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Sample records for auxotrophs

  1. Genetic recombination in auxotrophic strains of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, R.

    1987-01-01

    Four auxotrophic strains of ligninolytic basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium were obtained by UV mutagenesis. The heterokaryotic mycelium formed by complementation of different auxotrophic isolates was able to fruit and produce basidiospores. Prototrophic strains and strains with a recombined set of parental nutritional requirements were isolated from the basidiospore progeny of the heterokaryons. Genetic recombination hence takes place in fruit bodies produced by the heterokaryotic mycelium. (author). 3 tabs., 13 refs

  2. Identification and Characterization of Spontaneous Auxotrophic Mutants in Fusarium langsethiae

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    Olga Gavrilova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 49 strains of Fusarium langsethiae originating from northern Europe (Russia, Finland, Sweden, UK, Norway, and Latvia revealed the presence of spontaneous auxotrophic mutants that reflect natural intraspecific diversity. Our investigations detected that 49.0% of F. langsethiae strains were auxotrophic mutants for biotin, and 8.2% of the strains required thiamine as a growth factor. They failed to grow on vitamin-free media. For both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains, no growth defect was observed in rich organic media. Without essential vitamins, a significant reduction in the growth of the auxotrophic strains results in a decrease of the formation of T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. In addition, all analysed F. langsethiae strains were distinguished into two subgroups based on PCR product sizes. According to our results, 26 and 23 strains of F. langsethiae belong to subgroups I and II respectively. We determined that the deletion in the intergenic spacer (IGS region of the rDNA of F. langsethiae belonging to subgroup II is linked with temperature sensitivity and causes a decrease in strain growth at 30 °C. Four thiamine auxotrophic strains were found in subgroup I, while 21 biotin auxotrophic strains were detected in subgroups II. To the best of our knowledge, the spontaneous mutations in F. langsethiae observed in the present work have not been previously reported.

  3. Chlamydospore production and germ-tube formation by auxotrophs of Candida albicans.

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    Balish, E

    1973-04-01

    A prototrophic strain and 21 auxotrophic strains of Candida albicans were assessed for their capacity to produce chlamydospores and germ tubes. All of the mutants were able to produce germ-tubes in human serum but only two mutants produced them in defined medium with L-alpha-amino-n-butyric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. Most auxotrophs were not able to produce chlamydospores on corn meal agar with 1% Tween 80, but they could be induced to do so if the medium was supplemented with their growth requirement(s). Although L-cysteine was able to support the growth of two methionine mutants, it did not support chlamydospore formation when added to corn meal agar with 1% Tween 80. Mutants of C. albicans that do not form chlamydospores could be incorrectly identified in laboratories that rely on chlamydospore formation for identification.

  4. Studies on auxotrophic mutants of Auricularia auricula and Auricularia fuscosucinea induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xincai; Yang Xinmei

    1991-01-01

    The induction of auxotrophic mutants of Auricularia auricula and Auricularia fuscosucinea from monokaryotic basidiospore by means of 60 Co-γ ray irradiation was reported. Under the irradiations of 10 krad-200 krad, 9 auxotrophic mutant strains were obtained, including 8 strains of A. auricula and 1 strain of A. fuscosucinea. The frequency of mutagenesis was 2.38 x 10 -3 -44.4 x 10 -3 . It was found that the optimum irradiation dose for A. auricula was 200 krad and for A. fuscosucinea was 10 krad. Biochemical and physiological researches indicated that the colony morphology, the hyphae growth speed, the contents of amino acid and the pattern of esterase isozyme of the mutants were different from those of the prototrophic strains

  5. Aerogenic vaccination with a Burkholderia mallei auxotroph protects against aerosol-initiated glanders in mice.

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    Ulrich, Ricky L; Amemiya, Kei; Waag, David M; Roy, Chad J; DeShazer, David

    2005-03-14

    Burkholderia mallei is an obligate mammalian pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. Two live attenuated B. mallei strains, a capsule mutant and a branched-chain amino acid auxotroph, were evaluated for use as vaccines against aerosol-initiated glanders in mice. Animals were aerogenically vaccinated and serum samples were obtained before aerosol challenge with a high-dose (>300 times the LD50) of B. mallei ATCC 23344. Mice vaccinated with the capsule mutant developed a Th2-like Ig subclass antibody response and none survived beyond 5 days. In comparison, the auxotrophic mutant elicited a Th1-like Ig subclass antibody response and 25% of the animals survived for 1 month postchallenge. After a low-dose (5 times the LD50) aerosol challenge, the survival rates of auxotroph-vaccinated and unvaccinated animals were 50 and 0%, respectively. Thus, live attenuated strains that promote a Th1-like Ig response may serve as promising vaccine candidates against aerosol infection with B. mallei.

  6. Impact of spatial organization on a novel auxotrophic interaction among soil microbes.

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    Jiang, Xue; Zerfaß, Christian; Feng, Song; Eichmann, Ruth; Asally, Munehiro; Schäfer, Patrick; Soyer, Orkun S

    2018-06-01

    A key prerequisite to achieve a deeper understanding of microbial communities and to engineer synthetic ones is to identify the individual metabolic interactions among key species and how these interactions are affected by different environmental factors. Deciphering the physiological basis of species-species and species-environment interactions in spatially organized environments requires reductionist approaches using ecologically and functionally relevant species. To this end, we focus here on a defined system to study the metabolic interactions in a spatial context among the plant-beneficial endophytic fungus Serendipita indica, and the soil-dwelling model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Focusing on the growth dynamics of S. indica under defined conditions, we identified an auxotrophy in this organism for thiamine, which is a key co-factor for essential reactions in the central carbon metabolism. We found that S. indica growth is restored in thiamine-free media, when co-cultured with B. subtilis. The success of this auxotrophic interaction, however, was dependent on the spatial and temporal organization of the system; the beneficial impact of B. subtilis was only visible when its inoculation was separated from that of S. indica either in time or space. These findings describe a key auxotrophic interaction in the soil among organisms that are shown to be important for plant ecosystem functioning, and point to the potential importance of spatial and temporal organization for the success of auxotrophic interactions. These points can be particularly important for engineering of minimal functional synthetic communities as plant seed treatments and for vertical farming under defined conditions.

  7. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in tryptophan-requiring auxotrophs of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rong; Qian Hongwei; Yao Fenying; Gu Shuzhu; Xu Jiaxin; Bi Hekan; Liu Yuying

    1989-01-01

    Mutation and killing caused by X-ray radiation and 60 Co γ-ray radiation were studied in three different tryptophan-requiring auxotrophs (WP2, Wp2A, Cm 891) of Escherichia coli. These testers are sensitive to base pair substitution mutagens. Cm891 carries a R-factor and is more sensitive than WP2 and WP2A to radiation-induced mutation and lethality. The results of the study show that (1) ionizing radiation was mutagenic to E. coli, (2) the order of mutagenic sensitivity among three strains to ionizing radiation was Cm891 > WP2A > WP2, (3) the dose rate of γ-ray influences mutagenicity and lethalty of E. coli strain, (4) the toxicity and mutagenicity of γ-ray were similar to X-ray when Cm891 was tested, however, γ-ray was more toxic and mutagenic than X-ray to WP2A ang WP2

  8. Generation of a Uracil Auxotroph Strain of the Probiotic Yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a Host for the Recombinant Protein Production

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    Hamedi, Hassan; Misaghi, Ali; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Taghi Zahraei; Khorasanizadeh, Dorsa; Khalaj, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) is the best known probiotic yeast. The genetic engineering of this probiotic strain requires the availability of appropriate mutants to accept various gene constructs carrying different selection markers. As the auxotrophy selection markers are under focus, we have generated a ura3 auxotroph mutant of S. boulardii for use in further genetic manipulations. Methods Classical UV mutagenesis was used for the generation of auxotroph mutants. The mutants were selected in the presence of 5-FOA (5-Fluoroorotic acid), uracil and uridine. Uracil auxotrophy phenotype was confirmed by the ability of mutants to grow in the presence of uracil and the lack of growth in the absence of this compound. To test whether the uracil auxotrophy phenotype is due to the inactivation of URA3, the mutants were transformed with a plasmid carrying the gene. An in vitro assay was used for the analysis of acid and bile resistance capacity of these mutants. Results Three mutants were found to be ura3 auxotroph as they were able to grow only in the presence of uracil. When the URA3 gene was added, these mutants were able to grow normally in the absence of uracil. Further in vitro analysis showed that the acid and bile resistance capacity of one of these mutants is intact and similar to the wild type. Conclusion A uracil auxotroph mutant of the probiotic yeast, S. boulardii, was generated and characterized. This auxotroph strain may have potential applications in the production and delivery of the recombinant pharmacuetics into the intestinal lumen. PMID:23626874

  9. A new and efficient approach for construction of uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

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    Nguyen, Khuyen Thi; Ho, Quynh Ngoc; Do, Loc Thi Binh Xuan; Mai, Linh Thi Dam; Pham, Duc-Ngoc; Tran, Huyen Thi Thanh; Le, Diep Hong; Nguyen, Huy Quang; Tran, Van-Tuan

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is a filamentous fungus widely used in food industry and as a microbial cell factory for recombinant protein production. Due to the inherent resistance of A. oryzae to common antifungal compounds, genetic transformation of this mold usually requires auxotrophic mutants. In this study, we show that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method is very efficient for deletion of the pyrG gene in different Aspergillus oryzae wild-type strains to generate uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants. Our data indicated that all the obtained uridine/uracil auxotrophic transformants, which are 5- fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) resistant, exist as the pyrG deletion mutants. Using these auxotrophic mutants and the pyrG selectable marker for genetic transformation via A. tumefaciens, we could get about 1060 transformants per 10 6 fungal spores. In addition, these A. oryzae mutants were also used successfully for expression of the DsRed fluorescent reporter gene under control of the A. oryzae amyB promoter by the ATMT method, which resulted in obvious red transformants on agar plates. Our work provides a new and effective approach for constructing the uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants in the importantly industrial fungus A. oryzae. This strategy appears to be applicable to other filamentous fungi to develop similar genetic transformation systems based on auxotrophic/nutritional markers for food-grade recombinant applications.

  10. Exploiting E. coli auxotrophs for leucine, valine, and threonine specific methyl labeling of large proteins for NMR applications

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    Monneau, Yoan R. [Rutgers University, Center for Integrative Proteomics Research and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Ishida, Yojiro [Rutgers University, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Rossi, Paolo; Saio, Tomohide; Tzeng, Shiou-Ru [Rutgers University, Center for Integrative Proteomics Research and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Inouye, Masayori, E-mail: inouye@cabm.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Kalodimos, Charalampos G., E-mail: ckalodim@umn.edu [Rutgers University, Center for Integrative Proteomics Research and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A simple and cost effective method to independently and stereo-specifically incorporate [{sup 1}H,{sup 13}C]-methyls in Leu and Val in proteins is presented. Recombinant proteins for NMR studies are produced using a tailored set of auxotrophic E. coli strains. NMR active isotopes are routed to either Leu or Val methyl groups from the commercially available and scrambling-free precursors α-ketoisovalerate and acetolactate. The engineered strains produce deuterated proteins with stereospecific [{sup 1}H,{sup 13}C]-methyl labeling separately at Leu or Val amino acids. This is the first method that achieves Leu-specific stereospecific [{sup 1}H,{sup 13}C]-methyl labeling of proteins and scramble-free Val-specific labeling. Use of auxotrophs drastically decreases the amount of labeled precursor required for expression without impacting the yield. The concept is extended to Thr methyl labeling by means of a Thr-specific auxotroph that provides enhanced efficiency for use with the costly L-[4-{sup 13}C,2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2},{sup 15}N]-Thr reagent. The Thr-specific strain allows for the production of Thr-[{sup 13}CH{sub 3}]{sup γ2} labeled protein with an optimal isotope incorporation using up to 50 % less labeled Thr than the traditional E. coli strain without the need for {sup 2}H-glycine to prevent scrambling.

  11. Molecular characterization and expression study of a histidine auxotrophic mutant (his1-) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

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    El Malki, F; Jacobs, M

    2001-01-01

    The histidine auxotroph mutant his 1(-) isolated from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia haploid protoplasts was first characterized to be deficient for the enzyme histidinol phosphate aminotransferase that is responsible for one of the last steps of histidine biosynthesis. Expression of the mutated gene at the RNA level was assessed by northern analysis of various tissues. Transcriptional activity was unimpaired by the mutation and, in contrast, a higher level of expression was obtained when compared to the wild-type. The cDNA sequence encoding the mutated gene was isolated by RT-PCR and compared to the wild-type gene. A single point mutation corresponding to the substitution of a G nucleotide by A was identified at position 1212 starting from the translation site. The alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences from the mutated and wild-type gene showed that this mutation resulted in the substitution of an Arg by a His residue at position 381. This Arg residue is a conserved amino acid for histidinol phosphate aminotransferase of many species. These results indicate that the identified mutation results in an altered histidinol phosphate aminotransferase enzyme that is unable to convert the substrate imidazole acetol phosphate to histidinol phosphate and thereby leads to the blockage of histidine biosynthesis. Possible consequences of this blockage on the expression of other amino acid biosynthesis genes were evaluated by analysing the expression of the dhdps gene encoding dihydrodipicolinate synthase, the first key enzyme of the lysine pathway.

  12. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. II. Isolation and characterization of phosphatidylserine auxotrophs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, O.; Nishijima, M.; Akamatsu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants that required exogenously added phosphatidylserine for cell growth were isolated by using the replica technique with polyester cloth, and three such mutants were characterized. Labeling experiments on intact cells with 32 Pi and L-[U- 14 C]serine revealed that a phosphatidylserine auxotroph, designated as PSA-3, was strikingly defective in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis. When cells were grown for 2 days without phosphatidylserine, the phosphatidylserine content of PSA-3 was about one-third of that of the parent. In extracts of the mutant, the enzymatic activity of the base-exchange reaction of phospholipids with serine producing phosphatidylserine was reduced to 33% of that in the parent; in addition, the activities of base-exchange reactions of phospholipids with choline and ethanolamine in the mutant were also reduced to 1 and 45% of those in the parent, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the serine-exchange activity in the parent was inhibited approximately 60% when choline was added to the reaction mixture whereas that in the mutant was not significantly affected. From the results presented here, we conclude the following. There are at least two kinds of serine-exchange enzymes in CHO cells; one (serine-exchange enzyme I) can catalyze the base-exchange reactions of phospholipids with serine, choline, and ethanolamine while the other (serine-exchange enzyme II) does not use the choline as a substrate. Serine-exchange enzyme I, in which mutant PSA-3 is defective, plays a major role in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO cells. Serine-exchange enzyme I is essential for the growth of CHO cells

  13. Preservation of genes involved in sterol metabolism in cholesterol auxotrophs: facts and hypotheses.

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    Giovanna Vinci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that primary sequences of enzymes involved in sterol biosynthesis are well conserved in organisms that produce sterols de novo. However, we provide evidence for a preservation of the corresponding genes in two animals unable to synthesize cholesterol (auxotrophs: Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have been able to detect bona fide orthologs of several ERG genes in both organisms using a series of complementary approaches. We have detected strong sequence divergence between the orthologs of the nematode and of the fruitfly; they are also very divergent with respect to the orthologs in organisms able to synthesize sterols de novo (prototrophs. Interestingly, the orthologs in both the nematode and the fruitfly are still under selective pressure. It is possible that these genes, which are not involved in cholesterol synthesis anymore, have been recruited to perform different new functions. We propose a more parsimonious way to explain their accelerated evolution and subsequent stabilization. The products of ERG genes in prototrophs might be involved in several biological roles, in addition to sterol synthesis. In the case of the nematode and the fruitfly, the relevant genes would have lost their ancestral function in cholesterogenesis but would have retained the other function(s, which keep them under pressure. CONCLUSIONS: By exploiting microarray data we have noticed a strong expressional correlation between the orthologs of ERG24 and ERG25 in D. melanogaster and genes encoding factors involved in intracellular protein trafficking and folding and with Start1 involved in ecdysteroid synthesis. These potential functional connections are worth being explored not only in Drosophila, but also in Caenorhabditis as well as in sterol prototrophs.

  14. Identification of auxotrophic mutants of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus by non-homologous end joining-mediated integrative transformation with genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Yarimizu, Tohru; Nonklang, Sanom; Nakamura, Junpei; Tokuda, Shuya; Nakagawa, Takaaki; Lorreungsil, Sasithorn; Sutthikhumpha, Surasit; Pukahuta, Charida; Kitagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Mikiko; Cha-Aim, Kamonchai; Limtong, Savitree; Hoshida, Hisashi; Akada, Rinji

    2013-12-01

    The isolation and application of auxotrophic mutants for gene manipulations, such as genetic transformation, mating selection and tetrad analysis, form the basis of yeast genetics. For the development of these genetic methods in the thermotolerant fermentative yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, we isolated a series of auxotrophic mutants with defects in amino acid or nucleic acid metabolism. To identify the mutated genes, linear DNA fragments of nutrient biosynthetic pathway genes were amplified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA and used to directly transform the K. marxianus auxotrophic mutants by random integration into chromosomes through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The appearance of transformant colonies indicated that the specific S. cerevisiae gene complemented the K. marxianus mutant. Using this interspecific complementation approach with linear PCR-amplified DNA, we identified auxotrophic mutations of ADE2, ADE5,7, ADE6, HIS2, HIS3, HIS4, HIS5, HIS6, HIS7, LYS1, LYS2, LYS4, LYS9, LEU1, LEU2, MET2, MET6, MET17, TRP3, TRP4 and TRP5 without the labour-intensive requirement of plasmid construction. Mating, sporulation and tetrad analysis techniques for K. marxianus were also established. With the identified auxotrophic mutant strains and S. cerevisiae genes as selective markers, NHEJ-mediated integrative transformation with PCR-amplified DNA is an attractive system for facilitating genetic analyses in the yeast K. marxianus. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Determining the Extremes of the Cellular NAD(H) Level by Using an Escherichia coli NAD+-Auxotrophic Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yongjin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Fan; Lin, Xinping; Zhang, Sufang; Zhao, Zongbao K.

    2011-01-01

    NAD (NAD+) and its reduced form (NADH) are omnipresent cofactors in biological systems. However, it is difficult to determine the extremes of the cellular NAD(H) level in live cells because the NAD+ level is tightly controlled by a biosynthesis regulation mechanism. Here, we developed a strategy to determine the extreme NAD(H) levels in Escherichia coli cells that were genetically engineered to be NAD+ auxotrophic. First, we expressed the ntt4 gene encoding the NAD(H) transporter in the E. co...

  16. Development of Chemically Defined Media to Express Trp-Analog-Labeled Proteins in a Lactococcus lactis Trp Auxotroph.

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    Shao, Jinfeng; Marcondes, Marcelo F M; Oliveira, Vitor; Broos, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Chemically defined media for growth of Lactococcus lactis strains contain about 50 components, making them laborious and expensive growth media. However, they are crucial for metabolism studies as well as for expression of heterologous proteins labeled with unnatural amino acids. In particular, the L. lactis Trp auxotroph PA1002, overexpressing the tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase enzyme of L. lactis, is very suitable for the biosynthetic incorporation of Trp analogs in proteins because of its most relaxed substrate specificity reported towards Trp analogs. Here we present two much simpler defined media for L. lactis, which consist of only 24 or 31 components, respectively, and with which the L. lactis Trp auxotroph shows similar growth characteristics as with a 50-component chemically defined medium. Importantly, the expression levels of two recombinant proteins used for evaluation were up to 2-3 times higher in these new media than in the 50-component medium, without affecting the Trp analog incorporation efficiency. Taken together, the simplest chemically defined media reported so far for L. lactis are presented. Since L. lactis also shows auxotrophy for Arg, His, Ile, Leu Val, and Met, our simplified media may also be useful for the biosynthetic incorporation of analogs of these five amino acids. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Secretion of Rhoptry and Dense Granule Effector Proteins by Nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii Uracil Auxotrophs Controls the Development of Antitumor Immunity.

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    Barbara A Fox

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonreplicating type I uracil auxotrophic mutants of Toxoplasma gondii possess a potent ability to activate therapeutic immunity to established solid tumors by reversing immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Here we engineered targeted deletions of parasite secreted effector proteins using a genetically tractable Δku80 vaccine strain to show that the secretion of specific rhoptry (ROP and dense granule (GRA proteins by uracil auxotrophic mutants of T. gondii in conjunction with host cell invasion activates antitumor immunity through host responses involving CD8α+ dendritic cells, the IL-12/interferon-gamma (IFN-γ TH1 axis, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Deletion of parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM associated proteins ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35 or ROP38, intravacuolar network associated dense granule proteins GRA2 or GRA12, and GRA24 which traffics past the PVM to the host cell nucleus severely abrogated the antitumor response. In contrast, deletion of other secreted effector molecules such as GRA15, GRA16, or ROP16 that manipulate host cell signaling and transcriptional pathways, or deletion of PVM associated ROP21 or GRA3 molecules did not affect the antitumor activity. Association of ROP18 with the PVM was found to be essential for the development of the antitumor responses. Surprisingly, the ROP18 kinase activity required for resistance to IFN-γ activated host innate immunity related GTPases and virulence was not essential for the antitumor response. These data show that PVM functions of parasite secreted effector molecules, including ROP18, manipulate host cell responses through ROP18 kinase virulence independent mechanisms to activate potent antitumor responses. Our results demonstrate that PVM associated rhoptry effector proteins secreted prior to host cell invasion and dense granule effector proteins localized to the intravacuolar network and host nucleus that are secreted after host cell invasion coordinately

  18. Determining the Extremes of the Cellular NAD(H) Level by Using an Escherichia coli NAD+-Auxotrophic Mutant ▿

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    Zhou, Yongjin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Fan; Lin, Xinping; Zhang, Sufang; Zhao, Zongbao K.

    2011-01-01

    NAD (NAD+) and its reduced form (NADH) are omnipresent cofactors in biological systems. However, it is difficult to determine the extremes of the cellular NAD(H) level in live cells because the NAD+ level is tightly controlled by a biosynthesis regulation mechanism. Here, we developed a strategy to determine the extreme NAD(H) levels in Escherichia coli cells that were genetically engineered to be NAD+ auxotrophic. First, we expressed the ntt4 gene encoding the NAD(H) transporter in the E. coli mutant YJE001, which had a deletion of the nadC gene responsible for NAD+ de novo biosynthesis, and we showed NTT4 conferred on the mutant strain better growth in the presence of exogenous NAD+. We then constructed the NAD+-auxotrophic mutant YJE003 by disrupting the essential gene nadE, which is responsible for the last step of NAD+ biosynthesis in cells harboring the ntt4 gene. The minimal NAD+ level was determined in M9 medium in proliferating YJE003 cells that were preloaded with NAD+, while the maximal NAD(H) level was determined by exposing the cells to high concentrations of exogenous NAD(H). Compared with supplementation of NADH, cells grew faster and had a higher intracellular NAD(H) level when NAD+ was fed. The intracellular NAD(H) level increased with the increase of exogenous NAD+ concentration, until it reached a plateau. Thus, a minimal NAD(H) level of 0.039 mM and a maximum of 8.49 mM were determined, which were 0.044× and 9.6× those of wild-type cells, respectively. Finally, the potential application of this strategy in biotechnology is briefly discussed. PMID:21742902

  19. Dithizone staining of intracellular zinc: an unexpected and versatile counterscreen for auxotrophic marker genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Daniel S Yuan

    Full Text Available Auxotrophic marker genes such as URA3, LEU2, and HIS3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have long been used to select cells that have been successfully transformed with recombinant DNA. A longstanding challenge in working with these genes is that counterselection procedures are often lacking. This paper describes the unexpected discovery of a simple plate assay that imparts a bright red stain to cells experiencing nutritional stress from the lack of a marker gene. The procedure specifically stains a zinc-rich vesicular compartment analogous to the zinc-rich secretory vesicles found in insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cells and glutamate-secreting neurons. Staining was greatly diminished in zap1 mutants, which lack a homeostatic activator of zinc uptake, and in cot1 zrc1 double mutants, which lack the two yeast homologs of mammalian vesicle-specific zinc export proteins. Only one of 93 strains with temperature-sensitive alleles of essential genes exhibited an increase in dithizone staining at its non-permissive temperature, indicating that staining is not simply a sign of growth-arrested or dying cells. Remarkably, the procedure works with most commonly used marker genes, highlights subtle defects, uses no reporter constructs or expensive reagents, requires only a few hours of incubation, yields visually striking results without any instrumentation, and is not toxic to the cells. Many potential applications exist for dithizone staining, both as a versatile counterscreen for auxotrophic marker genes and as a powerful new tool for the genetic analysis of a biomedically important vesicular organelle.

  20. Identification of ergosterol and inhibition of sterol synthesis by Δ5-sterols in GL7, an auxotrophic mutant of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanuka, I.C.

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis of ergosterol was demonstrated in the GL7 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This sterol auxotroph has been thought to lack the ability to synthesize sterols due both to the absence of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase and to a heme deficiency eliminating cytochrome P-450 which is required in demethylation at C-14. However, when the exogenous sterol was 5α-cholestan-3β-ol, 5α-cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol, or 24β-methyl-5α-cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol, sterol synthesis was found to proceed yielding 1-3 fg/cell of ergosterol. Ergosterol was identified by mass spectroscopy, gas and high performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and radioactive labelling from [ 3 H]acetate. Except for some cholest-5-en-3β-ol (cholesterol) which was derived from the 5α-cholestan-3β-ol, the stanol and the two 8(14)-stenols were not significantly metabolized confirming the absence of an isomerase for migration of the double bond from C-8(14) to C-7. Drastic reduction of ergosterol synthesis to not more than 0.06 fg/cell was observed when the exogenous sterol either had a double bond at C-5, as in the case of cholesterol, or could be metabolized to a sterol with such a bond. Thus, both 5α-cholest-8(9)-en-3β-ol and 5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol (lathosterol) were converted to cholesta-5,7-dien-3β-ol (7-dehydrocholesterol), and the presence of the latter dienol depressed the level of ergosterol

  1. Auxotrophic recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG overexpressing Ag85B enhances cytotoxicity on superficial bladder cancer cells in vitro.

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    Begnini, Karine Rech; Rizzi, Caroline; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Borsuk, Sibele; Schultze, Eduarda; Yurgel, Virginia Campello; Nedel, Fernanda; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling

    2013-02-01

    BCG therapy remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for treating patients with superficial bladder cancer. The high incidence of local side effects and the presence of non-responder diseases have led to efforts to improve the therapy. Hence, we proposed that an auxotrophic recombinant BCG strain overexpressing Ag85B (BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B), could enhance the cytotoxicity to the human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. The rBCG was generated using an expression plasmid encoding the mycobacterial antigen Ag85B to transform a BCG ∆leuD strain. The inhibitory effect of BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B on 5637 cells was determined by the MTT method, morphology observation and a LIVE/DEAD assay. Gene expression profiles for apoptotic, cell cycle-related and oxidative stress-related genes were investigated by qRT-PCR. Bax, bcl-2 and p53 induction by BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B treatment was evaluated by Western blotting. BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B revealed a superior cytotoxicity effect compared to the control strains used in this study. The results showed that the expression level of pro-apoptotic and cell cycle-related genes increased after BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B treatment, whereas the mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic genes decreased. Interestingly, BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B also increased the mRNA level of antioxidant enzymes in the bladder cancer cell line. Bax and p53 proteins levels increased following treatment. In conclusion, these results suggest that treatment with BCG ∆leuD/Ag85B enhances cytotoxicity for superficial bladder cancer cells in vitro. Therefore, rBCG therapy may have potential benefits in the treatment of bladder cancer.

  2. Uptake and Metabolism of Antibiotics Roseoflavin and 8-Demethyl-8-Aminoriboflavin in Riboflavin-Auxotrophic Listeria monocytogenes.

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    Matern, Andreas; Pedrolli, Danielle; Großhennig, Stephanie; Johansson, Jörgen; Mack, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are produced by the bacteria Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus Riboflavin analogs have the potential to be used as broad-spectrum antibiotics, and we therefore studied the metabolism of riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ), RoF, and AF in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which is a riboflavin auxotroph. We show that the L. monocytogenes protein Lmo1945 is responsible for the uptake of riboflavin, RoF, and AF. Following import, these flavins are phosphorylated/adenylylated by the bifunctional flavokinase/flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetase Lmo1329 and adenylylated by the unique FAD synthetase Lmo0728, the first monofunctional FAD synthetase to be described in bacteria. Lmo1329 generates the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FAD, whereas Lmo0728 produces FAD only. The combined activities of Lmo1329 and Lmo0728 are responsible for the intracellular formation of the toxic cofactor analogs roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN), roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD), 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin mononucleotide (AFMN), and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin adenine dinucleotide (AFAD). In vivo reporter gene assays and in vitro transcription/translation experiments show that the L. monocytogenes FMN riboswitch Rli96, which controls expression of the riboflavin transport gene lmo1945, is negatively affected by riboflavin/FMN and RoF/RoFMN but not by AF/AFMN. Treatment of L. monocytogenes with RoF or AF leads to drastically reduced FMN/FAD levels. We suggest that the reduced flavin cofactor levels in combination with concomitant synthesis of inactive cofactor analogs (RoFMN, RoFAD, AFMN, and AFAD) explain why RoF and AF contribute to antibiotic activity in L. monocytogenes IMPORTANCE: The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are small molecules which are produced by Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus

  3. The construction and use of versatile binary vectors carrying pyrG auxotrophic marker and fluorescent reporter genes for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khuyen Thi; Ho, Quynh Ngoc; Pham, Thu Ha; Phan, Tuan-Nghia; Tran, Van-Tuan

    2016-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is a safe mold widely used in food industry. It is also considered as a microbial cell factory for production of recombinant proteins and enzymes. Currently, genetic manipulation of filamentous fungi is achieved via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation methods usually employing antibiotic resistance markers. These methods are hardly usable for A. oryzae due to its strong resistance to the common antifungal compounds used for fungal transformation. In this study, we have constructed two binary vectors carrying the pyrG gene from A. oryzae as a biochemical marker than an antibiotic resistance marker, and an expression cassette for GFP or DsRed reporter gene under control of the constitutive gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. All components of these vectors are changeable to generate new versions for specific research purposes. The developed vectors are fully functional for heterologous expression of the GFP and DsRed fluorescent proteins in the uridine/uracil auxotrophic A. oryzae strain. Our study provides a new approach for A. oryzae transformation using pyrG as the selectable auxotrophic marker, A. tumefaciens as the DNA transfer tool and fungal spores as the transformation material. The binary vectors constructed can be used for gene expression studies in this industrially important filamentous fungus.

  4. Production of recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus in silkworm by intrahaemocoelic injection with invasive diaminopimelate auxotrophic Escherichia coli containing BmNPV-Bacmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingchen; Yao, Lunguang; Yao, Ning; Xu, Hua; Jin, Pengfei; Kan, Yunchao

    2010-12-01

    The present study elaborates a cost-effective and transfectant-free method for generating recombinant Bombyx mori (silkworm) nucleopolyhedrovirus in silkworm larvae and pupae by injecting invasive Escherichia coli carrying BmBacmid [BmNPV (B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus)-Bacmid] into larval haemocoel. Up to 109 PFU (plaque-forming units)/ml of infective recombinant baculovirus was generated in the silkworm by intrahaemocoelic injection with 106 DAP (diaminopimelic acid) auxotrophic and BmBacmid containing E. coli cells expressing both invasin and listeriolysin. Thus 1 ml of overnight culture of E. coli is sufficient to inject more than 2000 larvae, while DAP costing up to $1 is enough to inject about 4000 larvae. Recombinant proteins can be controlled to be expressed mainly in pupae by adjusting the injection dose, too. In this new method, many original manipulations have been eliminated, including BmBacmid preparation and the subsequent complex transfection procedures. Hence it is a time- and cost-saving means for large-scale injection of B. mori for recombinant baculovirus production in comparison with the traditional transfection methods, which may play an important role in the industrial development of the BmNPV-silkworm bioreactor.

  5. Sterol-mediated regulation of mevalonic acid synthesis. Accumulation of 4-carboxysterols as the predominant sterols synthesized in a Chinese hamster ovary cell cholesterol auxotroph (mutant 215)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plemenitas, A.; Havel, C.M.; Watson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary-215 (CHO-215) mutant cells are auxotrophic for cholesterol. Berry and Chang (Berry, D. J., and Chang, T. Y. (1982) Biochemistry 21, 573-580) suggested that the metabolic lesion was at the level of 4-methyl sterol oxidation. However, the observed cellular accumulation of lanosterol was not consistent with a defect at this metabolic site. With the use of a novel Silica Sep Pak sterol separation procedure, we demonstrated that 60-80% of the acetonesoluble lipid radioactivity in [5-3H]mevalonate-labeled CHO-215 cells was incorporated into acidic sterols. 7(8),Cholesten-4 beta-methyl,4 alpha-carboxy,3 beta-ol was the dominant end product. In addition to this acidic sterol, 7(8),24-cholestadien,4 beta-methyl,4 alpha-carboxy,3 beta-ol and 7(8),24-cholestadien,4 alpha-carboxy,3 beta-ol were also isolated. Incubation of cell-free extracts with [3H]7(8)-cholesten-4 beta-methyl, 4 alpha-carboxy,3 beta-ol and pyridine nucleotides confirmed that CHO-215 4-carboxysterol decarboxylase activity was less than 1% of that for wild type cells. Thus, a correspondence between decreased 4-carboxysterol decarboxylase activity and the spectrum of accumulated sterol products by intact CHO-215 cells was demonstrated. No detectable cholesterol was synthesized by CHO-215 cells. 3H-Product accumulation studies demonstrated that 7(8),24-cholestadien, 4 beta-methyl,4 alpha-carboxy,3 beta-ol increased prior to its subsequent saturation at the delta 24 carbon. Furthermore, the steady state ratio for delta 24-saturated acidic sterols/unsaturated acidic sterols was dependent on media cholesterol source and amount. Finally, the accumulated acidic sterol(s) were not regulatory signal molecules for the modulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme. A reductase activity in response to cholesterol availability

  6. Performance of the auxotrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 as host for the production of IL-1β in aerated fed-batch reactor: role of ACA supplementation, strain viability, and maintenance energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueco Jesus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 is an auxotrophic commonly used strain. In this work it has been used as host for the expression and secretion of human interleukin-1β (IL1β, using the cell wall protein Pir4 as fusion partner. To achieve high cell density and, consequently, high product yield, BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] was cultured in an aerated fed-batch reactor, using a defined mineral medium supplemented with casamino acids as ACA (auxotrophy-complementing amino acid source. Also the S. cerevisiae mutant BY4741 Δyca1 [PIR4-IL1β], carrying the deletion of the YCA1 gene coding for a caspase-like protein involved in the apoptotic response, was cultured in aerated fed-batch reactor and compared to the parental strain, to test the effect of this mutation on strain robustness. Viability of the producer strains was examined during the runs and a mathematical model, which took into consideration the viable biomass present in the reactor and the glucose consumption for both growth and maintenance, was developed to describe and explain the time-course evolution of the process for both, the BY4741 parental and the BY4741 Δyca1 mutant strain. Results Our results show that the concentrations of ACA in the feeding solution, corresponding to those routinely used in the literature, are limiting for the growth of S. cerevisiae BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] in fed-batch reactor. Even in the presence of a proper ACA supplementation, S. cerevisiae BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] did not achieve a high cell density. The Δyca1 deletion did not have a beneficial effect on the overall performance of the strain, but it had a clear effect on its viability, which was not impaired during fed-batch operations, as shown by the kd value (0.0045 h-1, negligible if compared to that of the parental strain (0.028 h-1. However, independently of their robustness, both the parental and the Δyca1 mutant ceased to grow early during fed-batch runs, both strains using most of the

  7. SELF-STERILE AUXOTROPHS AND THEIR RELATION TO HETEROTHALLISM IN SORDARIA FIMICOLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-ANI, A S

    1964-09-04

    Eighty morphological mutants in the homothallic fungus Sordaria fimicola were tested on liquid minimal medium for nutritional requirements. Five had nutritional requirements, one for adenine, three for arginine, and one for lysine. All five were from among the eighty single gene mutants that were also partially or completely self-sterile. Nutritional requirements and centromere-locus intervals provide better criteria than morphological characters for selecting self-sterile mutants at complex loci governing heterothallism.

  8. An engineered bacterium auxotrophic for an unnatural amino acid: a novel biological containment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological containment is a genetic technique that programs dangerous organisms to grow only in the laboratory and to die in the natural environment. Auxotrophy for a substance not found in the natural environment is an ideal biological containment. Here, we constructed an Escherichia coli strain that cannot survive in the absence of the unnatural amino acid 3-iodo-L-tyrosine. This synthetic auxotrophy was achieved by conditional production of the antidote protein against the highly toxic enzyme colicin E3. An amber stop codon was inserted in the antidote gene. The translation of the antidote mRNA was controlled by a translational switch using amber-specific 3-iodo-L-tyrosine incorporation. The antidote is synthesized only when 3-iodo-L-tyrosine is present in the culture medium. The viability of this strain rapidly decreased with less than a 1 h half-life after removal of 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, suggesting that the decay of the antidote causes the host killing by activated colicin E3 in the absence of this unnatural amino acid. The contained strain grew 1.5 times more slowly than the parent strains. The escaper frequency was estimated to be 1.4 mutations (95% highest posterior density 1.1–1.8 per 105 cell divisions. This containment system can be constructed by only plasmid introduction without genome editing, suggesting that this system may be applicable to other microbes carrying toxin-antidote systems similar to that of colicin E3.

  9. Visualization of the role of host heme on the virulence of the heme auxotroph Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Laetitia; Dagieu, Jean-Baptiste; Fernandez, Annabelle; Derré-Bobillot, Aurélie; Borezée-Durant, Elise; Fleurot, Isabelle; Gruss, Alexandra; Lechardeur, Delphine

    2017-01-16

    Heme is essential for several cellular key functions but is also toxic. Whereas most bacterial pathogens utilize heme as a metabolic cofactor and iron source, the impact of host heme during bacterial infection remains elusive. The opportunist pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae does not synthesize heme but still uses it to activate a respiration metabolism. Concomitantly, heme toxicity is mainly controlled by the HrtBA efflux transporter. Here we investigate how S. agalactiae manages heme toxicity versus benefits in the living host. Using bioluminescent bacteria and heme-responsive reporters for in vivo imaging, we show that the capacity of S. agalactiae to overcome heme toxicity is required for successful infection, particularly in blood-rich organs. Host heme is simultaneously required, as visualized by a generalized infection defect of a respiration-negative mutant. In S. agalactiae, HrtBA expression responds to an intracellular heme signal via activation of the two-component system HssRS. A hssRS promoter-driven intracellular luminescent heme sensor was designed to identify host compartments that supply S. agalactiae with heme. S. agalactiae acquires heme in heart, kidneys, and liver, but not in the brain. We conclude that S. agalactiae response to heme is organ-dependent, and its efflux may be particularly relevant in late stages of infection.

  10. Biosynthesis of biotin from dethiobiotin by the biotin auxotroph Lactobacillus plantarum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, W C; DeMoll, E

    1993-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum requires biotin for growth. We show that in the presence of high levels of the biotin biosynthetic precursor, dethiobiotin, L. plantarum synthesizes biotin and grows in medium with dethiobiotin but without biotin. Lactobacillus casei also grew under similar conditions.

  11. Development and applications of Bacillus subtilis test systems for mutagens, involving DNA-repair deficiency and suppressible auxotrophic mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.

    1977-01-01

    A mutagen-tester of Bacillus subtilis was constructed and tested with known carcinogens. The parental strain HA101 of Okubo and Yanagida carrying suppressible nonsense mutations in his and met genes was transformed to carry an excision-repair deficiency mutation. The constructed strain TKJ5211 showed a 20-30-fold higher sensitivity for His + reversion than the parental strain when treated with UV and UV-mimetic chemicals but unchanged mutation frequency with X-rays and methyl methanesulfonate. The tester strain was used in a spot test of 30 selected chemicals and also for testing with liver homogenate activation. The results showed an almost equivalent but somewhat broader detection spectrum than the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 system. Another test method used a pair of B. subtilis strains differing in their DNA-repair capacity, i.e. the most UV-sensitive mutant HJ-15 and a wild-type strain, to detect repair-dependent DNA damage produced by chemicals. Spores could be used in either test

  12. Identification of point mutations in clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains that produce small-colony variants auxotrophic for menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Melissa A; Olsen, Randall J; Long, S Wesley; Rosato, Adriana E; Musser, James M

    2014-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) are implicated in chronic and relapsing infections that are difficult to diagnose and treat. Despite many years of study, the underlying molecular mechanisms and virulence effect of the small-colony phenotype remain incompletely understood. We sequenced the genomes of five S. aureus SCV strains recovered from human patients and discovered previously unidentified nonsynonymous point mutations in three genes encoding proteins in the menadione biosynthesis pathway. Analysis of genetic revertants and complementation with wild-type alleles confirmed that these mutations caused the SCV phenotype and decreased virulence for mice.

  13. Methionine sulphoxide reductases revisited: free methionine as a primary target of H2O2 stress in auxotrophic fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    García Santamarina, Sarela, 1978-; Boronat i Llop, Susanna, 1965-; Ayté del Olmo, José; Hidalgo Hernando, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid methionine can suffer reversible oxidation to sulphoxide and further irreversible over-oxidation to methionine sulphone. As part of the cellular antioxidant scavenging activities are the methionine sulphoxide reductases (Msrs), with a reported role in methionine sulphoxide reduction, both free and in proteins. Three families of Msrs have been described, but the fission yeast genome only includes one representative for two of these families: MsrA/Mxr1 and MsrB/Mxr2. We have investig...

  14. The growth rate of pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 is reduced in the presence of exogenous aspartate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is important for all cells as supplier of building blocks for the synthesis of nucleic acids and coenzymes. Furthermore, they act as intracellular energy carriers and allosteric effectors in a large number of enzymatic reactions. Nucleotides can either be made de novo or from...... encoding enzymes in the distal part of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway of L. lactis MG1363, results in reduction of the growth rate if exogenous aspartate is supplied to the growth medium. This observation can be explained by an increased accumulation of a toxic intermediate, most likely carbamoyl...... aspartate, provoked by high concentrations of aspartate....

  15. A Simple Laboratory Class Using a "Pseudomonas aeruginosa" Auxotroph to Illustrate UV-Mutagenic Killing, DNA Photorepair and Mutagenic DNA Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrero, Patricio; Valverde, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    A simple and cheap laboratory class is proposed to illustrate the lethal effect of UV radiation on bacteria and the operation of different DNA repair mechanisms. The class is divided into two sessions, an initial 3-hour experimental session and a second 2-hour analytical session. The experimental session involves two separate experiments: one…

  16. Highly efficient residue-selective labeling with isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val using a new auxotrophic E. coli strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanoiri, Yohei; Ishida, Yojiro; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Inouye, Masayori; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a practical protocol for preparing proteins bearing stereo-selectively 13 C-methyl labeled leucines and valines, instead of the commonly used 13 C-methyl labeled precursors for these amino acids, by E. coli cellular expression. Using this protocol, proteins with any combinations of isotope-labeled or unlabeled Leu and Val residues were prepared, including some that could not be prepared by the precursor methods. However, there is still room for improvement in the labeling efficiencies for Val residues, using the methods with labeled precursors or Val itself. This is due to the fact that the biosynthesis of Val could not be sufficiently suppressed, even by the addition of large amounts of Val or its precursors. In this study, we completely solved this problem by using a mutant strain derived from E. coli BL21(DE3), in which the metabolic pathways depending on two enzymes, dihydroxy acid dehydratase and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, are completely aborted by deleting the ilvD and leuB genes, which respectively encode these enzymes. The ΔilvD E. coli mutant terminates the conversion from α,β-dihydroxyisovalerate to α-ketoisovalerate, and the conversion from α,β-dihydroxy-α-methylvalerate to α-keto-β-methylvalerate, which produce the preceding precursors for Val and Ile, respectively. By the further deletion of the leuB gene, the conversion from Val to Leu was also fully terminated. Taking advantage of the double-deletion mutant, ΔilvDΔleuB E. coli BL21(DE3), an efficient and residue-selective labeling method with various isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val residues was established.

  17. Highly efficient residue-selective labeling with isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val using a new auxotrophic E. coli strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanoiri, Yohei [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Ishida, Yojiro [Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Takeda, Mitsuhiro [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Terauchi, Tsutomu [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Japan); Inouye, Masayori [Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Kainosho, Masatsune, E-mail: kainosho@tmu.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We recently developed a practical protocol for preparing proteins bearing stereo-selectively {sup 13}C-methyl labeled leucines and valines, instead of the commonly used {sup 13}C-methyl labeled precursors for these amino acids, by E. coli cellular expression. Using this protocol, proteins with any combinations of isotope-labeled or unlabeled Leu and Val residues were prepared, including some that could not be prepared by the precursor methods. However, there is still room for improvement in the labeling efficiencies for Val residues, using the methods with labeled precursors or Val itself. This is due to the fact that the biosynthesis of Val could not be sufficiently suppressed, even by the addition of large amounts of Val or its precursors. In this study, we completely solved this problem by using a mutant strain derived from E. coli BL21(DE3), in which the metabolic pathways depending on two enzymes, dihydroxy acid dehydratase and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, are completely aborted by deleting the ilvD and leuB genes, which respectively encode these enzymes. The ΔilvD E. coli mutant terminates the conversion from α,β-dihydroxyisovalerate to α-ketoisovalerate, and the conversion from α,β-dihydroxy-α-methylvalerate to α-keto-β-methylvalerate, which produce the preceding precursors for Val and Ile, respectively. By the further deletion of the leuB gene, the conversion from Val to Leu was also fully terminated. Taking advantage of the double-deletion mutant, ΔilvDΔleuB E. coli BL21(DE3), an efficient and residue-selective labeling method with various isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val residues was established.

  18. Influence of the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate on the intracellular activity of antibiotics against hemin- and menadione-auxotrophic small-colony variant mutants of Staphylococcus aureus and their wild-type parental strain in human THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Laetitia G; Lemaire, Sandrine; Kahl, Barbara C; Becker, Karsten; Proctor, Richard A; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study (L. G. Garcia et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:3700-3711, 2012), we evaluated the intracellular fate of menD and hemB mutants (corresponding to menadione- and hemin-dependent small-colony variants, respectively) of the parental COL methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and the pharmacodynamic profile of the intracellular activity of a series of antibiotics in human THP-1 monocytes. We have now examined the phagocytosis and intracellular persistence of the same strains in THP-1 cells activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and measured the intracellular activity of gentamicin, moxifloxacin, and oritavancin in these cells. Postphagocytosis intracellular counts and intracellular survival were lower in PMA-activated cells, probably due to their higher killing capacities. Gentamicin and moxifloxacin showed a 5- to 7-fold higher potency (lower static concentrations) against the parental strain, its hemB mutant, and the genetically complemented strain in PMA-activated cells and against the menD strain in both activated and nonactivated cells. This effect was inhibited when cells were incubated with N-acetylcysteine (a scavenger of oxidant species). In parallel, we observed that the MICs of these drugs were markedly reduced if bacteria had been preexposed to H(2)O(2). In contrast, the intracellular potency of oritavancin was not different in activated and nonactivated cells and was not decreased by the addition of N-acetylcysteine, regardless of the phenotype of the strains. The oritavancin MIC was also unaffected by preincubation of the bacteria with H(2)O(2). Thus, activation of THP-1 cells by PMA may increase the intracellular potency of certain antibiotics (probably due to synergy with reactive oxygen species), but this effect cannot be generalized to all antibiotics.

  19. Auxotrophy-stimulated sensitivity to quaternary ammonium salts and its relation to active transport in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachowicz, T.M.; Oblak, E.; Piatkowski, J.

    1992-01-01

    In previous studies we have observed that auxotrophic mutants of yeast were much more sensitive to quaternary ammonium salts than the corresponding isogenic wild type strains. The super sensitivity of the auxotrophs seems to be a characteristic feature of yeast and yeast-like microorganisms: the level of sensitivity of the quaternary ammonium salts of the bacterial auxotrophs and their original prototrophic forms appeared to be the same. The super sensitivity of yeast auxotrophs disappeared on minimal media with ammonium as a nitrogen source. In this report there are presented the data indicating that enrichment of the minimal medium with arginine restores the super sensitivity of auxotrophic yeast mutants to the quaternary ammonium salts. The results of amino-acid transport into the auxotrophic yeast cells treated with a quaternary ammonium salt in the presence and absence of arginine are given. A working hypothesis of the mechanism of these salts action as a specific inhibition of nutrient transport is discussed. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 8 figs

  20. Exometabolomics Assisted Design and Validation of Synthetic Obligate Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosina, Suzanne M; Danielewicz, Megan A; Mohammed, Mujahid; Ray, Jayashree; Suh, Yumi; Yilmaz, Suzan; Singh, Anup K; Arkin, Adam P; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Northen, Trent R

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic microbial ecology has the potential to enhance the productivity and resiliency of biotechnology processes compared to approaches using single isolates. Engineering microbial consortia is challenging; however, one approach that has attracted significant attention is the creation of synthetic obligate mutualism using auxotrophic mutants that depend on each other for exchange or cross-feeding of metabolites. Here, we describe the integration of mutant library fitness profiling with mass spectrometry based exometabolomics as a method for constructing synthetic mutualism based on cross-feeding. Two industrially important species lacking known ecological interactions, Zymomonas mobilis and Escherichia coli, were selected as the test species. Amino acid exometabolites identified in the spent medium of Z. mobilis were used to select three corresponding E. coli auxotrophs (proA, pheA and IlvA), as potential E. coli counterparts for the coculture. A pooled mutant fitness assay with a Z. mobilis transposon mutant library was used to identify mutants with improved growth in the presence of E. coli. An auxotroph mutant in a gene (ZMO0748) with sequence similarity to cysteine synthase A (cysK), was selected as the Z. mobilis counterpart for the coculture. Exometabolomic analysis of spent E. coli medium identified glutathione related metabolites as potentially available for rescue of the Z. mobilis cysteine synthase mutant. Three sets of cocultures between the Z. mobilis auxotroph and each of the three E. coli auxotrophs were monitored by optical density for growth and analyzed by flow cytometry to confirm high cell counts for each species. Taken together, our methods provide a technological framework for creating synthetic mutualisms combining existing screening based methods and exometabolomics for both the selection of obligate mutualism partners and elucidation of metabolites involved in auxotroph rescue.

  1. Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suppressor mutants devoid of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.

    2018-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant membrane lipid in most eukaryotes and considered essential. The yeast double deletion mutant cho2opi3 lacks the methyltransferases converting phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to PC. As a consequence, the cho2opi3 mutant is a choline auxotroph that relies on

  2. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heterokaryons of Neurospora crassa were generated by transformation of multinucleate conidia of a histidine-3 auxotroph with his-3+ plasmid. In one of the transformants, propagated on a medium with histidine supplementation, a gradual but drastic reduction occurred in the proportion of prototrophic nuclei that contained ...

  3. The purine efflux pump PbuE in Bacillus subtilis modulates expression of the PurR and G-box (XptR) regulons by adjusting the purine base pool size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, P.; Saxild, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    a functional PbuE pump. In a mutant defective in the metabolism of adenine, the ade apt mutant, we found a high intracellular level of adenine and constitutive high levels of PbuE. A growth test using a purine auxotroph provided further evidence for the role of PbuE in lowering the intracellular concentration...

  4. Hybridization of Palm Wine Yeasts ( Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haploid auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected from palm wine and propagated by protoplast fusion with Brewers yeast. Fusion resulted in an increase in both ethanol production and tolerance against exogenous ethanol. Mean fusion frequencies obtained for a mating types ranged between 8 x ...

  5. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Though bacterial sexuality was discovered in 1946 by Lederberg and Tatum, the evidence was entirely based on genetics. The experiment essentially involved the isolation of prototrophic recombinants by mixing two cultures of auxotrophs. Though the involvement of cell-cell contact was confirmed by the U-tube experiment ...

  6. Characterization of a Salmonella typhimurium mutant defective in phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochimsen, Bjarne; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Garber, Bruce B.

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the isolation and characterization of a mutant (strain GP122) of Salmonella typhimurium with a partial deficiency of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase activity. This strain was isolated in a purE deoD gpt purine auxotroph by a procedure designed to select guanosin...

  7. Quantitative proteomics by amino acid labeling identifies novel NHR-49 regulated proteins in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Julius; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2012-01-01

    in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We have recently shown that C. elegans can be completely labeled with heavy-labeled lysine by feeding worms on prelabeled lysine auxotroph Escherichia coli for just one generation. We applied this methodology to examine the organismal response to functional loss or RNAi...... gene knockdown by RNAi provides a powerful tool with broad implications for C. elegans biology....

  8. Growing Escherichia coli mutants deficient in riboflavin biosynthesis with non-limiting riboflavin results in sensitization to inactivation by broad-spectrum near-ultraviolet light (320-400 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.; Rinkenberger, J.L.; Hug, B.A.; Tuveson, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two mutants of Escherichia coli unable to synthesize riboflavin were grown with limiting (2 μg ml -1 ) and non-limiting (10 μg ml -1 ) concentrations of riboflavin. These riboflavin auxotrophs when grown to exponential phase with non-limiting riboflavin are more sensitive to broad spectrum near-ultraviolet light (NUV, 320-400 nm) inactivation than when they are grown with limiting riboflavin. Exponential phase cells of the riboflavin auxotrophs grown with limiting riboflavin are sensitized when irradiated in saline supplemented with riboflavin. This suggests that extracellular riboflavin is important as a NUV sensitizer when intracellular levels of riboflavin are reduced. The concentration of riboflavin in crude extracts from exponentially growing cells correlates well with the sensitivity of these mutants to NUV inactivation. The level of riboflavin supplementation has little effect on the NUV sensitivity of the parental strain. (author)

  9. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic and lethal effects of ionizing radiation on histidine-deficient auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium were studied to improve the understanding of radiation damage to DNA. The auxotrophs were divided into two groups - one which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions and another sensitive to frameshifts. These groups were composed of parent-daughter pairs in which the chemical mutagenicity enhancing plasmid, pKM101, is absent in the parent strain and present in the daughter. Co-60 #betta#-radiation and 250 kV x-rays were used to irradiate the bacteria. Irradiation of the frameshift - sensitive strains which carry the pKm101 plasmid doubled the absolute number of induced revertants whereas irradiation of the base-pair substitution sensitive strain which also carries the pKm101 plasmid produced nearly no change in the number of induced revertants. A nearly negligible effect on the mutation rate was observed for all parent strains

  10. Establishment of a new method to quantitatively evaluate hyphal fusion ability in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Wakako; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Hyphal fusion is involved in the formation of an interconnected colony in filamentous fungi, and it is the first process in sexual/parasexual reproduction. However, it was difficult to evaluate hyphal fusion efficiency due to the low frequency in Aspergillus oryzae in spite of its industrial significance. Here, we established a method to quantitatively evaluate the hyphal fusion ability of A. oryzae with mixed culture of two different auxotrophic strains, where the ratio of heterokaryotic conidia growing without the auxotrophic requirements reflects the hyphal fusion efficiency. By employing this method, it was demonstrated that AoSO and AoFus3 are required for hyphal fusion, and that hyphal fusion efficiency of A. oryzae was increased by depleting nitrogen source, including large amounts of carbon source, and adjusting pH to 7.0.

  11. Functional heterologous protein expression by genetically engineered probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Hudson

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested the potential of probiotic organisms to be adapted for the synthesis and delivery of oral therapeutics. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii would be especially well suited for this purpose due to its ability, in contrast to probiotic prokaryotes, to perform eukaryotic post translational modifications. This probiotic yeast thus has the potential to express a broad array of therapeutic proteins. Currently, however, use of wild type (WT S. boulardii relies on antibiotic resistance for the selection of transformed yeast. Here we report the creation of auxotrophic mutant strains of S. boulardii that can be selected without antibiotics and demonstrate that these yeast can express functional recombinant protein even when recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues in mice. A UV mutagenesis approach was employed to generate three uracil auxotrophic S. boulardii mutants that show a low rate of reversion to wild type growth. These mutants can express recombinant protein and are resistant in vitro to low pH, bile acid salts, and anaerobic conditions. Critically, oral gavage experiments using C57BL/6 mice demonstrate that mutant S. boulardii survive and are taken up into gastrointestinal immune tissues on a similar level as WT S. boulardii. Mutant yeast recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues furthermore retain expression of functional recombinant protein. These data show that auxotrophic mutant S. boulardii can safely express recombinant protein without antibiotic selection and can deliver recombinant protein to gastrointestinal immune tissues. These auxotrophic mutants of S. boulardii pave the way for future experiments to test the ability of S. boulardii to deliver therapeutics and mediate protection against gastrointestinal disorders.

  12. The Leishmania nicotinamidase is essential for NAD(+) production and parasite proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Gazanion, Elodie; Garcia, Deborah; Silvestre, R.; Gérard, C.; Guichou, J. F.; Labesse, G.; Seveno, Martial; Cordeiro-Da-Silva, A.; Ouaissi, A.; Sereno, Denis; Vergnes, Baptiste

    2011-01-01

    NAD(+) is a central cofactor that plays important roles in cellular metabolism and energy production in all living cells. Genomics-based reconstruction of NAD(+) metabolism revealed that Leishmania protozoan parasites are NAD(+) auxotrophs. Consequently, these parasites require assimilating NAD(+) precursors (nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside) from their host environment to synthesize NAD(+) by a salvage pathway. Nicotinamidase is a key enzyme of this salvage pathway that ca...

  13. Metabolic Engineering of Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Kong, In Iok; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Jayakody, Lahiru N.; Kim, Heejin; Xia, Peng-Fei; Kwak, Suryang; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Walukiewicz, Hanna E.; Rao, Christopher V.; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic yeast that has been used for promoting gut health as well as preventing diarrheal diseases. This yeast not only exhibits beneficial phenotypes for gut health but also can stay longer in the gut than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, S. boulardii is an attractive host for metabolic engineering to produce biomolecules of interest in the gut. However, the lack of auxotrophic strains with defined genetic backgrounds has hampered the use of this strain for...

  14. Mutations of the Corynebacterium glutamicum NCgl1221 Gene, Encoding a Mechanosensitive Channel Homolog, Induce l-Glutamic Acid Production▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Jun; Hirano, Seiko; Ito, Hisao; Wachi, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotroph that secretes l-glutamic acid in response to biotin limitation; this process is employed in industrial l-glutamic acid production. Fatty acid ester surfactants and penicillin also induce l-glutamic acid secretion, even in the presence of biotin. However, the mechanism of l-glutamic acid secretion remains unclear. It was recently reported that disruption of odhA, encoding a subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, resulted in l-gluta...

  15. Molecular Biology and Physiology of Methanogenic Archaebacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-27

    anaerobic food chains, the methanogens contribute to the mineralization of large amounts of organic matter. The end product of their metabolism...of radiolabelled substrate to product [8; Worrell and Nagle, in preparation]. Strain RT103, a formate auxotroph was isolated from the kanamycin...methylmercaptopurine riboside 0. 16 Bacteriocidald 8-aza-2, 6-diaminopurine 0.0011 6-thioguanine 0.0004 8-azaguanine 0.0004 6- mercaptopurine 0 8

  16. Lactobacilli evolve by cumulative DNA degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Bringel , Françoise; Hubert , Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Lactic acid bacteria require rich media since, due to mutations in their biosynthetic genes, they are unable to synthesise numerous amino acids and nucleobases. The extent of genetic lesions was investigated in two biosynthetic pathways for 150 Lactobacillus plantarum isolates from various origins. Arginine biosynthesis and pyrimidine biosynthesis share a common intermediate, carbamoyl phosphate (CP). No pyrimidine auxotrophs were detected and only 7 L. plantarum strai...

  17. Role of guanosine kinase in the utilization of guanosine for nucleotide synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Nygaard, Per

    1989-01-01

    Using purine auxotrophic strains of Escherichia coli with additional genetic lesions in the pathways of interconversion and salvage of purine compounds, we demonstrated the in vivo function of guanosine kinase and inosine kinase. Mutants with increased ability to utilize guanosine were isolated b...... a purF, a purL or a purM mutation. A revised map location of the gsk gene is presented and the gene order established as proC-acrA-apt-adk-gsk-purE....

  18. Complementation of a threonine dehydratase-deficient Nicotiana plumbaginifolia mutant after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transfer of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ILV1 gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Colau, D; Negrutiu, I; Van Montagu, M; Hernalsteens, J P

    1987-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ILV1 gene, encoding threonine dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.16) was fused to the transferred DNA nopaline synthase promoter and the 3' noncoding region of the octopine synthase gene. It was introduced, by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer, into an isoleucine-requiring Nicotiana plumbaginifolia auxotroph deficient in threonine dehydratase. Functional complementation by the ILV1 gene product was demonstrated by the selection of several transformed lines on a ...

  19. Functional heterologous protein expression by genetically engineered probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren E; Fasken, Milo B; McDermott, Courtney D; McBride, Shonna M; Kuiper, Emily G; Guiliano, David B; Corbett, Anita H; Lamb, Tracey J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the potential of probiotic organisms to be adapted for the synthesis and delivery of oral therapeutics. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii would be especially well suited for this purpose due to its ability, in contrast to probiotic prokaryotes, to perform eukaryotic post translational modifications. This probiotic yeast thus has the potential to express a broad array of therapeutic proteins. Currently, however, use of wild type (WT) S. boulardii relies on antibiotic resistance for the selection of transformed yeast. Here we report the creation of auxotrophic mutant strains of S. boulardii that can be selected without antibiotics and demonstrate that these yeast can express functional recombinant protein even when recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues in mice. A UV mutagenesis approach was employed to generate three uracil auxotrophic S. boulardii mutants that show a low rate of reversion to wild type growth. These mutants can express recombinant protein and are resistant in vitro to low pH, bile acid salts, and anaerobic conditions. Critically, oral gavage experiments using C57BL/6 mice demonstrate that mutant S. boulardii survive and are taken up into gastrointestinal immune tissues on a similar level as WT S. boulardii. Mutant yeast recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues furthermore retain expression of functional recombinant protein. These data show that auxotrophic mutant S. boulardii can safely express recombinant protein without antibiotic selection and can deliver recombinant protein to gastrointestinal immune tissues. These auxotrophic mutants of S. boulardii pave the way for future experiments to test the ability of S. boulardii to deliver therapeutics and mediate protection against gastrointestinal disorders.

  20. Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hernández Egido

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small colony variants (SCV are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient.

  1. Involvement of membrane lipids in radiation damage to potassium-ion permeability of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Medical Science; Akamatsu, Y

    1978-02-01

    Radiation damage to K/sup +/ permeability of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of E.coli grown with oleate or linolenate was investigated at different temperatures. A remarkable effect of radiation was observed at 0/sup 0/C with cells that had been grown in linolenate at 42/sup 0/C. This indicates that, besides protein, membrane lipids at least are involved in the radiation damage. The damage also seems to be affected by the fluidity of membrane lipids.

  2. Multicolor bleach-rate imaging enlightens in vivo sterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sage, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    , dehydroergosterol (DHE) in the genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). DHE is structurally very similar to cholesterol and ergosterol, two sterols used by the sterol-auxotroph nematode. We developed a new computational method measuring fluorophore bleaching kinetics at every pixel...... with a lysosomal marker, GFP-LMP1. Our new methods hold great promise for further studies on endosomal sterol transport in C. elegans....

  3. Minor Threonine Dehydratase Encoded Within the Threonine Synthetic Region of Bacillus subtilis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapnek, Daniel; Greer, Sheldon

    1971-01-01

    Challenging auxotrophs on metabolites that are precursors of a biosynthetic step involving a mutated enzyme has revealed a new class of suppressor mutations which act by derepressing a minor enzyme activity not normally detected in the wild-type strain. These indirect, partial suppressor mutations which allow isoleucine auxotrophs to grow on homoserine or threonine have been analyzed to determine their effect on enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these amino acids. It has been found that one class of these suppressor mutations (sprA) leads to the derepression of homoserine kinase, homoserine dehydrogenase, and a minor threonine dehydratase that is not sufficiently active to be detected in the wild-type strain. The gene encoding this second threonine dehydratase activity has been found to be located between the structural genes for homoserine kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase. The results of these experiments indicate that plating of auxotrophs on precursors of a biosynthetic step involving mutated enzymes could prove to be a valuable method for the detection of regulatory mutants as well as a possible tool in studying the evolution of biochemical pathways. PMID:4997544

  4. Physical size of the donor locus and transmission of Haemophilus influenzae ampicillin resistance genes by deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendler, J.W. III

    1976-01-01

    The properties of donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from three clinical isolates and its ability to mediate the transformation of competent Rd strains to ampicillin resistance were examined. A quantitative technique for determining the resistance of individual Haemophilus influenzae cells to ampicillin was developed. When this technique was used, sensitive cells failed to tolerate levels of ampicillin greater than 0.1 to 0.2 μg/ml, whereas three resistant type b β-lactamase-producing strains could form colonies 1- to 3-μg/ml levels of the antibiotic. DNA extracted from the resistant strains elicited transformation of the auxotrophic genes in a multiply auxotrophic Rd strain. For two of the donors, transformation to ampicillin resistance occurred after the uptake of a single DNA molecule approximately 10 4 -fold less frequently than transformation of auxotrophic loci and was not observed to occur at all with the third. The frequency of transformation to ampicillin resistance was two- to fivefold higher in strain BC200 (Okinaka and Barnhart, 1974), which was cured of a defective prophage. All three clinical ampicillin-resistant strains were poor recipients, but the presence of the ampicillin resistant genes in strain BC200 did not reduce its competence

  5. Genetic characterization of somatic recombination in Trichoderma pseudokoningii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcellos Fernando Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing experiments via hyphal anastomosis between two strains contrasting for auxotrophic markers of Trichoderma pseudokoningii were conducted to characterize the somatic recombination process in this specie. Four crossings were made and a total of 1052 colonies obtained from conidial suspensions of the heterokaryotic colonies were analyzed. Sixty-eight recombinant colonies, from four growing generations, were analyzed for the auxotrophic markers. Of the 68 colonies analyzed, 58 were stable after four generations and the remainders were unstable, reverting to one of the parentals. Most of the recombinant colonies were unstable through subculture and after four growing generations they showed the leu ino met markers (auxotrophic for leucin, inositol and metionin respectively. The unstable recombinant colonies showed irregular growing borders, sparse sporulation and frequent sector formation. The results suggest the occurrence of recombination mechanisms in the heterokaryon (somatic recombination, different from those described for the parasexual cycle or parameiosis. Therefore, we proposed the ocurrence of nuclei degradation from one parental (non prevalent parental in the heterokaryon and that the resulting chromosomal fragments may be incorporated into whole nuclei of the another parental (prevalent parental. However the parameiosis as originally described cannot be excluded.

  6. Metabolic Engineering of Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Kong, In Iok; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Kim, Heejin; Xia, Peng-Fei; Kwak, Suryang; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Walukiewicz, Hanna E; Rao, Christopher V; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-04-01

    Saccharomyces boulardiiis a probiotic yeast that has been used for promoting gut health as well as preventing diarrheal diseases. This yeast not only exhibits beneficial phenotypes for gut health but also can stay longer in the gut than Saccharomyces cerevisiae Therefore, S. boulardiiis an attractive host for metabolic engineering to produce biomolecules of interest in the gut. However, the lack of auxotrophic strains with defined genetic backgrounds has hampered the use of this strain for metabolic engineering. Here, we report the development of well-defined auxotrophic mutants (leu2,ura3,his3, and trp1) through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9-based genome editing. The resulting auxotrophic mutants can be used as a host for introducing various genetic perturbations, such as overexpression or deletion of a target gene, using existing genetic tools forS. cerevisiae We demonstrated the overexpression of a heterologous gene (lacZ), the correct localization of a target protein (red fluorescent protein) into mitochondria by using a protein localization signal, and the introduction of a heterologous metabolic pathway (xylose-assimilating pathway) in the genome ofS. boulardii We further demonstrated that human lysozyme, which is beneficial for human gut health, could be secreted by S. boulardii Our results suggest that more sophisticated genetic perturbations to improveS. boulardii can be performed without using a drug resistance marker, which is a prerequisite for in vivo applications using engineeredS. boulardii. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. HisB as novel selection marker for gene targeting approaches in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Markus R M; Gensheimer, Tarek; Kubisch, Christin; Meyer, Vera

    2017-03-08

    For Aspergillus niger, a broad set of auxotrophic and dominant resistance markers is available. However, only few offer targeted modification of a gene of interest into or at a genomic locus of choice, which hampers functional genomics studies. We thus aimed to extend the available set by generating a histidine auxotrophic strain with a characterized hisB locus for targeted gene integration and deletion in A. niger. A histidine-auxotrophic strain was established via disruption of the A. niger hisB gene by using the counterselectable pyrG marker. After curing, a hisB - , pyrG - strain was obtained, which served as recipient strain for further studies. We show here that both hisB orthologs from A. nidulans and A. niger can be used to reestablish histidine prototrophy in this recipient strain. Whereas the hisB gene from A. nidulans was suitable for efficient gene targeting at different loci in A. niger, the hisB gene from A. niger allowed efficient integration of a Tet-on driven luciferase reporter construct at the endogenous non-functional hisB locus. Subsequent analysis of the luciferase activity revealed that the hisB locus is tight under non-inducing conditions and allows even higher luciferase expression levels compared to the pyrG integration locus. Taken together, we provide here an alternative selection marker for A. niger, hisB, which allows efficient homologous integration rates as well as high expression levels which compare favorably to the well-established pyrG selection marker.

  8. Feasibility of protein turnover studies in prototroph Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Perez, Miguel; Villén, Judit

    2015-04-07

    Quantitative proteomics studies of yeast that use metabolic labeling with amino acids rely on auxotrophic mutations of one or more genes on the amino acid biosynthesis pathways. These mutations affect yeast metabolism and preclude the study of some biological processes. Overcoming this limitation, it has recently been described that proteins in a yeast prototrophic strain can also be metabolically labeled with heavy amino acids. However, the temporal profiles of label incorporation under the different phases of the prototroph's growth have not been examined. Labeling trajectories are important in the study of protein turnover and dynamics, in which label incorporation into proteins is monitored across many time points. Here we monitored protein labeling trajectories for 48 h after a pulse with heavy lysine in a yeast prototrophic strain and compared them with those of a lysine auxotrophic yeast. Labeling was successful in prototroph yeast during exponential growth phase but not in stationary phase. Furthermore, we were able to determine the half-lives of more than 1700 proteins during exponential phase of growth with high accuracy and reproducibility. We found a median half-life of 2 h in both strains, which corresponds with the cellular doubling time. Nucleolar and ribosomal proteins showed short half-lives, whereas mitochondrial proteins and other energy production enzymes presented longer half-lives. Except for some proteins involved in lysine biosynthesis, we observed a high correlation in protein half-lives between prototroph and auxotroph strains. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of using prototrophs for proteomic turnover studies and provide a reliable data set of protein half-lives in exponentially growing yeast.

  9. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of recombinant strains with enhanced pectinase production by protoplast fusion between Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseoroseum Isolamento de linhagens recombinantes com maior produção de pectinases por meio de fusão de protoplastos entre Penicillium expansum e Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Antonio Varavallo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast fusion between complementary auxotrophic and morphological mutant strains of Penicillium griseoroseum and P. expansum was induced by polyethylene glycol and calcium ions (Ca2+. Fusant strains were obtained in minimal medium and a prototrophic strain, possibly diploid, was chosen for haplodization with the fungicide benomyl. Different recombinant strains were isolated and characterized for occurrence of auxotrophic mutations and pectinolytic enzyme production. The fusant prototrophic did not present higher pectinase production than the parental strains, but among 29 recombinants analyzed, four presented enhanced enzyme activities. The recombinant RGE27, which possesses the same auxotrophic and morphologic mutations as the P. griseoroseum parental strain, presented a considerable increase in polygalacturonase (3-fold and pectin lyase production (1.2-fold.Fusões de protoplastos entre linhagens mutantes auxotróficas e morfológicas complementares de Penicillium griseoroseum e P. expansum foram induzidas por polietilenoglicol e íons cálcio (Ca2+. Fusionantes foram obtidos em meio mínimo e uma linhagem prototrófica, possivelmente diplóide, foi selecionada para a haploidização com o fungicida benomil. Diferentes linhagens recombinantes foram isoladas e caracterizadas quanto à presença de mutações auxotróficas e a produção de enzimas pectinolíticas. O fusionante prototrófico não apresentou maior atividade de pectinases em relação às linhagens parentais, entretanto, entre 29 recombinantes analisados, quatro apresentaram maiores atividades enzimáticas. O recombinante RGE27, o qual possui as mesmas mutações auxotróficas e morfológicas que a linhagem parental de P. griseoroseum, apresentou um aumento considerável na produção de poligalacturonase (3 vezes e de pectina liase (1,2 vezes.

  11. Selecting Schizosaccharomyces pombe diploids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe procedures for the selection of diploid Schizosaccharomyces pombe. ade6-M210/ade6-M216 heteroallelic complementation is widely used to select for Ade+ diploids. Such diploids will readily sporulate when starved of nitrogen. For some investigations, stable diploids are preferable (e.......g., for genetic complementation tests), and in these cases mating an h− strain with an h90 mat2-Pi-102 strain can be used to prevent sporulation. When ade6-M210/ade6-M216 mutations impact on, or show synthetic interactions with, the gene of interest, two different auxotrophic markers can be used to select...

  12. Preparação de copolímeros à base de 2-vinilpiridina com propriedades bactericidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S. S. Valle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of two copolymers based on 2-vinylpyridine, styrene and divinylbenzene (2Vpy-Sty-DVB with different porosity degrees. The copolymers were subsequently quaternized with methyl iodide. To prepare charge transfer complexes, the unmodified copolymers and their derivatives quaternized with methyl iodine were impregnated with iodine. The antibacterial properties of the polymers were evaluated in dilutions ranging from 10² to 10(7 cells/mL of the auxotrophic OHd5-K12 Escherichia coli strain. It was possible to obtain materials with complete antibacterial activity even in the highest cell concentrations tested.

  13. Growth and sporulation of a pyrimidine spore color mutant of Sordaria fimicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ani, A S

    1967-04-07

    A nonautonomous spore color mutant of Sordaria fimicola is a pyrimidine auxotroph that produces hyaline nonviable ascospores. Uracil, uridine, and cytidine are more effective growth factors than cytosine and thymine and, in high concentrations, render the mutant self-fertile by inducing the ascospores to resume development and maturation. Crosses with the unlinked arginine non-autonomus spore color mutant st-59 yielded the double mutant st-59 pyr that requires both arginine and a pyrimidine for growth, which indicates a lack of suppression of the pyrimidine requirement by the arginine locus.

  14. Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) Applied to Quantitative Proteomics of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soufi, Boumediene; Kumar, C.; Gnad, F.

    2010-01-01

    We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to large-scale quantitative proteomics analyses of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis in two physiological conditions: growth on succinate and growth under phosphate starvation. Using a B. subtilis strain auxotrophic...... of the most comprehensive quantitative proteomics studies in bacteria, covering more than 75% of the B. subtilis genes expressed in the log phase of growth. Furthermore, we detect and quantify dynamics of 35 Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation sites under growth on succinate, and 10 phosphorylation sites under...

  15. Production of Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant micro-organism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces and excretes into culture medium a stilbenoid metabolite product when grown under stilbenoid production conditions, which expresses in above native levels a ABC transporter which transports said stilbenoid out of said...... micro-organism cells to the culture medium. The genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces an auxotrophic phenotype which is compensated by a plasmid which also expresses one or more of said enzymes constituting said metabolic pathway producing said stilbenoid, an expression product of the plasmid...

  16. Lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on Streptomyces griseus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorskaya, M.E.; Tulina, G.G.; Serdechnaya, A.I.; Matselyukh, B.P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on spores of prototrophic and auxotrophic strains of Streptomyces griseus. Relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons is higher than that of γ-rays and depends on beam energy. Neutrons of 22-50 MeV induce Streptomyces griseus mutations more frequently (by one order of magnitude) than neutrons of 1.4-1.6 MeV do. The obtained mutants can be used in studying Streptomyces griseus genetics

  17. The changeability of Pyricularia oryzae Cav. 1. The action of some mutagenous factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinova, T.M.; Terekhova, V.A.; D'yakov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The lethal and mutagenous actions of UV rays, nitrozomethylurea, and nitrosoguanidine in respect to Conidia of rice Pyricularia oryzae Cav. agent have been investigated. It has been found out that low doses of UV-radiation, which are not lethal for a three-cell conidia, increase the intensity of two-cell vegetation. All the investigated mutagens cause a formation of mutants which are deficient according to pigment synthesis white and pink colonies and differ by their reduced growth. Auxotrophic mutants were mainly obtained under the action of nitroso compounds

  18. A fused selenium-containing protein with both GPx and SOD activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huijun; Ge, Yan; Wang, Ying; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoman; Zang, Tianzhu; Xu, Jiayun; Liu, Junqiu; Luo, Guimin; Shen, Jiacong

    2007-01-01

    As a safeguard against oxidative stress, the balance between the main antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) was believed to be more important than any single one, for example, dual-functional SOD/CAT enzyme has been proved to have better antioxidant ability than either single enzyme. By combining traditional fusion protein technology with amino acid auxotrophic expression system, we generated a bifunctional enzyme with both GPx and SOD activities. It displayed better antioxidant ability than GPx or SOD. Such dual-functional enzymes could facilitate further studies of the cooperation of GPx and SOD and generation of better therapeutic agents

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Applicable to Natto (Fermented Soybean) Production ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Yuji; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Rikio; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-01-01

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 424 strains, including Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting natto. Biotin auxotrophism was tightly linked to natto fermentation. A multilocus nucleotide sequence of six genes (rpoB, purH, gyrA, groEL, polC, and 16S rRNA) was used for phylogenetic analy...

  20. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase induces the UPR pathway in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Louise Cathrine Braun; Hansen, Nadia Jin Storm; Pilon, Marc

    -requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1), and activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6). Using a transgenic GFP reporter strain of the model organism C. elegans, we have recently identified that inhibition of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMG-CoAR) with Fluvastatin and knock down of HMG-CoAR using RNA interference (RNAi) both...... including farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) which are necessary for posttranslational prenylation of several small G proteins. C. elegans are cholesterol auxotrophs, which enable us to investigate the isoprenoid branch and its role in UPR induction. We found...

  1. Identification of novel protein functions and signaling mechanisms by genetics and quantitative phosphoproteomics in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Julius; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    knockdown by feeding the nematode on pre-labeled lysine auxotroph Escherichia coli. In this chapter, we describe in details the generation of the E. coli strain, incorporation of heavy isotope-labeled lysine in C. elegans, and the procedure for a comprehensive global phosphoproteomic experiment.......Stable isotope labeling by amino acids combined with mass spectrometry is a widely used methodology for measuring relative changes in protein and phosphorylation levels at a global level. We have applied this method to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans in combination with RNAi-mediated gene...

  2. Acetohydroxyacid synthase FgIlv2 and FgIlv6 are involved in BCAA biosynthesis, mycelial and conidial morphogenesis, and full virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Han, Qi; Xu, Jianhong; Wang, Jian; Shi, Jianrong

    2015-11-10

    In this study, we characterized FgIlv2 and FgIlv6, the catalytic and regulatory subunits of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) from the important wheat head scab fungus Fusarium graminearum. AHAS catalyzes the first common step in the parallel pathways toward branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: isoleucine, leucine, valine) and is the inhibitory target of several commercialized herbicides. Both FgILV2 and FgILV6 deletion mutants were BCAA-auxotrophic and showed reduced aerial hyphal growth and red pigmentation when cultured on PDA plates. Conidial formation was completely blocked in the FgILV2 deletion mutant ΔFgIlv2-4 and significantly reduced in the FgILV6 deletion mutant ΔFgIlv6-12. The auxotrophs of ΔFgIlv2-4 and ΔFgIlv6-12 could be restored by exogenous addition of BCAAs but relied on the designated nitrogen source the medium contained. Deletion of FgILV2 or FgILV6 also leads to hypersensitivity to various cellular stresses and reduced deoxynivalenol production. ΔFgIlv2-4 lost virulence completely on flowering wheat heads, whereas ΔFgIlv6-12 could cause scab symptoms in the inoculated spikelet but lost its aggressiveness. Taken together, our study implies the potential value of antifungals targeting both FgIlv2 and FgIlv6 in F. graminearum.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Heterologous HIV-1gp120 Gene Expression Disruption in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Host Strain: A Critical Issue for Engineering Mycobacterial Based-Vaccine Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joan; Fernández-Lloris, Raquel; Pezzat, Elías; Saubi, Narcís; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Mothe, Beatriz; Gatell, Josep Maria

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a live vector of recombinant bacterial vaccine is a promising system to be used. In this study, we evaluate the disrupted expression of heterologous HIV-1gp120 gene in BCG Pasteur host strain using replicative vectors pMV261 and pJH222. pJH222 carries a lysine complementing gene in BCG lysine auxotrophs. The HIV-1 gp120 gene expression was regulated by BCG hsp60 promoter (in plasmid pMV261) and Mycobacteria spp. α-antigen promoter (in plasmid pJH222). Among 14 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pMV261) colonies screened, 12 showed a partial deletion and two showed a complete deletion. However, deletion was not observed in all 10 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pJH222) colonies screened. In this study, we demonstrated that E. coli/Mycobacterial expression vectors bearing a weak promoter and lysine complementing gene in a recombinant lysine auxotroph of BCG could prevent genetic rearrangements and disruption of HIV 1gp120 gene expression, a key issue for engineering Mycobacterial based vaccine vectors. PMID:20617151

  4. Molecular Characterization of Heterologous HIV-1gp120 Gene Expression Disruption in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Host Strain: A Critical Issue for Engineering Mycobacterial Based-Vaccine Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as a live vector of recombinant bacterial vaccine is a promising system to be used. In this study, we evaluate the disrupted expression of heterologous HIV-1gp120 gene in BCG Pasteur host strain using replicative vectors pMV261 and pJH222. pJH222 carries a lysine complementing gene in BCG lysine auxotrophs. The HIV-1 gp120 gene expression was regulated by BCG hsp60 promoter (in plasmid pMV261 and Mycobacteria spp. α-antigen promoter (in plasmid pJH222. Among 14 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pMV261 colonies screened, 12 showed a partial deletion and two showed a complete deletion. However, deletion was not observed in all 10 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pJH222 colonies screened. In this study, we demonstrated that E. coli/Mycobacterial expression vectors bearing a weak promoter and lysine complementing gene in a recombinant lysine auxotroph of BCG could prevent genetic rearrangements and disruption of HIV 1gp120 gene expression, a key issue for engineering Mycobacterial based vaccine vectors.

  5. Isolation of the thymidylate synthetase gene (TMP1) by complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.R.; Barclay, B.J.; Storms, R.K.; Friesen, J.D.; Haynes, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The structural gene (TMP1) for yeast thymidylate synthetase (thymidylate synthase; EC 2.1.1.45) was isolated from a chimeric plasmid bank by genetic complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Retransformation of the dTMP auxotroph GY712 and a temperature-sensitive mutant (cdc21) with purified plasmid (pTL1) yielded Tmp/sup +/ transformants at high frequency. In addition, the plasmid was tested for the ability to complement a bacterial thyA mutant that lacks functional thymidylate synthetase. Although it was not possible to select Thy/sup +/ transformants directly, it was found that all pTL1 transformants were phenotypically Thy/sup +/ after several generations of growth in nonselective conditions. Thus, yeast thymidylate synthetase is biologically active in Escherichia coli. Thymidylate synthetase was assayed in yeast cell lysates by high-pressure liquid chromatography to monitor the conversion of [6-/sup 3/H]dUMP to [6-/sup 3/H]dTMP. In protein extracts from the thymidylate auxotroph (tmpl-6) enzymatic conversion of dUMP to dTMP was barely detectable. Lysates of pTL1 transformants of this strain, however, had thymidylate synthetase activity that was comparable to that of the wild-type strain

  6. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants are resistant to the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Orjan; Haukland, Hanne Husom; Kahl, Barbara C; von Eiff, Christof; Proctor, Richard A; Ulvatne, Hilde; Sandvik, Kjersti; Vorland, Lars H

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are resistant to the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B. To assess if deficiency in transmembrane potential, a common characteristic of SCVs that are haemin- or menadione-auxotrophs, affects the uptake of the peptide into the bacterial cytoplasm. A broth microdilution technique was used for susceptibility testing to determine the MIC of lactoferricin B for SCVs with three different auxotrophisms (haemin, menadione or thymidine) and their isogenic parent strains. Both clinical isolates and genetically defined mutants were used. The internalization of lactoferricin B in a hemB mutant and the respective parent strain was studied using transmission electron microscopy and immunogold labelling. All SCVs showed reduced susceptibility to lactoferricin B irrespective of their auxotrophy compared with their isogenic parent strains. The MIC for all SCVs was >256 mg/L, whereas the MICs for the parent strains ranged from 16-256 mg/L. Surprisingly, the hemB mutant contained significantly more lactoferricin B intracellularly than the respective parent strain. The resistance mechanism of SCVs towards the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B is presumably caused by the metabolic changes present in SCVs rather than by a changed transmembrane potential of SCVs or reduced uptake of the peptide.

  7. Availability of Amino Acids Extends Chronological Lifespan by Suppressing Hyper-Acidification of the Environment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Maruyama

    Full Text Available The chronological lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents the duration of cell survival in the postdiauxic and stationary phases. Using a prototrophic strain derived from the standard auxotrophic laboratory strain BY4742, we showed that supplementation of non-essential amino acids to a synthetic defined (SD medium increases maximal cell growth and extends the chronological lifespan. The positive effects of amino acids can be reproduced by modulating the medium pH, indicating that amino acids contribute to chronological longevity in a cell-extrinsic manner by alleviating medium acidification. In addition, we showed that the amino acid-mediated effects on extension of chronological longevity are independent of those achieved through a reduction in the TORC1 pathway, which is mediated in a cell-intrinsic manner. Since previous studies showed that extracellular acidification causes mitochondrial dysfunction and leads to cell death, our results provide a path to premature chronological aging caused by differences in available nitrogen sources. Moreover, acidification of culture medium is generally associated with culture duration and cell density; thus, further studies are required on cell physiology of auxotrophic yeast strains during the stationary phase because an insufficient supply of essential amino acids may cause alterations in environmental conditions.

  8. Effect of auxotrophies on yeast performance in aerated fed-batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Carmine; Paciello, Lucia [Dept. Ingegneria Industriale, Universita di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Alteriis, Elisabetta de [Dept. Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' , Via Cinthia, 80100 Napoli (Italy); Brambilla, Luca [Dept. Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 20126 Milano (Italy); Parascandola, Palma, E-mail: pparascandola@unisa.it [Dept. Ingegneria Industriale, Universita di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper contributes to fill the gap existing between the basic and applied research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mathematical model sheds light on the physiology of auxotrophic yeast strains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast behavior in fed-batch is influenced by biological and environmental determinants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process optimization would make possible the production of heterologous proteins which are not yet on the market. -- Abstract: A systematic investigation on the effects of auxotrophies on the performance of yeast in aerated fed-batch reactor was carried out. Six isogenic strains from the CEN.PK family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one prototroph and five auxotrophs, were grown in aerated fed-batch reactor using the same operative conditions and a proper nutritional supplementation. The performance of the strains, in terms of final biomass decreased with increasing the number of auxotrophies. Auxotrophy for leucine exerted a profound negative effect on the performance of the strains. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells of the strain carrying four auxotrophies and its significant viability loss, were indicative of an oxidative stress response induced by exposure of cells to the environmental conditions. The mathematical model was fundamental to highlight how the carbon flux, depending on the number and type of auxotrophies, was diverted towards the production of increasingly large quantities of energy for maintenance.

  9. Effect of auxotrophies on yeast performance in aerated fed-batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, Carmine; Paciello, Lucia; Alteriis, Elisabetta de; Brambilla, Luca; Parascandola, Palma

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper contributes to fill the gap existing between the basic and applied research. ► Mathematical model sheds light on the physiology of auxotrophic yeast strains. ► Yeast behavior in fed-batch is influenced by biological and environmental determinants. ► Process optimization would make possible the production of heterologous proteins which are not yet on the market. -- Abstract: A systematic investigation on the effects of auxotrophies on the performance of yeast in aerated fed-batch reactor was carried out. Six isogenic strains from the CEN.PK family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one prototroph and five auxotrophs, were grown in aerated fed-batch reactor using the same operative conditions and a proper nutritional supplementation. The performance of the strains, in terms of final biomass decreased with increasing the number of auxotrophies. Auxotrophy for leucine exerted a profound negative effect on the performance of the strains. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells of the strain carrying four auxotrophies and its significant viability loss, were indicative of an oxidative stress response induced by exposure of cells to the environmental conditions. The mathematical model was fundamental to highlight how the carbon flux, depending on the number and type of auxotrophies, was diverted towards the production of increasingly large quantities of energy for maintenance.

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi Coexpressing Ornithine Decarboxylase and Green Fluorescence Proteins as a Tool to Study the Role of Polyamines in Chagas Disease Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremías José Barclay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines are essential for Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. As T. cruzi behaves as a natural auxotrophic organism, it relies on host polyamines biosynthesis. In this paper we obtained a double-transfected T. cruzi parasite that expresses the green fluorescent protein (GFP and a heterologous ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, used itself as a novel selectable marker. These autotrophic and fluorescent parasites were characterized; the ODC presented an apparent Km for ornithine of 0.51 ± 0.16 mM and an estimated Vmax value of 476.2 nmoles/h/mg of protein. These expressing ODC parasites showed higher metacyclogenesis capacity than the auxotrophic counterpart, supporting the idea that polyamines are engaged in this process. This double-transfected T. cruzi parasite results in a powerful tool—easy to follow by its fluorescence—to study the role of polyamines in Chagas disease pathology and in related processes such as parasite survival, invasion, proliferation, metacyclogenesis, and tissue spreading.

  11. Blockage of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway affects riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rui; Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-01-10

    The Ashbya gossypii riboflavin biosynthetic pathway and its connection with the purine pathway have been well studied. However, the outcome of genetic alterations in the pyrimidine pathway on riboflavin production by A. gossypii had not yet been assessed. Here, we report that the blockage of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the recently generated A. gossypii Agura3 uridine/uracil auxotrophic strain led to improved riboflavin production on standard agar-solidified complex medium. When extra uridine/uracil was supplied, the production of riboflavin by this auxotroph was repressed. High concentrations of uracil hampered this (and the parent) strain growth, whereas excess uridine favored the A. gossypii Agura3 growth. Considering that the riboflavin and the pyrimidine pathways share the same precursors and that riboflavin overproduction may be triggered by nutritional stress, we suggest that overproduction of riboflavin by the A. gossypii Agura3 may occur as an outcome of a nutritional stress response and/or of an increased availability in precursors for riboflavin biosynthesis, due to their reduced consumption by the pyrimidine pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional analysis of aromatic biosynthetic pathways in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina‐Henares, M. Antonia; García‐Salamanca, Adela; Molina‐Henares, A. Jesús; De La Torre, Jesús; Herrera, M. Carmen; Ramos, Juan L.; Duque, Estrella

    2009-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a non‐pathogenic prototrophic bacterium with high potential for biotechnological applications. Despite all that is known about this strain, the biosynthesis of essential chemicals has not been fully analysed and auxotroph mutants are scarce. We carried out massive mini‐Tn5 random mutagenesis and screened for auxotrophs that require aromatic amino acids. The biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids was analysed in detail including physical and transcriptional organization of genes, complementation assays and feeding experiments to establish pathway intermediates. There is a single pathway from chorismate leading to the biosynthesis of tryptophan, whereas the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine is achieved through multiple convergent pathways. Genes for tryptophan biosynthesis are grouped in unlinked regions with the trpBA and trpGDE genes organized as operons and the trpI, trpE and trpF genes organized as single transcriptional units. The pheA and tyrA gene‐encoding multifunctional enzymes for phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis are linked in the chromosome and form an operon with the serC gene involved in serine biosynthesis. The last step in the biosynthesis of these two amino acids requires an amino transferase activity for which multiple tyrB‐like genes are present in the host chromosome. PMID:21261884

  13. Replacement of the folC gene, encoding folylpolyglutamate synthetase-dihydrofolate synthetase in Escherichia coli, with genes mutagenized in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, C; Bognar, A L

    1992-03-01

    The folylpolyglutamate synthetase-dihydrofolate synthetase gene (folC) in Escherichia coli was deleted from the bacterial chromosome and replaced by a selectable Kmr marker. The deletion strain required a complementing gene expressing folylpolyglutamate synthetase encoded on a plasmid for viability, indicating that folC is an essential gene in E. coli. The complementing folC gene was cloned into the vector pPM103 (pSC101, temperature sensitive for replication), which segregated spontaneously at 42 degrees C in the absence of selection. This complementing plasmid was replaced in the folC deletion strain by compatible pUC plasmids containing folC genes with mutations generated in vitro, producing strains which express only mutant folylpolyglutamate synthetase. Mutant folC genes expressing insufficient enzyme activity could not complement the chromosomal deletion, resulting in retention of the pPM103 plasmid. Some mutant genes expressing low levels of enzyme activity replaced the complementing plasmid, but the strains produced were auxotrophic for products of folate-dependent pathways. The folylpolyglutamate synthetase gene from Lactobacillus casei, which may lack dihydrofolate synthetase activity, replaced the complementing plasmid, but the strain was auxotrophic for all folate end products.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-copy plasmids for auxotrophy compensation, multiple marker selection, and for designing metabolically cooperating communities [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mülleder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Auxotrophic markers are useful tools in cloning and genome editing, enable a large spectrum of genetic techniques, as well as facilitate the study of metabolite exchange interactions in microbial communities. If unused background auxotrophies are left uncomplemented however, yeast cells need to be grown in nutrient supplemented or rich growth media compositions, which precludes the analysis of biosynthetic metabolism, and which leads to a profound impact on physiology and gene expression. Here we present a series of 23 centromeric plasmids designed to restore prototrophy in typical Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains. The 23 single-copy plasmids complement for deficiencies in HIS3, LEU2, URA3, MET17 or LYS2 genes and in their combinations, to match the auxotrophic background of the popular functional-genomic yeast libraries that are based on the S288c strain. The plasmids are further suitable for designing self-establishing metabolically cooperating (SeMeCo communities, and possess a uniform multiple cloning site to exploit multiple parallel selection markers in protein expression experiments.

  15. Pervasive Selection for Cooperative Cross-Feeding in Bacterial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Germerodt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities are taxonomically highly diverse, yet the mechanisms that maintain this diversity remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that an obligate and mutual exchange of metabolites, as is very common among bacterial cells, could stabilize different genotypes within microbial communities. To test this, we developed a cellular automaton to model interactions among six empirically characterized genotypes that differ in their ability and propensity to produce amino acids. By systematically varying intrinsic (i.e. benefit-to-cost ratio and extrinsic parameters (i.e. metabolite diffusion level, environmental amino acid availability, we show that obligate cross-feeding of essential metabolites is selected for under a broad range of conditions. In spatially structured environments, positive assortment among cross-feeders resulted in the formation of cooperative clusters, which limited exploitation by non-producing auxotrophs, yet allowed them to persist at the clusters' periphery. Strikingly, cross-feeding helped to maintain genotypic diversity within populations, while amino acid supplementation to the environment decoupled obligate interactions and favored auxotrophic cells that saved amino acid production costs over metabolically autonomous prototrophs. Together, our results suggest that spatially structured environments and limited nutrient availabilities should facilitate the evolution of metabolic interactions, which can help to maintain genotypic diversity within natural microbial populations.

  16. Random mutagenesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 using an IS6100-based transposon vector identified the last unknown gene in the histidine biosynthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigalat Lars

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium of the class Actinobacteria, is an industrially relevant producer of amino acids. Several methods for the targeted genetic manipulation of this organism and rational strain improvement have been developed. An efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the completely sequenced type strain ATCC 13032 would significantly advance functional genome analysis in this bacterium. Results A comprehensive transposon mutant library comprising 10,080 independent clones was constructed by electrotransformation of the restriction-deficient derivative of strain ATCC 13032, C. glutamicum RES167, with an IS6100-containing non-replicative plasmid. Transposon mutants had stable cointegrates between the transposon vector and the chromosome. Altogether 172 transposon integration sites have been determined by sequencing of the chromosomal inserts, revealing that each integration occurred at a different locus. Statistical target site analyses revealed an apparent absence of a target site preference. From the library, auxotrophic mutants were obtained with a frequency of 2.9%. By auxanography analyses nearly two thirds of the auxotrophs were further characterized, including mutants with single, double and alternative nutritional requirements. In most cases the nutritional requirement observed could be correlated to the annotation of the mutated gene involved in the biosynthesis of an amino acid, a nucleotide or a vitamin. One notable exception was a clone mutagenized by transposition into the gene cg0910, which exhibited an auxotrophy for histidine. The protein sequence deduced from cg0910 showed high sequence similarities to inositol-1(or 4-monophosphatases (EC 3.1.3.25. Subsequent genetic deletion of cg0910 delivered the same histidine-auxotrophic phenotype. Genetic complementation of the mutants as well as supplementation by histidinol suggests that cg0910 encodes the hitherto unknown

  17. Domesticating Cancer: An Evolutionary Strategy in the War on Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav van Niekerk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since cancer shares the same molecular machinery as the host, most therapeutic interventions that aim to target cancer would inadvertently also adversely affect the host. In addition, cancer continuously evolves, streamlining its host-derived genome for a new single-celled existence. In particular, short-term clinical success observed with most antineoplastic therapies directly relate to the fact that cancer is constantly evolving. However, the clonal evolution of cancer occasionally also render cancer cells uniquely susceptible to therapeutic interventions, as is exemplified by the clinical relevance of synthetic lethality. Synthetic lethality describes a situation where the simultaneous loss of function in two genes results in lethality, but where a loss of function in either single gene is tolerated. This observation suggests that the evolution of cancer, usually seen as a major clinical challenge, may also afford a key opportunity in lowering on-target toxicities accosted with chemotherapy. As an example, by subjecting cancer to specific selection regimes, cancer can in effect be placed on evolutionary trajectories leading to the development of “targetable” phenotypes such as synthetic lethal interactions. However, such a selection regime would have to overcome a range of obstacles such as on-target toxicity and the selection of an evolvable trait. Since the majority of cancer evolution manifests as a loss of function, we suggest that the induction of auxotrophic phenotypes (i.e., where an organism lose the ability to synthesize specific organic compounds required for growth and thus become dependent on it from dietary sources may represent an attractive therapeutic option. As an example, animals can obtain vitamin C either by de novo synthesis or from their diet. However, since the maintenance of synthetic pathways is costly, such pathways are often lost if no longer necessary, resulting in the organism being auxotrophic toward the

  18. A novel method for the biosynthesis of deuterated proteins with selective protonation at the aromatic rings of Phe, Tyr and Trp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, Sundaresan; Nietlispach, Daniel; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Takio, Koji; Laue, Ernest D.; Shibata, Takehiko; Ito, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    A novel biosynthetic strategy is described for the preparation of deuterated proteins containing protons at the ring carbons of Phe, Tyr and Trp, using the aromatic amino acid precursor shikimic acid. Specific protonation at aromatic side chains, with complete deuteration at C α/β positions was achieved in proteins overexpressed in bacteria grown in shikimate-supplemented D 2 O medium. Co-expression of a shikimate transporter in prototrophic bacteria resulted in protonation levels of 62-79%, whereas complete labeling was accomplished using shikimate auxotrophic bacteria. Our labeling protocol permits the measurement of important aromatic side chain derived distance restraints in perdeuterated proteins that could be utilized to enhance the accuracy of NMR structures calculated using low densities of NOEs from methyl selectively protonated samples

  19. Alterations induced in Escherichia Coli cells by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, J.; Schelin, H.R.; Paschuk, S.A.; Denyak, V.; Silva, E.R. da; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Lopes, R.T.; Carlin, N.; Toledo, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    Modifications occurred in Escherichia coli cells exposed to gamma radiation ( 60 Co source) were investigated. The irradiations were done at the LIN-COPPE laboratory of the UFRJ and the analysis at the Biology Department of the UTFPR. The E. coli cells were irradiated with 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 480, 600 e 750 Gy doses. The samples were analyzed with Gram-stain, biochemical tests in EPM, MIO and Lysine Broth, Simmons Cytrate Medium and Rhamnose Broth, antibiogram and isolation of auxotrophic mutants. It was observed that for the received doses the E. coli did not show morphological alterations in the tests. Some E. Coli cells showed to be able to deaminade the L-tryptophan or they changed their sensibility for amoxillin and cephaloonine after the irradiation. The existence of aauxotrophic mutants after irradiation was also verified. (author)

  20. Genetic Interaction Maps in Escherichia coli Reveal Functional Crosstalk among Cell Envelope Biogenesis Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasblom, James; Gagarinova, Alla; Phanse, Sadhna; Graham, Chris; Yousif, Fouad; Ding, Huiming; Xiong, Xuejian; Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Alamgir, Md; Ali, Mehrab; Pogoutse, Oxana; Pe'er, Asaf; Arnold, Roland; Michaut, Magali; Parkinson, John; Golshani, Ashkan; Whitfield, Chris; Wodak, Shoshana J.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Emili, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    As the interface between a microbe and its environment, the bacterial cell envelope has broad biological and clinical significance. While numerous biosynthesis genes and pathways have been identified and studied in isolation, how these intersect functionally to ensure envelope integrity during adaptive responses to environmental challenge remains unclear. To this end, we performed high-density synthetic genetic screens to generate quantitative functional association maps encompassing virtually the entire cell envelope biosynthetic machinery of Escherichia coli under both auxotrophic (rich medium) and prototrophic (minimal medium) culture conditions. The differential patterns of genetic interactions detected among >235,000 digenic mutant combinations tested reveal unexpected condition-specific functional crosstalk and genetic backup mechanisms that ensure stress-resistant envelope assembly and maintenance. These networks also provide insights into the global systems connectivity and dynamic functional reorganization of a universal bacterial structure that is both broadly conserved among eubacteria (including pathogens) and an important target. PMID:22125496

  1. Genetic interaction maps in Escherichia coli reveal functional crosstalk among cell envelope biogenesis pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Babu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As the interface between a microbe and its environment, the bacterial cell envelope has broad biological and clinical significance. While numerous biosynthesis genes and pathways have been identified and studied in isolation, how these intersect functionally to ensure envelope integrity during adaptive responses to environmental challenge remains unclear. To this end, we performed high-density synthetic genetic screens to generate quantitative functional association maps encompassing virtually the entire cell envelope biosynthetic machinery of Escherichia coli under both auxotrophic (rich medium and prototrophic (minimal medium culture conditions. The differential patterns of genetic interactions detected among > 235,000 digenic mutant combinations tested reveal unexpected condition-specific functional crosstalk and genetic backup mechanisms that ensure stress-resistant envelope assembly and maintenance. These networks also provide insights into the global systems connectivity and dynamic functional reorganization of a universal bacterial structure that is both broadly conserved among eubacteria (including pathogens and an important target.

  2. Enhanced sensitivity to the lethal and mutagenic effects of photosensitizing action of chlorpromazine in ethylenediaminetetraacetate-treated Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonei, S.; Todo, T.

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) treatment of Escherichia coli H/r30 (Arg - ) enhanced cell sensitivity to the lethal and mutagenic effects of the photosensitizing action of chlorpromazine (CPZ). The most obvious effect of EDTA on the fluence-survival curve was an elimination of the shoulder. In the absence of EDTA, CPZ plus near-UV radiation did not induce the reversion from arginine-auxotroph to autotroph of E. coli H/r30. However, when EDTA (5 mM)-treated cells were subjected to CPZ plus near-UV radiation, the induced reversion frequency increased with time of irradiation. It is concluded that the enhanced penetration of CPZ into E. coli cells by EDTA facilitates the drug binding to DNA within the cells upon near-UV irradiation and that this is the cause for the enhanced photosensitized lethal and mutagenic effects of CPZ. (author)

  3. Erythrocytic Adenosine Monophosphate as an Alternative Purine Source in Plasmodium falciparum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassera, María B.; Hazleton, Keith Z.; Riegelhaupt, Paul M.; Merino, Emilio F.; Luo, Minkui; Akabas, Myles H.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a purine auxotroph, salvaging purines from erythrocytes for synthesis of RNA and DNA. Hypoxanthine is the key precursor for purine metabolism in Plasmodium. Inhibition of hypoxanthine-forming reactions in both erythrocytes and parasites is lethal to cultured P. falciparum. We observed that high concentrations of adenosine can rescue cultured parasites from purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase blockade but not when erythrocyte adenosine kinase is also inhibited. P. falciparum lacks adenosine kinase but can salvage AMP synthesized in the erythrocyte cytoplasm to provide purines when both human and Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylases and adenosine deaminases are inhibited. Transport studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the P. falciparum nucleoside transporter PfNT1 established that this transporter does not transport AMP. These metabolic patterns establish the existence of a novel nucleoside monophosphate transport pathway in P. falciparum. PMID:18799466

  4. Supporting Aspartate Biosynthesis Is an Essential Function of Respiration in Proliferating Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lucas B; Gui, Dan Y; Hosios, Aaron M; Bush, Lauren N; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2015-07-30

    Mitochondrial respiration is important for cell proliferation; however, the specific metabolic requirements fulfilled by respiration to support proliferation have not been defined. Here, we show that a major role of respiration in proliferating cells is to provide electron acceptors for aspartate synthesis. This finding is consistent with the observation that cells lacking a functional respiratory chain are auxotrophic for pyruvate, which serves as an exogenous electron acceptor. Further, the pyruvate requirement can be fulfilled with an alternative electron acceptor, alpha-ketobutyrate, which provides cells neither carbon nor ATP. Alpha-ketobutyrate restores proliferation when respiration is inhibited, suggesting that an alternative electron acceptor can substitute for respiration to support proliferation. We find that electron acceptors are limiting for producing aspartate, and supplying aspartate enables proliferation of respiration deficient cells in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors. Together, these data argue a major function of respiration in proliferating cells is to support aspartate synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitors of amino acids biosynthesis as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębowska, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Fungal microorganisms, including the human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi, are able to synthesize all proteinogenic amino acids, including nine that are essential for humans. A number of enzymes catalyzing particular steps of human-essential amino acid biosynthesis are fungi specific. Numerous studies have shown that auxotrophic mutants of human pathogenic fungi impaired in biosynthesis of particular amino acids exhibit growth defect or at least reduced virulence under in vivo conditions. Several chemical compounds inhibiting activity of one of these enzymes exhibit good antifungal in vitro activity in minimal growth media, which is not always confirmed under in vivo conditions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on pathways of amino acids biosynthesis in fungi, with a special emphasis put on enzymes catalyzing particular steps of these pathways as potential targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on genetic changes and myco toxin production by fungi isolated from corn grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Sereih, N.A.; Sahab, A.F.; El-Fiki, A.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Three important fungi and the major myco toxins were isolated from different food and feed products. The effect of gamma irradiation on genome structures and its relation to the production of myco toxin were also investigated. The percentage of auxotrophic mutants and its relation to the production of myco toxin, when the strains were treated with gamma irradiation (o.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 kgy), were determined. In general, gamma radiation resulted in high percentage of mutation at 0.4 kgy and the production of mycotoxin decreased greatly or inhibited by 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 kgy due to change in the genetic construction of genes responsible for mycotoxin production

  7. Increase of radiation damage to potassium-ion permeability in E. coli cells with decrease in membrane fluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.

    1980-01-01

    Membrane lipids of an auxotroph of E. coli requiring unsaturated fatty acid were manipulated by supplementing the growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids of different chain lengths and/or configurations, and the radiation damage to K + -permeability of the resulting modified cells was investigated in relation with factors influencing membrane fluidity, such as temperature and procaine. Radiation had greater effects on membranes supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids of the trans configuration with a longer chain than on those of the cis configuration with a shorter chain. Radiation damage also increased with decrease in temperature. Furthermore, procaine-treated membranes showed increased resistance to radiation. All these results indicate that the damage was affected by the physical character of membrane lipids and that it was greater in membranes with decreased fluidity. (author)

  8. Ascospores of large-spored Metschnikowia species are genuine meiotic products of these yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinoni, G.; Piskur, Jure; Lachance, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    continentalis var. continentalis, and M. continentalis var. borealis. Asci were dissected and the segregation patterns for various phenotypes analyzed. In all cases (n = 47) both mating types (h(+) and h(-)) were recovered in pairs of sister spores, casting further uncertainty as to whether normal meiosis takes...... place. However, the segregation patterns for cycloheximide resistance and several auxotrophic markers were random, suggesting that normal meiosis indeed occurs. To explain the lack of second-division segregation of mating types, we concluded that crossing-over does not occur between the mating......-type locus and the centromere, and that meiosis I is tied to spore formation, which explains why the number of spores is limited to two. The latter assumption was also supported by fluorescence microscopy. The second meiotic division takes place inside the spores and is followed by the resorption of two...

  9. Genetic complexity of fusidic acid-resistant small colony variants (SCV in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lannergård

    Full Text Available FusE mutants are fusidic acid-resistant small colony variants (SCVs of Staphylococcus aureus that can be selected with aminoglycosides. All FusE SCVs have mutations in rplF, encoding ribosomal protein L6. However, individual FusE mutants including some with the same mutation in rplF display auxotrophy for either hemin or menadione, suggesting that additional mutations are involved. Here we show that FusE SCVs can be divided into three genetic sub-groups and that some carry an additional mutation, in one of the genes required for hemin biosynthesis, or in one of the genes required for menadione biosynthesis. Reversion analysis and genome sequencing support the hypothesis that these combinations of mutations in the rplF, hem, and/or men genes can account for the SCV and auxotrophic phenotypes of FusE mutants.

  10. Two proline porters in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, M E; Grothe, S; Wood, J M

    1983-11-01

    Escherichia coli mutants defective at putP and putA lack proline transport via proline porter I and proline dehydrogenase activity, respectively. They retain a proline uptake system (proline porter II) that is induced during tryptophan-limited growth and are sensitive to the toxic L-proline analog, 3,4-dehydroproline. 3,4-Dehydroproline-resistant mutants derived from a putP putA mutant lack proline porter II. Auxotrophic derivatives derived from putP+ or putP bacteria can grow if provided with proline at low concentration (25 microM); those derived from the 3,4-dehydroproline-resistant mutants require high proline for growth (2.5 mM). We conclude that E. coli, like Salmonella typhimurium, possesses a second proline porter that is inactivated by mutations at the proP locus.

  11. Efficient Coproduction of Mannanase and Cellulase by the Transformation of a Codon-Optimized Endomannanase Gene from Aspergillus niger into Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianhua; Xue, Xianli; Li, Mengzhu; Gao, Fei; Hao, Zhenzhen; Huang, Huoqing; Luo, Huiying; Qin, Lina; Yao, Bin; Su, Xiaoyun

    2017-12-20

    Cellulase and mannanase are both important enzyme additives in animal feeds. Expressing the two enzymes simultaneously within one microbial host could potentially lead to cost reductions in the feeding of animals. For this purpose, we codon-optimized the Aspergillus niger Man5A gene to the codon-usage bias of Trichoderma reesei. By comparing the free energies and the local structures of the nucleotide sequences, one optimized sequence was finally selected and transformed into the T. reesei pyridine-auxotrophic strain TU-6. The codon-optimized gene was expressed to a higher level than the original one. Further expressing the codon-optimized gene in a mutated T. reesei strain through fed-batch cultivation resulted in coproduction of cellulase and mannanase up to 1376 U·mL -1 and 1204 U·mL -1 , respectively.

  12. Repression of the pyr operon in Lactobacillus plantarum prevents its ability to grow at low carbon dioxide levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoloff, Hervé; Elagöz, Aram; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence

    2005-01-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate is a precursor for both arginine and pyrimidine biosynthesis. In Lactobacillus plantarum, carbamoyl phosphate is synthesized from glutamine, ATP, and carbon dioxide by two sets of identified genes encoding carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS). The expression of the carAB operon...... to the pyr mRNA attenuation site in response to intracellular UMP/phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate pools. Intracellular pyrimidine triphosphate nucleoside pools were lower in mutant FB335 (carAB deletion) harboring only CPS-P than in the wild-type strain harboring both CPS-A and CPS-P. Thus, CPS-P activity...... compared to wild-type levels. Low pyrimidine-independent expression of the pyr operon was obtained by antiterminator site-directed mutagenesis. The resulting AE1023 strain had reduced UTP and CTP pools and had the phenotype of a high-CO2-requiring auxotroph, since it was able to synthesize sufficient...

  13. High-efficiency genome editing and allele replacement in prototrophic and wild strains of Saccharomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William G; Doering, Drew T; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2014-11-01

    Current genome editing techniques available for Saccharomyces yeast species rely on auxotrophic markers, limiting their use in wild and industrial strains and species. Taking advantage of the ancient loss of thymidine kinase in the fungal kingdom, we have developed the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene as a selectable and counterselectable marker that forms the core of novel genome engineering tools called the H: aploid E: ngineering and R: eplacement P: rotocol (HERP) cassettes. Here we show that these cassettes allow a researcher to rapidly generate heterogeneous populations of cells with thousands of independent chromosomal allele replacements using mixed PCR products. We further show that the high efficiency of this approach enables the simultaneous replacement of both alleles in diploid cells. Using these new techniques, many of the most powerful yeast genetic manipulation strategies are now available in wild, industrial, and other prototrophic strains from across the diverse Saccharomyces genus. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Development of new USER-based cloning vectors for multiple genes expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    auxotrophic and dominant markers for convenience of use. Our vector set also contains both integrating and multicopy vectors for stability of protein expression and high expression level. We will make the new vector system available to the yeast community and provide a comprehensive protocol for cloning...... the production strain with the proper phenotype and product yield. However, the sequential number of metabolic engineering is time-consuming. Furthermore, the number of available selectable markers is also limiting the number of genetic modifications. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new set...... of shuttle vectors for convenience of use for high-throughput cloning and selectable marker recycling. The new USER-based cloning vectors consist of a unique USER site and a CRE-loxP-mediated marker recycling system. The USER site allows insertion of genes of interest along with a bidirectional promoter...

  15. Dynamic properties of the Sulfolobus CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems when challenged with vector-borne viral and plasmid genes and protospacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Deng, Ling; Chen, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching...... individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were introduced. Constructs were cloned into vectors carrying pyrE/pyrF genes and transformed into uracil auxotrophic hosts derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 or Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Most constructs, including those carrying different...... protospacer mismatches, yielded few viable transformants. These were shown to carry either partial deletions of CRISPR loci, covering a broad spectrum of sizes and including the matching spacer, or deletions of whole CRISPR/Cas modules. The deletions occurred independently of whether genes or protospacers...

  16. [Expression of the genes for lysine biosynthesis of Bacillus subtilis in Escherichia coli cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, T N; Okunev, O V; Aleksieva, Z M; Maliuta, S S

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid plasmids pLRS33 and pLRB4 containing Bac. subtilis genes coding lysin biosynthesis were subjected to genetical analysis. It is shown that after pLRS33- and pLRB4- transformation of E. coli strains, auxotrophic relative to lysin and diaminopimelic acid, there occurs complementation of dapA, dapB, dapC, dapD, dapE, lysA mutations by plasmid pLRS33 and of dapC, dapB, lysA mutations by plasmid pLRB4. The plasmids are studied for their influence on the level of lysin and its precurror synthesis in E. coli strains.

  17. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J. -H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O' Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  18. Mutation and DNA replication in Escherichia coli treated with low concentrations of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Sanchez, A.; Cerda-Olmedo, E.

    1975-01-01

    N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (nitrosoguanidine) causes an unexpectedly high frequency of closely linked double mutants because of its specificity for chromosome regions in replication. Low nitrosoguanidine concentrations (I μg/ml) in liquid cultures allow replication at the normal rate and are mutagenic. It was expected that mutations would be spread over the chromosome as it replicated, but a high frequency of closely linked double mutants was found. If a thymine auxotroph is grown in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) and nitrosoguanidine and then exposed to 313-nm radiation (which destroys BUdR-substituted DNA), the mutation frequency is much higher among survivors than among non-irradiated cells. It is concluded that nitrosoguanidine inhibits DNA replication in a small fraction of the population and that mutations are induced in that same fraction. Nitrosoguanidine treatment leads to a high frequency of closely linked double mutants under all known conditions

  19. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we...... developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter...... TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...

  20. Method for enzyme synthesis of radioactive thymine 5'-deoxyribonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejedly, Z.; Ekl, J.; Hybs, K.; Kolina, J.; Filip, J.; Votruba, I.; Skoda, J.

    1978-01-01

    The enzyme synthesis is described for thymidine-5'-monophosphate, thymidine-5'-diphosphate and thymidine-5'-triphosphate specifically or nonspecifically labelled with 14 C or 3 H. The anabolic transformation of radioactive thymine to radioactive thymine 5'-deoxyribonucleotides is catalyzed by the action of enzyme preparations separated from Escherichia coli bacteria. It is achieved by the action of nonpurified cell-free extracts on special auxotrophic mutants of the thymine-dependent Escherichia coli SPT - strain in the presence of deoxyriboso-1-phosphate and adenosine-5'-triphosphate. The radioactive thymidine-5'-monophosphate may further be phosphorylated. In reaction mixtures, radioactive thymine, deoxyriboso-1-phosphate and adenosine-5'-triphosphate are used in molar ratios of 1:1:2 to 1:10:100, the optimum molar ratio being 1:5:10. (B.S.)

  1. Comparison of the reversibility of loci pet23 and lys2 after UV irradiation in the standard and UV-sensitive strains of Saccharomyces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, V.; Kovacova, V.

    1984-01-01

    Reversibility of the respiration-deficient locus pet23 and auxotrophic locus lys2 was followed in the standard (RAD1) and UV sensitive (rad1 to 2) strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both after identical doses of UV radiation and at identical survival. By comparison of reversibility after treatment with identical doses of UV radiation a much higher reversibility of both loci in strain rad1 to 2 could be detected. A comparison of reversibility of the loci at identical survival of both strains showed that the reversibility of the pet23 locus is much higher in strain rad1 to 2, whereas reversibility of the lys2 locus is roughly identical in the two strains. Thus, the function of gene RAD1 in repair processes is apparently associated with ''error-free'' repair, both at low and high doses of ultraviolet radiation. (author)

  2. KONSTRUKSI MUTAN PROTEIN FOSFATASE ptc2D Saccharomyces cerevisiae DENGAN METODE PENGGANTIAN GEN TARGET DENGAN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model to studi genes function of eukarotic cells such as study of gene encoding protein phosphatase PTC2. Novel phenotypic caused by mutated gene is an important step to study function of gene. In this study constructed mutant of PTC2 gene encoding protein phosphatase. Method that used in this construction was replacement of target gene (PTC2 with auxotroph marker Candida albicans HIS3 by Polymer Chain Reaction (PCR or called by PCR-mediated disruption. Mutant colonies which grew in selective medium SC without histidine were confirmed by PCR amplification. By using 1% Agarose gel electrophoresis the result showed that size of ptc2D::CgHIS3 transformant was 3.52 kb while wild type strain was 2.9 kb, indicated that ptc2D::CgHIS3 has integrated on chromosome V replacing PTC2 wild type.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis strains applicable to natto (fermented soybean) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yuji; Rooney, Alejandro P; Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Rikio; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-09-01

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 424 strains, including Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting natto. Biotin auxotrophism was tightly linked to natto fermentation. A multilocus nucleotide sequence of six genes (rpoB, purH, gyrA, groEL, polC, and 16S rRNA) was used for phylogenetic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was also conducted on the natto-fermenting strains. The ability to ferment natto was inferred from the two principal components of the AFLP banding pattern, and natto-fermenting strains formed a tight cluster within the B. subtilis subsp. subtilis group.

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Applicable to Natto (Fermented Soybean) Production ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yuji; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Rikio; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-01-01

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 424 strains, including Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting natto. Biotin auxotrophism was tightly linked to natto fermentation. A multilocus nucleotide sequence of six genes (rpoB, purH, gyrA, groEL, polC, and 16S rRNA) was used for phylogenetic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was also conducted on the natto-fermenting strains. The ability to ferment natto was inferred from the two principal components of the AFLP banding pattern, and natto-fermenting strains formed a tight cluster within the B. subtilis subsp. subtilis group. PMID:21764950

  5. Designing symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Kazufumi; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Organisms rarely live as isolated species and usually show symbiosis in nature. As natural selection is not simple in symbiosis, the establishment and development of symbiosis is still unclear. Insight can be gained by not only retracing the history of well-developed natural symbiotic relationships, but also by observing the development of nascent symbiosis. By using synthetic symbiosis composed of two previously noninteracting populations, we can observe the establishment and its development. We have recently simulated the establishment of nascent symbiosis using two genetically engineered auxotrophic strains of Escherichia coli. One strain, 10 h after mixing with the partner strain, began to oversupply metabolites essential for the partner's growth, eventually leading to continual growth of both strains. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the oversupply was accompanied by global metabolic changes. This study demonstrated that an organism has the potential to adapt to the first encounter with another organism to establish symbiosis.

  6. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase, a trans-kingdom enzyme shared by Chlamydia and plants for synthesis of diaminopimelate/lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Andrea J; Adams, Nancy E; Hudson, André O; Gilvarg, Charles; Leustek, Thomas; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2006-11-21

    The synthesis of meso-diaminopimelic acid (m-DAP) in bacteria is essential for both peptidoglycan and lysine biosynthesis. From genome sequencing data, it was unclear how bacteria of the Chlamydiales order would synthesize m-DAP in the absence of dapD, dapC, and dapE, which are missing from the genome. Here, we assessed the biochemical capacity of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 to synthesize m-DAP. Expression of the chlamydial asd, dapB, and dapF genes in the respective Escherichia coli m-DAP auxotrophic mutants restored the mutants to DAP prototrophy. Screening of a C. trachomatis genomic library in an E. coli DeltadapD DAP auxotroph identified ct390 as encoding an enzyme that restored growth to the Escherichia coli mutant. ct390 also was able to complement an E. coli DeltadapD DeltadapE, but not a DeltadapD DeltadapF mutant, providing genetic evidence that it encodes an aminotransferase that may directly convert tetrahydrodipicolinate to L,L-diaminopimelic acid. This hypothesis was supported by in vitro kinetic analysis of the CT390 protein and the fact that similar properties were demonstrated for the Protochlamydia amoebophila homologue, PC0685. In vivo, the C. trachomatis m-DAP synthesis genes are expressed as early as 8 h after infection. An aminotransferase activity analogous to CT390 recently has been characterized in plants and cyanobacteria. This previously undescribed pathway for m-DAP synthesis supports an evolutionary relationship among the chlamydiae, cyanobacteria, and plants and strengthens the argument that chlamydiae synthesize a cell wall despite the inability of efforts to date to detect peptidoglycan in these organisms.

  7. Comparative proteomic analyses reveal that the regulators of G-protein signaling proteins regulate amino acid metabolism of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Ma, Hongyu; Xie, Xin; Ji, Jun; Dong, Yanhan; Du, Yan; Tang, Wei; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2014-11-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae encodes eight regulators of G-protein (GTP-binding protein) signaling (RGS) proteins MoRgs1-MoRgs8 that orchestrate the growth, asexual/sexual production, appressorium differentiation, and pathogenicity. To address the mechanisms by which MoRgs proteins function, we conducted a 2DE proteome study and identified 82 differentially expressed proteins by comparing five ∆Morgs mutants with wild-type Guy11 strain. We found that the abundances of eight amino acid (AA) biosynthesis or degradation associated proteins were markedly altered in five ∆Morgs mutants, indicating one of the main collective roles for the MoRgs proteins is to influence AA metabolism. We showed that MoRgs proteins have distinct roles in AA metabolism and nutrient responses from growth assays. In addition, we characterized MoLys20 (Lys is lysine), a homocitrate synthase, whose abundance was significantly decreased in the ∆Morgs mutants. The ∆Molys20 mutant is auxotrophic for lys and exogenous lys could partially rescue its auxotrophic defects. Deletion of MoLYS20 resulted in defects in conidiation and infection, as well as pathogenicity on rice. Overall, our results indicate that one of the critical roles for MoRgs proteins is to regulate AA metabolism, and that MoLys20 may be directly or indirectly regulated by MoRgs and participated in lys biosynthesis, thereby affecting fungal development and pathogenicity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. D-Alanine-Controlled Transient Intestinal Mono-Colonization with Non-Laboratory-Adapted Commensal E. coli Strain HS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Miguelangel; Pfister, Simona P; Buschor, Stefanie; Bayramova, Firuza; Hernandez, Sara B; Cava, Felipe; Kuru, Erkin; Van Nieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Coelho, Fernanda M; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Soon after birth the mammalian gut microbiota forms a permanent and collectively highly resilient consortium. There is currently no robust method for re-deriving an already microbially colonized individual again-germ-free. We previously developed the in vivo growth-incompetent E. coli K-12 strain HA107 that is auxotrophic for the peptidoglycan components D-alanine (D-Ala) and meso-diaminopimelic acid (Dap) and can be used to transiently associate germ-free animals with live bacteria, without permanent loss of germ-free status. Here we describe the translation of this experimental model from the laboratory-adapted E. coli K-12 prototype to the better gut-adapted commensal strain E. coli HS. In this genetic background it was necessary to complete the D-Ala auxotrophy phenotype by additional knockout of the hypothetical third alanine racemase metC. Cells of the resulting fully auxotrophic strain assembled a peptidoglycan cell wall of normal composition, as long as provided with D-Ala and Dap in the medium, but could not proliferate a single time after D-Ala/Dap removal. Yet, unsupplemented bacteria remained active and were able to complete their cell cycle with fully sustained motility until immediately before autolytic death. Also in vivo, the transiently colonizing bacteria retained their ability to stimulate a live-bacteria-specific intestinal Immunoglobulin (Ig)A response. Full D-Ala auxotrophy enabled rapid recovery to again-germ-free status. E. coli HS has emerged from human studies and genomic analyses as a paradigm of benign intestinal commensal E. coli strains. Its reversibly colonizing derivative may provide a versatile research tool for mucosal bacterial conditioning or compound delivery without permanent colonization.

  9. Efficient formation of heterokaryotic sclerotia in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ryuta; Jin, Feng Jie; Koyama, Yasuji; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Heterokaryon formation by hyphal fusion occurs during a sexual/parasexual cycle in filamentous fungi, and therefore, it is biotechnologically important for crossbreeding. In the industrial filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, a parasexual cycle has been reported, and it was recently suggested that sexual reproduction should be possible. However, as A. oryzae enters into hyphal fusion with a much lower frequency than Neurospora crassa, the process of heterokaryon formation has not been extensively characterized in A. oryzae. Here, we developed a detection system for heterokaryon formation by expressing red or green fluorescent proteins in nuclei and conferring uridine/uracil or adenine auxotrophy to MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 strains of A. oryzae. The heterokaryon formation of A. oryzae was investigated in paired culture using the genetically modified strains. No sclerotial formation was observed in the hyphal contact regions of the two strains with the same auxotrophy, whereas numerous sclerotia were formed between the strains with different auxotrophies. In most of the formed sclerotia, the uridine/uracil and adenine auxotrophies were complemented, and both red and green fluorescence were detected, indicating that heterokaryotic fusants were formed by hyphal fusion before or during sclerotial formation. Moreover, overexpressing the sclR gene, which encodes a transcription factor promoting sclerotial formation, increased the number of heterokaryotic sclerotia formed between the two auxotrophic strains. Notably, these effects in sclerotial formation of heterokaryotic fusants were observed independently of the mating type pairing combinations. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that paring of different auxotrophs and sclR overexpression promote the formation of heterokaryotic sclerotia in A. oryzae.

  10. Engineering Escherichia coli Nicotinic Acid Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase for Fully Active Amidated NAD Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Zhou, Yongjin J; Wang, Lei; Liu, Wujun; Liu, Yuxue; Peng, Chang; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2017-07-01

    NAD and its reduced form NADH function as essential redox cofactors and have major roles in determining cellular metabolic features. NAD can be synthesized through the deamidated and amidated pathways, for which the key reaction involves adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively. In Escherichia coli , NAD de novo biosynthesis depends on the protein NadD-catalyzed adenylylation of NaMN to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD), followed by NAD synthase-catalyzed amidation. In this study, we engineered NadD to favor NMN for improved amidated pathway activity. We designed NadD mutant libraries, screened by a malic enzyme-coupled colorimetric assay, and identified two variants, 11B4 (Y84V/Y118D) and 16D8 (A86W/Y118N), with a high preference for NMN. Whereas in the presence of NMN both variants were capable of enabling the viability of cells of E. coli BW25113-derived NAD-auxotrophic strain YJE003, for which the last step of the deamidated pathway is blocked, the 16D8 expression strain could grow without exogenous NMN and accumulated a higher cellular NAD(H) level than BW25113 in the stationary phase. These mutants established fully active amidated NAD biosynthesis and offered a new opportunity to manipulate NAD metabolism for biocatalysis and metabolic engineering. IMPORTANCE Adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and adenylylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively, are the key steps in the deamidated and amidated pathways for NAD biosynthesis. In most organisms, canonical NAD biosynthesis follows the deamidated pathway. Here we engineered Escherichia coli NaMN adenylyltransferase to favor NMN and expressed the mutant enzyme in an NAD-auxotrophic E. coli strain that has the last step of the deamidated pathway blocked. The engineered strain survived in M9 medium, which indicated the implementation of a functional amidated pathway for NAD biosynthesis. These results enrich

  11. Nicotinamide dependence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli UTI89 and application of nadB as a neutral insertion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoli; Bouckaert, Julie; Deboeck, Francine; De Greve, Henri; Hernalsteens, Jean-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    NAD and NADP are ubiquitous in the metabolism of Escherichia coli K-12. NAD auxotrophy can be rendered by mutation in any of the three genes nadB, nadA and nadC. The nadB and nadA genes were defined as antivirulence loci in Shigella spp., as a mutation (mainly in nadB) disrupting the synthesis of quinolinate is required for virulence. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates from acute cystitis patients, exhibiting nicotinamide auxotrophy, were of serotype O18 : K1 : H7. E. coli UTI89, the model uropathogenic and O18 : K1 : H7 strain, requires nicotinamide or quinolinate for growth. A mutation in the nadB gene, encoding L-aspartate oxidase, was shown to be responsible for the nicotinamide requirement of UTI89. This was further confirmed by complementation of UTI89 with a recombinant plasmid harbouring the nadB gene of E. coli K-12. An Ala28Val point mutant of the recombinant plasmid failed to support the growth of UTI89 in minimal medium. This proves that the Ala28Val mutation in the NadB gene of UTI89 completely impedes de novo synthesis of nicotinamide. In spontaneous prototrophic revertants of UTI89, the nadB gene has a Val28Ala mutation. Both analyses implicate that the nicotinamide auxotrophy of UTI89 is caused by a single Ala28Val mutation in NadB. We showed that the same mutation is also present in other NAD auxotrophic E. coli O18 strains. No significant differences were observed between the virulence of isogenic NAD auxotrophic and prototrophic strains in the murine ascending urinary tract infection model. Considering these data, we applied the nadB locus as a neutral site for DNA insertions in the bacterial chromosome. We successfully restored the parental phenotype of a fimH mutant by inserting fimH, with a synthetic em7 promoter, into the nadB gene. This neutral insertion site is of significance for further research on the pathogenicity of UPEC.

  12. Evaluation of perfluorooctanoate for potential genotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Butenhoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA is a fully fluorinated eight-carbon fatty acid analog with exceptional stability toward degradation that has been used as an industrial surfactant and has been detected in environmental and biological matrices. Exposures to PFOA in the workplace and in the environment have continuously stimulated investigations into its potential human health hazards. In this article, the results of fifteen unpublished genotoxicity assays conducted with perfluorooctanoate (as either the linear or linear/branched ammonium salt (APFO or the linear/branched sodium salt are reported and include: seven mutation assays (three in vitro reverse mutation assays with histidine auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium, two in vitro reverse mutation assays with the tryptophan auxotrophic Escherichia coli WP2uvr strain, one in vitro mitotic recombination (gene conversion assay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4, and an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO HGPRT forward mutation assay; seven studies to assess potential for chromosomal damage (three in vitro CHO chromosomal aberration studies, an in vitro human whole blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration study, and three in vivo mouse micronucleus assays; and an in vitro C3H 10T1/2 cell transformation assay. Although PFOA has not been demonstrated to be metabolized, all in vitro assays were conducted both in the presence and in the absence of a mammalian hepatic microsomal activation system. These assays were originally described in twelve contract laboratory reports which have been available via the United States Environmental Protection Agency public docket (Administrative Record 226 for over a decade; however, the details of these assays have not been published previously in the open scientific literature. With the exception of limited positive findings at high and cytotoxic concentrations in some assay trials which reflected the likely consequence of cytotoxic disruption of normal cellular

  13. Construction of a self-cloning system in the unicellular green alga Pseudochoricystis ellipsoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Yuki; Oshima, Kohei; Ikeda, Fukiko; Abe, Jun; Yoshimitsu, Yuya; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have received considerable interest as a source of biofuel production. The unicellular green alga Pseudochoricystis ellipsoidea (non-validated scientific name) strain Obi appears to be suitable for large-scale cultivation in outdoor open ponds for biodiesel production because it accumulates lipids to more than 30 % of dry cell weight under nitrogen-depleted conditions. It also grows rapidly under acidic conditions at which most protozoan grazers of microalgae may not be tolerant. The lipid productivity of this alga could be improved using genetic engineering techniques; however, genetically modified organisms are the subject of regulation by specific laws. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a self-cloning-based positive selection system for the breeding of P. ellipsoidea. In this study, uracil auxotrophic mutants were isolated after the mutagenesis of P. ellipsoidea using either ultraviolet light or a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system. The cDNA of the uridine monophosphate synthase gene (PeUMPS) of P. ellipsoidea was cloned downstream of the promoter of either a beta-tubulin gene (PeTUBULIN1) or the gene for the small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (PeRBCS) to construct the pUT1 or pUT2 plasmid, respectively. These constructs were introduced into uracil auxotroph strains, and genetically complementary transformants were isolated successfully on minimal agar plates. Use of Noble agar as the solidifying agent was essential to avoid the development of false-positive colonies. It took more than 6 weeks for the formation of colonies of pUT1 transformants, whereas pUT2 transformants formed colonies in 2 weeks. Real-time PCR revealed that there were more PeUMPS transcripts in pUT2 transformants than in pUT1 transformants. Uracil synthesis (Ura(+)) transformants were also obtained using a gene cassette consisting solely of PeUMPS flanked by the PeRBCS promoter and terminator. A self

  14. Survival and mutant production induced by mutagenic agents in Metarhizium anisopliae Sobrevivência e obtenção de mutantes induzidos por agentes mutagênicos em Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kava - Cordeiro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus, was submitted to three mutagenic agents: gamma radiation, ultraviolet light and nitrous acid. Survival curves were obtained and mutants were selected using different mutagenic doses which gave 1 to 5% survival. Morphological and auxotrophic mutants were isolated. Morphological mutants were grouped in a class with yellow conidia and other with pale vinaceous conidia as opposed to the green wild type conidia. Auxotrophic mutants had requirements for vitamin and aminoacid biosynthesis. More than 58% of the total auxotrophk mutants required proline/aipnine. Gamma radiation showed to be the most efficient mutagenic agent giving 0.2% of auxotrophk mutants followed by ultraviolet light (0.12% and nitrous acid (0.06%.The conidial colour and auxotrophk mutants isolated until now from M. anisopliae were reviewed.Uma linhagem selvagem do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae foi submetida à ação de três agentes mutagênicos: radiação gama, luz ultravioleta e ácido nitroso. Curvas de sobrevivência foram obtidas para cada mutagênicos utilizado e mutantes foram selecionados a partir de doses dos mutagênicos que proporcionassem de 1 a 5% de sobrevivência. Mutantes morfológicos para a coloração de conídios e mutantes auxotróficos foram isolados. Mutantes para coloração de conidios foram agrupados em duas classes, uma com conídios amarelos e outra com conídios vinho pálido. Os mutantes auxotróficos obtidos foram deficientes para aminoácidos e vitaminas e mais de 58% deles eram auxotróficos para prolina/argmina. Radiação gama foi o mutagênico mais eficiente com uma porcentagem de obtenção de mulantes auxotróficos de aproximadamente 0,2%, seguido pela luz ultravioleta (0.12% e pelo ácido nitroso (0.06%.Os mulantes morfológicos e auxotróficos obtidos até o momento em Metarhizium anisopliae foram revistos.

  15. Characterization of the gene encoding serine acetyltransferase, a regulated enzyme of cysteine biosynthesis from the protist parasites Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Regulation and possible function of the cysteine biosynthetic pathway in Entamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, T; Asai, T; Sanchez, L B; Kobayashi, S; Nakazawa, M; Takeuchi, T

    1999-11-05

    The enteric protist parasites Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar possess a cysteine biosynthetic pathway, unlike their mammalian host, and are capable of de novo production of L-cysteine. We cloned and characterized cDNAs that encode the regulated enzyme serine acetyltransferase (SAT) in this pathway from these amoebae by genetic complementation of a cysteine-auxotrophic Escherichia coli strain with the amoebic cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequences of the amoebic SATs exhibited, within the most conserved region, 36-52% identities with the bacterial and plant SATs. The amoebic SATs contain a unique insertion of eight amino acids, also found in the corresponding region of a plasmid-encoded SAT from Synechococcus sp., which showed the highest overall identities to the amoebic SATs. Phylogenetic reconstruction also revealed a close kinship of the amoebic SATs with cyanobacterial SATs. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant E. histolytica SAT revealed several enzymatic features that distinguished the amoebic enzyme from the bacterial and plant enzymes: 1) inhibition by L-cysteine in a competitive manner with L-serine; 2) inhibition by L-cystine; and 3) no association with cysteine synthase. Genetically engineered amoeba strains that overproduced cysteine synthase and SAT were created. The cysteine synthase-overproducing amoebae had a higher level of cysteine synthase activity and total thiol content and revealed increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that the cysteine biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in antioxidative defense of these enteric parasites.

  16. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nDiet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01 Apoptosis was induced suitably after 48 hours by flow cytometry assay. In Ames test apigenin prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of apigenin was 98.17%.These results have revealed apigenin induced apoptosis in human lymphoma B cells in vitro.

  17. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P

  18. Cloning of the PYR3 gene of Ustilago maydis and its use in DNA transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, G.R.; Taylor, S.Y. (National Institute for Medical Research, London (England))

    1988-12-01

    The Ustilago maydis PYR3 gene encoding dihydroorotase activity was cloned by direct complementation of Escherichia coli pyrC mutations. PYR3 transformants of E. coli pyrC mutants expressed homologous transcripts of a variety of sizes and regained dihydroorotase activity. PYR3 also complemented Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura4 mutations, and again multiple transcripts were expressed in transformants, and enzyme activity was regained. A 1.25-kilobase poly(rA)+ PYR3 transcript was detected in U. maydis itself. Linear DNA carrying the PYR3 gene transformed a U. maydis pyr3-1 pyrimidine auxotroph to prototrophy. Hybridization analysis revealed that three different types of transformants could be generated, depending on the structure of the transforming DNA used. The first type involved exchange of chromosomal mutant gene sequences with the cloned wild-type plasmid sequences. A second type had integrated linear transforming DNA at the chromosomal PYR3 locus, probably via a single crossover event. The third type had integrated transforming DNA sequences at multiple sites in the U. maydis genome. In the last two types, tandemly reiterated copies of the transforming DNA were found to have been integrated. All three types had lost the sensitivity of the parental pyr3-1 mutant to UV irradiation. They had also regained dihydroorotase activity, although its level did not correlate with the PYR3 gene copy number.

  19. Aspects of DNA repair and nucleotide pool imbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence that optimum repair depends on adequate pools of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) comes from the study of pyrimidine auxotrophs of Ustilago maydis. These strains are sensitive to UV light and X-rays, and for pyr1-1 it has been shown that the intracellular concentration of dTTP is reduced about 7-fold. The survival curve of pyr1-1 after UV-treatment, and split dose experiments with wild-type cells, provide evidence for an inducible repair mechanism, which probably depends on genetic recombination. Although inducible repair saves cellular resources, it has the disadvantage of becoming ineffective at doses which are high enough to inactivate the repressed structural gene(s) for repair enzymes. It is clear that a wide variety of repair mechanisms have evolved to remove lesions which arise either spontaneously or as a result of damage from external agents. Nevertheless, it would be incorrect to assume that all species require all possible pathways of repair. It is now well established that the accuracy of DNA and protein synthesis depends on proof-reading or editing mechanisms. Optimum accuracy levels will evolve from the balance between error avoidance in macromolecular synthesis and physiological efficiency in growth and propagation.

  20. Computational design of auxotrophy-dependent microbial biosensors for combinatorial metabolic engineering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naama; Shlomi, Tomer

    2011-01-21

    Combinatorial approaches in metabolic engineering work by generating genetic diversity in a microbial population followed by screening for strains with improved phenotypes. One of the most common goals in this field is the generation of a high rate chemical producing strain. A major hurdle with this approach is that many chemicals do not have easy to recognize attributes, making their screening expensive and time consuming. To address this problem, it was previously suggested to use microbial biosensors to facilitate the detection and quantification of chemicals of interest. Here, we present novel computational methods to: (i) rationally design microbial biosensors for chemicals of interest based on substrate auxotrophy that would enable their high-throughput screening; (ii) predict engineering strategies for coupling the synthesis of a chemical of interest with the production of a proxy metabolite for which high-throughput screening is possible via a designed bio-sensor. The biosensor design method is validated based on known genetic modifications in an array of E. coli strains auxotrophic to various amino-acids. Predicted chemical production rates achievable via the biosensor-based approach are shown to potentially improve upon those predicted by current rational strain design approaches. (A Matlab implementation of the biosensor design method is available via http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/~tomersh/tools).

  1. Hamiltonella defensa, genome evolution of protective bacterial endosymbiont from pathogenic ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Patrick H; Yu, Yeisoo; Sisneros, Nicholas; Wing, Rod A; Moran, Nancy A

    2009-06-02

    Eukaryotes engage in a multitude of beneficial and deleterious interactions with bacteria. Hamiltonella defensa, an endosymbiont of aphids and other sap-feeding insects, protects its aphid host from attack by parasitoid wasps. Thus H. defensa is only conditionally beneficial to hosts, unlike ancient nutritional symbionts, such as Buchnera, that are obligate. Similar to pathogenic bacteria, H. defensa is able to invade naive hosts and circumvent host immune responses. We have sequenced the genome of H. defensa to identify possible mechanisms that underlie its persistence in healthy aphids and protection from parasitoids. The 2.1-Mb genome has undergone significant reduction in size relative to its closest free-living relatives, which include Yersinia and Serratia species (4.6-5.4 Mb). Auxotrophic for 8 of the 10 essential amino acids, H. defensa is reliant upon the essential amino acids produced by Buchnera. Despite these losses, the H. defensa genome retains more genes and pathways for a variety of cell structures and processes than do obligate symbionts, such as Buchnera. Furthermore, putative pathogenicity loci, encoding type-3 secretion systems, and toxin homologs, which are absent in obligate symbionts, are abundant in the H. defensa genome, as are regulatory genes that likely control the timing of their expression. The genome is also littered with mobile DNA, including phage-derived genes, plasmids, and insertion-sequence elements, highlighting its dynamic nature and the continued role horizontal gene transfer plays in shaping it.

  2. Restoration in non nutrient medium: relative importance of some separation genetic markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, R.J.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to check whether the increase of celular viability observed in cultures of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, irradiated with ultraviolet and incubated in non nutrient medium, would be due to cell multiplication, and/or repair we applied a Statistical Fluctuation Test, based on Poisson Distribution. Utilizing macromolecules in strains that show true liquid holding recovery (LHR) or cell multiplication. Our results show that cell multiplication and not repair occurs in non nutrient medium for E.coli AB2470 (rrecB21), E.coli JG112 (polA1) an in the ΔuvrB mutant of S.typhimurium. In E.coli JG112, the multiplication rate is higher when thymine is added to the non nutrient medium, due to the auxotrophism of this strain. In E.coli lexB30 mutant, we observed repair in non nutrient medium (LHR) and cell multiplication, while in E.coli lexA1 mutant only LHR was observed. Studies of macromolecules degradation indicate that the final products are, probably reutilized by the cells, creating possibility of multiplication and/or repair. (author)

  3. Enzyme organization in the proline biosynthetic pathway of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamper, H; Moses, V

    1974-01-01

    The conversion of glutamic acid to proline by an Escherichia coli extract was studied. The activity was dependent upon the presence of ATP and NADPH and was largely unaffected by the presence of NH/sub 3/ or imidazole. The first two pathway enzymes appear to exist as a complex which stabilizes a labile intermediate postulated as ..gamma..-glutamyl phosphate. Attempted synthesis of this compound was unsuccessful due to its spontaneous cyclization to 2-pyrrolidone 5-carboxylate. Dissociation of the enzyme complex upon dilution of the extract is presumed responsible for an experimentally observed dilution effect. E. coli pro/sub A//sup -/ and pro/sub B//sup -/ auxotroph extracts failed to complement one another in the biosynthesis of proline. This is attributed to the lack of a dynamic equilibrium between the complex and its constituent enzymes. In vivo studies with E. coli showed no evidence for metabolic channeling in the final reaction of proline synthesis, the reduction of ..delta../sup 1/-pyrroline 5-carboxylate.

  4. aroA-Deficient Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Is More Than a Metabolically Attenuated Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Michael; Kocijancic, Dino; Rohde, Manfred; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Bueno, Emilio; Cava, Felipe; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Curtiss, Roy; Häussler, Susanne; Erhardt, Marc; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are believed to act as powerful live vaccine carriers that are able to elicit protection against various pathogens. Auxotrophic mutations, such as a deletion of aroA, are commonly introduced into such bacteria for attenuation without incapacitating immunostimulation. In this study, we describe the surprising finding that deletion of aroA dramatically increased the virulence of attenuated Salmonella in mouse models. Mutant bacteria lacking aroA elicited increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after systemic application. A detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization in combination with transcriptomic and metabolic profiling demonstrated that ΔaroA mutants display pleiotropic alterations in cellular physiology and lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as increased sensitivity to penicillin, complement, and phagocytic uptake. In concert with other immunomodulating mutations, deletion of aroA affected flagellin phase variation and gene expression of the virulence-associated genes arnT and ansB. Finally, ΔaroA strains displayed significantly improved tumor therapeutic activity. These results highlight the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to control homeostatic bacterial physiology. They further highlight the great potential of ΔaroA-attenuated Salmonella for the development of vaccines and cancer therapies with important implications for host-pathogen interactions and translational medicine. PMID:27601574

  5. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Ames tester strains of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mutation and killing induced by X radiation and 60 Co γ radiation were studied in six different histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium. Strain TA100, which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions, and strains TA2637 and TA98, which are sensitive to frameshifts, carry the pKM101 plasmid and exhibit significantly higher radiation-induced mutations compared to their plasmidless parent strains TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538, respectively. Among the plasmid-containing strains, TA98 and TA2637 are much more sensitive to the mutagenic action of radiation than is TA100 based on a comparison with their respective spontaneous mutation rates; however, no uniformity was observed in the responses of the strains to the lethal action of ionizing radiation. The following conclusions are consistent with these observations: (1) the standard Ames Salmonella assay correctly identifies ionizing radiation as a mutagenic agent; (2) frameshift-sensitive parent strains are more sensitive to the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation than is the only strain studied that is sensitive to base-pair substitutions; and (3) enhancement of mutagenesis and survival is related to plasmid-mediated repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation and does not involve damage induced by Cerenkov-generated uv radiation which is negligible for our irradiation conditions

  6. Estimation of γ irradiation induced genetic damage by Ames test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Eiko

    1999-01-01

    Mutation by 60 Co γ irradiation was studied in five different histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium. The strains TA98 (sensitive to frameshift) and TA100 (sensitive to base-pair substitution) were irradiated (10-84 Gy and 45-317 Gy, respectively) and revertants were counted. TA98 exhibited radiation-induced revertants, 2.8 fold of spontaneous revertants, although no significant increase was detected in TA100. Then, three other frameshift-sensitive strains TA1537, TA1538 and TA94 were irradiated in a dose of 61-167 Gy. Only in TA94, revertants increased 3.5 fold. Since spontaneous revertants are known to be independent of cell density, a decrease of bacterial number by γ irradiation was confirmed not to affect the induced revertants by dilution test. Thus the standard Ames Salmonella assay identified γ irradiation was confirmed not to affect the induced revertants by dilution test. Thus the standard Ames Salmonella assay identified γ irradiation as a mutagenetic agent. The mutagenicity of dinitropyrene, a mutagen widely existing in food, and dismutagenicity of boiling water insoluble fraction of Hizikia fusiforme, edible marine alga, were tested on γ induced revertant formation in TA98 and TA94. Dinitropyrene synergistically increased γ induced revertants and Hizikia insoluble fraction reduced the synergistic effect of dinitropyrene dependently on the concentration. (author)

  7. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  8. The Leishmania nicotinamidase is essential for NAD+ production and parasite proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazanion, E; Garcia, D; Silvestre, R; Gérard, C; Guichou, J F; Labesse, G; Seveno, M; Cordeiro-Da-Silva, A; Ouaissi, A; Sereno, D; Vergnes, B

    2011-10-01

    NAD+ is a central cofactor that plays important roles in cellular metabolism and energy production in all living cells. Genomics-based reconstruction of NAD+ metabolism revealed that Leishmania protozoan parasites are NAD+ auxotrophs. Consequently, these parasites require assimilating NAD+ precursors (nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside) from their host environment to synthesize NAD+ by a salvage pathway. Nicotinamidase is a key enzyme of this salvage pathway that catalyses conversion of nicotinamide (NAm) to nicotinic acid (Na), and that is absent in higher eukaryotes. We present here the biochemical and functional characterizations of the Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase (LiPNC1). Generation of Lipnc1 null mutants leads to a decrease in NAD+ content, associated with a metabolic shutdown-like phenotype with an extensive lag phase of growth. Both phenotypes could be rescued by an add-back construct or by addition of exogenous Na. In addition, Lipnc1 null mutants were unable to establish a sustained infection in a murine experimental model. Altogether, these results illustrate that NAD+ homeostasis is a fundamental component of Leishmania biology and virulence, and that NAm constitutes its main NAD+ source in the mammalian host. The crystal structure of LiPNC1 we solved allows now the design of rational inhibitors against this new promising therapeutic target. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Genotoxicity investigation of araticum(Annona crassiflora Mart., 1841, Annonaceae using SOS-Inductest and Ames test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB. Vilar

    Full Text Available Although the use of medicinal plants or natural products has increased in recent decades all over the world, little information is available on their potential risk to health. Annona crassiflora Mart., a plant commonly known as araticum in Brazil, has been widely used in folk medicine for a long time since its seeds and leaves are often utilised in the treatment of cancer, snake bites, and venereal diseases, its fruits are consumed as tonic and astringent, and its bark powder has anti-fungal and anti-rheumatic properties. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic properties induced by the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves, we performed the prophage λ induction (Inductest and bacterial mutagenicity assays. We used Escherichia coli WP2s(λ and RJF013 strains in the lysogenic induction test, whereas the mutagenic studies were carried out using Salmonella typhimurium histidine auxotroph strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Each experiment was performed three times in duplicate and included positive and negative controls. No statistically significant (p > 0.05 positive results were obtained for any of the strains tested, which suggests that the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves did not exhibit direct mechanisms of genotoxicity or mutagenicity that could be detected by the tests used in the present work.

  10. Characterization of dapB, a gene required by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci BR2.024 for lysine and tabtoxinine-beta-lactam biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Shaw, P D

    1997-01-01

    The dapB gene, which encodes L-2,3-dihydrodipicolinate reductase, the second enzyme of the lysine branch of the aspartic amino acid family, was cloned and sequenced from a tabtoxin-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci BR2.024. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 60 to 90% identity to known dapB gene products from gram-negative bacteria and 19 to 21% identity to the dapB products from gram-positive bacteria. The consensus sequence for the NAD(P)H binding site [(V/I)(A/G)(V/I)XGXXGXXG)] and the proposed substrate binding site (HHRHK) were conserved in the polypeptide. A BR2.024 dapB mutant is a diaminopimelate auxotroph and tabtoxin negative. The addition of a mixture of L-,L-, D,D-, and meso-diaminopimelate to defined media restored growth but not tabtoxin production. Cloned DNA fragments containing the parental dapB gene restored the ability to grow in defined media and tabtoxin production to the dapB mutant. These results indicate that the dapB gene is required for both lysine and tabtoxin biosynthesis, thus providing the first genetic evidence that the biosynthesis of tabtoxin proceeds in part along the lysine biosynthetic pathway. These data also suggest that L-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate is a common intermediate for both lysine and tabtoxin biosynthesis. PMID:8990304

  11. An amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acid analogs into proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Blom, Amrita; Hughes, Randall A; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-05-20

    Residue-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins is usually performed in vivo using amino acid auxotrophic strains and replacing the natural amino acid with an unnatural amino acid analog. Herein, we present an efficient amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system that can be used to study residue-specific replacement of a natural amino acid by an unnatural amino acid analog. This system combines a simple methodology and high protein expression titers with a high-efficiency analog substitution into a target protein. To demonstrate the productivity and efficacy of a cell-free synthesis system for residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids in vitro, we use this system to show that 5-fluorotryptophan and 6-fluorotryptophan substituted streptavidin retain the ability to bind biotin despite protein-wide replacement of a natural amino acid for the amino acid analog. We envisage this amino acid depleted cell-free synthesis system being an economical and convenient format for the high-throughput screening of a myriad of amino acid analogs with a variety of protein targets for the study and functional characterization of proteins substituted with unnatural amino acids when compared to the currently employed in vivo methodologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Localized hydroxylamine mutagenesis, and cotransduction of threonine and lysine genes, in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttard, C

    1983-01-01

    A lysate of the generalized transducing phage SV1, grown on the prototrophic type strain 10712 of Streptomyces venezuelae, was mutagenized with hydroxylamine and used to transduce a lysineless auxotroph to lysine independence on supplemented minimal agar. A complex threonine mutant, strain VS95, was isolated from among the transductants and was shown to be carrying at least two different thr mutations. These were about 50% cotransducible with alleles of four independently isolated lysA mutations, as were two other independently isolated threonine mutations, thr-1 and hom-5. The location of thr genes close to lysA occurs in at least three other streptomycetes, but apparently not in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), in which the lysA and thr loci are at diametrically opposite locations on the linkage map. This first observation of cotransduction between loci governing the biosynthesis of different amino acids in the genus Streptomyces demonstrates the feasibility of fine-structure genetic analysis by transduction in these antibiotic-producing bacteria. PMID:6411685

  13. Starvation, Together with the SOS Response, Mediates High Biofilm-Specific Tolerance to the Fluoroquinolone Ofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Steve P.; Lebeaux, David; DeFrancesco, Alicia S.; Valomon, Amandine; Soubigou, Guillaume; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    High levels of antibiotic tolerance are a hallmark of bacterial biofilms. In contrast to well-characterized inherited antibiotic resistance, molecular mechanisms leading to reversible and transient antibiotic tolerance displayed by biofilm bacteria are still poorly understood. The physiological heterogeneity of biofilms influences the formation of transient specialized subpopulations that may be more tolerant to antibiotics. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis to identify biofilm-specific tolerant mutants normally exhibited by subpopulations located in specialized niches of heterogeneous biofilms. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we demonstrated, through identification of amino acid auxotroph mutants, that starved biofilms exhibited significantly greater tolerance towards fluoroquinolone ofloxacin than their planktonic counterparts. We demonstrated that the biofilm-associated tolerance to ofloxacin was fully dependent on a functional SOS response upon starvation to both amino acids and carbon source and partially dependent on the stringent response upon leucine starvation. However, the biofilm-specific ofloxacin increased tolerance did not involve any of the SOS-induced toxin–antitoxin systems previously associated with formation of highly tolerant persisters. We further demonstrated that ofloxacin tolerance was induced as a function of biofilm age, which was dependent on the SOS response. Our results therefore show that the SOS stress response induced in heterogeneous and nutrient-deprived biofilm microenvironments is a molecular mechanism leading to biofilm-specific high tolerance to the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin. PMID:23300476

  14. Generation of comprehensive transposon insertion mutant library for the model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, and its use for gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljunen, Saija; Pajunen, Maria I; Dilks, Kieran; Storf, Stefanie; Pohlschroder, Mechthild; Savilahti, Harri

    2014-12-09

    Archaea share fundamental properties with bacteria and eukaryotes. Yet, they also possess unique attributes, which largely remain poorly characterized. Haloferax volcanii is an aerobic, moderately halophilic archaeon that can be grown in defined media. It serves as an excellent archaeal model organism to study the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and cellular responses to changes in the environment. Studies on haloarchaea have been impeded by the lack of efficient genetic screens that would facilitate the identification of protein functions and respective metabolic pathways. Here, we devised an insertion mutagenesis strategy that combined Mu in vitro DNA transposition and homologous-recombination-based gene targeting in H. volcanii. We generated an insertion mutant library, in which the clones contained a single genomic insertion. From the library, we isolated pigmentation-defective and auxotrophic mutants, and the respective insertions pinpointed a number of genes previously known to be involved in carotenoid and amino acid biosynthesis pathways, thus validating the performance of the methodologies used. We also identified mutants that had a transposon insertion in a gene encoding a protein of unknown or putative function, demonstrating that novel roles for non-annotated genes could be assigned. We have generated, for the first time, a random genomic insertion mutant library for a halophilic archaeon and used it for efficient gene discovery. The library will facilitate the identification of non-essential genes behind any specific biochemical pathway. It represents a significant step towards achieving a more complete understanding of the unique characteristics of halophilic archaea.

  15. Methylophaga natronica sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic, restricted-facultatively methylotrophic bacterium from soda lake of the Southern Transbaikal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina; Darmaeva, Tsyregma; Trotsenko, Yuri

    2003-09-01

    A new, moderately haloalkaliphilic and restricted-facultatively methylotrophic bacterium (strain Bur2T) with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of carbon assimilation is described. The isolate, which utilizes methanol, methylamine and fructose, is an aerobic, Gram-negative, asporogenous, motile short rod multiplying by binary fission. It is auxotrophic for vitamin B12, and requires NaHCO3 or NaCl for growth in alkaline medium. Cellular fatty acids profile consists primarily of straight-chain saturated C16:0, unsaturated C16:1 and C18:1 acids. The major ubiquinone is Q-8. The dominant phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Diphosphatidylglycerol is also present. Optimal growth conditions are 25-29 degrees C, pH 8.5-9.0 and 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. Cells accumulate ectoine and glutamate as the main osmoprotectants. The G + C content of the DNA is 45.0 mol%. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness (25-35%) with type strains of marine and soda lake methylobacteria belonging to the genus Methylophaga, the novel isolate was classified as a new species of this genus and named Methylophaga natronica (VKM B-2288T).

  16. Elucidation of roles for vitamin B 12 in regulation of folate, ubiquinone, and methionine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, Margaret F.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Maezato, Yukari; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Rodionova, Irina A.; Carre, Alexandre; Li, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengdong; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2017-01-30

    Only a small fraction of vitamin B12-requiring organisms are able to synthesize B12 de novo, making it a common commodity in microbial communities. Initially recognized as an enzyme cofactor of a few enzymes, recent studies have revealed additional B12-binding enzymes and regulatory roles for B12. Here we report the development and use of a B12-based chemical probe to identify B12-binding proteins in a nonphototrophic B12-producing bacterium. Two unexpected discoveries resulted from this study. First, we identified a new light-sensing B12-binding transcriptional regulator and demonstrated that it controls folate and ubiquinone biosynthesis. Second, our probe captured proteins involved in folate, methionine, and ubiquinone metabolism suggesting that it may play a role as an allosteric effector of these processes. These metabolic processes produce precursors for synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Thereby, B12 modulates growth, and by limiting its availability to auxotrophs, B12-producing organisms may facilitate coordination of community metabolism.

  17. Near-ultraviolet radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane effects in Escherichia coli and human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, J.

    1987-01-01

    The first part of this thesis examines the response of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph, Escherichia coli K1060 to broad-band near-UV radiation. Sensitivity, lipid peroxidation and leakage of rubidium from irradiated cells were found to increase with increasing unsaturation of membrane fatty acids. The involvement of singlet oxygen was implicated by an increase in sensitivity, lipid peroxidation and leakage of rubidium following irradiation in deuterium oxide. Some factors influencing survival following irradiation were investigated, where lower growth rates were shown to enhance survival. In the second part, the study was extended to human fibroblasts where a normal human skin fibroblast strain, GM730 and a strain derived from an actinic reticuloid patient, AR6LO, are compared. Lipid peroxidation was measured in both cell lines following broad-band near-UV irradiation. Membrane activity, as assessed by the pinocytic uptake of 14 C-sucrose and its subsequent release from the cell, was measured. Near-UV irradiation was found to increase such activity in both strains. Vitamin E and Trolox-C were found to decrease this response in AR6LO but not GM730 cells. The final part consists of preliminary investigations into the near-UV induced peroxidation of fatty acids and liposomes, and the subsequent increase in the level of hydroperoxides in the hours following irradiation. (author)

  18. High-level ethanol production from starch by a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain displaying cell-surface glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, A.; Shigechi, H.; Abe, M.; Uyama, K. [Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Matsumoto, T.; Fukuda, H. [Div. of Molecular Science, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Ueda, M.; Tanaka, A. [Dept. of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto Univ., Sakyoku, Kyoto (Japan); Kishimoto, M. [Dept. of Biotechnology, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    A Strain of host yeast YF207, which is a tryptophan auxotroph and shows strong flocculation ability, was obtained from Saccharomyces diastaticus ATCC60712 and S. cerevisiae W303-1B by tetrad analysis. The plasmid pGA11, which is a multicopy plasmid for cell-surface expression of the Rhyzopus oryzae glucoamylase/{alpha}-agglutinin fusion protein, was then introduced into this flocculent yeast strain (YF207/pGA11). Yeast YF207/pGA11 grew rapidly under aerobic condition (dissolved oxygen 2.0 ppm), using soluble starch. The harvested cells were used for batch fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol under anaerobic condition and showed high ethanol production rates (0.71 g h{sup -1} I{sup -1}) without a time lag, because glucoamylase was immobilized on the yeast cell surface. During repeated utilization of cells for fermentation, YF207/pGA11 maintained high ethanol production rates over 300 h. Moreover, in fed-batch fermentation with YF207/pGA11 for approximately 120 h, the ethanol concentration reached up to 50 g I{sup -1}. In conclusion, flocculent yeast cells displaying cell-surface glucoamylase are considered to be very effective for the direct fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol. (orig.)

  19. Different polyamine pathways from bacteria have replaced eukaryotic spermidine biosynthesis in ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetaurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kim, Sok Ho; Zhang, Yang; Hanfrey, Colin C; Elliott, Katherine A; Ealick, Steven E; Michael, Anthony J

    2015-09-01

    The polyamine spermidine is absolutely required for growth and cell proliferation in eukaryotes, due to its role in post-translational modification of essential translation elongation factor eIF5A, mediated by deoxyhypusine synthase. We have found that free-living ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium lost the eukaryotic genes encoding spermidine biosynthesis: S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn). In Tetrahymena, they were replaced by a gene encoding a fusion protein of bacterial AdoMetDC and SpdSyn, present as three copies. In Paramecium, a bacterial homospermidine synthase replaced the eukaryotic genes. Individual AdoMetDC-SpdSyn fusion protein paralogues from Tetrahymena exhibit undetectable AdoMetDC activity; however, when two paralogous fusion proteins are mixed, AdoMetDC activity is restored and spermidine is synthesized. Structural modelling indicates a functional active site is reconstituted by sharing critical residues from two defective protomers across the heteromer interface. Paramecium was found to accumulate homospermidine, suggesting it replaces spermidine for growth. To test this concept, a budding yeast spermidine auxotrophic strain was found to grow almost normally with homospermidine instead of spermidine. Biosynthesis of spermidine analogue aminopropylcadaverine, but not exogenously provided norspermidine, correlated with some growth. Finally, we found that diverse single-celled eukaryotic parasites and multicellular metazoan Schistosoma worms have lost the spermidine biosynthetic pathway but retain deoxyhypusine synthase. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. When the 75 Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  1. Enhancement of stability of L-tryptophan dehydrogenase from Nostoc punctiforme ATCC29133 and its application to L-tryptophan assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Daisuke; Okazaki, Seiji; Matsuda, Motoki; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2015-02-20

    Microbial NAD(+)-dependent L-tryptophan dehydrogenase (TrpDH, EC1.4.1.19), which catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination and the reductive amination between L-tryptophan and indole-3-pyruvic acid, was found in the scytonemin biosynthetic pathway of Nostoc punctiforme ATCC29133. The TrpDH exhibited high specificity toward L-tryptophan, but its instability was a drawback for L-tryptophan determination. The mutant enzyme TrpDH L59F/D168G/A234D/I296N with thermal stability was obtained by screening of Escherichia coli transformants harboring various mutant genes, which were generated by error-prone PCR using complementation in an L-tryptophan auxotroph of E. coli. The specific activity and stability of this mutant enzyme were higher than those of the wild type enzyme. We also revealed here that in these four mutation points, the two amino acid residues Asp168 and Ile296 contributed to increase the enzyme stability, and the Leu59, Ala234 residues to increase its specific activity. Growth of the strain harboring the gene of above 4 point mutated enzyme was accelerated by the enhanced performance. In the present study, we demonstrated that TrpDH L59F/D168G/A234D/I296N was available for determination of L-tryptophan in human plasma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transformation of Aspergillus parasiticus with a homologous gene (pyrG) involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skory, C.D.; Horng, J.S.; Pestka, J.J.; Linz, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The lack of efficient transformation methods for aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus has been a major constraint for the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis at the genetic level. A transformation system with efficiencies of 30 to 50 stable transformants per μg of DNA was developed for A. parasiticus by using homologous pyrG gene. The pyrG gene from A. parasiticus was isolated by in situ plaque hybridization of a lambda genomic DNA library. Uridine auxotrophs of A. parasiticus ATCC 36537, a mutant blocked in aflatoxin biosynthesis, were isolated by selection on 5-fluoroorotic acid following nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Isolates with mutations in the pyrG gene resulting in elimination of orotidine monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase activity were detected by assaying cell extracts for their ability to convert [ 14 C]OMP to [ 14 C]UMP. Transformation of A. parasiticus pyrG protoplasts with the homologous pyrG gene restored the fungal cells to prototrophy. Enzymatic analysis of cell extracts of transformant clones demonstrated that these extracts had the ability to convert [ 14 C]OMP to [ 14 C]UMP. Southern analysis of DNA purified from transformant clones indicated that both pUC19 vector sequences and pyrG sequences were integrated into the genome. The development of this pyrG transformation system should allow cloning of the aflatoxin-biosynthetic genes, which will be useful in studying the regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis and may ultimately provide a means for controlling aflatoxin production in the field

  3. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient genome editing via blastospore-based transformation in entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Lai, Yiling; Wang, Lili; Zhai, Suzhen; Zou, Gen; Zhou, Zhihua; Cui, Chunlai; Wang, Sibao

    2017-04-03

    Beauveria bassiana is an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides against various agricultural insect pests and vectors of human diseases. However, its application has been limited due to slow kill and sensitivity to abiotic stresses. Understanding of the molecular pathogenesis and physiological characteristics would facilitate improvement of the fungal performance. Loss-of-function mutagenesis is the most powerful tool to characterize gene functions, but it is hampered by the low rate of homologous recombination and the limited availability of selectable markers. Here, by combining the use of uridine auxotrophy as recipient and donor DNAs harboring auxotrophic complementation gene ura5 as a selectable marker with the blastospore-based transformation system, we established a highly efficient, low false-positive background and cost-effective CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing system in B. bassiana. This system has been demonstrated as a simple and powerful tool for targeted gene knock-out and/or knock-in in B. bassiana in a single gene disruption. We further demonstrated that our system allows simultaneous disruption of multiple genes via homology-directed repair in a single transformation. This technology will allow us to study functionally redundant genes and holds significant potential to greatly accelerate functional genomics studies of B. bassiana.

  4. The proliferation potential of promastigotes of the main Leishmania species of the old world in NNN culture medium prepared using blood of four different mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladopoulos, Theodoros; Ntais, Pantelis; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of the in vitro cultivation of promastigotes of four Leishmania spp. was tested in the biphasic Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium prepared using blood from different animals (horse, donkey, goat and sheep). The aim was to test which NNN preparation gave the best yield in the shortest time for different parasite species, in order to obtain a large crop of promastigotes for experimental work and for antigen preparation. Promastigotes of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, the four main parasite species occurring in the old world, were defrosted from -80 °C and placed, at equal numbers, in the 4 different NNN preparations. At the end of the 7th day, the NNN medium using horse blood produced the greatest number of promastigotes for all Leishmania spp. tested, whilst goat blood proved the poorest medium, providing culture results only for L. infantum. This finding may be explained by the fact that Leishmania is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) auxotroph and horse erythrocytes support NAD-dependent microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular transformation, gene cloning, and gene expression systems for filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Scott E.; Duick, John W.; Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses the molecular transformation, gene cloning, and gene expression systems for filamentous fungi. Molecular transformation involves the movement of discrete amounts of DNA into cells, the expression of genes on the transported DNA, and the sustainable replication of the transforming DNA. The ability to transform fungi is dependent on the stable replication and expression of genes located on the transforming DNA. Three phenomena observed in bacteria, that is, competence, plasmids, and restriction enzymes to facilitate cloning, were responsible for the development of molecular transformation in fungi. Initial transformation success with filamentous fungi, involving the complementation of auxotrophic mutants by exposure to sheared genomic DNA or RNA from wt isolates, occurred with low transformation efficiencies. In addition, it was difficult to retrieve complementing DNA fragments and isolate genes of interest. This prompted the development of transformation vectors and methods to increase efficiencies. The physiological studies performed with fungi indicated that the cell wall could be removed to generate protoplasts. It was evident that protoplasts could be transformed with significantly greater efficiencies than walled cells.

  6. Identification of the enzymatic basis for δ-aminolevulinic acid auxotrophy in a hemA mutant of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avissar, Y.J.; Beale, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    The hemA mutation of Escherichia coli K-12 confers a requirement for δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Cell extract prepared from the hemA strain SASX41B was incapable of producing ALA from either glutamate or glutamyl-tRNA, whereas extract of the hem + strain HB101 formed colorimetrically detectable amounts of ALA and transferred label from 1-[ 14 C]glutamate and 3,4-[ 3 H]glutamyl-tRNA to ALA. Extracts of both strains converted glutamate-1-semialdehyde to ALA and were capable of aminoacylating tRNA Glu . Glutamyl-tRNA formed by extracts of both strains could be converted to ALA by the extract of hem + cells. The extract of hemA cells did not convert glutamyl-tRNA formed by either strain to ALA. However, the hemA cell extract, when supplemented in vitro with glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase isolated from Chlorella vulgaris cells, formed about as much ALA as did the unsupplemented hem + cell extract. We conclude from these observations that the enzyme activity that is lacking in the ALA auxotrophic strain carrying the hemA mutation is that of glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase

  7. Evaluation of possible mutagenecity of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J; Andrassy, E [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary); Incze, K [Orszagos Husipari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the program of the wholesomeness testing of iradiated spices, investigations were carried out on the possible mutagenicity of ground paprika, black pepper and a spice mixture untreated or radiation-treated at 5, 15 and 45 kGy dose levels, respectively. Studies were performed using the Salmonella/microsome test of various extracts of spices and an in vivo assay of urine metabolites from rats fed with a diet containing spices. Urine was collected after 6 days of spice-containing diets. The indicator organisms were histidine auxotrophic Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538, TA 98 and TA 100. Investigations were performed within 14 days subsequent to the radiation treatment of spices and after a 90-day storage of the irradiated spices, resp. Known mutagenic substances (aflatoxin B/sub 1/, streptozotocin, ..cap alpha..-naphthylamine and sodium azide) served as positive controls in the mutagenicity tests. Neither the samples of the spice extracts nor the urine samples induced a significant increase in the frequency of revertants in the Salmonella test system.

  8. Evaluation of possible mutagenecity of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.; Incze, K.

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the program of the wholesomeness testing of iradiated spices, investigations were carried out on the possible mutagenicity of ground paprika, black pepper and a spice mixture untreated or radiation-treated at 5, 15 and 45 kGy dose levels, respectively. Studies were performed using the Salmonella/microsome test of various extracts of spices and an in vivo assay of urine metabolites from rats fed with a diet containing spices. Urine was collected after 6 days of spice-containing diets. The indicator organisms were histidine auxotrophic Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538, TA 98 and TA 100. Investigations were performed within 14 days subsequent to the radiation treatment of spices and after a 90-day storage of the irradiated spices, resp. Known mutagenic substances (aflatoxin B 1 , streptozotocin, α-naphthylamine and sodium azide) served as positive controls in the mutagenicity tests. Neither the samples of the spice extracts nor the urine samples induced a significant increase in the frequency of revertants in the Salmonella test system. (author)

  9. Analysis of the efficiency of recombinant Escherichia coli strain cultivation in a gas-vortex bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Anna V; Nemudraya, Anna A; Podgornyi, Vladimir F; Laburkina, Nadezhda V; Ramazanov, Yuriy A; Repkov, Andrey P; Kuligina, Elena V; Richter, Vladimir A

    2017-09-01

    The levels of aeration and mass transfer are critical parameters required for an efficient aerobic bioprocess, and directly depend on the design features of exploited bioreactors. A novel apparatus, using gas vortex for aeration and mass transfer processes, was constructed in the Center of Vortex Technologies (Novosibirsk, Russia). In this paper, we compared the efficiency of recombinant Escherichia coli strain cultivation using novel gas-vortex technology with conventional bioprocess technologies such as shake flasks and bioreactors with mechanical stirrers. We demonstrated that the system of aeration and agitation used in gas-vortex bioreactors provides 3.6 times higher volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient in comparison with mechanical bioreactor. The use of gas-vortex bioreactor for recombinant E. coli strain cultivation allows to increase the efficiency of target protein expression at 2.2 times for BL21(DE3)/pFK2 strain and at 3.5 times for auxotrophic C600/pRT strain (in comparison with stirred bioreactor). © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. UV-induced mitotic co-segregation of genetic markers in Candida albicans: Evidence for linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, M.

    1983-01-01

    Parasexual genetic studies of the medically important yeast Candida albicans were performed using the method of UV-induced mitotic segregation. UV-irradiation of the Hoffmann-La Roche type culture of C. albicans yielded a limited spectrum of mutants at a relatively high fequency. This observation suggested natural heterozygosity. Canavanine-sensitive (CanS) segregants were induced at a frequency of 7.6 . 10 -3 . Double mutants that were both CanS and methionine (Met - ) auxotrophs were induced at a frequency of 7.4 . 10 -3 . The single Met - segregant class was missing indicating linkage. UV-induced CanS or Met - CanS segregants occurred occasionally in twin-sectored colonies. Analyses of the sectors as well as the observed and missing classes of segregants indicated that genes met and can are linked in the cis configuration. The proposed gene order is: centromere - met - can. Thus, it is concluded that the Hoffmann-La Roche strain of C. albicans is naturally heterozygous at two linked loci. These findings are consistent with diploidy. (orig.)

  11. Structure determination and analysis of a haemolytic gingipain adhesin domain from Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, N.; Yun, P.; Nadkarni, M.A.; Ghadikolaee, N.B.; Nguyen, K.A.; Lee, M.; Hunter, N.; Collyer, C.A. (Sydney)

    2010-08-27

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an obligately anaerobic bacterium recognized as an aetiological agent of adult periodontitis. P. gingivalis produces cysteine proteinases, the gingipains. The crystal structure of a domain within the haemagglutinin region of the lysine gingipain (Kgp) is reported here. The domain was named K2 as it is the second of three homologous structural modules in Kgp. The K2 domain structure is a 'jelly-roll' fold with two anti-parallel {beta}-sheets. This fold topology is shared with adhesive domains from functionally diverse receptors such as MAM domains, ephrin receptor ligand binding domains and a number of carbohydrate binding modules. Possible functions of K2 were investigated. K2 induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner that was augmented by the blocking of anion transport. Further, cysteine-activated arginine gingipain RgpB, which degrades glycophorin A, sensitized erythrocytes to the haemolytic effect of K2. Cleaved K2, similar to that found in extracted Kgp, lacks the haemolytic activity indicating that autolysis of Kgp may be a staged process which is artificially enhanced by extraction of the protein. The data indicate a functional role for K2 in the integrated capacity conferred by Kgp to enable the porphyrin auxotroph P. gingivalis to capture essential haem from erythrocytes.

  12. Comparisons of radiosensitivity and damage repair potential between mutants from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain of yeast and laboratory-bred wild yeasts with particular attention being given to giant cell formation after X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Yeast cells were exposed to X-rays at dose levels up to 10 kGy to induce damage to the DNA and investigate its effects on cellular growth patterns. For this purpose, comparisons were carried out between one diploid strain and six haploid strains of the Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae species, which permitted the individual recovery and damage repair pathways to be described in more detail. The laboratory-bred wild strains ATCC 9080, 211 and 706 were judged to have unimpaired repair mechanisms as compared to the auxotrophs, which fact was evident from the higher radiosensitivity of the latter. A further parameter in this evaluation of growth behaviours was giant cell formation. The results here provided evidence in confirmation of deviations between wild strains and mutants. Even though the ceiling values for the formation of giant cells were similarly high in all strains, impairments of cell division and initial development were observed for the mutants already at considerably lower dose levels. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) deficiency in high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma: an opportunity for personalized targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walts, Ann E; Bomalaski, John S; Ines, Delma; Orsulic, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Cells deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) must absorb the arginine they need for growth from circulating blood. Treatment with pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) selectively eliminates arginine from the circulation and has shown some efficacy against ASS-deficient tumors including small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We sought to assess ASS expression in a cohort of high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (PNEC) which include SCLC and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). Sixty-nine PNEC (49 SCLC and 20 LCNEC) were retrieved from our pathology archives. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of the 54 primary tumors, 15 metastases and appropriate positive and negative controls were immunostained using an ASS-specific monoclonal antibody. Positive staining in ASS negative. 58 % of the PNEC including 61.2 % of the SCLC and 50 % of the LCNEC were ASS negative. These ASS-negative tumors included 63 % of the primary and 40 % of the metastatic lesions tested. More than 50 % of the high-grade PNEC tested lack immunohistochemically detectable ASS, suggesting that they are auxotrophic for arginine and potential candidates for arginine deprivation therapy. PNEC comprise about 25 % of primary lung cancers and have a 5-year overall survival of only 5-10 %, underscoring the need for new and more effective therapies. Immunostaining for ASS has potential to improve the selection of patients with PNEC for arginine deprivation therapy with ADI-PEG 20.

  14. CD8 Knockout Mice Are Protected from Challenge by Vaccination with WR201, a Live Attenuated Mutant of Brucella melitensis

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    Samuel L. Yingst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells have been reported to play an important role in defense against B. abortus infection in mouse models. In the present report, we use CD8 knockout mice to further elucidate the role of these cells in protection from B. melitensis infection. Mice were immunized orally by administration of B. melitensis WR201, a purine auxotrophic attenuated vaccine strain, then challenged intranasally with B. melitensis 16M. In some experiments, persistence of WR201 in the spleens of CD8 knockout mice was slightly longer than that in the spleens of normal mice. However, development of anti-LPS serum antibody, antigen-induced production of γ-interferon (IFN-γ by immune splenic lymphocytes, protection against intranasal challenge, and recovery of nonimmunized animals from intranasal challenge were similar between normal and knockout animals. Further, primary Brucella infection was not exacerbated in perforin knockout and Fas-deficient mice and these animals’ anti-Brucella immune responses were indistinguishable from those of normal mice. These results indicate that CD8+ T cells do not play an essential role as either cytotoxic cells or IFN-γ producers, yet they do participate in a specific immune response to immunization and challenge in this murine model of B. melitensis infection.

  15. Augmenting the Genetic Toolbox for Sulfolobus islandicus with a Stringent Positive Selectable Marker for Agmatine Prototrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Tara E.; Krause, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfolobus species have become the model organisms for studying the unique biology of the crenarchaeal division of the archaeal domain. In particular, Sulfolobus islandicus provides a powerful opportunity to explore natural variation via experimental functional genomics. To support these efforts, we further expanded genetic tools for S. islandicus by developing a stringent positive selection for agmatine prototrophs in strains in which the argD gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, has been deleted. Strains with deletions in argD were shown to be auxotrophic for agmatine even in nutrient-rich medium, but growth could be restored by either supplementation of exogenous agmatine or reintroduction of a functional copy of the argD gene from S. solfataricus P2 into the ΔargD host. Using this stringent selection, a robust targeted gene knockout system was established via an improved next generation of the MID (marker insertion and unmarked target gene deletion) method. Application of this novel system was validated by targeted knockout of the upsEF genes involved in UV-inducible cell aggregation formation. PMID:23835176

  16. Development of the Multiple Gene Knockout System with One-Step PCR in Thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

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    Shoji Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple gene knockout systems developed in the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are powerful genetic tools. However, plasmid construction typically requires several steps. Alternatively, PCR tailing for high-throughput gene disruption was also developed in S. acidocaldarius, but repeated gene knockout based on PCR tailing has been limited due to lack of a genetic marker system. In this study, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination frequency (2.8 × 104 ± 6.9 × 103 colonies/μg DNA by optimizing the transformation conditions. This optimized protocol allowed to develop reliable gene knockout via double crossover using short homologous arms and to establish the multiple gene knockout system with one-step PCR (MONSTER. In the MONSTER, a multiple gene knockout cassette was simply and rapidly constructed by one-step PCR without plasmid construction, and the PCR product can be immediately used for target gene deletion. As an example of the applications of this strategy, we successfully made a DNA photolyase- (phr- and arginine decarboxylase- (argD- deficient strain of S. acidocaldarius. In addition, an agmatine selection system consisting of an agmatine-auxotrophic strain and argD marker was also established. The MONSTER provides an alternative strategy that enables the very simple construction of multiple gene knockout cassettes for genetic studies in S. acidocaldarius.

  17. Identification and elucidation of in vivo function of two alanine racemases from Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Estrella; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Cordero, Baldo F; De la Torre, Jesús; Antonia Molina-Henares, Maria; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2017-10-01

    The genome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 contains two open reading frames (ORFs), PP_3722 and PP_5269, that encode proteins with a Pyridoxal phosphate binding motif and a high similarity to alanine racemases. Alanine racemases play a key role in the biosynthesis of D-alanine, a crucial amino acid in the peptidoglycan layer. For these ORFs, we generated single and double mutants and found that inactivation of PP_5269 resulted in D-alanine auxotrophy, while inactivation of PP_3722 did not. Furthermore, as expected, the PP_3722/PP_5269 double mutant was a strict auxotroph for D-alanine. These results indicate that PP_5269 is an alr allele and that it is the essential alanine racemase in P. putida. We observed that the PP_5269 mutant grew very slowly, while the double PP_5269/PP_3722 mutant did not grow at all. This suggests that PP_3722 may replace PP_5269 in vivo. In fact, when the ORF encoding PP_3772 was cloned into a wide host range expression vector, ORF PP_3722 successfully complemented P. putida PP_5269 mutants. We purified both proteins to homogeneity and while they exhibit similar K M values, the V max of PP_5269 is fourfold higher than that of PP_3722. Here, we propose that PP_5269 and PP_3722 encode functional alanine racemases and that these genes be named alr-1 and alr-2 respectively. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Essential role of Bordetella NadC in a quinolinate salvage pathway for NAD biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Timothy J; Suhadolc, Ryan J; McKelvey, Pamela J; Armstrong, Sandra K

    2017-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is produced via de novo biosynthesis pathways and by salvage or recycling routes. The classical Bordetella bacterial species are known to be auxotrophic for nicotinamide or nicotinic acid. This study confirmed that Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis have the recycling/salvage pathway genes pncA and pncB, for use of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid, respectively, for NAD synthesis. Although these Bordetellae lack the nadA and nadB genes needed for de novo NAD biosynthesis, remarkably, they have one de novo pathway gene, nadC, encoding quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase. Genomic analyses of taxonomically related Bordetella and Achromobacter species also indicated the presence of an 'orphan' nadC and the absence of nadA and nadB. When supplied as the sole NAD precursor, quinolinate promoted B. bronchiseptica growth, and the ability to use it required nadC. Co-expression of Bordetella nadC with the nadB and nadA genes of Paraburkholderia phytofirmans allowed B. bronchiseptica to grow in the absence of supplied pyridines, indicative of de novo NAD synthesis and functional confirmation of Bordetella NadC activity. Expression of nadC in B. bronchiseptica was influenced by nicotinic acid and by a NadQ family transcriptional repressor, indicating that these organisms prioritize their use of pyridines for NAD biosynthesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Genetic control of near-UV (300-400 nm) sensitivity independent of the recA gene in strains of Escherichia coli K12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuveson, R.W.; Jonas, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary cells of isogenic pairs of Escherichia coli K12 strains presumably differing only in the recA function, were inactivated with near-UV (300-400 nm) radiation. Based on near-UV inactivation kinetics, the strains can be divided into two discrete categories in which near-UV sensitivity does not necessarily correlate with far-UV sensitivity conferred by two different recA alleles. Lack of overlap between near-UV and far-UV (recA) sensitivity can be explained by assuming that a different chromosomal gene (nur) controls near-UV sensitivity. Support for this hypothesis came from a mating experiment in which four selected recombinants, isogenic with respect to auxotrophic markers, were identified exhibiting all four possible combinations of far-UV (recA1 vs recA + ) and near-UV sensitivity (nur vs nur + ). Transduction with phase P1 showed that introduction of the recA1 allele into a recA + recipient did not affect the near-UV sensitivity of the recipient. Additional matings together with transduction experiments suggested that the nur gene is located at a position on the E. coli linkage map clearly separable from recA (minute 58). (author)

  20. Plasmodium falciparum responds to amino acid starvation by entering into a hibernatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Shalon E; Altenhofen, Lindsey; Cobbold, Simon A; Istvan, Eva S; Fennell, Clare; Doerig, Christian; Llinás, Manuel; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2012-11-20

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is auxotrophic for most amino acids. Its amino acid needs are met largely through the degradation of host erythrocyte hemoglobin; however the parasite must acquire isoleucine exogenously, because this amino acid is not present in adult human hemoglobin. We report that when isoleucine is withdrawn from the culture medium of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum, the parasite slows its metabolism and progresses through its developmental cycle at a reduced rate. Isoleucine-starved parasites remain viable for 72 h and resume rapid growth upon resupplementation. Protein degradation during starvation is important for maintenance of this hibernatory state. Microarray analysis of starved parasites revealed a 60% decrease in the rate of progression through the normal transcriptional program but no other apparent stress response. Plasmodium parasites do not possess a TOR nutrient-sensing pathway and have only a rudimentary amino acid starvation-sensing eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) stress response. Isoleucine deprivation results in GCN2-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α, but kinase-knockout clones still are able to hibernate and recover, indicating that this pathway does not directly promote survival during isoleucine starvation. We conclude that P. falciparum, in the absence of canonical eukaryotic nutrient stress-response pathways, can cope with an inconsistent bloodstream amino acid supply by hibernating and waiting for more nutrient to be provided.

  1. Biological Functions of ilvC in Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Diffusible Signal Factor Family Production in Xanthomonas campestris

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    Kai-Huai Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria, the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs is tightly associated with branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs synthetic pathways. Although previous studies have reported on BCFAs biosynthesis, more detailed associations between BCAAs metabolism and BCFAs biosynthesis remain to be addressed. In this study, we deleted the ilvC gene, which encodes ketol-acid reductoisomerase in the BCAAs synthetic pathway, from the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc genome. We characterized gene functions in BCFAs biosynthesis and production of the diffusible signal factor (DSF family signals. Disruption of ilvC caused Xcc to become auxotrophic for valine and isoleucine, and lose the ability to synthesize BCFAs via carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, ilvC mutant reduced the ability to produce DSF-family signals, especially branched-chain DSF-family signals, which might be the main reason for Xcc reduction of pathogenesis toward host plants. In this report, we confirmed that BCFAs do not have major functions in acclimatizing Xcc cells to low temperatures.

  2. A MultiSite GatewayTM vector set for the functional analysis of genes in the model Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Nagels Durand Astrid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinatorial cloning using the GatewayTM technology has been the method of choice for high-throughput omics projects, resulting in the availability of entire ORFeomes in GatewayTM compatible vectors. The MultiSite GatewayTM system allows combining multiple genetic fragments such as promoter, ORF and epitope tag in one single reaction. To date, this technology has not been accessible in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most widely used experimental systems in molecular biology, due to the lack of appropriate destination vectors. Results Here, we present a set of three-fragment MultiSite GatewayTM destination vectors that have been developed for gene expression in S. cerevisiae and that allow the assembly of any promoter, open reading frame, epitope tag arrangement in combination with any of four auxotrophic markers and three distinct replication mechanisms. As an example of its applicability, we used yeast three-hybrid to provide evidence for the assembly of a ternary complex of plant proteins involved in jasmonate signalling and consisting of the JAZ, NINJA and TOPLESS proteins. Conclusion Our vectors make MultiSite GatewayTM cloning accessible in S. cerevisiae and implement a fast and versatile cloning method for the high-throughput functional analysis of (heterologous proteins in one of the most widely used model organisms for molecular biology research.

  3. Engineered CRISPR/Cas9 system for multiplex genome engineering of polyploid industrial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiazhang; Bao, Zehua; Hu, Sumeng; Zhao, Huimin

    2018-06-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for multiplex genome engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, its application in manipulating industrial yeast strains is less successful, probably due to the genome complexity and low copy numbers of gRNA expression plasmids. Here we developed an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system for industrial yeast strain engineering by using our previously engineered plasmids with increased copy numbers. Four genes in both a diploid strain (Ethanol Red, 8 alleles in total) and a triploid strain (ATCC 4124, 12 alleles in total) were knocked out in a single step with 100% efficiency. This system was used to construct xylose-fermenting, lactate-producing industrial yeast strains, in which ALD6, PHO13, LEU2, and URA3 were disrupted in a single step followed by the introduction of a xylose utilization pathway and a lactate biosynthetic pathway on auxotrophic marker plasmids. The optimized CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a powerful tool for the development of industrial yeast based microbial cell factories. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Characterization and Strain Improvement of a Hypercellulytic Variant, Trichoderma reesei SN1, by Genetic Engineering for Optimized Cellulase Production in Biomass Conversion Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuanchao; Zhong, Lixia; Hou, Yunhua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhong, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a widely used strain for cellulolytic enzyme production. A hypercellulolytic T. reesei variant SN1 was identified in this study and found to be different from the well-known cellulase producers QM9414 and RUT-C30. The cellulose-degrading enzymes of T. reesei SN1 show higher endoglucanase (EG) activity but lower β-glucosidase (BGL) activity than those of the others. A uracil auxotroph strain, SP4, was constructed by pyr4 deletion in SN1 to improve transformation efficiency. The BGL1-encoding gene bgl1 under the control of a modified cbh1 promoter was overexpressed in SP4. A transformant, SPB2, with four additional copies of bgl1 exhibited a 17.1-fold increase in BGL activity and a 30.0% increase in filter paper activity. Saccharification of corncob residues with crude enzyme showed that the glucose yield of SPB2 is 65.0% higher than that of SP4. These results reveal the feasibility of strain improvement through the development of an efficient genetic transformation platform to construct a balanced cellulase system for biomass conversion.

  5. Characterization and strain improvement of a hypercellulytic variant, Trichoderma reesei SN1, by genetic engineering for optimized cellulase production in biomass conversion improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yuanchao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a widely used strain for cellulolytic enzyme production. A hypercellulolytic T. reesei variant SN1 was identified in this study and found to be different from the well-known cellulase producers QM9414 and RUT-C30. The cellulose-degrading enzymes of T. reesei SN1 show higher endoglucanase (EG activity but lower β-glucosidase (BGL activity than those of QM9414 and RUT-C30. A uracil auxotroph strain, SP4, was constructed by pyr4 deletion in SN1 to improve transformation efficiency. The BGL1-encoding gene bgl1 under the control of a modified cbh1 promoter was overexpressed in SP4. A transformant, SPB2, with four additional copies of bgl1 exhibited a 17.1-fold increase in BGL activity and a 30% increase in filter paper activity. Saccharification of corncob residues with crude enzyme showed that the glucose yield of SPB2 is 65% higher than that of SP4. These results reveal the feasibility of strain improvement through the development of an efficient genetic transformation platform to construct a balanced cellulase system for biomass conversion.

  6. Brucella, nitrogen and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, Severin; Moussa, Simon; Barbier, Thibault; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Zuniga-Ripa, Amaia; Moriyon, Ignacio; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2016-08-01

    The brucellae are α-Proteobacteria causing brucellosis, an important zoonosis. Although multiplying in endoplasmic reticulum-derived vacuoles, they cause no cell death, suggesting subtle but efficient use of host resources. Brucellae are amino-acid prototrophs able to grow with ammonium or use glutamate as the sole carbon-nitrogen source in vitro. They contain more than twice amino acid/peptide/polyamine uptake genes than the amino-acid auxotroph Legionella pneumophila, which multiplies in a similar vacuole, suggesting a different nutritional strategy. During these two last decades, many mutants of key actors in nitrogen metabolism (transporters, enzymes, regulators, etc.) have been described to be essential for full virulence of brucellae. Here, we review the genomic and experimental data on Brucella nitrogen metabolism and its connection with virulence. An analysis of various aspects of this metabolism (transport, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, respiration and regulation) has highlighted differences and similarities in nitrogen metabolism with other α-Proteobacteria. Together, these data suggest that, during their intracellular life cycle, the brucellae use various nitrogen sources for biosynthesis, catabolism and respiration following a strategy that requires prototrophy and a tight regulation of nitrogen use.

  7. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of BLUF protein Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 with roseoflavin cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, P; Penzkofer, A; Mathes, T; Hegemann, P

    2009-11-09

    The wild-type BLUF protein Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (BLUF=blue-light sensor using FAD) has flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD) as natural cofactor. This light sensor causes positive phototaxis of the marine cyanobacterium. In this study the FAD cofactor of the wild-type Slr1694 was replaced by roseoflavin (RoF) and the roseoflavin derivatives RoFMN and RoFAD during heterologous expression in a riboflavin auxotrophic E. coli strain. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of the cofactor-exchanged-Slr1694 (RoSlr) was carried out both under dark conditions and under illuminated conditions. The behaviour of RoF embedded in RoSlr in aqueous solution at pH 8 is compared with the behaviour of RoF in aqueous solution. The fluorescence of RoF and RoSlr is quenched by photo-induced twisted intra-molecular charge transfer at room temperature with stronger effect for RoF. The fluorescence quenching is diminished at liquid nitrogen temperature. Light exposure of RoSlr causes irreversible conversion of the protein embedded roseoflavins to 8-methylamino-flavins, 8-dimethylamino-lumichrome and 8-methylamino-lumichrome.

  8. Rhodosporidium toruloides BANNO: Dose-response relationship, mutagenic efficiency and spectrum of mutants of auxotrophy-producing mutations induced by ultraviolet light and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, F.; Samsonova, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics, efficiency, and specificity of induction of forward mutations to auxotrophy by ultraviolet light (UV) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was examined in stationary phase cells of Rhodosporidium (Rhodotorula) wild strain Rg1. In comparison to the spontaneous level the frequency of auxotrophic mutants was increased more than 1000 times by both mutagens, however, the mutagenic efficiency of MNNG was higher than that of UV. We found that the forward mutation rate is a linear function of the applicated UV and MNNG doses in the range to 600 J m -2 or 25 mM x min, respectively. The 35 studied biosynthetic pathways to amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, and vitamins are genetically blocked at different frequencies, but there is not any significant difference between UV and MNNG induced frequencies of mutants with a specific requirement. However, in difference to the approximately equal distribution of the MNNG-induced nic mutants among the genetic blocks of the tryptophan-nicotinamide pathway, UV-induced nic mutants occurred with a higher frequency in the genes of the tryptophan pyrrolase and the 3-hydroxykynureninase than in the genes of the other enzymes of the pathway. (author)

  9. Induction of pure and sectored mutant clones in excision-proficient and deficient strains of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, F; Haynes, R H

    1977-06-01

    We have found that UV-induced mutation frequency in a forward non-selective assay system (scoring white adex ade2 double auxotroph mutants among the red pigmented ade2 clones) increases linearly with dose up to a maximum frequency of about 3 X 10(-3) mutants per survivor and then declines in both RAD wild-type and rad2 excision deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation frequencies of the RAD and the rad2 strains plotted against survival are nearly identical over the entire survival range. On this basis we conclude that unexcised pyrimidine dimers are the predominant type of pre-mutational lesions in both strains. In the RAD wild-type strain pure mutant clones outnumber sectors in a 10:1 ratio at all doses used; in rad2 this ratio varies from 1:1 at low doses up to 10:1 at high doses. As others have concluded for wild-type strains we find also in the rad2 strain that pure clone formation cannot be accounted for quantitatively by lethal sectoring events alone. We conclude that heteroduplex repair is a crucial step in pure mutant clone formation and we examine the plausibility of certain macromolecular mechanisms according to which heteroduplex repair may be coupled with replication, repair and sister strand exchange in yeast mutagenesis.

  10. Induction of pure and sectored mutant clones in excision-proficient and deficient strains of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, F.; Haynes, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    It was found that UV-induced mutation frequency in a forward non-selective assay system (scoring white adex ade2 double auxotroph mutants among the red pigmented ade2 clones) increases linearly with dose up to a maximum frequency of about 3 x 10 -3 mutants per survivor and then declines in both RAD wild-type and rad2 excision deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation frequencies of the RAD and the rad2 strains plotted against survival are nearly identical over the entire survival range. On this basis it is concluded that unexcised pyrimidine dimers are the predominant type of pre-mutational lesions in both strains. In the RAD wild-type strain pure mutant clones outnumber sectors in a 10:1 ratio at all doses used; in rad2 this ratio varies from 1:1 at low doses up to 10:1 at high doses. In agreement with conclusions of others, it was also found that for wild-type strains in the rad2 strain pure clone formation cannot be accounted for quantitatively by lethal sectoring events alone. It is concluded that heteroduplex repair is a crucial step in pure mutant clone formation and the plausibility of certain macromolecular mechanisms according to which heteroduplex repair may be coupled with replication, repair and sister strand exchange in yeast mutagenesis is examined

  11. Heterologous Expression of the Carrot Hsp17.7 gene Increased Growth, Cell Viability, and Protein Solubility in Transformed Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under Heat, Cold, Acid, and Osmotic Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunhye; Kim, Minhye; Park, Yunho; Ahn, Yeh-Jin

    2017-08-01

    In industrial fermentation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), culture conditions are often modified from the optimal growth conditions of the cells to maintain large-scale cultures and/or to increase recombinant protein production. However, altered growth conditions can be stressful to yeast cells resulting in reduced cell growth and viability. In this study, a small heat shock protein gene from carrot (Daucus carota L.), Hsp17.7, was inserted into the yeast genome via homologous recombination to increase tolerance to stress conditions that can occur during industrial culture. A DNA construct, Translational elongation factor gene promoter-carrot Hsp17.7 gene-Phosphoribosyl-anthranilate isomerase gene (an auxotrophic marker), was generated by a series of PCRs and introduced into the chromosome IV of the yeast genome. Immunoblot analysis showed that carrot Hsp17.7 accumulated in the transformed yeast cell lines. Growth rates and cell viability of these cell lines were higher than control cell lines under heat, cold, acid, and hyperosmotic stress conditions. Soluble protein levels were higher in the transgenic cell lines than control cell lines under heat and cold conditions, suggesting the molecular chaperone function of the recombinant Hsp17.7. This study showed that a recombinant DNA construct containing a HSP gene from carrot was successfully expressed in yeast by homologous recombination and increased tolerances to abiotic stress conditions.

  12. Construction and Analysis of Two Genome-Scale Deletion Libraries for Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Byoung-Mo; Kritikos, George; Farelli, Jeremiah D; Todor, Horia; Tong, Kenneth; Kimsey, Harvey; Wapinski, Ilan; Galardini, Marco; Cabal, Angelo; Peters, Jason M; Hachmann, Anna-Barbara; Rudner, David Z; Allen, Karen N; Typas, Athanasios; Gross, Carol A

    2017-03-22

    A systems-level understanding of Gram-positive bacteria is important from both an environmental and health perspective and is most easily obtained when high-quality, validated genomic resources are available. To this end, we constructed two ordered, barcoded, erythromycin-resistance- and kanamycin-resistance-marked single-gene deletion libraries of the Gram-positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis. The libraries comprise 3,968 and 3,970 genes, respectively, and overlap in all but four genes. Using these libraries, we update the set of essential genes known for this organism, provide a comprehensive compendium of B. subtilis auxotrophic genes, and identify genes required for utilizing specific carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as those required for growth at low temperature. We report the identification of enzymes catalyzing several missing steps in amino acid biosynthesis. Finally, we describe a suite of high-throughput phenotyping methodologies and apply them to provide a genome-wide analysis of competence and sporulation. Altogether, we provide versatile resources for studying gene function and pathway and network architecture in Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of nitrogen in the liquid fraction and in vitro assessment of lysine bioavailability in the solid fraction of soybean meal hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Rhenals, D; Morawicki, R; Shi, Z; Ricke, S C

    2018-01-02

    Soybean meal (SBM) is a product generated from the manufacture of soybean oil and has the potential for use as a source of fermentable sugars for ethanol production or as a protein source for animal feeds. Knowing the levels of nitrogen available from ammonium is a necessary element of the ethanolic fermentation process while identifying the levels of essential amino acids such as lysine is important in determining usage as a feed source. As such the purpose of this study was to quantify total nitrogen and ammonium in the liquid fraction of hydrolyzed SBM and to evaluate total and bioavailable lysine in the solid fraction of the hydrolyzed SBM. The effects of acid concentration, cellulase and β-glucosidase on total and ammonium nitrogen were studied with analysis indicating that higher acid concentrations increased nitrogen compounds with ammonium concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 1.24 g L -1 while enzymatic treatments did not significantly increase nitrogen levels. Total and bioavailable lysine was quantified by use of an auxotrophic gfpmut3 E.coli whole-cell bioassay organism incapable of lysine biosynthesis. Acid and enzymatic treatments were applied with lysine bioavailability increasing from a base of 82% for untreated SBM to up to 97%. Our results demonstrated that SBM has the potential to serve in ethanolic fermentation and as an optimal source essential amino acid lysine.

  14. Evidence that survival of γ-irradiated Escherichia coli is influenced by membrane fluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatvin, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    Survival studies have been carried out on an Escherichia coli auxotroph (K-12 strain K1060) defective in both fatty acid degradation and in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Cultures were grown overnight in media supplemented with either oleic or linolenic acid, and γ-irradiated at two temperatures. Gas chromatography of total cellular fatty acids demonstrated marked differences in the compositions. In the bacteria grown in oleate, plamitate accounted for 35% and oleate 43%, whereas those grown in linolenate had no oleate but contained 56% palmitate and 35% linolenate. The loss (35%) in total DNA radioactivity from ( 3 H)TdR labelled cells after irradiation at room temperature or on ice, was essentially the same in bacteria grown with linoleic or oleic acid medium. The survival of linolenic substituted bacteria was altered little by irradiation at ice-bath temperature, but the oleic-grown bacteria were much more radiosensitive when irradiated and plated from the cold. The temperatures of the membrane phase transitions are such that at ice-bath temperature (approximately 3 to 5 0 C) only the membrane of the linolenate grown bacteria could possibly still be in the liquid (unorganized) state. The results therefore indicate that one of the factors influencing survival of irradiated bacteria may be membrane fluidity, and the membranes are an important factor in determining the extent of damage, 'repair' and ultimate survival in irradiated cells. (U.K.)

  15. Hypermutability of a UV-sensitive aphidicolin-resistant mutant of Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.K.; Chang, C.; Trosko, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ultraviolet light (UV)-sensitive thymidine auxotroph of Chinese hamster V79 cells that exhibits pleiotropic effects such as a high level of deoxycytidine triphosphate, slow growth, sensitivity to cytidine, and high frequencies of site-specific bromodeoxyuridine-dependent chromosomal aberrations was selected by its resistance to aphidicolin. The UV-induced mutability of this mutant and one of its revertants, which retains some of the phenotypes listed above, was studied in 3 mutation assay systems. The results showed that the mutant was hypermutable for ouabain and diphtheria-toxin-resistant mutations compared to wild-type V79 cells at the same UV dose or the same survival level. The mutant exhibits a delayed expression of maximal frequency of induced 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants. When maximal frequencies are compared at the same UV dose, the mutant also has higher mutation frequencies at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus. The revertant was similar to the wild-type in UV sensitivity and mutability. (orig./AJ)

  16. Association of mutator activity with UV sensitivity in an aphidicolin-resistant mutant of Chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.K.; Chang, C.; Trosko, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The spontaneous mutation rates of an ultraviolet light (UV)-sensitive aphidicolin-resistant mutant (aphsup(r)-4-2) and its revertants have been determined by 2 techniques. By using the fluctuation analysis, the mutant and its thymidine (TdR)-prototrophic 'revertant' were found to exhibit elevated spontaneous mutation rates at the 6-thioguanine- and diphtheria-toxin-resistant loci. In contrast, the TdR-auxotrophic 'revertant' did not show this property. Similar results were obtained by the multiple replating technique. From these comparative studies and other previous characterizations, it appears that a single gene mutation is responsible for the following pleiotropic phenotype: slow growth, UV sensitivity, high UV-induced mutability, high frequency of site-specific bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-dependent chromosome breaks and enhanced spontaneous mutation rate. Recent studies indicate that the mutation may be on the gene for DNA polymerase α. The results further indicate that thymidine auxotrophy or imbalance in nucleotide pools is not necessarily associated with the mutator activity in mammalian cells. (orig.)

  17. Nutrition acquisition strategies during fungal infection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divon, Hege H; Fluhr, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In host-pathogen interactions, efficient pathogen nutrition is a prerequisite for successful colonization and fungal fitness. Filamentous fungi have a remarkable capability to adapt and exploit the external nutrient environment. For phytopathogenic fungi, this asset has developed within the context of host physiology and metabolism. The understanding of nutrient acquisition and pathogen primary metabolism is of great importance in the development of novel disease control strategies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on how plant nutrient supplies are utilized by phytopathogenic fungi, and how these activities are controlled. The generation and use of auxotrophic mutants have been elemental to the determination of essential and nonessential nutrient compounds from the plant. Considerable evidence indicates that pathogen entrainment of host metabolism is a widespread phenomenon and can be accomplished by rerouting of the plant's responses. Crucial fungal signalling components for nutrient-sensing pathways as well as their developmental dependency have now been identified, and were shown to operate in a coordinate cross-talk fashion that ensures proper nutrition-related behaviour during the infection process.

  18. Covalent heme attachment to the protein in human heme oxygenase-1 with selenocysteine replacing the His25 proximal iron ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongying; Trnka, Michael J; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Ouellet, Hugues; Wang, Yongqiang; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2009-03-01

    To characterize heme oxygenase with a selenocysteine (SeCys) as the proximal iron ligand, we have expressed truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) His25Cys, in which Cys-25 is the only cysteine, in the Escherichia coli cysteine auxotroph strain BL21(DE3)cys. Selenocysteine incorporation into the protein was demonstrated by both intact protein mass measurement and mass spectrometric identification of the selenocysteine-containing tryptic peptide. One selenocysteine was incorporated into approximately 95% of the expressed protein. Formation of an adduct with Ellman's reagent (DTNB) indicated that the selenocysteine in the expressed protein was in the reduced state. The heme-His25SeCys hHO-1 complex could be prepared by either (a) supplementing the overexpression medium with heme, or (b) reconstituting the purified apoprotein with heme. Under reducing conditions in the presence of imidazole, a covalent bond is formed by addition of the selenocysteine residue to one of the heme vinyl groups. No covalent bond is formed when the heme is replaced by mesoheme, in which the vinyls are replaced by ethyl groups. These results, together with our earlier demonstration that external selenolate ligands can transfer an electron to the iron [Y. Jiang, P.R. Ortiz de Montellano, Inorg. Chem. 47 (2008) 3480-3482 ], indicate that a selenyl radical is formed in the hHO-1 His25SeCys mutant that adds to a heme vinyl group.

  19. Knockout of the alanine racemase gene in Aeromonas hydrophila HBNUAh01 results in cell wall damage and enhanced membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Lu; Xue, Wen; Wang, Yaping; Ju, Jiansong; Zhao, Baohua

    2015-07-01

    This study focused on the alanine racemase gene (alr-2), which is involved in the synthesis of d-alanine that forms the backbone of the cell wall. A stable alr-2 knockout mutant of Aeromonas hydrophila HBNUAh01 was constructed. When the mutant was supplemented with d-alanine, growth was unaffected; deprivation of d-alanine caused the growth arrest of the starved mutant cells, but not cell lysis. No alanine racemase activity was detected in the culture of the mutant. Additionally, a membrane permeability assay showed increasing damage to the cell wall during d-alanine starvation. No such damage was observed in the wild type during culture. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed deficiencies of the cell envelope and perforation of the cell wall. Leakage of UV-absorbing substances from the mutants was also observed. Thus, the partial viability of the mutants and their independence of d-alanine for growth indicated that inactivation of alr-2 does not impose an auxotrophic requirement for d-alanine. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Symbiotic relationship analysis of predominant bacteria in a lab-scale anammox UASB bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujia; Hu, Xiaomin; Jiang, Binhui; Song, Zhenhui; Ma, Yongguang

    2016-04-01

    In order to provide the comprehensive insight into the key microbial groups in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process, high-throughput sequencing analysis has been used for the investigation of the bacterial communities of a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) anammox bioreactor. Results revealed that 109 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; out of 14,820 reads) were identified and a domination of anammox bacteria of Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis (OTU474, 35.42 %), along with heterotrophs of Limnobacter sp. MED105 (OTU951, 14.98 %), Anerolinea thermophila UNI-1 (OTU465 and OTU833, 6.60 and 3.93 %), Azoarcus sp. B72 (OTU26, 9.47 %), and Ignavibacterium sp. JCM 16511 (OTU459, 8.33 %) were detected. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that Candidatus K. stuttgartiensis encountered gene defect in synthesizing a series of metabolic cofactors for growth, implying that K. stuttgartiensis is auxotrophic. Coincidentally, the other dominant species severally showed complete metabolic pathways with full set gene encoding to corresponding cofactors presented in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, it was likely that the survival of heterotrophs in the autotrophic system indicates the existence of a symbiotic and mutual relationship in anammox system.

  1. Photosensitized inactivation of DNA by monochromatic 334-nm radiation in the presence of 2-thiouracil: genetic activity and backbone breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, M.J.; Ito, A.; Peak, J.G.; Foote, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Monochromatic 334-nm radiation delivered under aerobic conditions inactivates the genetic activity (ability to transform auxotrophic recipient cells to nutritional prototrophy) of isolated transforming Bacillus subtilis DNA. The presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and mannitol reduces the 334-nm inactivation. The rate of inactivation of the genetic activity by 334-nm radiation is enhanced fivefold by the sensitizer 2-thiouracil (s 2 Ura). This enhancement is substantially reversed when the irradiations are performed in the presence of mannitol, and, to a lesser extent, SOD. Catalase slightly reduces the s 2 Ura enhancement of 334-nm inactivation of transforming activity. Backbone breaks induced in the same DNA by aerobic 334-nm radiation were also enhanced markedly by the presence of s 2 Ura; this enhancement was reversed by the presence of mannitol and, to a lesser extent, SOD during irradiation. Catalase had no effect upon s 2 Ura-enhanced, 334-nm-induced SSBs. Whereas DNA breakage may be responsible for a portion of the inactivation of the DNA by the photosensitized reaction between s 2 Ura and 334-nm radiation, it is not the only inactivating lesion, because the yield of SSBs per lethal hit per unit length of DNA is not constant for all the irradiation conditions studied. (author)

  2. Heme degrading protein HemS is involved in oxidative stress response of Bartonella henselae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaFeng Liu

    Full Text Available Bartonellae are hemotropic bacteria, agents of emerging zoonoses. These bacteria are heme auxotroph Alphaproteobacteria which must import heme for supporting their growth, as they cannot synthesize it. Therefore, Bartonella genome encodes for a complete heme uptake system allowing the transportation of this compound across the outer membrane, the periplasm and the inner membranes. Heme has been proposed to be used as an iron source for Bartonella since these bacteria do not synthesize a complete system required for iron Fe³⁺ uptake. Similarly to other bacteria which use heme as an iron source, Bartonellae must transport this compound into the cytoplasm and degrade it to allow the release of iron from the tetrapyrrole ring. For Bartonella, the gene cluster devoted to the synthesis of the complete heme uptake system also contains a gene encoding for a polypeptide that shares homologies with heme trafficking or degrading enzymes. Using complementation of an E. coli mutant strain impaired in heme degradation, we demonstrated that HemS from Bartonella henselae expressed in E. coli allows the release of iron from heme. Purified HemS from B. henselae binds heme and can degrade it in the presence of a suitable electron donor, ascorbate or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Knocking down the expression of HemS in B. henselae reduces its ability to face H₂O₂ induced oxidative stress.

  3. Control of biotin biosynthesis in mycobacteria by a pyruvate carboxylase dependent metabolic signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Nathaniel; Fay, Allison; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Boyle, Kerry E; Xavier, Joao; Rhee, Kyu; Glickman, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    Biotin is an essential cofactor utilized by all domains of life, but only synthesized by bacteria, fungi and plants, making biotin biosynthesis a target for antimicrobial development. To understand biotin biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we executed a genetic screen in Mycobacterium smegmatis for biotin auxotrophs and identified pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc) as required for biotin biosynthesis. The biotin auxotrophy of the pyc::tn strain is due to failure to transcriptionally induce late stage biotin biosynthetic genes in low biotin conditions. Loss of bioQ, the repressor of biotin biosynthesis, in the pyc::tn strain reverted biotin auxotrophy, as did reconstituting the last step of the pathway through heterologous expression of BioB and provision of its substrate DTB. The role of Pyc in biotin regulation required its catalytic activities and could be supported by M. tuberculosis Pyc. Quantitation of the kinetics of depletion of biotinylated proteins after biotin withdrawal revealed that Pyc is the most rapidly depleted biotinylated protein and metabolomics revealed a broad metabolic shift in wild type cells upon biotin withdrawal which was blunted in cell lacking Pyc. Our data indicate that mycobacterial cells monitor biotin sufficiency through a metabolic signal generated by dysfunction of a biotinylated protein of central metabolism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Deciphering a unique biotin scavenging pathway with redundant genes in the probiotic bacterium Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Qingjing; Fisher, Derek J; Cai, Mingzhu; Chakravartty, Vandana; Ye, Huiyan; Li, Ping; Solbiati, Jose O; Feng, Youjun

    2016-05-10

    Biotin protein ligase (BPL) is widespread in the three domains of the life. The paradigm BPL is the Escherichia coli BirA protein, which also functions as a repressor for the biotin biosynthesis pathway. Here we report that Lactococcus lactis possesses two different orthologues of birA (birA1_LL and birA2_LL). Unlike the scenario in E. coli, L. lactis appears to be auxotrophic for biotin in that it lacks a full biotin biosynthesis pathway. In contrast, it retains two biotin transporter-encoding genes (bioY1_LL and bioY2_LL), suggesting the use of a scavenging strategy to obtain biotin from the environment. The in vivo function of the two L. lactis birA genes was judged by their abilities to complement the conditional lethal E. coli birA mutant. Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectroscopy assays demonstrated that these two recombinant BirA proteins catalyze the biotinylation reaction of the acceptor biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), through the expected biotinoyl-AMP intermediate. Gel shift assays were used to characterize bioY1_LL and BirA1_LL. We also determined the ability to uptake (3)H-biotin by L. lactis. Taken together, our results deciphered a unique biotin scavenging pathway with redundant genes present in the probiotic bacterium L. lactis.

  5. Hierarchical mutational events compensate for glutamate auxotrophy of a Bacillus subtilis gltC mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormeyer, Miriam; Lübke, Anastasia L; Müller, Peter; Lentes, Sabine; Reuß, Daniel R; Thürmer, Andrea; Stülke, Jörg; Daniel, Rolf; Brantl, Sabine; Commichau, Fabian M

    2017-06-01

    Glutamate is the major donor of nitrogen for anabolic reactions. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis either utilizes exogenously provided glutamate or synthesizes it using the gltAB-encoded glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In the absence of glutamate, the transcription factor GltC activates expression of the GOGAT genes for glutamate production. Consequently, a gltC mutant strain is auxotrophic for glutamate. Using a genetic selection and screening system, we could isolate and differentiate between gltC suppressor mutants in one step. All mutants had acquired the ability to synthesize glutamate, independent of GltC. We identified (i) gain-of-function mutations in the gltR gene, encoding the transcription factor GltR, (ii) mutations in the promoter of the gltAB operon and (iii) massive amplification of the genomic locus containing the gltAB operon. The mutants belonging to the first two classes constitutively expressed the gltAB genes and produced sufficient glutamate for growth. By contrast, mutants that belong to the third class appeared most frequently and solved glutamate limitation by increasing the copy number of the poorly expressed gltAB genes. Thus, glutamate auxotrophy of a B. subtilis gltC mutant can be relieved in multiple ways. Moreover, recombination-dependent amplification of the gltAB genes is the predominant mutational event indicating a hierarchy of mutations. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An investigation of bystander effects in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVeaux, L.C.; Wells, D.P.; Durtschi, L.S.; Reda, M.; Frujinoiu, C.; Harmon, F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: 'Bystander' effects have been documented in various mammalian cell types and appear to act by two distinct mechanisms. One response requires a functional gap-junction. A non gap-junction-mediated response has also been observed in human cell lines, indicating release of a signaling factor. No analogous response has been investigated in unicellular organisms. Given that DNA damage signaling pathways are present in simple eukaryotes, we investigated bystander signaling effects using a single-celled organism, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This organism may provide a much simpler model system than higher eukaryotic cells for studying these effects. We measured survival and mutation rate in an unirradiated culture after exposure to an irradiated culture. These two cultures were mixed immediately after irradiation, and any signaling factor that was produced had direct and continuous access to the unirradiated cells during subsequent cell divisions. The irradiated culture was from a multiply auxotrophic strain, whereas the unirradiated culture was from a prototrophic strain. Surviving colonies of the unirradiated culture were thus easily distinguished from those arising from irradiated cells. Mutation rates were measured as forward mutation to 2-deoxyglucose resistance. We have investigated bystander effects with electron and gamma dose from 6 to 20 MeV electron linacs. We varied electron beam energies, dose rates and temporal distributions of dose. The importance of this research stems from the fundamental evolutionary significance of cell signaling of any kind in unicellular systems, representing a major step toward the evolution of multi-cellular states

  7. The nutrient transceptor/PKA pathway functions independently of TOR and responds to leucine and Gcn2 in a TOR-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Michaela; Kankipati, Harish Nag; Kimpe, Marlies; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Thevelein, Johan M

    2017-08-01

    Two nutrient-controlled signalling pathways, the PKA and TOR pathway, play a major role in nutrient regulation of growth as well as growth-correlated properties in yeast. The relationship between the two pathways is not well understood. We have used Gap1 and Pho84 transceptor-mediated activation of trehalase and phosphorylation of fragmented Sch9 as a read-out for rapid nutrient activation of PKA or TORC1, respectively. We have identified conditions in which L-citrulline-induced activation of Sch9 phosphorylation is compromised, but not activation of trehalase: addition of the TORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin and low levels of L-citrulline. The same disconnection was observed for phosphate activation in phosphate-starved cells. The leu2 auxotrophic mutation reduces amino acid activation of trehalase, which is counteracted by deletion of GCN2. Both effects were also independent of TORC1. Our results show that rapid activation of the TOR pathway by amino acids is not involved in rapid activation of the PKA pathway and that effects of Gcn2 inactivation as well as leu2 auxotrophy all act independently of the TOR pathway. Hence, rapid nutrient signalling to PKA and TOR in cells arrested by nutrient starvation acts through parallel pathways. © FEMS 2017.

  8. Structural characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis biotin biosynthesis enzymes 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase and dethiobiotin synthetase .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanghamitra; Lane, James M; Lee, Richard E; Rubin, Eric J; Sacchettini, James C

    2010-08-10

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on biotin synthesis for survival during infection. In the absence of biotin, disruption of the biotin biosynthesis pathway results in cell death rather than growth arrest, an unusual phenotype for an Mtb auxotroph. Humans lack the enzymes for biotin production, making the proteins of this essential Mtb pathway promising drug targets. To this end, we have determined the crystal structures of the second and third enzymes of the Mtb biotin biosynthetic pathway, 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase (DAPAS) and dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS), at respective resolutions of 2.2 and 1.85 A. Superimposition of the DAPAS structures bound either to the SAM analogue sinefungin or to 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid (KAPA) allowed us to map the putative binding site for the substrates and to propose a mechanism by which the enzyme accommodates their disparate structures. Comparison of the DTBS structures bound to the substrate 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (DAPA) or to ADP and the product dethiobiotin (DTB) permitted derivation of an enzyme mechanism. There are significant differences between the Mtb enzymes and those of other organisms; the Bacillus subtilis DAPAS, presented here at a high resolution of 2.2 A, has active site variations and the Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori DTBS have alterations in their overall folds. We have begun to exploit the unique characteristics of the Mtb structures to design specific inhibitors against the biotin biosynthesis pathway in Mtb.

  9. Engineering biotin prototrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum strains for amino acid, diamine and carotenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Wendisch, P; Götker, S; Heider, S A E; Komati Reddy, G; Nguyen, A Q; Stansen, K C; Wendisch, V F

    2014-12-20

    The Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin. Besides the biotin uptake system BioYMN and the transcriptional regulator BioQ, this bacterium possesses functional enzymes for the last three reactions of biotin synthesis starting from pimeloyl-CoA. Heterologous expression of bioF from the Gram-negative Escherichia coli enabled biotin synthesis from pimelic acid added to the medium, but expression of bioF together with bioC and bioH from E. coli did not entail biotin prototrophy. Heterologous expression of bioWAFDBI from Bacillus subtilis encoding another biotin synthesis pathway in C. glutamicum allowed for growth in biotin-depleted media. Stable growth of the recombinant was observed without biotin addition for eight transfers to biotin-depleted medium while the empty vector control stopped growth after the first transfer. Expression of bioWAFDBI from B. subtilis in C. glutamicum strains overproducing the amino acids l-lysine and l-arginine, the diamine putrescine, and the carotenoid lycopene, respectively, enabled formation of these products under biotin-depleted conditions. Thus, biotin-prototrophic growth and production by recombinant C. glutamicum were achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transfer of the high-GC cyclohexane carboxylate degradation pathway from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to Escherichia coli for production of biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jeffrey R; Bulter, Thomas; Liao, James C

    2008-01-01

    This work demonstrates the transfer of the five-gene cyclohexane carboxylate (CHC) degradation pathway from the high-GC alphaproteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to Escherichia coli, a gammaproteobacterium. The degradation product of this pathway is pimeloyl-CoA, a key metabolite in E. coli's biotin biosynthetic pathway. This pathway is useful for biotin overproduction in E. coli; however, the expression of GC-rich genes is troublesome in this host. When the native R. palustris CHC degradation pathway is transferred to a DeltabioH pimeloyl-CoA auxotroph of E. coli, it is unable to complement growth in the presence of CHC. To overcome this expression problem we redesigned the operon with decreased GC content and removed stretches of high-GC intergenic DNA which comprise the 5' untranslated region of each gene, replacing these features with shorter low-GC sequences. We show this synthetic construct enables growth of the DeltabioH strain in the presence of CHC. When the synthetic degradation pathway is overexpressed in conjunction with the downstream genes for biotin biosynthesis, we measured significant accumulation of biotin in the growth medium, showing that the pathway transfer is successfully integrated with the host metabolism.

  11. Endophytic colonization and biocontrol performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 in olive (Olea europaea L.) are determined neither by pyoverdine production nor swimming motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-González, M Mercedes; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an indigenous inhabitant of olive (Olea europaea L.) rhizosphere, able to display endophytic lifestyle in roots, to induce a wide range of defence responses upon colonization of this organ and to exert effective biological control against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) (Verticillium dahliae). We aimed to evaluate the involvement of specific PICF7 phenotypes in olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol effectiveness by generating mutants impaired in swimming motility (fliI) or siderophore pyoverdine production (pvdI). Besides, the performance of mutants with diminished in vitro growth in potato dextrose agar medium (gltA) and cysteine (Cys) auxotrophy was also assessed. Results showed that olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol ability of the fliI, pvdI and gltA mutants did not significantly differ from that displayed by the parental strain PICF7. Consequently, altered in vitro growth, swimming motility and pyoverdine production contribute neither to PICF7 VWO suppressive effect nor to its colonization ability. In contrast, the Cys auxotroph mutant showed reduced olive root colonization capacity and lost full biocontrol efficacy. Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that all mutants tested were able to endophytically colonize root tissue to the same extent as wild-type PICF7, discarding these traits as relevant for its endophytic lifestyle. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ethylene production in relation to nitrogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Nina; Persson, Karl O; Quehl, Paul; Norbeck, Joakim; Larsson, Christer

    2014-11-01

    We have previously shown that ethylene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae is strongly influenced by variations in the mode of cultivation as well as the choice of nitrogen source. Here, we have studied the influence of nitrogen metabolism on the production of ethylene further. Using ammonium, glutamate, glutamate/arginine, and arginine as nitrogen sources, it was found that glutamate (with or without arginine) correlates with a high ethylene production, most likely linked to an observed increase in 2-oxoglutarate levels. Arginine as a sole nitrogen source caused a reduced ethylene production. A reduction of arginine levels, accomplished using an arginine auxotrophic ARG4-deletion strain in the presence of limiting amounts of arginine or through CAR1 overexpression, did however not correlate with an increased ethylene production. As expected, arginine was necessary for ethylene production as ethylene production in the ARG4-deletion strain ceased at the time when arginine was depleted. In conclusion, our data suggest that high levels of 2-oxoglutarate and a limited amount of arginine are required for successful ethylene production in yeast. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of L-phenylalanine production by engineered Escherichia coli using phased exponential L-tyrosine feeding combined with nitrogen source optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peipei; Cao, Weijia; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen source optimization combined with phased exponential L-tyrosine feeding was employed to enhance L-phenylalanine production by a tyrosine-auxotroph strain, Escherichia coli YP1617. The absence of (NH4)2SO4, the use of corn steep powder and yeast extract as composite organic nitrogen source were more suitable for cell growth and L-phenylalanine production. Moreover, the optimal initial L-tyrosine level was 0.3 g L(-1) and exponential L-tyrosine feeding slightly improved L-phenylalanine production. Nerveless, L-phenylalanine production was greatly enhanced by a strategy of phased exponential L-tyrosine feeding, where exponential feeding was started at the set specific growth rate of 0.08, 0.05, and 0.02 h(-1) after 12, 32, and 52 h, respectively. Compared with exponential L-tyrosine feeding at the set specific growth rate of 0.08 h(-1), the developed strategy obtained a 15.33% increase in L-phenylalanine production (L-phenylalanine of 56.20 g L(-1)) and a 45.28% decrease in L-tyrosine supplementation. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Food-Grade Cloning System for Industrial Strains of Lactococcus lactis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kim I.; Larsen, Rasmus; Kibenich, Annette; Junge, Mette P.; Johansen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported the construction of a food-grade cloning vector for Lactococcus using the ochre suppressor, supB, as the selective marker. This vector, pFG1, causes only a slight growth inhibition in the laboratory strain MG1363 but is unstable in the industrial strains tested. As supB suppresses both amber and ochre stop codons, which are present in 82% of all known lactococcal genes, this undesirable finding may result from the accumulation of elongated mistranslated polypeptides. Here, we report the development of a new food-grade cloning vector, pFG200, which is suitable for overexpressing a variety of genes in industrial strains of Lactococcus lactis. The vector uses an amber suppressor, supD, as selectable marker and consists entirely of Lactococcus DNA, with the exception of a small polylinker region. Using suppressible pyrimidine auxotrophs, selection and maintenance are efficient in any pyrimidine-free medium including milk. Importantly, the presence of this vector in a variety of industrial strains has no significant effect on the growth rate or the rate of acidification in milk, making this an ideal system for food-grade modification of industrially relevant L. lactis strains. The usefulness of this system is demonstrated by overexpressing the pepN gene in a number of industrial backgrounds. PMID:10742196

  15. Induction of heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL, and GroES by salt stress in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens; Jacobsen, Susanne; Hammer, Karin

    1997-01-01

    The bacterium Lactococcus lactis has become a model organism in studies of growth physiology and membrane transport, as a result of its simple fermentative metabolism. It is also used as a model for studying the importance of specific genes and functions during lie in excess nutrients, by compari...... the timing during heat stress although at a lower induction level. These data indicate an overlap between the heat shock and salt stress responses in L. lactis......., by comparison of prototrophic wild-type strains and auxotrophic domesticated (daily) strains. In a study of the capacity of domesticated strains to perform directed responses toward various stress conditions, we have analyzed the heat and salt stress response in the established L,. lactis subsp. cremoris...... laboratory strain MG1363, which was originally derived from a dairy strain, After two-dimensional separation of proteins, the DnaK, GroEL, and GroES heat shock proteins, the HrcA (Orf1) heat shack repressor, and the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate kinase, glyceral-dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  16. A programmable Escherichia coli consortium via tunable symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Kerner

    Full Text Available Synthetic microbial consortia that can mimic natural systems have the potential to become a powerful biotechnology for various applications. One highly desirable feature of these consortia is that they can be precisely regulated. In this work we designed a programmable, symbiotic circuit that enables continuous tuning of the growth rate and composition of a synthetic consortium. We implemented our general design through the cross-feeding of tryptophan and tyrosine by two E. coli auxotrophs. By regulating the expression of genes related to the export or production of these amino acids, we were able to tune the metabolite exchanges and achieve a wide range of growth rates and strain ratios. In addition, by inverting the relationship of growth/ratio vs. inducer concentrations, we were able to "program" the co-culture for pre-specified attributes with the proper addition of inducing chemicals. This programmable proof-of-concept circuit or its variants can be applied to more complex systems where precise tuning of the consortium would facilitate the optimization of specific objectives, such as increasing the overall efficiency of microbial production of biofuels or pharmaceuticals.

  17. A study by nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the state of histidine in the catalytic triad of α-lytic protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachovchin, W.W.; Roberts, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The ionization behaviour of the histidine of the catalytic triad of α-lytic protease using N-15 NMR spectroscopy is studied. This technique is especially informative about the protonation, hydrogen-bond formation, and tautomeric equilibrium of imidazole rings. The efficient and specific incorporation of N-15 labelled histidine into α-lytic protease was achieved by inducing and isolating an auxotroph of myxobacter 495 for which histidine is an essential amino acid. The results show that histidine of the catalytic triad of α-lytic protease appears to have a base strength which is essentially normal for an imidazole derivative but, in the pH range where the enzymatic activity is high, the histidine tautomer is favoured with the hydrogen located on N3 (π), as the result of hydrogen bonding to the asparate anion and possible the serine hydroxyl. Thus, the N-15 NMR shifts support the general geometry postulated for the ''charge-relay'' mechanism but not the idea of an unusually weakly basic histidine or an unusually strongly basic asparate carboxylate anion. (A.G.)

  18. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Isolated from Non-Salted Fermented Soybean Foods.

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    Mayumi Kamada

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis is the main component in the fermentation of soybeans. To investigate the genetics of the soybean-fermenting B. subtilis strains and its relationship with the productivity of extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA, we sequenced the whole genome of eight B. subtilis stains isolated from non-salted fermented soybean foods in Southeast Asia. Assembled nucleotide sequences were compared with those of a natto (fermented soybean food starter strain B. subtilis BEST195 and the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis 168 that is incapable of γPGA production. Detected variants were investigated in terms of insertion sequences, biotin synthesis, production of subtilisin NAT, and regulatory genes for γPGA synthesis, which were related to fermentation process. Comparing genome sequences, we found that the strains that produce γPGA have a deletion in a protein that constitutes the flagellar basal body, and this deletion was not found in the non-producing strains. We further identified diversity in variants of the bio operon, which is responsible for the biotin auxotrophism of the natto starter strains. Phylogenetic analysis using multilocus sequencing typing revealed that the B. subtilis strains isolated from the non-salted fermented soybeans were not clustered together, while the natto-fermenting strains were tightly clustered; this analysis also suggested that the strain isolated from "Tua Nao" of Thailand traces a different evolutionary process from other strains.

  19. Novel patterns of ultraviolet mutagenesis and Weigle reactivation in Staphylococcus aureus and phage phi II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.K.; Hart, M.G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of u.v. irradiation on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus and its phage phi11 were studied. The recA and uvr mutations affected their survival like synonymous mutations in Escherichia coli. Weigle reactivation (W-reactivation) of phi11 occurred in wild-type S. aureus and in a uvr mutant. Reactivation was recA-dependent and was accompanied by u.v.-induced mutagenesis in a temperature-sensitive mutant of phi11. Bacterial mutation to streptomycin resistance was induced by u.v. and was also recA-dependent. In S. aureus, as in E. coli, u.v. was a more effective mutagen in the uvr genetic background. However, a dose-squared response for u.v.-induced mutation of wild-type and uvr strains of S. aureus to streptomycin resistance, and of a trp auxotroph to tryptophan independence, was found only with u.v. doses below 1 J m -2 . In relation to the Uvr mechanism of DNA repair, u.v. mutagenesis in S. aureus may involve both repairable and non-repairable lesions. As in E. Coli, the uvr genetic background reduced the u.v. dose required for maximal W-reactivation of u.v.-irradiated phage. However, there was no enhancement of W-reactivation by post-irradiation broth incubation of S. aureus. The results are compatible with a non-inducible mechanism for this phenomenon. (author)

  20. Biotechnological Potential of Yarrowia lipolytica Grown under Thiamine Limitation

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    Maria N. Chiglintseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the cultivation of a thiamine-auxotrophic yeast strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2412 on ethanol, the growth limitation by thiamine leads to the production of α-ketoglutaric acid. The α-ketoglutaric acid synthesis has been studied in dependence on pH, oxygen supply and ethanol, zinc and iron concentrations. Under optimal conditions, Y. lipolytica produced 88.7 g/L of α-ketoglutaric acid. The culture broth containing α-ketoglutaric acid was subjected to chemical treatment with hydrogen peroxide, which led to the formation of succinic acid in significant quantities (71.7 g/L. Further direct esterification of succinic acid with excess absolute ethanol yielded diethyl succinate. Biomass of Y. lipolytica, a superproducer of α-ketoglutaric acid, was characterized by a high content of protein and essential amino acids, free amino acids, and unusually large amount of γ-aminobutyric acid. The unique amino acid composition of the producer makes it possible to use this biomass as a component of parenteral nutrition mixtures and as a basis for neuroleptics.

  1. Neurospora crassa glucose - repressible gene -1(Grg-1) promoter controls the expression of neurospora tyrosinase gene in a clock-controlled manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarawneh, A. K

    1997-01-01

    In this study sphareroplastes of white Neurospora crassa mutant auxotroph for aromatic am no acids a rom 9 q a-2 inv, was transformed by the pKF-Tyr7-wt DNA construct. This construct contains the promoter of neurospora crassa glucose-repressible gene-1 (G rg-1) usp stream of Neurospora tyrosinase gene. The co transformation of this mutant with pKF-Tyr-7-wt cincture's and the pKAL-1, a plasmid which contains the Neurospora q a-2+ gene transform it to photophor. The transform ant contains the tyrosinase gene which catalyzes the unique step in the synthesis of the black pigment melanin. The activity of the tyrosinase in this transform ant was followed by measuring the absorbance of the dark coloured pigment at 332 nm. The maximum of the tyrosinase activity was shown at 16.36 and 56 hours after the shift of the transformed mycelia from constant light (L L) to constant dark (Dd). The rate of the enzyme activity was changed according to ci radian cycle of 20 hours. This G rg 1/tyrosinase construct provides a good system to study to study the temporal control of gene expression and the interaction between the different environmental c uses that affects gene expression. (author). 20 refs., 4 figs

  2. Restoration in non nutrient medium: relative importance of some separation genetic markers; Restauracao em meio nao nutriente: importancia relativa de alguns marcadores geneticos de reparacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, R J.A.

    1981-12-31

    In order to check whether the increase of celular viability observed in cultures of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, irradiated with ultraviolet and incubated in non nutrient medium, would be due to cell multiplication, and/or repair we applied a Statistical Fluctuation Test, based on Poisson Distribution. Utilizing macromolecules in strains that show true liquid holding recovery (LHR) or cell multiplication. Our results show that cell multiplication and not repair occurs in non nutrient medium for E.coli AB2470 (rrecB21), E.coli JG112 (polA1) an in the {Delta}uvrB mutant of S.typhimurium. In E.coli JG112, the multiplication rate is higher when thymine is added to the non nutrient medium, due to the auxotrophism of this strain. In E.coli lexB30 mutant, we observed repair in non nutrient medium (LHR) and cell multiplication, while in E.coli lexA1 mutant only LHR was observed. Studies of macromolecules degradation indicate that the final products are, probably reutilized by the cells, creating possibility of multiplication and/or repair. (author).

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the fourth FAS1 domain of human BigH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ji-Ho; Kim, EungKweon; Kim, Jongsun; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the fourth FAS1 domain of human BigH3 are reported. The protein BigH3 is a cell-adhesion molecule induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). It consists of four homologous repeat domains known as FAS1 domains; mutations in these domains have been linked to corneal dystrophy. The fourth FAS1 domain was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) (a methionine auxotroph) and purified by DEAE anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The FAS1 domain was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A SAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å at 100 K. The crystal belonged to space group P6 1 or P6 5 and had two molecules per asymmetric unit, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 62.93, c = 143.27 Å, α = β = 90.0, γ = 120.0°

  4. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of fermented traditional medicine oyaksungi-san.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2017-06-01

    The traditional medicine oyaksungi-san (OY) has been prescribed in East Asia for hundreds of years for the treatment of stroke, paralysis, and ataxia. OY also has therapeutic effects on arthralgia, myalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis, and recent studies have shown its protective effects against apoptosis of hippocampal cells and its anti-inflammatory effects on the peripheral blood cells of patient with cerebral infarction. Many studies have explored the use of traditional medicine and herb materials in the development of safe, novel, and effective pharmaceuticals with fewer side effects. These efforts commonly adopt a bioconversion tool for fermentation with beneficial microbes. However, only pharmaceuticals with high levels of safety and low levels of toxicity can be used in healthcare system. OY water extract was fermented with Lactobacillus and assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity. Single dose acute toxicity, bacterial reverse mutation, chromosome aberrations, and micronucleus were observed and assayed in rats, histidine/tryptophan auxotrophic bacteria, Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast cells, and mice bone marrow cells, respectively. All the experimental animals showed no abnormal behavior, clinical signs, body weight increases, or mortality. In the bacterial cultures, no revertant colonies were observed. Morphological and numerical chromosomal aberrations were not found in all metaphases examined. Frequency of induced micronuclei was not significantly increased in all doses applied. As a whole, no acute toxicity or genotoxicity were observed in all the assays examined. Therefore, fermented OY is considered to be a safe material that can be used for development of complementary and alternative medicine using bioconversion.

  5. Effect of mutagens, chemotherapeutic agents and defects in DNA repair genes on recombination in F' partial diploid Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norin, A.J.; Goldschmidt, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of mutagenic agents, nonmutagenic substances and defects in DNA repair to alter the genotype of F' partial diploid (F30) Escherichia coli was determined. The frequency of auxotrophic mutants and histidine requiring (His - ) haploid colonies was increased by mutagen treatment but Hfr colonies were not detected in F30 E. coli even with specific selection techniques. Genotype changes due to nonreciprocal recombination were determined by measuring the frequency of His - homogenotes, eg. F' hisC780, hisI + /hisC780, hisI + , arising from a His + heterogenote, F' hisC780 hisI + /hisC + , his1903. At least 75% of the recombinants were homozygous for histidine alleles which were present on the F' plasmid (exogenote) of the parental hetergenote rather than for histidine alleles on the chromosome. Mutagens, chemotherapeutic agents which block DNA synthesis and a defective DNA polymerase I gene, polA1, were found to increase the frequency of nonreciprocal recombination. A defect in the ability to excise thymine dimers, uvrC34, did not increase spontaneous nonreciprocal recombination. However, UV irradiation but not methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induced greater recombination in this excision-repair defective mutant than in DNA-repair-proficient strains. (Auth.)

  6. A Synthetic Alternative to Canonical One-Carbon Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzon, Madeleine; Perret, Alain; Loreau, Olivier; Delmas, Valérie; Perchat, Nadia; Weissenbach, Jean; Taran, Frédéric; Marlière, Philippe

    2017-08-18

    One-carbon metabolism is an ubiquitous metabolic pathway that encompasses the reactions transferring formyl-, hydroxymethyl- and methyl-groups bound to tetrahydrofolate for the synthesis of purine nucleotides, thymidylate, methionine and dehydropantoate, the precursor of coenzyme A. An alternative cyclic pathway was designed that substitutes 4-hydroxy-2-oxobutanoic acid (HOB), a compound absent from known metabolism, for the amino acids serine and glycine as one-carbon donors. It involves two novel reactions, the transamination of l-homoserine and the transfer of a one-carbon unit from HOB to tetrahydrofolate releasing pyruvate as coproduct. Since canonical reactions regenerate l-homoserine from pyruvate by carboxylation and subsequent reduction, every one-carbon moiety made available for anabolic reactions originates from CO 2 . The HOB-dependent pathway was established in an Escherichia coli auxotroph selected for prototrophy using long-term cultivation protocols. Genetic, metabolic and biochemical evidence support the emergence of a functional HOB-dependent one-carbon pathway achieved with the recruitment of the two enzymes l-homoserine transaminase and HOB-hydroxymethyltransferase and of HOB as an essential metabolic intermediate. Escherichia coli biochemical reprogramming was achieved by minimally altering canonical metabolism and leveraging on natural selection mechanisms, thereby launching the resulting strain on an evolutionary trajectory diverging from all known extant species.

  7. Characterization of the Pivotal Carbon Metabolism of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 under ex Vivo and Chemically Defined in Vitro Conditions by Isotopologue Profiling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Jörg; Huber, Claudia; Koczula, Anna; Lange, Birgit; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen that has to adapt to the nutritional requirements in the different host niches encountered during infection and establishment of invasive diseases. To dissect the central metabolic activity of S. suis under different conditions of nutrient availability, we performed labeling experiments starting from [13C]glucose specimens and analyzed the resulting isotopologue patterns in amino acids of S. suis grown under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. In combination with classical growth experiments, we found that S. suis is auxotrophic for Arg, Gln/Glu, His, Leu, and Trp in chemically defined medium. De novo biosynthesis was shown for Ala, Asp, Ser, and Thr at high rates and for Gly, Lys, Phe, Tyr, and Val at moderate or low rates, respectively. Glucose degradation occurred mainly by glycolysis and to a minor extent by the pentose phosphate pathway. Furthermore, the exclusive formation of oxaloacetate by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation became evident from the patterns in de novo synthesized amino acids. Labeling experiments with S. suis grown ex vivo in blood or cerebrospinal fluid reflected the metabolic adaptation to these host niches with different nutrient availability; however, similar key metabolic activities were identified under these conditions. This points at the robustness of the core metabolic pathways in S. suis during the infection process. The crucial role of PEP carboxylation for growth of S. suis in the host was supported by experiments with a PEP carboxylase-deficient mutant strain in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25575595

  8. Repression of branched-chain amino acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by isoleucine via CodY, and by a leucine-rich attenuator peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Julienne C; King, Alyssa N; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Edgell, David R; Murphy, Michael E P; Brinsmade, Shaun R; Heinrichs, David E

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine) for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acid synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via the global transcriptional regulator CodY. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Indeed S. aureus uses specialized transporters to scavenge BCAAs, however, its ability to synthesize them has remained conflicted by reports that it is auxotrophic for leucine and valine despite carrying an intact BCAA biosynthetic operon. In revisiting these findings, we have observed that S. aureus can engage in leucine and valine synthesis, but the level of BCAA synthesis is dependent on the BCAA it is deprived of, leading us to hypothesize that each BCAA differentially regulates the biosynthetic operon. Here we show that two mechanisms of transcriptional repression regulate the level of endogenous BCAA biosynthesis in response to specific BCAA availability. We identify a trans-acting mechanism involving isoleucine-dependent repression by the global transcriptional regulator CodY and a cis-acting leucine-responsive attenuator, uncovering how S. aureus regulates endogenous biosynthesis in response to exogenous BCAA availability. Moreover, given that isoleucine can dominate CodY-dependent regulation of BCAA biosynthesis, and that CodY is a global regulator of metabolism and virulence in S. aureus, we extend the importance of isoleucine availability for CodY-dependent regulation of other metabolic and virulence genes. These data resolve the previous conflicting observations regarding BCAA biosynthesis, and reveal the environmental signals that not only induce BCAA biosynthesis, but that could also have broader consequences on S. aureus environmental adaptation and virulence via CodY.

  9. Δ(1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate/glutamate biogenesis is required for fungal virulence and sporulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziting Yao

    Full Text Available Proline dehydrogenase (Prodh and Δ(1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5Cdh are two key enzymes in the cellular biogenesis of glutamate. Recombinant Prodh and P5Cdh proteins of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica were investigated and showed activity in in vitro assays. Additionally, the C. parasitica Prodh and P5Cdh genes were able to complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae put1 and put2 null mutants, respectively, to allow these proline auxotrophic yeast mutants to grow on media with proline as the sole source of nitrogen. Deletion of the Prodh gene in C. parasitica resulted in hypovirulence and a lower level of sporulation, whereas deletion of P5Cdh resulted in hypovirulence though no effect on sporulation; both Δprodh and Δp5cdh mutants were unable to grow on minimal medium with proline as the sole nitrogen source. In a wild-type strain, the intracellular level of proline and the activity of Prodh and P5Cdh increased after supplementation of exogenous proline, though the intracellular Δ(1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C content remained unchanged. Prodh and P5Cdh were both transcriptionally down-regulated in cells infected with hypovirus. The disruption of other genes with products involved in the conversion of arginine to ornithine, ornithine and glutamate to P5C, and P5C to proline in the cytosol did not appear to affect virulence; however, asexual sporulation was reduced in the Δpro1 and Δpro2 mutants. Taken together, our results showed that Prodh, P5Cdh and related mitochondrial functions are essential for virulence and that proline/glutamate pathway components may represent down-stream targets of hypovirus regulation in C. parasitica.

  10. Mutation breeding and submerged fermentation of a Pleurotus polysaccharide high-yield strain with low-energy heavy ions implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Henglei; Wan Honggui; Lv Changwu; Zeng Xianxian

    2010-01-01

    Pleurotus polysaccharide high-yield strains were selected through a method of auxotrophic primary screening and Shake-flask fermentation re-screening after low-energy heavy ions (the fluence of 1.2 x 10 16 N + /cm 2 at the energy of 15 keV) stepwise implantation. Two Pleurotus polysaccharide high-yield strains, PFPH-1 and PFPH-2, were selected with stable mycelium polysaccharide yield. The mycelium polysaccharide yield of PFPH-1 and PFPH-2 increased by 46.55% and 75.14%, respectively, compared to the original strain. The accumulation of mycelium biomass and intracellular polysaccharides were monitored in the submerged fermentation of Pleurotus ferulae by supplementation of various carbon and nitrogen sources as well as inorganic salts and pH alteration. The optima1 submerged fermentation medium favoring the accumulation of mycelium biomass and intracellular polysaccharides of PFPH-2 consisted of 1.0% wheat flour, 2.0% sucrose, 2.0% soybean flour, 1.5% bran extract, 0.2% K 2 HPO 4 , and 0.15% MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O, with a fittest pH value of 5.64. The orthogonal combination of the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources with inorganic salts indicates a synergistic effect on the accumulation of mycelium biomass and intracellular polysaccharides in the submerged fermentation of PFPH-2. The yield of mycelium polysaccharides of PFPH-2 increased to 903.73 ± 1.23 mg·L -1 by the end of fermentation. (authors)

  11. Trypanocidal Effect of Isotretinoin through the Inhibition of Polyamine and Amino Acid Transporters in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Reigada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines are essential compounds to all living organisms and in the specific case of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, they are exclusively obtained through transport processes since this parasite is auxotrophic for polyamines. Previous works reported that retinol acetate inhibits Leishmania growth and decreases its intracellular polyamine concentration. The present work describes a combined strategy of drug repositioning by virtual screening followed by in vitro assays to find drugs able to inhibit TcPAT12, the only polyamine transporter described in T. cruzi. After a screening of 3000 FDA-approved drugs, 7 retinoids with medical use were retrieved and used for molecular docking assays with TcPAT12. From the docked molecules, isotretinoin, a well-known drug used for acne treatment, showed the best interaction score with TcPAT12 and was selected for further in vitro studies. Isotretinoin inhibited the polyamine transport, as well as other amino acid transporters from the same protein family (TcAAAP, with calculated IC50 values in the range of 4.6-10.3 μM. It also showed a strong inhibition of trypomastigote burst from infected cells, with calculated IC50 of 130 nM (SI = 920 being significantly less effective on the epimastigote stage (IC50 = 30.6 μM. The effect of isotretinoin on the parasites plasma membrane permeability and on mammalian cell viability was tested, and no change was observed. Autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies were detected as part of the mechanisms of isotretinoin-induced death indicating that the inhibition of transporters by isotretinoin causes nutrient starvation that triggers autophagic and apoptotic processes. In conclusion, isotretinoin is a promising trypanocidal drug since it is a multi-target inhibitor of essential metabolites transporters, in addition to being an FDA-approved drug largely used in humans, which could reduce significantly the requirements for its possible application in the

  12. TRANSDUCTION OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS BY EACH OF TWO PHAGES1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martha J.; Thorne, Curtis B.

    1963-01-01

    Taylor, Martha J. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Curtis B. Thorne. Transduction of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis by each of two phages. J. Bacteriol. 86:452–461. 1963.—A second transducing bacteriophage, designated SP-15, was isolated from the same soil-sample culture filtrate that supplied the Bacillus subtilis transducing phage, SP-10, reported earlier from this laboratory. SP-10 and SP-15 differ serologically and in several other respects, but share the ability to propagate on B. subtilis W-23-Sr (streptomycin-resistant) and B. licheniformis ATCC 9945a, and to mediate general transduction in either species when propagated homologously. Attempts to transduce between the species have failed. SP-10 forms plaques readily on both W-23-Sr and 9945a; SP-15 forms minute plaques on W-23-Sr and has shown no evidence of any lytic activity on 9945a. Maximal recoveries of prototrophic colonies from mixtures of SP-10 with auxotrophs of either W-23-Sr or 9945a were obtained only when excess phage was neutralized by post-transduction treatment with specific phage antiserum. Such treatment was not necessary for maximal recovery of transductants effected by SP-15. Unlike SP-10, SP-15 propagated on W-23-Sr did not transduce B. subtilis 168 (indole−). SP-15 transduced B. licheniformis more efficiently than did SP-10. Neither phage was able to transduce B. licheniformis as efficiently as it transduced B. subtilis. The differing influences of multiplicity of infection were compared for the two phages in both species. PMID:14066421

  13. Differential outcome of infection with attenuated Salmonella in MyD88-deficient mice is dependent on the route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac, Jincy M; Sarawathiamma, Dhanya; Al-Ketbi, Mai I; Azimullah, Sheikh; Al-Ojali, Samia M; Mohamed, Yassir A; Flavell, Richard A; Fernandez-Cabezudo, Maria J; al-Ramadi, Basel K

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system is a prerequisite for the induction of adaptive immunity to both infectious and non-infectious agents. TLRs are key components of the innate immune recognition system and detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Most TLRs utilize the MyD88 adaptor for their signaling pathways. In the current study, we investigated innate and adaptive immune responses to primary as well as secondary Salmonella infections in MyD88-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) mice. Using i.p. or oral route of inoculation, we demonstrate that MyD88(-/-) mice are hypersusceptible to infection by an attenuated, double auxotrophic, mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). This is manifested by 2-3 logs higher bacterial loads in target organs, delayed recruitment of phagocytic cells, and defective production of proinflammatory cytokines in MyD88(-/-) mice. Despite these deficiencies, MyD88(-/-) mice developed Salmonella-specific memory Th1 responses and produced elevated serum levels of anti-Salmonella Abs, not only of Th1-driven (IgG2c, IgG3) but also IgG1 and IgG2b isotypes. Curiously, these adaptive responses were insufficient to afford full protection against a secondary challenge with a virulent strain of S. typhimurium. In comparison with the high degree of mortality seen in MyD88(-/-) mice following i.p. inoculation, oral infections led to the establishment of a state of long-term persistence, characterized by continuous bacterial shedding in animal feces that lasted for more than 6 months, but absence from systemic organs. These findings suggest that the absent expression of MyD88 affects primarily the innate effector arm of the immune system and highlights its critical role in anti-bacterial defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. A High Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassera, María B.; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Merino, Emilio F.; Burgos, Emmanuel S.; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2011-01-01

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (Km 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap4A (2.0 Å resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine, ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg2+ ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layered α/β/α sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight-binding for adenosine arises from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168 and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64 and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2′- and 3′-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to human adenosine kinase (48% identity) than to AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identity). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role of this enzyme to maintain the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects. PMID:21247194

  15. A novel 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Rahnella aquatilis with significantly reduced glyphosate sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-He Peng

    Full Text Available The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5.1.19 is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids and chorismate-derived secondary metabolites in plants, fungi, and microorganisms. It is also the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Natural glyphosate resistance is generally thought to occur within microorganisms in a strong selective pressure condition. Rahnella aquatilis strain GR20, an antagonist against pathogenic agrobacterial strains of grape crown gall, was isolated from the rhizosphere of grape in glyphosate-contaminated vineyards. A novel gene encoding EPSPS was identified from the isolated bacterium by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic aroA mutant. The EPSPS, named AroA(R. aquatilis, was expressed and purified from E. coli, and key kinetic values were determined. The full-length enzyme exhibited higher tolerance to glyphosate than the E. coli EPSPS (AroA(E. coli, while retaining high affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate. Transgenic plants of AroA(R. aquatilis were also observed to be more resistant to glyphosate at a concentration of 5 mM than that of AroA(E. coli. To probe the sites contributing to increased tolerance to glyphosate, mutant R. aquatilis EPSPS enzymes were produced with the c-strand of subdomain 3 and the f-strand of subdomain 5 (Thr38Lys, Arg40Val, Arg222Gln, Ser224Val, Ile225Val, and Gln226Lys substituted by the corresponding region of the E. coli EPSPS. The mutant enzyme exhibited greater sensitivity to glyphosate than the wild type R. aquatilis EPSPS with little change of affinity for its first substrate, shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP. The effect of the residues on subdomain 5 on glyphosate resistance was more obvious.

  16. Viejos y nuevos enfoques para el desarrollo de vacunas contra la tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bercovier

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Do we need renewed efforts to develop new vaccines to fight tuberculosis? Epidemiological data show that the decrease of the already low incidence of tuberculosis has stopped in developed countries. In certain Western countries the incidence of tuberculosis has even increased in the last ten years. In Africa and in Asia, a high incidence of tuberculosis is found similar to that of the Western world in the 1930s. Can we predict from the history of tuberculosis in Western Europe that the epidemic of tuberculosis in developing countries has reached his peak or is still developing? Revisited data from Europe show that the epidemic of tuberculosis started at least three centuries before it reached its apogee in the middle of the 19th century. The reasons for the decrease of tuberculosis in the first half of the 20th century in the Western world are still not well understood. Will public health measures and proper antibiotic treatment reduce and stop tuberculosis in Africa and in Asia or will the incidence of tuberculosis increase? Our ability to control the spread of the disease is complicated by the appearance of antibiotic resistant strains and HIV. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular basis for the interaction between the bacilli and the hosts is necessary for the development of improved approaches for treatment and immunization. Cellular immunity and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH are key processes in the course of mycobacterial infection and are involved in both primary and secondary infection as well as in the induction of protective immunity in the host. The different types of tuberculosis vaccines being reevaluated comprise: BCG with booster, oral BCG, modified BCG (multivalent, auxotrophic M. tuberculosis attenuated strains, M. tuberculosis secreted proteins or recombinant proteins with or without immunomodulators and DNA vaccines. These new vaccines inducing a good cellular immunity may contribute to the development of

  17. Kluyveromyces marxianus as a host for heterologous protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Andreas K; Madeira, José Valdo; Cerdán, María-Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel

    2016-07-01

    The preferentially respiring and thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is an emerging host for heterologous protein synthesis, surpassing the traditional preferentially fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in some important aspects: K . marxianus can grow at temperatures 10 °C higher than S. cerevisiae, which may result in decreased costs for cooling bioreactors and reduced contamination risk; has ability to metabolize a wider variety of sugars, such as lactose and xylose; is the fastest growing eukaryote described so far; and does not require special cultivation techniques (such as fed-batch) to avoid fermentative metabolism. All these advantages exist together with a high secretory capacity, performance of eukaryotic post-translational modifications, and with a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. In the last years, replication origins from several Kluyveromyces spp. have been used for the construction of episomal vectors, and also integrative strategies have been developed based on the tendency for non-homologous recombination displayed by K. marxianus. The recessive URA3 auxotrophic marker and the dominant Kan(R) are mostly used for selection of transformed cells, but other markers have been made available. Homologous and heterologous promoters and secretion signals have been characterized, with the K. marxianus INU1 expression and secretion system being of remarkable functionality. The efficient synthesis of roughly 50 heterologous proteins has been demonstrated, including one thermophilic enzyme. In this mini-review, we summarize the physiological characteristics of K. marxianus relevant for its use in the efficient synthesis of heterologous proteins, the efforts performed hitherto in the development of a molecular toolbox for this purpose, and some successful examples.

  18. Integration of replication-defective R68.45-like plasmids into the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimmann, C; Rella, M; Haas, D

    1988-06-01

    R68.45 and other similar broad-host-range (IncP) plasmids carrying a tandem repeat of the 2.1 kb insertion element IS21 mobilize the chromosome of many different Gram-negative bacteria. To analyse the structure of R68.45-chromosome cointegrates, whose involvement in the mobilization process had been postulated previously, we selected for the stable integration of R68.45-like plasmids into the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. Two plasmids were chosen: pME28, a transfer-deficient, mobilizable RP1 derivative with an inactive replication control (trfA) gene, and pME487, an R68.45 derivative with a trfA(ts) mutation causing temperature-sensitive replication. Chromosomally integrated pME28 and pME487 were found to be flanked by single IS21 elements. This structure is in agreement with a 'cut-and-paste' mode of R68.45 transposition. pME28 and pME487 showed a low specificity of insertion but rarely (less than 0.1%) induced auxotrophic mutations. Hfr (high-frequency-of-recombination) donors of P. aeruginosa could be obtained by chromosomal integration of pME487 or pME28; in the latter case, the transfer functions lacking from pME28 had to be provided in trans on an autonomous plasmid. Hfr donors gave higher conjugational linkage and transferred longer stretches of the P. aeruginosa chromosome than did R68.45 donors. This suggests that the integration of R68.45 into the donor chromosome is short-lived in P. aeruginosa.

  19. A Sordaria macrospora mutant lacking the leu1 gene shows a developmental arrest during fruiting body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kück, Ulrich

    2005-10-01

    Developmental mutants with defects in fruiting body formation are excellent resources for the identification of genetic components that control cellular differentiation processes in filamentous fungi. The mutant pro4 of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is characterized by a developmental arrest during the sexual life cycle. This mutant generates only pre-fruiting bodies (protoperithecia), and is unable to form ascospores. Besides being sterile, pro4 is auxotrophic for leucine. Ascospore analysis revealed that the two phenotypes are genetically linked. After isolation of the wild-type leu1 gene from S. macrospora, complementation experiments demonstrated that the gene was able to restore both prototrophy and fertility in pro4. To investigate the control of leu1 expression, other genes involved in leucine biosynthesis specifically and in the general control of amino acid biosynthesis ("cross-pathway control") have been analysed using Northern hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR. These analyses demonstrated that genes of leucine biosynthesis are transcribed at higher levels under conditions of amino acid starvation. In addition, the expression data for the cpc1 and cpc2 genes indicate that cross-pathway control is superimposed on leucine-specific regulation of fruiting body development in the leu1 mutant. This was further substantiated by growth experiments in which the wild-type strain was found to show a sterile phenotype when grown on a medium containing the amino acid analogue 5-methyl-tryptophan. Taken together, these data show that pro4 represents a novel mutant type in S. macrospora, in which amino acid starvation acts as a signal that interrupts the development of the fruiting body.

  20. Importance of Bacterial Replication and Alveolar Macrophage-Independent Clearance Mechanisms during Early Lung Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberlein, Emilie; Cohen, Jonathan M.; José, Ricardo; Hyams, Catherine J.; Callard, Robin; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Yuste, Jose; Edwards, Lindsey A.; Marshall, Helina; van Rooijen, Nico; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of alveolar macrophages for host immunity during early Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection is well established, the contribution and relative importance of other innate immunity mechanisms and of bacterial factors are less clear. We have used a murine model of S. pneumoniae early lung infection with wild-type, unencapsulated, and para-amino benzoic acid auxotroph mutant TIGR4 strains to assess the effects of inoculum size, bacterial replication, capsule, and alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent clearance mechanisms on bacterial persistence within the lungs. Alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent (calculated indirectly) clearance half-lives and bacterial replication doubling times were estimated using a mathematical model. In this model, after infection with a high-dose inoculum of encapsulated S. pneumoniae, alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms were dominant, with a clearance half-life of 24 min compared to 135 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance. In addition, after a high-dose inoculum, successful lung infection required rapid bacterial replication, with an estimated S. pneumoniae doubling time of 16 min. The capsule had wide effects on early lung clearance mechanisms, with reduced half-lives of 14 min for alveolar macrophage-independent and 31 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance of unencapsulated bacteria. In contrast, with a lower-dose inoculum, the bacterial doubling time increased to 56 min and the S. pneumoniae alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance half-life improved to 42 min and was largely unaffected by the capsule. These data demonstrate the large effects of bacterial factors (inoculum size, the capsule, and rapid replication) and alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms during early lung infection with S. pneumoniae. PMID:25583525

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Adapts to Oxidative Stress by Producing H2O2-Resistant Small-Colony Variants via the SOS Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Kimberley L.; Strange, Elizabeth; Bamford, Kathleen B.; Armstrong-James, Darius

    2015-01-01

    The development of chronic and recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections is associated with the emergence of slow-growing mutants known as small-colony variants (SCVs), which are highly tolerant of antibiotics and can survive inside host cells. However, the host and bacterial factors which underpin SCV emergence during infection are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of S. aureus to sublethal concentrations of H2O2 leads to a specific, dose-dependent increase in the population frequency of gentamicin-resistant SCVs. Time course analyses revealed that H2O2 exposure caused bacteriostasis in wild-type cells during which time SCVs appeared spontaneously within the S. aureus population. This occurred via a mutagenic DNA repair pathway that included DNA double-strand break repair proteins RexAB, recombinase A, and polymerase V. In addition to triggering SCV emergence by increasing the mutation rate, H2O2 also selected for the SCV phenotype, leading to increased phenotypic stability and further enhancing the size of the SCV subpopulation by reducing the rate of SCV reversion to the wild type. Subsequent analyses revealed that SCVs were significantly more resistant to the toxic effects of H2O2 than wild-type bacteria. With the exception of heme auxotrophs, gentamicin-resistant SCVs displayed greater catalase activity than wild-type bacteria, which contributed to their resistance to H2O2. Taken together, these data reveal a mechanism by which S. aureus adapts to oxidative stress via the production of a subpopulation of H2O2-resistant SCVs with enhanced catalase production. PMID:25690100

  2. Random mutagenesis screening indicates the absence of a separate H(+)-sensor in the pH-sensitive Kir channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jennifer J; Shang, Lijun; Bollepalli, Murali K; Baukrowitz, Thomas; Tucker, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Several inwardly-rectifying (Kir) potassium channels (Kir1.1, Kir4.1 and Kir4.2) are characterised by their sensitivity to inhibition by intracellular H(+) within the physiological range. The mechanism by which these channels are regulated by intracellular pH has been the subject of intense scrutiny for over a decade, yet the molecular identity of the titratable pH-sensor remains elusive. In this study we have taken advantage of the acidic intracellular environment of S. cerevisiae and used a K(+) -auxotrophic strain to screen for mutants of Kir1.1 with impaired pH-sensitivity. In addition to the previously identified K80M mutation, this unbiased screening approach identified a novel mutation (S172T) in the second transmembrane domain (TM2) that also produces a marked reduction in pH-sensitivity through destabilization of the closed-state. However, despite this extensive mutagenic approach, no mutations could be identified which removed channel pH-sensitivity or which were likely to act as a separate H(+) -sensor unique to the pH-sensitive Kir channels. In order to explain these results we propose a model in which the pH-sensing mechanism is part of an intrinsic gating mechanism common to all Kir channels, not just the pH-sensitive Kir channels. In this model, mutations which disrupt this pH-sensor would result in an increase, not reduction, in pH-sensitivity. This has major implications for any future studies of Kir channel pH-sensitivity and explains why formal identification of these pH-sensing residues still represents a major challenge.

  3. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii subspecies-level dysbiosis in the human gut microbiome underlying atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Yoo, Young; Hwang, Junghyun; Na, Yun-Cheol; Kim, Heenam Stanley

    2016-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a serious global epidemic associated with a modern lifestyle. Although aberrant interactions between gut microbes and the intestinal immune system have been implicated in this skin disease, the nature of the microbiome dysfunction underlying the disease remains unclear. The gut microbiome from 132 subjects, including 90 patients with AD, was analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene and metagenome sequence analyses. Reference genomes from the Human Microbiome Project and the KEGG Orthology database were used for metagenome analyses. Short-chain fatty acids in fecal samples were compared by using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We show that enrichment of a subspecies of the major gut species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is strongly associated with AD. In addition, the AD microbiome was enriched in genes encoding the use of various nutrients that could be released from damaged gut epithelium, reflecting a bloom of auxotrophic bacteria. Fecal samples from patients with AD showed decreased levels of butyrate and propionate, which have anti-inflammatory effects. This is likely a consequence of an intraspecies compositional change in F prausnitzii that reduces the number of high butyrate and propionate producers, including those related to the strain A2-165, a lack of which has been implicated in patients with Crohn disease. The data suggest that feedback interactions between dysbiosis in F prausnitzii and dysregulation of gut epithelial inflammation might underlie the chronic progression of AD by resulting in impairment of the gut epithelial barrier, which ultimately leads to aberrant TH2-type immune responses to allergens in the skin. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel genetic tools for diaminopimelic acid selection in virulence studies of Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bland

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular studies of bacterial virulence are enhanced by expression of recombinant DNA during infection to allow complementation of mutants and expression of reporter proteins in vivo. For highly pathogenic bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, these studies are currently limited because deliberate introduction of antibiotic resistance is restricted to those few which are not human treatment options. In this work, we report the development of alternatives to antibiotics as tools for host-pathogen research during Yersinia pestis infections focusing on the diaminopimelic acid (DAP pathway, a requirement for cell wall synthesis in eubacteria. We generated a mutation in the dapA-nlpB(dapX operon of Yersinia pestis KIM D27 and CO92 which eliminated the expression of both genes. The resulting strains were auxotrophic for diaminopimelic acid and this phenotype was complemented in trans by expressing dapA in single and multi-copy. In vivo, we found that plasmids derived from the p15a replicon were cured without selection, while selection for DAP enhanced stability without detectable loss of any of the three resident virulence plasmids. The dapAX mutation rendered Y. pestis avirulent in mouse models of bubonic and septicemic plague which could be complemented when dapAX was inserted in single or multi-copy, restoring development of disease that was indistinguishable from the wild type parent strain. We further identified a high level, constitutive promoter in Y. pestis that could be used to drive expression of fluorescent reporters in dapAX strains that had minimal impact to virulence in mouse models while enabling sensitive detection of bacteria during infection. Thus, diaminopimelic acid selection for single or multi-copy genetic systems in Yersinia pestis offers an improved alternative to antibiotics for in vivo studies that causes minimal disruption to virulence.

  5. Teriflunomide (Leflunomide Promotes Cytostatic, Antioxidant, and Apoptotic Effects in Transformed Prostate Epithelial Cells: Evidence Supporting a Role for Teriflunomide in Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numsen Hail, Jr

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Teriflunomide (TFN is an inhibitor of de novo pyrimidine synthesis and the active metabolite of leflunomide. Leflunomide is prescribed to patients worldwide as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory disease-modifying prodrug. Leflunomide inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer xenographs in mice, and leflunomide or TFN promoted cytostasis and/or apoptosis in cultured cells. These findings suggest that TFN could be useful in prostate cancer chemoprevention. We investigated the possible mechanistic aspects of this tenet by characterizing the effects of TFN using premalignant PWR-1E and malignant DU-145 human prostate epithelial cells. TFN promoted a dose- and time-dependent cytostasis or apoptosis induction in these cells. The cytostatic effects of TFN, which were reversible but not by the presence of excess uridine in the culture medium, included diminished cellular uridine levels, an inhibition in oxygen consumption, a suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and a conspicuous reduction in the size and number of the nucleoli in the nuclei of these cells. Conversely, TFN's apoptogenic effects were characteristic of catastrophic mitochondrial disruption (i.e., a dissipation of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, enhanced ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and cytoplasmic vacuolization and followed by DNA fragmentation. The respiration-deficient derivatives of the DU-145 cells, which are also uridine auxotrophs, were markedly resistant to the cytostatic and apoptotic effects of TFN, implicating de novo pyrimidine synthesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics as the primary targets for TFN in the respiration competent cells. These mechanistic findings advocate a role for TFN and mitochondrial bioenergetics in prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  6. Optimizing HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell induction by recombinant BCG in prime-boost regimens with heterologous viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Richard; Bridgeman, Anne; Bourne, Charles; Mbewe-Mvula, Alice; Sadoff, Jerald C; Both, Gerald W; Joseph, Joan; Fulkerson, John; Hanke, Tomáš

    2011-12-01

    The desire to induce HIV-1-specific responses soon after birth to prevent breast milk transmission of HIV-1 led us to propose a vaccine regimen which primes HIV-1-specific T cells using a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (rBCG) vaccine. Because attenuated live bacterial vaccines are typically not sufficiently immunogenic as stand-alone vaccines, rBCG-primed T cells will likely require boost immunization(s). Here, we compared modified Danish (AERAS-401) and Pasteur lysine auxotroph (222) strains of BCG expressing the immunogen HIVA for their potency to prime HIV-1-specific responses in adult BALB/c mice and examined four heterologous boosting HIVA vaccines for their immunogenic synergy. We found that both BCG.HIVA(401) and BCG.HIVA(222) primed HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell-mediated responses. The strongest boosts were delivered by human adenovirus-vectored HAdV5.HIVA and sheep atadenovirus-vectored OAdV7.HIVA vaccines, followed by poxvirus MVA.HIVA; the weakest was plasmid pTH.HIVA DNA. The prime-boost regimens induced T cells capable of efficient in vivo killing of sensitized target cells. We also observed that the BCG.HIVA(401) and BCG.HIVA(222) vaccines have broadly similar immunologic properties, but display a number of differences mainly detected through distinct profiles of soluble intercellular signaling molecules produced by immune splenocytes in response to both HIV-1- and BCG-specific stimuli. These results encourage further development of the rBCG prime-boost regimen. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Repression of branched-chain amino acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by isoleucine via CodY, and by a leucine-rich attenuator peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne C Kaiser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acid synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via the global transcriptional regulator CodY. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Indeed S. aureus uses specialized transporters to scavenge BCAAs, however, its ability to synthesize them has remained conflicted by reports that it is auxotrophic for leucine and valine despite carrying an intact BCAA biosynthetic operon. In revisiting these findings, we have observed that S. aureus can engage in leucine and valine synthesis, but the level of BCAA synthesis is dependent on the BCAA it is deprived of, leading us to hypothesize that each BCAA differentially regulates the biosynthetic operon. Here we show that two mechanisms of transcriptional repression regulate the level of endogenous BCAA biosynthesis in response to specific BCAA availability. We identify a trans-acting mechanism involving isoleucine-dependent repression by the global transcriptional regulator CodY and a cis-acting leucine-responsive attenuator, uncovering how S. aureus regulates endogenous biosynthesis in response to exogenous BCAA availability. Moreover, given that isoleucine can dominate CodY-dependent regulation of BCAA biosynthesis, and that CodY is a global regulator of metabolism and virulence in S. aureus, we extend the importance of isoleucine availability for CodY-dependent regulation of other metabolic and virulence genes. These data resolve the previous conflicting observations regarding BCAA biosynthesis, and reveal the environmental signals that not only induce BCAA biosynthesis, but that could also have broader consequences on S. aureus environmental adaptation and virulence via CodY.

  8. Zolav®: a new antibiotic for the treatment of acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinant, Alexa; Boulos, Ramiz A

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav®, a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Materials and methods Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav® against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav® were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50) concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50). The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979), was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav® tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav® was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Results Susceptibility testing of Zolav® against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav® at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h) elicited a two-log difference in CFU/g between the treatment group and the control. Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of Zolav® as a novel treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27042015

  9. Development of a two-stage feeding strategy based on the kind and level of feeding nutrients for improving fed-batch production of L-threonine by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwen; Liang, Yong; Liu, Qian; Tao, Tongtong; Lai, Shujuan; Chen, Ning; Wen, Tingyi

    2013-01-01

    Fed-batch fermentation is the predominant method for industrial production of amino acids. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the effects of four kinds of feeding nutrients and developed an accurate optimization strategy for fed-batch production of L-threonine. The production of L-threonine was severely inhibited when cell growth ceased in the bath culture. Similarly, L-threonine production was also associated with cell growth in the carbon-, phosphate-, and sulfate-limited fed-batch cultures, but the accumulation of L-threonine was markedly increased because of the extended production time in the growth stage. Interestingly, auxotrophic amino acid (L-isoleucine)-limited feeding promoted L-threonine production over the non-growth phase. Metabolite analysis indicates that substantial production of acetate and glutamate and the resulting accumulation of ammonium may lead to the inhibition of L-threonine production. During the growth phase, the levels of L-isoleucine were accurately optimized by balancing cell growth and production with Pontryagin's maximum principle, basing on the relationship between the specific growth rate μ and specific production rate ρ. Furthermore, the depletion of L-isoleucine and phosphate at the end of the growth phase favored the synthesis of L-threonine in the subsequent non-growth phase. Combining the two-stage feeding profiles, the final L-threonine concentration and conversion rate were increased by 5.9- and 2.1-fold, respectively, compared to batch processes without feeding control. The identification of efficient feeding nutrient and the development of accurate feeding strategies provide potential guidelines for microbial production of amino acids.

  10. On the efficient bio-incorporation of 5-hydroxy-tryptophan in recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli with T7 RNA polymerase-based vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Souza, Wellington P; Bronze, Fellipe; Broos, Jaap; Marcondes, Marcelo F M; Oliveira, Vitor

    2017-10-21

    Biosynthetic incorporation of non-canonic amino acids is an attractive strategy to introduce new properties in recombinant proteins. Trp analogs can be incorporated in recombinant proteins replacing regular Trp during protein translation into a Trp-auxotrophic cell host. This straightforward method however, is limited to few analogs recognized and accepted by the cellular protein production machinery. 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5OH-Trp) can be bio-incorporated using E. coli as expression host however; we have experienced very low incorporation yields - amount of protein containing regular Trp/amount of protein containing the Trp analog - during expressions of 5OH-Trp labeled proteins. Furthermore, this low incorporation yield were verified especially when the widely-used vectors based on the T7 RNA polymerase were used. Testing different 5OH-Trp incorporation protocols we verified that in these T7-based systems, the production of the T7 RNA polymerase is driven by the same elements - lac promoter/IPTG - as the target protein. Consequently, the bio-incorporation of the 5OH-Trp residues also occurs in this crucial enzyme, but, the produced T7 RNA polymerase labeled with 5OH-Trp is inactive or much less active. In the present work, we describe an efficient method to overcome this mentioned problem and bio-incorporate 5OH-Trp in proteins expressed in E. coli., using vectors based on the T7 RNA polymerase-T7 promoter. The two-step induction protocol here described showed incorporation efficiencies of 5OH-Trp higher than 90%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and Characterization of RibN, a Novel Family of Riboflavin Transporters from Rhizobium leguminosarum and Other Proteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Angulo, Víctor A.; Bonomi, Hernán R.; Posadas, Diana M.; Serer, María I.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Zorreguieta, Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobia are symbiotic bacteria able to invade and colonize the roots of legume plants, inducing the formation of nodules, where bacteria reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Riboflavin availability influences the capacity of rhizobia to survive in the rhizosphere and to colonize roots. In this study, we identified the RL1692 gene of Rhizobium leguminosarum downstream of a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch. RL1692 encodes a putative transmembrane permease with two EamA domains. The presence of an FMN riboswitch regulating a transmembrane protein is usually observed in riboflavin transporters, suggesting that RL1692 may be involved in riboflavin uptake. The product of RL1692, which we named RibN, is conserved in members of the alpha-, beta-, and gammaproteobacteria and shares no significant identity with any riboflavin transporter previously identified. In this work, we show that RibN is localized in the membrane cellular fraction and its expression is downregulated by riboflavin. By heterologous expression in a Brucella abortus mutant auxotrophic for riboflavin, we demonstrate that RibN possesses flavin transport activity. Similarly, we also demonstrate that RibN orthologues from Ochrobactrum anthropi and Vibrio cholerae (which lacks the FMN riboswitch) are able to transport riboflavin. An R. leguminosarum ribN null mutant exhibited lower nodule occupancy levels in pea plants during symbiosis assays. Thus, we propose that RibN and its homologues belong to a novel family of riboflavin transporters. This work provides the first experimental description of riboflavin transporters in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23935051

  12. Extensive Identification of Bacterial Riboflavin Transporters and Their Distribution across Bacterial Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Enrique; Bonomi, Hernán Ruy; Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto; García-Angulo, Víctor Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Riboflavin, the precursor for the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide, is an essential metabolite in all organisms. While the functions for de novo riboflavin biosynthesis and riboflavin import may coexist in bacteria, the extent of this co-occurrence is undetermined. The RibM, RibN, RfuABCD and the energy-coupling factor-RibU bacterial riboflavin transporters have been experimentally characterized. In addition, ImpX, RfnT and RibXY are proposed as riboflavin transporters based on positional clustering with riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RBP) genes or conservation of the FMN riboswitch regulatory element. Here, we searched for the FMN riboswitch in bacterial genomes to identify genes encoding riboflavin transporters and assessed their distribution among bacteria. Two new putative riboflavin transporters were identified: RibZ in Clostridium and RibV in Mesoplasma florum. Trans-complementation of an Escherichia coli riboflavin auxotroph strain confirmed the riboflavin transport activity of RibZ from Clostridium difficile, RibXY from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, ImpX from Fusobacterium nucleatum and RfnT from Ochrobactrum anthropi. The analysis of the genomic distribution of all known bacterial riboflavin transporters revealed that most occur in species possessing the RBP and that some bacteria may even encode functional riboflavin transporters from two different families. Our results indicate that some species possess ancestral riboflavin transporters, while others possess transporters that appear to have evolved recently. Moreover, our data suggest that unidentified riboflavin transporters also exist. The present study doubles the number of experimentally characterized riboflavin transporters and suggests a specific, non-accessory role for these proteins in riboflavin-prototrophic bacteria. PMID:25938806

  13. Thermo-resistance Acquisition of A Mesophilic Bacterium with The Aid of Vector Particles Originating from Thermophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitate, T.; Inaba, N.; Kurusu, Y.; Hoaki, T.; Chiura, H. X.

    2004-12-01

    The present study was aimed to examine whether virus-like particles (VLPs) would be able to transfer and express the thermo-resistance gene of thermophilic microbes in the mesophilic auxotrophic Escherichia coli AB1157 mutant. A hyper-thermophilic archaea, Thermococcus kodakaraensis B41, that was isolated from the Suiyo Seamount APSK06 boring core, released particles (KD-VLPs) during culture. Transduction towards recipient E. coli AB1157 was carried out using KD-VLP as the gene transfer mediator, in order to examine the lethal effect and thermo-resistant gene transfer capability of the particle. The colony forming ability of the cells was examined in 7 % of gelrite supplemented-LB plates (LB-gelrite plates) at 50, 56, and 70 ° C. Regardless of UV irradiation, KD-VLP showed a reduced efficiency of plating (EOP) of recipient viable cell population to ca 65 %. Four colonies were formed in LB-gelrite plates at 50 ° C, which were named as KD-E-Trans, and the gene transfer frequency was estimated to be 5.12 × 10-8 cfu/particle. Obtained KD-E-Trans was cultured in LB liquid medium employing the same high temperature conditions. The cells grew 1.6 ˜ 6 fold of the inocula in 13 days at all the examined temperatures, and the generation time of the transductants were as follows: ca 28 hours at 50 ° C, ca 73 hours at 56 ° C, ca 266 hours at 70 ° C. Thus, the gene transfer of thermo-resistance to mesophilic E. coli from another Domain with the aid of KD-VLPs was demonstrated.

  14. Novel genetic tools for diaminopimelic acid selection in virulence studies of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David M; Eisele, Nicholas A; Keleher, Lauren L; Anderson, Paul E; Anderson, Deborah M

    2011-03-02

    Molecular studies of bacterial virulence are enhanced by expression of recombinant DNA during infection to allow complementation of mutants and expression of reporter proteins in vivo. For highly pathogenic bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, these studies are currently limited because deliberate introduction of antibiotic resistance is restricted to those few which are not human treatment options. In this work, we report the development of alternatives to antibiotics as tools for host-pathogen research during Yersinia pestis infections focusing on the diaminopimelic acid (DAP) pathway, a requirement for cell wall synthesis in eubacteria. We generated a mutation in the dapA-nlpB(dapX) operon of Yersinia pestis KIM D27 and CO92 which eliminated the expression of both genes. The resulting strains were auxotrophic for diaminopimelic acid and this phenotype was complemented in trans by expressing dapA in single and multi-copy. In vivo, we found that plasmids derived from the p15a replicon were cured without selection, while selection for DAP enhanced stability without detectable loss of any of the three resident virulence plasmids. The dapAX mutation rendered Y. pestis avirulent in mouse models of bubonic and septicemic plague which could be complemented when dapAX was inserted in single or multi-copy, restoring development of disease that was indistinguishable from the wild type parent strain. We further identified a high level, constitutive promoter in Y. pestis that could be used to drive expression of fluorescent reporters in dapAX strains that had minimal impact to virulence in mouse models while enabling sensitive detection of bacteria during infection. Thus, diaminopimelic acid selection for single or multi-copy genetic systems in Yersinia pestis offers an improved alternative to antibiotics for in vivo studies that causes minimal disruption to virulence.

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of oleaginous yeast Lipomyces species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Deng, Shuang; Culley, David E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2017-06-19

    Background: Because of interest in the production of renewable bio-hydrocarbon fuels, various living organisms have been explored for their potential use in producing fuels and chemicals. The oil-producing (oleaginous) yeast Lipomyces starkeyi is the subject of active research regarding the production of lipids using a wide variety of carbon and nutrient sources. The genome of L. starkeyi has been published, which opens the door to production strain improvements using the tools of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. However, using these tools for strain improvement requires the establishment of effective and reliable transformation methods with suitable selectable markers (antibiotic resistance or auxotrophic marker genes) and the necessary genetic elements (promoters and terminators) for expression of introduced genes. Chemical-based methods have been published, but suffer from low efficiency or the requirement for targeting to rRNA loci. To address these problems, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was investigated as an alternative method for L. starkeyi and other Lipomyces species. Results: In this study, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was demonstrated to be effective in the transformation of both L. starkeyi and other Lipomyces species and that the introduced DNA can be reliably integrated into the chromosomes of these species. The gene deletion of Ku70 and Pex10 was also demonstrated in L. starkeyi. In addition to the bacterial antibiotic selection marker gene hygromycin B phosphotransferase, the bacterial -glucuronidase reporter gene under the control of L. starkeyi translation elongation factor 1 promoter was also stably expressed in seven different Lipomyces species. Conclusion: The results from this study clearly demonstrate that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a reliable genetic tool for gene deletion and integration and expression of heterologous genes in L. starkeyi and other Lipomyces species.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of a novel rhodamine labeled cholesterol reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Alexander; Bauer, Olivia; Gimpl, Gerald

    2017-06-01

    We introduce the novel fluorescent cholesterol probe RChol in which a sulforhodamine group is linked to the sixth carbon atom of the steroid backbone of cholesterol. The same position has recently been selected to generate the fluorescent reporter 6-dansyl-cholestanol (DChol) and the photoreactive 6-azi-cholestanol. In comparison with DChol, RChol is brighter, much more photostable, and requires less energy for excitation, i.e. favorable conditions for microscopical imaging. RChol easily incorporates into methyl-β-cyclodextrin forming a water-soluble inclusion complex that acts as an efficient sterol donor for cells and membranes. Like cholesterol, RChol possesses a free 3'OH group, a prerequisite to undergo intracellular esterification. RChol was also able to support the growth of cholesterol auxotrophic cells and can therefore substitute for cholesterol as a major component of the plasma membrane. According to subcellular fractionation, slight amounts of RChol (~12%) were determined in low-density Triton-insoluble fractions whereas the majority of RChol was localized in non-rafts fractions. In phase-separated giant unilamellar vesicles, RChol preferentially partitions in liquid-disordered membrane domains. Intracellular RChol was transferred to extracellular sterol acceptors such as high density lipoproteins in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike DChol, RChol was not delivered to the cholesterol storage pathway. Instead, it translocated to endosomes/lysosomes with some transient contacts to peroxisomes. Thus, RChol is considered as a useful probe to study the endosomal/lysosomal pathway of cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a target for algaecide development.

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    Dobson, Renwick C J; Girón, Irma; Hudson, André O

    2011-01-01

    In some bacterial species and photosynthetic cohorts, including algae, the enzyme L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) (E.C. 2.6.1.83) is involved in the anabolism of the essential amino acid L-lysine. DapL catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate (THDPA) to L,L-diaminopimelate (L,L-DAP), in one step bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic reactions present in the acyl DAP pathways. Here we present an in vivo and in vitro characterization of the DapL ortholog from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr-DapL). The in vivo analysis illustrated that the enzyme is able to functionally complement the E. coli dap auxotrophs and was essential for plant development in Arabidopsis. In vitro, the enzyme was able to inter-convert THDPA and L,L-DAP, showing strong substrate specificity. Cr-DapL was dimeric in both solution and when crystallized. The structure of Cr-DapL was solved in its apo form, showing an overall architecture of a α/β protein with each monomer in the dimer adopting a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transferase-like fold in a V-shaped conformation. The active site comprises residues from both monomers in the dimer and shows some rearrangement when compared to the apo-DapL structure from Arabidopsis. Since animals do not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for the de novo synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine, enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive targets for the development of antibiotics, herbicides and algaecides.

  18. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a target for algaecide development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwick C J Dobson

    Full Text Available In some bacterial species and photosynthetic cohorts, including algae, the enzyme L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL (E.C. 2.6.1.83 is involved in the anabolism of the essential amino acid L-lysine. DapL catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate (THDPA to L,L-diaminopimelate (L,L-DAP, in one step bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic reactions present in the acyl DAP pathways. Here we present an in vivo and in vitro characterization of the DapL ortholog from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr-DapL. The in vivo analysis illustrated that the enzyme is able to functionally complement the E. coli dap auxotrophs and was essential for plant development in Arabidopsis. In vitro, the enzyme was able to inter-convert THDPA and L,L-DAP, showing strong substrate specificity. Cr-DapL was dimeric in both solution and when crystallized. The structure of Cr-DapL was solved in its apo form, showing an overall architecture of a α/β protein with each monomer in the dimer adopting a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transferase-like fold in a V-shaped conformation. The active site comprises residues from both monomers in the dimer and shows some rearrangement when compared to the apo-DapL structure from Arabidopsis. Since animals do not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for the de novo synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine, enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive targets for the development of antibiotics, herbicides and algaecides.

  19. Potential of Zimbabwean commercial probiotic products and strains of Lactobacillus plantarum as prophylaxis and therapy against diarrhoea caused by Escherichia coli in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingwaru, Walter; Vidmar, Jerneja

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of commercial fermented products sold in the country, and strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) as prophylaxis and therapy against diarrhoea in children. The antimicrobial potential of cultures of lactobacilli enriched from 4 Zimbabwean commercial food/beverage products: Dairibord Lacto sour milk (DLSM), Probrand sour milk (PSM), Kefalos Vuka cheese (KVC) and Chibuku opaque beer (COB); and four strains of L. plantarum obtained from Balkan traditional cheeses against clinical strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was assayed using the well diffusion method. Three commercial paediatric antidiarrhoeal drug products: Biogaia (BG), Prolife (PL) and Probio Junior (PJ) and a mutant strain of E. coli [strain 11105 (ATCC) - a vitamin B-12 auxotroph and penicillin G acylase-producing strain] were used as controls. An agar diffusion assay and a competitive exclusion assay were carried out on Mueller Hinton agar. Crude cultures of putative lactobacillus strains obtained from Zimbabwean dairy products (Probrand sour milk, Kefalos Vuka vuka cheese and Chibuku opaque beer) had significantly higher antimicrobial activities against clinical strains of E. coli than strains of L. plantarum isolated from Balkan cheeses (CLP1, CLP2 or CLP3) and crude microbial cultures from commercial paediatric probiotic products (BG, PJ and PL) of a culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (P sour milk, Kefalos Vuka vuka cheese and Chibuku opaque beer), and three strains of L. plantarum from Balkan cheeses (CLP1, CLP2 or CLP3) exhibited high antibacterial activities that can be harnessed to control paediatric diarrhoea that is caused by pathogenic strains of E. coli. Studies to characterise the probiotic potential of the live cultures in the products and the new strains of L. plantarum are underway. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stationary phase expression of the arginine biosynthetic operon argCBH in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is elevated in response to nutrient limitation, stress or arginine restriction. Though control of the pathway in response to arginine limitation is largely modulated by the ArgR repressor, other factors may be involved in increased stationary phase and stress expression. Results In this study, we report that expression of the argCBH operon is induced in stationary phase cultures and is reduced in strains possessing a mutation in rpoS, which encodes an alternative sigma factor. Using strains carrying defined argR, and rpoS mutations, we evaluated the relative contributions of these two regulators to the expression of argH using operon-lacZ fusions. While ArgR was the main factor responsible for modulating expression of argCBH, RpoS was also required for full expression of this biosynthetic operon at low arginine concentrations (below 60 μM L-arginine, a level at which growth of an arginine auxotroph was limited by arginine. When the argCBH operon was fully de-repressed (arginine limited, levels of expression were only one third of those observed in ΔargR mutants, indicating that the argCBH operon is partially repressed by ArgR even in the absence of arginine. In addition, argCBH expression was 30-fold higher in ΔargR mutants relative to levels found in wild type, fully-repressed strains, and this expression was independent of RpoS. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that both derepression and positive control by RpoS are required for full control of arginine biosynthesis in stationary phase cultures of E. coli.

  1. Ergosterol is mainly located in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the yeast plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanko, Lukasz M; Sullivan, David P; Sere, Yves Y; Szomek, Maria; Lunding, Anita; Solanko, Katarzyna A; Pizovic, Azra; Stanchev, Lyubomir D; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Menon, Anant K; Wüstner, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Transbilayer lipid asymmetry is a fundamental characteristic of the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane (PM). While PM phospholipid asymmetry is well documented, the transbilayer distribution of PM sterols such as mammalian cholesterol and yeast ergosterol is not reliably known. We now report that sterols are asymmetrically distributed across the yeast PM, with the majority (~80%) located in the cytoplasmic leaflet. By exploiting the sterol-auxotrophic hem1Δ yeast strain we obtained cells in which endogenous ergosterol was quantitatively replaced with dehydroergosterol (DHE), a closely related fluorescent sterol that functionally and accurately substitutes for ergosterol in vivo. Using fluorescence spectrophotometry and microscopy we found that membrane-impermeant collisional quenchers (spin-labeled phosphatidylcholine and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid). Efficient quenching was seen only after the cells were disrupted by glass-bead lysis or repeated freeze-thaw to allow quenchers access to the cell interior. The extent of quenching was unaffected by treatments that deplete cellular ATP levels, collapse the PM electrochemical gradient or affect the actin cytoskeleton. However, alterations in PM phospholipid asymmetry in cells lacking phospholipid flippases resulted in a more symmetric transbilayer distribution of sterol. Similarly, an increase in the quenchable pool of DHE was observed when PM sphingolipid levels were reduced by treating cells with myriocin. We deduce that sterols comprise up to ~45% of all inner leaflet lipids in the PM, a result that necessitates revision of current models of the architecture of the PM lipid bilayer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. An Amoebal Grazer of Cyanobacteria Requires Cobalamin Produced by Heterotrophic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Amy T; Beld, Joris; Brahamsha, Bianca

    2017-05-15

    Amoebae are unicellular eukaryotes that consume microbial prey through phagocytosis, playing a role in shaping microbial food webs. Many amoebal species can be cultivated axenically in rich media or monoxenically with a single bacterial prey species. Here, we characterize heterolobosean amoeba LPG3, a recent natural isolate, which is unable to grow on unicellular cyanobacteria, its primary food source, in the absence of a heterotrophic bacterium, a Pseudomonas species coisolate. To investigate the molecular basis of this requirement for heterotrophic bacteria, we performed a screen using the defined nonredundant transposon library of Vibrio cholerae , which implicated genes in corrinoid uptake and biosynthesis. Furthermore, cobalamin synthase deletion mutations in V. cholerae and the Pseudomonas species coisolate do not support the growth of amoeba LPG3 on cyanobacteria. While cyanobacteria are robust producers of a corrinoid variant called pseudocobalamin, this variant does not support the growth of amoeba LPG3. Instead, we show that it requires cobalamin that is produced by the Pseudomonas species coisolate. The diversity of eukaryotes utilizing corrinoids is poorly understood, and this amoebal corrinoid auxotroph serves as a model for examining predator-prey interactions and micronutrient transfer in bacterivores underpinning microbial food webs. IMPORTANCE Cyanobacteria are important primary producers in aquatic environments, where they are grazed upon by a variety of phagotrophic protists and, hence, have an impact on nutrient flux at the base of microbial food webs. Here, we characterize amoebal isolate LPG3, which consumes cyanobacteria as its primary food source but also requires heterotrophic bacteria as a source of corrinoid vitamins. Amoeba LPG3 specifically requires the corrinoid variant produced by heterotrophic bacteria and cannot grow on cyanobacteria alone, as they produce a different corrinoid variant. This same corrinoid specificity is also

  3. The why and how of amino acid analytics in cancer diagnostics and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manig, Friederike; Kuhne, Konstantin; von Neubeck, Cläre; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Yu, Zhanru; Kessler, Benedikt M; Pietzsch, Jens; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A

    2017-01-20

    Pathological alterations in cell functions are frequently accompanied by metabolic reprogramming including modifications in amino acid metabolism. Amino acid detection is thus integral to the diagnosis of many hereditary metabolic diseases. The development of malignant diseases as metabolic disorders comes along with a complex dysregulation of genetic and epigenetic factors affecting metabolic enzymes. Cancer cells might transiently or permanently become auxotrophic for non-essential or semi-essential amino acids such as asparagine or arginine. Also, transformed cells are often more susceptible to local shortage of essential amino acids such as methionine than normal tissues. This offers new points of attacking unique metabolic features in cancer cells. To better understand these processes, highly sensitive methods for amino acid detection and quantification are required. Our review summarizes the main methodologies for amino acid detection with a particular focus on applications in biomedicine and cancer, provides a historical overview of the methodological pre-requisites in amino acid analytics. We compare classical and modern approaches such as the combination of gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS/LC-MS). The latter is increasingly applied in clinical routine. We therefore illustrate an LC-MS workflow for analyzing arginine and methionine as well as their precursors and analogs in biological material. Pitfalls during protocol development are discussed, but LC-MS emerges as a reliable and sensitive tool for the detection of amino acids in biological matrices. Quantification is challenging, but of particular interest in cancer research as targeting arginine and methionine turnover in cancer cells represent novel treatment strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Catabolite-mediated mutations in alternate toluene degradative pathways in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, M B; Phipps, D W; Ridgway, H F

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida 54g grew on mineral salts with toluene and exhibited catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) activity, indicating a meta pathway. After 10 to 15 days on toluene, nondegrading (Tol-) variants approached nearly 10% of total CFU. Auxotrophs were not detected among variants, suggesting selective loss of catabolic function(s). Variant formation was substrate dependent, since Tol- cells were observed on neither ethylbenzene, glucose, nor peptone-based media nor when toluene catabolism was suppressed by glucose. Unlike wild-type cells, variants did not grow on gasoline, toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, benzoate, or catechol, suggesting loss of meta pathway function. Catabolic and C23O activities were restored to variants via transfer of a 78-mDa TOL-like plasmid from a wild-type Tol+ donor. Tests for reversion of variants to Tol+ were uniformly negative, suggesting possible delection or excision of catabolic genes. Deletions were confirmed in some variants by failure to hybridize with a DNA probe specific for the xylE gene encoding C23O. Cells grown on benzoate remained Tol+ but were C23O- and contained a plasmid of reduced size or were plasmid free, suggesting an alternate chromosomal catabolic pathway, also defective in variants. Cells exposed to benzyl alcohol, the initial oxidation product of toluene, accumulated > 13% variants in 5 days, even when cell division was repressed by nitrogen deprivation to abrogate selection processes. No variants formed in identical ethylbenzene-exposed controls. The results suggest that benzyl alcohol mediates irreversible defects in both a plasmid-associated meta pathway and an alternate chromosomal pathway. PMID:7642499

  5. Engineering Escherichia coli to grow constitutively on D-xylose using the carbon-efficient Weimberg pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Luca; Carr, Reuben; Baxter, Scott; Cortis, Roxann; Thorpe, Thomas; Eastham, Graham; Stephens, Gill

    2018-01-01

    Bio-production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic C5 sugars usually requires the use of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to produce pyruvate. Unfortunately, the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A results in the loss of 33 % of the carbon as CO2, to the detriment of sustainability and process economics. To improve atom efficiency, we engineered Escherichia coli to utilize d-xylose constitutively using the Weimberg pathway, to allow direct production of 2-oxoglutarate without CO2 loss. After confirming enzyme expression in vitro, the pathway expression was optimized in vivo using a combinatorial approach, by screening a range of constitutive promoters whilst systematically varying the gene order. A PPP-deficient (ΔxylAB), 2-oxoglutarate auxotroph (Δicd) was used as the host strain, so that growth on d-xylose depended on the expression of the Weimberg pathway, and variants expressing Caulobacter crescentus xylXAB could be selected on minimal agar plates. The strains were isolated and high-throughput measurement of the growth rates on d-xylose was used to identify the fastest growing variant. This strain contained the pL promoter, with C. crescentus xylA at the first position in the synthetic operon, and grew at 42 % of the rate on d-xylose compared to wild-type E. coli using the PPP. Remarkably, the biomass yield was improved by 53.5 % compared with the wild-type upon restoration of icd activity. Therefore, the strain grows efficiently and constitutively on d-xylose, and offers great potential for use as a new host strain to engineer carbon-efficient production of fuels and chemicals via the Weimberg pathway. PMID:29458683

  6. Identification and functional analysis of the erh1(+ gene encoding enhancer of rudimentary homolog from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek K Krzyzanowski

    Full Text Available The ERH gene encodes a highly conserved small nuclear protein with a unique amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure but unknown function. The gene is present in animals, plants, and protists but to date has only been found in few fungi. Here we report that ERH homologs are also present in all four species from the genus Schizosaccharomyces, S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus, which, however, are an exception in this respect among Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The ERH protein sequence is moderately conserved within the genus (58% identity between S. pombe and S.japonicus, but the intron-rich genes have almost identical intron-exon organizations in all four species. In S. pombe, erh1(+ is expressed at a roughly constant level during vegetative growth and adaptation to unfavorable conditions such as nutrient limitation and hyperosmotic stress caused by sorbitol. Erh1p localizes preferentially to the nucleus with the exception of the nucleolus, but is also present in the cytoplasm. Cells lacking erh1(+ have an aberrant cell morphology and a comma-like shape when cultured to the stationary phase, and exhibit a delayed recovery from this phase followed by slower growth. Loss of erh1(+ in an auxotrophic background results in enhanced arrest in the G1 phase following nutritional stress, and also leads to hypersensitivity to agents inducing hyperosmotic stress (sorbitol, inhibiting DNA replication (hydroxyurea, and destabilizing the plasma membrane (SDS; this hypersensitivity can be abolished by expression of S. pombe erh1(+ and, to a lesser extent, S. japonicus erh1(+ or human ERH. Erh1p fails to interact with the human Ciz1 and PDIP46/SKAR proteins, known molecular partners of human ERH. Our data suggest that in Schizosaccharomyces sp. erh1(+ is non-essential for normal growth and Erh1p could play a role in response to adverse environmental conditions and in cell cycle regulation.

  7. HIV-1 Subtype C Mosaic Gag Expressed by BCG and MVA Elicits Persistent Effector T Cell Responses in a Prime-Boost Regimen in Mice.

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    Tsungai Ivai Jongwe

    Full Text Available Over 90% of HIV/AIDS positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with highly heterogeneous HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C viruses. One of the best ways to reduce the burden of this disease is the development of an affordable and effective prophylactic vaccine. Mosaic immunogens are computationally designed to overcome the hurdle of HIV diversity by maximizing the expression of potential T cell epitopes. Mycobacterium bovis BCG ΔpanCD auxotroph and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vaccines expressing HIV-1C mosaic Gag (GagM were tested in a prime-boost regimen to demonstrate immunogenicity in a mouse study. The BCG-GagM vaccine was stable and persisted 11.5 weeks post vaccination in BALB/c mice. Priming with BCG-GagM and boosting with MVA-GagM elicited higher Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses than the BCG-GagM only and MVA-GagM only homologous vaccination regimens. The heterologous vaccination also generated a more balanced and persistent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT response with a predominant effector memory phenotype. A Th1 bias was induced by the vaccines as determined by the predominant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. This study shows that a low dose of MVA (104 pfu can effectively boost a BCG prime expressing the same mosaic immunogen, generating strong, cellular immune responses against Gag in mice. Our data warrants further evaluation in non-human primates. A low dose vaccine would be an advantage in the resource limited countries of sub-Saharan Africa and India (where the predominating virus is HIV-1 subtype C.

  8. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  9. Discovery of a Bacterial 5-Methylcytosine Deaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    5-Methylcytosine is found in all domains of life, but the bacterial cytosine deaminase from Escherichia coli (CodA) will not accept 5-methylcytosine as a substrate. Since significant amounts of 5-methylcytosine are produced in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, this compound must eventually be catabolized and the fragments recycled by enzymes that have yet to be identified. We therefore initiated a comprehensive phylogenetic screen for enzymes that may be capable of deaminating 5-methylcytosine to thymine. From a systematic analysis of sequence homologues of CodA from thousands of bacterial species, we identified putative cytosine deaminases where a “discriminating” residue in the active site, corresponding to Asp-314 in CodA from E. coli, was no longer conserved. Representative examples from Klebsiella pneumoniae (locus tag: Kpn00632), Rhodobacter sphaeroides (locus tag: Rsp0341), and Corynebacterium glutamicum (locus tag: NCgl0075) were demonstrated to efficiently deaminate 5-methylcytosine to thymine with values of kcat/Km of 1.4 × 105, 2.9 × 104, and 1.1 × 103 M–1 s–1, respectively. These three enzymes also catalyze the deamination of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil with values of kcat/Km of 1.2 × 105, 6.8 × 104, and 2.0 × 102 M–1 s–1, respectively. The three-dimensional structure of Kpn00632 was determined by X-ray diffraction methods with 5-methylcytosine (PDB id: 4R85), 5-fluorocytosine (PDB id: 4R88), and phosphonocytosine (PDB id: 4R7W) bound in the active site. When thymine auxotrophs of E. coli express these enzymes, they are capable of growth in media lacking thymine when supplemented with 5-methylcytosine. Expression of these enzymes in E. coli is toxic in the presence of 5-fluorocytosine, due to the efficient transformation to 5-fluorouracil. PMID:25384249

  10. Single mutation confers vanadate resistance to the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaszewski, S.; Van Herck, J.C.; Dufour, J.P.; Kulpa, J.; Nieuwenhuis, B.; Goffeau, A.

    1987-01-01

    A single-gene nuclear mutant has been selected from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe for growth resistance to Dio-9, a plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitor. From this mutant, called pma1, an ATPase activity has been purified. It contains a Mr = 100,000 major polypeptide which is phosphorylated by [gamma- 32 P] ATP. Proton pumping is not impaired since the isolated mutant ATPase is able, in reconstituted proteoliposomes, to quench the fluorescence of the delta pH probe 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxy acridine. The isolated mutant ATPase is sensitive to Dio-9 as well as to seven other plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitors. The mutant H+-ATPase activity tested in vitro is, however, insensitive to vanadate. Its Km for MgATP is modified and its ATPase specific activity is decreased. The pma1 mutation decreases the rate of extracellular acidification induced by glucose when cells are incubated at pH 4.5 under nongrowing conditions. During growth, the intracellular mutant pH is more acid than the wild type one. The derepression by ammonia starvation of methionine transport is decreased in the mutant. The growth rate of pma1 mutants is reduced in minimal medium compared to rich medium, especially when combined to an auxotrophic mutation. It is concluded that the H+-ATPase activity from yeast plasma membranes controls the intracellular pH as well as the derepression of amino acid, purine, and pyrimidine uptakes. The pma1 mutation modifies several transport properties of the cells including those responsible for the uptake of Dio-9 and other inhibitors

  11. Kinetics of mutation induction by ultraviolet light in excision-deficient yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, F; Haynes, R H

    1977-02-01

    We have measured the frequency of UV-induced reversions (locus plus suppressor) for the ochre alleles ade2-1 and lys2-1 and forward mutations (ade2 adex double auxotrophs) in an excision-deficient strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (rad2-20). For very low UV doses, both mutational systems exhibit linear induction kinetics. However, as the dose increases, a strikingly different response is observed: in the selective reversion system a transition to higher order induction kinetics occurs near 9 ergs/mm2 (25% survival), whereas in the nonselective forward system the mutation frequency passes through a maximum near 14 ergs/mm2 (4.4% survival) and then declines. This contrast in kinetics cannot be explained in any straightforward way by current models of induced mutagenesis, which have been developed primarily on the basis of bacterial data. The bacterial models are designed to accommodate the quadratic induction kinetics that are frequently observed in these systems. We have derived a mathematical expression for mutation frequency that enables us to fit both the forward and reversion data on the assumptions that mutagenesis is basically a "single event" Poisson process, and that mutation and killing are not necessarily independent of one another. In particular, the dose-response relations are consistent with the idea that the sensitivity of the revertants is about 25% less than that of the original cell population, whereas the sensitivity of the forward mutants is about 29% greater than the population average. We argue that this relatively small differential sensitivity of mutant and nonmutant cells is associated with events that take place during mutation expression and clonal growth.

  12. Kinetics of mutation induction by ultraviolet light in excision-deficient yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, F.; Haynes, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    We have measured the frequency of uv-induced reversions (locus plus suppressor) for the ochre alleles ade 2-1 and lys 2-1 and forward mutations (ade2 adex double auxotrophs) in an excision-deficient strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (rad 2-20). For very low uv doses, both mutational systems exhibit linear induction kinetics. However, as the dose increases, a strikingly different response is observed: in the selective reversion system a transition to higher order induction kinetics occurs near 9 ergs/mm 2 (25 percent survival), whereas in the nonselective forward system the mutation frequency passes through a maximum near 14 ergs/mm 2 (4.4 percent survival) and then declines. This contrast in kinetics cannot be explained in any straightforward way by current models of induced mutagenesis, which have been developed primarily on the basis of bacterial data. The bacterial models are designed to accommodate the quadratic induction kinetics that are frequently observed in these systems. We have derived a mathematical expression for mutation frequency that enables us to fit both the forward and reversion data on the assumptions that mutagenesis is basically a ''single event'' Poisson process, and that mutation and killing are not necessarily independent of one another. In particular, the dose-response relations are consistent with the idea that the sensitivity of the revertants is about 25 percent less than that of the original cell population, whereas the sensitivity of the forward mutants is about 29 percent greater than the population average. We argue that this relatively small differential sensitivity of mutant and nonmutant cells is associated with events that take place during mutation expression and clonal growth

  13. Melanin dependent survival of Apergillus fumigatus conidia in lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shayista; Thywissen, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Saluz, Hans Peter; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne pathogenic fungus of humans. Upon inhalation of conidia, the fungus makes close contact with lung epithelial cells, which only possess low phagocytic activity. These cells are in particular interesting to address the question whether there is some form of persistence of conidia of A. fumigatus in the human host. Therefore, by also using uracil-auxotrophic mutant strains, we were able to investigate the interaction of A549 lung epithelial cells and A. fumigatus conidia in detail for long periods. Interestingly, unlike professional phagocytes, our study showed that the presence of conidial dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin enhanced the uptake of A. fumigatus conidia by epithelial cells when compared with non-pigmented pksP mutant conidia. Furthermore, conidia of A. fumigatus were able to survive within epithelial cells. This was due to the presence of DHN melanin in the cell wall of conidia, because melanised wild-type conidia showed a higher survival rate inside epithelial cells and led to inhibition of acidification of phagolysosomes. Both effects were not observed for white (non-melanised) conidia of the pksP mutant strain. Moreover, in contrast to pksP mutant conidia, melanised wild-type conidia were able to inhibit the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in A549 lung epithelial cells even for longer periods. The anti-apoptotic effect was not restricted to conidia, because both conidia-derived melanin ghosts (cell-free DHN melanin) and a different type of melanin, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanin, acted anti-apoptotically. Taken together, these data indicate the possibility of melanin-dependent persistence of conidia in lung epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Biosynthetic incorporation of telluromethionine into dihydrofolate reductase and crystallographic analysis of the distribution of tellurium atoms in the protein molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkle, M.G.; Lewinski, K.; Boles, J.O.; Dunlap, R.B.; Odom, J.D.; Lebioda, L. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Recent successes in crystallographic studies of proteins with methionine (Met) residues replaced with SeMet, pioneered by Hendrickson and coworkers, inspired us to replace Met with TeMet in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). E. coli DHFR, which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, consists of 159 residues, 5 of which are Met. TeMet was incorporated into DHFR using the Met auxotroph, E. coli DL41, carrying the expression vector pWT8 with an IPTG inducible promoter and ampicillin resistance gene. The enzyme was purified by successive chromatography on Q-Sepharose and PHenyl Sepharose resins, yielding milligram quantities of homogeneous enzyme with a specific activity of 40 units/mg. TeMet DHFR exhibits kinetic properties similar to those of wt DHFR. Amino acid analysis indicated 3 authentic Met residues in TeMet DHFR, whereas atomic absorption spectroscopy detected 2 Te per protein molecule. Amino acid sequence analysis results suggested that only authentic Met was present in the first three Met positions (1,16,and 20). Crystals of Te-DHFR were grown in the presence of methotrexate from PEG 4000 and were isomorphous with wt-DHFR crystals grown from ethanol. Difference Fourier maps and restrained least-squares refinement show very little, if any, Te in the first three Met positions: Met{sup 1}, Met{sup 16}, and Met{sup 20}, whereas the occupancy of Te in positions 42 and 92 is 0.64. Apparently, the process of folding, subsequent purification, and crystallization select DHFR molecules with Te in Met{sup 42} and Met{sup 92}. Replacing Met with TeMet provides an internal probe that should facilitate structural and mechanistic studies of proteins.

  15. Characterization of serine hydroxymethyltransferase GlyA as a potential source of D-alanine in Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedetti, Stefania; Bühl, Henrike; Gaballah, Ahmed; Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Schneider, Tanja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2014-01-01

    For intracellular Chlamydiaceae, there is no need to withstand osmotic challenges, and a functional cell wall has not been detected in these pathogens so far. Nevertheless, penicillin inhibits cell division in Chlamydiaceae resulting in enlarged aberrant bodies, a phenomenon known as chlamydial anomaly. D-alanine is a unique and essential component in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls. In free-living bacteria like Escherichia coli, penicillin-binding proteins such as monofunctional transpeptidases PBP2 and PBP3, the putative targets of penicillin in Chlamydiaceae, cross-link adjacent peptidoglycan strands via meso-diaminopimelic acid and D-Ala-D-Ala moieties of pentapeptide side chains. In the absence of genes coding for alanine racemase Alr and DadX homologs, the source of D-Ala and thus the presence of substrates for PBP2 and PBP3 activity in Chlamydiaceae has puzzled researchers for years. Interestingly, Chlamydiaceae genomes encode GlyA, a serine hydroxymethyltransferase that has been shown to exhibit slow racemization of D- and L-alanine as a side reaction in E. coli. We show that GlyA from Chlamydia pneumoniae can serve as a source of D-Ala. GlyA partially reversed the D-Ala auxotrophic phenotype of an E. coli racemase double mutant. Moreover, purified chlamydial GlyA had racemase activity on L-Ala in vitro and was inhibited by D-cycloserine, identifying GlyA, besides D-Ala ligase MurC/Ddl, as an additional target of this competitive inhibitor in Chlamydiaceae. Proof of D-Ala biosynthesis in Chlamydiaceae helps to clarify the structure of cell wall precursor lipid II and the role of chlamydial penicillin-binding proteins in the development of non-dividing aberrant chlamydial bodies and persistence in the presence of penicillin.

  16. Characterization of serine hydroxymethyltransferase GlyA as a potential source of D-alanine in Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eDe Benedetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For intracellular Chlamydiaceae, there is no need to withstand osmotic challenges, and a functional cell wall has not been detected in these pathogens so far. Nevertheless, penicillin inhibits cell division in Chlamydiaceae resulting in enlarged aberrant bodies, a phenomenon known as chlamydial anomaly.D-alanine is a unique and essential component in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls. In free-living bacteria like Escherichia coli, penicillin-binding proteins such as monofunctional transpeptidases PBP2 and PBP3, the putative targets of penicillin in Chlamydiaceae, cross-link adjacent peptidoglycan strands via meso-diaminopimelic acid and D-Ala-D-Ala moieties of pentapeptide side chains. In the absence of genes coding for alanine racemase Alr and DadX homologs, the source of D-Ala and thus the presence of substrates for PBP2 and PBP3 activity in Chlamydiaceae has puzzled researchers for years. Interestingly, Chlamydiaceae genomes encode GlyA, a serine hydroxymethyltransferase that has been shown to exhibit slow racemization of D- and L- alanine as a side reaction in E. coli. We show that GlyA from Chlamydia pneumoniae can serve as a source of D-Ala. GlyA partially reversed the D-Ala auxotrophic phenotype of an E. coli racemase double mutant. Moreover, purified chlamydial GlyA had racemase activity on L-Ala in vitro and was inhibited by D-cycloserine, identifying GlyA, besides D-Ala ligase MurC/Ddl, as an additional target of this competitive inhibitor in Chlamydiaceae. Proof of D-Ala biosynthesis in Chlamydiaceae helps to clarify the structure of cell wall precursor lipid II and the role of chlamydial penicillin-binding proteins in the development of non-dividing aberrant chlamydial bodies and persistence in the presence of penicillin.

  17. Pimelic acid, the first precursor of the Bacillus subtilis biotin synthesis pathway, exists as the free acid and is assembled by fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Miglena; Cronan, John E

    2017-05-01

    Biotin synthetic pathways are readily separated into two stages, synthesis of the seven carbon α, ω-dicarboxylic acid pimelate moiety and assembly of the fused heterocyclic rings. The biotin pathway genes responsible for pimelate moiety synthesis vary widely among bacteria whereas the ring synthesis genes are highly conserved. Bacillus subtilis seems to have redundant genes, bioI and bioW, for generation of the pimelate intermediate. Largely consistent with previous genetic studies it was found that deletion of bioW caused a biotin auxotrophic phenotype whereas deletion of bioI did not. BioW is a pimeloyl-CoA synthetase that converts pimelic acid to pimeloyl-CoA. The essentiality of BioW for biotin synthesis indicates that the free form of pimelic acid is an intermediate in biotin synthesis although this is not the case in E. coli. Since the origin of pimelic acid in Bacillus subtilis is unknown, 13 C-NMR studies were carried out to decipher the pathway for its generation. The data provided evidence for the role of free pimelate in biotin synthesis and the involvement of fatty acid synthesis in pimelate production. Cerulenin, an inhibitor of the key fatty acid elongation enzyme, FabF, markedly decreased biotin production by B. subtilis resting cells whereas a strain having a cerulenin-resistant FabF mutant produced more biotin. In addition, supplementation with pimelic acid fully restored biotin production in cerulenin-treated cells. These results indicate that pimelic acid originating from fatty acid synthesis pathway is a bona fide precursor of biotin in B. subtilis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Characterization of the biotin uptake system encoded by the biotin-inducible bioYMN operon of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The amino acid-producing Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin although biotin ring assembly starting from the precursor pimeloyl-CoA is still functional. It possesses AccBC, the α-subunit of the acyl-carboxylases involved in fatty acid and mycolic acid synthesis, and pyruvate carboxylase as the only biotin-containing proteins. Comparative genome analyses suggested that the putative transport system BioYMN encoded by cg2147, cg2148 and cg2149 might be involved in biotin uptake by C. glutamicum. Results By comparison of global gene expression patterns of cells grown with limiting or excess supply of biotin or with dethiobiotin as supplement replacing biotin revealed that expression of genes coding for enzymes of biotin ring assembly and for the putative uptake system was regulated according to biotin availability. RT-PCR and 5'-RACE experiments demonstrated that the genes bioY, bioM, and bioN are transcribed from one promoter as a single transcript. Biochemical analyses revealed that BioYMN catalyzes the effective uptake of biotin with a concentration of 60 nM biotin supporting a half-maximal transport rate. Maximal biotin uptake rates were at least five fold higher in biotin-limited cells as compared to cells grown with excess biotin. Overexpression of bioYMN led to an at least 50 fold higher biotin uptake rate as compared to the empty vector control. Overproduction of BioYMN alleviated biotin limitation and interfered with triggering L-glutamate production by biotin limitation. Conclusions The operon bioYMN from C. glutamicum was shown to be induced by biotin limitation. Transport assays with radio-labeled biotin revealed that BioYMN functions as a biotin uptake system. Overexpression of bioYMN affected L-glutamate production triggered by biotin limitation. PMID:22243621

  19. Identification of metabolic pathways essential for fitness of Salmonella Typhimurium in vivo.

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    Lotte Jelsbak

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and there is an urgent need to find novel targets for intervention. In the current study we used a computer model of the metabolic network of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and identified pairs of reactions (cut sets predicted to be required for growth in vivo. We termed such cut sets synthetic auxotrophic pairs. We tested whether these would reveal possible combined targets for new antibiotics by analyzing the performance of selected single and double mutants in systemic mouse infections. One hundred and two cut sets were identified. Sixty-three of these included only pathways encoded by fully annotated genes, and from this sub-set we selected five cut sets involved in amino acid or polyamine biosynthesis. One cut set (asnA/asnB demonstrated redundancy in vitro and in vivo and showed that asparagine is essential for S. Typhimurium during infection. trpB/trpA as well as single mutants were attenuated for growth in vitro, while only the double mutant was a cut set in vivo, underlining previous observations that tryptophan is essential for successful outcome of infection. speB/speF,speC was not affected in vitro but was attenuated during infection showing that polyamines are essential for virulence apparently in a growth independent manner. The serA/glyA cut-set was found to be growth attenuated as predicted by the model. However, not only the double mutant, but also the glyA mutant, were found to be attenuated for virulence. This adds glycine production or conversion of glycine to THF to the list of essential reactions during infection. One pair (thrC/kbl showed true redundancy in vitro but not in vivo demonstrating that threonine is available to the bacterium during infection. These data add to the existing knowledge of available nutrients in the intra-host environment, and have identified possible new targets for antibiotics.

  20. Protection against UV-induced toxicity and lack of mutagenicity of Antarctic Sanionia uncinata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.S; Mazzei, J.L; Oliveira, C.G; Evangelista, H.; Marques, M.R.C.; Ferraz, E.R.A.; Felzenszwalb, I.

    2017-01-01

    Antarctica moss Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske is exposed in situ to damaging levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This moss has the ability to respond to UV radiation exposure producing secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, and has been recommended as a potential source of photoprotective compounds and antioxidants. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the free-radical scavenging activity and mutagenic and photomutagenic properties of methanolic (ME), hydroethanolic (HE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts of S. uncinata. The phenolic contents were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry. The findings showed that ME and EE presented the highest phenolic contents and inhibited free radical-scavenging activity against 2,2′-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the HPLC analysis indicated several classes of phenolic acids and flavonoids. The sun protection factors (SPF) were determined by an in vitro method and the results showed significant values. The SPF values of BZ-3 at 50 μg/mL increased significantly in association with ME, HE and EE. The extracts did not induce mutagenicity in auxotrophic Salmonella typhimurium histidine and photomutagenicity was not detected in the TA102 and TA104 strains after exposure to UV-A at doses of up to 6.5 J/cm 2 for the TA102 strain and up to 0.24 J/cm 2 for the TA104 strain. In addition, with the exception of ME, all the extracts induced photoprotective effects in the presence of the TA104 strain at 0.04 J/cm 2 . The present results suggest that S. uncinata extracts did not induce photomutation and showed promise for photoprotection against the photobiological and ROS-inducing effects of the UV-A radiation.

  1. Functional characterization of the origin of replication of pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1.

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    Chijioke J Joshua

    Full Text Available Plasmid pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1 is believed to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism but its origin and mechanism of replication are not well understood. We sought to create minimal expression vectors based on pRN1 that would be useful for heterologous gene expression in S. acidocaldarius, and in the process improve our understanding of the mechanism of replication. We constructed and transformed shuttle vectors that harbored different contiguous stretches of DNA from pRN1 into S. acidocaldarius E4-39, a uracil auxotroph. A 232-bp region 3' of orf904 was found to be critical for pRN1 replication and is therefore proposed to be the putative origin of replication. This 232-bp region contains a 100-bp stem-loop structure believed to be the double-strand origin of replication. The loop of the 100-bp structure contains a GTG tri-nucleotide motif, a feature that was previously reported to be important for the primase activity of Orf904. This putative origin and the associated orf56 and orf904 were identified as the minimal replicon of pRN1 because transformants of plasmids lacking any of these three features were not recovered. Plasmids lacking orf904 and orf56 but harboring the putative origin were transformable when orf904 and orf56 were provided in-trans; a 75-bp region 5' of the orf904 start codon was found to be essential for this complementation. Detailed knowledge of the pRN1 origin of replication will broaden the application of the plasmid as a genetic tool for Sulfolobus species.

  2. Oral Administration of Recombinant Saccharomyces boulardii Expressing Ovalbumin-CPE Fusion Protein Induces Antibody Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherpour, Ghasem; Ghasemi, Hosnie; Zand, Bahare; Zarei, Najmeh; Roohvand, Farzin; Ardakani, Esmat M; Azizi, Mohammad; Khalaj, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii , a subspecies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , is a well-known eukaryotic probiotic with many benefits for human health. In the present study, a recombinant strain of S. boulardii was prepared to use as a potential oral vaccine delivery vehicle. In this sense, a ura3 auxotroph strain of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 (known as S. cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926, Yomogi ® ) was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology. Then a gene construct encoding a highly immunogenic protein, ovalbumin (OVA), was prepared and transformed into the ura3 - S. boulardii . To facilitate the transport of the recombinant immunogen across the intestinal barrier, a claudin-targeting sequence from Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) was added to the C-terminus of the expression cassette. The recombinant S. boulardii strain expressing the OVA-CPE fusion protein was then administered orally to a group of mice, and serum IgG and fecal IgA levels were evaluated by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that anti-OVA IgG in serum significantly increased in test group ( P boulardii or PBS), and the fecal IgA titer was significantly higher in test group ( P boulardii strain expressing the similar construct lacking C-terminal CPE was also administered orally. The result showed an increased level of serum IgG in group receiving yeasts expressing the CPE negative construct compared to control groups; however, the fecal IgA levels did not increase significantly. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the yeast S. boulardii , as a delivery vehicle with possible immunomodulatory effects, and c-CPE, as a targeting tag, synergistically assist to stimulate systemic and local immunity. This proposed recombinant S. boulardii system might be useful in the expression of other antigenic peptides, making it as a promising tool for oral delivery of vaccines or therapeutic proteins.

  3. Distinct roles of two anaplerotic pathways in glutamate production induced by biotin limitation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Orishimo, Keita; Shirai, Tomokazu; Hirasawa, Takashi; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Wachi, Masaaki

    2008-07-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotrophic bacterium in which glutamate production is induced under biotin-limited conditions. During glutamate production, anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and a biotin-containing enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) are believed to play an important role in supplying oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To understand the distinct roles of PEPC and PC on glutamate production by C. glutamicum, we observed glutamate production induced under biotin-limited conditions in the disruptants of the genes encoding PEPC (ppc) and PC (pyc), respectively. The pyc disruptant retained the ability to produce high amounts of glutamate, and lactate was simultaneously produced probably due to the increased intracellular pyruvate levels. On the other hand, the ppc knockout mutant could not produce glutamate. Additionally, glutamate production in the pyc disruptant was enhanced by overexpression of ppc rather than disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh), which is involved in lactate production. Metabolic flux analysis based on the 13C-labeling experiment and measurement of 13C-enrichment in glutamate using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the flux for anaplerotic reactions in the pyc disruptant was lower than that in the wild type, concomitantly increasing the flux for lactate formation. Moreover, overexpression of ppc increased this flux in both the pyc disruptant and the wild type. Our results suggest that the PEPC-catalyzed anaplerotic reaction is necessary for glutamate production induced under biotin-limited conditions, because PC is not active during glutamate production, and overexpression of ppc effectively enhances glutamate production under biotin-limited conditions.

  4. Effect of biotin on transcription levels of key enzymes and glutamate efflux in glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Duan, Zuoying; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-02-01

    Biotin is an important factor affecting the performance of glutamate fermentation by biotin auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum and glutamate is over-produced only when initial biotin content is controlled at suitable levels or initial biotin is excessive but with Tween 40 addition during fermentation. The transcription levels of key enzymes at pyruvate, isocitrate and α-ketoglutarate metabolic nodes, as well as transport protein (TP) of glutamate were investigated under the conditions of varied biotin contents and Tween 40 supplementation. When biotin was insufficient, the genes encoding key enzymes and TP were down-regulated in the early production phase, in particular, the transcription level of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which was only 2% of that of control. Although the cells' morphology transformation and TP level were not affected, low transcription level of ICDH led to lower final glutamate concentration (64 g/L). When biotin was excessive, the transcription levels of key enzymes were at comparable levels as those of control with ICDH as an exception, which was only 3-22% of control level throughout production phase. In this case, little intracellular glutamate accumulation (1.5 mg/g DCW) and impermeable membrane resulted in non glutamate secretion into broth, even though the quantity of TP was more than 10-folds of control level. Addition of Tween 40 when biotin was excessive stimulated the expression of all key enzymes and TP, intracellular glutamate content was much higher (10-12 mg/g DCW), and final glutamate concentration reached control level (75-80 g/L). Hence, the membrane alteration and TP were indispensable in glutamate secretion. Biotin and Tween 40 influenced the expression level of ICDH and glutamate efflux, thereby influencing glutamate production.

  5. Characterization of the biotin uptake system encoded by the biotin-inducible bioYMN operon of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jens; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Stansen, K Corinna; Götker, Susanne; Maximow, Stanislav; Krämer, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-01-13

    The amino acid-producing Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin although biotin ring assembly starting from the precursor pimeloyl-CoA is still functional. It possesses AccBC, the α-subunit of the acyl-carboxylases involved in fatty acid and mycolic acid synthesis, and pyruvate carboxylase as the only biotin-containing proteins. Comparative genome analyses suggested that the putative transport system BioYMN encoded by cg2147, cg2148 and cg2149 might be involved in biotin uptake by C. glutamicum. By comparison of global gene expression patterns of cells grown with limiting or excess supply of biotin or with dethiobiotin as supplement replacing biotin revealed that expression of genes coding for enzymes of biotin ring assembly and for the putative uptake system was regulated according to biotin availability. RT-PCR and 5'-RACE experiments demonstrated that the genes bioY, bioM, and bioN are transcribed from one promoter as a single transcript. Biochemical analyses revealed that BioYMN catalyzes the effective uptake of biotin with a concentration of 60 nM biotin supporting a half-maximal transport rate. Maximal biotin uptake rates were at least five fold higher in biotin-limited cells as compared to cells grown with excess biotin. Overexpression of bioYMN led to an at least 50 fold higher biotin uptake rate as compared to the empty vector control. Overproduction of BioYMN alleviated biotin limitation and interfered with triggering L-glutamate production by biotin limitation. The operon bioYMN from C. glutamicum was shown to be induced by biotin limitation. Transport assays with radio-labeled biotin revealed that BioYMN functions as a biotin uptake system. Overexpression of bioYMN affected L-glutamate production triggered by biotin limitation.

  6. Biotin protein ligase from Corynebacterium glutamicum: role for growth and L: -lysine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Wendisch, P; Stansen, K C; Götker, S; Wendisch, V F

    2012-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotrophic Gram-positive bacterium that is used for large-scale production of amino acids, especially of L-glutamate and L-lysine. It is known that biotin limitation triggers L-glutamate production and that L-lysine production can be increased by enhancing the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, one of two biotin-dependent proteins of C. glutamicum. The gene cg0814 (accession number YP_225000) has been annotated to code for putative biotin protein ligase BirA, but the protein has not yet been characterized. A discontinuous enzyme assay of biotin protein ligase activity was established using a 105aa peptide corresponding to the carboxyterminus of the biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein subunit AccBC of the acetyl CoA carboxylase from C. glutamicum as acceptor substrate. Biotinylation of this biotin acceptor peptide was revealed with crude extracts of a strain overexpressing the birA gene and was shown to be ATP dependent. Thus, birA from C. glutamicum codes for a functional biotin protein ligase (EC 6.3.4.15). The gene birA from C. glutamicum was overexpressed and the transcriptome was compared with the control strain revealing no significant gene expression changes of the bio-genes. However, biotin protein ligase overproduction increased the level of the biotin-containing protein pyruvate carboxylase and entailed a significant growth advantage in glucose minimal medium. Moreover, birA overexpression resulted in a twofold higher L-lysine yield on glucose as compared with the control strain.

  7. The Role of Amino Acid Permeases and Tryptophan Biosynthesis in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival.

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    João Daniel Santos Fernandes

    Full Text Available Metabolic diversity is an important factor during microbial adaptation to different environments. Among metabolic processes, amino acid biosynthesis has been demonstrated to be relevant for survival for many microbial pathogens, whereas the association between pathogenesis and amino acid uptake and recycling are less well-established. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen with many habitats. As a result, it faces frequent metabolic shifts and challenges during its life cycle. Here we studied the C. neoformans tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and found that the pathway is essential. RNAi indicated that interruptions in the biosynthetic pathway render strains inviable. However, auxotroph complementation can be partially achieved by tryptophan uptake when a non preferred nitrogen source and lower growth temperature are applied, suggesting that amino acid permeases may be the target of nitrogen catabolism repression (NCR. We used bioinformatics to search for amino acid permeases in the C. neoformans and found eight potential global permeases (AAP1 to AAP8. The transcriptional profile of them revealed that they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms which are known to respond to nutritional status in other fungi, such as (i quality of nitrogen (Nitrogen Catabolism Repression, NCR and carbon sources (Carbon Catabolism Repression, CCR, (ii amino acid availability in the extracellular environment (SPS-sensing and (iii nutritional deprivation (Global Amino Acid Control, GAAC. This study shows that C. neoformans has fewer amino acid permeases than other model yeasts, and that these proteins may be subjected to complex regulatory mechanisms. Our data suggest that the C. neoformans tryptophan biosynthetic pathway is an excellent pharmacological target. Furthermore, inhibitors of this pathway cause Cryptococcus growth arrest in vitro.

  8. A Novel Glutamyl (Aspartyl)-Specific Aminopeptidase A from Lactobacillus delbrueckii with Promising Properties for Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressler, Timo; Ewert, Jacob; Merz, Michael; Funk, Joshua; Claaßen, Wolfgang; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Schmidt, Herbert; Kuhn, Andreas; Fischer, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are auxotrophic for a number of amino acids. Thus, LAB have one of the strongest proteolytic systems to acquit their amino acid requirements. One of the intracellular exopeptidases present in LAB is the glutamyl (aspartyl) specific aminopeptidase (PepA; EC 3.4.11.7). Most of the PepA enzymes characterized yet, belonged to Lactococcus lactis sp., but no PepA from a Lactobacillus sp. has been characterized so far. In this study, we cloned a putative pepA gene from Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis DSM 20072 and characterized it after purification. For comparison, we also cloned, purified and characterized PepA from Lc. lactis ssp. lactis DSM 20481. Due to the low homology between both enzymes (30%), differences between the biochemical characteristics were very likely. This was confirmed, for example, by the more acidic optimum pH value of 6.0 for Lb-PepA compared to pH 8.0 for Lc-PepA. In addition, although the optimum temperature is quite similar for both enzymes (Lb-PepA: 60°C; Lc-PepA: 65°C), the temperature stability after three days, 20°C below the optimum temperature, was higher for Lb-PepA (60% residual activity) than for Lc-PepA (2% residual activity). EDTA inhibited both enzymes and the strongest activation was found for CoCl2, indicating that both enzymes are metallopeptidases. In contrast to Lc-PepA, disulfide bond-reducing agents such as dithiothreitol did not inhibit Lb-PepA. Finally, Lb-PepA was not product-inhibited by L-Glu, whereas Lc-PepA showed an inhibition.

  9. Diosgenin a phytosterol substitute for cholesterol, prolongs the lifespan and mitigates glucose toxicity via DAF-16/FOXO and GST-4 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Govindan; Mohankumar, Amirthalingam; Kalaiselvi, Duraisamy; Nivitha, Sundararaj; Murugesh, Easwaran; Shanmughavel, Piramanayagam; Sundararaj, Palanisamy

    2017-11-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a sterol auxotroph requires minute amount of exogenous sterol for their growth and development. To culture the C. elegans, cholesterol was given as sterol molecule to maintain the optimum survival of worms. Diosgenin (DG), a plant derived steroidal saponin, structurally similar to cholesterol has been used as a precursor for the synthesis of steroidal hormones. In this study, worms were cultured with cholesterol (Cho + ) and cholesterol-free (Cho - ) medium with DG (5, 10 and 50μg/mL) at 20°C. It was observed that worms cultured in (Cho - ) exhibits late egg production, reduced lipid level and short lifespan, while addition of DG overcomes all defective facts. Combinations of both cholesterol and DG further extend the lifespan (20.8%), hinder lipid level and resistance to oxidative, thermal and high glucose stress. The intracellular ROS quantification was done by flouroscenic probe H2DCF-DA and confirmed that DG had significantly reduced ROS level (35.85%). Increased lifespan of worms were observed in the medium treated with DG which activates the nuclear translocation of DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor, followed by downstream antioxidant gene sod-3 as evidenced by GFP tagged strain. The expression of Phase II detoxification enzyme GST-4 significantly (pdaf-16, skn-1, and eat-2. These studies have proved that DG is a sterol source to worms and modulate the DAF-16, SOD-3 and GST-4 expression levels to extend the lifespan of worms. The present study has also highlighted the use of phytosterols as an alternative to cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth in coculture stimulates metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Ronen, Zeev; Aamand, Jens

    2002-07-01

    Metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 was significantly enhanced when the strain was grown in coculture with a soil bacterium (designated strain SRS1). Both members of this consortium were isolated from a highly enriched isoproturon-degrading culture derived from an agricultural soil previously treated regularly with the herbicide. Based on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, strain SRS1 was assigned to the beta-subdivision of the proteobacteria and probably represents a new genus. Strain SRS1 was unable to degrade either isoproturon or its known metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, or 4-isopropyl-aniline. Pure culture studies indicate that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is auxotrophic and requires components supplied by association with other soil bacteria. A specific mixture of amino acids appeared to meet these requirements, and it was shown that methionine was essential for Sphingomonas sp. SRS2. This suggests that strain SRS1 supplies amino acids to Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, thereby leading to rapid metabolism of (14)C-labeled isoproturon to (14)CO(2) and corresponding growth of strain SRS2. Proliferation of strain SRS1 suggests that isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 provides unknown metabolites or cell debris that supports growth of strain SRS1. The role of strain SRS1 in the consortium was not ubiquitous among soil bacteria; however, the indigenous soil microflora and some strains from culture collections also stimulate isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 to a similar extent.

  11. Direct cloning from enrichment cultures, a reliable strategy for isolation of complete operons and genes from microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entcheva, P; Liebl, W; Johann, A; Hartsch, T; Streit, W R

    2001-01-01

    Enrichment cultures of microbial consortia enable the diverse metabolic and catabolic activities of these populations to be studied on a molecular level and to be explored as potential sources for biotechnology processes. We have used a combined approach of enrichment culture and direct cloning to construct cosmid libraries with large (>30-kb) inserts from microbial consortia. Enrichment cultures were inoculated with samples from five environments, and high amounts of avidin were added to the cultures to favor growth of biotin-producing microbes. DNA was extracted from three of these enrichment cultures and used to construct cosmid libraries; each library consisted of between 6,000 and 35,000 clones, with an average insert size of 30 to 40 kb. The inserts contained a diverse population of genomic DNA fragments isolated from the consortia organisms. These three libraries were used to complement the Escherichia coli biotin auxotrophic strain ATCC 33767 Delta(bio-uvrB). Initial screens resulted in the isolation of seven different complementing cosmid clones, carrying biotin biosynthesis operons. Biotin biosynthesis capabilities and growth under defined conditions of four of these clones were studied. Biotin measured in the different culture supernatants ranged from 42 to 3,800 pg/ml/optical density unit. Sequencing the identified biotin synthesis genes revealed high similarities to bio operons from gram-negative bacteria. In addition, random sequencing identified other interesting open reading frames, as well as two operons, the histidine utilization operon (hut), and the cluster of genes involved in biosynthesis of molybdopterin cofactors in bacteria (moaABCDE).

  12. Highly efficient gene targeting in Aspergillus oryzae industrial strains under ligD mutation introduced by genome editing: Strain-specific differences in the effects of deleting EcdR, the negative regulator of sclerotia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Katayama, Takuya; Okabe, Tomoya; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Wataru; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi

    2017-07-11

    Numerous strains of Aspergillus oryzae are industrially used for Japanese traditional fermentation and for the production of enzymes and heterologous proteins. In A. oryzae, deletion of the ku70 or ligD genes involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) has allowed high gene targeting efficiency. However, this strategy has been mainly applied under the genetic background of the A. oryzae wild strain RIB40, and it would be laborious to delete the NHEJ genes in many A. oryzae industrial strains, probably due to their low gene targeting efficiency. In the present study, we generated ligD mutants from the A. oryzae industrial strains by employing the CRISPR/Cas9 system, which we previously developed as a genome editing method. Uridine/uracil auxotrophic strains were generated by deletion of the pyrG gene, which was subsequently used as a selective marker. We examined the gene targeting efficiency with the ecdR gene, of which deletion was reported to induce sclerotia formation under the genetic background of the strain RIB40. As expected, the deletion efficiencies were high, around 60~80%, in the ligD mutants of industrial strains. Intriguingly, the effects of the ecdR deletion on sclerotia formation varied depending on the strains, and we found sclerotia-like structures under the background of the industrial strains, which have never been reported to form sclerotia. The present study demonstrates that introducing ligD mutation by genome editing is an effective method allowing high gene targeting efficiency in A. oryzae industrial strains.

  13. Isoprenylation is required for the processing of the lamin A precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.A.; Hosick, T.J.; Sinensky, M.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear lamina proteins, prelamin A, lamin B, and a 70-kD lamina-associated protein, are posttranslationally modified by a metabolite derived from mevalonate. This modification can be inhibited by treatment with (3-R,S)-3-fluoromevalonate, demonstrating that it is isoprenoid in nature. We have examined the association between isoprenoid metabolism and processing of the lamin A precursor in human and hamster cells. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by mevinolin (lovastatin) specifically depletes endogenous isoprenoid pools and inhibits the conversion of prelamin A to lamin A. Prelamin A processing is also blocked by mevalonate starvation of Mev-1, a CHO cell line auxotrophic for mevalonate. Moreover, inhibition of prelamin A processing by mevinolin treatment is rapidly reversed by the addition of exogenous mevalonate. Processing of prelamin A is, therefore, dependent on isoprenoid metabolism. Analysis of the conversion of prelamin A to lamin A by two independent methods, immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gel electrophoresis, demonstrates that a precursor-product relationship exists between prelamin A and lamin A. Analysis of R,S-[5-3H(N)]mevalonate-labeled cells shows that the rate of turnover of the isoprenoid group from prelamin A is comparable to the rate of conversion of prelamin A to lamin A. These results suggest that during the proteolytic maturation of prelamin A, the isoprenylated moiety is lost. A significant difference between prelamin A processing, and that of p21ras and the B-type lamins that undergo isoprenylation-dependent proteolytic maturation, is that the mature form of lamin A is no longer isoprenylated

  14. Molecular biological study on genetic stability of the genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tada-aki; Takahashi, Ei-ichi; Tsuji, Hideo; Tsuji, Satsuki

    1989-01-01

    A population cytogenetic study has been performed in 1022 healthy subjects and 547 cancer patients to determine baseline frequencies of autosomal rate fragile sites. Out of 17 rare autosomal fragile sites defined in HBM9 (1985), the following six were detected: fra(2)(q11), fra(10)(q25), fra(11)(q13), fra(11)(q23), fra(16)(q22) and fra(17)(q12). Other three new fragile sites were also detected: fra(8)(q24.1), fra(11)(q15.1) and fra(16)(p12.1). They were all distamycin A-inducible and located at the junctions of G/R-bands. The incidence of these autosomal fragile sites was 5% in both healthy subjects and cancer patients. Distamycin A-induced fragile sites may play a role in the etiology of leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders, and gynecological tumors. The present study also examined the mechanism of fragile X expression associated with fragile X syndrome in thymidine-prototrophic and auxotrophic human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. In these hybrid cells, both low and high thymidylate stresses were found to be effective in inducing fragile X expression, even in a hybrid clone that retained a fragile X chromosome as the only human chromosome. An addition of deoxycytidine completely abolished the effect of high thymidylate stress achieved by excess amounts of thymidine. It is concluded that the expression is an intrinsic property of the fragile X mutation resulting from chromosomal change in a special class of replicons with polypurine/polypyrimidine DNA sequence. (Namekawa, K)

  15. A Novel Glutamyl (Aspartyl-Specific Aminopeptidase A from Lactobacillus delbrueckii with Promising Properties for Application.

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    Timo Stressler

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are auxotrophic for a number of amino acids. Thus, LAB have one of the strongest proteolytic systems to acquit their amino acid requirements. One of the intracellular exopeptidases present in LAB is the glutamyl (aspartyl specific aminopeptidase (PepA; EC 3.4.11.7. Most of the PepA enzymes characterized yet, belonged to Lactococcus lactis sp., but no PepA from a Lactobacillus sp. has been characterized so far. In this study, we cloned a putative pepA gene from Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis DSM 20072 and characterized it after purification. For comparison, we also cloned, purified and characterized PepA from Lc. lactis ssp. lactis DSM 20481. Due to the low homology between both enzymes (30%, differences between the biochemical characteristics were very likely. This was confirmed, for example, by the more acidic optimum pH value of 6.0 for Lb-PepA compared to pH 8.0 for Lc-PepA. In addition, although the optimum temperature is quite similar for both enzymes (Lb-PepA: 60°C; Lc-PepA: 65°C, the temperature stability after three days, 20°C below the optimum temperature, was higher for Lb-PepA (60% residual activity than for Lc-PepA (2% residual activity. EDTA inhibited both enzymes and the strongest activation was found for CoCl2, indicating that both enzymes are metallopeptidases. In contrast to Lc-PepA, disulfide bond-reducing agents such as dithiothreitol did not inhibit Lb-PepA. Finally, Lb-PepA was not product-inhibited by L-Glu, whereas Lc-PepA showed an inhibition.

  16. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis

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    Marcus eFulde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS, a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-13C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth rate in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, indicating that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  17. Oral Administration of Recombinant Saccharomyces boulardii Expressing Ovalbumin-CPE Fusion Protein Induces Antibody Response in Mice

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    Ghasem Bagherpour

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii, a subspecies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a well-known eukaryotic probiotic with many benefits for human health. In the present study, a recombinant strain of S. boulardii was prepared to use as a potential oral vaccine delivery vehicle. In this sense, a ura3 auxotroph strain of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 (known as S. cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926, Yomogi® was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology. Then a gene construct encoding a highly immunogenic protein, ovalbumin (OVA, was prepared and transformed into the ura3- S. boulardii. To facilitate the transport of the recombinant immunogen across the intestinal barrier, a claudin-targeting sequence from Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE was added to the C-terminus of the expression cassette. The recombinant S. boulardii strain expressing the OVA-CPE fusion protein was then administered orally to a group of mice, and serum IgG and fecal IgA levels were evaluated by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that anti-OVA IgG in serum significantly increased in test group (P < 0.001 compared to control groups (receiving wild type S. boulardii or PBS, and the fecal IgA titer was significantly higher in test group (P < 0.05 than control groups. In parallel, a recombinant S. boulardii strain expressing the similar construct lacking C-terminal CPE was also administered orally. The result showed an increased level of serum IgG in group receiving yeasts expressing the CPE negative construct compared to control groups; however, the fecal IgA levels did not increase significantly. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the yeast S. boulardii, as a delivery vehicle with possible immunomodulatory effects, and c-CPE, as a targeting tag, synergistically assist to stimulate systemic and local immunity. This proposed recombinant S. boulardii system might be useful in the expression of other antigenic peptides, making it as a promising tool for oral delivery of vaccines or therapeutic

  18. Zolav®: a new antibiotic for the treatment of acne

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    Dinant A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexa Dinant,1 Ramiz A Boulos2,3 1AXD Pty Ltd, Semaphore Park, 2School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, 3Boulos & Cooper Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd, Port Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav®, a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris. Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration of Zolav® against Propionibacterium acnes was determined by following a standard protocol using Mueller-Hinton broth and serial dilutions in a 96-well plate. Cytotoxicity effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung cells in the presence of Zolav® were investigated by determining the growth inhibition (GI50 concentration, total growth inhibition concentration, and the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50. The tryptophan auxotrophic mutant of Escherichia coli strain, WP2 uvrA (ATCC 49979, was used for the AMES assay with the addition of Zolav® tested for its ability to reverse the mutation and induce bacterial growth. The in vivo effectiveness of Zolav® was tested in a P. acnes mouse intradermal model where the skin at the infection site was removed, homogenized, and subjected to colony-forming unit (CFU counts. Results: Susceptibility testing of Zolav® against P. acnes showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 µg/mL against three strains with no cytotoxicity and no mutagenicity observed at the highest concentrations tested, 30 µM and 1,500 µg/plate, respectively. The use of Zolav® at a concentration of 50 µg/mL (q8h elicited a two-log difference in CFU/g between the treatment group and the control

  19. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  20. Biochemical and functional characterization of MRA-1571 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and effect of its down-regulation on survival in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rishabh; Keshari, Deepa; Singh, Kumar Sachin; Singh, Sudheer Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Amino acid biosynthesis has emerged as a source of new drug targets as many bacterial strains auxotrophic for amino acids fail to proliferate under in vivo conditions. Branch chain amino acids (BCAAs) are important for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival and strains deficient in their biosynthesis were attenuated for growth in mice. Threonine dehydratase (IlvA) is a pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first step in isoleucine biosynthesis. The MRA-1571 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra), annotated to be coding for IlvA, was cloned, expressed and purified. Purified protein was subsequently used for developing enzyme assay and to study its biochemical properties. Also, E. coli BL21 (DE3) IlvA knockout (E. coli-ΔilvA) was developed and genetically complemented with Mtb-Ra ilvA expression construct (pET32a-ilvA) to make complemented E. coli strain (E. coli-ΔilvA + pET32a-ilvA). The E. coli-ΔilvA showed growth failure in minimal medium but growth restoration was observed in E. coli-ΔilvA + pET32a-ilvA. E. coli-ΔilvA growth was also restored in the presence of isoleucine. The IlvA localization studies detected its distribution in cell wall and membrane fractions with relatively minor presence in cytosolic fraction. Maximum IlvA expression was observed at 72 h in wild-type (WT) Mtb-Ra infecting macrophages. Also, Mtb-Ra IlvA knockdown (KD) showed reduced survival in macrophages compared to WT and complemented strain (KDC). - Highlights: • Mtb-Ra gene MRA-1571 codes for a functional threonine dehydratase (IlvA). • IlvA is pyridoxal 5’-phosphate dependent and is inhibited by isoleucine. • E. coli IlvA knockout growth can be supplemented by isoleucine or by Mtb-Ra IlvA. • The enzyme is primarily localized in cell wall and membrane fractions. • IlvA knockdown Mtb-Ra shows reduced growth in macrophages.

  1. Generation of New Genotypic and Phenotypic Features in Artificial and Natural Yeast Hybrids

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    Walter P. Pfliegler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution and genome stabilization have mostly been studied on the Saccharomyces hybrids isolated from natural and alcoholic fermentation environments. Genetic and phenotypic properties have usually been compared to the laboratory and reference strains, as the true ancestors of the natural hybrid yeasts are unknown. In this way the exact impact of different parental fractions on the genome organization or metabolic activity of the hybrid yeasts is difficult to resolve completely. In the present work the evolution of geno- and phenotypic properties is studied in the interspecies hybrids created by the cross-breeding of S. cerevisiae with S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii auxotrophic mutants. We hypothesized that the extent of genomic alterations in S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii should affect the physiology of their F1 offspring in different ways. Our results, obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping and karyotyping analyses, showed that both subgenomes of the S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and of S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids experienced various modifications. However, the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii F1 hybrids underwent more severe genomic alterations than the S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum ones. Generation of the new genotypes also influenced the physiological performances of the hybrids and the occurrence of novel phenotypes. Significant differences in carbohydrate utilization and distinct growth dynamics at increasing concentrations of sodium chloride, urea and miconazole were observed within and between the S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids. Parental strains also demonstrated different contributions to the final metabolic outcomes of the hybrid yeasts. A comparison of the genotypic properties of the artificial hybrids with several hybrid isolates from the wine-related environments and wastewater demonstrated a greater genetic variability of

  2. Involvement of PlsX and the acyl-phosphate dependent sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase PlsY in the initial stage of glycerolipid synthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yoshinori; Seki, Masahide; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kouji

    2008-12-01

    The gene responsible for the first acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) in Bacillus subtilis has not yet been determined with certainty. The product of this first acylation, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), is subsequently acylated again to form phosphatidic acid (PA), the primary precursor to membrane glycerolipids. A novel G3P acyltransferase (GPAT), the gene product of plsY, which uses acyl-phosphate formed by the plsX gene product, has recently been found to synthesize LPA in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We found that in B. subtilis growth arrests after repression of either a plsY homologue or a plsX homologue were overcome by expression of E. coli plsB, which encodes an acyl-acylcarrier protein (acyl-ACP)-dependent GPAT, although in the case of plsX repression a high level of plsB expression was required. B. subtilis has, therefore, a capability to use the acyl-ACP dependent GPAT of PlsB. Simultaneous expression of plsY and plsX suppressed the glycerol requirement of a strict glycerol auxotrophic derivative of the E. coli plsB26 mutant, although either one alone did not. Membrane fractions from B. subtilis cells catalyzed palmitoylphosphate-dependent acylation of [14C]-labeled G3P to synthesize [14C]-labeled LPA, whereas those from DeltaplsY cells did not. The results indicate unequivocally that PlsY is an acyl-phosphate dependent GPAT. Expression of plsX corrected the glycerol auxotrophy of a DeltaygiH (the deleted allele of an E. coli homologue of plsY) derivative of BB26-36 (plsB26 plsX50), suggesting an essential role of plsX other than substrate supply for acyl-phosphate dependent LPA synthesis. Two-hybrid examinations suggested that PlsY is associated with PlsX and that each may exist in multimeric form.

  3. Plasmid construction using recombination activity in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

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    Ayako Chino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Construction of plasmids is crucial in modern genetic manipulation. As of now, the common method for constructing plasmids is to digest specific DNA sequences with restriction enzymes and to ligate the resulting DNA fragments with DNA ligase. Another potent method to construct plasmids, known as gap-repair cloning (GRC, is commonly used in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GRC makes use of the homologous recombination activity that occurs within the yeast cells. Due to its flexible design and efficiency, GRC has been frequently used for constructing plasmids with complex structures as well as genome-wide plasmid collections. Although there have been reports indicating GRC feasibility in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, this species is not commonly used for GRC as systematic studies of reporting GRC efficiency in S. pombe have not been performed till date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated GRC efficiency in S. pombe in this study. We first showed that GRC was feasible in S. pombe by constructing a plasmid that contained the LEU2 auxotrophic marker gene in vivo and showed sufficient efficiency with short homology sequences (>25 bp. No preference was shown for the sequence length from the cut site in the vector plasmid. We next showed that plasmids could be constructed in a proper way using 3 DNA fragments with 70% efficiency without any specific selections being made. The GRC efficiency with 3 DNA fragments was dramatically increased >95% in lig4Delta mutant cell, where non-homologous end joining is deficient. Following this approach, we successfully constructed plasmid vectors with leu1+, ade6+, his5+, and lys1+ markers with the low-copy stable plasmid pDblet as a backbone by applying GRC in S. pombe. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that GRC was sufficiently feasible in S. pombe for genome-wide gene functional analysis as well as for regular plasmid construction. Plasmids with different

  4. Staphylococcus aureus utilizes host-derived lipoprotein particles as sources of exogenous fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delekta, Phillip C; Shook, John C; Lydic, Todd A; Mulks, Martha H; Hammer, Neal D

    2018-03-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to global health. Consequently, much effort has focused on the development of new antimicrobials that target novel aspects of S. aureus physiology. Fatty acids are required to maintain cell viability, and bacteria synthesize fatty acids using the type II fatty acid synthesis pathway (FASII). FASII is significantly different from human fatty acid synthesis, underscoring the therapeutic potential of inhibiting this pathway. However, many Gram-positive pathogens incorporate exogenous fatty acids, bypassing FASII inhibition and leaving the clinical potential of FASII inhibitors uncertain. Importantly, the source(s) of fatty acids available to pathogens within the host environment remains unclear. Fatty acids are transported throughout the body by lipoprotein particles in the form of triglycerides and esterified cholesterol. Thus, lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) represent a potentially rich source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. We sought to test the ability of LDLs to serve as a fatty acid source for S. aureus and show that cells cultured in the presence of human LDLs demonstrate increased tolerance to the FASII inhibitor, triclosan. Using mass spectrometry, we observed that host-derived fatty acids present in the LDLs are incorporated into the staphylococcal membrane and that tolerance to triclosan is facilitated by the fatty acid kinase A, FakA, and Geh, a triacylglycerol lipase. Finally, we demonstrate that human LDLs support the growth of S. aureus fatty acid auxotrophs. Together, these results suggest that human lipoprotein particles are a viable source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of bacterial fatty acid synthesis is a promising approach to combating infections caused by S. aureus and other human pathogens. However, S. aureus incorporates exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipid bilayer. Therefore, the

  5. Revisiting overexpression of a heterologous β-glucosidase in Trichoderma reesei: fusion expression of the Neosartorya fischeri Bgl3A to cbh1 enhances the overall as well as individual cellulase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xianli; Wu, Yilan; Qin, Xing; Ma, Rui; Luo, Huiying; Su, Xiaoyun; Yao, Bin

    2016-07-11

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has the capacity to secret large amounts of cellulase and is widely used in a variety of industries. However, the T. reesei cellulase is weak in β-glucosidase activity, which results in accumulation of cellobiose inhibiting the endo- and exo-cellulases. By expressing an exogenous β-glucosidase gene, the recombinant T. reesei cellulase is expected to degrade cellulose into glucose more efficiently. The thermophilic β-glucosidase NfBgl3A from Neosartorya fischeri is chosen for overexpression in T. reesei due to its robust activity. In vitro, the Pichia pastoris-expressed NfBgl3A aided the T. reesei cellulase in releasing much more glucose with significantly lower amounts of cellobiose from crystalline cellulose. The NfBgl3A gene was hence fused to the cbh1 structural gene and assembled between the strong cbh1 promoter and cbh1 terminator to obtain pRS-NfBgl3A by using the DNA assembler method. pRS-NfBgl3A was transformed into the T. reesei uridine auxotroph strain TU-6. Six positive transformants showed β-glucosidase activities of 2.3-69.7 U/mL (up to 175-fold higher than that of wild-type). The largely different β-glucosidase activities in the transformants may be ascribed to the gene copy numbers of NfBgl3A or its integration loci. The T. reesei-expressed NfBgl3A showed highly similar biochemical properties to that expressed in P. pastoris. As expected, overexpression of NfBgl3A enhanced the overall cellulase activity of T. reesei. The CBHI activity in all transformants increased, possibly due to the extra copies of cbh1 gene introduced, while the endoglucanase activity in three transformants also largely increased, which was not observed in any other studies overexpressing a β-glucosidase. NfBgl3A had significant transglycosylation activity, generating sophorose, a potent cellulase inducer, and other oligosaccharides from glucose and cellobiose. We report herein the successful overexpression of a thermophilic N

  6. Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Analyses Reveal the Structure and Dynamics of a Dechlorinating Community Containing Dehalococcoides mccartyi and Corrinoid-Providing Microorganisms under Cobalamin-Limited Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Yujie; Yu, Ke; Bælum, Jacob; Gao, Ying; Tremblay, Julien; Prestat, Emmanuel; Stenuit, Ben; Tringe, Susannah G.; Jansson, Janet; Zhang, Tong; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2017-02-10

    chloroethene-dechlorinating bacteriumDehalococcoides mccartyiis a cobalamin auxotroph, thus acquiring corrinoids from other community members. Therefore, it is important to investigate the microbe-microbe interactions betweenDehalococcoidesand the corrinoid-providing microorganisms in a community. This study provides systems-level information, i.e., taxonomic and functional compositions and dynamics of the supportive microorganisms in dechlorinating communities under different cobalamin conditions. The findings shed light on the important roles ofVeillonellaceaespecies in the communities compared to other coexisting community members in producing and providing corrinoids forDehalococcoidesspecies under cobalamin-limited conditions.

  7. Delineation of the Pasteurellaceae-specific GbpA-family of glutathione-binding proteins

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    Vergauwen Bjorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus influenzae is a glutathione auxotroph and acquires the redox-active tripeptide by import. The dedicated glutathione transporter belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC-transporter superfamily and displays more than 60% overall sequence identity with the well-studied dipeptide (Dpp permease of Escherichia coli. The solute binding protein (SBP that mediates glutathione transport in H. influenzae is a lipoprotein termed GbpA and is 54% identical to E. coli DppA, a well-studied member of family 5 SBP's. The discovery linking GbpA to glutathione import came rather unexpectedly as this import-priming SBP was previously annotated as a heme-binding protein (HbpA, and was thought to mediate heme acquisition. Nonetheless, although many SBP's have been implicated in more than one function, a prominent physiological role for GbpA and its partner permease in heme acquisition appears to be very unlikely. Here, we sought to characterize five representative GbpA homologs in an effort to delineate the novel GbpA-family of glutathione-specific family 5 SBPs and to further clarify their functional role in terms of ligand preferences. Results Lipoprotein and non-lipoprotein GbpA homologs were expressed in soluble form and substrate specificity was evaluated via a number of ligand binding assays. A physiologically insignificant affinity for hemin was observed for all five GbpA homologous test proteins. Three out of five test proteins were found to bind glutathione and some of its physiologically relevant derivatives with low- or submicromolar affinity. None of the tested SBP family 5 allocrites interacted with the remaining two GbpA test proteins. Structure-based sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that the two binding-inert GbpA homologs clearly form a separate phylogenetic cluster. To elucidate a structure-function rationale for this phylogenetic differentiation, we determined the crystal

  8. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  9. Measurement of oxygen enhancement ratio for sub-lethal region using saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairy, Rajesha K.; Anjaria, K.B.; Bhat, Nagesh N.; Chaurasia, Rajesh K.; Balakrishnan, Sreedevi; Yerol, Narayana

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen is one of the best known modifiers of radiation sensitivity and the biological effects is greater in the presence of oxygen, and significant modifying effect will be observed only for low LET radiations. The reduced oxygen availability is sensed which trigger homeostatic responses, which impact on virtually all areas of biology and medicine. Failure to achieve complete response following radiotherapy of large tumors is attributed to the presence of radio-resistant hypoxic cells, therefore clarifying the mechanism of the oxygen effect is important. In the present study, a mutant type diploid yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 was used to study Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) using 60 Co gamma radiation. Cells were washed thrice by centrifugation (2000 g for 5 min) and re-suspended to a cell concentration of 1x108 cells mL-1 in a sterile polypropylene vial for irradiation (sub-lethal dose range, 0-100 Gy). Hypoxic conditions were achieved by incubating the cells in airtight vials at 30℃ for 30 min prior to irradiation. The gene conversion and back mutation analysis were carried out according to the standard protocol. Gene conversion is the radio-sensitive biological endpoint, that can be studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 yeast cells at trp locus in tryptophan (Trp- medium) deficient medium. The dose response relation at euoxic and hypoxic condition in sub-lethal doses are found to be linear and is represented by Y (Euoxic) = (6.54±0.102) D with R2=0.999 and for hypoxic condition Y(Hypoxic) = (3.346±0.033) D with R2=0.996. The OER can be calculated by dividing the euoxic slope with hypoxic slope, and is 1.95. Back mutation, which is a result of reversion of Isoleucine auxotrophs to prototrophs gives very good information at sub-lethal doses. The dose response relation between back mutated cells and radiation doses at Euoxic and hypoxic condition can be represented as Y(Euoxic) = (2.85±0.126) D with R2= 0.976 and for hypoxic condition Y

  10. Comparative Genomics of Pneumocystis Species Suggests the Absence of Genes for myo-Inositol Synthesis and Reliance on Inositol Transport and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesterhenn, Thomas M.; Collins, Margaret S.; Welge, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the context of deciphering the metabolic strategies of the obligate pathogenic fungi in the genus Pneumocystis, the genomes of three species (P. carinii, P. murina, and P. jirovecii) were compared among themselves and with the free-living, phylogenetically related fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). The underrepresentation of amino acid metabolism pathways compared to those in S. pombe, as well as the incomplete steroid biosynthesis pathway, were confirmed for P. carinii and P. jirovecii and extended to P. murina. All three Pneumocystis species showed overrepresentation of the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway compared to that in the fission yeast. In addition to those known in S. pombe, four genes, encoding inositol-polyphosphate multikinase (EC 2.7.1.151), inositol-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (EC 2.7.1.158), phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.36), and inositol-1,4-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.57), were identified in the two rodent Pneumocystis genomes, P. carinii and P. murina. The P. jirovecii genome appeared to contain three of these genes but lacked phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase. Notably, two genes encoding enzymes essential for myo-inositol synthesis, inositol-1-phosphate synthase (INO1) and inositol monophosphatase (INM1), were absent from all three genomes, suggesting that Pneumocystis species are inositol auxotrophs. In keeping with the need to acquire exogenous inositol, two genes with products homologous to fungal inositol transporters, ITR1 and ITR2, were identified in P. carinii and P. murina, while P. jirovecii contained only the ITR1 homolog. The ITR and inositol metabolism genes in P. murina and P. carinii were expressed during fulminant infection as determined by reverse transcriptase real-time PCR of cDNA from infected lung tissue. Supplementation of in vitro culture with inositol yielded significant improvement of the viability of P. carinii for days 7 through 14. PMID:25370490

  11. Uptake of biotin by Chlamydia Spp. through the use of a bacterial transporter (BioY and a host-cell transporter (SMVT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Fisher

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans and animals. Minor variations in metabolic capacity between species have been causally linked to host and tissue tropisms. Analysis of the highly conserved genomes of Chlamydia spp. reveals divergence in the metabolism of the essential vitamin biotin with genes for either synthesis (bioF_2ADB and/or transport (bioY. Streptavidin blotting confirmed the presence of a single biotinylated protein in Chlamydia. As a first step in unraveling the need for divergent biotin acquisition strategies, we examined BioY (CTL0613 from C. trachomatis 434/Bu which is annotated as an S component of the type II energy coupling-factor transporters (ECF. Type II ECFs are typically composed of a transport specific component (S and a chromosomally unlinked energy module (AT. Intriguingly, Chlamydia lack recognizable AT modules. Using (3H-biotin and recombinant E. coli expressing CTL0613, we demonstrated that biotin was transported with high affinity (a property of Type II ECFs previously shown to require an AT module and capacity (apparent K(m of 3.35 nM and V(max of 55.1 pmol×min(-1×mg(-1. Since Chlamydia reside in a host derived membrane vacuole, termed an inclusion, we also sought a mechanism for transport of biotin from the cell cytoplasm into the inclusion vacuole. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the mammalian sodium multivitamin transporter (SMVT, which transports lipoic acid, biotin, and pantothenic acid into cells, localizes to the inclusion. Since Chlamydia also are auxotrophic for lipoic and pantothenic acids, SMVT may be subverted by Chlamydia to move multiple essential compounds into the inclusion where BioY and another transporter(s would be present to facilitate transport into the bacterium. Collectively, our data validates the first BioY from a pathogenic organism and describes a two-step mechanism by which Chlamydia transport biotin

  12. Identification of a bacteria-like ferrochelatase in Strongyloides venezuelensis, an animal parasitic nematode.

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    Eiji Nagayasu

    Full Text Available Heme is an essential molecule for vast majority of organisms serving as a prosthetic group for various hemoproteins. Although most organisms synthesize heme from 5-aminolevulinic acid through a conserved heme biosynthetic pathway composed of seven consecutive enzymatic reactions, nematodes are known to be natural heme auxotrophs. The completely sequenced Caenorhabditis elegans genome, for example, lacks all seven genes for heme biosynthesis. However, genome/transcriptome sequencing of Strongyloides venezuelensis, an important model nematode species for studying human strongyloidiasis, indicated the presence of a gene for ferrochelatase (FeCH, which catalyzes the terminal step of heme biosynthesis, whereas the other six heme biosynthesis genes are apparently missing. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that nematode FeCH genes, including that of S. venezuelensis (SvFeCH have a fundamentally different evolutionally origin from the FeCH genes of non-nematode metazoa. Although all non-nematode metazoan FeCH genes appear to be inherited vertically from an ancestral opisthokont, nematode FeCH may have been acquired from an alpha-proteobacterium, horizontally. The identified SvFeCH sequence was found to function as FeCH as expected based on both in vitro chelatase assays using recombinant SvFeCH and in vivo complementation experiments using an FeCH-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Messenger RNA expression levels during the S. venezuelensis lifecycle were examined by real-time RT-PCR. SvFeCH mRNA was expressed at all the stages examined with a marked reduction at the infective third-stage larvae. Our study demonstrates the presence of a bacteria-like FeCH gene in the S. venezuelensis genome. It appeared that S. venezuelensis and some other animal parasitic nematodes reacquired the once-lost FeCH gene. Although the underlying evolutionary pressures that necessitated this reacquisition remain to be investigated, it is interesting that the presence of Fe

  13. A Genetic System for the Thermophilic Acetogenic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter kivui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basen, Mirko; Geiger, Irina; Henke, Laura; Müller, Volker

    2018-02-01

    Thermoanaerobacter kivui is one of the very few thermophilic acetogenic microorganisms. It grows optimally at 66°C on sugars but also lithotrophically with H 2 + CO 2 or with CO, producing acetate as the major product. While a genome-derived model of acetogenesis has been developed, only a few physiological or biochemical experiments regarding the function of important enzymes in carbon and energy metabolism have been carried out. To address this issue, we developed a method for targeted markerless gene deletions and for integration of genes into the genome of T. kivui The strain naturally took up plasmid DNA in the exponential growth phase, with a transformation frequency of up to 3.9 × 10 -6 A nonreplicating plasmid and selection with 5-fluoroorotate was used to delete the gene encoding the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase ( pyrE ), resulting in a Δ pyrE uracil-auxotrophic strain, TKV002. Reintroduction of pyrE on a plasmid or insertion of pyrE into different loci within the genome restored growth without uracil. We subsequently studied fructose metabolism in T. kivui The gene fruK (TKV_c23150) encoding 1-phosphofructosekinase (1-PFK) was deleted, using pyrE as a selective marker via two single homologous recombination events. The resulting Δ fruK strain, TKV003, did not grow on fructose; however, growth on glucose (or on mannose) was unaffected. The combination of pyrE as a selective marker and the natural competence of the strain for DNA uptake will be the basis for future studies on CO 2 reduction and energy conservation and their regulation in this thermophilic acetogenic bacterium. IMPORTANCE Acetogenic bacteria are currently the focus of research toward biotechnological applications due to their potential for de novo synthesis of carbon compounds such as acetate, butyrate, or ethanol from H 2 + CO 2 or from synthesis gas. Based on available genome sequences and on biochemical experiments, acetogens differ in their energy metabolism. Thus, there is an

  14. Construction of a Recyclable Genetic Marker and Serial Gene Deletions in the Human Pathogenic Mucorales Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexis; Adedoyin, Gloria; Heitman, Joseph; Lee, Soo Chan

    2017-07-05

    Mucor circinelloides is a human pathogen, biofuel producer, and model system that belongs to a basal fungal lineage; however, the genetics of this fungus are limited. In contrast to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, basal fungal lineages have been understudied. This may be caused by a lack of attention given to these fungi, as well as limited tools for genetic analysis. Nonetheless, the importance of these fungi as pathogens and model systems has increased. M. circinelloides is one of a few genetically tractable organisms in the basal fungi, but it is far from a robust genetic system when compared to model fungi in the subkingdom Dikarya. One problem is the organism is resistant to drugs utilized to select for dominant markers in other fungal transformation systems. Thus, we developed a blaster recyclable marker system by using the pyrG gene (encoding an orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase, ortholog of URA3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). A 237-bp fragment downstream of the pyrG gene was tandemly incorporated into the upstream region of the gene, resulting in construction of a pyrG-dpl237 marker. To test the functionality of the pyrG-dpl237 marker, we disrupted the carRP gene that is involved in carotenoid synthesis in pyrG - mutant background. The resulting carRP :: pyrG-dpl237 mutants exhibit a white colony phenotype due to lack of carotene, whereas wild type displays yellowish colonies. The pyrG marker was then successfully excised, generating carRP-dpl237 on 5-FOA medium. The mutants became auxotrophic and required uridine for growth. We then disrupted the calcineurin B regulatory subunit cnbR gene in the carRP :: dpl237 strain, generating mutants with the alleles carRP :: dpl237 and cnbR :: pyrG These results demonstrate that the recyclable marker system is fully functional, and therefore the pyrG-dpl237 marker can be used for sequential gene deletions in M. circinelloides . Copyright © 2017 Garcia et al.

  15. Characterization of Chlamydia MurC-Ddl, a fusion protein exhibiting D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase activity involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and D-cycloserine sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Andrea J; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2005-07-01

    Recent characterization of chlamydial genes encoding functional peptidoglycan (PG)-synthesis proteins suggests that the Chlamydiaceae possess the ability to synthesize PG yet biochemical evidence for the synthesis of PG has yet to be demonstrated. The presence of D-amino acids in PG is a hallmark of bacteria. Chlamydiaceae do not appear to encode amino acid racemases however, a D-alanyl-D-alanine (D-Ala-D-Ala) ligase homologue (Ddl) is encoded in the genome. Thus, we undertook a genetics-based approach to demonstrate and characterize the D-Ala-D-Ala ligase activity of chlamydial Ddl, a protein encoded as a fusion with MurC. The full-length murC-ddl fusion gene from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 was cloned and placed under the control of the arabinose-inducible ara promoter and transformed into a D-Ala-D-Ala ligase auxotroph of Escherichia coli possessing deletions of both the ddlA and ddlB genes. Viability of the E. coliDeltaddlADeltaddlB mutant in the absence of exogenous D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide became dependent on the expression of the chlamydial murC-ddl thus demonstrating functional ligase activity. Domain mapping of the full-length fusion protein and site-directed mutagenesis of the MurC domain revealed that the structure of the full fusion protein but not MurC enzymatic activity was required for ligase activity in vivo. Recombinant MurC-Ddl exhibited substrate specificity for D-Ala. Chlamydia growth is inhibited by D-cycloserine (DCS) and in vitro analysis provided evidence for the chlamydial MurC-Ddl as the target for DCS sensitivity. In vivo sensitivity to DCS could be reversed by addition of exogenous D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Ala. Together, these findings further support our hypothesis that PG is synthesized by members of the Chlamydiaceae family and suggest that D-amino acids, specifically D-Ala, are present in chlamydial PG.

  16. Construction of a Recyclable Genetic Marker and Serial Gene Deletions in the Human Pathogenic Mucorales Mucor circinelloides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Garcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucor circinelloides is a human pathogen, biofuel producer, and model system that belongs to a basal fungal lineage; however, the genetics of this fungus are limited. In contrast to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, basal fungal lineages have been understudied. This may be caused by a lack of attention given to these fungi, as well as limited tools for genetic analysis. Nonetheless, the importance of these fungi as pathogens and model systems has increased. M. circinelloides is one of a few genetically tractable organisms in the basal fungi, but it is far from a robust genetic system when compared to model fungi in the subkingdom Dikarya. One problem is the organism is resistant to drugs utilized to select for dominant markers in other fungal transformation systems. Thus, we developed a blaster recyclable marker system by using the pyrG gene (encoding an orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase, ortholog of URA3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 237-bp fragment downstream of the pyrG gene was tandemly incorporated into the upstream region of the gene, resulting in construction of a pyrG-dpl237 marker. To test the functionality of the pyrG-dpl237 marker, we disrupted the carRP gene that is involved in carotenoid synthesis in pyrG− mutant background. The resulting carRP::pyrG-dpl237 mutants exhibit a white colony phenotype due to lack of carotene, whereas wild type displays yellowish colonies. The pyrG marker was then successfully excised, generating carRP-dpl237 on 5-FOA medium. The mutants became auxotrophic and required uridine for growth. We then disrupted the calcineurin B regulatory subunit cnbR gene in the carRP::dpl237 strain, generating mutants with the alleles carRP::dpl237 and cnbR::pyrG. These results demonstrate that the recyclable marker system is fully functional, and therefore the pyrG-dpl237 marker can be used for sequential gene deletions in M. circinelloides.

  17. Secretion of d-alanine by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsube, Satoshi; Sato, Kazuki; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli has an l-alanine export system that protects the cells from toxic accumulation of intracellular l-alanine in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (l-Ala-l-Ala). When a DadA-deficient strain was incubated with 6.0 mM l-Ala-l-Ala, we detected l-alanine and d-alanine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis at a level of 7.0 mM and 3.0 mM, respectively, after 48 h incubation. Treatment of the culture supernatant with d-amino acid oxidase resulted in the disappearance of a signal corresponding to d-alanine. Additionally, the culture supernatant enabled a d-alanine auxotroph to grow without d-alanine supplementation, confirming that the signal detected by HPLC was authentic d-alanine. Upon introduction of an expression vector harbouring the alanine racemase genes, alr or dadX, the extracellular level of d-alanine increased to 11.5 mM and 8.5 mM, respectively, under similar conditions, suggesting that increased metabolic flow from l-alanine to d-alanine enhanced d-alanine secretion. When high-density DadA-deficient cells preloaded with l-Ala-l-Ala were treated with 20 µM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), secretion of both l-alanine and d-alanine was enhanced ~twofold compared with that in cells without CCCP treatment. In contrast, the ATPase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide did not exert such an effect on the l-alanine and d-alanine secretion. Furthermore, inverted membrane vesicles prepared from DadA-deficient cells lacking the l-alanine exporter AlaE accumulated [3H]D-alanine in an energy-dependent manner. This energy-dependent accumulation of [3H]D-alanine was strongly inhibited by CCCP. These results indicate that E. coli has a transport system(s) that exports d-alanine and that this function is most likely modulated by proton electrochemical potential.

  18. Uptake of Biotin by Chlamydia Spp. through the Use of a Bacterial Transporter (BioY) and a Host-Cell Transporter (SMVT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Derek J.; Fernández, Reinaldo E.; Adams, Nancy E.; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans and animals. Minor variations in metabolic capacity between species have been causally linked to host and tissue tropisms. Analysis of the highly conserved genomes of Chlamydia spp. reveals divergence in the metabolism of the essential vitamin biotin with genes for either synthesis (bioF_2ADB) and/or transport (bioY). Streptavidin blotting confirmed the presence of a single biotinylated protein in Chlamydia. As a first step in unraveling the need for divergent biotin acquisition strategies, we examined BioY (CTL0613) from C. trachomatis 434/Bu which is annotated as an S component of the type II energy coupling-factor transporters (ECF). Type II ECFs are typically composed of a transport specific component (S) and a chromosomally unlinked energy module (AT). Intriguingly, Chlamydia lack recognizable AT modules. Using 3H-biotin and recombinant E. coli expressing CTL0613, we demonstrated that biotin was transported with high affinity (a property of Type II ECFs previously shown to require an AT module) and capacity (apparent K(m) of 3.35 nM and V(max) of 55.1 pmol×min−1×mg−1). Since Chlamydia reside in a host derived membrane vacuole, termed an inclusion, we also sought a mechanism for transport of biotin from the cell cytoplasm into the inclusion vacuole. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the mammalian sodium multivitamin transporter (SMVT), which transports lipoic acid, biotin, and pantothenic acid into cells, localizes to the inclusion. Since Chlamydia also are auxotrophic for lipoic and pantothenic acids, SMVT may be subverted by Chlamydia to move multiple essential compounds into the inclusion where BioY and another transporter(s) would be present to facilitate transport into the bacterium. Collectively, our data validates the first BioY from a pathogenic organism and describes a two-step mechanism by which Chlamydia transport biotin from the

  19. Development of Biotin-Prototrophic and -Hyperauxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Aya; Mutoh, Sumire; Kitano, Yuko; Tajima, Mei; Shirakura, Daisuke; Takasaki, Manami; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi; Takeno, Seiki

    2013-01-01

    To develop the infrastructure for biotin production through naturally biotin-auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum, we attempted to engineer the organism into a biotin prototroph and a biotin hyperauxotroph. To confer biotin prototrophy on the organism, the cotranscribed bioBF genes of Escherichia coli were introduced into the C. glutamicum genome, which originally lacked the bioF gene. The resulting strain still required biotin for growth, but it could be replaced by exogenous pimelic acid, a source of the biotin precursor pimelate thioester linked to either coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP). To bridge the gap between the pimelate thioester and its dedicated precursor acyl-CoA (or -ACP), the bioI gene of Bacillus subtilis, which encoded a P450 protein that cleaves a carbon-carbon bond of an acyl-ACP to generate pimeloyl-ACP, was further expressed in the engineered strain by using a plasmid system. This resulted in a biotin prototroph that is capable of the de novo synthesis of biotin. On the other hand, the bioY gene responsible for biotin uptake was disrupted in wild-type C. glutamicum. Whereas the wild-type strain required approximately 1 μg of biotin per liter for normal growth, the bioY disruptant (ΔbioY) required approximately 1 mg of biotin per liter, almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than the wild-type level. The ΔbioY strain showed a similar high requirement for the precursor dethiobiotin, a substrate for bioB-encoded biotin synthase. To eliminate the dependency on dethiobiotin, the bioB gene was further disrupted in both the wild-type strain and the ΔbioY strain. By selectively using the resulting two strains (ΔbioB and ΔbioBY) as indicator strains, we developed a practical biotin bioassay system that can quantify biotin in the seven-digit range, from approximately 0.1 μg to 1 g per liter. This bioassay proved that the engineered biotin prototroph of C. glutamicum produced biotin directly from glucose, albeit at a marginally

  20. Development of biotin-prototrophic and -hyperauxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Miyamoto, Aya; Mutoh, Sumire; Kitano, Yuko; Tajima, Mei; Shirakura, Daisuke; Takasaki, Manami; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi; Takeno, Seiki

    2013-08-01

    To develop the infrastructure for biotin production through naturally biotin-auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum, we attempted to engineer the organism into a biotin prototroph and a biotin hyperauxotroph. To confer biotin prototrophy on the organism, the cotranscribed bioBF genes of Escherichia coli were introduced into the C. glutamicum genome, which originally lacked the bioF gene. The resulting strain still required biotin for growth, but it could be replaced by exogenous pimelic acid, a source of the biotin precursor pimelate thioester linked to either coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP). To bridge the gap between the pimelate thioester and its dedicated precursor acyl-CoA (or -ACP), the bioI gene of Bacillus subtilis, which encoded a P450 protein that cleaves a carbon-carbon bond of an acyl-ACP to generate pimeloyl-ACP, was further expressed in the engineered strain by using a plasmid system. This resulted in a biotin prototroph that is capable of the de novo synthesis of biotin. On the other hand, the bioY gene responsible for biotin uptake was disrupted in wild-type C. glutamicum. Whereas the wild-type strain required approximately 1 μg of biotin per liter for normal growth, the bioY disruptant (ΔbioY) required approximately 1 mg of biotin per liter, almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than the wild-type level. The ΔbioY strain showed a similar high requirement for the precursor dethiobiotin, a substrate for bioB-encoded biotin synthase. To eliminate the dependency on dethiobiotin, the bioB gene was further disrupted in both the wild-type strain and the ΔbioY strain. By selectively using the resulting two strains (ΔbioB and ΔbioBY) as indicator strains, we developed a practical biotin bioassay system that can quantify biotin in the seven-digit range, from approximately 0.1 μg to 1 g per liter. This bioassay proved that the engineered biotin prototroph of C. glutamicum produced biotin directly from glucose, albeit at a marginally

  1. Oil accumulation in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: characterization, variability between common laboratory strains and relationship with starch reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrier Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When cultivated under stress conditions, many microalgae species accumulate both starch and oil (triacylglycerols. The model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has recently emerged as a model to test genetic engineering or cultivation strategies aiming at increasing lipid yields for biodiesel production. Blocking starch synthesis has been suggested as a way to boost oil accumulation. Here, we characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG accumulation process in Chlamydomonas and quantify TAGs in various wild-type and starchless strains. Results In response to nitrogen deficiency, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii produced TAGs enriched in palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids that accumulated in oil-bodies. Oil synthesis was maximal between 2 and 3 days following nitrogen depletion and reached a plateau around day 5. In the first 48 hours of oil deposition, a ~80% reduction in the major plastidial membrane lipids occurred. Upon nitrogen re-supply, mobilization of TAGs started after starch degradation but was completed within 24 hours. Comparison of oil content in five common laboratory strains (CC124, CC125, cw15, CC1690 and 11-32A revealed a high variability, from 2 μg TAG per million cell in CC124 to 11 μg in 11-32A. Quantification of TAGs on a cell basis in three mutants affected in starch synthesis (cw15sta1-2, cw15sta6 and cw15sta7-1 showed that blocking starch synthesis did not result in TAG over-accumulation compared to their direct progenitor, the arginine auxotroph strain 330. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between cellular oil and starch levels among the twenty wild-type, mutants and complemented strains tested. By contrast, cellular oil content was found to increase steeply with salt concentration in the growth medium. At 100 mM NaCl, oil level similar to nitrogen depletion conditions could be reached in CC124 strain. Conclusion A reference basis for future genetic studies of oil metabolism in Chlamydomonas

  2. Inhibition and Structure of Trichomonas vaginalis Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase with Picomolar Transition State Analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldo-Matthis,A.; Wing, C.; Ghanem, M.; Deng, H.; Wu, P.; Gupta, A.; Tyler, P.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan purine auxotroph possessing a unique purine salvage pathway consisting of a bacterial type purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and a purine nucleoside kinase. Thus, T. vaginalis PNP (TvPNP) functions in the reverse direction relative to the PNPs in other organisms. Immucillin-A (ImmA) and DADMe-Immucillin-A (DADMe-ImmA) are transition stte mimics of adenosine with geometric and electrostatic features that resemble early and late transition states of adenosine at the transition state stabilized by TvPNP. ImmA demonstrates slow-onset tight-binding inhibition with TvPNP, to give an equilibrium dissociation constant of 87 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 17.2 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 70,100. DADMe-ImmA resembles a late ribooxacarbenium ion transition state for TvPNP to give a dissociation constant of 30 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 64 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 203,300. The tight binding of DADMe-ImmA supports a late S{sub N}1 transition state. Despite their tight binding to TvPNP, ImmA and DADMe-ImmA are weak inhibitors of human and P. falciparum PNPs. The crystal structures of the TvPNP-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} and TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} ternary complexes differ from previous structures with substrate anologues. The tight binding with DADMe-ImmA is in part due to a 2.7 {angstrom} ionic interaction between a PO{sub 4} oxygen and the N1 cation of the hydroxypyrrolidine and is weaker in the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure at 3.5 {angstrom}. However, the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure includes hydrogen bonds between the 2'-hydroxyl and the protein that are not present in TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4}. These structures explain why DADMe-ImmA binds tighter than ImmA. Immucillin-H is a 12 nM inhibitor of TvPNP but a 56 pM inhibitor of human PNP. And this difference is explained by isotope

  3. Distinct Paths for Basic Amino Acid Export in Escherichia coli: YbjE (LysO) Mediates Export of L-Lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Amit; Sardesai, Abhijit A

    2015-06-15

    In Escherichia coli, argO encodes an exporter for L-arginine (Arg) and its toxic analogue canavanine (CAN), and its transcriptional activation and repression, by Arg and L-lysine (Lys), respectively, are mediated by the regulator ArgP. Accordingly argO and argP mutants are CAN supersensitive (CAN(ss)). We report the identification of ybjE as a gene encoding a predicted inner membrane protein that mediates export of Lys, and our results confirm the previous identification with a different approach of YbjE as a Lys exporter, reported by Ueda and coworkers (T. Ueda, Y. Nakai, Y. Gunji, R. Takikawa, and Y. Joe, U.S. patents 7,629,142 B2 [December 2009] and 8,383,363 B1 [February 2013] and European patent 1,664,318 B1 [September 2009]). ybjE was isolated as a multicopy suppressor of the CAN(ss) phenotype of a strain lacking ArgO. The absence of YbjE did not confer a CAN(ss) phenotype but instead conferred hypersensitivity to the lysine antimetabolite thialysine and led to growth inhibition by the dipeptide lysylalanine, which is associated with elevated cellular Lys content. YbjE overproduction resulted in Lys excretion and syntrophic cross-feeding of a Lys auxotroph. Constitutive overexpression of argO promoted Lys cross-feeding that is indicative of a latent Lys export potential of ArgO. Arg modestly repressed ybjE transcription in an ArgR-dependent manner, and ArgR displayed Arg-sensitive binding to the ybjE promoter region in vitro. Our studies suggest that the reciprocal repression of argO and ybjE, respectively, by Lys and Arg confers the specificity for basic amino acid export by distinct paths and that such cross-repression contributes to maintenance of cytoplasmic Arg/Lys balance. We propose that YbjE be redesignated LysO. This work ascribes a lysine export function to the product of the ybjE gene of Escherichia coli, leading to a physiological scenario wherein two proteins, ArgO and YbjE, perform the task of separately exporting arginine and lysine

  4. Genetical Studies On Haploid Production In Some Ornamental Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOSTAFA, M.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    ways: 1) inhibition of growth, 2) reduction of reproduction capacity and 3) death. growth inhibition induced by ionizing radiation has been attributed to chromosome deletion (Sparrow et al. 1961) and changes in a variety of biochemical and physiological systems Gunckel and Sparrow, (1961). Irradiation with gamma rays may provide and insight into the mechanism of action of radiation in producing physiological and genetic variability, thus it has been directly used to produce useful variation in quantitatively inherited characters, such as quality and maturity time (Brock, 1970). Salinity is a major factor limiting the crop productivity in the semi arid area of the world (Robinson, 1986). Salinity inhibits plant growth by one or more of the three principle ways; 1st. ion toxicity (mainly of Na + and Cl - ), 2nd. osmotic stress and the 3rd. nutritional disruption (Yeo et al., 1991). These include genetic variability between species, or among cultivars within species and duration and timing of exposure to salinity (Cushman et al. 1990) they added that salt tolerance of halophytes depends on the constitutive expression of several genes in response to salt stress. The application of mutagens in tissue culture in vitro to enhance the rates of spontaneous mutations and the use of direct selection for the screening of spontaneous mutants or variant lines, have been used in several laboratories. In addition, an increase in genetic variability may be induced in large and homogeneous populations of plant cells or in callus tissues, by exposing cultures to physical or chemical mutagenic agents. These are capable of increasing the frequency of changes in the genetic material when the cultures are under conditions which allow for the rapid screening of the mutants. These conditions may also be used to select and recover spontaneous variants or mutants directly from untreated material. The main types of mutants are (1) auxotrophic, which require nutritional supplements for normal