

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica, Karlsson

    2018-01-01

    The study is a qualitative literature analysis with the purpose of examining how children and preschool pedagogues were portrayed in picture books that take place in the preschool environment, based on gender perspectives. To define the material, books that take place in the preschool environment had been selected. The purpose of the study was also to examine how relationships between children and preschool pedagogues were portrayed, from a gender perspective. And whether there was a differen...

  6. Apoptosis induced by (di-isopropyloxyphoryl-Trp) -Lys-OCH in K562 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    )2-Lys-OCH3. It inhibited the proliferation of K562 and HeLa cells ..... 33(1), March 2008. Figure 3. Periodic analysis of (DIPP-Trp)2-Lys-OCH3 (A, 40 µM; B, 80 µM) against K562 (A) and HeLa (B) cells with re-feeding of fresh medium in half of ...

  7. Guide för referenshantering : APA-manual inom Barn- och ungdomsvetenskap (BUVA)

    OpenAIRE

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Denna guide behandlar först hur du enligt APA refererar i löpande text och därefter hur man skriver en referenslista. För en komplett guide till APA Style hänvisas till Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010) eller till hemsidan http://www.apastyle.org, där det finns tydlig introduktion i ljud och bild till APA Style.

  8. Situasjonsbestemt ledelse av studentgrupper i friluftsliv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Lennart Vikene

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen gir et praktisk eksempel på hvordan ulike studentgrupper i forbindelse med bygging av nødbivuakk i vinterfjellet opplevde min situasjonsbestemte ledelse som veileder. Teorigrunnlaget viser til situasjonsbestemte ledelsesmodeller og hva som kjennetegner god veiledning i friluftsliv. Datainnsamlingen bygger på kvantitative data fra et spørreskjema og benyttes til å analysere studentenes opplevelse av veileders ledelse ut i fra rangeringsmetoden Visuell Analog Skala (VAS. Fra samme spørreskjema var det også et åpent spørsmål som benyttes til refleksjon over studentenes opplevelse av sikkerhet i undervisningssituasjonen. Resultatene viser at studentgruppene opplevde klare ledelsesforskjeller gjennom de ulike fasene som ledelsen ble delt opp i, men at ledelsesatferden varierte lite i forhold til gruppenes erfaringsgrunnlag. Resultatene tyder på at jeg som veileder i stor grad har blitt påvirket av mine tidligere erfaringer og den potensielle risikoen som ligger ved aktiviteten. Selv om den situasjonsbestemte ledelsen varierte lite mellom de tre gruppene, viser resultatenes store standardavvik at de ulike smågruppene opplevde at ledelsen varierte. Dette tyder på at jeg som veileder til en viss grad har evnet å benytte situasjonsbestemt ledelse i praksis. På grunn av studentgruppenes relativt like oppfatning av ledelsen i de ulike fasene, viser resultatene også noe av vanskelighetene veileder har i forhold til å gjøre en korrekt vurdering av gruppens evner og erfaring i relasjon til læringssituasjonene som oppstår. Sentralt for ledelsen er likevel at studentgruppene opplevde ledelsen som betryggende, noe som gir studentene et godt grunnlag for senere opplevelser i tilknytning til vinterfriluftsliv og bygging av nødbivuakk.

  9. Uptake of AV-1451 in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Tyler J; Johnson, Derek R; Fang, Ping; Senjem, Matthew; Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Boeve, Bradley F; Pandey, Mukesh K; Kantarci, Kejal; Jones, David T; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Murray, Melissa; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Schwarz, Christopher G; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Lowe, Val J

    2017-12-01

    AV-1451 is an imaging agent labeled with the positron-emitting radiolabel Fluorine-18. 18F-AV-1451 binds paired helical filament tau (PHF-tau), a pathology related to Alzheimer's disease. In our study of AV-1451 uptake in the brains of cognitively normal subjects, we noted a case of a meningioma with visually significant uptake of AV-1451. We initiated the present retrospective study to further examine cases of meningioma that underwent AV-1451 imaging. We searched the patient records of 650 patients who had undergone AV-1451 at our institution for the keyword "meningioma" to identify potential cases. PET/CT and MRI results were visually reviewed and semi-quantitative analysis of PET was performed. A paired student's t test was run between background and tumor standard uptake values. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the association between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications on CT. We identified 12 cases of meningioma, 58% (7/12) of which demonstrated uptake greater than background using both visual analysis and tumor-to-normal cortex ratios (T/N + 1.90 ± 0.83). The paired student's t test revealed no statistically significant difference between background and tumor standard uptake values (p = 0.09); however, cases with a T/N ratio greater than one showed statistically higher uptake in tumor tissue (p = 0.01). A significant association was noted between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications (p = 0.01). AV-1451 PET imaging should be reviewed concurrently with anatomic imaging to prevent misleading interpretations of PHF-tau distribution due to meningiomas.

  10. Nedbrytning av utvalgte plantevernmidler i norsk jordsmonn

    OpenAIRE

    Haneborg, Mads Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven har hatt som formål å modellere nedbrytningen av et utvalg sprøytemidler som ble testet på to norske forsøksfelt, i Stjørdal og Klepp med ulike klimatiske forhold og jordsmonn. For begge forsøksfelt ble det foretatt uttak av jordprøver over en periode på ett år fra sprøytingen, i tidsrommet fra mai 2012 til juni 2013. Jordprøvene ble analysert ved bruk av LC-MS/MS etter prøveopparbeiding med væskeekstraksjon. Intern standard metode ble benyttet til kvantifise...

  11. AVS (Application Visualization System) user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi; Gorai, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Kazuhiko.

    1996-03-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS for image processing software and an animation processing system (video, frame scan converter). This report summarizes the information to use AVS and to develop and maintain computer and network environment for image processing. (author)

  12. Värm mig! : Planering av värmare för reumatiker

    OpenAIRE

    Norrgrann, Saara

    2013-01-01

    I mitt examensarbete har jag planerat och tillverkat produkter för reumatiker. Jag har forskat i sjukdomen reumatism och för att förstå problematiken bakom sjukdomen har jag läst litteratur och gjort intervjuer med personer med reumatism. Jag har även undersökt vilka produkter och material som marknadsförs speciellt för reumatiker. Detta har gett mig viktig information och förståelseför kraven på kläderna. I produktplaneringen har jag utgått från min forskningsdel och hittat utvecklingsmö...

  13. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelter, Christopher; Raab, Udo; Lazarus, Friedrich; Ruppert, Volker; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2015-08-01

    The study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients. 63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5%), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8%). A high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5%). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7%). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5% at 6 month, 31.3% at 12 month and 19.2% at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1%), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5%) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5%). Re-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  14. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Raab, Udo, E-mail: udo.raab@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lazarus, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lazarus@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Nephrology (Germany); Ruppert, Volker, E-mail: volker.ruppert@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany); Vorwerk, Dierk, E-mail: dierk.vorwerk@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  15. Strategiske beslutninger foran publikum : en spillteoretisk analyse av betingelser for utbrudd av borgerkrig

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sunniva Frislid

    2006-01-01

    Borgerkrig modelleres i foreliggende litteratur enten som følge av privat informasjon om aktørenes forventede nytte av krig eller som følge av at myndighetene ikke troverdig kan forplikte seg til en fremforhandlet avtale. Eksisterende modeller overser i stor grad hvordan effekten av at myndighetene gir etter for en intern grupperings krav kan påvirke hvordan andre interne grupperinger forholder seg til myndighetene i fremtiden. Dersom myndighetene gir etter for en intern grupperings krav, kan...

  16. Praktisering av krav til rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning : en analyse av regnskapspraksis i fiskeindustrien

    OpenAIRE

    Vajenina, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    Dette er en studie av årsberetning, og videre praktisering av rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning. Studiens problemstilling: ”Hvordan blir kravene om rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning praktisert i utvalgte selskaper i Norge?” I denne studien ser jeg på praksis av rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning. Lovkravet til rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning fremgår av rskl.§ 3-3a, 2.-4.ledd. Innhold i rettvisende oversikt er grundig beskrevet under punkt 2.5 i NRS 16 Årsberetning. Reg...

  17. Veileder for kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorarealer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne

    Investorer og leietakere blir stadig mer interessert i helse- og miljøkvaliteter. Men kunnskapen er lav hos de fleste om hva de skal etterspørre og hvordan slike kvaliteter kan dokumenteres. Meglere har en viktig rolle som formidler av kvaliteter. Grønn Byggallianse har i samarbeid med blant annet...... Norsk Eiendom, Enova og NGBC utarbeidet en mal for standard kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorlokaler. Målet med malen er å bidra til at leietager får det produktet han trenger til riktig pris og at man unngår unødig miljøbelastning. Målet er videre at å bidra og stimulere til, at innleie....../utleie prosesser startes med en dialogbasert prosess. Standarden er tenkt som et hjelpemiddel til en systematisk gjennomgang av, og diskusjon av hvilke kvaliteter som har prioritet, høy, middel eller lav prioritet for leietaker. Resultatet av dialog og diskusjon fastlegger endelige krav til kvalitet og...

  18. "Oftast du vet själv vad är det rätta" : Högstadieelevers sociala mediavanor och regelperception i onlinesammanhang

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Sociala medier spelar en allt större roll i hur vi kommunicerar och uttrycker oss. Denna studie är ämnad att utveckla och koppla ihop den redan existerande forskningen om ungdomars sociala mediavanor på Snapchat och Instagram, och forskning om vad sociala mediaanvändare upplever vad man kan och får publicera på dessa sociala medier. Denna studie utforskar detta genom tre fokusgruppsintervjuer med 15 åriga niondeklassare. Resultatet analyseras genom dramaturgi som till stor del...

  19. Lärarna och skollagen : - ur ett gräsrotsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    von Knorring, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka lärares medvetenhet om den förändrade skollagen vad avser disciplinära och andra åtgärder och i vilken omfattning de upplever att den påverkar skolmiljön. För att kunna uppnå syftet med studien har tre frågor formulerats: för det första i vilken grad är lärare medvetna om vilka åtgärder som enligt lagen finns att tillgå och för det andra, i vilken omfattning tillämpar lärare de befogenheter de fått genom den nya skollagen? Avslutningsvis ställs fr...

  20. Ogräs, åkertistlar och taggiga växter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Klintwall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Psykiatriska diagnoser är kontroversiella. Vissa, ofta psykiatriker, menar att psykiska tillstånd går att dela upp i distinkta klasser medan andra, ofta psykologer, menar att all sådan uppdelning gör våld på verkligheten. Dessutom har psykiatrin anklagats för att vara moraliserande: vem kan avgöra vad som är sjukt och friskt? Är autism en sjukdom? Utifrån en pragmatisk begreppsanalys är uppdelningen mellan sjukt och friskt nödvändigtvis godtycklig. Precis som när en trädgårdsmästare avgör vad som är ogräs så beror det på situationen och ens syften. Och precis som växterarter ibland är distinkta arter så kan vissa psykiatriska diagnoser vara distinkta klasser, och andra inte. Kanske är autism en avgränsad diagnos, kanske inte. Men ibland är inte artsuppdelning det mest användbara för en trädgårdsmästare, precis som det inte behöver vara det för psykiatrin. Istället kan man formulera nya kategoriseringar helt baserade på pragmatiska hänsyn. Ibland räcker det med taggiga växter och socialt indifferenta barn.

  1. Vurdering av strømforhold og partikkelspredning ved etablering av ny dypvannskai ved Rana Industriterminal

    OpenAIRE

    Staalstrøm, Andre; Kempa, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Det skal etableres en ny dypvannskai ved Rana Industriterminal, og i den forbindelse har NIVA gjort vurderinger av strømforhold i området og partikkelspredning i anleggsperioden. I denne rapporten er det tatt utgangspunkt i at 135 000 m³ med masse skal mudres opp. Det er videre antatt at 2 % av denne massen spres i Ranfjorden, og dette utgjør 1620 tonn tørr masse. Denne mengden tilsvarer den samme mengden partikler som kan tilføres fjorden fra Ranelva i løpet av en ukes tid, og anses ikke som...

  2. Substituent Effects Dehalogenation of Aryl Bromides with NaAlH2(OCH2CH2OCH3)2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czakoová, Marie; Hetflejš, Jiří; Včelák, Jaroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2001), s. 277-287 ISSN 0133-1736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/97/1173 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : substituent effects * aryl bromides * Co-assisted debromination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.475, year: 2001

  3. Creep damage in welds of X 20 CrMoV 12 1 steel. Part 2 - Studies of long term service exposed material and damage data base and calculation of damage distribution and damage resistance; Krypskador i svetsar av X 20 CrMoV 12 1 staal. Etapp 2 - Studier av lingtidspiverkat material och skadedatabas samt berakning av skadefordelning och skadetilighet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld; Weilin Zang; Nilsson, Henrik; Samuelson, Aake

    2004-09-01

    The present project has been consisted of the following pieces of work on welds of X20 CrMoV 12 1: Analysis of, by use of replica testing, creep damage development in 368 welds in 11 Danish high pressure steam lines with operation up to 200,000 h. Metallographic investigations of four welds from a retired live steam line with approximately 182 000 h in operation. - Evaluation of the influence of the two most common etching methods on the interpretation of creep cavitation. Analysis of the time security of the material, i.e. influence of enhanced temperature or stress on creep life time. Finite element simulations of the creep behaviour of X20 welds where effects of HAZ creep properties, system stresses and degree of multiaxiality in the rupture criterion are studied. In addition a literature study on publications of creep life time in X20 steel was performed in a first, already reported part of the project. The results of the comprehensive replica testing and the metallographic investigations show clear-cut that welds of this material have an excellently long creep life that indeed will reach 200,000 h. The creep damage at that time is in general very limited. The typical creep life for welds of X20 can be evaluated to at least 250,000 h. The reason for that it is not possible to evaluate an even longer creep life is the fact that creep testing and finite element simulations show that creep elongation and creep damage will accelerate considerably later in the creep life than some low alloy steels. In the worst case this acceleration could start already just after 200,000 h. It is also demonstrated that welds of the X20 steel can stand system stresses much better than low alloy steels. Recommendations for how and when inspections and testing of welds of the current material should be performed have been issued. They have been adapted to the findings in the project. The recommendations can, as long as severe damage is absent, allow for longer inspection intervals compared to previous recommendations.

  4. Carbohydrate Metabolism and Carbon Fixation in Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang; Feng, Xueyang; Tang, Yinjie J.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The Roseobacter clade of aerobic marine proteobacteria, which compose 10–25% of the total marine bacterial community, has been reported to fix CO2, although it has not been determined what pathway is involved. In this study, we report the first metabolic studies on carbohydrate utilization, CO2 assimilation, and amino acid biosynthesis in the phototrophic Roseobacter clade bacterium Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114. We develop a new minimal medium containing defined carbon source(s), in which the requirements of yeast extract reported previously for the growth of R. denitrificans can be replaced by vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). Tracer experiments were carried out in R. denitrificans grown in a newly developed minimal medium containing isotopically labeled pyruvate, glucose or bicarbonate as a single carbon source or in combination. Through measurements of 13C-isotopomer labeling patterns in protein-derived amino acids, gene expression profiles, and enzymatic activity assays, we report that: (1) R. denitrificans uses the anaplerotic pathways mainly via the malic enzyme to fix 10–15% of protein carbon from CO2; (2) R. denitrificans employs the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway for carbohydrate metabolism and the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway for the biosynthesis of histidine, ATP, and coenzymes; (3) the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP, glycolysis) pathway is not active and the enzymatic activity of 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) cannot be detected in R. denitrificans; and (4) isoleucine can be synthesized from both threonine-dependent (20% total flux) and citramalate-dependent (80% total flux) pathways using pyruvate as the sole carbon source. PMID:19794911

  5. Carbohydrate metabolism and carbon fixation in Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiang Tang

    Full Text Available The Roseobacter clade of aerobic marine proteobacteria, which compose 10-25% of the total marine bacterial community, has been reported to fix CO(2, although it has not been determined what pathway is involved. In this study, we report the first metabolic studies on carbohydrate utilization, CO(2 assimilation, and amino acid biosynthesis in the phototrophic Roseobacter clade bacterium Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114. We develop a new minimal medium containing defined carbon source(s, in which the requirements of yeast extract reported previously for the growth of R. denitrificans can be replaced by vitamin B(12 (cyanocobalamin. Tracer experiments were carried out in R. denitrificans grown in a newly developed minimal medium containing isotopically labeled pyruvate, glucose or bicarbonate as a single carbon source or in combination. Through measurements of (13C-isotopomer labeling patterns in protein-derived amino acids, gene expression profiles, and enzymatic activity assays, we report that: (1 R. denitrificans uses the anaplerotic pathways mainly via the malic enzyme to fix 10-15% of protein carbon from CO(2; (2 R. denitrificans employs the Entner-Doudoroff (ED pathway for carbohydrate metabolism and the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway for the biosynthesis of histidine, ATP, and coenzymes; (3 the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP, glycolysis pathway is not active and the enzymatic activity of 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK cannot be detected in R. denitrificans; and (4 isoleucine can be synthesized from both threonine-dependent (20% total flux and citramalate-dependent (80% total flux pathways using pyruvate as the sole carbon source.

  6. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  7. Skinner i kuddrummet : Personalfaktorer i förskola som påverkar effekten av beteendeterapi för barn med autism

    OpenAIRE

    Klintwall Malmqvist, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Flera olika behandlingsmetoder för autism finns utvecklade, även om bäst stöd finns för intensiv beteendeterapi (IBT). Variationen i behandlingseffekt inom IBT är dock stor. I Sverige används IBT på förskolor, sannolikt med varierande framgång. 22 förskolor med 24 barn som fått IBT i två år undersöktes retrospektivt med telefonenkäter, och flera faktorer undersöktes för samband med barnens förbättring i adaptiv förmåga under samma period. Integration av träningen i förskolans verksamhet samt ...

  8. Läget i berggrummet : En kvalitativ undersökning av inverkande faktorer i arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats i ett bergrum

    OpenAIRE

    Miladi, Lubna

    2014-01-01

    Strävan efter att minska risker för arbetsskador och uppnå en god arbetsmiljö är betydelsefull idag inte minst på byggarbetsplatser.   Syftet med examensarbetet var att, utifrån kartläggning av arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats, belysa några faktorer som har inverkan på arbetsmiljön. Magisteruppsatsen har begränsats till att undersöka arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats i ett bergrum. Några organisatoriska faktorer som säkerhetskultur, attityder, kunskap samt fysiska faktorer som belysning, b...

  9. LCA som verktyg för ökad kunskap om miljöpåverkan från golvmaterialen vinyl, linoleum och parkett : Utifrån certifieringskriterier om relevans, potential och styrbarhet

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Secil

    2012-01-01

    Life Cycle Assesment, LCA, används för att sammanställa och utvärdera in- och utflöden ur ett system samt potentiell miljöpåverkan under en produkts livscykel. Beräkningarna görs genom att se hela produkten ur ett livscykelperspektiv, dvs. från det att produkten är en råvara till det att den hanteras som avfall. Beroende på måldefinition och systemgränser kan detaljgraden och tidsramen för LCA-studien varieras. LCA används för att identifiera möjligheter att förbättra produkten i olika delar ...

  10. En analyse knyttet til bruk av cookies.

    OpenAIRE

    Hørthe, Stine

    2012-01-01

    Cookies er små informasjonskapsler som Internettaktører legger igjen på en slutt-brukers datamaskin ved surfing på nettsider. Bruken av cookies på nettsider har fåttøkt oppmerksomhet de siste årene. I tillegg til å muliggjøre flere nyttige funksjonerfor en tjenestetilbyder, som for eksempel brukerrettet reklame og informasjonsinn-henting, har det den siste tiden blitt rettet en del kritiske spørsmål rundt bruken avcookies samt spørsmål knyttet til personvern og juridiske aspekt. Denne oppgave...

  11. Från standardprogram till utbildning i toppklass. Programutveckling av Tekniskt basår vid Chalmers tekniska högskola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Blomqvist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I undersökning efter undersökning har larmrapporter beskrivit svenska elevers försämrade kunskaper i framförallt matematik. På landets högskolor har detta blivit ett växande problem eftersom många kurser kräver förkunskaper i matematik för att en student skall kunna tillgodogöra sig kursinnehållet. Särskilt de tekniska högskolorna har upplevt ”kunskapsraset” som problematiskt. Mot bakgrund av detta påbörjades för 10 år sedan en omarbetning av Tekniskt basår på Chalmers tekniska högskola. Bland annat gjordes kurserna i matematik mer omfattande och teoretiska moment infördes. En rekommenderad nivågruppering genomfördes där extra stödåtgärder sattes in för att stödja mer svagpresterande studenter. Förändringsarbetet resulterade i att andelen studenter som klarade samtliga kurser ökade signifikant, antal avhopp från programmet minskade och att basårsstudenterna i genomsnitt klarade sig bättre i sina fortsatta studier än de som kom direkt från gymnasiet. Författaren beskriver i artikeln hur ovanstående förändringsarbete gick till.

  12. Kritiska händelser och radikala konsekvenser : En studie om hur kritiska händelser orsakat radikala förändringar i skivbolaget Sony Music Swedens nätverk

    OpenAIRE

    Sveder, Karl; Blomquist, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Nätverksansatsen har kritiserats av flertalet forskare inom den företagsekonomiska vetenskapen för att vara för statisk och brista i sin förmåga att förklara radikala förändringar i industriella nätverk. Ansatsen om kritiska händelser i industriella nätverk har vuxit fram som en förklaringsmodell till sådana radikala nätverksförändringar. Denna studie har som syfte att bidra till en ökad förståelse för radikala förändringar i industriella nätverk genom att diskutera vidare konceptet kritiska ...

  13. Vinstvarningars påverkan på företag i Large och Small Cap? :  

    OpenAIRE

    Maliqi, Agon; Persson, Henric

    2013-01-01

    Den här studien undersöker hur vinstvarningar påverkar stora och små företag. För att förklara dess påverkan på företagen har den effektiva marknadshypotesen och behavioral finance använts som grund. Avgränsningen har gjorts till Stockholmsbörsen då inga tidigare studier haft fokus på den. Empirin visar att företag i Large Cap påverkas med i snitt -4,63% och företagen i Small Cap med -8,42%. Large Cap visade signifikanta abnorma avkastningar under eventdatumet och dagen efter medan Small Cap ...

  14. Tourism and visiting activities in Tierp. Threats and possibilities with a repository for spent nuclear fuel; Turism och besoeksnaering i Tierp. Hot och moejligheter med ett djupfoervar av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerne, S.; Sandberg, M. [EuroFutures AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sahlberg, B. [EBS Invent AB (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    Consequences for tourism and visiting at Tierp from siting a spent fuel repository in the community are studied. Tierp has little tourism as of today, and siting of the repository will probably lead to increased visiting of Tierp professionally and as a leisure activity.

  15. Soil water, needle chemistry and tree growth after treatment with different doses and types of limestone; Markvatten, barrkemi och traedtillvaext efter behandling med olika doser och sorter av kalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselsson, Cecilia; Westling, Olle; Larsson, Per-Erik; Petersson, Per

    2000-10-01

    The Swedish Board of Forestry co-ordinates extensive research concerning liming and nutrient compensation on acid forest soils in Sweden. Results from the experimental work are presented in annual reports. This annual report for 1999 describes effects on soil water chemistry, nutrient content in needles and forest growth in experimental plots with untreated spruce forest compared to plots treated with different doses (3, 6, and 12 tons per hectare) of limestone. Concerning soil water chemistry effects were also related to four different kinds of substances; crushed or finely ground limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or dolomite (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}). Results from a period of seven years are presented. The experiment was started in 1992. All combinations of dose and type of limestone resulted in increased concentrations of calcium in soil water (50 cm) and higher base cation/ aluminium ratio. The response was dependent of the dose, especially with limestone. Dolomite increased the concentrations of magnesium, but the effect was not clearly dependent of the dose. The results of the experiment demonstrates that it is possible to decrease the acidity of soil water (50 cm) relatively rapid with liming (in a few months), especially with high doses and finely ground limestone. Hydrogen ions and aluminium in soil water showed a tendency to decrease after most of the different treatments. Concentrations of potassium were low before the experiment started, and there was a tendency that the highest dose (12 tons per hectare) decreased the already low concentrations. Increased leakage of nitrogen has been mentioned as a risk in connection with forest liming. This experiment showed no decrease during the studied period of the originally low concentrations of inorganic nitrogen after the treatments. Liming resulted in increased concentrations of calcium in needles, and the response was dependent of dose. The concentrations of manganese and aluminium decreased after most of the treatments. No effect on forest growth was detected five years after liming with all doses and types of limestone.

  16. Status report on the county administrative boards and the development of the regional energy and climate policies; Statusrapport avseende laensstyrelsernas arbete och utveckling av de regionala energi- och klimatstrategierna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This status report deals with the regional work on energy and climate issues. It is a summary and analysis of the County Administrative Board's work with the planning, implementation and monitoring of energy and climate change. The County Administrative Board's have since 2008 held the position of establishing and developing regional energy and climate strategies. It is an important part of government policy for energy conversion and reduced climate impact. Local and regional stake holders play an important role in the implementation of development for an energy efficient and sustainable society and the task to design and develop a regional strategic energy and climate work is then an important tool. This report was compiled by staff at the units Society and transports and Public sector at the Department for Energy Efficiency.

  17. Maintenance strategies and safety on a deregulated market. Mapping of changes in maintenance strategies and their possible consequences; Underhaallsstrategier och saekerhet paa en avreglerad elmarknad. En kartlaeggning av foeraendrade underhaallsstrategier och dess moejliga konsekvenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena [MTO Psykologi AB, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    The overall purpose of the project was to make a survey of the changes in the Swedish nuclear power plants over the last five years. There is a risk that nuclear power companies after a deregulation will focus especially on reducing operation and maintenance costs and that the changes could have a negative effect on the reactor safety. The task has involved summarising the actual changes, describing the present situation, the need for future development and the differences between the plants as well as identifying possible reactor safety related risks. The survey has been carried out in a broad perspective, studying the changes in equipment, maintenance strategies and the work situation of the staff. Three case studies were carried out at the Swedish nuclear power plants. Documentation from the companies has been analysed and a selection of in total 27 'informed' employees in different positions have been interviewed in total. The project also included a fourth case study concerning railway traffic. This branch of business is interesting because of its longer experience on a deregulated and competitive market. Conclusions concerning the companies individually as well as similarities and differences between them are presented in this report. Results: There have been more changes both in strategy and organisation in the last five years than during the preceding 5-10-year-period and the pace has been relatively rapid. The deregulation of the electricity market was implemented January 1997 and became the main motive force for the changes. The staffing has been reduced or unchanged and the work demands have increased. The maintenance skills have been redistributed within the organisation. New methods and equipment, i.e. RCM, and programmable systems make increased demands for analytical and theoretical competence. In the short term, job satisfaction and motivation have in some cases been negatively influenced by the new organisation forms, according to several of the interviewed. The results indicate, in accordance with other research results, that rationalisations and changes must be combined with work development and the participation of the employees to be successful. Outsourcing has been used for some activities. All the companies have established a joint maintenance department for their units. The companies have been moving towards lean organization which has increased the work load of the staff. Therefore more planning is required to get a optimal resource allocation, to avoid problems at work peaks. All the plants have abandoned a downright customer-supplier relation for the benefit of one competent maintenance supplier with a comprehensive view. As a result the contractual undertaking of the maintenance department towards the production units is made on a long term basis. The new maintenance strategy is based on status controls for condition based maintenance and on riskbased analysing methods. There are modern computer-based maintenance systems at all the plants. Computer-based instruments are used direct in the production line where they require a competence shift in the staff. Positive effects that appeared in the interviews are better possibilities for experience feed back and methods development, access to a wider and larger competence and a joint working method. The results show that there are already some positive effects and there are more to be expected. But it is also clear that these effects have neither come as easily nor as fast as was expected. Possible negative effects: there is a risk that the staffing might be too scarce, especially in work peaks, e.g. unexpected shutdowns. A high work load and much overtime work mean greater strain on the staff. Problems with job satisfaction and motivation, chiefly after the change to a matrix organisation. Uncertainties as to responsibility and roles in the new organisation. The practical competence might 'disappear' in the present competence shift focusing on analytical, computer based methods. The difficulties of risk based methods are several: they might not correspond with reality, they might not measure what they are intended to measure and it might be that the probabilistic risk assessment approach is allowed to dominate over the deterministic at the expense of a good balance between them. There is also a risk that the methods are not enough developed, that the knowledge of how the results should be interpreted is limited and that this might lead to the wrong conclusions. With tighter priorities there is an increasing risk that the wrong things are left out. The feeling of 'ownership' towards a certain production unit as well as the team feeling might disappear when the employees work on several units. Deficiencies in the maintenance instructions become evident when the staff are transferred. If the work routines have not been thoroughly documented there is a risk that the staff make mistakes or that the measures are forgotten. A number of conditions have been identified that might influenced the reactor safety negatively in the long term if they are not taken care of. Such conditions are an increased pressure on the staff, high work load and too much overtime, uncertainties as to responsibility and roles, lack of job satisfaction and motivation and deficient maintenance instructions. Economic pressure and a high rate of change might also give negative influence. It is, however, important to stress that the results indicate that the changes are not carried out with a one-sided focus on cost reductions but with a focus on both individual and organisational learning and development. Safety culture has also been an important part of the change operations. It seems, though, as if it has been more difficult to balance the economy and safety messages to the staff.

  18. Final disposal Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. Inflow of ground water and influence on hydrogeologic and hydrologic conditions; Slutfoervar Forsmark, Simpevarp och Laxemar. Inlaeckage av grundvatten samt paaverkan paa hydrogeologiska och hydrologiska foerhaallanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    This report summarizes the description of the natural (uninfluenced) hydrogeological and hydrological conditions at the possible final repository locations Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. For each site, the description is based on SKB's site descriptions version 1.2. The report provides assessments of the inflow and the effects on the surroundings (groundwater drawdown and the associated area of influence) due to construction, operation, and closing of a repository for spent nuclear fuel at the above locations. The assessment of the effects of the repository on its surroundings is primarily based on calculation results from two numerical flow models, DarcyTools and MOUSESHE (for Simpevarp, only DarcyTools has been used). The basis for the modelling is SKB's site descriptions version 1.2, which will be updated in the form of new versions. Moreover, the models are based on a preliminary layout of the repository at each location. Hence, the flow models will be developed further when the site descriptions are updated. The results may also be affected by changes of the repository layout. The modelling projects have been performed in the same order as they are presented in the report (Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar). Some aspects of the numerical models, and the coupling between them, have been developed and improved during the course of work. Examples on major differences between the models include the technique to simulate grouting in DarcyTools, and the possibility to visualize modelling results from this model, for instance on other types of background maps. The results show a small inflow and a small area of influence for a repository at Forsmark. The upper parts of the repository (c 100 m depth and upwards) give the largest contribution to the inflow and the area of influence. This indicates that the effects on the surroundings from the deep and the near surface parts of the repository can be analysed separately. For a repository at Simpevarp and Laxemar, the results show that also the deep parts of the repository yield an inflow and cause a lowering of the groundwater table. Hence, it is more difficult to decouple the deep and the near surface parts of the repository at these locations. A repository at Simpevarp causes a larger inflow but a smaller area of influence, compared to a repository at Laxemar. This difference is most likely due to that Simpevarp is located by the sea, whereas Laxemar is located further inland. However, there are differences in terms of how grouting is simulated in the DarcyTools modelling of the locations, which makes the comparison difficult. A simple estimate, based on the net recharge (annual mean) at each site shows that the model calculated inflow to a repository at Forsmark corresponds to an area of influence from c 1 km{sup 2} (hydraulic conductivity in the grouted zone K{sub inj} 10{sup -7} m/s) to c 0.3 km{sup 2} (K{sub inj} = 10{sup -9} m/s). For a repository at Simpevarp, the inflow corresponds an area of influence from c 36 km{sup 2} (skin factor = 0.1) to c 1.5 km{sup 2} (skin factor = 0.001); in the Simpevarp modelling, a 'skin factor' was utilized to simulate the grouting. For a repository at Laxemar, a similar comparison provides an area of influence from c 11 km{sup 2} (K{sub inj} = 10{sup -7} m/s) to c 6.5 km{sup 2} (K{sub inj} = 10{sup -9} m/s). Since the modelling results are preliminary, they principally express differences between the locations in terms of their hydrogeological and hydrological characteristics. The results are yet too preliminary to demonstrate the effects of a repository on its surroundings in absolute terms. Examples of uncertainties in the modelling include the representation of the bedrock in the 'bedrock models', providing the basis for the modelling; this particularly applies to the upper parts of the bedrock. Moreover, the interaction between Quaternary deposits and bedrock is identified as an important factor for the groundwater drawdown and its area of influence. There may be less exchange of groundwater between Quaternary deposits and bedrock than assumed in the present models, which would imply that the models overestimate the groundwater drawdown around the repository. The interaction between surface water (lakes, watercourses and the sea) and groundwater is another important factor for the drawdown and its area of influence. The exchange between surface and groundwater may be larger than assumed in the modelling. This, in turn, could imply that the inflow becomes larger, but also that the area of influence becomes smaller than shown by the modelling. This larger exchange would also imply that the effects on lakes and watercourses are larger than shown by the modelling.

  19. Konsten att upprätthålla löneskillnader mellan kvinnor och män : En rättssociologisk studie av regler i lag och avtal om lika lön

    OpenAIRE

    Svenaeus, Lena

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation, entitled “The Art of Preserving the Gender Pay Gap,” is a study in the sociology of law. It examines the obstructions to the principle of equal pay that persist in the face of international conventions and EU legislation that have mandated changes to legislation and collective bargaining agreements. The dissertation seeks to investigate and explain how the pay gap between women and men is created and recreated on an ideological level. The study covers three periods when – a...

  20. Är virtual reality en del av framtidens naturkommunikation? : En studie med fokus på Sveriges Länsstyrelser och skyddade områden såsom nationalparker och naturreservat

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the technology of virtual reality (VR) is a possible part of the future regarding nature communication at the Swedish county administrative boards, including the Naturum visitors centers, in their work with national parks and nature reserves. This paper also aims at providing an overview of the existing use of VR on a national and international basis in tourism and in nature communication concerning protected natural areas. The main method was a...

  1. Basalmetabolism hos barn och ungdomar med cystisk fibros : En jämförande studie av uppmätta och beräknade basalmetabolismvärden

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emilie; Edbom, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare equations used to calculate BMR to values of BMR obtained from measurements in order to determine the most suitable equation to be used on children and adolescents with CF. Design: The participants where children and adolescents with CF. Data was collected from the division of Clinical Nutrition at Uppsala Akademiska Sjukhus. Age, weight, height, BMI, BMR, FFM and FM was recorded from 27 measurements. BMR from the participants collected from the...

  2. Oil and Gas in a New Arctic. Developments of the Energy Issue and Regional Strategic Dynamic; Olja och gas i ett nytt och foeraendrat Arktis. Energifraagans utveckling mot bakgrund av regionens strategiska dynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granholm, Niklas; Kiesow, Ingolf

    2010-03-15

    This study has as its point of departure that large reserves of energy and minerals are deposited in the Arctic. There is uncertainty on how large these reserves are and if extraction of them is technically and economically feasible. As the Arctic gradually becomes more accessible as the melting of the sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean progresses, the region becomes more open to human activities than ever before. The energy issue in the Arctic develops against the background of the region's increasing geostrategic importance. Russia shows no hesitation, Norway also put considerable resources into energy extraction in the Arctic. Environ-mental protection is a more prominent issue in Norway, Canada and the USA than in Russia. In addition to the energy issue, other factors in the Arctic are also changing. Shipping, climate change, military strategy, nuclear weapons, overlapping territorial claims, developments in international security and national policies and efforts, are all parts of a development that does not easily let itself be described and analysed. The different factors under change develop according to their own character and inner logic and how they interact will be hard to foresee. Uncertainties of future developments in the Arctic therefore remain. The Arctic will become more clearly linked into developments in the rest of the world than hitherto. The region will no longer be exclusively an issue for the states in the region. The interest in the Arctic is on the increase, not only from the Arctic states, but also from external state actors in Europe and Asia, as well as multilateral organisations such as the European Union and NATO

  3. Hydrological and hydro-geological effects on wetlands and forest areas from the repository at Forsmark. Results from modelling with MIKE SHE; Hydrologiska och hydrogeologiska effekter paa vaatmarker och skogsomraaden av slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Resultat fraan modellering med MIKE SHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Gustafsson, Ann-Marie; Aneljung, Maria; Sabel, Ulrika (DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    This report provides background material for investigations and associated impact assessments concerning water operations in terms of withdrawal of groundwater from the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report presents detailed modelling results in the form of supplementary sensitivity analyses and detailed hydrological and hydrogeological analyses of specific nature objects in Forsmark. The sensitivity analyses aim to investigate the sensitivity of the modelling results to i) the meteorological conditions, ii) impervious surfaces and iii) the model description of the present SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste). A number of simulation cases aim to study cumulative effects of groundwater withdrawal from an extended SFR. The simulations are evaluated with respect to the groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. The report analyses the hydrogeological and hydrological conditions for a number of selected wetland objects and forest objects. The selection of objects aims to cover different types of valuable nature objects at different geographical locations in relation to the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. The analysis comprises groundwater levels at all nature objects, whereas wetlands with particularly high nature values have been studied in detail with respect to surface water levels, the need for water supply and object-specific water balances. These studies have been performed for different meteorological conditions in the form of a type (2006) and a statistically normal, dry and wet year, respectively, with a return period of 100 years for the dry- and wet years. All simulations for disturbed conditions with a fully open repository are done with a hydraulic conductivity of K{sub inj} = 10-7 or 10-8 m/s in the grouted zone. The results show that time-dependent precipitation and snow melt have large influence on the temporal variations of the depth to the groundwater table for undisturbed conditions. Precipitation and snow melt also have large influence on the drawdown of the groundwater table due to the groundwater withdrawal from the repository. For a normal year, based on precipitation data from the reference normal period 1961-1990, the annual average size of the influence area is 1.15 km2 for a grouting level of K{sub inj} = 10-7 m/s. Compared to the normal year, the size of the influence area is 17% larger during a dry year and 19% smaller during a wet year. The groundwater table drawdown also varies during individual years. For the type year 2006, the size of the influence area is approximately three times larger in November than in May. Implementation of the present SFR underground facility in the modelling tool MOUSE yields a groundwater inflow to SFR of 6.7 L/s, compared to a measured inflow of some 6 L/s. According to model calculations, the groundwater withdrawal from SFR causes groundwater table drawdown in an area with a size of 0.17 km2. The influence area is concentrated to the SFR pier and areas with vertical fracture zones in the rock, located north and northeast of Lake Bolundsfjaerden. The head change in the bedrock at the level 50 m b s l reaches the model boundary in the northeast. An extension of the SFR facility is planned. According to the modelling results, the extension will only yield small additional groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. For the wetland objects, even a relatively small drawdown of the groundwater table may cause vegetation changes and ultimately overgrowth. The forests are not as sensitive to a drawdown of the groundwater table. According to the model calculations, the groundwater withdrawal from the repository yields a groundwater table drawdown that exceeds 0.1 m as an annual average for a normal year in one fifth the studied wetland objects and in half of the forest objects. The fraction of objects with a groundwater table drawdown is higher during a dry year and lower during a wet year. The surface-water depth in the studied wetland objects ranges from a few centimetres to half a metre. It is judged that a number of wetland objects may require water supply in order to maintain an undisturbed water level during groundwater withdrawal from the repository. According to the modelling results, the water-supply requirements are largest during spring and autumn. In one of the wetland objects, the water requirement is 3 L/s as an annual average for the type year 2006. Object-specific water balances and particle tracking calculations show that the inflow to the wetland objects mainly takes place through the Quaternary deposits. This is in accordance with the conceptual model, according to which there is a shallow groundwater flow system with many local recharge and discharge areas. The groundwater withdrawal from the repository implies that the water balance is changed for some of the studied wetland objects.

  4. Electricity use and load management in electricity heated one-family houses from customer and utility perspective; Effekten av effekten - Elanvaendning och laststyrning i elvaermda smaahus ur kund- och foeretagsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin

    2004-11-01

    Until recently, the increase in electricity demand and peak power demand has been met by expansion of the electricity production. Today, due to the deregulation of the electricity market, the production capacity is decreasing. Therefore, there is a national interest in finding solutions to peak problems also on the demand side. In the studies described here (Study 1 and 2) ten households in electrically heated houses were examined. In 1999 the utility equipped their customers with a remote metering system (CustCom) that has an in-built load control component. In Study 1, the load pattern of ten households was examined by using energy diaries combined with frequent meter readings (every five minutes) of the load demand for heating, hot water service and domestic electricity use. Household members kept energy diaries over a four-day period in January 2004, noting time, activities and the use of household appliances that run on electricity. The analysis showed that the use of heat-producing household appliances, e.g. sauna, washing machine and dryer, appliances used for cooking, dishwasher and extra electric heaters, contribute to the household's highest peaks. Turning on the sauna and at the same time using the shower equates to a peak load of 7-9 kW. This, in addition to the use of electricity for heating and lighting along alongside electricity use for refrigerators and freezers, results in some households reaching their main fuse level (roughly 13,8 kW for a main fuse of 20 A). This means that the domestic use of electricity makes up a considerable part of the highest peak loads in a household, but the highest peaks occur together with the use of electricity for heating and hot water. In the second study, Study 2, the households participated in a load control experiment, in which the utility was able to turn on and switch off the heating and hot water systems remotely, using the CustCom system. Heating and water heaters were switched off for periods of 1-4 hours without letting the households know when the control periods would take place or how long they would last. Household heating and hot water comfort as well as the households' attitudes towards and experiences of being controlled were investigated using a combination of methods. It could be concluded from the results of study 1 and 2, that both direct and indirect load control are, from the household perspective, possible measures to shift load demand from critical time periods.

  5. Measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in Swedish consumption milk between 1991 1996; Maetningar av {sup 137}Cs och {sup 90}Sr i konsumtionsmjoelk mellan 1991 och 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moere, H.

    1997-04-01

    The sources for the radioactivity are the nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Milk is sampled and measured as an important indicator of the Chernobyl load of radionuclides that cows can metabolize and that will ultimately give a dose to humans. Milk was responsible for 13-19% of the total intake of {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs for the average person in 1994. Our milk measurement program covered 90% of all produced consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. Milk samples are taken every second month from the dairies. {sup 90}Sr is only measured on pooled yearly samples from some dairies; these dairies covered 50% of the total production of consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. The mean value per year of {sup 137}Cs for the whole country has decreased from 0.52 to 0.26 Bq/l between 1991 and 1996, which corresponds to a committed effective dose equivalent for humans of 1.1-0.50 microSv for {sup 137}Cs. For {sup 90}Sr during the 1991-1996 period the country-wide mean varied between 0.08 and 0.06 Bq/l, resulting in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.4-0.3 microSv. 7 refs.

  6. Bio-based fuels: an analysis of potential, conditions, market, instruments and risks. Opportunities and risks - the BIODRIV project. Final Report; Biobaserade drivmedel: analys av potential, foerutsaettningar, marknad, styrmedel och risker. Moejligheter och risker - projektet BIODRIV. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, Tomas (IVL Svenska Miljoeinstitutet, Stockholm (Sweden)); Gaardfeldt, Katarina; Ahlbaeck, Anders (Goeteborgs Miljoevetenskapliga Centrum, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola och Goeteborgs Universitet (Sweden)) (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The BIODRIV project is a study of the conditions, opportunities, constraints and risks in the short and long term for the Swedish production of biofuels, with specific focus on the production opportunities offered by the Swedish refineries. The study was conducted at Chalmers Univ. of Technology and IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst. with support from Preem Environment Foundation and the Foundation of IVL. Researchers in the disciplines of environmental economics, chemical engineering and environmental system analysis have been working collectively to illustrate various technology tracks for bio-based fuel production. A total of six technology tracks for biofuel production have been identified in the long run, in whole or in part, which can replace today's fossil-based fuels in the transport sector. The six technology tracks are: methane from gas networks, decentralized pyrolysis/gasification, different resource bases to fat, hydrogen, methanol, electricity

  7. Evaluation and demonstration of remediation alternatives for historical mine waste using ash and alkaline by products; Utvaerdering och demonstration av efterbehandlingsalternativ foer historiskt gruvavfall med aska och alkaliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Sartz, Lotta; Karlsson, Stefan (MTM, Man-Technology-Envionrment, Oerebro Univ., 701 82 Oerebro (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The results clearly show that the use of alkaline by products can significantly reduce the leakage of trace metals from historical acid mine waste. Under ideal conditions (laboratory experiments) pH increase significantly and the trace metal concentrations decrease with around 99% compared to the untreated reference. During more realistic conditions (pilot scale) the same increase in pH was not obtained and thus the decrease in trace metal concentrations was not as great. In the stabilisation experiments pH was between 5.8 and 6.8 while the trace metal reduction was around 96-99%. In the filter experiments a median pH between 4 (aged ash) and 10 (lime kiln dust) was obtained after the alkaline section. Average metal reduction is around 95% for cadmium, copper and lead while it is slightly lower for zinc (85%). In summary it is indicated that hydroxide dominated materials work best in aerated environments while carbonate dominated materials work best in reducing environments. In summary it can be concluded that the use of alkaline by products to neutralise acidic mine waste and acid mine drainage from historical mine sites give rise to both environmental and economical benefits and should therefore be encouraged as a sustainable remediation method

  8. Comparison of SKIFS 2004:1 and Tillsynshandbok PSA against the ASME PRA Standard and European requirements on PSA; Jaemfoerelse av SKIFS 2004:1 och Tillsynshandbok PSA mot ASME PRA Standard och Europeiska krav paa PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2005-04-15

    Requirements on PSA for risk informed applications are expressed in different international documents. The ASME PRA standard published in spring 2002 is one such document, PSA requirements are also expressed in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) for new reactors. The Swedish PSA requirements are provided in the Swedish regulators (SKI) statutes SKIFS 2004:1. SKI also has a review handbook for PSA activities (SKI report 2003:48). The review handbook is a support during review of the utilities PSA activities and the PSAs themselves. The review handbook expresses SKIs expectations by providing so called important aspects for both the PSA work and the PSAs, A comparison of SKIFS requirements and the important aspects in the Review handbook, on one side, and the requirements on PSA in EUR and ASME on the other side, is presented. The comparison shows a large difference in the level of detail in the different documents, where ASME is most detailed and specific. This is expected since the SKI review handbook not is a 'PSA guide' in the same way as the ASME PRA standard. A direct comparison of the ASME PRA standard requirements with the important aspects in the review handbook cannot answer the question which ASME capacity level that is achieved by a PSA meeting all important aspects. The conclusion is that it is not likely to achieve capacity level 2 and 3, since very few ASME level 3 attributes are explicitly expressed as important aspects, though many are expressed in general terms. The review handbook important aspects that are most similar to the ASME capacity level 1 attributes are initiating events, sequence analysis, and system analysis while less similarity is found for analysis of operator actions data analysis, quantification and containment analysis (level 2). Less similarity is found for capacity level 2 and 3. However, the number of additional ASME attributes on capacity level 2 and 3 are few. There are also important aspects in the review handbook that not are covered by the ASME attributes. These means that insights from the review handbook can further enhance the ASME PRA standard. The compilation of the important aspects in the review handbook, the ASME PRA standard attributes and the European Utility Requirements is presented in a structured way that is judged useful for development of SKI requirements, training and as support during PSA review work. An approach to integrate the ASMEs PRA standard in SKI work is: The review handbook is used as a check list for 'good' PSA work organisation; ASME PRA standard is used as a check list for how the PSA is performed, since this is expressed as being outside the scope of the review handbook. A next step in this kind of work would be to compare an actual recently updated Swedish PSA against the ASME PRA standard requirements.

  9. Noise and noise disturbances from wind power plants - Tests with interactive control of sound parameters for more comfortable and less perceptible sounds; Buller och bullerstoerningar fraan vindkraftverk - Foersoek med interaktiv styrning av ljudparametrar foer behagligare och mindre maerkbara ljud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson-Waye, K.; Oehrstroem, E.; Bjoerkman, M.; Agge, A. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2001-12-01

    In experimental pilot studies, a methodology has been worked out for interactively varying sound parameters in wind power plants. In the tests, 24 persons varied the center frequency of different band-widths, the frequency of a sinus-tone and the amplitude-modulation of a sinus-tone in order to create as comfortable a sound as possible. The variations build on the noise from the two wind turbines Bonus and Wind World. The variations were performed with a constant dba level. The results showed that the majority preferred a low-frequency tone (94 Hz and 115 Hz for Wind World and Bonus, respectively). The mean of the most comfortable amplitude-modulation varied between 18 and 22 Hz, depending on the ground frequency. The mean of the center-frequency for the different band-widths varied from 785 to 1104 Hz. In order to study the influence of the wind velocity on the acoustic character of the noise, a long-time measurement program has been performed. A remotely controlled system has been developed, where wind velocity, wind direction, temperature and humidity are registered simultaneously with the noise. Long-time registrations have been performed for four different wing turbines.

  10. Pre-study - compilation and synthesis of knowledge about energy crops from cultivation to energy production; Foerstudie - sammanstaellning och syntes av kunskap och erfarenheter om groedor fraan aaker till energiproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Myringer, Aase; Palm, Ola; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes

    2007-06-15

    Energy crops constitute a yet not fully utilized potential as fuel for heating and power production. As competition for biomass hardens the interest for agricultural fuels such as straw, energy grain, willow, reed canary grass and hemp increases. Utilization of the potential for energy crops as fuels demands that cultivation and harvest are coordinated with transportation, storage and combustion of the crops. Together, Vaermeforsk and Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have taken the initiative to a common research programme. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture to combustion for heat and power production in Sweden. The vision is that during the programme, 2006 - 2009, decisive steps will be taken towards a working market for biofuels for bioenergy from agriculture. This survey has compiled and synthesized available knowledge and experiences about energy crops from the field to energy production. The aim has been to give a picture of knowledge today, to identify knowledge gaps and to synthesize knowledge of today into future research needs. A proposal of a research plan has been developed for the research programme.

  11. The Wind Power Handbook. Planning and approval of wind power plants on shore and in coastal areas; Vindkraftshandboken. Planering och proevning av vindkraftverk paa land och i kustnaera vattenomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    The Wind Power Handbook is designed to make it easier for municipalities and wind energy companies to plan wind power projects. It contains the issues to be considered when planning and review, both the legal bases under essentially Planning and Building Act and the Environmental Code and the environmental assessments. The manual is primarily addressed to the municipalities and various operators. There are many interests to be met at a wind power establishment, which requires knowledge and cooperation of the different actors on the planning and approval process to be effective. Here we have gathered important knowledge base to facilitate the process and to contribute to a balanced decision

  12. Growth effects after whole-tree harvest in final cut of Scots pine and Norway spruce forest. Final report; Tillvaexteffekternas storlek och uthaallighet efter skogsbraensleuttag i slutavverkning av tall och gran. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valinger, E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2001-12-01

    A great concern in forestry today is whether whole-tree harvesting influence site productivity and whether it is consistent with the principle of sustainable use of forest resources. To evaluate this a randomised field experiment established 24 years ago in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Sweden was used. The field experiment was established in fall 1975 as a naturally regenerated mixed forest with Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with a growing stock of 305 m{sup 3}/ha was clear-cut near Kosta (56 deg 52' N, 15 deg 50' E, 240 m.a.s.l.). The site was a mesic dwarf-shrub type of medium fertility, with an average precipitation of 600 mm yr-1 and the soil was an orthic podzol. Treatments were conventional stem harvest (CH), whole-tree harvest (WTH), and branch and stem harvest (BSH). Scots pine seedlings of local provenance were planted in spring 1977 at the beginning of the second growing season following the harvest. The seedlings were planted in exposed mineral soil in manually scarified patches (40 x 40 cm) at 1.7 m spacing (144 seedlings per assessment plot, i.e. 3 600 seedlings/ha). Based on calliper data, the diameter for the mean basal area per tree (db) was calculated for each plot after 24 years using the formula: db = ({sigma} b{sup 3}/{sigma} b{sup 2}), where b is basal area at breast height for each tree. Three undamaged sample trees with a diameter equal or close to the diameter of the mean basal area per tree were selected on each plot giving 36 stems that were felled for destructive measurements in 2000. Total tree height ({+-} 0.01 m) was measured on every tree felled. Stem biomass was estimated by sampling of stem discs, 2 cm thick, at stump height (1 % of tree height), breast height (1.3 m), and at every meter along the bole. Crown biomass was estimated by sampling live and dead branches on the felled trees. From every whorl of branches one living branch was sampled and all branches were counted. Stem discs and branch material were weighed in the field to the nearest 0.1 g using a mechanical field scale. At the laboratory, the annual ring widths were measured along a transect using the WinDENDRO software. The arithmetic mean of the two corresponding annual ring widths was used in the further calculations to obtain diameters under bark for the successive years 1977-2000. After drying all sampled material was weighed to the nearest 0.1 g. When weighted, total dry weight of crown fractions and wood was calculated according to Albrektson, where the relation between dry and fresh weight of sample from each fraction was multiplied with total fresh weight of fraction. Treatment effects on survival and basal area growth on bark/ha after 24 years were analysed by using Tukey's studentized test on all main effect means. Multiple pair wise comparisons between treatments on single trees to establish the effects of treatment on the depending variables: dry weight of wood, needles, shoot axes and dead branches and in radial, height, and basal area and volume under bark increments were also made using Tukey's studentized test on all main effect means. Seedling survival was unaffected by treatments. Total basal area on bark (m{sup 2}/ha) was significantly reduced following WTH from the 15th year after planting. Trees on CH produced 20% more wood biomass, while biomass produced within the crown was unaffected by treatment. Height growth for trees after CH was higher the last year evaluated, while basal area and volume under bark were larger since the 12th year in comparison with WTH. BSH showed a decreased basal area growth under bark during the two four-year-periods 13-20 years after planting, and a decreased volume growth under bark since year 9 in comparison with CH. Radial growth was increased for CH up to 3 m of the stems during the 9-12 year period and at 3 m during the 13-16 year period. The study indicated a negative effect on stem growth following WTH and BSH during the 24-years period. There was a clear indication of positive influence of slash left after clear-cutting, i.e. tops, branches, and needles, on future biomass growth. The positive response in volume growth can be between 20% during a whole rotation period and a gain of just 3 years growth. When whole-tree harvesting techniques are used, some kind of replacement of removed nutrients, e.g. fertilisation, must take place to maintain site productivity on sites like the presented.

  13. Instrumentering av Bergsøysundbrua og Gjemnesundbrua

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlen, Adrian; Lystad, Tor Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gjemnessundbrua og Bergsøysundbrua på Europavei E39 i Møre og Romsdal, skal instrumenteres for identifikasjon av strukturelle og dynamiske egenskaper. Denne rapporten omhandler dokumentasjon og beskrivelse av det utførte arbeidet ved monteringen av måleutstyret. Det er også gjort analyser av de ulike konstruksjonsdelene akselerometersensorer og anemometre er montert på. Til slutt er de initielle responssignalene fra systemet behandlet, der egenfrekvenser og dempningsegenskaper til bruene blir...

  14. Implementeringsforskning: vitenskap for forbedring av praksis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Flottorp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medisinsk forskning har ført til store framskritt de siste tiårene. Det er investert mye mer ressurser på basalforskning og klinisk forskning enn på å utvikle og evaluere metoder for å sikre at pasientene får nytte av forskningen. Formålet med implementeringsforskning er å redusere gapet mellom forskning og praksis, ved å utvikle og evaluere tiltak som kan sikre at behandlingen som pasientene mottar er kunnskapsbasert, at den er omsorgsfull og av god kvalitet.I denne artikkelen gjør vi rede for hva implementering og implementeringsforskning er. Vi belyser historikken til denne unge vitenskapen, og illustrerer mangfoldet i de faglige tilnærmingene og begrepene som brukes om det å få forskning brukt i praksis. Det finnes en rekke teorier om endring av atferd, både på individnivå og på organisatorisk nivå. Teoriene er imidlertid i liten grad testet empirisk, særlig når det gjelder å endre atferd i helsetjenesten.Systematiske oversikter over metodisk gode studier er den beste kilden til informasjon om effekt av implementeringstiltak. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC er en viktig kilde for slike oversikter. De systematiske oversiktene som er utarbeidet på dette feltet viser at passive dissemineringstiltak har begrenset effekt, mens mer aktive tiltak kan ha liten til moderat effekt. Det er ofte betydelig variasjon i effekt på tvers av studiene. Det er derfor viktig å få bedre kunnskap om hvilke faktorer som kan forklare slike forskjeller i effekt.Vi gir eksempler på norske implementeringsstudier, og refererer bidrag fra forskere ved Kunnskapssenteret. Implementeringsforskningen kan, hvis den lykkes, sikre pasientene bedre behandling.Flottorp S, Aakhus E. Implementation research: science for improving practice. Nor J Epidemiol 201 3; 23 (2: 187-196.ENGLISH SUMMARY Medical research has led to major advances in recent decades. More resources have been invested in basic and clinical research

  15. Representationer av kvinnor i tv-spel : En semiotisk bildanalys om hur genus konstrueras i spelet Overwatch

    OpenAIRE

    Skönergård, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Tv-spel har sedan dess begynnelse kontinuerligt växt storartat och är numera en stor ekonomisk nöjesindustri med flera miljoner användare varje dag. Tv- och film har under flera år granskats och undersökts gällande exempelvis vilka meddelanden dessa sänder ut och reproducerar till dess konsumenter genom bland annat könsroller, våld, etnicitet och klass. Även om tv-spel som medieplattform även blivit granskad gällande liknande fenomen som tv- och film så är forskningsområdet fortfarande relati...

  16. Design av arkitektur for evolusjonær maskinvare basert på intern rekonfigurering av FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Senland, Geir Aarstad

    2008-01-01

    Det ble i denne oppgaven designet en arkitektur for evolusjonær maskinvare basert på intern rekonfigurering av FPGA. Til å utføre intern rekonfigurasjonen av FPGA-en ble internal configuration access port (ICAP) brukt. Programmet PlanAhead fra Xilinx ble brukt til å designe den interne rekonfigurasjonsdelen av arkitekturen. Motivasjonen for oppgaven var å introdusere fleksibilitet til et signal- og klassifikasjonssystem, ved å bruke intern rekonfigurasjon av FPGA. Klassifikasjonssystemet ...

  17. Flickor och fenomenet ADHD- är diagnosticering missgynnande för flickor? : En kvalitativ studie ur professionella behandlares perspektiv.

    OpenAIRE

    Arreström, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att analysera och beskriva fenomenet -flickor med ADHD. I studien undersöks professionella behandlares upplevelser kring fenomenet flickor med ADHD, utifrån de flickor de mött under sitt yrkespraktiserande och uppmärksamma orsaker som lyfts fram för att förklara varför flickor med ADHD upptäcks mer sällan och i många fall senare än pojkar med ADHD och vilka konsekvenser detta kan leda till. Denna kandidatuppsats har genomförts med kvalitativ metod genom intervjuer m...

  18. AVS user's guide on the basis of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi; Kume, Etsuo; Fujii, Minoru.

    1997-07-01

    The special guides for the use of visualization software AVS have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The purpose of these guides is to help the AVS users understand easily the use of the one, due to the fact that it is so difficult for beginners to understand the original manuals. In this report, 'Transportation Evacuation Simulation' is taken up as an object of visualization, and the procedure of visualization and images recording by using the AVS are described. By using the AVS according to this report, a series of the procedure which are necessary for use of the AVS can be acquired. (author)

  19. Förväntade kunskaper : en jämförelse av kursplaner i matematik

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlstedt, Marica

    2014-01-01

    Denna studie analyserar kursplanen i matematik. Fokus i studien har varit elevernas förväntade kunskaper i matematik. Studien utgår från Skolverkets uppdrag att utforma kursplaner och kunskapskrav för grundskolan. Analysen genomfördes på nuvarande kursplan ”Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011” (Skolverket, 2011a) samt förevarande kursplan ”Grundskolan kursplaner och betygskriterier, 2000” (Skolverket, 2008). Utifrån de skillnader och likheter som går att finna mel...

  20. Konstruktion av lättvikts-gavel till bränslecell

    OpenAIRE

    Carlander, Erik; Haglund, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Examensarbetet som behandlas i rapporten har utförts i samarbete med Powercell Sweden AB samt KTH. Powercell Sweden AB är ett företag som utvecklar och säljer bränsleceller för vätgas. Deras bränsleceller är utformade och konstruerade för att sitta i mobila applikationer. Den senaste bränslecellen som utvecklas och som examensarbetet behandlar är planerad att sitta i Volvos lastbilar. Där ska de fungera som en extra energikälla och därmed kan exempelvis tomgångskörningstider minskas. I projek...

  1. Nätmobbning : om pressens bild av nätmobbning i relation till högstadie- och gymnasieungdomars erfarenheter

    OpenAIRE

    Ingesson, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about cyber-bullying, the youth’s experience and how the papers image of cyber- bullying looks. The relevance of this essay be to be found in the aim of the research of the cyber bullying today. By examining how the youth’s usage and experience’s - and the papers image of cyber-bullying in the social media, it will be possible to create an understanding for how the social media is represented today. And in the next stage having the ability to work against the cyber bullying. Tw...

  2. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Small-scale technology; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Smaaskalig teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt (Grontmij AB (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The following techniques for small-scale production have been selected to be studied more carefully, Fuel cells, Photovoltaics, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and Wave power. Of the four selected technologies, fuel cells, solar cells, ORC are appropriate for use in so-called distributed generation, to be used close to a consumer, and possibly also for the production of electricity. Wave power is more like the wind in nature and is probably better suited to be used by power companies for direct input to the transmission grid. None of these technologies are now competitive against buying electricity from the Swedish grid. However, there are opportunities for all to reduce production costs so that they can become competitive alternatives in the future, depending largely on the general development of electricity prices, taxes, delivery reliability, etc. The four different technologies have different development stages and requirements that affect their possibility for a commercial breakthrough. These technologies will probably not all get a breakthrough in Sweden. Small-scale technologies will in the time period up to 2030 not be able to compete with the large-scale technologies that exist in today's power grid. In the longer term the situation may be different. The power system might be reduced in importance if the small scale technologies become cheap, reliable and easy to use. Electricity can then be produced locally, directly related to user needs

  3. Weight reduction, energy loss and gaseous emissions for different collection systems for food waste from households; Viktreducering, energifoerlust och gasemissioner vid olika insamlingssystem av matavfall fraan hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternald, Olle (and others)

    2010-09-15

    This project investigates the weight reduction of biodegradable household waste for different types of collections systems. The report is based on empirical experiments simulating the path taken by biodegradable waste through the different systems, from kitchen to final treatment. Data from the empirical experiments have been coordinated with existing data covering the quantities of bio waste collection received by final treatment facilities. This project has resulted in updated data, which reflects the quantities of the biodegradable waste generated at household level. Through this data, it has been possible to calculate the effectiveness of the different systems for collecting biodegradable waste, including their effectiveness as a source for biogas and soil conditioner. The results regarding waste weight reduction show that systems that use paper bags give a substantial weight reduction in both the kitchen (12%) as well as in the garbage disposal container, resulting in an average total weight reduction of 27%. For the bio-plastic bag, there is a small, measurable weight reduction of 7% in the kitchen. One-family household containers also show a reduction but for multiple households contains (typically used for apartment blocks) the reduction was much smaller. The average total weight reduction for bio-plastic systems was 10%. The corresponding value for total weight reduction for plastic bags in an optical system was 2%-4%, with an average of 2%. The largest share of the reduction consists of water, but some carbon is also emitted. Another conclusion of the report it that a larger share of the biodegradable waste generated by the Swedish households is collected than previously assumed. The data for generated (collected) biodegradable waste material shows higher levels and larger differences between the different collection systems than the data for the received (weighted) material at the treatment facilities. The data shows the effectiveness of each system and is significant for the biogas extraction levels and soil conditioner qualities. It is desirable that a large share of the biodegradable household waste is collected, both from an environmental perspective as well as in order to meet the Swedish national targets for biodegradable waste collection. Correlating existing data with data from the empirical experiments shows that 185 kg of biodegradable waste is collected from households using a paper bag-based system and 122 kg from household using a plastic bag-based system. This is equivalent to a 50% higher collection level for paper bag systems compared with plastic bag systems. The equivalent amount of bio waste is reduced in the combustible waste. Based on these numbers, the paper bag based systems offers 39% more methane per connected household than an optical plastic bag based system. Per kilogram incoming wet material, the there is a 23% methane advantage for the paper-based system. However, there is no significant difference in methane content per collected amount of bio waste between the methods. The data sample for bioplastic bags is too small in order to be included in the comparison. The carbon dioxide emissions show that a decomposition process of biodegradable waste is occurring in all types of collection systems. The nitrous oxide emissions are most likely negligible from an environmental perspective, although the results are not statistically verified. No measurable emission levels of methane can be detected, which is very encouraging from an environmental perspective

  4. Facing the nuclear power phaseout - Swedish experiences of enterprise shutdown and organisational development; Infoer kaernkraftavveckling - svenska erfarenheter av foeretagsnedlaeggningar och foeraendringsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study is to make an overview of problems and experiences connected to decommissioning and organisational changes of Swedish enterprises and public agencies from a safety perspective. The central point is the view of decommissioning of nuclear power plants as a process of change. In practice decommissioning includes both downsizing and organisational development. The question is which problems can arise and which strategy of change is most adequate from the standpoint of safety. The report starts with a summary of the most important experiences of the process of decommissioning of enterprises during the sixties to eighties concerning the consequences for the individuals and the labour market. After that follows the main results from earlier investigations of shut-down of nuclear power plants regarding the staff. The restructuring and downsizing of the public sector during the nineties have given rise to a large amount of material on staffing issues. The knowledge and experiences drawn from the organisational change processes of Swedish working life during the nineties are then summarised. At last some conclusions for decommissioning of nuclear power plants are discussed. The period before and after the termination of power generation is connected with great strain. The vulnerability of the staff increases and the faith in management can easily be destroyed, which can affect safety and the decommissioning work. The feeling of security increases if the staff continuously is kept informed and within certain limits can influence the course of events. A learning strategy is preferable in comparison to an expert oriented strategy because it is impossible to gain complete control over the technically and socially complex process of decommissioning. Instead of detailed and central planning of the process it will be safer to work in a participative way and to include all the staff in the preparations from the very beginning. By a learning way of working is meant that groups of staff continuously prepare workplans, implement, monitor, reflect and change their actions. This will give a double loop-learning situation where knowledge and competence are developed. The participants will then develop a common view and shared control over the process. This way of working demands a high level of leadership, co-ordination and monitoring. The preparation period is of utmost importance for the safety of decommissioning and demands time. It is of great importance that everybody will be engaged in this work from the start. The critical period from the decision to the termination of power generation, when the plant loses its mission, has to be minimized and the staff must gain new orientations as fast as possible. The best way of doing that is to help the individuals getting new hopes for a future and a new mission. Experiences show that downsizing and developmental activities should be separated. It is preferable if the outplacement can take place in a special organisation made up for this reason. The part of the staff that will remain in the plant will have to be given opportunities to develop their competence through learning at work. The safety culture of the plant which is built on the organisational competence of the staff must be kept during the whole process of decommissioning. It can`t completely be replaced by drawings and documentation. Every plant should prepare for decommissioning by developing their own policy containing the values, strategies and means for implementing the process. Supporting the plants during the process of decommissioning can raise the level of safety and the readiness to handle unforeseen events. Learn from the first processes of decommissioning. Monitoring activities and evaluations are highly needed

  5. Feeding biogas onto the national gas grid - Technical and economical aspects on omitting propane addition; Inmatning av biogas paa naturgasnaetet - Tekniska och ekonomiska aspekter paa slopad propantillsats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsson, Corfitz

    2012-07-01

    Biogas injection into the natural gas grid is a common practice in Sweden today. In order to condition the biogas to the quality matching the natural gas, propane (approx. 8 %) is injected in the biogas. This is a costly procedure which also introduces fossil components into a renewable gas flow. Because of this, it is desired to terminate the propane injection and inject biogas straight into the gas grid. This might affect certain customers and will affect billing procedures and this study has briefly examined the impact of injection of biogas in the gas grid without propane addition. The main findings are: 1. It seems technically possible to inject biogas without propane into the gas grid. Attention has to be paid to the quality requirements of certain sensitive customers, but most customers can accept the quality variations. 2. It is recommended that the minimum methane content of injected biogas is raised to 98 %. This might affect the operation and choice of upgrading equipment and will have to be evaluated from both a technical and an economical viewpoint in each case. 3. Downgrading the natural gas to biogas quality by air injection is not an option. 4. In order to make simplify billing procedures, the geographic location of biogas site injecting gas into the distribution network is crucial. The biogas site should be placed as close to the transmission network as possible. Further, two case studies concerning biogas injection into the transmission network are briefly discussed.

  6. Study of flue gas condensers with reference to corrosion risks, biofuel quality, techniques and choice of material; Kartlaeggning av roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar med avseende paa korrosionsrisker, biobraenslekvaliteter, teknik och materialval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenqvist, Per-Aake

    2012-02-15

    Corrosion in flue gas appliances installed in small and medium sized biomass fired boiler plants has become a problem in an increasing number of sites around Sweden. A trend seems to be that the problems are greater in those plants that use so called terminal chips than those that utilize more homogeneous fuels. In pace with the increasing number of biomass power plants in the country, the demand for cheaper fuel is increased. Through the increasing number of fuel terminals the market is provided even with biofuel mixes in the form of traditional wood chips mixed with bark, forest residue, sawdust, willow, returned wood, etc. Both users and suppliers of boiler and flue gas systems, and fuel suppliers have currently no clear rules or guidelines for relationships between different chemical properties of fuels, technologies, operating data and material. In this report has experience in the form of questionnaires completed by field visits, interviews of operational personnel and literature studies been compiled from a number of plants using different types of flue gas condensers for increased energy output from various types of bio fuels. The purpose of this assignment is to survey the flue gas condensation plant in biomass fired boiler plants for the presence of corrosion damage made in relation to the use of technologies and fuel qualities. A milestone is that the report will be able to be used to support the selection of materials and appropriate techniques for both new facilities and for the repair and improvement of existing ones. Another objective is to compile existing experience and assessment criteria which are reported in the literature. This report describes some typical construction techniques, whenever applicable harmful images and links to various substances present in fuels, ash and condensate

  7. Låt oss inte glömma Lady Macbeth! : En komparativ studie av Lady Macbeth i Shakespeares tragedi samt i tre moderna TV- och filmadaptioner.

    OpenAIRE

    Lidzén, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The work of Shakespeare has been popular to make film adaptations of from the birth of cinema. Macbeth, one of his most often played tragedies, is no exception. But how did Shakespeare portray Lady Macbeth in his play, and how do directors in the 21th century choose to portray her for a modern audience? I will try to find the answer to these questions by analyzing Shakespeare´s play as well as three modern adaptations. I will begin the thesis by looking at scholars´ view in questions regardin...

  8. Simultan lokalisering och kartering med hjälp av en Kinect i en inomhusmiljö med få landmärken

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmare, Fredrik; Rangsjö, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Localization and mapping are two of the most central tasks when it comes toautonomous robots. It has often been performed using expensive, accurate sensorsbut the fast development of consumer electronics has made similar sensorsavailable at a more affordable price. In this master thesis a TurtleBot\\texttrademark\\, robot and a MicrosoftKinect\\texttrademark\\, camera are used to perform Simultaneous Localization AndMapping, SLAM. The thesis presents modifications to an already existing opensourc...

  9. Hemavan och säsongsanställda : Ökar behovet av säsongsanställda risken för inlåsning?

    OpenAIRE

    Enquist, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a need for seasonal workers in the tourism industry in Hemavan risk creating a lock-in effect for the resort. As seasonal workers do not reside permanently in the locality they are not in the local database and it is difficult to find complete statistics on them. Therefore tourism companies in Hemavan have been contacted and asked to share information regarding their use of seasonal employees and what their remaining workforce look like. The...

  10. Household consumption of different generations. Purchase of electric appliances and energy; Hushaallens konsumtion i olika generationer. Inkoep av eldriven hushaallsutrustning och energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Stenerus, Ann-Sofie

    2008-02-15

    Considering that energy efficiency is an important task for the future, this study shows to what extent generation affiliation and other household characteristics affect consumption of primarily electrical household appliances and energy. The material used is a number of studies concerning household expenditures as well as average prices for goods and energy. Material from 1958, 1978, 1985, 1995 and 2003-2005 have been used. This report also includes a discussion regarding opportunities for energy efficiency. The term generation is explained in this context and earlier studies with relevance to generation affiliation and energy are summarized. An analysis of consumption habits among different generations highlights that the generations living in Sweden today experienced substantially different consumption opportunities during childhood and youth. Some generations have memories of much lower consumption levels, memories which could be recalled with the right policy instruments. The consumption experiences of the veteran generation are studied from 1958 up to 2003-2005, and this study also includes a comparison between the consumption levels in families with children in the 1950s and today. The current Swedish population have very different frames of reference concerning possible consumption styles. However, no generation would easily accept a more energy efficient lifestyle, because all generations have adapted to the increased consumption opportunities with high mobility and easy access. The analysis of household purchases of electrical appliances is based on information from 6 700 households (2003-2005) and 4 400 households (1985). The results are both surprising and expected. Generation affiliation is important for explaining expenditure levels for equipment for entertainment and information, where the youngest generations spend the most. But there are also differences related to gender as well as differences related to income and dwelling type. The differences based on generation and gender can therefore be taken into account when adapting information and other policy instruments to the target group, in the effort to increase energy efficiency. A reflection is that the term post-material lifestyle is misleading since the post-material lifestyle require large amounts of energy for travelling and communication. We suggest further studies to calculate the total energy use and the total emissions of carbon dioxide from different generations consumption. This can create a better understanding of what alternative consumption patterns the different generations may envisage and feel attracted to

  11. Dewatering of ashes from mixed fuels. Experiences and results from Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping; Avvattning av aska fraan blandbraenslen. Erfarenheter och resultat fraan Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Ulf; Fredriksson, Anders; Lindahl, Inge [Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping AB (Sweden); Arevius, Anna; Sjoeblom, Rolf [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-12-01

    Unit 3 at Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping (TVL) has a grid type furnace. During the firing season 2000 - 2001, the fuel has been comprising 45 % recovered wood chip, 45 % bark and 10 % recovered plastic material. The outfeed has been wet, and flyash and bottom ash have been mixed in the process. During 1999, about 19,000 tonnes of ash with a water content of about 50 % have been generated. The procedure has implied drawbacks in the form of handling of sludge and disposal of material with a high water content. The purpose of the work carried out has been to provide a basis for design of a handling in which these drawbacks have been eliminated, and which supports other destinations for the bottom ash than disposal. The search for information showed that a number of reactions, in particular hydratisation and recrystallisation, take place when ash is in contact with water. The process is strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the ash. The result is influenced not only by the chemical reactions that occur but also by the order in which they take place. Fly ash is very reactive while bottom ash is relatively inert. The experiments in the laboratory scale showed that bottom ash drained well while fly ash as well as different mixtures of fly ash and bottom ash are relatively impermeable to water. The ageing experiments which were carried out did not indicate any particular alteration in the permeability. Tests on a reduced scale clearly showed that bottom ash drains rapidly without the aid of vacuum and that the field capacity (the relative amount of water which does not drain) is low. Mixtures of bottom ash and fly ash drained more when vacuum was applied. However, such mixtures cured within a few hours and this lead to a substantial decrease in permeability. Tests on a pilot scale were conducted using three different methods of dewatering. The tests on self-percolation showed that most of the drainage water appeared during the first few hours where after the dewatering decreased rapidly. Experiments with equipment of different types for forced dewatering gave on one hand solid residues with a significantly lower water contents, but on the other hand significant volumes of water containing fines. In the solid residue, the fraction of elements like arsenic, lead and zinc decreased with a factor of about five. Measurements of heavy metals in the different ash fractions showed that the contents of them in bottom ash is relatively low. The conclusions are as follows. For the firing season 2001 - 2002, TVL intends to use wet outfeeding only for the bottom ash which will then loose most of its water immediately on exiting. This implies the following: - Disposal of more material than necessary is avoided - Handling of sludge with a high water content is avoided - Risk of instability in deposited material is eliminated - The ash can be utilised as a friction material and/or for drainage purposes at the disposal site - The ash may be given other destinations than disposal, e.g. geotechnical applications. For the firing season 2001 - 2002, TVL intends to outfeed flyash in a dry state where after is is moisted to a low water content. This implies the following: - Disposal of more material than necessary is avoided - The ash can be handled without the risk of dust formation - Risk of instability in deposited material is eliminated or decreased significantly - It is conceivable that the ash might be used for water tightening purposes at a disposal site. It is assessed that the results can be applied in a similar manner to other grid furnaces even if differences in the composition of the fuel gives rise to differences in the properties of the ashes generated. Partially different ash fractions are generated in fluidised bed furnaces. Bottom ashes and cyclon ashes can, however, be assumed to be significantly more draining than ('pure') fly ashes or mixtures of fly ashes and other ashes. The methodology developed in the present study can be used for development of the basis needed for assessments and decisions on strategies for ash management.

  12. Miljövänligt friluftsliv – friluftsmänniskors miljömedvetenhet och hållbar konsumtion av friluftskläder

    OpenAIRE

    Talsi, Eeva

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor recreation is becoming more and more popular, and as the number of outdoor enthusiasts is growing, so is the outdoor apparel industry. Outdoor wear has become increasingly technical with waterproof membranes and functional materials which are making the outdoor life more convenient for everyone. At the same time it has become clear that these new materials don’t come without environmental issues. Two recently highlighted environmentally hazardous substances in outdoor wear are per- an...

  13. Kroppens och känslornas betydelse för självförverkligandet. En rekonstruktion av G H Meads tänkande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Engdahl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many social researchers mistakenly think that Mead had no interest in the body and the emotions of the human being. They seem to think that his social philosophy of the act is all about her mind. This is unfortunate since his idea of the significance of the body and emotions for the emergence and development of the self is of great relevance to the contemporary interest in the subject matter. First, this article presents Mead’s contribution to the area. Especially it considers his idea of emotions as a form of intersubjective corporeality. Secondly, to better fulfil Mead’s own wish to transcend the Cartesian mind-body dualism it reconstructs his idea of emotions by relating them not only to the social body of the human being, but also the structures of norms and values embodied in social life. In that way it becomes evident that not only mind but also the social body and the emotions of the human being is of great significance for her selfrealisation.

  14. Bipolar lead acid batteries with ceramic partitioning walls. Forming and characterization of negative electrodes; Bipolaera blybatterier med keramiska mellanvaeggar. Tillverkning och karaktaerisering av negativa elektroder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ove; Haraldsen, Britta [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2001-01-01

    Bipolar electrodes are built with positive and negative paste on each side of a partitioning wall (PW). The PW must be dimensional stable and shall not allow electrolyte to flow through. The process of lead infiltration in porous ceramic plates is studied in this report in combination with different methods of forming pos. and neg. halves. Plante formed negative paste can not withstand a high pressure - relief details must be included in the design. The expanders in NAM are necessary to maintain the capacity. Positive Plante formed electrodes are not proper formed due to a too high current density. Furthermore, they are very brittle. The usefulness of paste plates has been shown and the future work will be directed towards such bipolar electrodes to be included in prototype batteries.

  15. Review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar; Myndigheternas granskning av SKB:s preliminaera saekerhetsbedoemningar foer Forsmark och Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Maria; Wallberg, Petra; Wiebert, Anders; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Shulan Xu (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Toverud, Oeivind; Stroemberg, Bo; Kautsky, Fritz; Simic, Eva (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-01-15

    This report presents SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar. The purpose of the review is to assess if the extent of SKB's initial site investigations are sufficient and if they are performed with adequate quality and also if they comprise the data that is needed for future safety analysis. To meet the request from the municipalities where site investigations are performed the authorities have also attempted to elucidate if a site has such obvious weakness that it probably will not comply with authority regulations. The target groups for the review are the municipalities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, and SKB

  16. Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes; Attityd till slutfoervar av anvaent kaernbraensle. Struktur och orsaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research)

    2008-09-15

    This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

  17. Varför har korruption olika effekter på ekonomisk tillväxt? : En fallstudie av Afrika söder om Sahara och Sydostasien

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt Hjertstedt, Amalia; Cetina, Hana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse how corruption can have different outcome on economic growth. A clear  division can be seen in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia where corruption have different economic outcomes. The countries in this study are the following: Botswana,  Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. The thesis composes of data over corruption indexes, annual growth in GDP, and socio-economic indicators such as political stab...

  18. Sealing layer of fly ashes and sewage sludge and vegetation establishment in treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Flygaska och roetslam som taetskikt vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin med vegetationsetablering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Isaksson, Karl-Erik [Boliden Mineral AB (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    Each year the Swedish mining industry produces 25 Mtonnes of mine tailings that are disposed of in extensive natural impoundments. As this sand, containing more or less sulphide-rich minerals, is penetrated by oxygen and water, it starts weathering resulting in formation of acidic and metal-rich drainage water. To prevent oxygen penetration the mine tailings can be covered with a sealing layer covered with a protective cover that facilitates establishment of vegetation. The aim of this study has been to examine the function of fly ash and sewage sludge in sealing layers at impoundments of pyrite rich mine tailings, and the ability of different plant species, which are suitable for establishment in these areas, to penetrate the sealing layer with their roots and what impact they have on the drainage water. Experiments have been performed in field and greenhouse environment, with sealing layers consisting of fly ash and sewage sludge mixtures, covered with protective covers of sewage sludge or till. Plant establishment has been studied in a survey of naturally established plants at sewage sludge disposal sites close to mining areas, and by sowing and planting of selected plants, for instance fast growing grass species and fibre hemp at the test plots in field and in greenhouse experiments. Large scale application of ashes, sewage sludge and an ash/sludge mixture have been performed in field at three test plots with the size of 0.3-1 ha. Leakage of nutrients and metals from sealing layers has been studied in field and greenhouse tests. In addition, the ability of plant roots to penetrate sealing layers made of different ash/sludge mixtures have been examined in greenhouse experiments. This investigation is a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field experiments have been performed at the mine tailings impoundments at Gillervattnet, Boliden. Other collaborating participants are Skellefteaa Kraft and Munksund, who have produced the ashes that have been used, and Stockholm Vatten AB, who has produced the sewage sludge. The main conclusions from this study are: It is practically possible to construct a sealing layer of fly ash upon mine tailings, and to establish plants by sowing in a protective cover of sewage sludge. Transferral of plantlets into the sludge is, however, problematic. Addition of sewage sludge to ash-containing sealing layers has several drawbacks. When sewage sludge freezes it is not possible to mix with ashes and thereby form a satisfactory sealing layer, with the method used in this study. Such sealing layer can thus not be constructed winter-time, which is the time when large amounts of ashes are produced and the mine tailings are firm enough to work upon. Furthermore, addition of sewage sludge to sealing layers increases the risk of root penetration and do not seem to have as great impact on the sealing layer permeability as has earlier been considered. Concentrations of many elements are higher in drainage water from mine waste covered with fly ash compared to drainage water from mine waste covered with sludge or mixtures of ash and sludge. Sewage sludge thus seems to have a preventive effect on metal leakage caused by the ash. Sealing layers made of fly ash have good resistance to root penetration due to high density and high degree of packing. Moreover, many ashes are toxic to plant roots as a result of high pH and alkalinity, and high levels of toxic substances, such as heavy metals. Addition of sewage sludge increases the risk of root penetration, since the sludge contains plant nutrients, for instance nitrogen, as well as it may decrease the density and possible toxicity of the ash sealing layer. The energy crop Reed Canary-grass generally reduces the leakage of nutrient elements from sewage sludge and fly ash, partly by decreasing the amount of drainage water, but also by changing the conditions in the substrate, for instance by changing the pH and redox potential. If the alkalinity is not too high the plant roots have an ability to decrease the pH in the plant substrate. Different plant species have varying ability to penetrate sealing layers. Roots of Reed Canary-grass may pulverize a hardened ash layer, probably by decreasing pH and taking up water and thereby desiccating the layer. Colt's-foot and birch are plant species with lower ability to penetrate ash-containing sealing layers. By time as the ashes become aged they seem to become penetrated by roots more easily, possibly due to a decreased pH. The conclusion from this work so far is that even though sewage sludge should not be mixed with ash in the sealing layer, due to practical difficulties and increased risk of root penetration, the presence of sewage sludge has a decreasing effect on metal levels in the drainage water. Establishment of vegetation should be performed through sowing, and plant species with low ability to penetrate sealing layers of fly ash with their roots should be chosen. Root penetration is most efficiently prevented by thorough packing of the ash layer, which also results in a low permeability, and by using ashes with high pH and high levels of toxic substances.

  19. Inventory of the pool frog, newt and gulyxne in Forsmark 2012; Inventering av goelgroda, stoerre vattensalamander och gulyxne i Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    On assignment from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB), Ekologigruppen AB carried out inventories of species populations during the summer of 2012. Species included in the study are described in three separate chapters of this report. The three species were pool frog Rana lessonae, great crested newt Triturus cristatus, and fen orchid Liparis loeselii. SKB will follow up the development of the local populations. Inventory of pool frogs are already a follow-up on a study carried out in 2011. Concern for these species is due to their protection within the EU system of species and habitat protection. Construction of the planned depository for used nuclear fuel will involve redirection of groundwater, which could potentially drain these wetlands. The three species pool frog, great crested newt and fen orchid are inventoried by well-documented procedures, which will allow repletion of the study at the same locals and according to the same methods during consequent years. The inventories are not complete in the sense that they would give number of individuals in a local population. Rather, the result should be regarded as an index for comparison and monitoring.

  20. Planning of biogas plants. A question of co-operation and negotiation; Planering av biogasanlaeggningar. En fraaga om samverkan och foerhandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Jamil

    2003-04-01

    During the last years there has been an increased interest in Sweden to build biogas reactors. The planning of a biogas plant brings about the need for co-operation between a variety of actors. Furthermore, there are a number of different issues that need to be dealt with. To build a biogas plant is thus a rather complicated thing to do. The aim of this report is to increase the knowledge about the processes that precede a decision to build a biogas plant, in order to try to facilitate the planning of future projects. The report is based on case studies of the planning of two biogas plants in Sweden and the empirical material consists of interviews with key persons as well as written documents. In the study, three parallel processes are identified and analysed, which are all crucial to carry through a project. These are the project planning process, the political process and the application process. The most important result of the study is that there is not only one way to carry through a project and that the choice of strategy depends on the character of the project and the different questions that need to be handled. Examples of other results are: the importance of an early and continuous dialogue with the political leadership, the necessity to build an organisation for the co-operation between key actors and that the project leaders should be flexible and open to changes in the project throughout the planning process.

  1. Field measurements of methane an other major components emitted from wood fired boilers. Phase 1; Faeltmaetningar av metan och andra viktiga komponenter fraan vedpannor - Etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Linda; Persson, Henrik; Johansson, Mathias; Tullin, Claes; Gustavsson, Lennart [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sjoedin, Aake; Cooper, David; Potter, Annika; Brorstroem Lunden, Eva [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst. Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden); Padban, Nader; Nyquist, Lena; Becker, Alberto [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    This report describes stage 1 of the project 'Emission measurements of methane and other important components from residential wood boilers' and covers 25 separate measurement campaigns. A further measurement campaigns will be carried out in Stage 2 of the project during 2005. The work has been limited to two main boiler groups. First, boilers not 'environmentally approved' (according to the Swedish National Board of Housing Building and Planning) and fired without a thermal heat storage tank (IMG), and secondly, boilers those were 'environmentally approved' boilers and fired with an added heat storage tank (MGA) are studied. The measurement boilers were chosen based on questionnaire replies from wood-burning households in the areas. The aim of the project was to improve the reference material for estimating annual emissions from residential wood boilers. By basing the study on a relatively large number of field measurements, a more realistic knowledge of the 'real-world' prevailing combustion conditions could be obtained. A secondary goal of the project was to examine whether or not wood boilers could be as poor as oil-fired boilers with respect to climate change because of methane emissions. All measurement campaigns had sampling periods of 1.5 - 2 hours and were suited to include the entire firing cycle i.e. sampling started at ignition and stopped when a wood charge had burnt out. In each case, the boiler owner followed his/her normal household routine in boiler operation while a project engineer undertook the measurements and kept a protocol regarding installation date, firing characteristics and fuel quality. Each measurement campaign consisted of two sampling events and in most cases an extra particle measurement was carried out. The first sample was taken by SP and IVL's so-called simplified field method developed in previous work. The simplified method was used for sampling CH{sub 4} (methane), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), TOC (total organic carbon), CO (carbon monoxide), O{sub 2} (oxygen) and particles. In the second sampling event, samples were taken for determination of PAH levels (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Forty per cent of those receiving the questionnaire were interested in participating in the study, which was more than the 25 required. Regarding the choice of the measurement boilers, priority was given to those owners who were at home during the daytime. The following conclusions are drawn: New emission data for 'not environmentally approved' boilers without thermal heat storage tanks (i.e. direct heating) and for 'environmentally approved' boilers with added thermal heat storage tanks. In both cases, the derived factors refer to stoker-firing operation i.e. the case where burning occurs with a fully open chimney exhaust damper during the entire cycle (often with batch-wise additions of wood in small quantities relative to the oven capacity). This can be considered as the opposite to choked combustion or smouldering where the chimney damper is partially closed with the result of significantly higher emissions. The way in which a boiler owner uses his/her boiler when firing wood is an important factor in determining the emissions. In this study, the start-up procedure was of special importance since this phase of the firing cycle constituted a large part of the sampling period. Furthermore, in many cases the first batch of wood used for the start-up was to large and gave an ineffective combustion and high emissions relatively long. The wood boilers included in this study have methane emissions that give a climate change effect significantly less than oil boilers. Previous work had shown the effect to be similar for both types of appliances. The underlying reason is that in these measurements none of the boiler owners, so far in the study, fired their boiler by choking the combustion (smouldering). Previous estimates on a methane emission factor that was an average of both choked and stoker-fired operation. The occurrence of choked combustion needs to be further investigated to provide better emission data for wood boilers without storage tank. This work is left to stage 2 of this project. According to the Swedish National Board of Housing Building and Planning the emissions of OGC in densely populated areas is allowed to be no higher than 150 mg/m{sup 3}, dry gas at 10 % O{sub 2}, which corresponds to approximately 70 mg/MJ. In practice, the emission of OGC often is higher, which is observed in this field study, in the case of two 'environmentally approved' boilers. This result can be explained by the fact that the testing method recommended do not include ignition. However, in this field study the ignition is included as it is important for the actual emissions. It is important with knowledge about how one should fire to achieve low emissions and high efficiency. This project indicates a need of information of start-up behaviour.

  2. Better and more efficient collaboration for increased use of field fuel in heating plants; Baettre och effektivare samverkan foer oekad anvaendning av aakerbraenslen i vaermeverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkeloev, Olof (Agrovaest, Skara (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Chris; Hollsten, Ronnie (KanEnergi Sweden AB, Skara (Sweden)); Lindh, Carina (LRF Konsult, Skara (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    Despite that the potential for field fuels in SW Sweden is great and that the combustion characteristics of fuels are known, the interest for field fuels has been low from farmers and heating plants. The purpose of the project is to identify why the introduction of field fuel into heating plants is going so slow and to suggest possible solutions. Field fuel is missing the general structure and tradition that is found in forest fuels in terms of harvesting, processing, logistics and business models. The overall long-term objective is a better and more effective cooperation between heating plants, farmers and logistic companies for the increased use of field fuels in heating plants. The potential for field fuel in the area is great but won't be sufficient to cover the need. The raw materials that exist today and are deemed will be relevant in the future are willow, straw and grain kernel. We have divided the heating plants into two groups; Small plants with a furnace less than 35 MW, and large plants with an effect over 35 MW. Common to both small and large heating plants is that there must be a willingness to receive and combust field fuels for the share of field fuels to increase. For the small heating plants to be able to receive and combust field fuels the knowledge of the combustion properties of these fuels must increase. Larger heating plants have better opportunities to use field fuels in their boilers when it comes to the technology and the know how. They have a more controlled handling and receiving of fuels. It is not uncommon that storing and blending of fuels will take place at their own facility. They also have more experience of handling a larger number of suppliers at the same time. The heating plants would like to see standardization in terms of fuel characteristics, and they prefer to obtain approximately the same burning performance regardless of delivery date. Today, the small heating plants do not have the routines to manage multiple small fuel suppliers. To increase the amount of field fuels in the small heating plants the farmers need to collaborate in small supplier groups and deliver a pre-mixed fuel with consistent quality. For this to work the heating plants need to find an effective method of quality assurance at the reception of the fuel and the supplier group needs to develop an internal quality assurance and billing system. The larger heating plants, over 35 MW, large fuel requirement means that the fuel shipments should be coordinated to minimize storage time and disruption of traffic to and from the facility. With a functioning transport system, where several farmers join forces to increase the delivery volume, and ensure the quality, the ability to be a reliable fuel supplier is increased. For a local market of field fuels to arise it requires that the local heating plant initiate by demanding different types of field fuel. Increased use of field fuels is also stimulated by greater integration in the value chain in order to obtain a more optimal allocation of value creation and to meet the demands of volume, quality and security of supply, which is required. The studies and analysis show that the development would be facilitated if: - Farmers integrate horizontally to bring up the volumes and better supply security. This also creates better conditions for rational harvesting and handling of fuels (chipping, storage, drying, mixing, etc.) through for example small fuel terminals and the control and management of the quality of the fuel. - Farmers integrate vertically by operating and/or owning small heating plants (up to a couple of MW) specially adapted for field fuels. - Horizontal integration or interaction between heating plants can be used for fuel purchase and coordination, where field fuels can be mixed with other fuels on the basis of individual requirements and possibilities. - Heating plants are working together on fuel supply, quality, technology and business models. - Heating plants and farmers can work jointly with logistics and quality issues

  3. Framework for detailed studies on the construction and operation of repositories for spent nuclear fuel; Ramprogram foer detaljundersoekningar vid uppfoerande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the bedrock conditions at Forsmark. The detailed investigations will employ, apart from established and earlier practiced methods, also further refined and newly developed techniques and methods for investigations and modelling. The report describes the present status for investigation and modelling methodology and techniques and also provides an overview of currently planned method developments. The report also presents a proposed scenario for how the detailed investigations, in light of presently available knowledge and techniques, should be conducted. Starting points for the investigation programme in this context are the reference design of the facility and remaining uncertainties associated with the site descriptive model and underground design. The scenario high-lights those investigations which, more or less as a matter of routine work, will be performed closely coordinated with the progression of the underground excavation work. The investigations related to the development of the deposition areas will primarily be linked to the sequences pilot drilling followed by excavation of deposition tunnels, and pilot drilling with subsequent full-face drilling of deposition holes. Continuous supervision of the fulfilment of design premises and documentation of the facility are in this context important issues. Information acquired during the construction process will also provide the substantial basis for the assessment of the long-term safety of the final repository. Further, it is emphasised in the report that supplementary investigations will be performed, if the information in any respect is regarded as insufficient. Such investigations may as well be performed from the ground surface. The final repository will in different ways have an impact on the surrounding environment. Monitoring of such changes is therefore an important and integral part of the detailed investigations. Until the construction work for the final repository is initiated, the detailed investigation programme will be modified and made more circumstantial, including results of planned developments . These updates will be accounted for in ensuing versions of the programme

  4. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport

    2002-02-01

    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  5. Results from measurements of natural radiation in and from filters in some water treatment plants; Maetningar av naturlig radioaktivitet i och fraan filter vid naagra vattenverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergren, Inger; Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Ek, Britt-Marie [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Large water treatment plants often process surface water where the concentration of natural radionuclides is so low that treatment of the water produces no radiation dose or waste problem. The level of natural radionuclides in ground water is higher than in surface water and often so high that mitigation is needed to clean the water. Specific treatment of the filters and filter masses is needed in some cases because the natural radionuclides precipitate in the filters. The radiation doses received by personnel at the ground water treatment plants are often low because of the relatively short time the workers spend inside the treatment plant. The results presented here indicate no need for extra action to insure radiation protection with regard to radioactivity inside the treatment plant or during processing of the filters and waste. A comprehensive discussion of the problems associated with the concentrating of natural radionuclides in water filters is presented in this report.

  6. Osynliggörandet av äldre HBT-personer : Upplevelser och föreställningar om äldreomsorg

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlind Serrander, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Although Sweden is considered to be in the lead concerning an open-minded perception of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population, very little attention has been given to the elderly within this target group. The elder LGBT population’s got special needs that haven’t been made sufficiently visible, neither as a research field, from social institutions nor from the LGBT movement itself. This study has described the target group's specific needs, based on the results of a fo...

  7. Biomass functions for tree fractions from pine, spruce, and birch in Sweden; Biomassafunktioner foer traedfraktioner av tall, gran och bjoerk i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Hans

    1999-07-01

    This report describes new functions for estimation of the biomass of a tree, separated in a number of fractions. The functions will be used to estimate the potential supply of wood fuel from the forests, and to make calculations of bound carbon and indirect nitrogen balance in the forest.

  8. Quality demand, raw material utilization and costs at a marked increase in the use of forest fuels; Kvalitetskrav, raavaruutnyttjande och kostnader vid kraftigt oekad anvaendning av skogsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlinger, John; Brunberg, Bengt; Eriksson, Mats; Thor, Magnus [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    The work has been carried on in three steps: (1) Mapping of the present quality of forest fuels at heating and cogeneration utilities and pellets producers, (2) Calculation of gross supply of forest fuels in three forestry administrations at AssiDomaen in southern, central and northern Sweden, and (3) Analysis of costs and raw material utilization in three forestry administrations at AssiDomaen in southern, central and northern Sweden. A very detailed description of the results is given in three appendixes.

  9. Description of the environmental impacts of transports in Environmental Impact Statements for industries and energy plants; Beskrivning av transporters miljoepaaverkan i en MKB foer industrier och energianlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, Gun; Svensson, Annika; Arnell, Jenny [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Johansson, Veronica [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Swedish EIA centre; Gipperth, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Law

    2003-09-01

    The environmental legislation states that an Environmental Impact Assessment should be made from an over-all perspective and give a global evaluation the environmental impacts of a project. Today, there does not exist a convention or recommendation for the description of the impact of transportation in an EIS. Quite different principles are applied in different regions or by different actors, which makes comparisons difficult. The impacts discussed in this report are mainly emissions to air of exhaust gases. Several factors are important in a description of the impacts of transportation: which delimitations have been made, what data constitute the basis for the calculations, how has the environmental impact been estimated. The problems with legislative and geographic restrictions are studied. Who is responsible for the transport and its emissions, for whom is it done. Where does it start and finish. If the company has global businesses, how far should the descriptions reach. The questions have been answered in the report, and 54 cases from environmental courts have been followed up. Proposals are presented on what should be covered in the EIA, which geographic delimitations can be made, available emission factors for quantifying emissions and how the results may be used.

  10. Nuclear industry practice for clearance of materials, facilities and buildings as well as land. Tutorial; Kaerntekniska industrins praxis foer friklassning av material, lokaler och byggnader samt mark. Handledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    This handbook comprises the common practices of the Swedish nuclear industry for the clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil in order to be exempted from the Swedish Nuclear Activities Act and the Swedish Radiation Protection Act. After clearance the management/usage of material, rooms, buildings and soil is permitted without any control from the radiation protection point of view. Clearance is practiced to reduce the amount radioactive waste. Cleared material can be reused according to its original form, recycled or, if these two possibilities are not available, disposed as conventional waste. The working procedures described in this handbook are mainly based on the regulation SSMFS 2011:2 from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority: 'Regulations concerning clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil from activities with ionising radiation'. The purpose of this handbook is to serve as a tool and guidance for generating specific routines and instructions for clearance. It describes the principles, processes and routines that should be followed under a clearance procedure. The intention is to accomplish the current regulation by following the routines and principles described in this manual. This handbook spans over a large number of conditions towards clearance, such as facility specific conditions and different types of objects. Because not all the conceivable conditions and objects can be included here, the purpose has been to cover the most common types of clearance practices. The practices comprise: - Description of regulations and recommendations, Swedish and international, that represent the basis of the requirements in this handbook. - Presentation of the processes for clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil. Those which cannot be cleared are considered as radioactive waste. A proposal for the decision-making process is presented. - Illustration for radiological surveys to systems and components, buildings and soil in regard to the radioactive substances carried during the activities. - Description of measuring methods and related technical equipment that can be used in a clearance process. Issues on radiological background in measuring places, detection limits and confidence of measurements are addressed. - Presentation of proposals on routines for clearance, as well as grouping of material flows from a clearance point of view, and discussion on sorting criteria. - Principles for quality assurance and documentation. Detailed directives must be addressed in every company's leading system. - Review on the need of competence for the personnel performing measurements, evaluating results and approving cleared material. Competence profiles for the different roles involved in the clearance process

  11. Large regional groundwater modeling - a sensitivity study of some selected conceptual descriptions and simplifications; Storregional grundvattenmodellering - en kaenslighetsstudie av naagra utvalda konceptuella beskrivningar och foerenklingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Lars O. (Lars O. Ericsson Consulting AB (Sweden)); Holmen, Johan (Golder Associates (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The primary aim of this report is: - To present a supplementary, in-depth evaluation of certain conceptual simplifications, descriptions and model uncertainties in conjunction with regional groundwater simulation, which in the first instance refer to model depth, topography, groundwater table level and boundary conditions. Implementation was based on geo-scientifically available data compilations from the Smaaland region but different conceptual assumptions have been analysed

  12. Policies, strategies and systems for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In this report an up-to-date account is made of the status of different principles, strategies and systems for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As large scale use of nuclear power for the production of electricity began in the 1960s and 1970s, studies of various principles and strategies for the management of the spent nuclear fuel were initialised. In particular in the USA, comprehensive studies were conducted of all strategies described in this report

  13. Exposure conditions, lung function and airway symptoms in industrial production of wood pellets. A pilot project; Exponeringsfoerhaallanden, lungfunktion och luftvaegsbesaer vid industriell produktion av traepellets. Ett pilotprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, Katja; Loefstedt, Haakan; Berg, Peter; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, Cecilia; Selden, Anders [Oerebro Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Yrkes- och miljoemedicinska kliniken; Eriksson, Kaare [Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Holmstroem, Mats; Rask- Andersen, Anna [Uppsala Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The production of wood pellets is a relatively new branch of the Swedish wood industry and has increased during the last years. A pilot study was performed to investigate the prevalence of airway symptoms, lung function and exposure among all 39 men employed in industrial production of wood pellets at six companies. The study included a questionnaire, medical examination, registration of nasal-PEF (peak expiratory flow) during a week, allergy screening (Phadiatop) and lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift. The results were compared with different reference data from other Swedish studies. Exposure measurements of monoterpenes and wood dust on filter and with a data logger (DataRAM) were also performed. The study group reported a higher frequency of cough without phlegm, awakening due to breathlessness and current asthma medication compared with reference data. For five of the six participants with physician-diagnosed asthma the disease debuted before the current employment and the results did not indicate an unusual asthma morbidity. Spirometry showed lower lung function before work shift than expected. However no difference over work shift was observed. A negative and non-significant correlation was seen between time with current work task and lung function. The study group reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms mostly blockage, sneezing and dryness compared with reference data. The registrations of nasal-PEF did not show any differences between work and spare time. The prevalence of positive Phadiatop (23 %) did not differ from reference data. No association between exposure (wood dust and monoterpenes) and acute effects on lung function was observed. The wood dust exposure (0.16-19 mg/m{sup 3}) was high and 11 of 24 measurements exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 2 mg/m{sup 3}. Peak exposures could be identified, e.g. at cleaning of engines with compressed air, with the DataRAM. The exposure to monoterpenes (0.64 and 24 mg/m{sup 3}) was low compared with the present Swedish limit of 150 mg/m{sup 3}. The monoterpene exposure does not seem to be a health or exposure problem in industrial production of wood pellets but wood dust exposure can effect the airways negatively. In this study the levels of wood dust were high and the study group reported more airway symptoms than expected. However the effect on lung function was small, but steps to reduce wood dust exposure should be done.

  14. Monitoring of air pollution in Oestergoetland county. Results up to September 1999; Oevervakning av luftfoeroreningar i Oestergoetlands laen. Resultat till och med september 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren Larsson, Eva [ed.

    2000-04-01

    Swedish Environmental Research Inst. have measured deposition of air pollutants, soil water quality, and air pollution levels in forested areas in different parts of Sweden. This report treats the Oestergoetland county and the compilation covers the period 1991-1999, with more detailed monitoring for 1998-1999.

  15. Förbättring och utveckling av kompetensförsörjning : En kvalitativ studie utförd vid Swedavia AB

    OpenAIRE

    de la Chapelle, Eva

    2017-01-01

    An organizations quality management, including process improvement and -development requires continuous work. Quality- and process improvement does not only concern the individual employee but the entire organization. This bachelor thesis is about studying and improving a competence provision process at the organization Swedavia. The purpose is to suggest improvements that increase the efficiency and clarifies the competence prevision process. The thesis is based on the questions (1) How can ...

  16. The public, experts and deliberations. Consultations about final disposal of nuclear waste; Allmaenhet, expertis och deliberation. Samraad om slutfoervar av kaernavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soneryd, Linda [Stockholms Univ. (Sweden); Lidskog, Rolf [OerebrUniv. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2006-10-15

    The Swedish process for consultations are studied in order to gain knowledge about the relation between experts and the general public in processes that involve complex scientific and technological issues. The following questions are discussed: How to delimit and define 'the general public' and which methods are used for doing this? Which arenas for dialog are created, and which are the institutional conditions for participation. Are there mechanisms that support or counteract negotiations about the boundaries of the expertise? How do actors that participate in consultation activities relate to experts? How are local and cross-border environment consequences discussed in consultations? The empirical material used in the study consists of observation, formal and informal interviews and documents. Conclusions drawn are that the organisation of consultations puts a special focus on the municipalities, the local population and local environmental issues. SKB has, after advice from consultation participants taken measures to change the process. This has not, however, changed the institutional conditions for participating as given on the different arenas. SKB's local information and communication activity create good relationships but have only weak mechanisms to counteract the dominating role of SKB. The process holds mechanisms that both support and counteract discussions and negotiations about the expertise's boundaries. A counteracting mechanism is when participants relate to EIS as a legal tool and make references to law interpretations that support their own position. The expertise's boundaries are challenged through views and comments about the long time aspects that are involved in the repository question. During consultations, no systematic discussion is pursued about values related to different disposal solutions and images of the future or about which roles citizens have in the consultation process, in their function of municipality politicians, environment organisations or local population.

  17. The Forest Industry Program. Synthesis; Efficient use of energy and other resources; Effektivare energi- och resursanvaendning. Syntes av det skogsindustriella programmet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Carl

    2009-02-15

    In 1997 Vaermeforsk together with the Industry launched 'The Forest Industry Programme' and has since then financed more than 70 projects. The scope of the Programme is focused on short term improvements of energy use and efficient use of feed stock. The programme complements other efforts undertaken by the Industry on its own and in joint programmes at research institutes and Universities. The report explores the achievements within the programme and identifies loopholes and challenges for the future. The report is structured according to main process stages and highlights the state of the art at each stage. Sludge Combustion in the bark boiler is still the main choice for remediation. Methods to increase dry matter content such as drying and dewatering as a pre stage before combustion have been explored. No firm conclusions can be drawn from the studies. Further efforts concerning recovery of residuals such as de-inked pulp sludge have been identified but not as a subject to the programme. Bark - The importance of fractions (as a result of drying etc) in the combustion process has been explored thoroughly. A variety of methods to increase drying efficiency have been tested and the conclusion is that the choice of method depends on the mill design. Bark boiler - A vast experience of burning internal fuels such as bark and sludge with high efficiency and low emissions has been gained. New plant design has been explored as well as techniques to upgrade old boiler plants with high commercial potential for the operator due to increased expected life time. Recovery boiler - Significant efforts has been devoted to comply with the increased restrictions on emissions not the least in the design of the next generation of boilers. A principle for dividing and sharing the NO{sub x} burden between mills has been developed and implemented successfully. Soothing/sooth intervals, cracking and best choice of materials for the super heater to increase life time are other key areas addressed in the programme with promising results of the benefit of the operators. Evaporation - Encountered problems with scaling and corrosion have been analysed with substantial potential benefits to the mill operators. Preliminary studies of removal of methanol in the condensate from the evaporator are promising and a basis for future analysis. Lime kiln - Ring formations and corrosion problems have been in the focus of studies giving valuable knowledge to the operators. Problems associated with conversion to bio fuels in the kiln have been addressed successfully. Studies show that the use of surplus steam to lime slaking can contribute to increased efficiency. Tall Oil - Understanding of the production parameters and how to optimize the yield have been targeted in the studies. The importance of the individual mill design has been clearly revealed to the benefit of the operators. Energy efficiency in processes - An understanding of de-watering in drying cylinders has been gained which is of benefit to increased efficiency in the next generation of plant or the replacement of old equipment. Current projects are underway with potential promising result that focus on use of spruce and aspen in the CTMP - process as well as pre-treatment of wood chips combined with modification by enzymes as part of the TMP- process and energy recovery in refinery systems with low pulp concentration. These projects will provide a good knowledge base for the next step of studies. System issues and general energy efficiency: Heat recovery from humid air using heat pumps is promising as is the development of using a spiral fan for large air flows, however full scale demonstration is required to explore the potential fully. Increased electric efficiency has been addressed thoroughly in the parallel PTE-program as well as in the development of a design methodology for pump capacity. Promising results have been achieved using Pinch technology to reveal opportunities for increased system efficiencies but so far only theoretically. Concluding remarks The achievements so far have established a foundation for the industry to deal with expected constraints on emissions as well as on the impact of regulations on residual products. The exploitation of bio energy for internal and external commercial use has been successful and of great economic benefits to the industry and with a substantial contribution to meet the EU climate goals. Substantial knowledge has been achieved in various fields and few loopholes have been identified within the fields covered by the projects. Still the programme will encounter new and important issues that need to be addressed by the Industry in the future not the least due to the rapid development of the business environment. Issues of the future The most challenging issues in the future concern system design when closing processes, integration of systems, introduction of bio refinery concepts in the mill etc.

  18. Prediction of long-term properties of by-products - Technical and environmental properties in roads; Foerutsaegelse av laangtidsegenskaper hos restprodukter - Teknik och miljoe i vaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Haakan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik; Frogner-Kockum, Paul; Larsson, Lennart; Toomvaeli, Cecilia

    2008-12-15

    In Sweden, use of industrial by-products is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. This report describes a three-year research project aiming to: - Identify the key processes of ageing related to the usefulness of by-products in roads; - investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the by-products, and - propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. The project has compared naturally aged samples of two by-products used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh by-products from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash was chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterized in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The following properties were studied: grain size distribution, water content, compaction properties, deformation properties according to cyclic load triaxial tests, mineralogy and micro structure according to SEM and XRD, chemical composition, pH and leaching properties. For the bottom ash also organic content and electric conductivity was studied. Furthermore the pH was mapped in both roads and the conductivity was mapped in the bottom ash road. The working hypothesis was that ageing processes lead to changes in pH, effective particle size and mineralogy, which in turn determine leaching, stiffness and stability of the material. The test results confirmed that the pavement edge material is ageing faster than the road centre material is. In addition it was concluded that: - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were said to be caused by differences in water exposure. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0,1-0,5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in the subbase of steel slag and MSWI bottom ash were too small to be verified on laboratory prepared specimens by measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. - When properties of aged material are studied, particles should not be crushed before tests or examination. The accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. The best result (lowest pH values were achieved with exposure to carbon dioxide for seven days at moderate moisture content and 40 deg C. The effects on leaching were reproduced for all macro elements except sulphur, including the calcium depletion of calcium silicates. Most trace elements, for example copper, vanadium and led, but not chrome, could also be reproduced. The accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in-situ specimens. Initial tests showed which additives could create the reactions and column tests showed the effect on leaching properties. However, the chosen treatment with hydroxide addition did not simulate the observed leaching properties. Most trace elements were mobilised in stead of immobilised which hid the effect of aluminium oxidation and pozzolan reactions. Besides, precipitates were created hindering the leaching of soluble elements observed in the road material

  19. Possible consequences of climate change on the Swedish energy sector - impacts, vulnerability and adaptation; Taenkbara konsekvenser foer energisektorn av klimatfoeraendringar. Effekter, saarbarhet och anpassning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Johan; Eriksson, Sara; Holmgren, Kristina; Hovsenius, Gunnar; Kjellstroem, Erik; Larsson, Per; Lundstroem, Love; Persson, Gunn

    2007-06-15

    The events of recent years clearly demonstrate the far-reaching consequences of extreme weather situations on the energy system, particularly in the case of severe damage to transmission lines in connection with violent storms. Many climate researchers predict an increase in extreme weather events. Against this background, in 2005 Elforsk initiated this project where the aim has been to examine how climate change can affect plant operation, production conditions and energy usage patterns, how undesirable consequences can be predicted and what long-term measures may be necessary. Another central objective has been to bring about a dialogue between climate researchers, energy consultants/engineers and buyers for the energy industry. The inclusion of both positive and negative consequences has been an important ambition of the project. One key aspect of the project has been to develop climate scenarios for the next 20-25 years that describe possible changes in climate variables with relevance for the energy system. Based on these and literature studies, contact with experts and internal assessments, an analysis has been made of the possible impacts on hydropower, wind power, biofuel supply, natural gas supply, the power transmission network and energy usage. The project findings, which have also been discussed at a workshop with representatives from the energy industry, did not reveal any acute need for adaptation aside from those measures already being taken, for example to make the transmission system less vulnerable to weather conditions. Furthermore, the results indicate increased production potential for both hydropower and wind power. The production potential for hydropower stations from the Dalaelven River northwards would appear to increase by 2-10%. Estimates for the southern watercourses are less certain, but the production potential may decrease. Since around 80% of the country's hydropower is produced in the northern watercourses, this indicates an increase in Sweden's overall production potential. For wind power, the growth potential is 5-20% based on an installed capacity of 4000 MW. It is also a possible that the bioenergy potential will increase in view of the predicted 5-10% growth in production potential for forestry and agriculture. On the other hand, the extent to which this potential will be used for bioenergy production is uncertain since is it strongly dependent on the price of biomass and use of biomass for other purposes. Some of the climate-related problems that exist today may lessen in scope, while others may increase and new problems arise in a future climate. It is difficult to assess future wind conditions, since different climate scenarios produce somewhat different results. Among other things, an increase in heavy winds could have a negative impact on the electricity transmission network, wind power, biofuel supply and natural gas supply. However, the natural gas platforms that supply Sweden have proven highly robust and weather resistant. For the transmission network, a number of measures are being taken to increase its robustness to extreme events. Thunderstorms are another somewhat unpredictable climate variable. The analyses made in the project indicate a possible increase in problems related to lightning overvoltage in the transmission network. An additional area that is complex to assess is how problems with icing of transmission lines and wind power plants can change in a future climate. It is probable that these problems will increase in certain areas, but decrease in others. In certain parts of Sweden, evaporation may exceed precipitation and give rise to a water shortage. This applies particularly to the southeastern part of the country, which could affect the biofuel supply and hydropower generation in these areas. An opposite problem is that of future floods, which may increase especially during the winter season and in central and northern Sweden. Flooding has no direct connection to hydropower other than the ability for regulation to control water levels. However, hydropower is indirectly affected by flooding since public attention is often focused on the industry when high flows occur. A warmer climate will reduce the country's heating requirement by approximately 15 TWh. While electricity usage for heating is estimated to decrease by around 3 TWh as a result of a warmer climate, a probable rise in demand for air conditioning could lead to increased electricity usage during the summer. However, future energy usage for heating and air conditioning will be strongly dependent on factors other than the climate, such as the implementation of energy efficiency measures, changes in behaviour, the use of heat generating appliances, population growth, etc. The project has included a rough assessment of how both climate-related and non climate-related factors may affect energy usage for heating of homes and businesses (not industrial facilities) in a 20- to 25-year perspective. A lower energy requirement for heating would also reduce the production base for CHP. To maintain production it will be necessary to expand district heating to areas that are currently without, convert from other heating systems to district heating and/or utilise new business opportunities such as absorption cooling or energy combines with CHP utilising renewable fuels like biomass or pellets. Changes in production potential and energy usage patterns and the occurrence of climate-related problems will affect the entire energy system. Increased production potential for the northern hydropower stations, particularly in combination with a growing share of power types that are difficult to regulate, may increase the need for power transmission capacity from north to south. This is especially true if the north-to-south shift continues and in the event of rising demand for electricity in the rest of Europe.

  20. Combustion characterization of rape seed meal and suggestions for optimal use in combustion appliances; Foerbraenningskarakterisering av rapsmjoel och foerslag till optimalt nyttjande i olika foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Pettersson, Esbjoern; Pommer, Linda; Lindstroem, Erica; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Rikard

    2007-12-15

    When rape oil is chemically extracted, rape seed meal, a solid residue remains. Currently, it is used as animal feed. Several plants for the production of rape methyl ester (RME, biodiesel) are in operation or under construction. Combustion properties have been studied for rape seed meal produced as a by product to rape-methyl esther (RME, biodiesel). Composition of the material has been measured, using proximate and ultimate analysis. The lower heating value was 18.2 +- 0.3 MJ/kg d.w. and the ash content was 7-8 percent d.w. The material is rich in nitrogen and sulphur. Concentrations of K, P, Ca and Mg are high in the fuel. Rape seed meal was mixed with bark and pelletised. Bark pellets were also used as a reference fuel. Pellets with 10 and 30 percent rape seed meal were produced. Material with 80 percent rape seed meal and 20 percent planer shavings was also pelletised. Wood had to be added to provide enough friction in the pelletising process, with adapted equipment rape seed meal could probably be easily pelletised). The material was studied using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and compared with data from tests with wood powder. The pyrolysis of the rape seed meal has a characteristic temperature of 320 deg C. Devolatilisation starts at 150 deg C (at a lower temperature than for wood powder), and proceeds within a rather wide temperature range. The probable cause is the difference in organic content, in particular protein content. The result does not suggest that the material will be difficult to ignite. Experiments in a bench-scale fluidised bed (5 kW) showed that pellets containing only bark, and the mixture rape seed meal/wood had a bed agglomeration temperature well over the normal operational bed temperature. For the fuel mixtures rape seed meal and bark, the agglomeration temperature was slightly over the operational temperature. Particle emissions from fluidised bed combustion and grate combustion were, the latter simulated using a commercial pellet burner, were roughly doubled with fuels containing rape seed meal compared to bark. In the powder burner tests, particle emissions increased with a factor 17 with rape seed meal compared to wood powder. The emitted particles were mainly found in the fine (< 1 mum) mode during grate and powder combustion. During fluidized bed combustion the total particulate matter consisted both of a coarse (>1 mum) and a fine mode fraction. The particles from grate combustion of bark contain mostly K, S, Na and Cl apart from oxygen and carbon. When rape seed meal is present, Cl and Na concentrations decrease considerably and the main contents of the particles are K and S (and O and C). The results from the X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD) analyses showed the presence of crystalline K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and KCl. The fine particles (<1 mum) from powder combustion contain mainly K, P and S. The only identified crystalline phase was K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, suggesting that most phosphorus was in the amorphous phase, i.d. most probably molten. The deposit formation on a cooled probe was studied during the fluidized bed and powder combustion experiments. The fine particles deposited during fluidised bed combustion contained K, Cl and S. When bark was combusted in the fluidised bed, the coarse fraction contained Ca and Si, when rape seed meal in different mixes was combusted this changed to P, K, Ca and Mg. The deposits formed during combustion of rape seed meal in the powder burner were mainly made up of phosphates (Ca-, Mg/K-, Ca/Mg-phosphates) and MgO. Sintered material (slag) from grate combustion of bark contained mainly Si, Ca, K and Al, probably as silicates. Adding rape seed meal tended to increase P, Ca and Mg while Si and Ca content tended to decrease. Through XRD a number o crystalline phases in the sintered material and the rest of the bottom ashes could be identified. NO emissions from the combustions tests increased two to four times with rape seed meal compared to typical wood fuels. For the fluidised bed test, SO{sub 2} concentrations were rather high for the ra

  1. Effektivisering av byggproduktion med VDC och förstärkt verklighet : Streamlining construction work with VDC and augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Appelberg, Emelie; Bremberg, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) is currently used more and more within construction design and planning as well as construction as a streamlining tool aiming to improve communication and decrease the number of construction defects. VDC is constantly developing, but what comes next? The augmented reality (AR) technology is currently not used within construction in Sweden but should be considered as the next step in line regarding the integration of reality and digital information. Using ...

  2. I skuggan av kulturella stereotypier : Perspektiv på forskning om genus, jämställdhet och etniska relationer i Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Ålund, Aleksandra; Alinia, Minoo

    2011-01-01

    In the shadow of ethno-cultural stereotypes: gender, equity and ethnic relations in Sweden Scientific debates about cultural differences between ”Swedes” and migrants/ethnic minorities in Sweden have fuelled stereotypical categorizations and a socio-cultural demarcation between ”us” and ”them”. The authors argue that this development has underpinned constructions of foreignness. In the light of a critical review of the current debate on honour related violence, the authors discuss – inspired ...

  3. Risk analysis local grids. Mapping and reduction of risks in electric power grids; Riskanalysmetod lokalnaet. Kartlaeggning och reduktion av risker i elnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylefors, Martin; Fredholm, Lotta; Sandstroem, Cecilia

    2007-11-15

    The objective of the project has been to contribute to development of risk analysis applications that correspond to the need of investments as an effect of new regulation. The aim has been to develop a method for screening and assessing risks, and for ranking risk reducing measures in order of priority. Phase 1 has consisted of an overview of methods, selection of appropriate methods, and development of principles regarding application suitable for power distribution companies. Phase 2 has consisted of adjustments and tests of the method. The method focuses on risks associated with power failures, with a duration exceeding 12 hours, in medium voltage local networks. Stations are excluded. The suggested method is based on principles of Preliminary Hazard Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis. Risks are suggested to be assessed based on three main factors (load, exposure and alternative supply). The quota between the highest and lowest value is 20 for each factor. Each factor is assessed by underlying factors such as type of cable/wire, number of customers and average power consumption. By multiplying the factors a resulting risk level is obtained in the range of 0.05 to 400. The level determines the need for further investments. Appropriate risk reducing measure is selected by putting the risk reduction (benefit) in relation to the total costs for investment and maintenance, for each alternative measure. There is a further need for development of a method for stations. There is also a further need for development of a priority model in city networks where power failures less than 12 hours are taken into account. Finally there is a need to turn the functional requirement (no power failures exceeding 24 hours) into an acceptable risk level

  4. Construction of a flexible pilot dryer for products such as biofuels and iron ore pellets; Uppbyggnad av flexibel pilottork foer produkter som biobraenslen och jaernmalmspellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Erik; Truedsson, Ida; Stenstroem, Stig

    2009-02-15

    Drying of different products is an operation that requires large amounts of energy in Sweden, a compilation from 2006 indicates a total use of over 32 TWh of thermal energy. A more energy efficient drying process can thus result in significant savings of energy for this process. The interest to use biofuels for heating purposes increases with increasing energy prices and thus also the interest to dewater and dry these products. Often an excess of low-value heat (flue gases, warm water etc.) is available and it would be desirable to use these streams for drying of different products. The goal in this project has been to carry out two subtasks: A Rebuild and modernise the old pilot dryer at the department so that it can be used for studies of drying kinetics for different products in a bed or as separate particles. B Perform a number of drying experiments with two representative bio-fuels which can be used for evaluation of different proposals for drying of these products. The results will mainly be of interest for companies handling biofuels in the forestry sector, for LKAB producing iron ore pellets and for manufacturers of industrial dryers. The constructed pilot dryer can be used for studies of drying kinetics of different types of products such as bark, wood chips, materials in the form of pellets such as iron ore pellets or wood pellets and foods. If the drying cell is designed so that fine particulate materials are not entrained with the gas flow, products such as municipal or industrial sludges can also be handled in the dryer. The results indicate specific energy use figures of between 2500 and 3000 kJ/kg evaporated water, both for different fractions of bark and independently if the origin of the bark was Vaeroe or Iggesund. The drying time to reach a dry matter content of 60 % for a bed with a thickness of 20 cm and an air velocity of 1 m/s is about 5000 seconds at an air temperature of 50 deg C. It increases to 15000 seconds to reach a dry matter content of 90 %. If the air temperature is increased to 100 deg C the drying time is reduced to 1800 seconds to reach a dry matter content of 60 %. The shrinkage of the bark at different dry matter contents and drying of bark particles smaller than 2 mm are two topics which should be considered in future projects. Also it would be desirable to equip the pilot dryer with instruments so that emissions of volatile organic components such as terpenes can be measured

  5. Konceptet mobilitet som tjänst : Viktiga kompetenser och möjliga utmaningar vid vidareutvecklingen av MaaS i Sverige.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallenberg, Josefin; Bergström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Transport and travel is necessary for our society to function. Today, the privately owned car stands for more than half of all personal trips in Sweden. In the last couple of years researchers have highlighted the idea that personal transport is facing a paradigm shift, which means a reduction in the use and dependent of the privately owned car and an increased focus on individuals buying their Mobility as a Service (MaaS). MaaS is described as an integrated mix of different mobility services...

  6. Air quality and residential wood combustion - application of the model system SIMAIRrwc for some Swedish municipalities; Luftkvalitet och smaaskalig biobraensleeldning. Tillaempningar av SIMAIRved foer naagra kommuner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omstedt, Gunnar; Andersson, Stefan; Johansson, Christer; Loefgren, Bengt-Erik

    2008-11-15

    SIMAIRrwc is a Web based evaluation tool for meeting the EU directive on air pollution limits in residential areas using wood combustion. The background is a four-year research program (2001-2004) called Biomass Combustion Health and Environment. Some conclusions from this program were that emissions from small scale wood combustion can influence human health mainly due to high emitting old wood stoves during cold weather conditions and that the air quality in such areas can improve significantly if old wood stoves were replaced by modern wood boilers attached to a storage tank or with a pellet boiler. SIMAIRrwc is based on the same principles as SIMAIRroad, which is a Web based evaluation tool for road traffic i.e. coupled model system using different models on local, urban and regional geographical scales, best available emission data, but at the same time presented in a very simplified way. In this project SIMAIRrwc has been applied in five different Swedish municipalities. The aim has been to apply and improve the model in cooperation with the municipalities. The conclusions from the project are: Small scale wood combustions in residential areas are local problems which sometimes include only a few houses and/or wood-burners. Air quality problems related to the EU directive are mainly due to particles. Combinations of residential areas with wood combustion and emissions from nearby dense traffic roads might give rise to bad air quality. Actions require knowledge about individual equipment which needs information from the local chimney sweeps. The best way to identify problem areas is to use model calculations. If model calculations indicate risks of exceeding air quality limits, then new calculations should be made with improved input data taking into account for example information of district heating or other installations that can effect the emissions. Before actions are taken it may also be useful to make measurements. The measurement site can then be selected in the area where the model calculations show the largest impact. SIMAIRrwc is a powerful tool that can be used for identification and visualisation of areas where there might be air quality problems due to residential wood combustion

  7. Condition monitoring and thermoeconomic optimization of operation for a hybrid plant using artificial neural networks; Tillstaandsoevervakning och termoekonomisk driftoptimering av en hybridanlaeggning med artificiella neurala naetverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Magnus; Assadi, Mohsen

    2007-12-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN) and integrating the ANN models, for online condition monitoring and thermoeconomic optimization, at Vaesthamnsverket. The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The project is a continuation of previous projects where ANN training was done with operational data from the plant. The ANN models have, if required, been updated to better suit the purpose of this project. The thermoeconomic optimization takes into account current electricity prices, taxes, fuel prices etc. and calculates the current production cost along with the 'predicted' production cost. The tool also has a built in feature of predicting when a compressor wash is economically beneficial. The user interface is developed together with co-workers at Vaesthamnsverket to ensure its usefulness. The user interface includes functions for warnings and alarms when possible deviations in operation occur and also includes a feature for plotting parameter trends in optional time intervals, both measured values and predicted. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The power plant owners want to acquire a product for condition monitoring and thermoeconomic optimization of e.g. maintenance. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANN models along with their new gas turbines. The project has been carried out at Lund University, Department of Energy Sciences, with support from Vaesthamnsverket and Siemens. Vaesthamnsverket have contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. They have also been involved in the implementation of the ANN models in their computer system and the development of the user interface. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their gas turbine, the SGT800. A conclusion from the previous project was that ANN modelling of thermal power plants and its components can be done with high accuracy. Because of this, good results can also be achieved for the thermoeconomic calculations connected to the ANN models. The implementation of the ANN models, and the accompanying user interface, in Vaesthamnsverkets computer system was carried out successfully. With the developed tool plant condition can be monitored while at the same time possible deviations, such as degradation, are economically evaluated

  8. Numerical simulation of reacting and non-reacting flow in a combustion chamber; Numerisk simulering av reagerande och icke-reagerande stroemning i en braennkammare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, A.; Revstedt, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this work has been to do a preliminary study of how well numerical calculations with different turbulence models can predict the flow and temperature fields of a strongly swirling and combusting flow in an experimental combustion chamber and to see which parameters in the mathematical model are the most important. The combustion chamber on which we have done the calculations is called Validation Rig II and was designed by Volvo Aero Corporation. The main part of the study has been carried out on a non-reacting flow but some work has also been done on reacting flow. In most cases it has not been meaningful to compare the calculations with the measurements because they differ quite a lot from each other. For the non-reacting case the following investigations have been made: * How the solution differs for different turbulence models, * The solutions sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions, * How different types of leakage disturb the flow, and * The difference in results between two different CFD-codes, the commercial code CFDS-Flow3D and a code developed at the department of fluid mechanics. For the reacting cases we have studied the influence of: * one or two reaction steps, * the effects of a change in reaction rate, * the influence of thermal radiation, and * the effects of changing the boundary conditions for temperature on the walls. The results from these calculations show that the inlet turbulence intensity has very little effect on the values of the turbulent quantities as well as the velocity profiles at the outlet. Changing the turbulence model or the outlet boundary conditions gives some change in velocity profiles at the outlet but only marginal effects on the swirl number. 21 refs, 54 figs, 19 tabs

  9. Sorgens två ansikten : En litteraturstudie om män och kvinnors sorg vid förlust av ett barn

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Linda; Nilsson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background: To lose a child describes as the most painful loss that a human being can experience. The grief can be experienced individual depending on several factors such as culture and life experience. Being a man or woman is another factor that may influence the experience of grief. The nurse´s role is to support both parents in their role as mother and father. Aim: The aim was to describe men’s and women’s experiences of the loss of a child. Method: The study was made as a general literat...

  10. Adaption of the power distribution system to a sustainable energy system - Smart meters and intelligent nets; Anpassning av elnaeten, till ett uthaalligt energisystem - Smarta maetare och intelligenta naet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Math

    2010-11-15

    The conversion of the energy system towards sustainability is a major challenge for society. The conversion includes a large-scale introduction of renewable electricity and the electrification of transport. Adaptations of the grid are needed in order to cope with this development: - Facilitate an increased introduction of renewable electricity; - Enabling power reduction at peak load; - Improve incentives for energy efficiency; - Creating conditions for more active purchasers of electricity. Security of supply must be high, although the new production affects the electricity grid in a different way than today. Therefore, new technical solutions, a so-called smart grid, is necessary in order to, inter alia, prevent congestion and over voltages, but also to enhance the operational safety in general. There is new technology that can help adjust the grid in an efficient and flexible way. Intelligent networks, or smart grids, is the collection of new technology, function and regulatory framework in the electricity market, etc. that cost-effectively facilitate introduction and utilization of renewable electricity generation, leading to reduced energy consumption, contributes to power reduction in peak load and creates conditions for active electricity customers. Sweden is one of the countries that score high in terms of active electricity customers and feedback of consumption for electricity customers. There is a direct consequence of introduction of the metering reform and installation of the AMR, in which Sweden was one of the first countries in Europe. As for modern technology to increase transmission capacity of transmission networks such as HVDC and FACTS technology, Sweden is a world leader. This technology will play an important role in enabling large-scale use of renewable electricity generation on European level. The investigation has resulted in the following proposals: - A knowledge platform created to be collect and disseminate relevant knowledge of research, development and demonstration to all stakeholders. An independent Coordination Council is established as a base for platform. - Funding for research, development and demonstration shall be done by existing structures. The EI should be given a increased role both as regards the allocation of resources and capabilities to develop the function and regulatory framework in the electricity market, - Svenska Kraftnaet is given the task to develop a comprehensive action plan for how the Swedish electricity grid will be adapted to the objectives for the development of renewable electricity generation and conversion of energy system. An important prerequisite for action is a system for equalizing the costs of connecting wind and other renewable energy sources, - Increased incentives for network companies to invest in smart grid is introduced in regulation; - Hourly metering is introduced for the majority of electricity customers, - EI should be instructed to review electricity companies' tariff structures in order to reduce peak load, - EI should be given the task of designing functional requirements of the customer information in order to increase opportunities to actively respond to market price signals, - EI is given the task of analyzing roles and responsibilities of different players in order to identify and suggest possible measures for to promote the use and development of smart grids, - EI should be instructed to analyze whether the current split in the national, regional and local networks are efficient. The timetable for implementing the above proposals are determined with consideration of the prior regulation. Results should be available well before March 2015 to provide electricity traders to adjust their investment plans; fall 2013 is proposed as the target date

  11. Tobaksvanor i medelåldern : riskfaktormönster, rökstoppsattityder och erfarenheter av att sluta röka

    OpenAIRE

    Lundqvist, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco use, mostly smoking, has been a deeply rooted habit for many people for centuries. However, it was not until the second half of last century that the risks with smoking became obvious. Today when the bad consequences of smoking are recognized by almost all people, it is important to discuss why smokers choose to continue smoking. The main aim of this thesis is to try to better explain why some middle aged smokers choose to continue smoking in spite of knowledge of the huge mass of inf...

  12. Energy thief or saving tool? On the use of information and communication technology in households; Energitjuv eller sparverktyg? Om anvaendning av informations- och kommunikationsteknologi i hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Kristina; Toernqvist, Eva K.

    2009-08-15

    A development towards continued increased use of information- and communication technology (ICT) in the households is a fact that should be taken seriously from an energy perspective. Especially since a lot of ICT is subjected to strong political aspirations to become accessible to all citizens on their own conditions. According to a couple of prognoses, ICT is estimated to amount to 45 % of the household electricity within the nearest ten year period. In addition to the direct use that ICT stands for, the indirect use that origins from, for example, the production and discarding of devices as well as the use that is a consequence of changed behavioural patterns, such as telecommuting, must be taken into account in order to fully understand the use of ICT in an energy perspective. Furthermore, the risk for so called rebound-effects needs also to be considered. This means that the time-, energy- and money savings that can be achieved by means of (more energy efficient) ICT, are used for more ICT use or for other energy requiring activities. Among other things, research indicates that expected transport reductions do not occur. From the point of departure of the overall question of why the energy use within the so called function area 'information and entertainment' increases in households, the aim of the report is to analyze and to discuss driving forces for household members' increased possession and use of ICT in a broad sense (including, for example, tv, mp3, dvd- and cd players. The intention is also to make visible the complex social context in which the use of ICT takes place. The driving forces are complex since they can be related to the individual user's own interests and satisfaction, to the household's social context as well as to a social context outside the household, and to different, often contradictory, norms and values. This makes the development of simple saving measures more difficult, but knowledge of the complexity and how it moves the boundaries for what is considered 'normal' use is important. A great variety of such complex driving forces are identified in the report that contributes both to the force of the individualization trend, which manifests itself in household members' individual ICT use, more devices and longer time uses, and to the difficulties in reducing the process related use (appliances consuming electricity without being used directly). Examples are given illustrating that the energy use is affected by the household members' creative use of ICT. This means that they extend the use of already existing technologies, which comes about in interaction with other users. However, it is not about the production of new artifacts but of process innovations. In order to be able to develop both artifact - and process innovations that lead to reduced energy use, additional knowledge of how such processes come about is required. Creative use takes place also in larger systems and institutions where household members take part in their leisure time and examples are given from bird-watching and hunting. There, the social context plays a big role in determining whether the introduction, development, and use of ICT will be successful or not. The development goes on in the interplay between people. A company cannot start an energy saving innovative process without having knowledge of the social and cultural structures existing in the environment where it is intended to take place. Today's children, young people, and young adults have grown up in the so called information society and see x as a natural part of their everyday life. It is therefore important to also in the future study their use in order to get a hold on the coming development and its consequences for the energy use when these generations get older. Immediate measures and further research should focus on the possibilities of reducing the stand by use. It concerns developing devices that give rise to the least possible stand by use and offering individualized information and counseling in the homes. Moreover, methods should be developed that bring about and augment the collaboration between, among others, household users, producers, politicians, and energy experts when new energy saving devices are to be developed

  13. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of candidate sites for the deep repository; Geovetenskapligt inriktat program foer undersoekning och utvaerdering av platser foer djupfoervaret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, Anders; Almen, K.E.; Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, R.; Follin, S.; Pettersson, Stig; Selroos, J.O

    2000-08-01

    Methods and technology for the geoscientific studies of the rock are the main subjects for this report, but programmes for studying the surface ecosystems and other conditions at the surface are also described.

  14. Methodology for geometric modelling. Presentation and administration of site descriptive models; Metodik foer geometrisk modellering. Presentation och administration av platsbeskrivande modeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report presents a methodology to construct, visualise and present geoscientific descriptive models based on data from the site investigations, which the SKB currently performs, to build an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. It is designed for interaction with SICADA (SKB:s site characterisation database) and RVS (SKB:s Rock Visualisation System). However, the concepts of the methodology are general and can be used with other tools capable of handling 3D geometries and parameters. The descriptive model is intended to be an instrument where site investigation data from all disciplines are put together to form a comprehensive visual interpretation of the studied rock mass. The methodology has four main components: 1. Construction of a geometrical model of the interpreted main structures at the site. 2. Description of the geoscientific characteristics of the structures. 3. Description and geometrical implementation of the geometric uncertainties in the interpreted model structures. 4. Quality system for the handling of the geometrical model, its associated database and some aspects of the technical auditing. The geometrical model forms a basis for understanding the main elements and structures of the investigated site. Once the interpreted geometries are in place in the model, the system allows for adding descriptive and quantitative data to each modelled object through a system of intuitive menus. The associated database allows each geometrical object a complete quantitative description of all geoscientific disciplines, variabilities, uncertainties in interpretation and full version history. The complete geometrical model and its associated database of object descriptions are to be recorded in a central quality system. Official, new and old versions of the model are administered centrally in order to have complete quality assurance of each step in the interpretation process. The descriptive model is a cornerstone in the understanding of the investigated site and forms a basis for subsequent planning of the repository layout as well as for safety assessment studies.

  15. Long-Term Forecast 2012 - An impact analysis of existing policy instruments in energy- and climate area; Laangsiktsprognos 2012 - En konsekvensanalys av gaellande styrmedel inom energi- och klimatomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The Energy Agency has a mandate that under 'Ordinance on climate reporting' (SFS 2005:626) out projections for the energy sector of the European Parliament and Council Decision No 280/2004/EC concerning a 'Mechanism for monitoring the emissions of the Community greenhouse gas'. This report contains a reference trajectory until 2030, and two sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that results of the report should not be regarded as a proper projection of future energy, but as the impact of current policy instruments given different conditions such as economic growth and fuel prices. The Energy Authority's long-term forecasts are studied energy system's long-term development on the basis of policy instruments and several assumed conditions. The conditions for this long-term prognosis was established in January 2012 and has its basis in the policy instruments decided until the turn of 2011/2012. The work was partially done in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency assignments 'Assignment to provide input to a Swedish road map for Sweden without greenhouse gas emissions in 2050' as reported in December 2012. For a short-term development of the energy system the reader is referred to the Energy Authority's short-term forecasts that extend two to three years into the future and that are produced twice a year. Energy Agency's long-term projections are impact assessments with time horizon of 10-20 years which aims to describe the energy system's future development, provided a range of assumed conditions. If any of these conditions change it will also change forecast results. Economic development is an important assumption for the assessment of future energy.

  16. Pre-treatment of waste fuel with low-speed shredding and screening for fluidized bed incineration; Foerbehandling av avfallsbraensle foer fluidbaeddpannor med laangsamtgaaende valskross och saekerhetssiktning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Sven; Victoren, Anders; Niklasson, Fredrik; Jones, Frida

    2013-09-01

    In FB combustion of waste, an important cost factor is the pre-treatment of the waste fuel. The most common method of final levigation of the waste fuel is using hammer mills, which crushes the fuel with high force and high rotational speed. The advantage of the powerful hammer mill is, however, also a disadvantage. The fraction of fines becomes large, and the method is experienced to cause high maintenance costs and problems with accidental fires. A plausible alternative to the hammer mill is the shredder. The rotational speed of the shreeder is lower, while it cutting and slicing the waste fuel instead of grinding it. The shredder is, therefore, expected to yield less wear and tear, lower electricity consumption and less accidental fires. On the other hand, the shreeder may yield a higher fraction of oversized fuel particles, which could cause problems in the combustion, especially in smaller FB-plants with one single fuel supply conveyor. In this project, the framing of question has been if low-speed shredding in combination with screening of over sizes fuel particles, may function for smaller FB plants with one single fuel supplying conveyor. The aim of the project has been to support FB plant owners and manufacturers for independent comparision of the different fuel pre-treatment methods, via pre-treatment and combustions trials and economical comparisons. The concept of lowspeed shreddning and screening has been compared economically with a traditional hammer mill system and a shredding system designed for a larger FB plant. Moreover, combustion trials have been carried out with shredded and screened fuel, and hammer milled fuel, in two smaller parallel FB furnaces with one single fuel supplying conveyor per furnace. The fuels were analysed for particle size distribution and composition, and the operation during the combustion trial was evaluated. The economical evaluation of the new pre-treatment concept, with lowspeed shredding and screening, yielded an approximate cost of 104-118 SEK/tonne (12-14 /tonne) treated waste, which is the same as for the larger FB plant shredder system. The cost for the hammer mill system was determined to 155-185 SEK/tonne (18-22 /tonne) treated waste. The higher cost for the hammer mill system rely on the estimated higher maintenance and electricity consumption costs. The analysis of the particle size distribution of the fuel treated with lowspeed shredding and screening shows that the fuel satisfy the demands stipu-lated for combustion in smaller FB furnaces. Furthermore, the combustion trials show no obvious differences in operation quality, compared to the normal hammer milled fuel; no significant differences in level or stability in power, bed temperature or emission levels could be found. Nor was the frequency of spikes of CO of NO{sub x} increased, nor the frequency of violation of the stipulated 24-hrs, halv-hour, or ten-minute stipulated emission limits increased. In summary, the study gives initial support for the thesis that shedding and screening is just as feasible for fuel pre-treatment in smaller FB furnaces with one single fuel supply conveyor as traditional hammer milling systems. Furthermore, it is cheaper. Lowspeed shreddning should, therefore, be concidered as pre-treatment method for both larger as well as smaller FB incineration plants. Beyond the parameters that have been investigated within the scope of this project, availability and safety are important factors that speek for lowspeed shedders. However, these are questions that have to be further investigated.

  17. An evaluation of health and environment in the mining community of Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russia; En bedoemning av haelso- och miljoesituationen i gruvsamhaellet Krasnokamensk, oestra Sibirien, Ryssland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-10-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the Uranium activities as such has not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor Radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 20 tabs.

  18. Monitoring of air pollution in Stockholm county. Results up to September 1999; Oevervakning av luftfoeroreningar i Stockholms laen. Resultat till och med september 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselsson, Cecilia [ed.

    2000-05-01

    Swedish Environmental Research Inst. have measured deposition of air pollutants, soil water quality, and air pollution levels in forested areas in different parts of Sweden. This report treats Stockholm county and the compilation covers the period 1992-1999, with more detailed monitoring for 1998-1999.

  19. The injection of TASS-tunnel. Design, implementation and results from the pre-injection; Injekteringen av TASS-tunneln. Design, genomfoerande och resultat fraan foerinjekteringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funehag, Johan (Chalmers university of technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Emmelin, Ann (Golder Associates (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The Swedish repository facility for spent nuclear fuel will be placed in crystalline rock at a depth of 400-500 m. In order to limit groundwater inflow to the facility, grouting is planned. To comply with the stringent material, execution and inflow restrictions, a series of research and development projects concerned with rock characterization for grouting, grouting materials and grouting design have been carried out by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The understanding and methods developed were tested in the sealing project carried out at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL), Sweden, and presented in this report. The project consisted of the construction of a short tunnel at 450 m depth, the TASS-tunnel. Grouting was conducted as pre-grouting using ordinary grouting fans outside the planned tunnel contour, as well as with grout holes entirely within the planned contour. A cement-based low-pH grout and a silica based grouting agent, silica sol, were used. The methodology used included determination of the fracture transmissivity distribution; identification of the smallest hydraulic aperture that needs to be sealed; grout selection based on fracture aperture and grout penetrability; design of grout hole geometry, grouting pressure and time in order to achieve the penetration length required; and monitoring of the actual execution based on inflow in control holes with subsequent design revision. Special concern was given to equipment and execution due to the high groundwater pressures, 3.5 MPa. Before starting the construction, inflow to core drilled holes along the tunnel position amounted to 45-90 liters/minute. The project showed that it was possible to limit the inflow to the target value 1 liter/minute per 60 m tunnel

  20. Vuxnas lärande i praktiken : En studie av rektorers praktikgemenskaper och hur de påverkar lärande

    OpenAIRE

    Pontén, Johan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the importance of the work community and its social organisation and the role it has for the participants' ability to learn and to form a professional identity as pedagogical leaders. Furthermore, the thesis wants to investigate if it matters to the directors’ learning how the principal (municipality or private company) organises for learning. The empirical material for the study comes mainly from semi-structured interviews with participants in the directors’ programm...

  1. En jämförelse mellan TLS och UAV-fotogrammetri : Inmätning av hårdgjorda ytor

    OpenAIRE

    Cedergren, Lucas; Paakkonen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    At present day there are several different methods for measuring of paved surfaces. The most common methods today are measuring with a total station, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Recently the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, known as drones, has increased exponentially and today there are several ways of using drones for measuring surfaces by photographing and laser scanning. This thesis contains a comparison between the methods t...

  2. Risk perspective on final disposal of nuclear waste. Individuals, society and communication; Riskperspektiv paa slutfoervaring av kaernavfall. Individ, samhaelle och kommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Inga-Britt (ed.)

    2007-09-29

    This report tries to evaluate the importance of the risk perspective in connection with final storage of nuclear waste. The concept 'risk' has different importance for experts and general public, within different research directions and among stakeholders in the nuclear waste issue. The report has been published in order to give an interdisciplinary scientific perspective on the risk concept. The authors have their background in different disciplines: radiation physics, psychology, media- and communications-science. The report treats four different themes: The first theme concerns perspectives on the risk concept and describes various principles for how risks can be handled in the society. The next theme is about comparing various risks. This section shows that risk comparisons can to be done within the framework of a scientific attitude and during certain given conditions. The third theme elucidates results from research about subjective risk, and shows that a large number of factors influence how risks are considered by individuals, and can influence his risk behavior and also how the individual means that the society will make decisions in risk-related questions. The fourth and last theme is about risk communication. Since the risk concept contains many different aspects it is clear that risk should not only be informed about, but also communicated. If a purely mathematical definition of risk was the only valid form, such information, from experts to the citizens, would possibly be sufficient. But since there are other relevant factors to take into consideration (t.ex the individual's own values), a communicative process must take place, i.e. the citizens should have influence on how risks are compared and managed. In the final theme, the authors have chosen to reflect around the themes above, i.e. different perspectives on the risk concept, risk comparisons, subjective risk view and risk communication are discussed.

  3. Products based on the mixes of fly ashes and fibre sludge (fibre-ashes) for road construction; Produkter baserade paa blandningar av flygaska och fiberslam (fiberaskor) foer vaegbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Maijala Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2005-03-01

    The project has derived benefits from the earlier Finnish research and development as well as from the experience in the fibre-ash materials for geotechnical applications. The fly ashes used for the project have been taken from the same sources as the fly ashes for the earlier Vaermeforsk project 870: FACE. The project's objective was to develop construction materials based on mixtures of fibre sludge and fly ash for geotechnical applications, and for the final commercialisation of the fibre-ash materials. The mixtures are based on fly ashes from energy production (bark, peat and sludge used for incineration) and on kaolin containing fibre sludge from the paper industry. With help of laboratory tests the project has been searching for fibre ashes with excellent technical characteristics like good frost resistance combined with a good bearing capacity and resilience in geotechnical structures. The project's results has given additional knowledge about alternative road construction materials to construct technically good, sustainable and environmentally friendly roads and other constructions with lower costs than the conventional constructions. The results of laboratory tests have shown that this is possible. However, it has to be verified with help of field tests and pilot constructions. The first tasks of the project were to make choices of the appropriate fibre sludge and fly ashes for the project targets. The laboratory tests have been carried out in the geotechnical laboratory of Ramboll Finland Oy (earlier SCC Viatek Oy, SGT - later in the report SGT). After arrival of all test material in the laboratory the test programme started in order to find out the most optimal fibre-ash mixtures with or without any activator. The most potential mixtures were tested for their geotechnical long-term properties (mainly resistance against climatic load) and for their environmental risk potential. The results comprise of several technically, environmentally and economically potential fibre-ash mixtures and recommendations for their further development with the help of field tests and test construction. The most noteworthy benefits of the fibre ashes as soil construction materials are their elasticity and resistance against permanent deformation. These properties make the fibre-ash materials significantly more frost resistant than the conventional materials. Also, the fibre-ashes are easier and simpler to use in the construction process than the fly ashes because the fibre-ashes are practically dust-tight materials. The results of the project will be background information for the further studies, and for the guidelines and commercialisation of e.g. road construction with fibre ashes.

  4. Tsunamikatastrofen : En studie av hur den svenska regeringen och de centrala förvaltningsmyndigheterna agerade i samband med flodvågskatastrofen i Sydostasien

    OpenAIRE

    Rosén, Anneli; Hjalmarsson, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    It has now passed a few months since the events in Soth East Asia during Christmas 2004. The purpose of our essay is to analyze factors that may influence the Government’s managment of catastrophes. In connection with the Tsunami disaster in South east Asia, the Swedish contingency system was the center of attraction. The criticism against the Government have not eluded many people. Not to mention the fact that the Government didn’t act rapidly and appropriately. The theoretical starting-poin...

  5. Fractional distribution on fuel chips. Machine and wood parameters influence on chip quality; Braensleflisens fraktionsfoerdelning. En studie av naagra maskin- och vedparametrars inverkan paa fliskvaliteten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, J.E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg (SE). Dept. of Operational Efficiency

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this study has been to examine the impact of certain machine and wood parameters on chip quality, and to set forward proposals on how to reduce the percentage of fine fractions in fuel chips. From studies of literature and from field studies it has become apparent that the following are among those factors with an impact on the percentage of fine fractions; - the composition of the wood raw material (stem, branch, needle, leaf) and its condition (sound or rotten), - state of the wood (frozen/non-frozen) and moisture content, - length and diameter of wood raw material, - machine type (drum or disc chipper), - condition of chipping blades (sharpness), - condition of counter blade, - clearance (distance between blade and counter-blade), - chipping speed. 23 refs., 26 figs., numerous tabs.

  6. Media och ätstörningar : En litteraturöversikt

    OpenAIRE

    Lambruschini Falcon, Karla; Hjertén, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    Bakgrund: Media har en allt större roll i det dagliga livet och prevalensen för ätstörningar ökar hos både män och kvinnor. I takt med att tekniken gör media mer lättillgänglig kan det finnas en större risk att påverkas. Syfte: Att sammanställa kunskap från vetenskaplig litteratur kring hur media påverkar risken att insjukna i en ätstörning, bland unga människor från 12 till 30 år. Metod: Strukturerad litteraturöversikt där resultatet baserades på 11 kvantitativa originalartiklar från PubMed,...

  7. Klarar polisen krisen? : En kvalitativ textanalys av polisens kriskommunikationsretorik

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Sara; Hedbjörk, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att ur ett public relations-perspektiv studera polisens kriskommunikationsretorik i samband med kritik från allmänheten. Denna uppsats har utgått från två fall; fallet i arresten och kvinnoregistret. I uppsatsen har en kvalitativ textanalys använts på sammanlagt 14 texter från polisens egna kanaler. Den teori som använts för att urskilja vilka försvarsstrategier som polisen använt i materialet är image restoration theory. Dessutom har ett public relations-perspekti...

  8. Legalisering som lösning? Erfarenheter av holländsk eutanasipraxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.

    2002-01-01

    Fastän vi lever i ett Europa som växer samman, så fortsätter dock många gränser att bestå. Vissa skillnader förblir eller har i de förgångna årtiondena till och med blivit djupare. Dödshjälpsdebatterna i Holland och Skandinavien ger oss ett exempel. Två stater med till stor del lika kultur, men

  9. Apoptosis induced by (di-isopropyloxyphoryl-Trp) 2-Lys-OCH 3 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (DIPP-Trp)2-Lys-OCH3 induced a dose-dependent increase of the G2/M cell population in K562 cells, and S cell population in HeLa cells; the sub-G0 population increased dramatically in both cell lines as seen by PI staining experiments using a FACS Calibur Flow cytometer (BeckmanCoulter, USA). Phosphatidylserine ...

  10. Når kontakter betyr alt : En studie av bruken av nettverksmediet LinkedIn

    OpenAIRE

    Blaalid, Maren Hyvang

    2012-01-01

    LinkedIn er et av de mest populære sosiale mediene i Norge og tiltrekker seg stadig flere medlemmer. I denne masteroppgaven studerer jeg bruken av LinkedIn for å undersøke hva som er det særegne ved dette nettverksmediet. Jeg har utført en spørreundersøkelse blant 280 brukere for å få innsikt i hvem de er, hvorfor de bruker LinkedIn og hvordan de gjør det. Funnene fra analysen viser at brukerne kjennetegnes ved at de er selvstendige og formålsrasjonelle, som bruker LinkedIn strategisk for å n...

  11. Optimal integration of energy at the Combined Energy Plant in Norrkoeping -Integration of steam, hot water and district heat to biogas plants; Optimal integrering av energianvaendningen vid energikombinatet i Norrkoeping -Integrering av aanga, hetvatten och fjaerrvaerme till biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Goldschmidt, Barbara; Uddgren, Roger

    2010-09-15

    The background of this report is to investigate and highlight the benefits of establishing a biogas plant nearby a combined energy plant where steam and district heat is available. By using heat from the combined energy plant, more biogas can be produced as vehicle fuel instead of being used as fuel to heat the digester, the biogas upgrading plant or the dryer. The project's objective is to analyze where it is interesting with integration of heat to the biogas plant and to compare alternative technologies and possible integration options. The stakeholders of the study are industries with access to organic matter for biogas production and heat producers who can deliver thermal energy into biogas plants. The project was implemented by collection of information from the Haendeloe combined energy plant outside Norrkoeping where there is a cogeneration plant, an ethanol plant and a biogas plant. Case studies for the study have been carried out with proposals regarding how heat flows from the power plant and ethanol plant can be further integrated with the biogas plant. As case studies, both the current design of the biogas plant, as well as a fictional case in which half of all distillery residues was digested, have been evaluated. The case studies show that in today's biogas plant it is not economical to replace the existing biogas upgrading unit with water absorption to chemical absorption. The upgrading cost with water absorption at today's smaller facility is 0.11 kr/kWh and in order to obtain the same total cost of chemical absorption a steam price of 0.15 kr/kWh is required. For large gas flows, chemical absorption is an advantage since the technology is more suitable for upscaling in comparison with water absorption that must be delivered in multiple lines. Nevertheless, a possibility to recover waste heat from chemical absorption is necessary if the technology shall be competitive. If waste heat from both water absorption and chemical absorption may be recovered, both technologies have a biogas upgrading cost of 0.05 kr/kWh for large gas flows. When no waste heat can be recovered, the biogas upgrading cost of water absorption and chemical absorption is 0.07 and 0.10 kr/ kWh respectively. For the realization of large biogas plants, it is essential to find mechanisms for dealing with bio-manure. The report has studied a system with concentration of pellets by mechanical dewatering, evaporation, drying, and pelleting. The study shows that the concentration costs 1800 - 2100 kr/tonnes of pellets, depending on the design of the drying plant. The energy price for pellets has to be around 0.40 to 0.50 kr/kWh if the concentration shall not be a cost, according to case studies. The nutrient content of biomanure pellets with today's fertilizer prices corresponds to almost 1300 kr/tonne. Drying of distillery residues with today's system, in comparison with using half of the distillerys residues to biogas production, has been compared in the report. The sensitivity analysis shows that the two concepts with today's conditions give equivalent results

  12. Effects of kaolin-additions in combustion of wood fuels on hardening and leaching properties of ash; Paaverkan av kaolintillsats vid foerbraenning av biobraensle paa askans haerdnings- och lakningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Karlfeldt, Karin (Dept. of Chemical And Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)). e-mail: bms@chalmers.se

    2007-06-15

    In several investigations it has been shown that kaolin works well as an anti-agglomerating and anti-ash sintering agent in combustion of bio-fuels with a potassium rich ash in fluidised bed boilers. Combustion tests have shown that the kaolin addition may result in an ash melting temperature that is a couple of hundred degrees centigrade higher than for the original ash. This way the kaolin hinders the fouling of super heater surfaces by sticky ash. Many boiler owners treat their wood fuel ash with the aim to recycle it to forest soil as a nutrient source and acid neutralising agent. Therefore it was considered important to investigate if an addition of kaolin in the boiler would have a negative influence on the ash leaching properties. Thus, the aim of the project was to investigate the hardening reactions and leaching properties of normal wood ash and wood ash produced with addition of kaolin. The ash samples were produced in the same boiler and in similar combustion conditions. It was especially interesting to study if the ash would contain soluble aluminium due to the kaolin addition since aluminium in solution may have negative effects on the eco system. The results showed that an important difference between the normal fly ash and the fly ash with kaolin was that the release of potassium i leaching was decreased due to the kaolin addition, especially at high pH levels. This is positive, since potassium normally is released very fast in the forest. In addition, the kaolin containing ash has a faster initial setting/hardening process than the normal ash. The structure of the hardened ash particles is also more durable than that of the normal ash. This is also a positive effect since it indicates that it could be possible to handle the hardened ash after a shorter storage period. However, it has not been investigated if this effect remains in large scale operation and in a longer time perspective. The acid neutralising capacity of fly ash with kaolin is, calculated per kg of ash, somewhat lower that for the usual ash. The kaolin is accumulated in the fly ash since it has such a small particle size and thus dilutes the fly ash and lowers its content of acid neutralising components. This can be compensated for by spreading more ash per hectare. The leaching of aluminium from the kaolin containing ash was low at all pH levels studied (4- 13). Consequently, spreading of such an ash is not considered to pose any risk for the environment. In addition, the leaching of trace metals from the ash was not affected negatively by kaolin addition

  13. Potential assessment of using fly ash as a binding agent for stabilization and solidification of dredged material; Potentialbedoemning av flygaskor som bindemedelskomponent foer stabilisering och solidifiering (s/s) av muddermassor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsson, Anna; Holm, Goeran; Lagerlund, Johan; Maijala, Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2010-04-15

    Over the next few years, about 200 000-800 000 m3 of contaminated sediments, with a muddy, slimy texture, high water ratio and low strength, shall be dredged annually in the development of ports and maintenance dredging of navigable waterways. Dumping at sea is limited since the dredged materials are contaminated. Land disposal requires transports and land area and is thus high in costs. In the construction of new port areas, large volumes of crushed rock, etc. are normally used as construction filling materials. These materials can be replaced by stabilised and solidified dredged materials, with modified geotechnical properties. The method of stabilising/solidifying (s/s) contaminated dredged materials has been used internationally for a long period of time, and, in more recent years, also in the Nordic countries. In Sweden, for instance, the Port of Gaevle and the Port of Oxeloesund have received permissions to reuse s/s-treated contaminated dredged materials in the port structures. Reuse of the stabilised/solidified masses in a geotechnical structure is supported by the new Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) on waste where great emphasis is placed on recycling. Within the project, fly ashes were inventoried with respect to suitability and availability. Five fly ashes, both individual fly ashes and mixtures of different fly ashes, were investigated in the laboratory as a binder component in a binder mix consisting of 50% cement, 20% Merit 5000 and 30% fly ash. Sediment from the Port of Gaevle were stabilised with a binder mixture amount of 150 kg/m3. Produced samples were examined in terms of strength, permeability and leaching. An assessment of the fly ashes' potential was performed based on technological, environmental and economical aspects, as well as market demand and the acceptance of stabilised and solidified dredged materials as construction material. The results show that fly ash, together in a binder mixture with construction cement and slag cement, has good potential as a binder. There is a clear correlation between the CaO content of fly ashes and compressive strength of the stabilised samples, whereas maximum compressive strength was obtained with the fly ash with a maximum content of CaO. All stabilised samples passed the basic criterion of compressive strength > 140 kPa, with the lowest value being 300 kPa and with a median of just over 500 kPa after 91 days. The samples had a low permeability between 10-8 m/s and 10-9 m/s. Leaching tests showed that the stabilised material's leaching of metals was low and that organic pollutants were barely detectable. A binder mixture with 30% fly ash provides a cost reduction of the binder of approximately 25%. High standards are required for port constructions, which means high demands on the quality of the binders used in the stabilisation and solidification processes. Therefore, a sturdy binder mixture that is capable of handling a variation in the quality of fly ash and sediment materials, plus a variation in the binder quantity involved in the stabilised material. The need for large volumes of binders means that binder suppliers must cooperate and that the logistics needed to ensure delivery of fly ash in an s/s project is a process that requires good preparation

  14. Combustion of a fuel mix containing animal waste, industry and household waste in FB-boilers; Foerbraenning av en braenslemix bestaaende av animaliskt avfall, industri- och hushaallsavfall i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Moradian, Farzad

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this project is to evaluate how the operation conditions and the combustion chemistry is changed in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler when adding approx. 20 wt-% Biomal into the fuel mixture. The following issues were addressed in the project: 1. How does the new chemical composition of the fuel mix influence bed agglomeration, deposit growth, ash flows, flue gases and particle size distribution? 2. Is it possible to run the boiler at a reduced bed temperature of about 750 deg C due to the increased moisture content originating from the biomal fuel? The project is based on combustion tests in the two Waste to Energy boilers at 20 MWth each owned by Boraas Energy and Environment AB (BEM). Furthermore, results from the Waste Refinery Project 'Reduced bed temperature in FB-boilers burning waste - part II' has been used as reference in some cases. At normal conditions the boilers are run on a fuel mixture containing 80 % sorted industrial waste and 20 % household waste. This fuel mixture consists mainly of paper, plastics and wood. In Boraas the organic part of the household waste is sorted out and used for biogas production. With the addition of biomal, which consists of animal by-products crushed to a pumpable fuel, the chemical composition of the fuel mixture is changed to some extent. The results from the combustion tests shows that biomal influences the chemical fuel composition, but also that there are large variations in the ordinary waste fuel composition as well. The most evident changes with addition of biomal are: 1. Increased moisture. 2. Reduced heat value. 3. Increased amount nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. 4. Decreased amount lead due to the low concentration in biomal. However, there were no changes in sodium, potassium, sulphur and chlorine, elements important for increased/reduced fuel related problems, derived from biomal. The increase of calcium and phosphorus with biomal derive from bone and the calcium-phosphates influenced to some extent the sand/ash flows were the largest change was an increase in the amount of phosphorus and calcium. In addition a decrease of the amount of lead was seen in all ash flows. The calcium-phosphates were stable during combustion and no reactions of phosphorus with other elements were detected. The results from the trials in this project show that co-combustion of biomal had the following positive effects on the boiler performance: 1. The bottom bed temperature decreased, but > 20 % biomal is needed to reach 750 deg C. 2. The risk for bed agglomeration was decreased. 3. The NO{sub x} emission was reduced at the same time as the addition of ammonia was reduced. 4. The deposition rate of the deposits collected on the test probe was reduced, thus no increased risk in deposit formation on the superheater tubes. The conclusion is that the boiler could be operated in a safe way with addition of biomal.

  15. De fem som styr säkerhetsrådet : En undersökning av de fem permanenta medlemmarnas användning av vetot mellan 1946 och 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Lena

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations was founded right after World War Two by the Allied, namely Great Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union. The most important organ within the United Nations was the Security Council and the three founding nations, plus France and China, was given the permanent seats of the Security council. With that permanent seat came the veto. Every permanent member had the right to veto resolutions that they found was not in their country´s best interest. What I want to examine...

  16. Utökad biologisk nedbrytning med rörliga bärare av läkemedel och ett urval av ramdirektivets prioriterade ämnen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Hörsing, Maritha; Eriksson, Eva

    Three pilot scale plants with nitrification but with large difference in loadings have been operated for evaluation of the capacity for reduction of micro pollutants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) showed high sorption to the carriers why the degradation could not be evaluated. For some...

  17. Flame front. Evaluation of camera based flame front control in grate furnaces regarding operation and emissions; Flamfront. Utvaerdering av drift och miljoe med hjaelp av kamerabaserad flamfrontsstyrning i rosterpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubholz, Monika; Myringer, Aase; Nordgren, Daniel

    2007-09-15

    This project aims at showing the usability of camera based flame front control in grate furnaces regarding increased possibilities to use fuels with fluctuating moisture/quality with stable/improved levels of emissions and ash quality. A furnace camera and the human eye make the detection of the flame front movements. Further, the flame front was fixed due to an increase/decrease of the speed of the fuel feeding system. The result is to be generalised for all grate furnaces with a movable grate. During the spring 2007 two weeks of tests were executed at E.ON Heat's plant Hammargaarden at Kungsbacka. Dry and wet fuel pulses of approximately 10 m3, with moisture content of approximately 40 and 60 weights percent, were induced to the grate. At the same time, tries to ward off the flame front movement were carried through. The most important result of the tests were the following: The results is based on a relatively small number of tests and it should be considered to be more of an indication of the usefulness of the control strategy that has been investigated rather than definitive results. The results indicate that the economical and environmental benefits from using a system involving only visual detecting followed by warding off a movement of the flame front mechanically are small, and most likely hard to pay off. It is important to start to ward off the flame front as soon as it seems to be moving. In this way the flame front can be kept stable and often improved emission levels follow. A slight tendency to lower CO-emissions was observed when dry fuel pulses were warded off. When no warding off of dry fuel pulses took place, the combustion took place close to the lower part of the fuel-feeding wall. This was prevented when the dry fuel pulses were warded off. The content of unburnt carbon in ash at wet fuel pulses was lower when warding off in comparison with cases where no warding off took place. An important element of future work is, apart from using a regular furnace camera, to investigate alternative detection principles. The most important parameter should be to have a fast and reliable indication that the flame front is moving. Already existing measurement values, as temperature sensors in the combustion chamber and/or primary air flow could be usable. An alternative to ward off the flame front movement mechanically is to adjust the distribution of primary air below the grate.

  18. Removal of groundwater from final repository in Forsmark. Description of consequences for nature values and forest production; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och skogsproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) has chosen Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values and forestry due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface

  19. Osteometriska Mätningar : För artbedömning av får, get och svin utifrån mått av revben

    OpenAIRE

    Tisell, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Ribs from sheep, goat and pig are rarely assessed  to species due to the fact that they are very similar in their morphology and size. The ribs are instead considered unidentifiable although it is possible to see what kind of bone it is. If these ribs would be identified to species not only would species assessment degree of archaeological source material   increase, the relationship between meat-rich and meat poor regions would change. To find out whether there are morphologically measurable...

  20. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Forsmark; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Pia [Atrax Energi AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    This report describes how the area around Forsmark is used with respect to recreation and outdoor life. It also describes the impact of the final repository on recreation and outdoor life if it is located in Forsmark. The studied area is situated in the parish of Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. Forsmark nuclear power plant and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR, are situated within the area and there are both houses and holiday houses. The area is used for leisure pursuit by inhabitants and employees at FKA and SKB, but also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Statistical data shows that the parish of Forsmark is sparsely populated. The area was previously dominated by one big landowner and the land surrounding the nuclear power plant was inaccessible to the general public during that period. The outdoor life is therefore less widespread here than along other parts of the east coast. The value of the area does not lie in paths and trails, bike tracks and bathing places, but in the unspoiled countryside, the wildlife and the bird life. Recreation such as hunting and fishing is very popular in the area. The construction of a final repository will increase traffic and hence increase noise and motion in the area. This will mainly impact the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. No other significant consequences are expected as the final repository will be mainly situated within the existing industrial complex and hence the character of the area should remain unchanged.

  1. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Oskarshamn; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstroem, Kristina

    2007-07-15

    This report describes recreation and outdoor life in and around Simpevarp/Laxemar area. It also describes the impact of constructing a final repository for spent nuclear fuel on the outdoor life. The study area in this report is situated in the parish of Misterhult, in the municipality of Oskarshamn. Oskarshamn nuclear power plant (OKG) and the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (Clab) are situated within the area. The parish of Misterhult is sparsely populated and includes both houses and holiday cottages. The area is used for various kinds of recreation by inhabitants from surrounding villages and employees at OKG and SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), and also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Misterhult archipelago has the highest values for recreation and outdoor life in the study area. Many water related activities, such as swimming, sailing, fishing, diving, kayaking and canoeing are conducted in the region Hamnefjaerden, Kraakelund and a walking track called Ostkustleden are three other places in the study area which are popular for outdoor life. SKB and OKG facilities are also visited by many tourists. Disturbances to the recreation and outdoor life during construction and operation of a final repository and a interim storage facility will occur in the form of increased noise and movement in the area, mostly from the traffic. The consequences of these disturbances are: Decreased serenity, which will probably decrease the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. The final repository in Laxemar will likely require road access that will cross the walking track. Various prevention and compensation measures, such as noise restrictions and a new section of the walking track at Ostkustleden, are suggested to minimise and/or mitigate the consequences. Also measures that increase the value of recreation and outdoor life are listed, for example an exhibition about the areas nature and culture. Specific compensation and mitigation measures will be outlined in the next design step.

  2. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of a kraft pulp mill from the incineration in the recovery boiler of biological sludge; Effekter av PFG vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i ett massabruks sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler of a Swedish Kraft pulp mill, StoraEnso Pulp AB Skutskaers Bruk, which has practiced incineration of sludge in the recovery boiler during the last two years. The following aspects of the technique were investigated: Experience from operation of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler; The content of Non-Process Elements (NPE) in process flows and evaluate the risks of incrustations in the system; The build-up of NPE in the chemicals recovery system and the estimated increase in make-up lime demand; and Technical risks for mills with different process equipment. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, chloride, iron, manganese, potassium, copper, and nitrogen. The operational experience from the system for hydrolysis of the biological sludge and evaporation/incineration in the recovery boiler is excellent. The handling of the sludge takes place in a closed system that demands little supervision and maintenance. Overall, the mill has not seen any negative effects that can be explained by increased intake of NPEs to the chemical recovery system. Aluminium can lead to troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminium-silicates on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. An effective elimination of aluminium by the green liquor dreg is obtained with the double salt hydrotalcite if the quotient Mg/Al is kept higher than 4-5 in the black liquor. The need for make-up lime has increased due to the build-up of phosphorus in the lime. Depending on the level of make-up lime the need will increase 2-5 kg/ t{sub 90} at a price of 2-5 kr/t{sub 90}. If a higher level of phosphorus is accepted instead of increasing lime make-up the running costs will be somewhat higher, 0,5-1 kr/t{sub 90} due to increased ballast. NO{sub x} in the flue gases from the recovery boiler has not increased since the start-up of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler. A possible explanation may be that the nitrogen in the biological sludge exists in a state that gives less formation of NO{sub x} compared to nitrogen in the black liquor. For the other NPE as silicon, magnesium, calcium, chloride, iron, manganese, potassium and copper the contribution from the sludge is low. It will not give any problems for the chemical recovery system at Skutskaer. Integrated pulp and paper mills with or without recycled paper use and coating with calcium carbonate and/or kaolin will probably have increased difficulties to incinerate biological sludge in the recovery boiler. The production of paper in addition to the pulp production will generate higher amounts of biological sludge also will contain higher content of calcium, aluminium and silica and possibly other NPE from the recycled paper.

  3. Materials in Sweden for future production of fuel pellets. A review of possible materials in short- and medium long-term; Raavaror foer framtida tillverkning av braenslepellets i Sverige. En kartlaeggning av taenkbara alternativa raavaror paa kort och medellaang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Lars [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    The use of fuel pellets, mainly produced from sawdust and shavings from the Swedish sawmill industry, has increased during the 1990s among small-scale users such as private houses as well as large-scale users such as thermal power stations. During the last years this increase has continued for small-scale use. Due to a significant increase of the pellet prices the last couple of years the increase for the large-scale users seems to have stopped. It is reasonable to believe that these higher prices depend mostly on lack of raw materials for the fuel pellet production. The greater part of sawdust from Swedish saw mills is used in the pellet industry, the board industry or as an internal fuel. It is reasonable to assume a small increase of present raw material available for pellet production without a further decrease in the use for the board industry. Another sawmill by-product, dry chips, may increase in importance as a fuel pellet raw material and give a small contribution while the green chips should be for use in the pulp industry only. If the use of fuel pellets should increase there is a need for new raw materials. In the short-term, thinning material and cull tree could be alternatives that could give pellets with similar characteristics as present fuel pellets. For large-scale consumers with greater ability to handle problems concerning ash, such as sintering and fouling, as well as particle and gaseous emissions a further choice of raw materials could be possible, such as bark, peat and logging residues. In the longer term energy crops could be used as well as lignin, derived from energy effective pulp industry and from possible large-scale production of ethanol from woody biomass. Nearly all of the different raw materials studied in this review have higher amounts of substances not desirable in combustion such as potassium, chlorine and nitrogen. However, pelletizing gives an unique opportunity to mix different raw materials and possible additives in order to obtain a fuel more optimized than the raw materials on there own.

  4. Creating trust in a risk context. On social acceptance of risks in siting of repositories for radioactive and hazardous waste. Skapande av tillit i en riskkontext. Om social riskacceptans vid lokalisering av anlaeggningar foer radioaktivt och miljoefarligt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidskog, R. (Hoegskolan i Oerebro, Inst. foer samhaellsvetenskap, Oerebro (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    Taking Beck's and Giddens' recent formulation of the society's new conditions for gaining trust as theoretical point of departure, this article focusses trust and risk with regard to hazardous and radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. Seeing trust as intimately connected with cognitive understanding of risk, the information strategies of the companies with responsibility for hazardous and radioactive waste management are analyzed. Central in gaining trust is the creation of access points - points of connection between lay individuals or collectivities and the representatives of expert systems - at which trust can be built up or maintained. This article emphasizes that this kind of local conflict is to be seen as a struggle concerning the cognitive understanding of risk-generating activities, and the question is to what extent the cognitive understanding of nuclear companies will be accepted among the affected local population and to what extent the local population will develop and maintain an alternative cognitive understanding. 78 refs.

  5. Evaluation of robustness of fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) as liner - Durability, percolation and drainage water quality; Bedoemning av laangtidsegenskaper hos taetskikt bestaaende av flygaskastabiliserat avloppsslam, FSA - Bestaendighet, taethet och ytutlakning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Laendell, Maerta; Haakansson, Karsten

    2012-02-15

    This project shows that fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) is watertight and resistant as liner in landfills. The presented results can lead to that more landfills will use FSS as liner, and landfills already using FSS together with geomembrane, can leave out the latter without risking contamination of the drainage water collected by the closure construction

  6. Environmental assessment of ashes - Course development by the Swedish Geotechnical Institute and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in cooperation; Miljoeriskvaerdering av askor - Kursutveckling av SGI och SLU i samarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberg, Charlotta; Olsson, Susanna; Thelin, Gunnar; Egnell, Gustav; Haanell, Bjoern

    2008-06-15

    Recently many research projects in the field of ashes from energy production and the possibilities to reuse them have been carried out in Sweden. A lot of material including new guidelines, recommendations et cetera has been published. It is difficult to navigate in this vast amount of information, also for professionals and persons in authority that shall assess the benefit and risks with using ashes in different applications. In this project current knowledge and material that is available in guidelines, handbooks, research, legislation and more have been compiled and is presented in this text book (also including list of references and project assignments.). The course material is intended to: Show possibilities to reuse ashes from energy production in different applications. Inform about ashes environmental and geotechnical properties Inform about available guidelines, reports et cetera. The intention is to use this text book as part of course literature at a university course that aims at raising the level of knowledge about ashes from energy production and support an environmentally friendly use of ashes. The text book can be used for selfstudies, in seminars, courses and so on. This text book is intended for anyone that is interested in environmental assessment, residual products and/or reuse of ashes, for example professionals and persons in authority at municipalities, students, producers of ash, persons that use or want to use residual products et cetera

  7. Strategic bioenergy research. A knowledge compilation and synthesis of research projects funded by the Swedish Energy Agency's fuel program 2007-2011; Strategisk bioenergiforskning. En kunskapssammanstaellning och syntes av forskningsprojekt finansierade av Energimyndighetens braensleprogram 2007-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Gustavsson, Mathias; Hoeglund, Jonas; Hellsten, Sofie; Martinsson, Fredrik; Stadmark, Johanna [IVL Svenska Miljoeinstitutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    During 2007-2011 the Swedish Energy Agency has run the program 'Sustainable supply and processing of biofuels'. To summarise the state of knowledge, identify knowledge gaps and analyse the results in a broader context, three different synthesis reports have been performed in the program's final phase. This report is one of these synthesis reports and concerns the area of strategic bioenergy research. In this context, 'strategic' means research that is of significance from the system, marketing and/or policy perspective. The work is based on research conducted mainly in the research programme 'Sustainable supply and processing of biofuels'. This report constitutes the final report of the synthesis project on strategic bioenergy research and includes knowledge compilation, identification of knowledge gaps and synthesis. The results of the synthesis project provide a basis for planning new research programs in the auspices of the Swedish Energy Agency. The two other synthesis projects concern forest fuels as well as energy crops and fuel quality. The report covers a rather broad field of research, e.g. environmental impact, carbon balances, nitrous oxide, bioenergy systems, scenarios, trade and marketing, standardization and certification. The work has been based on project plans and publications for a predefined number of projects, as well as on interviews and discussions with project leaders. Furthermore, several seminars and workshops also provided information for the compilation. Other studies have also been taken into account to some extent.

  8. Addition of ash on drained forested peatlands in southern Sweden. Effects on forest production, fluxes of greenhouse gases and water chemistry; Tillfoersel av aska i tallskog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa skogsproduktion, avgaang av vaexthusgaser och vattenkemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Jacobson, Staffan; Ring, Eva [Skogforsk, Uppsala (Sweden); Ernfors, Maria; Klemedtsson, Leif [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences; Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, about one million tones of wood ashes are produced annually, of which about 250,000-300,000 tones originate from biofuels, e.g. forest residues. Some of the ashes produced are deposited today. One alternative use is bringing back the ashes to the forest, recycling the mineral nutrients and base compounds. In bioashes, most essential mineral nutrients for plants are included, except for N, which is gasified at combustion. On most mineral soils in Sweden, plant available nitrogen is the nutrient limiting tree growth. On organic soils, tree growth is usually increased after addition of phosphorous and potassium. Thus, there is a potential for increased forest production on peatlands after ash fertilization. This can be a profitable measure. Nutrient compensation after harvesting involve ash addition with quite low doses. This is especially important in peatlands after whole-tree harvesting in order to prevent nutrient deficiency and reduced tree growth. However, there is a need for better knowledge concerning other environmental effects before ash addition can be put into large-scale practice. The general objective of this project is to study the effects of wood-ash addition on forest production and some other environmental variables on drained, forested peatlands. The studies concern tree growth, emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off). An important issue addressed was if an expected increased accumulation of carbon (CO{sub 2}) due to increased tree growth can compensate for an expected increased emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) from the peat. In addition, the very effective greenhouse gas laughing gas (N{sub 2}O), must be taken into consideration. In 2003, two field experiments were established in the county of Smaaland in southeast Sweden, where wood ashes from biofuels were applied. One experiment was designed as a randomized block experiment (273 Anderstorp) where effects on forest production and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) were studied. The other experiment (274 Bredaryd), 10 km away, was established in two drainage areas where emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off) were studied. At the establishment of the experiments, the forests were dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In the end of the 1980's, the forest stands had been thinned and the soils drained at both experimental sites. Experiment 273 Anderstorp included five treatments: an untreated control, and, one low dose (3.3 tonnes DM/ha) and one high dose (6.6 tonnes DM/ha) of crushed ash and 'granulated' wood ash, respectively. It should be noted that the 'granulated' product was of a poor standard. In experiment 274 Bredaryd 3.1 tonnes DM/ha of crushed ash was applied. Two years after treatment in 273 Anderstorp no effects of the treatments on tree growth was detected, which could be expected considering the short effect period. There was a statistically significant effect of the addition of crushed ash on concentrations of potassium and boron in the Scots pine needles. For potassium there was an effect of the dose. The addition of wood ash did not change the CO{sub 2}-flux from the soil during the first 2.5 years of study. The annual emissions from the control plots were approximately 8,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2004 and 12,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2005. No significant effect of the treatments on the annual CH{sub 4}-flux was detected by analysis of variance, but there was a tendency for increased CH{sub 4}-emissions at the treated plots during late summer and autumn. The annual emissions on the control plots were approximately 3 kg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} during 2004 and 6 kg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} during 2005. N{sub 2}O-flux was only occasionally detected. In 2005, the mean CH{sub 4} emission of the ash fertilized plots was 60% higher (non significant) than the mean of the control plots. This corresponds to an increased emission of 90 kg CO{sub 2}/ha/yr to the atmosphere. To compensate for such an emission, accumulation of tree biomass needs to increase by approximately 2%. In run off, sampled in the main ditches, the electric conductivity increased after addition of 3.1 tonnes of crushed ash, as well as the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, PO{sub 4}-P, S, SO{sub 4}-S and Zn. For most elements, the increase appeared immediately after the ash application, and lasted from a few months to the whole observation period (c. one year). The concentrations of Pb and V was lower than expected during six and nine months, respectively. Thereafter, the Pb-concentration tended to be higher than the control. The concentration of TOC was reduced during eight months, and pH was reduced during three months after the ash addition. The effects on ground water chemistry corresponded to the effects on chemistry in run off. Two months after treatment, the concentrations of B, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl{sup -}, Li, Mn, Na, P, S and SO{sub 4}-S were elevated in the groundwater in the ash treated area. For some of the elements this was evident down to 90-100 cm depth. The concentrations of As and TOC at 30-40 cm tended to be lower in the area treated with ash. The results from this study demonstrate the initial effects (1-2.5 years) of wood ash addition in some drained, oligotrophic peatland forests in southern Sweden. Ash addition may affect the turn over of the peat, and potentially affect other ecosystem properties, for several decades. Hence, in order to confirm the duration of the shown short-term effects, to establish the duration of not yet ceased effects, and, establish effects that might show up in a long-term perspective, continuous follow up of the established experiments is important. This long-term monitoring is also a prerequisite of a more complete evaluation of the benefits and possible detrimental effects on the environment of wood ash addition.

  9. Addition of ash in drained peatland forests in southern Sweden - Forest yield and fluxes of greenhouse gases; Tillfoersel av aska i skog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige - Skogsproduktion och emission av vaexthusgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem Ulf (Skogforsk, Uppsala (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Robert G; Klemedtsson, Leif (Goeteborgs universitet (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of wood-ash application (3.3 and 6.6 tonnes d.w. self-harden crushed wood ash ha-1) in forests on drained peatlands in southern Sweden. Tree growth (three sites) and fluxes of greenhouse gases (one site) were measured in field experiments. In the two experiments (Anderstorp and Bredaryd) in Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris L.) on oligotrophic mires, tree growth increased significantly during the seven-eight year long effect periods after ash application. In an earlier study in Anderstorp, the annual emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from the peat were shown to be unaffected by the ash application. In Skogaryd, a Norway spruce stand (Picea abies L. Karst.) on a minerotrophic mire, the growth was indicated to increase during the five-year effect period. In the same experiment, the previously found reduction in emissions of both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O during the first two years after ash application were no longer significant, although the emissions where lower, for N{sub 2}O only in the high dose ash treatment. CH{sub 4} was unaffected during the whole observed period. During the first five years, application of 3-6 tonnes d.w. crushed wood ash ha-1 in the two studied forests on drained peatlands did not render in an increased Global Warming Potential (GWP), but rather a reduction

  10. Impact assessment of the effect of natural values of interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn. Laxemar; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden vid mellanlagring, inkapsling och slutfoervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle i Oskarshamn. Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Magnus (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    The report describes the natural environment and its natural values in Laxemar Simpevarp, the final disposal facility's impacts on the natural environment and measures that can be taken to reduce these. Both terrestrial and aquatic environments are described. Impact on the natural environments of groundwater reduction is not discussed here but described in a separate report, together with consequences of radiation. The report shall serve as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the application according to the Environment Act.

  11. Functional mathematical model of dual pathway AV nodal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, A M; Guillem, M S; Zhang, Y; Millet, J; Mazgalev, T N

    2011-04-01

    Dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathway physiology is described as two different wave fronts that propagate from the atria to the His bundle: one with a longer effective refractory period [fast pathway (FP)] and a second with a shorter effective refractory period [slow pathway (SP)]. By using His electrogram alternance, we have developed a mathematical model of AV conduction that incorporates dual AV nodal pathway physiology. Experiments were performed on five rabbit atrial-AV nodal preparations to develop and test the presented model. His electrogram alternances from the inferior margin of the His bundle were used to identify fast and slow wave front propagations. The ability to predict AV conduction time and the interaction between FP and SP wave fronts have been analyzed during regular and irregular atrial rhythms (e.g., atrial fibrillation). In addition, the role of dual AV nodal pathway wave fronts in the generation of Wenckebach periodicities has been illustrated. Finally, AV node ablative modifications have been evaluated. The model accurately reproduced interactions between FP and SP during regular and irregular atrial pacing protocols. In all experiments, specificity and sensitivity higher than 85% were obtained in the prediction of the pathway responsible for conduction. It has been shown that, during atrial fibrillation, the SP ablation significantly increased the mean HH interval (204 ± 39 vs. 274 ± 50 ms, P AV node mechanisms and should be considered as a step forward in the studies of AV nodal conduction.

  12. AV nodal dual pathway electrophysiology and Wenckebach periodicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Mazgalev, Todor N

    2011-11-01

    The precise mechanism(s) governing the phenomenon of AV nodal Wenckebach periodicity is not fully elucidated. Currently 2 hypotheses, the decremental conduction and the Rosenbluethian step-delay, are most frequently used. We have provided new evidence that, in addition, dual pathway (DPW) electrophysiology is directly involved in the manifestation of AV nodal Wenckebach phenomenon. AV nodal cellular action potentials (APs) were recorded from 6 rabbit AV node preparations during standard A1A2 and incremental pacing protocols. His electrogram alternans, a validated index of DPW electrophysiology, was used to monitor fast (FP) and slow (SP) pathway conduction. The data were collected in intact AV nodes, as well as after SP ablation. In all studied hearts the Wenckebach cycle started with FP propagation, followed by transition to SP until its ultimate block. During this process complex cellular APs were observed, with decremental foot formations reflecting the fading FP and second depolarizations produced by the SP. In addition, the AV node cells exhibited a progressive loss in maximal diastolic membrane potential (MDP) due to incomplete repolarization. The pause created with the blocked Wenckebach beat was associated with restoration of MDP and reinitiation of the conduction cycle via the FP wavefront. DPW electrophysiology is dynamically involved in the development of AV nodal Wenckebach periodicity. In the intact AV node, the cycle starts with FP that is progressively weakened and then replaced by SP propagation, until block occurs. AV nodal SP modification did not eliminate Wenckebach periodicity but strongly affected its paradigm. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Betydelsen av historisk rättvisa efter kolonialismen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Collste

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln tar sin utgångspunkt i två aktuella exempel på krav på historisk rättvisa efter kolonialismen: forna Mau-Mau-kämpars krav på gottgörelse för britternas övergrepp på 1950-talet och hererofolkets krav till Tyskland på gottgörelse för det folkmord som ägde rum 1904–1907. Dessa exempel aktualiserar frågan om historisk rättvisa. Vad innebär historisk rättvisa? Vilka krav på historisk rättvisa är berättigade att ställa? Hur lång tid efter övergrepp och våld finns det skäl att kräva gottgörelse? Kan kraven ärvas till efterkommande generationer? Vem bör gottgöra dem som drabbats? Dessa frågor måste besvaras för att man skall kunna ta ställning till krav på gottgörelse och rättvisa. Syftet med denna artikel är att identifiera och söka besvara en rad frågor som krav på gottgörande rättvisa efter kolonialismen ställer. Avslutningsvis diskuteras kraven från Mau-Mau-kämparna som var internerade i brittiska läger och hererofolkets krav på kompensation från Tyskland.Nyckelord: Gottgörande rättvisa, kompensation, kolonialism, herero, Mau-Mau, global rättvisa, historisk rättvisaEnglish summary: The Meaning of Historical Justice after ColonialismRecently, four Kikuyus and former Kenyan Mau-Mau fighters claimed compensation for castration, torture and rape committed in the British detention camps in the 1950s. Also recently, representatives of the Herero people went to Berlin to bring home skulls that Germans brought to Berlin after the genocide at the beginning of the Twentieth Century. The detentions and abuses of Kikuyu and the genocide of the Herero people are just two examples of offenses carried out by European nations during colonialism. Do these offenses have any reverberations today? Should we simply forget about the deeds that happened such a long time ago or do they raise any legal or moral questions?The concept of justice has two dimensions, distributional and rectificatory. This

  14. MKB and SMB in the Northern countries[Environmental impact assessment; Strategic environmental assessment; Radiactive waste disporal]; MKB och SMB i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Andersson, K. [Krinta konsult (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment has been held in Turku, Finland, August 22-24 2001. It was held within the framework of two NKS projects: SOS-3 (Radioactive waste) and SOS- 1 (Risk assessment and strategies for safety). The meeting included presenta- tions, discussions and a study visit to the final repository for low- and intermedi- ate level radioactive waste and the intermediate storage for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Abstract in Danish: Inom ramen for NKS-projekten SOS-3 (Avfall) och SOS-1 (Riskvaardering och strategi for saakerhet) har ett seminarium om miljokonsekvensbeskrivningar och strategisk miljokonsekvensbedomning haallits i Aabo 22-24 augusti, 2001. Seminariet omfattade foredrag, diskussioner samt en studieresa till Olkoluoto daar besok gjordes till mellanlagret for anvaant braansle och till slutforvaret for laag- och medelaktivt avfall. Under forutsaattning att styrelsen for NKS samtycker kommer ett nytt MKB- seminarium att haallas i Osthammar 2002. (au)

  15. Föräldrar och förskolans matematik : En enkätundersökning om föräldrars inställning och uppfattning om matematik på förskolan

    OpenAIRE

    Elvsén, Johanna

    2006-01-01

    Enligt Lpfö-98 skall man på förskolan arbeta med att barnen utvecklar sin förmåga att upptäcka och använda matematik i meningsfulla sammanhang. Jag tror att en förutsättning för en lyckad förskoleverksamhet är att man har föräldrarnas stöd och intresse i de aktiviteter som förekommer och har därför genom enkäter undersökt hur föräldrar uppfattar matematik i förskolan, viken inställning de har, samt deras eventuella tankar om utformningen. Detta har jämförts med den aktuella förskolans tankar ...