WorldWideScience

Sample records for auxin-mediated initial thickening

  1. SRD1 is involved in the auxin-mediated initial thickening growth of storage root by enhancing proliferation of metaxylem and cambium cells in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Huh, Eun Joo; Huh, Gyung Hye; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Bae, Jung Myung

    2010-03-01

    A sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas cv. 'Jinhongmi') MADS-box protein cDNA (SRD1) has been isolated from an early stage storage root cDNA library. The role of the SRD1 gene in the formation of the storage root in sweetpotato was investigated by an expression pattern analysis and characterization of SRD1-overexpressing (ox) transgenic sweetpotato plants. Transcripts of SRD1 were detected only in root tissues, with the fibrous root having low levels of the transcript and the young storage root showing relatively higher transcript levels. SRD1 mRNA was mainly found in the actively dividing cells, including the vascular and cambium cells of the young storage root. The transcript level of SRD1 in the fibrous roots increased in response to 1000 muM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) applied exogenously. During the early stage of storage root development, the endogenous IAA content and SRD1 transcript level increased concomitantly, suggesting an involvement of SRD1 during the early stage of the auxin-dependent development of the storage root. SRD1-ox sweetpotato plants cultured in vitro produced thicker and shorter fibrous roots than wild-type plants. The metaxylem and cambium cells of the fibrous roots of SRD1-ox plants showed markedly enhanced proliferation, resulting in the fibrous roots of these plants showing an earlier thickening growth than those of wild-type plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SRD1 plays a role in the formation of storage roots by activating the proliferation of cambium and metaxylem cells to induce the initial thickening growth of storage roots in an auxin-dependent manner.

  2. SRD1 is involved in the auxin-mediated initial thickening growth of storage root by enhancing proliferation of metaxylem and cambium cells in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Huh, Eun Joo; Huh, Gyung Hye; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Bae, Jung Myung

    2010-01-01

    A sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas cv. ‘Jinhongmi’) MADS-box protein cDNA (SRD1) has been isolated from an early stage storage root cDNA library. The role of the SRD1 gene in the formation of the storage root in sweetpotato was investigated by an expression pattern analysis and characterization of SRD1-overexpressing (ox) transgenic sweetpotato plants. Transcripts of SRD1 were detected only in root tissues, with the fibrous root having low levels of the transcript and the young storage root showing relatively higher transcript levels. SRD1 mRNA was mainly found in the actively dividing cells, including the vascular and cambium cells of the young storage root. The transcript level of SRD1 in the fibrous roots increased in response to 1000 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) applied exogenously. During the early stage of storage root development, the endogenous IAA content and SRD1 transcript level increased concomitantly, suggesting an involvement of SRD1 during the early stage of the auxin-dependent development of the storage root. SRD1-ox sweetpotato plants cultured in vitro produced thicker and shorter fibrous roots than wild-type plants. The metaxylem and cambium cells of the fibrous roots of SRD1-ox plants showed markedly enhanced proliferation, resulting in the fibrous roots of these plants showing an earlier thickening growth than those of wild-type plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SRD1 plays a role in the formation of storage roots by activating the proliferation of cambium and metaxylem cells to induce the initial thickening growth of storage roots in an auxin-dependent manner. PMID:20150515

  3. Tibetan garnet records early Eocene initiation of thickening in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Hacker, Bradley; Lee, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Himalayan orogeny depend on the age at which crustal thickening commenced. To investigate this age, we analyzed garnet from middle crustal rocks exposed in the north Himalayan Mabja and Kangmar gneiss domes of Tibet using Lu-Hf geochronology. Garnet yielded Lu-Hf a...... recrystallization during subsequent high-temperature ductile extension. The new Lu-Hf ages are the first to confirm that crustal thickening and contraction in the Tibetan Himalaya was broadly synchronous with the early Eocene collision between Greater India and the Eurasian plate...

  4. Complete disintegration of the microtubular cytoskeleton precedes its auxin-mediated reconstruction in postmitotic maize root cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, F.; Barlow, P. W.; Volkmann, D.

    1996-01-01

    The inhibitory action of 0.1 microM auxin (IAA) on maize root growth was closely associated with a rapid and complete disintegration of the microtubular (MT) cytoskeleton, as visualized by indirect immunofluorescence of tubulin, throughout the growth region. After 30 min of this treatment, only fluorescent spots were present in root cells, accumulating either around nuclei or along cell walls. Six h later, in addition to some background fluorescence, dense but partially oriented oblique or longitudinal arrays of cortical MTs (CMTs) were found in most growing cells of the root apex. After 24 h of treatment, maize roots had adapted to the auxin, as inferred from the slowly recovering elongation rate and from the reassembly of a dense and well-ordered MT cytoskeleton which showed only slight deviations from that of the control root cells. Taxol pretreatment (100 microM, 24 h) prevented not only the rapid auxin-mediated disintegration of the MT cytoskeleton but also a reorientation of the CMT arrays, from transversal to longitudinal. The only tissue to show MTs in their cells throughout the auxin treatment was the epidermis. Significant resistance of transverse CMT arrays in these cells towards auxin was confirmed using a higher auxin concentration (100 microM, 24 h). The latter auxin dose also revealed inter-tissue-specific responses to auxin: outer cortical cell files reoriented their CMTs from the transversal to longitudinal orientation, whereas inner cortical cell files lost their MTs. This high auxin-mediated response, associated with the swelling of root apices, was abolished with the pretreatment of maize root with taxol.

  5. The auxin-resistant diageotropica mutant of tomato responds to gravity via an auxin-mediated pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M. S.; Lomax, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    Hypocotyls of the diageotropica (dgt) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) do not elongate in response to exogenous auxin, but can respond to gravity. This appears paradoxical in light of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis, which states that shoot gravicurvature results from asymmetric stimulation of elongation by auxin. While light-grown dgt seedlings can achieve correct gravitropic reorientation, the response is slow compared to wild-type seedlings. The sensitivity of dgt seedlings to inhibition of gravicurvature by immersion in auxin or auxin-transport inhibitors is similar to that of wild-type plants, indicating that both an auxin gradient and auxin transport are required for the gravitropic response and that auxin uptake, efflux, and at least one auxin receptor are functional in dgt. Furthermore, dgt gravicurvature is the result of asymmetrically increased elongation as would be expected for an auxin-mediated response. Our results suggest differences between elongation in response to exogenous auxin (absent in dgt) and elongation in response to gravistimulation (present but attenuated in dgt) and confirm the presence of two phases during the gravitropic response, both of which are dependent on functional auxin transport.

  6. Mixture of thickening and non-thickening particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madraki, Yasaman; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Hormozi, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    We study suspensions of non-colloidal particles (non-thickening particles) in a cornstarch solution (thickening particles in an aqueous solution). We show how polydispersity influences the shear thickening, particularly how a Continuous Shear Thickening (CST) behavior transitions to a Discontinuous Shear Thickening (DST) behavior. In addition, we present our results on the role of confinement effects on the general thickening behaviors. NSF (Grant No. CBET-1554044- CAREER).

  7. PATELLINS are regulators of auxin-mediated PIN1 relocation and plant development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejos, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Furlán, Cecilia; Adamowski, Maciej; Sauer, Michael; Norambuena, Lorena; Friml, Jiří

    2018-01-29

    Coordinated cell polarization in developing tissues is a recurrent theme in multicellular organisms. In plants, a directional distribution of the plant hormone auxin is at the core of many developmental programs. A feedback regulation of auxin on the polarized localization of PIN auxin transporters in individual cells has been proposed as a self-organizing mechanism for coordinated tissue polarization, but the molecular mechanisms linking auxin signalling to PIN-dependent auxin transport remain unknown. We used a microarray-based approach to find regulators of the auxin-induced PIN relocation in Arabidopsis thaliana root, and identified a subset of a family of phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs), the PATELLINs (PATLs). Here, we show that PATLs are expressed in partially overlapping cell types in different tissues going through mitosis or initiating differentiation programs. PATLs are plasma membrane-associated proteins accumulated in Arabidopsis embryos, primary roots, lateral root primordia and developing stomata. Higher order patl mutants display reduced PIN1 repolarization in response to auxin, shorter root apical meristem, and drastic defects in embryo and seedling development. This suggests that PATLs play a redundant and crucial role in polarity and patterning in Arabidopsis . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Auxin-Mediated Transcriptional System with a Minimal Set of Components Is Critical for Morphogenesis through the Life Cycle in Marchantia polymorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Kato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent progress in Arabidopsis provided a scheme that auxin receptors, TIR1/AFBs, target transcriptional co-repressors, AUX/IAAs, for degradation, allowing ARFs to regulate transcription of auxin responsive genes. The mechanism of auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation is considered to have evolved around the time plants adapted to land. However, little is known about the role of auxin-mediated transcription in basal land plant lineages. We focused on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage of land plants. M. polymorpha has only a single TIR1/AFB (MpTIR1, a single AUX/IAA (MpIAA, and three ARFs (MpARF1, MpARF2, and MpARF3 in the genome. Expression of a dominant allele of MpIAA with mutations in its putative degron sequence conferred an auxin resistant phenotype and repressed auxin-dependent expression of the auxin response reporter proGH3:GUS. We next established a system for DEX-inducible auxin-response repression by expressing the putatively stabilized MpIAA protein fused with the glucocorticoid receptor domain (MpIAA(mDII-GR. Repression of auxin responses in (proMpIAA:MpIAA(mDII-GR plants caused severe defects in various developmental processes, including gemmaling development, dorsiventrality, organogenesis, and tropic responses. Transient transactivation assays showed that the three MpARFs had different transcriptional activities, each corresponding to their phylogenetic classifications. Moreover, MpIAA and MpARF proteins interacted with each other with different affinities. This study provides evidence that pleiotropic auxin responses can be achieved by a minimal set of auxin signaling factors and suggests that the transcriptional regulation mediated by TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and three types of ARFs might have been a key invention to establish body plans of land plants. We propose that M. polymorpha is a good model to

  9. Auxin-Mediated Transcriptional System with a Minimal Set of Components Is Critical for Morphogenesis through the Life Cycle in Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kouno, Masaru; Shirakawa, Makoto; Bowman, John L; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2015-05-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent progress in Arabidopsis provided a scheme that auxin receptors, TIR1/AFBs, target transcriptional co-repressors, AUX/IAAs, for degradation, allowing ARFs to regulate transcription of auxin responsive genes. The mechanism of auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation is considered to have evolved around the time plants adapted to land. However, little is known about the role of auxin-mediated transcription in basal land plant lineages. We focused on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage of land plants. M. polymorpha has only a single TIR1/AFB (MpTIR1), a single AUX/IAA (MpIAA), and three ARFs (MpARF1, MpARF2, and MpARF3) in the genome. Expression of a dominant allele of MpIAA with mutations in its putative degron sequence conferred an auxin resistant phenotype and repressed auxin-dependent expression of the auxin response reporter proGH3:GUS. We next established a system for DEX-inducible auxin-response repression by expressing the putatively stabilized MpIAA protein fused with the glucocorticoid receptor domain (MpIAA(mDII)-GR). Repression of auxin responses in (pro)MpIAA:MpIAA(mDII)-GR plants caused severe defects in various developmental processes, including gemmaling development, dorsiventrality, organogenesis, and tropic responses. Transient transactivation assays showed that the three MpARFs had different transcriptional activities, each corresponding to their phylogenetic classifications. Moreover, MpIAA and MpARF proteins interacted with each other with different affinities. This study provides evidence that pleiotropic auxin responses can be achieved by a minimal set of auxin signaling factors and suggests that the transcriptional regulation mediated by TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and three types of ARFs might have been a key invention to establish body plans of land plants. We propose that M. polymorpha is a good model to investigate

  10. Renal fascial thickening analysis of CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, On Koo [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    CT findings of 120 cases of renal fascial thickening were analyzed to appraise the meanings of renal fascial thickening and to seek the findings which are helpful for the differential diagnosis. Causes of fascial thickening were 46 inflammation, 40 neoplasm, 17 retroperitoneal hemorrhage and 17 retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Six cases were intraperitoneal pathology including each 3 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and subhepatic abscess. Incidence of fascial thickening in acute pancreatitis was 35% and almost all of them were complicated pancreatitis. Ten of 27 pancreatitis and 7 of 17 lymphadenopathy showed bilateral fascial thickening with more tendency to left side. Only right side thickening was noted in 6 cases of pancreatitis. Anterior fascial thickening was prominent in anterior pararenal disease but 11 cases of pancreatitis showed posterior fascial thickening too. In renal disease, posterior fascial thickening was more prominent. In pancreatitis and lymphadenopathy, renal fascial was more diffusely thickened but in tumorous conditions and renal inflammatory disease, the thickening was more localized. In anterior pararenal disease the fascial was thickened or blurred on outside but in renal disease it was inside, so the space where the lesion originated could be suggested. Repeated CT scans after treatment showed that the degree of thickening improved as the primary disease improved.

  11. NOVEL CO2-THICKENERS FOR IMPROVED MOBILITY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Enick; Eric J. Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2001-10-01

    capability also decreased, apparently due to the increased number of non-viscosity enhancing intramolecular interactions between the aromatic groups. The high price, environmental persistence, and lack of availability of bulk amounts of the fluoroacrylate monomer guided our final efforts of this work (and all of our efforts in its continuation) toward the development of inexpensive non-fluorous compounds. We have therefore initiated the design highly CO{sub 2} soluble polymers that can replace the fluoroacrylate. These hydrocarbon-based CO{sub 2}-philic compounds will then be incorporated into the structure of a compound that contains CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups, yielding a commercial thickener.

  12. Microstructural description of shear-thickening suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Abhinendra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic particle-scale numerical simulations are used to study the variation of microstructure with shear stress during shear thickening in dense non-Brownian suspensions. The microscale information is used to characterize the differences between the shear thickened (frictional and non-thickened (lubricated, frictionless states. Here, we focus on the force and contact networks and study the evolution of associated anisotropies with increase in shear stress. The force and contact networks are both more isotropic in the shear-thickened state than in non-thickened state. We also find that both force and structural anisotropies are rate independent for both low and high stress, while they are rate (or stress dependent for the intermediate stress range where the shear thickening occurs. This behavior is similar to the evolution of viscosity with increasing stress, showing a clear correlation between the microstructure and the macroscopic rheology.

  13. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...

  14. Analysis of mesenteric thickening on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Tohru; Miyakawa, Kunihisa; Ozaki, Masatoki; Katsuyama, Naofumi; Nakano, Masao (University of the Ryukyu, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides noninvasive information in the evaluation of abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract by direct imaging of the bowel wall and adjacent mesentery. Several prior studies have discussed the variable CT appearances of mesenteric abnormalities, such as lymphoma, metastasis, inflammatory disease and edema. Although mesenteric thickening was mentioned in these studies, no study has provided a detailed analysis of the CT appearance of the thickened mesentery. Two characteristic types of mesenteric thickening were identified in 47 patients. Type I is 'intramesenteric thickening', which was noted in 25 patients with vascular obstruction, inflammatory disease and edema. Type II is 'mesenteric surface thickening', which was noted in 22 patients with peritonitis carcinomatosa, peritoneal mesothelioma, tuberculous peritonitis and pseudomyxoma peritoneai. An understanding of these two types of mesenteric diseases is important in the identification of mesenteric pathology. (author).

  15. Analysis of mesenteric thickening on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Tohru; Miyakawa, Kunihisa; Ozaki, Masatoki; Katsuyama, Naofumi; Nakano, Masao

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides noninvasive information in the evaluation of abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract by direct imaging of the bowel wall and adjacent mesentery. Several prior studies have discussed the variable CT appearances of mesenteric abnormalities, such as lymphoma, metastasis, inflammatory disease and edema. Although mesenteric thickening was mentioned in these studies, no study has provided a detailed analysis of the CT appearance of the thickened mesentery. Two characteristic types of mesenteric thickening were identified in 47 patients. Type I is 'intramesenteric thickening', which was noted in 25 patients with vascular obstruction, inflammatory disease and edema. Type II is 'mesenteric surface thickening', which was noted in 22 patients with peritonitis carcinomatosa, peritoneal mesothelioma, tuberculous peritonitis and pseudomyxoma peritoneai. An understanding of these two types of mesenteric diseases is important in the identification of mesenteric pathology. (author)

  16. Shear Thickening Electrolyte Built from Sterically Stabilized Colloidal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Brian H; Armstrong, Beth L; Doucet, Mathieu; Heroux, Luke; Browning, James F; Agamalian, Michael; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Veith, Gabriel M

    2018-03-21

    We present a method to prepare shear thickening electrolytes consisting of silica nanoparticles in conventional liquid electrolytes with limited flocculation. These electrolytes rapidly and reversibly stiffen to solidlike behaviors in the presence of external shear or high impact, which is promising for improved lithium ion battery safety, especially in electric vehicles. However, in initial chemistries the silica nanoparticles aggregate and/or sediment in solution over time. Here, we demonstrate steric stabilization of silica colloids in conventional liquid electrolyte via surface-tethered PMMA brushes, synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The PMMA increases the magnitude of the shear thickening response, compared to the uncoated particles, from 0.311 to 2.25 Pa s. Ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering revealed a reduction in aggregation of PMMA-coated silica nanoparticles compared to bare silica nanoparticles in solution under shear and at rest, suggesting good stabilization. Conductivity tests of shear thickening electrolytes (30 wt % solids in electrolyte) at rest were performed with interdigitated electrodes positioned near the meniscus of electrolytes over the course of 24 h to track supernatant formation. Conductivity of electrolytes with bare silica increased from 10.1 to 11.6 mS cm -1 over 24 h due to flocculation. In contrast, conductivity of electrolytes with PMMA-coated silica remained stable at 6.1 mS cm -1 over the same time period, suggesting good colloid stability.

  17. Corrigendum to Preparation of Associative Polyurethane Thickener and Its Thickening Mechanism Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, G.; Qingzhi, D.; Nan, G.; Zhuo, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the research article titled Preparation of Associative Polyurethane Thickener and Its Thickening Mechanism Research [1], the correct correspondence authors shall be shown as above. The correspondence authors have lost one name (Dong Qingzhi); the correct correspondence authors have been shown in the front matter of the paper.

  18. Color doppler sonography in thickened gallbladder wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Seok Jin; Seo, Chang Hae; Eun, Choong Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The thickening of the gallbladder wall is a valuable finding for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, but may be seen in non-cholecystic disease as well as in acute or chronic cholecystitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of color Doppler sonography in differentiating the causes of thickened gallbladder wall. Ninety eight patients with thickened gallbladder wall(more than 3mm) which was not due to gallbladder cancer were prospectively evaluated with color Doppler sonography. Sixty-six cases, confirmed by pathologic reports and clinical records, were analyzed for correlation between thickened gallbladder wall and color flow signal according to the underlying causes. Of the 66 patients, 28 cases were cholecystitis and 38 cases had non-cholecystic causes such as liver cirrhosis, ascites, hepatitis, pancreatitis, renal failure, and hypoalbuminemia. Of the 28 patients with cholecystitis(12 acute, 16 chronic), 23(82%) had color Doppler flow signals in the thickened gallbladder wall. Of the 38 patients with non-cholecystic causes, eight(21%) had color Doppler flow signals. There was a statistically significant difference of color Doppler flow signals between the cholecystitis and non-cholecystic groups(p=0.0001). No significant difference of color Doppler flow signals was found between cases of acute and chronic cholecystitis. Of the 23 patients with color Doppler flow signals in 28 cases of cholecystitis, 18(78.3%) showed a linear pattern and five(21.7%) showed a spotty pattern. Of the eight patients with color Doppler flow signals in the 38 non-cholecystic cases, four(50%) showed a linear pattern and four(50%) showed a spotty pattern. In cholecystitis, a linear color Doppler flow signal pattern is a much more frequent finding than a spotty pattern. Color Doppler sonography is a useful and adequate method for determining whether a thickened gallbladder wall is the result of cholecystitis or has non-cholecystic causes.

  19. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendzen, Kenneth W; Weiste, Christoph; Wanke, Dierk; Kilian, Joachim; Harter, Klaus; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs), also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF) families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs) or Myb Response Elements (MREs), respectively. Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Oryza sativa) model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE) and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation.

  20. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges. PT Slatter. Department of Civil Engineering, Cape Technikon, PO Box 652, Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract. Industries which pump sludges are under continuous pressure to decrease water content, and increase concentration.

  1. Rheological characteristics of cold thickened beverages containing xanthan gum-based food thickeners used for dysphagia diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun M; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Cold beverages are commonly thickened with commercial gum-based food thickeners for consumption by patients with dysphagia. In this study, the rheological properties of a thickened water and five thickened beverages (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, whole milk, and a sport drink) that were prepared with four commercial instant xanthan gum-based thickeners (coded A-D) were investigated at a 3% thickener concentration. All thickened samples showed high shear-thinning behavior with yield stress at the serving temperature of 8°C. The magnitudes of apparent viscosity (ηa,50), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G'') of the thickened beverages, except for water, with food thickener A were significantly higher compared with other thickeners (B, C, and D) (Pbeverages were observed at 1-hour storage, and at longer times their K values, except for milk, remained approximately constant. Rheological parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences in flow and dynamic behaviors between the cold thickened beverages prepared with the xanthan gum-based food thickeners (Pfood thickener, and storage time. In particular, appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener for preparing thickened beverages seems to be of importance for managing dysphagia. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Systematic Process for Weaning Children With Aspiration From Thickened Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Nikolaus E; Hernandez, Kayla; Irace, Alexandria L; Davidson, Kathryn; Perez, Jennifer A; Larson, Kara; Rahbar, Reza

    2017-11-09

    Thickening of fluids is a common strategy for feeding patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia but has known risks and should be stopped once it is safe to do so. Weaning children from thickened fluids safely can be challenging, and novel methods are required. To describe the use of a systematic weaning process (SWP) for children who received thickened liquids owing to oropharyngeal dysphagia and identified risk of aspiration. Retrospective case series (2010 to 2015) at a tertiary care center of 50 children with documented aspiration by clinical swallowing assessment, airway evaluation, and videofluoroscopic swallow study with at least 4 months of follow-up. All patients were initially receiving thickened fluids. A 10% reduction in thickness was made every 2 weeks based on clinical symptoms. Caregivers progressed to the next incremental level if there were no signs or symptoms of aspiration. Number of patients weaned to a thin-fluid diet. Of 50 children (32 [64%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 0.7 [1.0] y at presentation and 1.8 [1.3] y at start of wean) using the SWP, 44 (88%) were able to reduce the amount of thickener used. A successful wean from thickened fluids to thin fluids was completed in 39 (78%). The mean (SD) duration of a successful wean was 0.9 (0.6) years. Five patients tolerated a reduction in thickener but not a full wean to thin fluids. For 6 patients, weaning failed and they continued to receive thickened fluids. Of those whose weaning failed, 2 patients developed pneumonia. Of the 39 successfully weaned patients, 14 (36%) experienced a temporary stall but eventually tolerated thin fluids. Only 2 (5%) developed pneumonia while all other successfully weaned patients (n = 37 [95%]) did not experience any substantial respiratory issues. Overall, 46 (92%) of children required 2 or fewer videofluoroscopic swallow study evaluations. Patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration should be gradually weaned off of thickened fluids. The

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of CO2 Thickeners Designed with Molecular Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Enick; Erick Beckman; J. Karl Johnson

    2009-08-31

    The objective of this research was to use molecular modeling techniques, coupled with our prior experimental results, to design, synthesize and evaluate inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. The first type of thickener that was considered was associating polymers. Typically, these thickeners are copolymers that contain a highly CO{sub 2}-philic monomer, and a small concentration of a CO{sub 2}-phobic associating monomer. Yale University was solely responsible for the synthesis of a second type of thickener; small, hydrogen bonding compounds. These molecules have a core that contains one or more hydrogen-bonding groups, such as urea or amide groups. Non-fluorous, CO{sub 2}-philic functional groups were attached to the hydrogen bonding core of the compound to impart CO{sub 2} stability and macromolecular stability to the linear 'stack' of these compounds. The third type of compound initially considered for this investigation was CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactants. These surfactants contain conventional ionic head groups and composed of CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers (short polymers) or small compounds (sugar acetates) previously identified by our research team. Mobility reduction could occur as these surfactant solutions contacted reservoir brine and formed mobility control foams in-situ. The vast majority of the work conducted in this study was devoted to the copolymeric thickeners and the small hydrogen-bonding thickeners; these thickeners were intended to dissolve completely in CO{sub 2} and increase the fluid viscosity. A small but important amount of work was done establishing the groundwork for CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactants that reduced mobility by generating foams in-situ as the CO{sub 2}+surfactant solution mixed with in-situ brine.

  4. Novel Self-Thickening Chemicals for Improved Conformance Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick J. Shuler, Ph.D.

    2011-07-18

    The objective of this project is to identify single chemical agents that exhibit a desirable rheological property whereby if such a chemical is dissolved in salt water it increases the solution viscosity significantly with time. We term that behavior as 'self-thickening' and have nicknamed this as 'T85 technology'. As detailed in the original project proposal, such single chemical products can be applied to advantage as agents for selectively slowing or blocking high flow water channels in subsurface oil reservoirs. The net effect is a decrease in water and an increase in oil flow and production. The initial testing has focused on five different synthetic co-polymers that have two or more chemical groups. These chemicals were dissolved at a concentration of 2500 ppm into different salt solutions (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride) that encompass a range of dissolved salt concentrations. For the sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions the salt concentration ranged from 1-5 wt%. The calcium chloride dihydrate sample concentrations ranged from 0.1-1 wt%. One set of samples being aged at 25 C and a second set at 50 C. Viscosity measurements versus aging time show two of these agents may exhibit apparent self-thickening behavior under certain salinity and temperature conditions. Generally the effect is greater in lower salinity NaCl brines and at 25 C. Preliminary flow experiments confirm that the aged fluids exhibit increased effective viscosity while flowing through a porous medium (sand pack). These flow tests include the case of the chemical fluid being aged on the bench before injection into a sand pack, and also a second series of sand packs where fresh chemical fluid is injected and allowed to age in-situ. Thus, the results of the static ageing tests together with the flow tests are a technical validation of the T85 concept.

  5. Non-traumatic Thickening of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hyun Jun; Park, Jin Gyoon; Song, Sang Gook

    2009-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of non-traumatic thickening of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to evaluate the associated lesions. Between January 2003 and August 2005, 44 knees of 44 patients who had thickened ACLs on MR images and had no history of knee trauma were analyzed retrospectively. The normal thickness of the ACL was measured on axial T2-weighted images of 40 healthy adult knees. The MR imaging findings of the thickened ACLs and associated lesions were analyzed. In 40 cases of healthy knees, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 3-6 mm. In 44 cases of non-traumatic thickening of the ACL, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 8-14 mm. There was an increased signal intensity and ill-defined border in all cases of thickened ACLs, linear low-signal intensity fibers parallel to the long axis of the thickened ACL (celery stalk appearance) in 24 cases, and entrapment in 10 cases. With respect to associated lesions, there was osteoarthritis in 40 cases, meniscal tears in 42 cases, and degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament in 7 cases. Non-traumatic thickening of the ACL was associated with osteoarthritis and meniscal tears in almost all cases and showed increased signal intensity and ill-defined borders simulating acute ligamentous tears

  6. Non-traumatic Thickening of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hyun Jun; Park, Jin Gyoon; Song, Sang Gook [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of non-traumatic thickening of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to evaluate the associated lesions. Between January 2003 and August 2005, 44 knees of 44 patients who had thickened ACLs on MR images and had no history of knee trauma were analyzed retrospectively. The normal thickness of the ACL was measured on axial T2-weighted images of 40 healthy adult knees. The MR imaging findings of the thickened ACLs and associated lesions were analyzed. In 40 cases of healthy knees, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 3-6 mm. In 44 cases of non-traumatic thickening of the ACL, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 8-14 mm. There was an increased signal intensity and ill-defined border in all cases of thickened ACLs, linear low-signal intensity fibers parallel to the long axis of the thickened ACL (celery stalk appearance) in 24 cases, and entrapment in 10 cases. With respect to associated lesions, there was osteoarthritis in 40 cases, meniscal tears in 42 cases, and degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament in 7 cases. Non-traumatic thickening of the ACL was associated with osteoarthritis and meniscal tears in almost all cases and showed increased signal intensity and ill-defined borders simulating acute ligamentous tears

  7. Viscosity and non-Newtonian features of thickened fluids used for dysphagia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Mark; Hanson, Ben; Smith, Christina

    2010-08-01

    Thickening agents based primarily on granulated maize starch are widely used in the care of patients with swallowing difficulties, increasing viscosity of consumed fluids. This slows bolus flow during swallowing, allowing airway protection to be more properly engaged. Thickened fluids have been shown to exhibit time-varying behavior and are non-Newtonian, complicating assessment of fluid thickness, potentially compromising efficacy of therapy. This work aimed to quantify the flow properties of fluids produced with commercial thickeners at shear rates representative of slow tipping in a beaker to fast swallowing. Results were presented as indices calculated using a power-law model representing apparent viscosity (consistency index) and non-Newtonian nature of flow (flow behavior index). Immediately following mixing, 3 fluid thicknesses showed distinct consistency indices and decreasing flow behavior index with increasing thickener concentration. An increase in consistency index over 30 min was observed, but only for samples that were repeatedly sheared during acquisition. Three-hour measurements showed changes in consistency index across fluids with the largest being a 25% rise from initial value. This may have implications for efficacy of treatment, as fluids are not always consumed immediately upon mixing. Flow behavior indices were comparable across thickeners exhibiting similar rises over time. The indices were a more complete method of quantifying flow properties compared with single viscosity measurements, allowing an increased depth of analysis. The non-Newtonian nature of fluids perhaps renders them particularly suitable for use as dysphagia therapies, and such analysis may allow the possibility of altering these properties to optimize therapeutic efficacy to be explored. Practical Application: Effective treatment of swallowing disorders relies upon the appropriate choice and subsequent reproduction of drinks thickened to one of a number of predetermined

  8. CT evaluation of target-like bowel wall thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, In Young; Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hea; Kim, Jin Hee; Chung, Won Kyun; Cho, Soon Gu

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT features of target-like bowel wall thickenings and to correlate target layers with histopathologic layers. We retrospectively analyzed 37 target-like bowel wall thickenings with inner high-, middle low- and outer high attenuated layers on CT scan. Bowel lesions included 15 cases of ischemic lesion, 12 of inflammation, four of carcinomatosis, four of trauma, and two of radiation enteritis. Target-like bowel wall thickenings were classified into three types : with inner most thickened high-attenuated layer(type 1); with middle most thickened low-attenuated layer(type 2), and with outer most thickened high-attenuated layer(type 3). We analyzed the characteristic CT features of these bowel lesions and correlated target and histopathologic layers in resected bowel specimens. Target-like bowel wall thickening was type 1 in 18 cases(49%), type 2 in 13 cases(35%), and type 3 in 6 cases(16%). Type 1 ischemic bowel lesions and inflammations were most common, and were found in 60% and 67% of cases, retrospectively. All cases of trauma were type 2 and radiation colitis was type 3. Histopathologic findings showed that each layer of target lesions did not exactly correlated with histopathologic layers. However, the inner high attenuated layer correlated with mucosa and some submucosa, the middle low-attenuated layer correlated with most submucosa and some muscularis, and the outer high-attenuated layer correlated with muscularis, serosa, and periserosal mesentery. CT features of target-like bowel wall thickenings showed type characteristics according to bowel lesions. Histopathologic comparison and analysis were considered helpful for the differential diagnosis of bowel lesions

  9. Activation of NMDA receptors thickens the postsynaptic density via proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Yuko; Nakajima, Eri; Hatano, Erika; Itoh, Sayaka; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Miyazawa, Atsuo

    2015-12-01

    The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein complex that is critical for synaptic transmission. Ultrastructural changes in the PSD are therefore likely to modify synaptic functions. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructural changes in the PSD in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum following neuronal excitation. Oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced PSD thickening in hippocampal slice cultures was blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK801. To gain more insight into the mechanisms underlying NMDA receptor-mediated PSD thickening, we assessed the area, length, and thickness of the PSD after NMDA treatment. The PSDs thickened with just 2 min of NMDA receptor stimulation, and this treatment was considered sublethal. When N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal, an inhibitor of calpain, cathepsins, and the proteasome, was applied, NMDA-induced PSD thickening was abolished. Furthermore, the calcium-induced calcium release inhibitor, ryanodine, reduced NMDA receptor-mediated PSD thickening. These results suggest that NMDA receptor activation induces PSD thickening by proteolysis through intracellular calcium increase, including that induced by calcium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Sonographic evaluation of gallbladder wall thickening: Analysis of specific patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohan, R.H.; Mahony, B.S.; Illescas, F.F.; Baker, M.E.; Bowie, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The US scans of 51 patients with gallbladder wall thickening were reviewed and sonographic features were correlated with findings on surgical and clinical follow-up. Nineteen patients (37%) had intrinsic gallbladder disease, including 13 with acute cholecystitis (ACC). Thirty-two patients (63%) had other abnormalities, including 19 with hypoalbuminemia. Two distinct patterns of gallbladder wall thickening were noted. In 8 of 13 (62%) patients with ACC, but none of the others, irregular, discontinuous, lucent, echogenic intramural bands were seen, while in 11 of 38 (29%) without ACC but only one of 13 (8%) with ACC smooth, circumferential lucent zone interposed between two relatively uniform echogenic layers was seen. Other abnormalities, including intramural echogenic foci and wall irregularities, were more frequent in patients with ACC but were not specific. Utilization of these features may prove helpful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of ACC in patients in whom the cause of gallbladder wall thickening is not apparent

  11. Viscosity of Dysphagia-Oriented Cold-Thickened Beverages: Effect of Setting Time at Refrigeration Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although extensive literature is available on the viscosity of thickened beverages with food thickeners, no attempt has been made to study the effect of setting time on the viscosity of pudding-like cold-thickened beverages with xanthan gum (XG)-based thickeners by using a rheometer. In particular, it is of considerable practical…

  12. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Previously, fluoroacrylate homopolymers and fluorinated telechelic ionomers were shown to increase the viscosity of carbon dioxide by a factor of 3--4 at concentrations of 2--3 at concentrations of 4--5 wt%. This report details the findings for several new types of carbon dioxide thickening candidates. Hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfonated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bounding compounds were evaluated.

  13. Unusual causes of colonic wall thickening on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.R.; Markose, G.; Arends, M.J.; Ng, C.S.; Freeman, A.H

    2003-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) appearances in 'colitis' are often non-specific, and include mural thickening and mesenteric fat stranding. In the western world, the majority of cases will have, or be subsequently diagnosed with, inflammatory bowel disease, pseudomembranous colitis or ischaemic colitis. However, other rare conditions may also produce these rather non-specific signs. We present a number of cases demonstrating colonic wall thickening on CT due to rarer diagnoses, which are correlated with the histopathological features. Some of these CT appearances have not been described previously in the literature.

  14. Feed-Thickening Practices in NICUs in the Current Era: Variability in Prescription and Implementation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhoun, Lauren L; Siler-Wurst, Kimberly K; Sitaram, Swetha; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2015-12-01

    Feed-thickening for infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is performed due to concerns of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). No standards currently exist regarding feed-thickening prescriptions and practices and this results in variable and potentially unsafe feeding approaches. Electronic surveys were sent to neonatal feeding therapists and providers in order to determine the prescriptions and practices currently being used for feed-thickening in the NICU. A total of 313 responses were collected. Results revealed the majority of providers use thickened feeds for concerns of dysphagia or GERD with some reporting they thicken expressed breast milk. Variability of thickening prescriptions was noted regarding consistencies, thickening agents, and recipes used. Reported approaches for measuring, mixing, and warming thickened feeds varied. Variability was noted in the feed-thickening prescriptions and practices performed in the NICU. Further research and standardization are required to develop thickening guidelines.

  15. Gastric wall thickening on spiral CT after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: comparision between recurrent caner and benign thickening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Sook; Choi, Jong Cheol; Yoon, Sung Kuk; Kim, Jae Ik; Oh, Jong Young; Kang, Myung Jin; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyuung Jin [Donga Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To determine the features revealed by two-phase spiral CT scanning useful for differential diagnosis between recurrent cancer and benign wall thickening in patients who have undergone subtotal gastrectomy for stomach cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 25 cases in which wall thickening of more than 1cm in the remnant stomach after subtotal gastrectomy was revealed by two-phase spiral CT scanning. All cases were confirmed: 11 were recurrent cancer, and in 14, benign wall thickening was demonstrated. We analyzed the CT findings including maximal thickness of the gastric wall, patterns of wall thickening, degree of contrast enhancement seen during the arterial and portal phases, and the presence of perigastric strands. Maximal wall thickness was classified as either more or less than 15mm, and as either focal or diffuse. We also determined whether lymphadenopathy was present. Mean maximal gastric wall thickness was 18.4mm in the recurrent cancer group ({sup g}roup A{sup )} and 12.6mm in the benign group ({sup g}roup B{sup )}. The gastric wall was thicker than 15mm in 10 of 11 group A cases and in 3 of 14 in group B; wall thickening was focal (n=3) or diffuse (n=8) in group A, and focal (n=13) or diffuse (n=1) in group B, while the enhancement patterns seen during the arterial and portal phase, respectively, were high/high (n=8), low/high (n=1) and low/low (n=2) in group A, and low/low (n=7), low/high (n=4), high/low (n=1) and high/high (n=2) in group B. Perigastric strands were observed in nine cases in group A, but in none in group B, while lymphadenopathy was combined with wall thickening in seven group A cases but in none of those in group B. In patients who have undergone subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer, two-phase spiral CT findings including maximal thickness of the gastric wall, patterns of wall thickening, degree of contrast enhancement seen during the arterial and portal phase, the presence of perigastric strands, and lymphadenopathy are useful for

  16. Shear thickening of Laponite suspensions with poly (ethylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fall, A.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of addition of polyethylene oxide (PEO) on the rheological behavior of suspensions of Laponite. Experiments were performed on mixtures of PEO and Laponite at different concentrations. These mixtures can exhibit very strong shear thickening behavior: under shear, the suspension

  17. Studies of food thickeners in Nigeria for contamination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... on fungal contamination of ready-to-use food thickeners sold to consumers in Nigeria. The non scientific methods of processing and poor handling of these agents are responsible for the contamination by aflatoxigenic form of. Aspergillus species. Hence, there are possible health hazards associated with ...

  18. Thickening of the somatosensory cortex in migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Jung Bin; Suh, Sang-il; Seo, Woo-Keun; Oh, Kyungmi; Koh, Seong-Beom

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to explore cortical thickness abnormalities in a homogeneous group of patients with migraine without aura and to delineate possible relationships between cortical thickness changes and clinical variables. Fifty-six female migraine patients without aura and T2-visible white matter hyperintensities and 34 female controls were scanned on a 3T magnetic resonance imager. Cortical thickness was estimated and compared between patients and controls using a whole-brain vertex-by-vertex analysis. Correlation analysis was conducted between cortical thickness of significant clusters and clinical variables. Compared to controls, migraine patients had cortical thickening in left rostral middle frontal gyrus and bilateral post-central gyri. Region-of-interest analysis revealed cortical thickening of bilateral post-central gyri in migraine patients relative to controls. The average thickness of bilateral post-central gyri positively correlated with disease duration as well as estimated lifetime headache frequency. We have provided evidence for interictal cortical abnormalities of thickened prefrontal cortex and somatosensory cortex in female migraine patients without aura. Our findings of greater thickening of the somatosensory cortex in relation to increasing disease duration and increasing headache frequency suggest that repeated migraine attacks over time may lead to structural changes of the somatosensory cortex through increased noxious afferent input within the trigemino-thalamo-cortical pathway in migraine. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. EFFECT OF THICKENERS ON THE TEXTURE OF STIRRED YOGURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GONÇALVEZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of the addition of gelatin and starch on the rheological properties of sweetened plain stirred yogurt was studied by manufacturing six samples: two with gelatin (3000 and 6000 ppm, three with starch (1000, 5000, 10000 ppm and a sample without thickener (control. Rheological characterization of the samples was performed using a coaxial cylinder Haake VT500 viscometer. Yield stress ( and hysteresis were also determined. Syneresis (% was measured by centrifugation at 1100 rpm for 10 minutes. Sensory characterization was performed with a panel of trained sensory assessors, who evaluated the following texture attributes: viscosity, ropiness, creaminess and mouthfeel. All samples showed thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. Since the upward curve did not fit a unique model, it was divided in two regions. The first one fitted Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The addition of gelatine decreased flow behaviour index (n, whereas yield stress significantly increased with the addition of both thickeners. Gelatine was more efficient in reducing syneresis than starch. The addition of thickeners significantly increased all the studied sensory texture attributes. Non-oral and oral parameters were highly correlated witch each other and witch rheological parameters. KEYWORDS: Yogurt; texture; thickeners.

  20. 3D cardiac wall thickening assessment for acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Chan, B. T.; Lim, E.; Liew, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most severe form of coronary artery disease leading to localized myocardial injury and therefore irregularities in the cardiac wall contractility. Studies have found very limited differences in global indices (such as ejection fraction, myocardial mass and volume) between healthy subjects and AMI patients, and therefore suggested regional assessment. Regional index, specifically cardiac wall thickness (WT) and thickening is closely related to cardiac function and could reveal regional abnormality due to AMI. In this study, we developed a 3D wall thickening assessment method to identify regional wall contractility dysfunction due to localized myocardial injury from infarction. Wall thickness and thickening were assessed from 3D personalized cardiac models reconstructed from cine MRI images by fitting inscribed sphere between endocardial and epicardial wall. The thickening analysis was performed in 5 patients and 3 healthy subjects and the results were compared against the gold standard 2D late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images for infarct localization. The notable finding of this study is the highly accurate estimation and visual representation of the infarct size and location in 3D. This study provides clinicians with an intuitive way to visually and qualitatively assess regional cardiac wall dysfunction due to infarction in AMI patients.

  1. Diffuse small bowel thickening in aids patient - a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is common in HIV/AIDS patients, caused by both classic enteric pathogens and different opportunistic agents. Infection with these different pathogens may lead to similar radiological findings, thus causing diagnostic confusion. Case presentation A 30-yr-old female with AIDS presented with chronic diarrhea of 4 months duration. She had diffuse small bowel thickening present on CT scan of her abdomen, with stool examination showing no parasites. She was erroneously diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis and given antituberculosis drugs with which she showed no improvement. Repeat stool examination later at a specialized laboratory revealed Cryptosporidium parvum infection. The patient was given an extended course of nitazoxanide treatment, as her stool examination was positive for Cryptosporidium parvum even after 2 weeks of drug consumption. Parasite clearance was documented after 10 weeks of treatment. Interestingly, the bowel thickening reversed with parasitological clearance. Conclusions Cryptosporidium parvum may lead to small bowel thickening in AIDS patients. This small bowel thickening may reverse following parasitological clearance. PMID:21029408

  2. Diffuse small bowel thickening in aids patient - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Samriti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is common in HIV/AIDS patients, caused by both classic enteric pathogens and different opportunistic agents. Infection with these different pathogens may lead to similar radiological findings, thus causing diagnostic confusion. Case presentation A 30-yr-old female with AIDS presented with chronic diarrhea of 4 months duration. She had diffuse small bowel thickening present on CT scan of her abdomen, with stool examination showing no parasites. She was erroneously diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis and given antituberculosis drugs with which she showed no improvement. Repeat stool examination later at a specialized laboratory revealed Cryptosporidium parvum infection. The patient was given an extended course of nitazoxanide treatment, as her stool examination was positive for Cryptosporidium parvum even after 2 weeks of drug consumption. Parasite clearance was documented after 10 weeks of treatment. Interestingly, the bowel thickening reversed with parasitological clearance. Conclusions Cryptosporidium parvum may lead to small bowel thickening in AIDS patients. This small bowel thickening may reverse following parasitological clearance.

  3. Rheometry-PIV of shear-thickening wormlike micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Santibañez, Benjamín M; Pérez-Gonzalez, José; de Vargas, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Huelsz, Guadalupe

    2006-04-25

    The shear-thickening behavior of an equimolar semidilute aqueous solution of 40 mM/L cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was studied in this work by using a combined method of rheometry and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Experiments were conducted at 27.5 degrees C with Couette, vane-bob, and capillary rheometers in order to explore a wide shear stress range as well as the effect of boundary conditions and time of flow on the creation and destruction of shear-induced structures (SIS). The use of the combined method of capillary rheometry with PIV allowed the detection of fast spatial and temporal variations in the flow kinematics, which are related to the shear-thickening behavior and the dynamics of the SIS but are not distinguished by pure rheometrical measurements. A rich-in-details flow curve was found for this solution, which includes five different regimes. Namely, at very low shear rates a Newtonian behavior was found, followed by a shear thinning one in the second regime. In the third, shear banding was observed, which served as a precursor of the SIS and shear-thickening. The fourth and fifth regimes in the flow curve were separated by a spurtlike behavior, and they clearly evidenced the existence of shear-thickening accompanied by stick-slip oscillations at the wall of the rheometer, which subsequently produced variations in the shear rate under shear stress controlled flow. Such a stick-slip phenomenon prevailed up to the highest shear stresses used in this work and was reflected in asymmetric velocity profiles with spatial and temporal variations linked to the dynamics of creation and breakage of the SIS. The presence of apparent slip at the wall of the rheometer provides an energy release mechanism which leads to breakage of the SIS, followed by their further reformation during the stick part of the cycles. In addition, PIV measurements allowed the detection of apparent slip at the wall, as well as mechanical failures in the bulk of the

  4. Bilateral uveal effusion associated with scleral thickening due to amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, S C; McCluskey, P J; Parker, G; Taylor, R F

    2000-09-01

    A 45-year-old man with primary systemic amyloidosis was found to have bilateral uveal effusions secondary to thickened sclera according to magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits. The patient was treated with bilateral sclerectomies and vortex vein decompression, and had an excellent outcome. Light microscopy of excised sclera revealed severe infiltration of the tissue by amyloid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of amyloid infiltration of the sclera leading to uveal effusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:1293-1295

  5. Investigation of Shear Thickening Liquid Protection Fibrous Material

    OpenAIRE

    Po-Yun Chen; Jui-Liang Yen; Chang-Ping Chang; Wen-Hua Hu; Yu-Liang Chen; Yih-Ming Liu; Chin-Yi Chou; Ming-Der Ger

    2012-01-01

    The stab resistance performance of newly developed fabric composites composed of hexagonal paper honeycombs, filled with shear thickening fluid (STF), and woven Kevlar® fabric or UHMPE was investigated in this study. The STF was prepared by dispersing submicron SiO2 particles into polyethylene glycol (PEG). Our results indicate that the STF-Kevlar composite possessed lower penetration depth than that of neat Kevlar. In other words, the STF-Kevlar composite can attain the ...

  6. Autocrine role of vascular IL-15 in intimal thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercek, Miha; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Li, Hongyan; Chyu, K.-Y.; Peter, Ashok; Shah, Prediman K.; Dimayuga, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates T cell recruitment and activation, independent of antigen. It has been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-/- mice. IL-15 regulates fractalkine (FKN)-CX3CR1 chemokine signaling which is involved in atherogenesis and promotes SMC proliferation. We investigated the role of IL-15 in intimal thickening after arterial injury. Treatment of serum-stimulated SMC with IL-15 in vitro attenuated proliferation and suppressed CX3CR1 and FKN mRNA expression. The role of endogenous IL-15 in vivo was investigated in injured carotid arteries of mice. Periadventitial arterial injury resulted in increased IL-15 expression in the media and neointima, paralleled by increased IL-15 receptor α expression. Blockade of endogenous IL-15 increased intimal thickening. FKN and CX3CR1 expression increased after injury and were further augmented after IL-15 blockade. These data suggest that endogenous IL-15 attenuated intimal thickening after arterial injury. The potential mechanism of action is suppression of CX3CR1 signaling

  7. A New Thickener for CO2 Anhydrous Fracturing Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 dry fracturing technology is well-known for its advantages. Little water is used in this technology, which is able to ease the pressure of consumption on water resources. Many abroad theoretical researches, laboratory experiments and field tests have been taken to explore the yield mechanism, the adaptability and the technology of pure liquid CO2 fracturing. These achievements have been applied to a variety of reservoirs transformation and improven the effectiveness of stimulation treatment in a degree. The researches and studies in the domestic didn’t get popular until recent years. Thus, this article firstly introduces the main development and application about pure CO2 anhydrous fracturing technology, and sums up the effect and evaluation of its fluid through application examples both in the domestic and abroad. However, although this technology has many excellent qualities, but systematic studies indicate that its proppant-carrying capacity is less competitive because of the low viscosity of pure CO2 liquid and other reasons. In a consequence, it is necessary to develop an appropriate thickener for CO2 anhydrous fracturing fluid to improve its carrying capacity. Then this article describes some studies of previous scholars about CO2 thickener. Then we put forward our own research ideas and transform it into actual experiments. Thanks to the valid performances of these tests, we successfully develop a thickener X and cosolvent B.

  8. Airway wall thickening and emphysema show independent familial aggregation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bipen D; Coxson, Harvey O; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether airway wall thickening and emphysema make independent contributions to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether these phenotypes cluster within families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether airway wall thickening and emphysema (1...

  9. Utility of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular thickening

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Nicholas; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Left ventricular (LV) thickening can be due to hypertrophy (concentric, asymmetric, eccentric) or remodelling (concentric or asymmetric). Pathological thickening may be caused by pressure overload, volume overload, infiltrative disorders, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, athlete?s heart or neoplastic infiltration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the comprehensive evaluation of LV thickening, including: establishing diagnosis, determining LV geometry, establish...

  10. Effect of human saliva on the consistency of thickened drinks for individuals with dysphagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallons, K.J.R.; Helmens, H.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thickening of foods and fluids is commonly used in the management of dysphagia to reduce the risk of aspiration. The use of starch-based thickeners is established. However, the use of gums in thickeners is gaining interest as they are resistant to salivary amylase, which may promote safer

  11. Effect of Human Saliva on the Consistency of Thickened Drinks for Individuals with Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallons, Katleen J. R.; Helmens, Harold J.; Oudhuis, A. A. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thickening of foods and fluids is commonly used in the management of dysphagia to reduce the risk of aspiration. The use of starch-based thickeners is established. However, the use of gums in thickeners is gaining interest as they are resistant to salivary amylase, which may promote safer swallowing. Aims: To compare the effect of…

  12. Associative thickeners : Their adsorption behaviour onto latexes and the rheology of their solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svanholm, T.; Molenaar, F.; Toussaint, A.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction between an associative thickeners in solution and an anionic surfactant has been studied with rheology and surface tension measurements. Both a HEUR thickener and low molecular weight HMHEC thickener interacted strongly with the surfactant. The addition of surfactant leads in both

  13. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bonding compounds were evaluated. Random copolymers of styrene and heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate were characterized by high solubility ion dense carbon dioxide and the most substantial increases in solution viscosity. Falling cylinder viscometry results indicated that the 29%styrene--71%fluoroacylate bulk-polymerized copolymer induced 2--250 fold increases in viscosity at copolymer concentrations of 0.2--5.0wt%.

  14. Diffuse interlobular septal thickening in a coal miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrumurthy, S.G.; Kearney, S.; Sissons, M.; Haider, Y. [Lancashire Teaching Hospital for NHS Funding Trust, Chorley (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Diffuse interlobular septal thickening (DIST) is an abnormality seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning of the thorax. While DIST may be present to variable extents in a number of lung conditions, it is uncommon as a predominant finding except in a few entities. This report features an ex-coal miner, thought to have coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), in whom the HRCT scan showed no evidence of CWP and instead showed DIST. The patient's condition progressed incessantly towards death from severe secondary pulmonary hypertension. The case links fatal pulmonary hypertension to DIST, a pattern not previously described in coal workers.

  15. The experimental study of sinal wall thickening on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Yasuhiro; Iinuma, Tositaka; Oyama, Kazuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    In our previous report, we investigated several factors which cause apparent thickening of the walls of maxillary sinus. We confirmed, however, that the major factor for the sinal wall thickening is the artifact of CT. In present study, we report the results obtained by phantom models of isolated maxillary bone and egg shell. As the substance corresponding to the soft tissue density, solutions of CaCl 2 in various concentrations were used. In the maxillary bone studies, the thickness of the anterior sinus wall by CT was larger than the actual value even though only the air was contained. When solutions of CaCl 2 were contained and in touch with the anterior wall, the thickness by CT was larger than that of containing air. In the egg shell studies, the increase in thickness by CT correlated to the increase in percentage of solutions. The above results indicate that the apparent increased thickness of the sinal walls by CT is largely the artifact by CT and is dependent upon the soft tissue density or CT value (X-ray attenuation coefficient) of substances in touch with the sinal walls. In CT images obtained by clinical cases, the increased thickness of the sinal walls, in sinuses filled with soft tissue density, is more apparent than real. (author)

  16. Patterns of Gall Bladder Wall Thickening in Dengue Fever: A Mirror of the Severity of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jitendra Premjibhai; Mohan, Chander; Vora, Maulik

    2017-04-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health problem with an increased incidence in recent years. Gall bladder wall thickening has been reported as one of the most common findings in dengue fever. There is a paucity of literature regarding the various patterns of gall bladder wall thickening in dengue fever and their significance in predicting the severity of disease. Out of 93 seropositive patients included in the study, 54 patients with dengue fever had gall bladder wall thickening. 4 patterns of gall bladder wall thickening are demonstrated in this study. A uniform echogenic pattern in 20 patients, striated or tram track pattern in 11 patients, an asymmetric pattern in 2 patients and a honeycombing pattern in 21 patients. The range of patterns of wall thickening included normal wall thickening or uniform echogenic wall thickening in DF without warning signs, a striated or tram track pattern, and a honeycomb pattern in severe DF. Serial ultrasound done on consecutive alternate days revealed a change in the pattern of gall bladder wall thickening according to the severity of disease. The present study revealed 4 distinct patterns of gall bladder wall thickening. The uniform echogenic pattern was found to be more prevalent in dengue fever without warning signs, while the honeycomb pattern was found to be more prevalent in severe dengue fever. A change in the pattern of gall bladder wall thickening on subsequent serial ultrasound can predict the severity of the disease.

  17. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to incorporate carbon dioxide-philic functionalities into the structure of a telechelic ionomers in an attempt to design a carbon dioxide-thickener. Alkyl analogs of these end-functionalized polymers have been successfully employed in dilute concentration to increase the viscosity of organic liquids or to induce gelation. The ionic end-groups associated in solution, establishing a viscosity enhancing macromolecular structure. More dramatic viscosity changes have been attained at very dilute concentrations with low MW associating compounds than with ultra-high MW polymers. The apparent molecular weight of the associative network greatly exceeds the MW of the covalently-bounded polymer in solution, yet the relatively low molecular weight of the compound favors its solubilization.

  18. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Previously, hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bonding compounds were evaluated. Random copolymers of styrene and heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate yielded substantial increases in viscosity. The amount of styrene varied between 22--40 mole% in the copolymer. Falling cylinder viscometry results indicated that the 29% styrene--71% fluoroacrylate copolymer induced (at 295K and 34.5 Mpa) increases of 10, 60 and 250 at copolymer concentrations of 1, 3 and 5wt%, respectively.

  19. Frontal parosteal lipoma with thickening of diploic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Morishita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parosteal lipoma is a rare benign tumor that is composed mainly of benign mature lipocytes, and it has an intimate association with the underlying affected bone. Parosteal lipoma involving the head and neck is very rare, and there are only two reported cases of parosteal lipoma of the skull in English literature. This paper reports a rare case of frontal parosteal lipoma in a young child with a hard enlargement of the forehead region after blunt trauma. Computed tomography revealed a large soft tissue mass and an osseous projection of the unilateral frontal bone. The pathology report identified lipoma and thickening of diploic space of the frontal bone. Here, we present a new case of parosteal lipoma in the frontal region.

  20. Retinal Thickening and Photoreceptor Loss in HIV Eyes without Retinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Arcinue

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of structural changes in HIV retinae (i.e., photoreceptor density and retinal thickness in the macula compared with age-matched HIV-negative controls.Cohort of patients with known HIV under CART (combination Antiretroviral Therapy treatment were examined with a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera to assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to assess retinal layers and retinal thickness.Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (n = 6 HIV-positive and 6 HIV-negative were imaged with the adaptive optics camera. In each of the regions of interest studied (nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, the HIV group had significantly less mean cone photoreceptor density compared with age-matched controls (difference range, 4,308-6,872 cones/mm2. A different subset of forty eyes of 20 patients (n = 10 HIV-positive and 10 HIV-negative was included in the retinal thickness measurements and retinal layer segmentation with the SD-OCT. We observed significant thickening in HIV positive eyes in the total retinal thickness at the foveal center, and in each of the three horizontal B-scans (through the macular center, superior, and inferior to the fovea. We also noted that the inner retina (combined thickness from ILM through RNFL to GCL layer was also significantly thickened in all the different locations scanned compared with HIV-negative controls.Our present study shows that the cone photoreceptor density is significantly reduced in HIV retinae compared with age-matched controls. HIV retinae also have increased macular retinal thickness that may be caused by inner retinal edema secondary to retinovascular disease in HIV. The interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE, as well as possible low-grade ocular inflammation causing diffuse inner retinal edema, may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients without overt retinitis.

  1. Unraveling the Role of Order-to-Disorder Transition in Shear Thickening Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghun; Jiang, Zhang; Wang, Jin; Sandy, Alec R.; Narayanan, Suresh; Lin, Xiao-Min

    2018-01-01

    Using high-resolution in situ small angle x-ray scattering in conjunction with oscillatory shear on highly monodisperse silica suspensions, we demonstrate that an order-to-disorder transition leads to a dynamic shear thickening in a lower stress regime than the standard steady shear thickening. We show that the order-to-disorder transition is controlled by strain, which is distinguishably different from steady shear thickening, which is a stress-related phenomenon. The appearance of this two-step shear thinning and thickening transition is also influenced by the particle size, monodispersity, and measurement conditions (i.e., oscillatory shear versus steady shear). Our results show definitively that the order-to-disorder transition-induced thickening is completely unrelated to the mechanism that drives steady shear thickening.

  2. Thickened wall-type GB cancer and complicated cholecystitis : comparison of CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seong Nim; Jung, Hae Jong; Kang, Sung Hag; Shin, Sung Ran; Lee, Min Jin; Lee, Kil Jun; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Red Cross Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    We compared CT findings of thickened wall-type gallbladder cancer with those of complicated cholecystitis. We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT scans of ten patients with thickened wall-type gallbladder cancer and eight patients with complicated cholecystitis, from March 1991 to November 1995. CT findings of thickened wall-type gallbladder cancer showed diffuse or focal wall thickening. Wall thickness was 5.3-18.0mm (mean value, 12.2mm;n=10). Gallbladder wall thickness of complicated cholecystitis was 3.0-14.0mm (mean value, 6.6mm;n=8). Statistical significance was noted between thickened wall-type gallbladder cancer and complicated cholecytitis(p<0.0029). Irregular wall thickening was noted in 7/10 cases of thickened wall-type gallbladder cancer(70%). Regular wall thickening was noted in 6/8 cases of complicated cholecystitis(75%). The luminal diameter of thickened wall-type gallbladder cancer was 3.3-5.4cm (mean value, 4.2cm; n=10). The luminal diameter of complicated cholecystitis was 5.2-8.0cm (mean value, 6.5cm; n=8). Statistical significance was noted between thickened wall-type gallbladder cancer and complicated cholecystitis(p<0.0003). The halo sign was noted in only 3/8 cases of complicated cholecystitis(38%). Secondary findings of thickened wall-type gallbladder caner was lymphadenopathy in 3/10 cases(30%), and liver invasion in 2/10 cases(20%). Secondary findings of complicated cholecystitis were liver abscess in 2/8 cases(25%), and RLQ abdominal fluid collection and pleural effusion in 4/8 cases(50%). Differential factors of thickened wall-type gallbladder cancer from complicated cholecystits are gallbladder wall thickness, regularity of wall thickness, halo sign, secondary findings and luminal distention.

  3. On the Polymer Thickener for Viscosity-Stabilized Solar Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshiro; Kato, Nobuhiro; Taga, Masao

    1998-09-01

    The optimal physical properties of an ionized polyacrylamide solution, selected as the most suitable thickener for the insulating layer of aviscosity-stabilized solar pond, are described. Light transmittance,viscosity and viscosity degradation were obtained for a range ofthicknesses from 1 cm to 15 cm (1 15 cm), weight concentrations of0.1 0.5% (0.1 0.5 wt%) and temperatures of the polymer of 20 80°C. Onset of convection was also measured for a given thickness of the polymersolution. An exposure test was carried out to prevent degradation of thepolymer using an antioxidant. It was confirmed that the viscosity was notdecreased and, on the contrary, increased slightly after 100 days. It wasshown experimentally that the critical Rayleigh number coincided with the theoretical values reported by Tien et al.. [Int. J. Heat MassTransf. 12 (1969) 1173]. Transmittances of the polymeric gel for the case ofvessels greater than 5 cm in thicknesses were better than those of theSPR402 solution (0.5 wt%).

  4. Erosion of the French Alpine foreland controlled by crustal thickening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stéphane; Gautheron, Cécile; Audin, Laurence; Nomade, Jérôme; Dumont, Thierry; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella; van der Beek, Peter

    2017-04-01

    In alpine-type collision belts, deformation of the foreland may occur as a result of forward propagation of thrusting and is generally associated with thin-skinned deformation mobilizing the sedimentary cover in fold-and-thrust belts. Locally, foreland deformation can involve crustal-scale thrusting and produce large-scale exhumation of crystalline basement resulting in significant relief generation. In this study, we investigate the burial and exhumation history of Tertiary flexural basins located in the western Alpine foreland, at the front of the Digne thrust-sheet (SE France), using low-temperature apatite fission-track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology. Based on the occurrence of partially to totally reset apatite grain ages, we document 3.3 to 4.0 km burial of these basins remnants between 12-6 Ma, related to thin-skinned thrust-sheet emplacement without major relief generation. The onset of exhumation is dated at 6 Ma and is linked to erosion associated with subsequent relief development. This evolution does not appear controlled by major climate changes (Messinian crisis) or by European slab breakoff. Rather, we propose that the erosional history of the Digne thrust-sheet corresponds to basement involvement in foreland deformation, leading to crustal thickening and the incipient formation of a new external crystalline massif. Our study highlights the control of deep-crustal tectonic processes on foreland relief development and its erosional response at mountain fronts.

  5. Automatic airway-artery analysis on lung CT to quantify airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening are commonly assessed in computed tomography (CT) by comparing the airway size with the size of the accompanying artery. Thus, in order to automate the quantification of bronchiectasis and wall thickening following a similar principle, there is a...

  6. Significance of appendiceal thickening in association with typhlitis in pediatric oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, M.B.; Thompson, J.; Adelman, C.S.; Lee, M.O.; Li, C.; Alsammarae, D.; Rao, B.N.; May, M.V.; Jones, S.C.; Sandlund, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The management of pediatric oncology patients with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening is complex because they are generally poor surgical candidates and often have confounding clinical findings. Objective: We sought to determine the significance of appendiceal thickening in pediatric oncology patients who also had typhlitis. Specifically, we evaluated the impact of this finding on the duration of typhlitis, its clinical management, and outcome. Materials and methods: From a previous review of the management of typhlitis in 90 children with cancer at our institution, we identified 4 with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening. We compared colonic wall measurements, duration of typhlitis symptoms, management, and outcome of patients with appendiceal thickening and typhlitis to patients with typhlitis alone. Results: There was no significant difference in duration of typhlitis symptoms between patients with typhlitis only (15.6 ± 1.2 days) and those with typhlitis and appendiceal thickening (14.5 ± 5.8 days; P = 0.9). Two patients with appendiceal thickening required surgical treatment for ischemic bowel, and two were treated medically. Only one patient in the typhlitis without appendiceal thickening group required surgical intervention. There were no deaths in children with appendiceal thickening; two patients died of complications of typhlitis alone. (orig.)

  7. Parent perception of the impact of using thickened fluids in children with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummrich, Patricia; Kline, Barbara; Krival, Kate; Rubin, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia occurs in children without known neurological disorders, increasing their risk for respiratory problems and inadequate intake. Clinicians may recommend thickening nutritive fluids; however, there is little research regarding the impact of thickening nutritive fluids on clinical outcomes in children. We used a parental reporting tool to determine whether parents identified changes in signs of dysphagia or volume of intake when thickened fluids were incorporated into an individualized feeding program for dysphagic children without known neurological problems. Fifty-five children diagnosed with dysphagia, for whom thickened fluids had been recommended per radiographic and clinical exam, qualified for the study. Parents of 44 children (24 females, 20 males) aged 2 weeks to 14 months completed baseline and post-thickening (within 90 days) rating scales. Compared to baseline, parents reported significant decreases in the frequency of apnea (W = -219, P fluids in the dysphagia management of children without a known neurological diagnosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gallbladder wall thickening: MR imaging and pathologic correlation with emphasis on layered pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S.E.; Lee, J.M.; Hahn, S.T.; Lee, K.; Rha, S.E.; Choi, B.G.; Kim, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening with pathologic findings on the basis of the layered pattern and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in gallbladder disease. We retrospectively evaluated the source images of HASTE sequences for MR cholangiography in 144 patients with gallbladder wall thickening. The layered pattern of thickened wall was classified into four patterns. Type 1 shows two layers with a thin hypointense inner layer and thick hyperintense outer layer. Type 2 has two layers of ill-defined margin. Type 3 shows multiple hyperintense cystic spaces in the wall. Type 4 shows diffuse nodular thickening without layering. MR findings of a layered pattern of thickened gallbladder were well correlated with histopathology. Chronic cholecystitis matched to type 1, acute cholecystitis corresponded to type 2, adenomyomatosis showed type 3, and the gallbladder carcinomas showed type 4. All four layered patterns were associated with PPV of 73% or greater, sensitivity of 92% or greater and specificity of 95% or greater. Our results indicate that MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening are characteristic in each entity and correlate well with pathologic findings. The classification of the layered pattern may be valuable for interpreting thickened gallbladder wall. (orig.)

  9. The Measurement of Thickened Liquids Used for the Management of Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T. M.; Torley, P. J.; Cichero, J. A. Y.

    2008-07-01

    Dysphagia is a condition where a person has difficulty in swallowing. This can lead to reduced dietary intake, dehydration and malnutrition and also aspiration of material into the lungs and asphyxiation. Using thickened fluids slow the act of swallowing and by doing so enhance safe swallowing. A common method of thickening drinks is to use a powdered thickener, but this can lead to problems in ensuring that the consistency of the degree of thickening appropriate to an individual is maintained by those making up the fiuids. There is also no assurance that the thickness of thickened liquids is consistent across commercial manufacturers. In this field viscosity is typically measured using a Line Spread Test, with the resulting viscosities being described by such terms as nectar- honey- or pudding-thick. This test is prone to many variations in operating conditions and so cannot provide accurate reproducible data. In this paper we have used conventional rheology (dynamic oscillatory using a couette cell) to provide quantitative measurement of the development in thickness of various beverages as a function of time. It was found fruit juices typically required less thickener and milk more to achieve the same thickness, but that the degree of thickening varied non-linearly with addition level.

  10. Gallbladder wall thickening: MR imaging and pathologic correlation with emphasis on layered pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, S.E.; Lee, J.M.; Hahn, S.T. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, K. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Clinical Pathology, St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Rha, S.E.; Choi, B.G. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Kangnam St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Kim, E.K. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Surgery (E.K.K), St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening with pathologic findings on the basis of the layered pattern and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in gallbladder disease. We retrospectively evaluated the source images of HASTE sequences for MR cholangiography in 144 patients with gallbladder wall thickening. The layered pattern of thickened wall was classified into four patterns. Type 1 shows two layers with a thin hypointense inner layer and thick hyperintense outer layer. Type 2 has two layers of ill-defined margin. Type 3 shows multiple hyperintense cystic spaces in the wall. Type 4 shows diffuse nodular thickening without layering. MR findings of a layered pattern of thickened gallbladder were well correlated with histopathology. Chronic cholecystitis matched to type 1, acute cholecystitis corresponded to type 2, adenomyomatosis showed type 3, and the gallbladder carcinomas showed type 4. All four layered patterns were associated with PPV of 73% or greater, sensitivity of 92% or greater and specificity of 95% or greater. Our results indicate that MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening are characteristic in each entity and correlate well with pathologic findings. The classification of the layered pattern may be valuable for interpreting thickened gallbladder wall. (orig.)

  11. Stab Resistance of Shear Thickening Fluid (STF)-Kevlar Composites for Body Armor Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egres Jr., R. G; Decker, M. J; Halbach, C. J; Lee, Y. S; Kirkwood, J. E; Kirwood, K. M; Wagner, N. J; Wetzel, E. D

    2004-01-01

    The stab resistance of shear thickening fluid (STF)-Kevlar and STF-Nylon fabric composites are investigated and found to exhibit significant improvements over neat fabric targets of equivalent areal density...

  12. Shear Thickening Fluid (STF) – Enhanced Textiles for Impact Energy Dissipation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The rheological behavior of some liquids can lead to the creation of materials with very unique properties. Shear thickening fluids (STFs), also known as dilatants,...

  13. Thickened water-based hydraulic fluid with reduced dependence of viscosity on temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Improved hydraulic fluids or metalworking lubricants, utilizing mixtures of water, metal lubricants, metal corrosion inhibitors, and an associative polyether thickener, have reduced dependence of the viscosity on temperature achieved by the incorporation therein of an ethoxylated polyether surfactant.

  14. Diffuse small bowel thickening in AIDS patient--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Rohit; Hari, Samriti; Sharma, Surendra K

    2010-10-28

    Diarrhea is common in HIV/AIDS patients, caused by both classic enteric pathogens and different opportunistic agents. Infection with these different pathogens may lead to similar radiological findings, thus causing diagnostic confusion. A 30-yr-old female with AIDS presented with chronic diarrhea of 4 months duration. She had diffuse small bowel thickening present on CT scan of her abdomen, with stool examination showing no parasites. She was erroneously diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis and given antituberculosis drugs with which she showed no improvement. Repeat stool examination later at a specialized laboratory revealed Cryptosporidium parvum infection.The patient was given an extended course of nitazoxanide treatment, as her stool examination was positive for Cryptosporidium parvum even after 2 weeks of drug consumption. Parasite clearance was documented after 10 weeks of treatment. Interestingly, the bowel thickening reversed with parasitological clearance. Cryptosporidium parvum may lead to small bowel thickening in AIDS patients. This small bowel thickening may reverse following parasitological clearance.

  15. The application of zeolite in thickeners for optimal water recovery and preventing environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini Nasab Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Thickener is the most important device that separates water from concentrate. Outlet water from thickener overflow must comply with the standards of transparency and the level of toxins. One way to reduce the hardness of water is ion replacement. In this paper we use the zeolite powder (coagulant) in combination with materials such as bentonite powder (coagulant aid), FeCl3 and poly aluminum chloride. If the settling time of particles in the deposition experiments was about an hour, this comp...

  16. A Comparative Study Between Modified Starch and Xanthan Gum Thickeners in Post-Stroke Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardell, N; Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Speyer, R; Clavé, P

    2016-04-01

    Thickeners are used in post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) as a compensatory therapeutic strategy against aspirations. To compare the therapeutic effects of modified starch (MS) and xanthan gum (XG) thickeners on swallow safety and efficacy in chronic post-stroke OD patients using clinical and videofluoroscopic (VFS) assessment. Patients were studied by clinical assessment (volume-viscosity swallow test, V-VST) and VFS using 3 volumes (5, 10, 20 mL) and 3 viscosities (liquid, nectar and spoon thick), comparing MS and XG. We studied 122 patients (46MS, 76XG). (A) V-VST showed that both thickeners similarly improved safety of swallow. Prevalence of safe swallowing significantly increased with enhanced viscosity (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 47.83 % at liquid, 84.93 % at nectar and 92.96 % at spoon thick; XG: 55.31 % at liquid, 77.78 % at nectar and 97.84 % at spoon thick. Patients on MS reported higher prevalence of pharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosities. (B) VFS: increasing bolus viscosity with either thickener increased prevalence of safe swallows (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 30.25 % liquid, 61.07 % nectar and 92.64 % spoon thick; XG: 29.12 % liquid, 71.30 % nectar and 89.91 % spoon thick. Penetration-aspiration scale score was significantly reduced with increased viscosity with both thickeners. MS increased oral and pharyngeal residues at nectar and spoon-thick viscosities but XG did not. Timing of airway protection mechanisms and bolus velocity were not affected by either thickener. Increasing bolus viscosity with MS and XG thickeners strongly and similarly improved safety of swallow in chronic post-stroke OD by a compensatory mechanism; in contrast only MS thickeners increased oropharyngeal residue.

  17. Effect of "hard" comonomers styrene and methyl methacrylate in ethyl acrylate/acrylic acid latices on their thickening with associative thickener

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quadrat, Otakar; Šňupárek, J.; Mikešová, Jana; Horský, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 253, 1-3 (2005), s. 163-168 ISSN 0927-7757 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR GA104/02/1360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : latices * thickening * acrylic copolymers containing styrene or methyl methacrylate groups Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.499, year: 2005

  18. Microstructural changes in thickened corpus callosum in children: contribution of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Kanavaki, Aikaterini; Hanquinet, Sylviane

    2015-06-01

    Thickened corpus callosum is a rare finding and its pathophysiology is not well known. An anomalous supracallosal bundle has been depicted by fiber tracking in some cases but no diffusion tensor imaging metrics of thickened corpus callosum have been reported. To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in cases of thickened corpus callosum to help in understanding its clinical significance. During a 7-year period five children (ages 6 months to 15 years) with thickened corpus callosum were studied. We determined DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ1) and radial (λ2, λ3) diffusivity and performed 3-D fiber tracking reconstruction of the thickened corpus callosum. We compared our results with data from the literature and 24 age-matched controls. Brain abnormalities were seen in all cases. All children had at least three measurements of corpus callosum thickness above the 97th percentile according to age. In all children 3-D fiber tracking showed an anomalous supracallosal bundle and statistically significant decrease in FA (P = 0.003) and λ1 (P = 0.001) of the corpus callosum compared with controls, but no significant difference in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Thickened corpus callosum was associated with abnormal bundles, suggesting underlying axonal guidance abnormality. DTI metrics suggested abnormal fiber compactness and density, which may be associated with alterations in cognition.

  19. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming; Li Yebo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). → Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. → FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. → Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS added when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH 4 and CO 2 content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  20. Final Research Performance Report - Small Molecular Associative Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Robert M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-12-31

    The initial objective of this project was to promote the application of a CO2 thickener for improved mobility control during CO2 EOR based on solubility tests, viscosity tests, and core floods. Ultimately, it was demonstrated that the CO2-soluble polymeric thickeners are much better suited for use a CO2-soluble conformance control agents for diverting the flow of CO2 away from thief zones. Our team generated several effective small molecule CO2 thickeners with ARPA-e funding. Unfortunately, none of these small molecule thickeners could dissolve in CO2 without the addition of unacceptably large amounts of hexane or toluene as a co-solvent Therefore none were viable candidates for the core flooding studies associated with NETL award. Therefore during the entire core flood testing program associated with this NETL award, our team used only the most promising polymeric CO2 thickener, a polyfluoroacrylate (PFA). In order to produce an environmentally benign polymer, the monomer used to make the new polymers used in this study was a fluoroacrylate that contains only six fluorinated carbons. We verified CO2 solubility with a phase behavior cell. The thickening potential of all polymer samples was substantiated with a falling ball viscometer and a falling cylinder viscometer at Pitt. Two different viscometers were used to determine the increase in CO2 viscosity that could be achieved via the dissolution of PFA. Praxair, which has an interest in thickening CO2 for pilot EOR projects and for waterless hydraulic fracturing, agreed to measure the viscosity of CO2-PFA solutions at no cost to the project. Falling cylinder viscometery was conducted at Pitt in our windowed high pressure phase behavior cell. Both apparatuses indicated that at very low shear rates the CO2 viscosity increased by a factor of roughly 3.5 when 1wt% PFA was

  1. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of SiO2 Particle Size and Length of Poly(Propylene Glycol Chain on Rheological Properties of Shear Thickening Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosik A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of shear thickening fluids based on silica powder of particles size in range 0.10 – 2.80 μm and poly(propylene glycol of 425, 1000, 2000 g/mol molar mass were investigated. The effect of particle size and the length of the polymeric chain was considered. The objective of this study was to understand basic trends of physicochemical properties of used materials on the onset and the maximum of shear thickening and dilatant effect. Outcome of the research suggested that an increase in the particle size caused a decrease in dilatant effect and shift towards higher shear rate values. Application of carrier fluid of higher molar mass allowed to increase dilatant effect but it resulted in the increase of the initial viscosity of the fluid.

  3. A Comparison of the Viscosities of Thickened Liquids for Pediatric Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Clifton, Mekale; Tarlton, Morgan; Heinsohn, Erica; Ewing, Mary

    It has been reported that Speech Language Pathologists in different facilities across the nation use a variety of thickening agents and recipes as therapeutic measures for infants and children diagnosed with dysphagia. Limited research has been completed in this area. Viscosity was tested to determine the thickness of each thickening agent mixed with infant formula. The values were then compared to the National Dysphagia Diet liquid levels to determine which thickening agent resulted in the desired viscosity levels. The thickeners were mixed with common infant formulas and soy formulas to determine if the type of formula impacted the viscosity. The main goal was to determine if the assumed thickness level (viscosity) of prescribed thickened liquids was actually being met. This topic is of high concern because of its impact on the safety and well-being of clients with dysphagia. A viscometer was used to collect the viscosity levels. Commercially available formulas selected for this study. The final results of our investigation will be presented during the APS meeting. This work is supported by a Ball State University Immersive Learning Grant.

  4. Nectin-like molecule-5 regulates intimal thickening after carotid artery ligation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureha, Fumie; Satomi-Kobayashi, Seimi; Kubo, Yoshiki; Kinugasa, Mitsuo; Ishida, Tatsuro; Takai, Yoshimi; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

    2013-06-01

    Intimal thickening is considered to result from the dedifferentiation of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype, and their subsequent migration and proliferation. It is unknown whether nectin-like molecule (Necl)-5, which is overexpressed in cancer cells, is involved in intimal thickening. Necl-5 was upregulated in mouse carotid artery after ligation. Compared with wild-type mice, intimal thickening after carotid artery ligation was milder in Necl-5 knockout mice. In vitro, the expression levels of SMC differentiation markers were higher, whereas the expression level of an SMC dedifferentiation marker was lower, in Necl-5 knockout mouse aortic SMCs (MASMCs) compared with wild-type MASMCs. The migration, proliferation, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity in response to serum were decreased in Necl-5 knockout MASMCs compared with wild-type MASMCs. In wild-type MASMCs, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity increased the expression levels of SMC differentiation markers and decreased their migration and proliferation in response to serum. The present findings indicate that Necl-5 plays a role in the formation of intimal thickening after carotid artery ligation by regulating dedifferentiation, migration, and proliferation of SMCs in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent manner. Our results suggest that Necl-5 may represent a potential therapeutic target to limit intimal thickening after vascular injury.

  5. Automated anatomical description of pleural thickening towards improvement of its computer-assisted diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Jiang, Mingze; Faltin, Peter; Merhof, Dorit; Eisenhawer, Christian; Gube, Monika; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Pleural thickenings are caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. An early diagnosis plays a key role towards an early treatment and an increased survival rate. Today, pleural thickenings are detected by visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. A computer-assisted diagnosis system to automatically assess pleural thickenings has been developed, which includes not only a quantitative assessment with respect to size and location, but also enhances this information with an anatomical description, i.e. lung side (left, right), part of pleura (pars costalis, mediastinalis, diaphragmatica, spinalis), as well as vertical (upper, middle, lower) and horizontal (ventral, dorsal) position. For this purpose, a 3D anatomical model of the lung surface has been manually constructed as a 3D atlas. Three registration sub-steps including rigid, affine, and nonrigid registration align the input patient lung to the 3D anatomical atlas model of the lung surface. Finally, each detected pleural thickening is assigned a set of labels describing its anatomical properties. Through this added information, an enhancement to the existing computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a higher precision and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings, aiming at the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  6. Breast disease with skin thickening: differential diagnosis with mammography and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Rok; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Hye Seong; Kim, Ki Tae; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Diffuse skin thickening of the breast is produced by lymphedema usually secondary to obstruction of the axillary lymphatics. On physical examination, the affected breast is, due to increased fluid content, larger, heavier, and of higher overall density. Mammography reveals an increased coarse reticular pattern. Thickening of the skin can have many causes. It may be a result of tumor invasion or a tumor in the dermal lymphatics ; or because of lymphatic congestion through obstruction of lymphatic drainage within the breast, in the axilla, or centrally in the mediastinum. Further causes may be congestive heart failure, benign inflammation, primary skin processes such as psoriasis, or systemic diseases which involve the skin. Mammographic appearance is known to be nonspecific. Ultrasound can demonstrate skin thickening directly, but despite some reports suggesting that the cause of skin thickening can be inferred from the results of ultrasound, this is not usually of practical importance. The purpose of this study is to review the causes of skin thickening of the breast and to use mammography and US to differentiate the causes.

  7. [Effect of food thickener on disintegration and dissolution of magnesium oxide tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Tsubouchi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that magnesium oxide tablets are excreted in a non-disintegrated state in the stool of patients when the tablets are administered after being immersed in a food thickener. Therefore we examined whether immersion in a food thickener affects the pharmacological effect in patients taking magnesium oxide tablets, and whether immersion affects its disintegration and solubility. The mean dosage (1705 mg/d) was higher for patients who took tablets after immersion in a food thickener than for those who took non-immersed tablets (1380 mg/d). The disintegration time and dissolution rate of the immersed tablets were lower than those of non-immersed tablets in vitro. Furthermore, components that constitute the food thickener and differences in composition concentrations differentially affect the disintegration and solubility of magnesium oxide tablets. This suggests that commercially available food thickeners are likely to be associated with changes in the degradation of magnesium oxide tablets, and they therefore should be carefully used in certain clinical situations.

  8. Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Phan, Hop V; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-06-01

    Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pairwise frictional profile between particles determines discontinuous shear thickening transition in non-colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtet, Jean; Chatté, Guillaume; Niguès, Antoine; Bocquet, Lydéric; Siria, Alessandro; Colin, Annie

    2017-05-31

    The process by which sheared suspensions go through a dramatic change in viscosity is known as discontinuous shear thickening. Although well-characterized on the macroscale, the microscopic mechanisms at play in this transition are still poorly understood. Here, by developing new experimental procedures based on quartz-tuning fork atomic force microscopy, we measure the pairwise frictional profile between approaching pairs of polyvinyl chloride and cornstarch particles in solvent. We report a clear transition from a low-friction regime, where pairs of particles support a finite normal load, while interacting purely hydrodynamically, to a high-friction regime characterized by hard repulsive contact between the particles and sliding friction. Critically, we show that the normal stress needed to enter the frictional regime at nanoscale matches the critical stress at which shear thickening occurs for macroscopic suspensions. Our experiments bridge nano and macroscales and provide long needed demonstration of the role of frictional forces in discontinuous shear thickening.

  10. Bowel wall thickening in patients with Crohn's disease: CT patterns and correlation with inflammatory activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dongil; Jin Lee, Soon; Ah Cho, Young; Lim, Hyo K.; Hoon Kim, Seung; Jae Lee, Won; Hoon Lim, Jae; Park, Haewon; Rae Lee, Young

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess CT patterns of bowel wall thickening in patients with Crohn's disease and to correlate these patterns with inflammatory activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 58 helical abdominal CT scans of 53 patients with pathologically proven Crohn's disease. CT patterns of thickened bowel wall were divided into four types based on patterns of mural stratification and enhancement: type A, multilayered mural stratification; type B, two layers with strong mucosal enhancement and prominent low-density submucosa; type C, two layers without strong mucosal enhancement; and type D, homogeneous enhancement. We evaluated CT findings of the bowel and adjacent structures. We also reviewed pathologic features and clinical data to determine inflammatory activity. RESULTS: Fifty-five (95%) of 58 CT examinations showed bowel wall thickening. Of these 55 CT scans, type A pattern was found in 33 (60%), type B in 10 (18%), type C in five (9%), and type D in seven (13%). CT scans with type A showed significantly more wall thickening than those with either type C or type D. Histology revealed 43 cases with active disease and 12 with quiescent appearance. Thirty of 33 CT scans with type A and all 10 with type B were classified as acute disease, and three of five with type C and six of seven with type D as quiescent. CONCLUSION: In patients with Crohn's disease, CT patterns of bowel wall thickening correlated with inflammatory activity. Thickened bowel wall with layering enhancement is predictive of acute disease, and that of homogeneous enhancement suggests quiescence. Choi, D., et al. (2003)Clinical Radiology,58, 68--74

  11. Subclinical leaflet thickening and stent frame geometry in self-expanding transcatheter heart valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; De Backer, Ole; Brooks, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    with intra-annular as compared to supra-annular valve position (54% vs. 17%; p=0.04). In case of post-dilatation, regional THV underexpansion occurred less frequently as compared to THV that were not post-dilated (18% vs. 43%, p=0.028). A similar but non-significant trend was found for leaflet thickening....... CONCLUSIONS: Regional THV stent frame underexpansion is associated with an increased risk of leaflet thickening. Post-dilatation of self-expanding THV as well as a supra-annular valve position seem to reduce the occurrence of this phenomenon....

  12. Late Paleogene rifting along the Malay Peninsula thickened crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Benjamin; Pubellier, Manuel; Jousselin, Pierre; Dattilo, Paolo; Kerdraon, Yannick; Choong, Chee Meng; Menier, David

    2017-07-01

    Sedimentary basins often develop above internal zones of former orogenic belts. We hereafter consider the Malay Peninsula (Western Sunda) as a crustal high separating two regions of stretched continental crust; the Andaman/Malacca basins in the western side and the Thai/Malay basins in the east. Several stages of rifting have been documented thanks to extensive geophysical exploration. However, little is known on the correlation between offshore rifted basins and the onshore continental core. In this paper, we explore through mapping and seismic data, how these structures reactivate pre-existing Mesozoic basement heterogeneities. The continental core appears to be relatively undeformed after the Triassic Indosinian orogeny. The thick crustal mega-horst is bounded by complex shear zones (Ranong, Klong Marui and Main Range Batholith Fault Zones) initiated during the Late Cretaceous/Early Paleogene during a thick-skin transpressional deformation and later reactivated in the Late Paleogene. The extension is localized on the sides of this crustal backbone along a strip where earlier Late Cretaceous deformation is well expressed. To the west, the continental shelf is underlain by three major crustal steps which correspond to wide crustal-scale tilted blocks bounded by deep rooted counter regional normal faults (Mergui Basin). To the east, some pronounced rift systems are also present, with large tilted blocks (Western Thai, Songkhla and Chumphon basins) which may reflect large crustal boudins. In the central domain, the extension is limited to isolated narrow N-S half grabens developed on a thick continental crust, controlled by shallow rooted normal faults, which develop often at the contact between granitoids and the host-rocks. The outer limits of the areas affected by the crustal boudinage mark the boundary towards the large and deeper Andaman basin in the west and the Malay and Pattani basins in the east. At a regional scale, the rifted basins resemble N-S en

  13. Automated quantification of bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening and lumen tapering in chest CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    Purpose: To automatically quantify airway structural properties visualised on CT in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and controls, including: bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, and lumen tapering. Methods and materials: The 3D surface of the airway lumen, outer wall, and bronchial arteries...

  14. Diabetes insipidus associated with a thickened pituitary stalk in a case of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhu, Rakesh; Nadkarni, Trimurti; Mahesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) associated with a thickened pituitary stalk is a diagnostic challenge in the pediatric population. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare cause of this entity. A 4-year-old male child presented with central DI of 1-year duration, associated with a thickened pituitary stalk. The etiology for the same remained elusive as the patient had no other manifestation to suggest LCH. A year later, the patient developed a left frontal scalp swelling. Neuroradiology demonstrated multiple punched out osteolytic lesions in both the frontal bones. The infundibulum was thickened and showed post-contrast enhancement. Histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the biopsy specimen confirmed LCH. The child was administered chemotherapy according to LCH protocol, which resulted in 33% reduction in the size of the skull lesions. The DI was controlled with medical management. The present case highlights the need for serial follow-up and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that led to a diagnosis of LCH. The clinical presentation and management of central DI and a thickened pituitary stalk is presented and the relevant literature is discussed. PMID:21977093

  15. Journal Article: Localized Pleural Thickening: Smoking and Exposure to Libby Vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited research on the combined effects of smoking and asbestos exposure on risk of localized pleural thickening (LPT). This analysis uses data from the Marysville cohort of workers occupationally exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Workers were interviewed to ...

  16. Glomerular parietal epithelial cell activation induces collagen secretion and thickening of Bowman's capsule in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderied, Alexander; Romoli, Simone; Eberhard, Jonathan; Konrad, Lukas A; Devarapu, Satish K; Marschner, Julian A; Müller, Susanna; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-03-01

    The metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in diabetes activate podocytes to increase extracellular matrix (ECM) production, leading to thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We hypothesized that diabetes would activate parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in a similar manner and cause thickening of Bowman's capsules. Periodic acid Schiff staining of human kidney biopsies of 30 patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) revealed a significantly thicker Bowman's capsule as compared with 20 non-diabetic controls. The average thickness was 4.55±0.21 μm in the group of patients with DN compared with 2.92±0.21 μm in the group of non-diabetic controls (PBowman's capsule showed strong association with CD44-positive PECs. In summary, metabolic alterations in diabetes activate PECs to increase the expression and secretion of Bowman's capsule proteins. This process may contribute to the thickening of the Bowman's capsule, similar to the thickening of the GBM that is driven by activated podocytes. These data may also imply that activated PECs contribute to ECM production once they migrate to the glomerular tuft, a process resulting in glomerular scaring, for example, in diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

  17. Micromorphology and systematic distribution of pit membrane thickenings in Oleaceae: Tori and pseudo-tori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Huysmans, S.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional significance of pit membranes in water conducting cells have renewed general interest in their micromorphology. At least two types of pit membrane thickenings have been described in angiosperm families, i.e. genuine tori and pseudo-tori. This study explores the

  18. Thickeners from normal and high amylose corn starch with sodium palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous studies have shown that materials with applications as thickeners can be formed from aqueous dispersions of amylose helical inclusion complexes obtained from high amylose corn starch and sodium palmitate. In order to prepare less expensive materials, to broaden the range of possible mat...

  19. Intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened wall of the gallbladder; CT features according to their primary causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jean Hwa; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Jin [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    According to published reports, a common feature of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is the presence of intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened gallbladder wall. These nodules can, however, also be seen in pathological conditions such as acute cholecystitis, hyperplastic cholecystoses (cholesterolosis and adenomyomatosis), gallbladder cancer, and other inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis. Retrospective review of the abdominal CT findings in 622 patients who for various reasons underwent cholecystectomy during a one-year period showed that intramural nodules were present in 60. In this pictorial essay we illustrate the imaging features of the many different pathological conditions which give rise to intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened wall of the gallbladder, correlating these features with the histopathological findings.

  20. Water-bearing explosives thickened with a partially hydrolyzed acrylamide polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, W.M.

    1971-11-23

    Thickened water-bearing explosives are provided which do not segregate and are water-resistant over a wide range of viscosities. Preferred compositions have a unique combination of pourability and fluidity coupled with resistance to water and segregation which makes them particularly suitable in small diameter holes and in holes partially filled with water. Accordingly, water-bearing explosive compositions also are provided which consist of inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, and water, which improvement consists of thickening the compositions with the combination of polyacrylamide and cross-linked galactomannan. The weight ratio of the polyacrylamide to galactomanan is from about ratio 0.1:1 to 10:1, and preferably 1:1 to 5:1. (1 claim)

  1. A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Guang-Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank. PMID:26350761

  2. A new local thickening reverse spiral origami thin-wall construction for improving of energy absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, C. H.; Zhao, X. L.; Hagiwara, I. R.

    2018-02-01

    As an effective and representative origami structure, reverse spiral origami structure can be capable to effectively take up energy in a crash test. The origami structure has origami creases thus this can guide the deformation of structure and avoid of Euler buckling. Even so the origami creases also weaken the support force and this may cut the absorption of crash energy. In order to increase the supporting capacity of the reverse spiral origami structure, we projected a new local thickening reverse spiral origami thin-wall construction. The reverse spiral origami thin-wall structure with thickening areas distributed along the longitudinal origami crease has a higher energy absorption capacity than the ordinary reverse spiral origami thin-wall structure.

  3. Production and properties of a thickener with ability of suspending sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, B.; Wang, D.; Li, Z.; Chen, J. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mineral and Safety Engineering

    2006-06-15

    To overcome the shortcomings of pouring sands, a thickener with the ability to suspend sands was developed. It is mixed with sands to form densified slurry, and can insure the sands against deposition, jamming pipelines and dehydration. The chemical structure of the thickener is introduced in this paper and the production process is studied. The main processes include immersion, decomposition, dilution and addition of additives. In order to produce a thickener with high viscosity to suspend sands, key factors must be controlled in each process: the immersion time is 2 h; the mass fraction of formaldehyde is 0.01% and mass of NaCO{sub 3} accounts for 15% of dry material; the water temperature is 65{sup o}C in summer and 72{sup o}C in winter and the decomposition time is 2 h in the reaction; the densified decomposition solution should be diluted to 1% mass fraction; the additives of calcium ions and pH indicators must be added to the diluted liquid; the mass fraction of CaCl{sub 2} is 0.048% and the pH value of the solution is 7.5. The thickener is a gel with three-dimensional network structure, a liquid with non-Newtonian behaviour and the characteristics of pseudo-plastic material, a solution with little resistance and the ability to revive its oral primary viscosity. It has been successfully applied in Shendong Mines and has great value and wide-spread prospective use. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  4. The application of zeolite in thickeners for optimal water recovery and preventing environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Nasab Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thickener is the most important device that separates water from concentrate. Outlet water from thickener overflow must comply with the standards of transparency and the level of toxins. One way to reduce the hardness of water is ion replacement. In this paper we use the zeolite powder (coagulant in combination with materials such as bentonite powder (coagulant aid, FeCl3 and poly aluminum chloride. If the settling time of particles in the deposition experiments was about an hour, this compound was recorded as appropriate case for water purification. Results showed that polyaluminum chloride had the highest efficiency in removing turbidity and low color of the water. On the other hand, pH for coagulant was less effective in reducing alkalinity. Due to cation exchange and high absorbing aqueous solution cations, such as ammonium and heavy metals, natural zeolite can be considered as an important material with low cost for water purification in a thickener. An interesting point is that the natural zeolite was not good adsorbent for organic and anionic ions. Bentonite as an adsorbent and heavier due to the high density and berry color properties and adsorption played an important role in clarifying water.

  5. Application of dissolved air flotation process for industrial sludge thickening: A laboratory-scale study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Atamaleki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Increasing population density in cities has led to an increase in industrial and municipal wastewater sludge generation volume. Dissolved air flotation (DAF can widely be used for water and wastewater treatment. The aim of our study is to evaluate some DAF design parameters on biological sludge thickening which generated from an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Materials and Methods: This experimental research had been carried out as a laboratory-scale study on DAF process to thickening of the biological sludge. The required amount of sludge was taken once from the Amikabir industrial town wastewater treatment plant in Kashan, Iran. After determination of optimal recycling rate, pH, and coagulant dose, effects of pressure (3, 5, and 7 atm, flotation time (5 and 10 min, and coagulant addition were evaluated on DAF process efficiency. Results: According to this investigation results, the optimal pH and dose of coagulant were obtained 7.5 and 200 mg/L, respectively. Maximum process efficiency for the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDSs, total solids (TSs, and turbidity parameters was 61.01%, 84.02%, and 97%, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that in contrast to time, coagulant addition and pressure have significant effect on DAF process. Conclusion: DAF process had suitable thickening efficiency to removal of TDS, TS, and turbidity on biological activated sludge.

  6. Viscosity of thickened fluids that relate to the Australian National Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten Hadde, Enrico; Ann Yvette Cichero, Julie; Michael Nicholson, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, Australia published standardized terminology and definitions for three levels of thickened fluids used in the management of dysphagia. This study examined the thickness of the current Australian National Fluid Standards rheologically (i.e. viscosity, yield stress) and correlated these results with the "fork test", as described in the national standards. Clinicians who prescribe or work with thickened liquids and laypersons were recruited to categorize 15 different thickened fluids of known viscosities using the fork test. The mean apparent viscosity and the yield stress for each fluid category were calculated. Clear responses were obtained by both clinicians and laypersons for very thin fluids ( 1150 mPa.s), but large variations of responses were seen for intermediate viscosities. Measures of viscosity and yield stress were important in allocating liquids to different categories. Three bands of fluid viscosity with distinct intermediate band gaps and associated yield stress measures were clearly identifiable and are proposed as objective complements to the Australian National Standards. The "fork test" provides rudimentary information about both viscosity and yield stress, but is an inexact measure of both variables.

  7. Disentangling the role of hydrodynamic and frictional forces in a shear-thickening suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Itai

    2015-03-01

    Who among us has not spent countless hours squeezing, rubbing, and smushing gooey substances like, tooth paste, silly putty, corn starch, and even bodily fluids between our fingers? If we could magnify our view and look deep within the substances we are handling what structures would we find? How, do these structures lead to the fascinating mechanical properties that we experience on the scale of our fingers. In this talk I will address the phenomenon of shear thickening in which the viscosity of a suspension increases with increasing shear rate. I will describe recent measurements we have made using a newly developed confocal rheoscope that, for the first time, experimentally visualize the hydrodynamically induced particle clusters. Such clusters have been implicated in continuous shear thickening. It remains controversial as to whether thickening in such suspensions also arises from frictional interactions between particles. The distinct contributions of frictional and hydrodynamic forces are typically difficult to measure independently using conventional techniques. Here, I will describe our approach for using both bulk rheometry techniques and our confocal rheoscope to disentangle their contributions to the total stress response.

  8. The Effect of Mixing Energy and Shear Rate on the Thickening Time of Cement Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen O. KWELLE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving optimum cement slurry design involves being able to simulate actual field experience in the laboratory. This work is on how mixing energy and shear rate affect the thickening time of cement slurry.Using conventional pressurized consistometer, fitted with a variable speed motor, a comparative thickening time test was obtained. This device allows for simulation of shear rate, temperature and pressure found in the well bore during pumping. The API procedure was used to evaluate the mixing energy applied to the slurry.Results obtained show that for mixing energy, the principal thing is deflocculation. Once the slurry is deflocculated, then no other effect of mixing energy is felt on the thickening time and it is not a function of the geometry of wellbore. Results also show that the temperature profile and geometry of the well from surface to bottom is an important consideration in modeling the influence of shear on how long the cement slurry will remain pumpable. Modeling along this line will lead to optimum slurry quality and design.

  9. ACE inhibition attenuates uremia-induced aortic valve thickening in a novel mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simolin, Mikko A; Pedersen, Tanja X; Bro, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined whether impaired renal function causes thickening of the aortic valve leaflets in hyperlipidemic apoE-knockout (apoE-/-) mice, and whether the putative effect on the aortic valves could be prevented by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with enalapril. METH...... for investigating the mechanisms of uremia-induced aortic valve disease, and also provides an opportunity to study its pharmacologic prevention.......BACKGROUND: We examined whether impaired renal function causes thickening of the aortic valve leaflets in hyperlipidemic apoE-knockout (apoE-/-) mice, and whether the putative effect on the aortic valves could be prevented by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with enalapril....... METHODS: Thickening of the aortic valve leaflets in apoE-/- mice was induced by producing mild or moderate chronic renal failure resulting from unilateral nephrectomy (1/2 NX, n = 18) or subtotal nephrectomy (5/6 NX, n = 22), respectively. Additionally, the 5/6 NX mice were randomized to no treatment (n...

  10. Detection, modeling and matching of pleural thickenings from CT data towards an early diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Pleural thickenings can be caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. While an early diagnosis plays the key role to an early treatment, and therefore helping to reduce morbidity, the growth rate of a pleural thickening can be in turn essential evidence to an early diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. Computer-assisted diagnosis systems to automatically assess pleural mesothelioma have been reported worldwide. But in this paper, an image analysis pipeline to automatically detect pleural thickenings and measure their volume is described. We first delineate automatically the pleural contour in the CT images. An adaptive surface-base smoothing technique is then applied to the pleural contours to identify all potential thickenings. A following tissue-specific topology-oriented detection based on a probabilistic Hounsfield Unit model of pleural plaques specify then the genuine pleural thickenings among them. The assessment of the detected pleural thickenings is based on the volumetry of the 3D model, created by mesh construction algorithm followed by Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunction expansion surface smoothing technique. Finally, the spatiotemporal matching of pleural thickenings from consecutive CT data is carried out based on the semi-automatic lung registration towards the assessment of its growth rate. With these methods, a new computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings towards the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  11. Effects of vitamin C treatment on collar-induced intimal thickening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun MZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Zuhuri Arun,1 Levent Üstünes,1 Gülnur Sevin,1 Erdener Özer2 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 2Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey Abstract: Vitamin C has efficient antioxidant properties and is involved in important physiological processes such as collagen synthesis. As such, vitamin C deficiency leads to serious complications, including vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C treatment on collar-induced intimal thickening. Rabbits were fed a normocholesterolemic diet and a non-occlusive silicon collar was placed around the left carotid artery for 3, 7, and 14 days. The rabbits were treated with or without vitamin C (150 mg/kg/day. Collar-induced intimal thickening became apparent at day 7. The effect of the collar on intimal thickening was more prominent at day 14. Vitamin C treatment significantly inhibited collar-induced intimal thickening at day 14. The placement of the collar around the carotid artery decreased maximum contractile responses against contractile agents (KCl, phenylephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine. The effect of the collar on contractile responses was enhanced as days elapsed. Decreased contractile responses of collared carotid arteries normalized at day 14 in the vitamin C treatment group. Vitamin C treatment also restored sensitivity to phenylephrine. The collar also significantly decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxations at day 3 and day 7. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations normalized in collared-arteries in the placebo group at day 14. Vitamin C treatment significantly increased acetylcholine-induced relaxations of both normal and collared carotid arteries at day 14. MMP-9 expression increased in collared arteries at day 3 and day 7 but did not change at day 14. MMP-2 expression increased in collared arteries at day 14. However, vitamin C treatment reduced collar

  12. [Effect of Food Thickeners on the Disintegration, Dissolution, and Drug Activity of Rapid Oral-disintegrating Tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Kohda, Yukinao; Kudo, Kenzo

    2018-01-01

     For patients with dysphagia in medical facilities and nursing homes, food thickeners are routinely used to aid the ingestion of medicines such as tablets. However, some types of thickeners affect the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, such as rapidly-disintegrating magnesium oxide tablets and donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets. Additionally, delayed disintegration and dissolution of tablets affect a drug's efficacy. As an example, with Voglibose orally disintegrating tablets, marked differences are observed in changes in glucose levels during glucose tolerance testing. When using food thickeners to aid tablet ingestion, it is therefore necessary to select a product that has little effect on drug disintegration, dissolution, and activity.

  13. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many

  14. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Association between Periodontal Bone Loss and Mucosal Thickening of the Maxillary Sinus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezzadini ardekani

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Sinus mucosal thickening was a common radiographic finding, which was more likely to be observed in males with older age and periapical lesions significantly increased the thickness of the maxillary sinus.

  16. Predictors of thickened carotid intima media thickness among well controlled lupus nephritis patients in a Malaysian tertiary centre

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    N.CT. Kong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the prevalence of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and its associated risk factors in patients with lupus nephritis (LN who were in remission. Methods. This was a cross sectional study in which consecutive LN patients who were in remission and attending our Nephrology/SLE Clinic were included. Their demographic profile, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and treatment medications were evaluated by clinical interview and review of medical records. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT was measured using B Mode carotid ultrasonography. CIMT was considered to be abnormally thickened if it exceeded the 75th percentile matched for age-and sex-matched normal controls. The associated factors for thickened CIMT were examined. Results. A total of 39 patients with a mean remission duration of 29±24.3 months and on a mean prednisolone dose of 9.10±7.83 mg daily completed the study. Six patients (15.4% had thickened CIMT. On univariate analysis, male gender, patient age, older age at diagnosis, higher serum CRP levels, greater proteinuria and higher mean cumulative azathioprine dose were associated with thickened CIMT (PConclusions. Lupus factors particularly age at diagnosis and proteinuria were the associated factors of thickened CIMT. Larger prospective trials are indicated to confirm our findings.

  17. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  18. Finger Thickening during Extra-Heavy Oil Waterflooding: Simulation and Interpretation Using Pore-Scale Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Regaieg

    Full Text Available Although thermal methods have been popular and successfully applied in heavy oil recovery, they are often found to be uneconomic or impractical. Therefore, alternative production protocols are being actively pursued and interesting options include water injection and polymer flooding. Indeed, such techniques have been successfully tested in recent laboratory investigations, where X-ray scans performed on homogeneous rock slabs during water flooding experiments have shown evidence of an interesting new phenomenon-post-breakthrough, highly dendritic water fingers have been observed to thicken and coalesce, forming braided water channels that improve sweep efficiency. However, these experimental studies involve displacement mechanisms that are still poorly understood, and so the optimization of this process for eventual field application is still somewhat problematic. Ideally, a combination of two-phase flow experiments and simulations should be put in place to help understand this process more fully. To this end, a fully dynamic network model is described and used to investigate finger thickening during water flooding of extra-heavy oils. The displacement physics has been implemented at the pore scale and this is followed by a successful benchmarking exercise of the numerical simulations against the groundbreaking micromodel experiments reported by Lenormand and co-workers in the 1980s. A range of slab-scale simulations has also been carried out and compared with the corresponding experimental observations. We show that the model is able to replicate finger architectures similar to those observed in the experiments and go on to reproduce and interpret, for the first time to our knowledge, finger thickening following water breakthrough. We note that this phenomenon has been observed here in homogeneous (i.e. un-fractured media: the presence of fractures could be expected to exacerbate such fingering still further. Finally, we examine the impact of

  19. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound features and differential diagnosis from wall-thickening gallbladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hai-Xia; Wang, Wen-Ping; Wen, Jie-Xian; Ji, Zheng-Biao; Ding, Hong; Huang, Bei-Jian; Li, Chao-Lun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC). Patients of 17 XGCs and 43 wall-thickening gallbladder carcinomas (GBCs) were enrolled in this study. Firstly, we compared the ability of conventional ultrasound (CUS) and CEUS in detecting gallbladder (GB) features. Secondly, XGCs and GBCs features were compared on CEUS. Finally, all valuable indicators were ranked by Odds ratio. Significant differences were found in detecting GB wall thickness, GB stones, and hypoechoic nodules frequencies by CEUS and CUS. The mean GB wall thickness was 8.53 mm on CEUS, whereas the thickness measured 9.47 mm on CUS (p=0.011). GB stones and hypoechoic nodules were detected in 43 cases (71.7%) and 21 cases (30.0%) on CEUS, respectively, compared to 29 cases (48.3%) and 8 cases (13.3%) on CUS (p=0.009, p=0.027), respectively. Secondly, hypoenhancement time was longer in XGC (mean 78.9 s) than in GBC (mean 56.0 s) (p=0.002). Diffuse GB wall thickening, continuous inner wall, and hypoechoic nodules in the GB wall were observed in 12 patients (70.6%), 12 patients (70.6%) and 10 patients (58.8%) with XGC, respectively, compared to detection in 10 patients (23.3%), 4 patients (9.3%) and 11 patients (25.6%) by GBC (p=0.001, p=0.000 and p=0.015), respectively. Thirdly, the continuous inner wall was the most valuable indicator, with ORs of 23.4. The second valuable indicator was hypoenhancement time >80.5 s, with ORs of 11.9. CEUS demonstrated superior detection of GB wall thickness, GB stone and hypoechoic nodules compared to CUS. A continuous inner wall, hypoenhancement times greater than 80.5 s, diffuse thickening, and hypoechoic nodules were valuable indicators in XGCs.

  20. Optimal Water Recovery with Emphasis on Flocculant Consumption Rate in the Thickener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hosseininasab

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water plays a vital role in mineral processing as evidenced by the approximately 2 to 3 tons of water used for the treatment of one ton of ore. A major portion of this water may be recovered in thickeners. This study aimed to control the wet tailings output of the Hematite Gol-e-Gohar plant by changing  flocculant dosage and type and solid percentage in the feed in order to enhance effluent clarity and reduce water consumption. Materials and A series of settling experiments were performed using different combinations of the flocculants (A25, A26 Yazd, A26 Esfahan, A27, and A28, flocculant doses (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 gr/ton, and solid loads in the feed (5, 7, 9, 10, and 11% to the thickener. The L25 Taguchi design method was chosen to handle the five different levels of the three factors. Adopting a 95% confidence interval, the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that flocculant consumption rate had a high effect on settling velocity (p = 0.006 while flocculant type and solid percentage in the feed had no significant effects. Moreover, it was found that A26 (Akhtar-chemistry Company, Yazd used at a rate of 40 g/ton improved the settling performance to yield an optimal water clarity. Using the findings of this study in process planning at the plant led to a considerable reduction (from the original 0.86 to 0.49 m3 in average water consumption per ton of input material so that the solid content of the thickener underflow rose from 7 to 45%.

  1. Comparison of homogenous strain-analysis with wall thickening for the assessment of regional myocardial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.; Pickup, S.; Zhou, R.; Glickson, J.; Ferrari, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to compare strain analysis and wall thickening (WT) analysis in differentiating the infarcted, adjacent, and remote zones in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Material and methods: three normal (NL) and ten rats subjected to myocardial infarction were imaged on a 4.7T scanner. Gradient-echo and SPAMM-tagged cine images were acquired at three short axis levels of the left ventricle (LV). A homogenous strain analysis (principal strains λ1 and λ2, displacement D, angle β) and a WT-analysis (mm- and %-thickening) were performed in all slices demonstrating MI. Regional function was compared between infarcted rats (infarcted, adjacent and remote zone) and corresponding regions in the NL rats. Additional segmental analysis was performed in the NL rats for the anterior, lateral, inferior and septal wall. Results: in the NL rats, λ 1 (greatest radial thickening) was greatest in the lateral and anterior wall. WT-analysis showed a pattern of function similar to λ1, however, regional differences using WT-analysis were not significant. λ 2 (greatest circumferential shortening) was most negative in the anterior wall. D was greatest in the lateral and inferior wall. The angle β was radially directed in all segments. In the infarcted rats, both strain and WT-analyses revealed significant impairment in function in the infarcted and adjacent zones as compared to NL (p < 0.001). However, only the strain analysis (λ1, λ2, p < 0.001) detected significant remote myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial function differed significantly between the infarcted and adjacent and between the infarcted and remote regions. Strain analysis (λ2, D, β, p < 0.001) also identified significant functional differences between the adjacent and remote zones, however, no statistically significant differences were found using WT-analysis. (orig.)

  2. Hysteroscopic findings in postmenopausal patients with ultrasonographic diagnosis of endometrial thickening

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    Hosana Karinne de Marathaoan Souza Martins e Castello Branco

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the results of hysteroscopy for investigating the uterine cavity of postmenopausal women presenting endometrial thickening on ultrasound. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on hysteroscopic evaluations of 329 postmenopausal women presenting with endometrial thickening on transvaginal ultrasonography. Hysteroscopies were performed in an outpatient setting, using a 4 mm optic Hamou II microhysteroscope and gas (CO2 to distend the uterine cavity. A guided biopsy for histology was performed in all patients with suspected endometrial malignancies and in most patients with benign abnormalities. Rresults: Endometrial thickness ranged from 6 to 38 mm (mean of 10.03 ± 4.49 mm. The hysteroscopic findings were polyps in 183 patients (55.62%; atrophic endometrium in 55 patients (16.72%; synechia in 26 patients (7.90%; a “cerebroid” appearance lesion in 13 patients (3.95%; myoma in 12 patients (3.65%; endometrial hyperplasia in 11 patients (3.34%; focal thickening in ten patients (3.04%; proliferative endometrium in eight patients (2.43%; mucus in seven patients (2.13%; and cystic atrophy in four patients (1.22%. Endometrial carcinoma was confirmed by histology in 11 of 13 suspected cases, in which hysteroscopy showed the cerebroid appearance. Hyperplasias were confirmed in seven of 11 cases. The respective accuracy was 99.26 and 96.67%. Nine out of 11 endometrial cancer cases and six out of 12 hyperplasia cases presented uterine bleeding. Cconclusions: The most frequent findings were benign lesions (92.71%. Hysteroscopy with biopsy is an accurate method to detect intracavitary uterine disease.

  3. Late Cretaceous Localized Crustal Thickening as a Primary Control on the 3-D Architecture and Exhumation Histories of Cordilleran Metamorphic Core Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, P. B.; Wong, M.

    2014-12-01

    The juxtaposition of mylonitic mid-crustal rocks and faulted supracrustal rocks in metamorphic core complexes (MMCs) is usually portrayed in 2 dimensions and attributed to a single event of large-scale slip ± isostatic doming along a low-angle "detachment fault"/ shear zone. This paradigm does not explain dramatic along strike (3-D) variations in slip magnitude, footwall architecture, and burial / exhumation histories of most MMCs. A fundamental question posed by MMCs is how did their earlier thickening and exhumation histories influence the geometric evolution and 3-D slip distribution on the subsequent detachment faults? New geologic mapping and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology from the Snake Range-Kern Mts-Deep Creek Mts (SKDC) complex in eastern Nevada offer important insights into this question. Crustal shortening and thickening by large-scale non-cylindrical recumbent folds and associated thrust faults during the late Cretaceous (90-80 Ma) resulted in deep burial (650°C, 20-25 km) of the central part of the footwall, but metamorphic grade decreases dramatically to the N and S in concert with decreasing amplitude on the shortening structures. Subsequent Paleogene extensional exhumation by normal faulting and ESE-directed mylonitic shearing is greatest in areas of maximum earlier thickening and brought highest grade rocks back to depths of~10-12 km. After ≥15 Ma of quiescence, rapid E-directed slip initiated along the brittle Miocene Snake Range detachment at 20 Ma and reactivated the Eocene shear zone. The ≥200°C gradient across the footwall at this time implies that the Miocene slip surface originated as a moderately E-dipping normal fault. This Miocene slip surface can be tracked for more than 100 km along strike, but the greatest amount of Miocene slip also coincides with parts of the footwall that were most deeply buried in the Cretaceous. These relations indicate that not only is the SKDC MMC a composite feature, but that the crustal welt created by

  4. Giant deviation of a relaxation time from generalized Newtonian theory in discontinuous shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the transient relaxation of a discontinuous shear thickening (DST) suspension of cornstarch in water. We performed two types of relaxation experiments starting from a steady shear in a parallel-plate rheometer, followed either by stopping the top plate rotation and measuring the transient torque relaxation or by removing the torque on the plate and measuring the transient rotation of the tool. We found that at low effective weight fraction ϕeffmodel. The regime where the relaxation was inconsistent with the generalized Newtonian model was the same where we found positive normal stress during relaxation, and in some cases we found an oscillatory response, suggestive of a solidlike structure consisting of a system-spanning contact network of particles. This regime also corresponds to the same packing fraction range where we consistently found discontinuous shear thickening in rate-controlled, steady-state measurements. The relaxation time in this range scales with the inverse of the critical shear rate at the onset of shear thickening, which may correspond to a contact relaxation time for nearby particles in the structure to flow away from each other. In this range, the relaxation time was the same in both stress- and rate-controlled relaxation experiments, indicating the relaxation time is more intrinsic than an effective viscosity in this range and is needed in addition to the steady-state viscosity function to describe transient flows. The discrepancy between the measured relaxation times and the generalized Newtonian prediction was found to be as large as four orders of magnitude, and extrapolations diverge in the limit as ϕeff→ϕc as the generalized Newtonian prediction approaches 0. This quantitative discrepancy indicates the relaxation is not controlled by the dissipative terms in the constitutive relation. At the highest weight fractions, the relaxation time scales were measured to be on the order of ˜1 s. The fact that this time scale is

  5. The effects of a hot gaseous halo on disc thickening in galaxy minor mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moster, Benjamin P.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Naab, Thorsten; Cox, T. J.

    2012-07-01

    We employ hydrodynamical simulations to study the effects of dissipational gas physics on the vertical heating and thickening of disc galaxies during minor mergers. For the first time we present a suite of simulations that includes a diffuse, rotating, cooling, hot gaseous halo, as predicted by cosmological hydrodynamical simulations as well as models of galaxy formation. We study the effect of this new gaseous component on the vertical structure of a Milky Way-like stellar disc during 1:10 and 1:5 mergers. For 1:10 mergers, we find no increased final thin disc scale height compared to the isolated simulation, leading to the conclusion that thin discs can be present even after a 1:10 merger if a reasonable amount of hot gas is present. The reason for this is the accretion of new cold gas, leading to the formation of a massive new thin stellar disc that dominates the surface brightness profile. In a previous study, in which we included only cold gas in the disc, we showed that the presence of cold gas decreased the thickening by a minor merger relative to the no-gas case. Here, we show that the evolution of the scale height in the presence of a cooling hot halo is dominated by the formation of the new stellar disc. In this scenario, the thick disc is the old stellar disc that has been thickened in a minor merger at z≳ 1, while the thin disc is the new stellar disc that reforms after this merger. When galactic winds are also considered, the final scale height is larger due to two effects. First, the winds reduce the star formation rate, leading to a less massive new stellar disc, such that the thickened old disc still dominates. Secondly, the winds exert a pressure force on the gas in the disc, leading to a shallower gas profile and thus to a thicker new stellar disc. In addition, we study the evolution of the scale height during a 1:5 merger and find that a thin disc can be present even after this merger, provided enough hot gas is available. The final scale

  6. Planar channel flow of a discontinuous shear-thickening model fluid: Theory and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Quesada, A.; Wagner, N. J.; Ellero, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, an analytical solution for the pressure-driven flow of a discontinuous shear-thickening (DST) fluid in a planar channel is presented. In order to model the fluid rheology, a regularized inverse-biviscous model is adopted. This involves a region of finite thickness to model the sharp jump in viscosity, and it is consistent with momentum conservation. In the limit of vanishing thickness, the truly DST behavior is obtained. Analytical results are validated by numerical simulations under steady and start-up flow using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. Flow results are investigated and discussed for different values of the model parameters.

  7. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neuroradiology, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-07-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  8. Ectopic eruption of maxillary central incisor through abnormally thickened labial frenum: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gugnani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic eruption is a deviation from the normal eruption pattern, making the tooth erupt out of its normal position, and possibly causing resorption of adjacent primary teeth. A wide range of etiological factors may be responsible for ectopic eruption of the teeth, so their management depends on the correction of the established etiological factor. The present case report describes an unusual case of ectopically erupted central incisor encased within an abnormally thickened labial frenum, which was treated by orthodontic repositioning of the ectopically erupting tooth after frenectomy.

  9. Effect of policosanol on intimal thickening in rabbit cuffed carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Más, R; Mesa, R

    1998-12-01

    We studied the effect of policosanol on smooth muscle cell proliferation in the cuffed carotid artery of the rabbit. Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols isolated from sugar cane wax, with cholesterol lowering effects proved in experimental models and patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. It acts by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. The positioning of a nonocclusive silicone collar around the rabbit carotid artery results in the formation of a neointima. We wished to determine whether policosanol orally administered prevented intimal thickening. Collars were placed around the left carotid for 15 days. The contralateral artery was sham operated. We included three experimental groups: a control received vehicle and two others policosanol at 5 and 25 mg Kg until sacrificed. Samples of arteries were examined by light and electron microscopy. To evaluate intimal thickening the cross-sectional area of intima and media were measured. Neointima was significantly reduced in policosanol-treated animals compared with controls. The smooth muscle cell proliferation was studied by the immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a significant reduction was observed in policosanol treated rabbits. It is concluded that policosanol has a protective effect on the neointima formation in this experimental model.

  10. Shear thinning and shear thickening of a confined suspension of vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Ouhra, A.; Farutin, A.; Aouane, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Misbah, C.

    2018-01-01

    Widely regarded as an interesting model system for studying flow properties of blood, vesicles are closed membranes of phospholipids that mimic the cytoplasmic membranes of red blood cells. In this study we analyze the rheology of a suspension of vesicles in a confined geometry: the suspension, bound by two planar rigid walls on each side, is subject to a shear flow. Flow properties are then analyzed as a function of shear rate γ ˙, the concentration of the suspension ϕ , and the viscosity contrast λ =ηin/ηout , where ηin and ηout are the fluid viscosities of the inner and outer fluids, respectively. We find that the apparent (or effective viscosity) of the suspension exhibits both shear thinning (decreasing viscosity with shear rate) or shear thickening (increasing viscosity with shear rate) in the same concentration range. The shear thinning or thickening behaviors appear as subtle phenomena, dependant on viscosity contrast λ . We provide physical arguments on the origins of these behaviors.

  11. Numerical study of shear thickening fluid with discrete particles embedded in a base fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Shear Thickening Fluid (STF is a dilatant material, which displays non-Newtonian characteristics in its unique ability to transit from a low viscosity fluid to a high viscosity fluid. The research performed investigates the STF behavior by modeling and simulation of the interaction between the base flow and embedded rigid particles when subjected to shear stress. The model considered the Lagrangian description of the rigid particles and the Eulerian description of fluid flow. The numerical analysis investigated key parameters such as applied flow acceleration, particle distribution and arrangement, volume concentration of particles, particle size, shape and their behavior in a Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid base. The fluid-particle interaction model showed that the arrangement, size, shape and volume concentration of the particles had a significant effect on the behavior of the STF. Although non-conclusive, the addition of particles in non-Newtonian fluids showed a promising trend of improved shear thickening effects at high shear strain rates.

  12. Comparison of clinical utility between diaphragm excursion and thickening change using ultrasonography to predict extubation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jung-Wan; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Ho Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Both diaphragmatic excursion and change in muscle thickening are measured using ultrasonography (US) to assess diaphragm function and mechanical ventilation weaning outcomes. However, which parameter can better predict successful extubation remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical utility of these two diaphragmatic parameters to predict extubation success. Methods This study included patients subjected to extubation trial in the medical or surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital from May 2015 through February 2016. Diaphragm excursion and percent of thickening change (Δtdi%) were measured using US within 24 hours before extubation. Results Sixty patients were included, and 78.3% (47/60) of these patients were successfully extubated, whereas 21.7% (13/60) were not. The median degree of excursion was greater in patients with extubation success than in those with extubation failure (1.65 cm vs. 0.8 cm, p success had a greater Δtdi% than those with extubation failure (42.1% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.03). The areas under the receiver operating curve for excursion and Δtdi% were 0.836 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.717 to 0.919) and 0.698 (95% CI, 0.566 to 0.810), respectively (p = 0.017). Conclusions Diaphragm excursion seems more accurate than a change in the diaphragm thickness to predict extubation success. PMID:29050461

  13. Comparison of Waters' radiography, panoramic radiography, and computed tomography in the diagnosis of antral mucosal thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Young Min; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    1998-01-01

    With the CT findings as gold standard, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the diagnostic accuracy of Waters' radiography and Waters' radiography with panoramic radiography were compared in the diagnosis of antral mucosal thickening of 16 patients. Three oral radiologists and three non-oral radiologists interpreted the Waters' radiographs and after 4 weeks, interpreted the Waters' radiographs and panoramic radiographs simultaneously. The interpretation was the existence or the non-existence of the mucosal thickening on the medial, the posterolateral, the floor, and the roof of maxillary sinus. The obtained results were as followed ; 1. In oral radiologist group, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of Waters' film were 0.7250, 0.8489 and 0.7578 respectively. 2. The sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy in oral radiologist group were higher than those of non-oral radiologist group (P 0.05). 3. There was no significant difference of the diagnostic abilities except the specificity in oral radiologist group between Waters' radiography and Waters' radiography with panoramic radiography (P>0.05). 4. The sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy were the highest in the case of medial wall interpretation, the specificity was the highest in the posterolateral wall. 5. In the posterolateral wall and the floor, the sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy of oral radiologist group were higher than those of non-oral radiologist group (P<0.05)

  14. Thickening of the cauda equina roots: a common finding in Krabbe disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Misun; Rodriguez, David; Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of Krabbe disease burden and eligibility for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are often based on neuroimaging findings using the modified Loes scoring system, which encompasses central but not peripheral nervous system changes. We show that quantitative evaluation of thickened cauda equina nerve roots may improve the evaluation of Krabbe disease and therapeutic guidance. Lumbar spine MRI scans of patients obtained between March 2013 and September 2013 were retrospectively evaluated and compared to those of controls. Quantitative evaluation of cauda equina roots was performed on the axial plane obtained approximately 5 mm below the conus medullaris. The largest nerves in the right and left anterior quadrants of the spinal canal were acquired. Fifteen symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease (5-44 months old) and eleven age-matched controls were evaluated. The average areas (mm 2 ) of anterior right and left nerves were 1.40 and 1.23, respectively, for patients and 0.61 and 0.60 for controls (differences: 0.79 and 0.63; p < 0.001). Cauda equina nerve root thickening is associated with Krabbe disease in both treated and untreated patients. Adding lumbar spine MRI to the current neurodiagnostic protocols, which fails to account for peripheral nerve abnormalities, will likely facilitate the diagnosis of Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  15. Origin of shear thickening in semidilute wormlike micellar solutions and evidence of elastic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marín-Santibáñez, Benjamín M. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U.P.A.L.M. C.P. 07738, Col. S. P. Zacatenco, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pérez-González, José, E-mail: jpg@esfm.ipn.mx [Laboratorio de Reología y Física de la Matería Blanda, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U.P.A.L.M. C.P. 07730, Col. S. P. Zacatenco, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodríguez-González, Francisco [Departamento de Biotecnología, Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, C.P. 62731, Col. San Isidro, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2014-11-01

    The origin of shear thickening in an equimolar semidilute wormlike micellar solution of cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was investigated in this work by using Couette rheometry, flow visualization, and capillary Rheo-particle image velocimetry. The use of the combined methods allowed the discovery of gradient shear banding flow occurring from a critical shear stress and consisting of two main bands, one isotropic (transparent) of high viscosity and one structured (turbid) of low viscosity. Mechanical rheometry indicated macroscopic shear thinning behavior in the shear banding regime. However, local velocimetry showed that the turbid band increased its viscosity along with the shear stress, even though barely reached the value of the viscosity of the isotropic phase. This shear band is the precursor of shear induced structures that subsequently give rise to the average increase in viscosity or apparent shear thickening of the solution. Further increase in the shear stress promoted the growing of the turbid band across the flow region and led to destabilization of the shear banding flow independently of the type of rheometer used, as well as to vorticity banding in Couette flow. At last, vorticity banding disappeared and the flow developed elastic turbulence with chaotic dynamics.

  16. Thickening of the cauda equina roots: a common finding in Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Misun; Rodriguez, David [Department of Radiology of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok [Section of Neuroradiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L. [Department of Pediatrics at Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Evaluation of Krabbe disease burden and eligibility for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are often based on neuroimaging findings using the modified Loes scoring system, which encompasses central but not peripheral nervous system changes. We show that quantitative evaluation of thickened cauda equina nerve roots may improve the evaluation of Krabbe disease and therapeutic guidance. Lumbar spine MRI scans of patients obtained between March 2013 and September 2013 were retrospectively evaluated and compared to those of controls. Quantitative evaluation of cauda equina roots was performed on the axial plane obtained approximately 5 mm below the conus medullaris. The largest nerves in the right and left anterior quadrants of the spinal canal were acquired. Fifteen symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease (5-44 months old) and eleven age-matched controls were evaluated. The average areas (mm{sup 2}) of anterior right and left nerves were 1.40 and 1.23, respectively, for patients and 0.61 and 0.60 for controls (differences: 0.79 and 0.63; p < 0.001). Cauda equina nerve root thickening is associated with Krabbe disease in both treated and untreated patients. Adding lumbar spine MRI to the current neurodiagnostic protocols, which fails to account for peripheral nerve abnormalities, will likely facilitate the diagnosis of Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  17. Thickening of the pulmonary artery wall in acute intramural hematoma of the ascending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lardani Héctor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of pulmonary artery obstruction in the course of acute aortic dissection is an unusual complication. The mechanism implicated is the rupture of the outer layer of the aorta and the subsequent hemorrhage into the adventitia of the pulmonary artery that causes its wall thickening and, at times, produces extrinsic obstruction of the vessel. There are no reports of this complication in acute intramural hematoma. Case presentation An 87-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital in shock after having had severe chest pain followed by syncope. An urgent transesophageal echocardiogram revealed the presence of acute intramural hematoma, no evidence of aortic dissection, severe pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade, and periaortic hematoma that involved the pulmonary artery generating circumferential wall thickening of its trunk and right branch with no evidence of flow obstruction. Urgent surgery was performed but the patient died in the operating room. The post mortem examination, in the operating room, confirmed that there was an extensive hematoma around the aorta and beneath the adventitial layer of the pulmonary artery, with no evidence of flow obstruction. Conclusion This is the first time that this rare complication is reported in the scenario of acute intramural hematoma and with the transesophageal echocardiogram as the diagnostic tool.

  18. Is Climate Change a Possible Explanation for Woody Thickening in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Eamus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased woody plant density (woody encroachment or woody thickening is a globally observed phenomenon. Similarly, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and decreased pan evaporation rates are globally observed phenomena. In this paper, we propose that the former (increased woody plant density is a product of the latter. We propose that decreased stomatal conductance and increased rates of carbon fixation arising from an enriched atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, in conjunction with reduced rates of pan evaporation, result in increased woody plant density. We suggest that this is analogous to the increased woody plant density that is observed along rainfall gradients that span arid to mesic environments. From this conceptual model, we make three predictions, namely, that (a long-term trends in tree water-use-efficiency should reveal increased values; (b run-off data should show an increase where woody thickening is occurring; (c enriched CO2 experiments should reveal an enhanced plant water status. These three predictions are discussed and shown to be supported by experimental data.

  19. A Thickened Coracohumeral Ligament and Superomedial Capsule Limit Internal Rotation of the Shoulder Joint: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Koide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (also known as frozen shoulder is a painful and disabling disorder with an estimated prevalence ranging from 2% to 5% in the general population. Although the precise pathogenesis of frozen shoulder is unclear, thickened capsule and coracohumeral ligament (CHL have been documented to be one of the most specific manifestations. The thickened CHL has been understood to limit external rotation of the shoulder, and restriction of internal rotation of the shoulder has been believed to be related to posterior capsular tightness. In this paper, three cases of refractory frozen shoulder treated through arthroscopic release of a contracted capsule including CHL were reported. Two cases in which there is recalcitrant severe restriction of internal rotation after manipulation under anesthesia (MUA were finally treated with arthroscopic surgery. Although MUA could release the posterior capsule, internal rotation did not improve in our cases. After release of the thickened CHL, range of motion of internal rotation was significantly improved. This report demonstrates the role of the thickened CHL in limiting the internal rotation of the shoulder. We highlight the importance of release of thickened CHL in addition to the pancapsular release, in case of severe limitation of internal rotation of shoulder.

  20. Descemet Membrane Thickening as a Sign for the Diagnosis of Corneal Graft Rejection: An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, Ryan; Diakonis, Vasilios F; Bozung, Alison; Gameiro, Gustavo Rosa; Fischer, Oliver; El Dakkak, Ahmed; Ulloa-Padilla, Jan Paul; Anagnostopoulos, Apostolos; Dubovy, Sander; Abou Shousha, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    To disclose, using an ex vivo study, the histopathological mechanism behind in vivo thickening of the endothelium/Descemet membrane complex (En/DM) observed in rejected corneal grafts (RCGs). Descemet membrane (DM), endothelium, and retrocorneal membranes make up the total En/DM thickness. These layers are not differentiable by high-definition optical coherence tomography; therefore, the source of thickening is unclear from an in vivo perspective. A retrospective ex vivo study (from September 2015 to December 2015) was conducted to measure the thicknesses of DM, endothelium, and retrocorneal membrane in 54 corneal specimens (31 RCGs and 23 controls) using light microscopy. Controls were globes with posterior melanoma without corneal involvement. There were 54 corneas examined ex vivo with mean age 58.1 ± 12.2 in controls and 51.7 ± 27.9 years in RCGs. The ex vivo study uncovered the histopathological mechanism of En/DM thickening to be secondary to significant thickening (P vivo study shows that DM is responsible for thickening of the En/DM in RCGs observed in vivo by high-definition optical coherence tomography and not the endothelium or retrocorneal membrane.

  1. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  2. [Congenital retinal macrovessel: an atypical presentation with low vision and macular thickening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Domínguez, I; Vidal Fernández, P; Rojas Lozano, P; Oteiza Álvarez, A; Suárez Leoz, M

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 35 year old male patient with no medical history, who experienced decreased vision in his left eye that he noticed by chance. After a complete ophthalmic examination, he was diagnosed with congenital retinal macrovessel with macular thickening. Congenital retinal macrovessels are rare vascular anomalies, in which the diagnosis is usually incidental as their visual impact is minimal. In the rare cases where there is a significant visual impairment, this is due to macular hemorrhages, foveal cysts, serous macular detachment, or the course of the vessel itself through the foveal avascular zone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Imaging the Microscopic Structure of Shear Thinning and Thickening Colloidal Suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.

    2011-09-01

    The viscosity of colloidal suspensions varies with shear rate, an important effect encountered in many natural and industrial processes. Although this non-Newtonian behavior is believed to arise from the arrangement of suspended particles and their mutual interactions, microscopic particle dynamics are difficult to measure. By combining fast confocal microscopy with simultaneous force measurements, we systematically investigate a suspension\\'s structure as it transitions through regimes of different flow signatures. Our measurements of the microscopic single-particle dynamics show that shear thinning results from the decreased relative contribution of entropic forces and that shear thickening arises from particle clustering induced by hydrodynamic lubrication forces. This combination of techniques illustrates an approach that complements current methods for determining the microscopic origins of non-Newtonian flow behavior in complex fluids.

  4. Outstanding magnetorheological effect based on discontinuous shear thickening in the presence of a superplastifier molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossis, G.; Grasselli, Y.; Meunier, A.; Volkova, O.

    2016-09-01

    We present the experimental results showing an increase of stress of about 150 kPa for a weak applied magnetic field (H superplasticizer molecule used in cement industry. These values, which are several orders of magnitude larger than those classically obtained with magnetorheological suspensions at such low field, can open the way to new applications. These high values result from the triggering of a discontinuous shear thickening (DST) induced by the magnetic field. A phase diagram is presented for a volume fraction of carbonyl iron particles of 62%, showing two domains in the plane, magnetic field versus shear rate. The lower one is liquid of quite low viscosity and the upper one corresponds to a jammed phase where the particles are in frictional contacts and can only move under very high stresses. The transition between the two states is monitored by the ability of the superplasticizer molecule to resist to the compression forces both hydrodynamic and magnetic.

  5. Attenuation of ductus arteriosus intimal thickening in preterm sheep twins compared with singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Satoko; Yokoyama, Utako; Saito, Junichi; Sato, Shinichi; Usuda, Haruo; Watanabe, Shimpei; Kitanishi, Ryuta; Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Hanita, Takushi; Matsuda, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Preterm twins have a higher morbidity rate of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) than do singletons. However, the effect of multiple births on maturation of the ductus arteriosus (DA) has not been reported. Because intimal thickening (IT) is required for DA anatomical closure, we examined IT development in the DA of preterm twins and singletons. Sheep DA tissues obtained from preterm fetuses were subjected to elastica van Gieson staining to evaluate IT. The total IT score in each DA was the sum of the IT scores obtained from six evenly divided parts of the DA, which was positively correlated with gestational ages in singletons. Total IT scores were smaller in preterm twins than in singletons, although no difference in gestational age, birth weight, or gender ratio was observed. These data suggest that IT development of the DA is attenuated in sheep preterm twins, which may affect the higher morbidity of PDA.

  6. Recurrence of thymoma after 11 years presenting as diffuse pleural thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Deniz; Bayiz, Hülya; Gülgösteren, Mahmut; Başay, Nihal; Mutluay, Neslihan; Boyacı, Ebru; Berktaş, Bahadır; Çakır, Ebru; Berkoğlu, Mine

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of dyspnea, weight loss, and pleuritic chest pain. He had environmental asbest exposure from birth to 12 years-old. Past medical history revealed maximal thymectomy operation and adjuvant radiotherapy with the diagnosis of minimally invasive lymphocytic thymoma 11 years ago. Thorax computerized tomography demonstrated a circumferential pleural thickening encasing the entire left lung and pleural effusion. VATS-pleural biopsy revealed the diagnosis invasive tymoma, Type B1, stage IVA. In conclusion, the diagnosis of invasive thymoma must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pleural lesions. The recurrence of thymomas may be as long as 10 years after complete resection.

  7. Laminar flow of a shear-thickening fluid in a 90∘ pipe bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marn, Jure; Ternik, Primož

    2006-05-01

    The non-Newtonian fluid flow in a sharp 90∘ curved pipe is studied numerically to obtain the pressure loss coefficient prompted by disagreement between the existing empirical correlations and results obtained by computer codes. This disagreement results from presumption of fully developed flow throughout the curvature (correlations) while the actual flow is partially developed for the Newtonian and sharp 90∘ curved bend non-Newtonian flows, and fully developed for slightly bent 90∘ curvature non-Newtonian flow. The Quadratic model is employed to accommodate the shear-thickening behavior of an electrostatic ash and water mixture. Numerical results are obtained for different values of Reynolds number. Finally, results for local pressure loss coefficient are compared with values obtained for the Power law rheological model.

  8. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic wall thickening using multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas S; Kofoed, Klaus F; Møller, Daniel V

    2009-01-01

    echocardiography (TTE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT and TTE. Regional left ventricular contractile function was measured by percent systolic wall thickening (SWT) in 16 myocardial segments using MDCT, and compared...... with visual evaluation of wall motion score (WMS) by TTE. Global SWT by MDCT was calculated as the mean SWT of all myocardial segments and compared with wall motion index (WMI) by TTE. RESULTS: Eight hundred and eleven segments (81%) were classified as normokinetic, 142 (14%) as hypokinetic, 41 (4......%) as akinetic and 5 (0.5%) as dyskinetic by TTE. A significant inverse linear trend was found between regional SWT by MDCT and WMS by TTE (p

  9. Clinical presentation and outcome of children with central diabetes insipidus associated with a self-limited or transient pituitary stalk thickening, diagnosed as infundibuloneurohypophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefers, J; Cools, M; De Waele, K; Gies, I; Beauloye, V; Lysy, P; Francois, I; Beckers, D; De Schepper, J

    2017-08-01

    Despite lymphocytic or autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INH) is an increasingly recognized aetiology in children with central diabetes insipidus (CDI); clinical data on epidemiology (clinical evolution, predisposing factors, complications), diagnosis and management of this entity are limited and mostly based on published case reports. The aim of this study was to gain a broader insight in the natural history of this disease by analysing the clinical presentation, radiological pituitary stalk changes, associated autoimmunity and hormonal deficiencies in children with CDI and a self-limiting or transient stalk thickening (ST), diagnosed as autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis, during the last 15 years in four Belgian university hospitals. The medical files of nine CDI patients with a ST at initial presentation and no signs of Langerhans cell histiocytosis or germinoma at presentation and/or during follow-up of more than 1.5 years were reviewed. Age at presentation ranged from 3 to 14 years. Two patients had a positive family history of autoimmunity. Three children presented with associated growth failure, two with nausea and one with long-standing headache. Median maximal diameter of the stalk was 4.6 mm (2.7-10 mm). Four patients had extra-pituitary brain anomalies, such as cysts. One patient had central hypothyroidism, and another had a partial growth hormone deficiency at diagnosis. Within a mean follow-up of 5.4 (1.5-15) years, stalk thickening remained unchanged in two patients, regressed in one and normalized in six children. CDI remained in all, while additional pituitary hormone deficiencies developed in only one patient. In this series of children INH with CDI as initial presentation, CDI was permanent and infrequently associated with anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, despite a frequent association with nonstalk cerebral lesions. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Probing hydrogen bond interactions in a shear thickening polysaccharide using nonlinear shear and extensional rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Aditya; Wee, May; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-06-05

    Mamaku gum is a polysaccharide extracted from the fronds of the black tree fern found in New Zealand. The cooked pith has traditionally been used for various medicinal purposes and as a food source by the Maori people of New Zealand. It has potential applications as a thickener in the food industry and as a palliative for patients with dysphagia. Studies on the shear rheology of Mamaku gum have revealed that the gum exhibits shear thickening at a critical shear rate due to a transition from intra- to inter-molecular chain interactions upon shear-induced chain elongation. In this paper, we demonstrate that these interactions are primarily due to hydrogen bonding. We perform extensional rheology on mixtures of Mamaku gum and urea (a known disruptor of hydrogen bonds) to quantify the nature of these interactions. Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometry (CaBER) performed on the pure Mamaku gum solutions yield plateau values of the Trouton ratio as high as ∼10(4), showing that the viscoelasticity of the gum in uniaxial elongation is much higher than in shear. For all Mamaku concentrations tested, the extensional viscosity decreases upon increasing urea concentration. Furthermore, the relaxation time decreases exponentially with increasing urea concentration. This exponential relationship is independent of the Mamaku concentration, and is identical to the relationships between urea concentration and characteristic timescales measured in nonlinear shear rheology. We show using the sticky reptation model for polymers with multiple sticker groups along the backbone how such a relationship is consistent with a linear decrease in the free energy for hydrogen bond dissociation. We then demonstrate that a time-concentration superposition principle can be used to collapse the viscoelastic properties of the Mamaku-gum/urea mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Hiromasa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nomiyama, Takashi, E-mail: tnomiyama@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. {yields} Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  12. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiromasa; Nomiyama, Takashi; Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa; Watada, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. → Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. → Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. → Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  13. Asymmetric Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and Its Relationships to Facet Orientation, Facet Tropism, and Ligamentum Flavum Thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Shen, Yue; Shang, Ping; Ma, Yan-Xu; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Xu, Hua-Zi

    2016-11-01

    The degrees of osteoarthritis of the left and right facet joints were evaluated by using computerized tomography among elderly patients with low back or leg pain. To reveal the phenomenon of asymmetry regarding facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) in old patients and establish its relationships to spinal level, facet orientation, facet tropism and ligamentum flavum (LF) thickening. There were few reports regarding left-right asymmetry among severity of FJOA and its relationships to spinal level, facet orientation, facet tropism, and LF thickening remained unclear. The grade of bilateral FJOA was evaluated using 4-grade scale on computerized tomography images at the L3-4, L4-5, and L5-S1 levels of patients with age ranging from 60 to 80 years. All subjects were divided into 2 groups: symmetric FJOA group (FJOA I-II on both sides or FJOA III-IV on both sides) and asymmetric FJOA group (FJOA I-II on one side and FJOA III-IV on the other side). The relationships of FJOA to spinal level, facet orientation, facet tropism, and LF hypertrophy were evaluated. No association between asymmetric FJOA and spinal level was noted (P>0.05). In asymmetric FJOA group, significant difference in facet orientation between 2 sides was observed at the L4-5 (P=0.018) and L5-S1 levels (P=0.033). Compared with symmetric FJOA, asymmetric FJOA showed significant difference in prevalence of facet tropism at the L5-S1 level (P0.05). Asymmetric FJOA is associated with facet orientation and tropism, but not with spinal level. There is a close relationship between severity of FJOA and LF thickness.

  14. INEXPENSIVE CO{sub 2} THICKENING AGENTS FOR IMPROVED MOBILITY CONTROL OF CO{sub 2} FLOODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Enick; Eric J. Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, nonfluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to be completed only when a CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer that was soluble in CO{sub 2} at pressures comparable to the MMP was identified. In the second step, viscosity-enhancing associating groups were to be incorporated into the polymer to make it a viable thickener that exhibited high CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions. This final report documents the CO{sub 2} solubility of a series of commercial and novel polymers composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and, in some cases, nitrogen.

  15. The effects of a xanthan gum-based thickener on the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Mukherjee, R; Swanson, J; Clavé, P

    2014-05-01

    Increasing bolus viscosity of thin liquids is a basic therapeutic strategy to protect patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) from aspiration. However, conventional starch thickeners increase post-deglutitive residue. To assess the therapeutic effect of a new xanthan gum-based thickener, Resource ThickenUp Clear (Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland) on patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. We studied the effect of Resource ThickenUp Clear using a clinical method and videofluoroscopy on 120 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (66 with stroke, 41 older and 13 with neurodegenerative diseases) and 14 healthy volunteers while swallowing thin-liquid, nectar-like and spoon-thick boluses. We assessed the prevalence of signs of impaired safety and efficacy of swallow and the physiology of the swallow response. Increasing bolus viscosity with Resource ThickenUp Clear: (i) improved safety of swallow demonstrated by a reduction in the prevalence of cough and voice changes in the clinical study and penetrations and aspirations during video fluoroscopy. Prevalence of aspirations was 12.7% with thin liquid, 7.7% with nectar-like (P < 0.01) and 3.4% with spoon-thick (P < 0.01) viscosities. Penetration-Aspiration Scale was reduced from 3.24 ± 0.18 at thin liquid to 2.20 ± 0.18 at nectar-like (P < 0.001) and to 1.53 ± 0.13 at spoon-thick (P < 0.001) viscosities; (ii) did not enhance pharyngeal residue; (iii) nectar-like viscosity did not affect bolus velocity nor timing of swallow response and (iv) spoon-thick viscosity reduced bolus velocity. Resource ThickenUp Clear improves the safety of swallow without increasing residue providing a viscosity-dependent therapeutic effect for patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. At nectar viscosity, the effect is due to intrinsic texture properties, spoon-thick viscosity adding changes in swallow physiology. NCT01158313. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Imaging of invasive thymoma in the costophrenic recess presenting as thickening of arcuate ligaments of the diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Fergus V.; Grant, Michael John; Behr, Spencer; Foster, Bryan R; Korngold, Elena K; Didier, Ryne A

    2014-01-01

    Imaging findings in a patient with invasive thymoma in the costophrenic recess are presented, in whom CT and MRI revealed lateral arcuate ligament thickening. Increased FDG uptake on subsequent PET/CT was helpful in suggesting the correct diagnosis. A second patient with much more obvious invasive thymoma occurring in the costophrenic recess is presented for comparison. It is a well-known fact that thymic malignancies can metastasize to the pleura even years after resection. Rarely, they may present as focal thickening of the diaphragmatic lateral arcuate ligament. PMID:24629791

  17. Stress-induced thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various Ag additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Song; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhou, Xuanwei; Xia, Peng; Liu, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various bulk Ag contents during stress aging at 200 °C with a tensile stress of 240 MPa was investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). TEM characterization confirmed preferred orientation of Ω phase in all stress-aged samples. Corresponding quantitative TEM calculations revealed the thickening kinetics of Ω phase was significantly accelerated during stress aging as compared to that during stress-free aging at 200 °C. HRTEM analysis on the α/Ω interfacial structure confirmed that the applied tensile stress facilitated the rapid nucleation of the growth ledge on the broad face of Ω phase, thereby resulting in the accelerated plate thickening during stress aging at 200 °C. Meanwhile, quantitative TEM analysis highlighted the stress-induced thickening of Ω phase at 200 °C was affected by the bulk Ag content. This was consistent with the HRTEM observation as the ledge nucleation was found to be suppressed with increasing Ag addition. Our APT analysis on different stress-aged samples further suggested the progressive enrichment of Ag atoms in the segregation layer helped to stabilize the interfacial structure and was responsible for the lowest nucleation rate of the ledge in 1.77Ag alloy as compared to that in 0.46Ag alloy

  18. Plugging the Patient Evidence Gap: What Patients with Swallowing Disorders Post-Stroke Say about Thickened Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurtin, Arlene; Healy, Chiara; Kelly, Linda; Murphy, Fiona; Ryan, Jean; Walsh, Joanne

    2018-01-01

    Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia post-stroke is well known, with its presence increasing the risk of poor outcomes in particular aspiration and aspiration pneumonia. Management to minimize the risk of aspiration and improve swallow safety post-stroke includes the treatment of thickened liquids (TL), an established bolus modification…

  19. Short-term dexamethasone treatment inhibits vein graft thickening in hypercholesterolemic ApoE3Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, A.; Pires, N.M.M.; Eefting, D.; Vries, M.R. de; Bokel, J.H. van; Quax, P.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone can inhibit vein graft thickening without the occurrence of serious side effects. Methods: Venous interposition grafting was performed in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic ApoE3Leiden

  20. Viscoelastic behaviour of butyl acrylate/styrene/2-hydroxyethyl acrylate/acrylic acid latices thickened with associative thickneres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quadrat, Otakar; Mikešová, Jana; Horský, Jiří; Šňupárek, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, 11-12 (2003), s. 1411-1416 ISSN 1631-0748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/1360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : viscoelasticity * associative thickeners * latices Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.518, year: 2003

  1. Channels and valleys on Mars: Cold climate features formed as a result of a thickening cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Large flood channels, valley networks, and a variety of features attributed to the action of ground ice indicate that Mars emerged from heavy bombardment around 3.8Gyr ago, with an inventory of water at the surface equivalent to at least a few hundred meters spread over the whole planet, as compared with 3 km for the Earth. The surface water resided primarily in a porous, kilometers thick, megaregolith created by the high impact rates. At the end of heavy bombardment a rapid decline in erosion rates by a factor of 1000 suggests a major change in the global climate. It is proposed that at this time the climate became similar to today's and that this climate has been maintained throughout the rest of Mars' history. The various drainage features represent an adjustment of the distribution of water to the surface relief inherited from the period of heavy bombardment and to a thickening of the cryosphere as the heat flow declined. The valley networks formed mostly at the end of heavy bombardment when erosion rates were high and climatic conditions permitted an active water cycle. They continued to form after heavy bombardment when the cryosphere started to form by a combination of episodic flooding and mass-wasting aided by the presence of liquid water at shallow depths. As the cryosphere thickened with declining heat flow, water could no longer easily access the surface and the rate of valley formation declined. Hydrostatic pressures built below the cryosphere. Eruptions of groundwater became more catastrophic and massive floods resulted, mainly in upper Hesperian time. Flood sources were preferentially located in low-lying, low-latitude areas where the cryosphere was thin, or near volcanoes where a thinner than typical cryosphere is also expected. Floods caused a drawdown in the global water table so that few formed in the second half of Mars' history. The floodwaters pooled in low-lying areas, mostly in the northern plains. Some of the water may still be present as

  2. Shear thickening in suspensions: the lubricated-to-frictional contact scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of solid particles in viscous liquids can vary from low-viscosity liquids to wet granular materials or soft solids depending on the solids loading and the forces acting between particles. When the particles are very concentrated, these mixtures are ''dense suspensions.'' Dense suspensions often exhibit shear thickening, an increase in apparent viscosity as the shear rate is increased. In its most extreme form, order of magnitude increases in viscosity over such a narrow range in shear rate occur that the term discontinuous shear thickening (DST) is applied. DST is particularly striking as it occurs in the relatively simple case of nearly hard spheres in a Newtonian liquid, and is found to take place for submicron particles in colloidal dispersions to much larger particle corn starch dispersions. We focus on simulations of a recently developed ``lubricated-to-frictional'' rheology in which the interplay of viscous lubrication, repulsive surface forces, and contact friction between particle surfaces provides a scenario to explain DST. Our simulation method brings together elements of the discrete-element method from granular flow with a simplified Stokesian Dynamics, and can rationalize not only the abrupt change in properties with imposed shear rate (or shear stress), but also the magnitude of the change. The large change in properties is associated with the breakdown of lubricating films between particles, with activation of Coulomb friction between particles. The rate dependence is caused by the shearing forces driving particles to contact, overwhelming conservative repulsive forces between surfaces; the repulsive forces are representative of colloidal stabilization by surface charge or steric effects, e.g. due to adsorbed polymer. The results of simulation are compared to developments by other groups, including a number of experimental studies and a theory incorporating the same basic elements as the simulation. The comparison to experiments of the

  3. Plant AGC protein kinases orient auxin-mediated differential growth and organogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galván Ampudia, Carlos Samuel

    2009-01-01

    In view of their predominant sessile lifestyle, plants need to be able to adapt to changes in their environment. Environmental signals such as light and gravity modulate plant growth and architecture by redirecting polar cell-to-cell transport of auxin, thus causing changes in the distribution of

  4. Auxin-mediated growth of rice in cadmium-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    FAROOQ, HUSSNA; ASGHAR, HAFIZ NAEEM; KHAN, MUHAMMAD YAHYA; SALEEM, MUHAMMAD; ZAHIR, ZAHIR AHMAD

    2015-01-01

    Pollution from heavy metals is a global problem that is very dangerous to the environment. Among the heavy metals, cadmium is receiving more and more attention because it is one of the most ecotoxic, making it very harmful for biological activity in soil, biodiversity, plant metabolism, and human and animal health. Phytohormones, produced by plants, control or regulate germination, growth, metabolism, or other physiological activities, and they can alleviate the toxic effects of heavy metals ...

  5. Thermally induced lamellar reorganization and thickening in spherical poly (L-lactic acid) crystalsome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Mark; Qi, Hao; Li, Christopher

    Understanding fundamental aspects of spherical crystals is important for a variety of applications such as encapsulation and drug delivery. The curved nature of these crystals gives rise to differences in key crystallographic concepts such as grain boundaries and defect formation when compared to flat crystals. This curved crystallography is difficult to study experimentally, especially at the nanoscale. Our group has recently shown how an oil in water miniemulsion can be used to direct the crystallization of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) at a curved liquid/liquid interface. This produces nanosized, polymer single-crystal-like capsules termed crystalsomes with increased stability and mechanical properties compared with non-crystalline counterparts. This system will serve as our model for examining spherical crystallography. In this work, combined wide angle X-ray diffraction, Atomic force microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry is employed to examine how the curved interface effects crystal thickening and reorganization compared to flat PLLA crystals. The influence of degree of curvature on these processes is also studied by examining crystalsomes with differing diameters.

  6. Effect of D-003 on intimal thickening and circulating endothelial cells in rabbit cuffed carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, Miriam; Mendoza, Sarahí; Más, Rosa

    2005-01-01

    D-003 is a mixture of very-high-molecular-weight aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax, in which octacosanoic acid is the most abundant component. Previous experimental studies have shown that D-003 not only shows cholesterol-lowering and anti-platelet effects, but also reduces thromboxane B2 and increases prostacyclin levels. It acts by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. The positioning of a non-occlusive silicone collar around the rabbit carotid artery results in the formation of a neointima. Collars were placed around the left carotid for 15 days. The contralateral artery was sham-operated. We included three experimental groups: A control group received vehicle, and two others received D-003 at 5 and 25 mg/kg until sacrificed. Samples of arteries were examined by light microscopy. To evaluate intimal thickening the cross-sectional areas of intima and media were measured. Neointima was significantly reduced in D-003-treated animals compared with controls. Furthermore, the circulating endothelial cell has been studied in this experimental model with endothelium damage. The results demonstrate the protective effect of D-003 on vascular endothelium of the studied rabbits. It is concluded that the protective effect of D-003 against neointima formation and circulating endothelial cells in this experimental model could represent potential beneficial pleiotropic effects in the anti-atherogenic profile of this substance, beyond its cholesterol-lowering and anti-platelet effects independently demonstrated.

  7. Thymol reduces oxidative stress, aortic intimal thickening, and inflammation-related gene expression in hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Mei Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and is often associated with oxidative stress and local inflammation. Thymol, a major polyphenolic compound in thyme, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured the in vitro antioxidant activity of thymol, and investigated the effect of thymol on high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. New Zealand white rabbits were fed with regular chow, high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HC, T3, or T6 (HC with thymol supplementation at 3 mg/kg/d or 6 mg/kg/d, respectively for 8 weeks. Aortic intimal thickening, serum lipid parameters, multiple inflammatory markers, proinflammatory cytokines, and atherosclerosis-associated indicators were significantly increased in the HC group but decreased upon thymol supplementation. In summary, thymol exhibits antioxidant activity, and may suppress the progression of high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis by reducing aortic intimal lipid lesion, lowering serum lipids and oxidative stress, and alleviating inflammation-related responses.

  8. Comparison of wall thickening and perfusion analysis in cardiomyopathy by gated Tc-99m MIBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, I.; Chun, K.; Won, K.; Lee, H.; Park, J.; Shin, D.; Kim, Y.; Shim, B [Yeungnam University Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between left ventriculr (LV) function, wall thickening (WT) and perfusion in cardiomyopathy. Twenty-six cases (15 males, 11 females: mean age, 58 y), consisting of 10 healthy control subjects, 10 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 6 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was studied with gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. LV WT, LV perfusion and function (LV wall motion, LVEDV, LVESV and LVEF) by using gated SPECT quantification and CEqual software were analysed. In HCM and DCM group, mean WT was significantly decreased. (HCM: 15.2{+-}6.7%, DCM: 4.9%, control: 34.1{+-}4.9% (p<0.01). Adenosine stress test didn't show any reversible or fixed perfusion defects in all HCM patients, controls and five DCM patients except one patient (but, no coronary artery stenosis in coronary angiography). LVEF for HCM, DCM and control was 48.4{+-}13.2%, 28.7{+-}8.8%, 62.7{+-}9.5%, respectively (p<0.05)). LVEDV and LVESV didn't show a significant differences between HCM and control group, not DCM group. In HCM, WT was decreased as like DCM even though LV myocardial perfusion and function was reserved.

  9. The fate of trace organic contaminants in sewage sludge during recuperative thickening anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; McDonald, James; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Khan, Stuart J; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in sewage sludge during recuperative thickening anaerobic digestion. Sludge shearing at 3142s -1 for 5minutes improved biogas production. By contrast, shearing at ≥6283s -1 for 5minutes caused a notable reduction in biogas production and the removal of volatile solids. Results reported here showed the prevalent occurrence of 17 TrOCs in sewage sludge and highlights the importance of assessing TrOC removal via mass balance calculation by taking into account partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase as well as biodegradation. Hydrophilic and readily-biodegradable TrOCs (caffeine, trimethoprim, and paracetamol) were well removed and were not affected by shearing. TrOCs such as carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and diuron showed biodegradation only at high shearing. It is possible that shearing can facilitate the circulation of TrOCs between aqueous and solid phases, thus, enhancing the biodegradation of some TrOCs. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of semi-automated and manual measurements of carotid intima-media thickening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Ananey, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickening (CIMT) is a marker of both arteriosclerotic and atherosclerotic risks. Technological advances have semiautomated CIMT image acquisition and quantification. Studies comparing manual and automated methods have yielded conflicting results possibly due to plaque inclusion in measurements. Low atherosclerotic risk subjects (n = 126) were recruited to minimise the effect of focal atherosclerotic lesions on CIMT variability. CIMT was assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound (Philips HDX7E, Phillips, UK) images of the common carotid artery using both manual and semiautomated methods (QLAB, Phillips, UK). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the mean differences of paired measurements (Bland-Altman method) were used to compare both methodologies. The ICC of manual (0.547 ± 0.095 mm) and automated (0.524 ± 0.068 mm) methods was R = 0.74 and an absolute mean bias ± SD of 0.023 ± 0.052 mm was observed. Interobserver and intraobserver ICC were greater for automated (R = 0.94 and 0.99) compared to manual (R = 0.72 and 0.88) methods. Although not considered to be clinically significant, manual measurements yielded higher values compared to automated measurements. Automated measurements were more reproducible and showed lower interobserver variation compared to manual measurements. These results offer important considerations for large epidemiological studies.

  11. Reproducibility of an automatic quantitation of regional myocardial wall motion and systolic thickening on gated Tc-99m-MIBI myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the reproducibility of the quantitative assessment of segmental wall motion and systolic thickening provided by an automatic quantitation algorithm. Tc-99m-MIBI gated myocardial SPECT with dipyridamole stress was performed in 31 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (4 with single, 6 with two, 11 with triple vessel disease; ejection fraction 51±14%) twice consecutively in the same position. Myocardium was divided into 20 segments. Segmental wall motion and systolic thickening were calculated and expressed in mm and % increase respectively, using AutoQUANT TM software. The reproducibility of this quantitative measurement of wall motion and thickening was tested. Correlations between repeated measurements on consecutive gated SPECT were excellent for wall motion (r=0.95) and systolic thickening (r=0.88). On Bland-Altman analysis, two standard deviation was 2 mm for repeated measurement of segmental wall motion, and 20% for that of systolic thickening. The weighted kappa values of repeated measurements were 0.807 for wall motion and 0.708 for systolic thickening. Sex, perfusion, or segmental location had no influence on reproducibility. Segmental wall motion and systolic thickening quantified using AutoQUANT TM software on gated myocardial SPECT offers good reproducibility and is significantly different when the change is more than 2 mm for wall motion and more than 20% for systolic thickening

  12. Differentiating xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis from wall-thickening type of gallbladder cancer: added value of diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, T W; Kim, S H; Park, H J; Lim, S; Jang, K M; Choi, D; Lee, S J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the benefit of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis from the wall-thickening type of gallbladder cancer. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Fourteen patients with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and 19 patients with the wall-thickening type of gallbladder cancer were included. Qualitative (visual diffusion restriction compared to liver parenchyma) and quantitative [apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)] analyses were performed. Conventional MRI findings including dynamic enhancement pattern between the two groups were also analysed. Two observers independently reviewed conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and subsequently reviewed combined conventional MRI and DWI images. Pairwise comparison of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was used to compare diagnostic performances. In conventional MRI findings, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis showed significant continuity of enhancing mucosal line [79% (11/14) versus 26% (5/19), p = 0.003] and intramural T2-high signal intensity [64% (9/14) versus 21% (4/19), p = 0.012] compared to the wall-thickening type of gallbladder cancer. The enhancement pattern of gallbladder cancer compared to liver parenchyma showed earlier onset than that of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (p = 0.001). Diffusion restriction was more frequently seen in the wall-thickening type of gallbladder cancer (68%, 13/19) than in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (7%, 1/14; p cholecystitis was higher than that of the wall-thickening type of gallbladder cancer with statistical significance (1.637 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s versus 1.076 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, p = 0.005). Diagnostic performance [area under ROC curve (Az)] of both observers improved significantly after additional review of DWI; Az improved from 0.737 to 0.930 (p = 0.027) for observer 1 and from 0.675 to 0.938 (p = 0.008) for observer 2. Addition of DWI to conventional MRI

  13. A comparative study of policosanol vs lovastatin on intimal thickening in rabbit cuffed carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Más, R; Mesa, R

    2001-01-01

    Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug isolated from sugar cane wax, which acts by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that policosanol inhibited smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation in the cuffed carotid artery of the rabbit and in arterial wall damage induced by forceps in the central artery of the ear of rabbits. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of policosanol and lovastatin on SMC proliferation in the cuffed carotid artery of rabbits. Collars were placed around the left carotid for 7 and 15 days. The contralateral artery was sham operated. We studied eight experimental groups: two controls groups receiving vehicle for 7 and 15 days, respectively, a satellite sham operated control group, four groups treated with policosanol at 5 and 25 mg kg(-1)for 7 and 15 days and a reference group receiving lovastatin at 20 mg kg(-1)for 15 days. Samples of arteries were examined by light and electron microscopy. To evaluate intimal thickening the cross-sectional areas of intima and media were measured. Neointima was significantly reduced in treated animals compared with controls, but the reduction in lovastatin animals was significantly lower than in policosanol-treated groups. The SMC proliferation was studied by the immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the reduction observed in policosanol-treated rabbits was significantly larger than in lovastatin-treated animals. It is concluded that the protective effect of policosanol against neointima formation in this experimental model was slightly better than that of lovastatin. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. MRI shows thickening and altered diffusion in the median and ulnar nerves in multifocal motor neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakma, Wieke [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aarhus University, Department of Forensic Medicine and Comparative Medicine Lab, Aarhus (Denmark); Jongbloed, Bas A.; Goedee, H.S.; Berg, Leonard H. van den; Pol, W.L. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Froeling, Martijn; Bos, Clemens; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leemans, Alexander [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    To study disease mechanisms in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median and ulnar nerves. We enrolled ten MMN patients, ten patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ten healthy controls (HCs). Patients underwent MRI (in a prone position) and nerve conduction studies. DTI and fat-suppressed T2-weighted scans of the forearms were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Fibre tractography of the median and ulnar nerves was performed to extract diffusion parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) were measured on T2-weighted scans. Forty-five out of 60 arms were included in the analysis. AD was significantly lower in MMN patients (2.20 ± 0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared to ALS patients (2.31 ± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05) and HCs (2.31± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05). Segmental analysis showed significant restriction of AD, RD and MD (p < 0.005) in the proximal third of the nerves. CSA was significantly larger in MMN patients compared to ALS patients and HCs (p < 0.01). Thickening of nerves is compatible with changes in the myelin sheath structure, whereas lowered AD values suggest axonal dysfunction. These findings suggest that myelin and axons are diffusely involved in MMN pathogenesis. (orig.)

  15. Airway mucosal thickening and bronchial hyperresponsiveness induced by inhaled beta 2-agonist in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaoki, Jun; Tagaya, Etsuko; Kawatani, Kiyomi; Nakata, Junko; Endo, Yumie; Nagai, Atsushi

    2004-07-01

    Patients with chronic persistent asthma require frequent use of inhaled beta(2)-agonist, which may result in aggravation of asthma symptoms. Our recent in vitro study has shown that beta(2)-agonist stimulates the growth of human airway epithelial cell lines. To determine whether beta(2)-agonist likewise affects airway epithelial cell proliferation in vivo and, if so, what the mechanism of action is, we examined the effect of salbutamol on the morphology of murine airways. Seventy-two BALB/c mice were administered aerosolized salbutamol using "flow-through" nose-only inhalation chambers at daily doses of 0.2 to 20 microg for up to 6 weeks. Morphology of tracheal mucosa, labeling of epithelial cells with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and bronchial responsiveness were assessed. Exposure to salbutamol increased the thickness of tracheal epithelial layer and the number of BrdU-positive epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner: the values in mice receiving 20 microg salbutamol for 6 weeks were 247% and 642%, respectively, of those in control animals receiving saline solution alone. These effects were inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. Salbutamol also caused a decrease in the provocative concentration of methacholine to achieve 400% of baseline enhanced pause. Combined treatment with inhaled budesonide attenuated salbutamol-induced airway morphologic changes and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. beta(2)-agonist stimulates proliferation of airway epithelial cells and produces airway wall thickening in vivo via MAP kinase-dependent pathway, and these effects are prevented by inhaled corticosteroid.

  16. Cuticle thickening associated with pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coetzee M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in South Africa is primarily transmitted by Anopheles funestus Giles. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in An. funestus in northern Kwazulu/Natal, South Africa, and in neighbouring areas of southern Mozambique enabled populations of this species to increase their ranges into areas where pyrethroids were being exclusively used for malaria control. Pyrethroid resistance in southern African An. funestus is primarily conferred by monooxygenase enzyme metabolism. However, selection for this resistance mechanism is likely to have occurred in conjunction with other factors that improve production of the resistance phenotype. A strong candidate is cuticle thickening. This is because thicker cuticles lead to slower rates of insecticide absorption, which is likely to increase the efficiency of metabolic detoxification. Results Measures of mean cuticle thickness in laboratory samples of female An. funestus were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These females were drawn from a laboratory colony carrying the pyrethroid resistance phenotype at a stable rate, but not fixed. Prior to cuticle thickness measurements, these samples were characterised as either more or less tolerant to permethrin exposure in one experiment, and either permethrin resistant or susceptible in another experiment. There was a significant and positive correlation between mean cuticle thickness and time to knock down during exposure to permethrin. Mean cuticle thickness was significantly greater in those samples characterised either as more tolerant or resistant to permethrin exposure compared to those characterised as either less tolerant or permethrin susceptible. Further, insecticide susceptible female An. funestus have thicker cuticles than their male counterparts. Conclusion Pyrethroid tolerant or resistant An. funestus females are likely to have thicker cuticles than less tolerant or susceptible females, and females generally have

  17. Is the fibrotic parietal thickening a reliable parameter for diagnosing previous asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Gennaro; Genovese, Giuseppe; Apperti, Marco; Amato, Bruno; Benassai, Giacomo; Furino, Ermenegildo

    2015-01-01

    Research of a starting point to debate about the possibility of identifying a unique sign of previous DVT. A retrospective study involving 202 outpatients with venous insufficiency of the lower limbs (CEAP classes C 4/6), classified according to the affected venous district. Patients positive for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were subjected to Compression Ultra Sound test (CUS test) with measurement of the wall thickness at the point of formation of the thrombus and at fixed points of common femoral and popliteal veins used also in the patients with negative history of DVT RESULTS: Among total group, only 19 patients (9.40%) had an history of DVT. No one of them had a superficial incontinence. The measurement of wall thickness in positive DVT history patients (group A) resulted in an average value of 1.10 mm (s.d=0.06), while the average value obtained in negative DVT history (group B) was 0.55 mm (s.d.= 0.20). However, in 13 patients wall thickness was > 1mm (mean: 1.04 mm). The difference between the averages of group A and B was statistically significant (p 1 mm. Can the wall thickening more than 1 mm be considered an indicator of previous DVT? Can it be considered a "marker" for thrombophilia status? The usefulness of a sign of previous DVT (even if asymptomatic), detected during a routine Doppler ultrasound check of lower limbs, could be a warning bell to investigate thrombophilia status. Chronic Venous Insufficiency, Duplex ultrasound, Hypercoagulability, Post-thrombotic Syndrome, Venous Thromboembolism.

  18. Transitional features in human atherosclerosis. Intimal thickening, cholesterol clefts, and cell loss in human aortic fatty streaks.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1993-01-01

    The possible transition from a subset of fatty streaks to fibrous plaques in human atherosclerosis has long been postulated, but transitional features in lesions have rarely been demonstrated. We examined human aortic fatty streaks to determine whether significant tendencies toward intimal thickening and toward deep extracellular lipid deposition might be found. To provide accurate ultrastructural assessment of lipid, tissues were processed by new electron microscopic cytochemical techniques....

  19. Effect of addition of different nano-clays on the fumed silica-polyethylene glycol based shear-thickening fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mansi; Mehta, Rajeev; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Biswas, Ipsita

    2018-01-01

    A comparative study of the rheology of shear thickening suspensions of 20% fumed silica in polyethylene glycol (PEG200) with different nano clays as additives has been done. The nano-clays used are montmorillonite (MMT), Closite15A, Kaolin and Halloysite clay. The objective was to study the effect of relatively cost-effective clays as a partial substitute of silica. Specifically, the effect of type, concentration, temperature and frequency were considered. The results indicate that the shear thickening properties of Closite15A as additive in temperature ranges of 25 °C–45 °C performs the best and Halloysite performs best at higher (55 °C) and lower temperatures (5, 15 °C). The elasticity effects in dynamic experiments were markedly enhanced by Halloysite clay addition. Addition of MMT, however, led to insignificant enhancement in critical viscosity in steady-state as well as dynamic state-rheology. Interestingly, shear thickening fluid (STF) with all clay except MMT was stable after storing for more than a month. These findings indicate that the introduction of nano-clay as additives is a promising and cost effective method for enhancing the STF behavior which can be utilized in high impact resistant (about 3000% strain and 300 rad s‑1 frequency) applications.

  20. Individualized nomogram improves diagnostic accuracy of stage I-II gallbladder cancer in chronic cholecystitis patients with gallbladder wall thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Di; Wang, Jian-Dong; Yang, Yong; Yu, Wen-Long; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Quan, Zhi-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Early diagnosis of gallbladder cancer (GBC) can remarkably improve the prognosis of patients. This study aimed to develop a nomogram for individualized diagnosis of stage I-II GBC in chronic cholecystitis patients with gallbladder wall thickening. The nomogram was developed using logistic regression analyses based on a retrospective cohort consisting of 89 consecutive patients with stage I-II GBC and 1240 patients with gallbladder wall thickening treated at one biliary surgery center in Shanghai between January 2009 and December 2011. The accuracy of the nomogram was validated by discrimination, calibration and a prospective cohort treated at another center between January 2012 and December 2014 (n=928). Factors included in the nomogram were advanced age, hazardous alcohol consumption, long-standing diagnosed gallstones, atrophic gallbladder, gallbladder wall calcification, intraluminal polypoid lesion, higher wall thickness ratio and mucosal line disruption. The nomogram had concordance indices of 0.889 and 0.856 for the two cohorts, respectively. Internal and external calibration curves fitted well. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of the nomogram was higher than that of multidetector row computed tomography in diagnosis of stage I-II GBC (Pcholecystitis patients with gallbladder wall thickening, especially for those the imaging features alone do not allow to confirm the diagnosis.

  1. Effect of benzyladenine (BA on auxin-induced stem elongation and thickening in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that stem elongation in tulip is induced by the auxin produced in the leaves and gynoecium. Excision of the flower bud and all the leaves in an early stage of tulip growth resulted in almost total inhibition of stem growth, but the inhibition was completely recovered by the exogenous application of auxin to the place from which the flower bud had been removed. Hormonal control of stem thickening in tulip is much less known. Additional application of benzyladenine (BA to the tulip stem by soaking a cotton wick wrapped around all the internodes only slightly inhibited stem growth induced by IAA at a concentration of 0.1 and 2.0%, but substantially stimulated the thickening of all the internodes. The treatment of the tulip stem with benzyladenine enabled direct contact of the cytokinin with the epidermis, which is an important factor in stem elongation. The experiment conducted in field conditions also showed that BA only slightly inhibited the elongation of the fourth internode induced by IAA, but stimulated the thickening of that internode. IAA applied at a concentration of 2.0% stimulated ethylene production to a much higher extent than IAA at a concentration of 0.1%, and BA affected the auxin-induced ethylene production only to a small extent. Metabolic significance of these findings is discussed.

  2. Development of International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Fluids Used in Dysphagia Management: The IDDSI Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Lam, Peter; Steele, Catriona M; Hanson, Ben; Chen, Jianshe; Dantas, Roberto O; Duivestein, Janice; Kayashita, Jun; Lecko, Caroline; Murray, Joseph; Pillay, Mershen; Riquelme, Luis; Stanschus, Soenke

    2017-04-01

    Dysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world's population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consultation. First, a survey of existing national terminologies and current practice was conducted, receiving 2050 responses from 33 countries. Respondents included individuals with dysphagia; their caregivers; organizations supporting individuals with dysphagia; healthcare professionals; food service providers; researchers; and industry. The results revealed common use of 3-4 levels of food texture (54 different names) and ≥3 levels of liquid thickness (27 different names). Substantial support was expressed for international standardization. Next, a systematic review regarding the impact of food texture and liquid consistency on swallowing was completed. A meeting was then convened to review data from previous phases, and develop a draft framework. A further international stakeholder survey sought feedback to guide framework refinement; 3190 responses were received from 57 countries. The IDDSI Framework (released in November, 2015) involves a continuum of 8 levels (0-7) identified by numbers, text labels, color codes, definitions, and measurement methods. The IDDSI Framework is recommended for implementation throughout the world.

  3. The pulmonary pseudonodule: Characteristic features of a normal variant due to a bone thickening at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The normal thickening of bone at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine should not be confused with a patholigc process. Its appearance on the plain radiograph and computed tomography is pathognomonic. (orig.)

  4. Comparative Evaluation of the Prevalence of Maxillary Sinus Mucosal Thickening in the Patients with Periodontal Bone Loss: A Digital Panoramic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mirbeigi

    2015-07-01

    Results: Mucosal thickening was significantly correlated with the bone loss and pattern type of the bone loss. Moreover, the prevalence of sinus mucosal thickening was 12.10% in patients with mild bone loss, 27.45% in patients with moderate bone loss, 63.15% in patients with severe bone loss. No statistically significant relationship was detected between Maxillary sinus mucositis with patients’ age and sex (p =0.05. Conclusion: In patients suffering from the bone loss, increased severity of the bone loss can lead to an increase in the prevalence of sinus mucosal thickening. The maxillary sinus mucositis was reported to be more prevalent in the bone loss with a vertical pattern rather than the bone loss with a horizontal pattern. Moreover, based on the results of the present study, the periodontal disease may increase the risk of sinus mucosal thickening.

  5. [Predictive value of ultrasonic diaphragm thickening fraction on successful weaning for patients with myasthenia gravis crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Shan, Feng; Dong, Hai; Jiang, Yan; Sun, Yongmei; Sun, Yunbo

    2017-07-01

    To confirm the predictive value of diaphragm thickening fraction (DTF) on successful weaning by bedside ultrasound in patients with myasthenia gravis crisis. A prospective study was conducted. The patients with myasthenia gravis crisis undergoing mechanical ventilation admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from March 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled. All patients underwent a low level pressure support mode of spontaneous breathing test (SBT), and rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) was recorded. The indicators of right diaphragm thickness at the end of inspiration (DTei) and expiration (DTee) were determined by bedside ultrasound at 5 minutes and 60 minutes of SBT, and DTF was calculated, the changes in above parameters were observed during SBT. The patients were divided into successful weaning group and failure weaning group, and the differences in above indexes were compared between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the predictive value of DTF and RSBI at 60 minutes of SBT on successful weaning. A total of 37 patients were enrolled in the study. Ultrasonic measurement data of 63 person-times at 5 minutes of SBT and 50 at 60 minutes of SBT were obtained. There were no statistical differences in RSBI, DTei, DTee, and DTF at 5 minutes of SBT between successful weaning group (n = 33) and failure weaning group (n = 30). At 60 minutes of SBT, compared with successful weaning group (n = 33), the patients in failure weaning group (n = 17) had a higher RSBI (times×min -1 ×L -1 : 80.41±29.08 vs. 63.94±23.84, t = 2.146, P = 0.037), and lower DTee, DTei and DTF [DTee (mm): 22.00±6.25 vs. 25.45±4.99, t = 2.127, P = 0.039; DTei (mm): 27.94±6.19 vs. 38.48±6.15, t = 5.731, P = 0.000; DTF: (24.46±14.11)% vs. (62.04±30.21)%, t = 4.845, P = 0.000]. There were no statistical differences in RSBI, DTei, DTee, and DTF between 5 minutes and 60 minutes of SBT in 33

  6. Identification of pleural effusion with low levels of adenosine deaminase but without signs of acute inflammation or pleural thickening to diagnose early malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Satoru; Tanahashi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Eriko

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical findings and diagnostic methods used in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in patients with pleural effusion with low levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA), but without signs of acute inflammation or pleural thickening. The hospital records of 40 patients with pleural effusion of unknown origin or pleural thickening were retrospectively investigated. In all of those studies, pleural effusion was exudative, lymphocyte-dominant, no mycobacteria or other bacteria, and low levels of ADA. There were 30 men and 10 women with an average age of 62.8 years old. The diagnosis of MPM was obtained by cytology of the pleural effusion in 3 patients and by core-needle biopsy of the thickened pleura in 3. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy under general anesthesia was performed for the other 34 patients. The pathologic diagnosis of pleural biopsy was MPM in 20 patients, inflammatory change in 12, and pleural dissemination of cancer in 2. All of the 7 patients with more than 100 μg/ml of hyaluronic acid in their pleural effusion received a diagnosis of MPM. A total of 20 of 23 patients with irregular or nodular pleural thickening on computed tomography findings were confirmed to have MPM. Moreover, 6 of 17 patients with smooth pleural thickening were confirmed to have MPM. In patients with nodular pleural thickening it was easy to make the diagnosis. However, in those with smooth thickening, careful observation was required to select the appropriate biopsy site and resection margins of full-thickness pleura. As the rate of MPM in the patients with pleural effusion with low levels of ADA, but without signs of acute inflammation or pleural thickening is high (65%), an early thoracoscopic pleural biopsy is strongly recommended. (author)

  7. Asymmetric nasal mucosal thickening in healthy dogs consistent with the nasal cycle as demonstrated by MRI and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friling, Lisa; Nyman, Helena T; Johnson, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The nasal cycle is a physiological phenomenon that causes regular cyclical congestion and decongestion of the venous sinusoids lining the nasal mucosa. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) features of the normal nasal cycle in a group of dogs. Five dogs were recruited that met the following criteria: 8 to 15 months old, nonbrachiocephalic breed, no clinical signs or history of nasal disease, and undergoing anesthesia for problems unrelated to the nasal cavity. Nasal MRI (n = 5) and CT scans (pre- and postcontrast, n = 5) were acquired. Images were evaluated subjectively by two board-certified radiologists and objectively by a diagnostic imaging intern using regions of interest placed on each side of the nasal cavity. Findings were compared using Cohen's kappa coefficient and Students t-test on log-transformed data. All dogs showed diffuse unilateral mucosal thickening of the rostral part of the nasal cavity in both MRI and CT studies. This mucosal thickening shifted sides between examinations in three dogs. Changes appeared most marked on T2-weighted scans. No asymmetric mucosal changes were seen in the mucosa of the ethmoturbinates, vomer-nasal septum, hard palate or the frontal sinuses in any patient on MRI or CT. Computed tomographic contrast enhancement of the thickened mucosa was not statistically significant (P-value cycle may cause asymmetrical mucosal changes in the rostral part of the nasal cavity that mimic MRI and CT characteristics previously reported for inflammatory disease in dogs. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  8. A comparison of Scanora radiography with Waters' and panoramic views for the detection of mucosal thickening of maxillary sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Jung, Hyun Dae; Kang, Byung Chul

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of Waters' and panoramic view; maxillary sinus posteroanterior and lateral scanography of Scanora for mucosal thickening of maxillary sinus as well as to identify the utility of Scanora for the detection of maxillary sinus disease. The assessment was done at 66 maxillary sinuses in 45 patients and the results were as follows: 1. Estimation of presence or absence of mucosal thickening. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of maxillary sinus posteroanterior and lateral scanography were 0.865, 0.860, 0.921, and 0.805 respectively and slightly higher than those of Waters' and panoramic views, which were 0.832, 0.835, 0.903, and 0.728 respectively. However, paired t-test showed no significant differences in the diagnostic performance of the two pairs of imaging modalities. 2. Estimation of the types of mucosal thickening. The diagnostic accuracy for type I, II, III was 75.3% on Waters' and panoramic view; 77.9% on maxillary sinus posteroanterior and lateral scanography. It was higher on the latter, but showed no significant differences from that on the former. 3. Reliability of interpretation. In intraobserver and interobserver agreement, both overall rates of agreement and kappa-value were slightly higher on maxillary sinus posteroanterior and lateral scanography than on Waters' and panoramic views. There was no significant differences between the two pairs of imaging modalities. These results suggested that scanogram is a useful diagnostic radiography as well as Waters' and panoramic view for detection of maxillary sinusitis.

  9. Blood-pressure-independent wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in experimental uraemia: evidence for a permissive action of PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, K; Törnig, J; Flechtenmacher, C; Nabokov, A; Mall, G; Ritz, E

    1995-11-01

    Abnormalities in cardiovascular structures, e.g. LV hypertrophy and thickening of vessels (arteries, arterioles, veins) are hallmarks of renal failure. They are in part independent of elevated blood pressure. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to affect cardiac function and has also been identified as a permissive factor in the genesis of cardiac fibrosis. The present study in rats with experimental renal failure was designed to examine whether PTH was permissive for wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles as well. Male SD rats were sham operated or subtotally nephrectomized and maintained for 2 weeks. Subgroups of subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats were parathyroidectomized (PTX). Saline or rat 1, 34 PTH was administered by osmotic minipump. Eucalcaemia was maintained in PTX animals by a high-calcium diet (3%). Serum calcium was not statistically different between the groups. After perfusion fixation, intramyocardial arterioles were assessed using stereological techniques (wall thickness; wall/lumen ratio; minimal lumen diameter; length density). In random samples of the left ventricle, wall thickness of arterioles was 2.2 +/- 0.25 microns in sham-op controls and 2.76 +/- 0.41 in SNX (n = at least 8 animals per group). SNX-PTX animals+solvent did not differ significantly from sham-op controls (2.08 +/- 0.42 microns), while SNX-PTX animals+PTH had values not significantly different from SNX (2.59 +/- 0.54 microns). Differences in wall thickness were not paralleled by differences in systolic blood pressure (sham-op 110 +/- 13.3 mmHg; SNX 138 +/- 8.4 mmHg, SNX-PTX+solvent 142 +/- 5.2 mmHg; SNX-PTX+PTH 148 +/- 5.7 mmHg). PTH treated animals showed signs of marked vascular smooth-muscle cell and endothelial-cell activation. The data suggest that wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in short-term experimental uraemia is dependent upon the presence of PTH (permissive effect).

  10. Unexpected Radiation-Induced Aortic Wall Thickening Requiring Composite Graft Technique during Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Redaelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinal radiation is commonly used to treat Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lung and breast cancer. Cardiac complications after radiation therapy are well described, although rare. A large spectrum of injuries can occur, causing long term morbidity among survivors. We describe a case of post-actinic ascending aortic wall thickening that prevented saphenous vein proximal anastomosis and was successfully managed with aortic no-touch off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB, 25 years after radiation therapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

  11. Study of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Permafrost Active Layer Thickening Rate Using ALOS-1/-2 Interferometric SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Shum, C. K.; Kim, J.; Lu, Z.; Kuo, C. Y.; Zhang, L.; Ding, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau(QTP) is the world's largest and the highest plateau with distinct and competing surface and subsurface processes. It is the Third Pole and the World Water Tower, owing to its vast ice reservoir with the largest number of glaciers in the world. The QTP is covered by a large (1.3 to 1.6 million km2) layer of discontinuous and sporadic alpine permafrost, and is the origin of the largest rivers across Asia, feeding water to billions of people downstream. One such origin is the Three-River Headwater System, comprising of the mighty Yangtze, Yellow, and Lancang/Mekong Rivers, a subject of this study. The thawing over QTP permafrost regions is thought to be more severe compared with other high latitude permafrost regions by the fact that most of the permafrost is warm. During the past few decades, 10% permafrost has degraded. The overall mean active layer (AL) thickening rates over the QTP from model studies were 1.4 cm yr-1 during 1980-2001 and approximately 6.3 cm yr-1 during 2006-2010, based on soil temperature profiles for 27 monitoring sites along Qinghai-Tibetan railway (QTR). Here we report on a study on quantifying AL thickening rate in the northern QTP along the QTR, using ALOS-1/-2 InSAR observed land subsidence and AL thickness modeling. We have characterized high spatial resolution (30 m) and spatially varying ALT thickening rates, 2007-2010, along the QTR's large permafrost areas (> 10,000 km2). InSAR measured subsidence rates over various thermokarst surfaces in the study region are then converted to AL thickening rates using models with estimates ranging from 2.0 cm yr-1 to 10.7 cm yr-1. Comparisons with five borehole in situ sites showed excellent agreements with r2 >0.9. Using the ALOS-1/-2 InSAR data, we have further studied the plausible contribution of permafrost in NE QTP to the Yangtze headwater runoff near the Tuotuo river.

  12. Thickening of inner retinal layers in the parafovea after bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Troels; Laugesen, Caroline S; Floyd, Andrea K

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: We examined 51 patients with T2D 2 weeks before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery. Retinal thickness was measured with optical coherence tomography and automated segmentation in the fovea, parafovea and perifovea in each retinal layer. Retinal vessels were semiautomatically...... measured in a zone 0.5-1 disc diameters from the optic disc. RESULTS: The total macula thickened with a peak after 6 months in both univariate (2.7 ± 0.4 μm, p

  13. Crestal Bone Stability around Implants with Horizontally Matching Connection after Soft Tissue Thickening: A Prospective Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkevicius, Tomas; Puisys, Algirdas; Linkeviciene, Laura; Peciuliene, Vytaute; Schlee, Markus

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown that thin mucosal tissues may be an important factor in crestal bone loss etiology. Thus, it is possible that mucosal tissue thickening with allogenic membrane might reduce crestal bone loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how implants with traditional connection maintain crestal bone level after soft tissue thickening with allogenic membrane. One hundred three patients received 103 internal hex implants of 4.6 mm diameter with regular connection. According to gingiva thickness, patients were assigned into A (thin tissues, n = 34), B (thin, thickened with allogenic membrane, n = 35), and C group (thick tissues, n = 34). Groups A and C had one-stage approach, and in group B, implants were placed in two stages. Radiographic examination was performed after implant placement, 2 months after healing, after restoration, and after 1-year follow-up. Crestal bone loss was calculated medially and distally. Significance was set to 0.05. After 1-year follow-up, implants in group A had 1.65 ± 0.08-mm bone loss mesially and 1.81 ± 0.06 mm distally. Group B had 0.31 ± 0.05 mm mesially and 0.34 ± 0.05 mm distally. C group implants experienced bone loss of 0.44 ± 0.06 mm mesially and 0.47 ± 0.07 mm distally. Differences between A and B, and A and C were significant (p = .000) both mesially and distally, whereas differences between B and C were not significant mesially (p = .166) and distally (p = .255). It can be concluded that thin mucosal tissues may cause early crestal bone loss, but their thickening with allogenic membrane may significantly reduce bone resorption. Implants in naturally thick soft tissues experienced minor bone remodeling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. New functions of arthropod bursicon: inducing deposition and thickening of new cuticle and hemocyte granulation in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sook Chung

    Full Text Available Arthropod growth requires molt-associated changes in softness and stiffness of the cuticle that protects from desiccation, infection and injury. Cuticle hardening in insects depends on the blood-borne hormone, bursicon (Burs, although it has never been determined in hemolymph. Whilst also having Burs, decapod crustaceans reiterate molting many more times during their longer life span and are encased in a calcified exoskeleton, which after molting undergoes similar initial cuticle hardening processes as in insects. We investigated the role of homologous crustacean Burs in cuticular changes and growth in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found dramatic increases in size and number of Burs cells during development in paired thoracic ganglion complex (TGC neurons with pericardial organs (POs as neurohemal release sites. A skewed expression of Burs β/Burs α mRNA in TGC corresponds to protein contents of identified Burs β homodimer and Burs heterodimer in POs. In hemolymph, Burs is consistently present at ∼21 pM throughout the molt cycle, showing a peak of ∼89 pM at ecdysis. Since initial cuticle hardness determines the degree of molt-associated somatic increment (MSI, we applied recombinant Burs in vitro to cuticle explants of late premolt or early ecdysis. Burs stimulates cuticle thickening and granulation of hemocytes. These findings demonstrate novel cuticle-associated functions of Burs during molting, while the unambiguous and constant presence of Burs in cells and hemolymph throughout the molt cycle and life stages may implicate further functions of its homo- and heterodimer hormone isoforms in immunoprotective defense systems of arthropods.

  15. Physiochemical, texture properties, and the microstructure of set yogurt using whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate aggregates as thickening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Xie, Siyu; Yin, Yuan; Feng, Xianmin; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Mingruo; Ni, Chunlei

    2017-07-01

    Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate can be induced to gel in an acidic environment provided during fermentation. The variety of thickening agent has an influence on texture that is an essential aspect of yogurt quality affecting consumer preference. Similar to polysaccharide stabilizers, the cold gelation properties of whey proteins can improve the body texture of yogurt products. Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate could be a favorable and interesting thickening agent for making set yogurt. The effects of whey protein isolate (WPI), heat-treated whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate (WPI-STPP), heat-treated WPI and pectin on the storage properties and microstructure of yogurt were investigated. All samples were analyzed for syneresis, pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, texture profile and microstructure during storage. The results showed that incorporating heat-treated WPI-STPP had a significant impact on syneresis (32.22 ± 0.60), viscosity (10 956.67 ± 962.1) and hardness (209.24 ± 12.48) (p Yogurt fermented with modified WPI-STPP had higher levels of protein and better hardness compared with yogurt using pectin. The microstructure was observed to be a uniform and denser, complicated network. Heat-treated WPI-STPP may be useful for improving yogurt texture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. A generic approach towards finite growth with examples of athlete's heart, cardiac dilation, and cardiac wall thickening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktepe, Serdar; Abilez, Oscar John; Kuhl, Ellen

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work is to establish a generic continuum-based computational concept for finite growth of living biological tissues. The underlying idea is the introduction of an incompatible growth configuration which naturally introduces a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into an elastic and a growth part. The two major challenges of finite growth are the kinematic characterization of the growth tensor and the identification of mechanical driving forces for its evolution. Motivated by morphological changes in cell geometry, we illustrate a micromechanically motivated ansatz for the growth tensor for cardiac tissue that can capture both strain-driven ventricular dilation and stress-driven wall thickening. Guided by clinical observations, we explore three distinct pathophysiological cases: athlete's heart, cardiac dilation, and cardiac wall thickening. We demonstrate the computational solution of finite growth within a fully implicit incremental iterative Newton-Raphson based finite element solution scheme. The features of the proposed approach are illustrated and compared for the three different growth pathologies in terms of a generic bi-ventricular heart model.

  17. Numerical modeling of cracking pattern's influence on the dynamic response of thickened tailings disposals: a periodic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Gabriel; Sáez, Esteban; Ledezma, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Copper production is an essential component of the Chilean economy. During the extraction process of copper, large quantities of waste materials (tailings) are produced, which are typically stored in large tailing ponds. Thickened Tailings Disposal (TTD) is an alternative to conventional tailings ponds. In TTD, a considerable amount of water is extracted from the tailings before their deposition. Once a thickened tailings layer is deposited, it loses water and it shrinks, forming a relatively regular structure of tailings blocks with vertical cracks in between, which are then filled up with "fresh" tailings once the new upper layer is deposited. The dynamic response of a representative column of this complex structure made out of tailings blocks with softer material in between was analyzed using a periodic half-space finite element model. The tailings' behavior was modeled using an elasto-plastic multi-yielding constitutive model, and Chilean earthquake records were used for the seismic analyses. Special attention was given to the liquefaction potential evaluation of TTD.

  18. Focal thickening at the fundus of the gallbladder: computed tomography differentiation of fundal type adenomyomatosis and localized chronic cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Sung; Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Kwon, Hee Jin; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Jeong, Jin Sook; Noh, Myung Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our study was to identify useful computed tomography (CT) findings for differentiating fundal type adenomyomatosis from localized chronic cholecystitis involving the fundus of the gallbladder. We retrospectively identified cases of 41 patients with pathologically proven adenomyomatosis (n=21) or chronic cholecystitis (n=20) who had fundal thickening of the gallbladder on preoperative abdominal CT. Analysis of the CT findings included evaluation of the thickness, contour, border, intralesional cystic area, adjacent gallbladder wall thickening, presence of inner layer enhancement, enhancement grade, enhancement pattern, and presence of stones. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test. Oval contour, inner layer enhancement and intralesional cystic area were more frequently noted in adenomyomatosis than in chronic cholecystitis (pcholecystitis than in adenomyomatosis. No differences between adenomyomatosis and chronic cholecystitis in terms of the thickness, enhancement grade, enhancement pattern and presence of stones were apparent. CT may help to differentiate fundal type adenomyomatosis from localized chronic cholecystitis involving the fundus of the gallbladder.

  19. Regional wall thickening in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in a Japanese population: effect of sex, radiotracer, rotation angles and frame rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Taki, Junichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2008-01-01

    Gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of myocardium by 99m Tc and 201 Tl is used extensively to measure quantitative cardiac functional parameters. However, factors affecting normal values for myocardial functional parameters and population-specific standards have not yet been established. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex, radiotracer, rotation angles and frame rates on resting myocardial wall thickening (WT) and to develop a Japanese standard of normal values for WT. Data from a total of 202 patients with low possibility of having cardiac problems were collected from nine hospitals throughout Japan. Patients were divided into five groups according to study protocol, and WT was evaluated according to the 17-segment and four-region (basal, mid and apical regions and the apex) polar map distribution. WT was generally higher in women than in men irrespective of the use of radiotracers, rotation angles or frame rates, and the difference was highly significant in the mid and apical regions. In any protocol used, resting myocardial thickening in the apex was higher than in the mid and apical regions, and thickening was lowest in the basal region, suggesting heterogeneous regional myocardial thickening (%) in normal subjects. Different rotation angles showed no significant change on WT, but different frame rates and tracers showed significant WT change in both sexes. Percent thickening of the myocardium was significantly higher in imaging by 99m Tc-labelled tracers than in 201 Tl. Sex, radiotracers and frame rates had a significant effect on myocardial thickening, and the importance of population-specific standards should be emphasized. A normal database can serve as a standard for gated SPECT evaluation of myocardial thickening in a Japanese population and might be applicable to Asian populations having a similar physique. (orig.)

  20. Cine MR imaging assessment of regional left ventricular systolic wall thickening in patients with remote myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfugfelder, P.; White, R.D.; Sechtem, U.; Gould, R.G.; Higgins, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Cine MR imaging, a new rapid imaging technique, was used to acquire transverse images of the heart at a rate of 16-30 frames per cardiac cycle. Left ventricular wall thickness was measured at end diastole and end systole in six regions in the midventricular section of 13 healthy subjects and seven patients with previously documented myocardial infarction. Mean percent systolic wall thickening (%SWT) was 51% +- 26% in healthy subjects. In patients, %SWT was -8% +- 22% in the infarct zone and 42% +- 22% in the normal myocardium. In addition to the qualitative information derived from the cinematic display, determination of regional %SWT by cine-MR imaging may be useful for quantifying regional left ventricular dysfunction

  1. Chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt with the addition of taro and lesser yam flours as thickening agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Widowati, E.; Karunawati, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Cheese whey is a waste product from cheese processing. It has low solid contents thus required the addition of a thickening agent. Lactic acid bacteria could utilize it in the fermented drink. This research aims to study the effect of taro and lesser yam flour addition as a thickening agent on chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt. This research used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor that is variation ratio of taro and lesser yam flour F1 (4: 0), F2 (3: 1), F3 (2: 2), F4 (1: 3), F5 (0: 4). The number of lactic acid bacteria cell determined by using hemocytometer. The lactic acid content determined by the titrimetric method by using 0.1 N NaOH and phenolphthalein as indicator. pH value measured with pH meter. Sensory characteristics evaluated using hedonic test. The result showed that the addition of taro and lesser yam flour have a significant effect on the number of lactic acid bacteria in frozen wheygurt. The higher lesser yam flour addition, the higher lactic acid bacteria count on frozen wheygurt, due to lesser yam higher glucose and fructo-oligosaccharide content than taro. The higher lesser yam addition, the higher the lactic acid produced. The higher the total bacteria and higher levels of lactic acid, the lower the pH obtained. The conclusion of this study is addition ratio of taro and lesser yam flour effect on the chemical characteristics of frozen wheygurt. There is no difference in the level of acceptance of the panelists in sensory evaluation.

  2. Dietary Compound Kaempferol Inhibits Airway Thickening Induced by Allergic Reaction in a Bovine Serum Albumin-Induced Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daekeun; Park, Sin-Hye; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Antika, Lucia Dwi; Habibah, Nurina Umy; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-12-16

    Asthma is characterized by aberrant airways including epithelial thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy within the airway wall. The current study examined whether kaempferol inhibited mast cell degranulation and prostaglandin (PG) release leading to the development of aberrant airways, using an in vitro model of dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and an in vivo model of BSA-challenged asthmatic mice. Nontoxic kaempferol at 10-20 μM suppressed β-hexosaminidase release and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-mediated production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in sensitized mast cells. Oral administration of ≤20 mg/kg kaempferol blocked bovine serum albumin (BSA) inhalation-induced epithelial cell excrescence and smooth muscle hypertrophy by attenuating the induction of COX2 and the formation of PGD2 and PGF2α, together with reducing the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in mouse airways. Kaempferol deterred the antigen-induced mast cell activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) responsive to protein kinase Cμ (PKCμ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the antigen-challenged activation of Syk-phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway was dampened in kaempferol-supplemented mast cells. These results demonstrated that kaempferol inhibited airway wall thickening through disturbing Syk-PLCγ signaling and PKCμ-ERK-cPLA2-COX2 signaling in antigen-exposed mast cells. Thus, kaempferol may be a potent anti-allergic compound targeting allergic asthma typical of airway hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

  3. Transitional features in human atherosclerosis. Intimal thickening, cholesterol clefts, and cell loss in human aortic fatty streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1993-01-01

    The possible transition from a subset of fatty streaks to fibrous plaques in human atherosclerosis has long been postulated, but transitional features in lesions have rarely been demonstrated. We examined human aortic fatty streaks to determine whether significant tendencies toward intimal thickening and toward deep extracellular lipid deposition might be found. To provide accurate ultrastructural assessment of lipid, tissues were processed by new electron microscopic cytochemical techniques. Unilateral fatty streaks exhibited a 60% increase in intimal thickness when compared to contralateral control tissue. Fat droplets in intimal cells accounted for approximately half of the increase; nonfat portions of cells and extracellular matrix accounted for the remainder. Six of 32 fatty streaks (19%) contained cholesterol clefts, which were found in the musculo-elastic (deep) layer of the intima or in the tunica media. Volume fractions occupied by cells in deep intima were reduced when cholesterol clefts were evident, suggesting loss of cells in early core regions. Light and electron microscopy showed structures consistent with lipid-rich core regions in lesions with cholesterol clefts and in a few lesions without cholesterol clefts. The findings of intimal thickening, core region formation, and disappearance of intimal cells constitute new evidence that some fatty streaks are progressive lesions and sites of eventual fibrous plaque development. The findings also suggest that the lipid-rich core region does not originate primarily from the debris of dead foam cells in the superficial intima, but instead arises from lipids accumulating gradually in the extracellular matrix of the deep intima. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8238260

  4. Field research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in-situ burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Nedwed, T. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Mullin, J. [Minerals Management Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Herndon, VA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed in recent years to determine the capability of herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in situ burning. In loose pack ice conditions where booms are not practical, effective in situ burns may be possible if thin slicks could be thickened to the 2 to 5 mm range. However, specific chemical surface-active agents known as herders are need to clear and contain oil slicks on an open water surface. The agents spread quickly over a water surface into a monomolecular layer due to their high spreading coefficients. The best agents have spreading pressures in the mid 40 mN/m range. As such, only small quantities of these surfactants are needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water surface, and to contract it into thicker slicks. This paper summarized the previous studies that evaluated shoreline-cleaning agents with oil herding properties. However, the main focus of this paper was on the final phase of testing conducted at the Prudhoe Bay Fire Training Grounds in November 2006 in which a series of outdoor burns were conducted at the scale of 30 m{sup 2} with herders and crude oil in a test pool containing pieces of ice. The tests revealed that when a herder was used on crude oil slicks that were otherwise unignitable, the slicks could be ignited and burned in situ in brash and slush ice conditions at temperatures as low as -17 degrees C. Both the removal rate and efficiencies for the herded slicks were comparable to the theoretical maximum achievable for mechanically contained slicks on open water. 13 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs.

  5. Evaluation of the post-operative lumbar spine with MR imaging. The role of contrast enhancement and thickening in nerve roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grane, P.; Lindqvist, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    1997-11-01

    Purpose: Two new signs of lumbar nerve-root affection have been reported in recent years on the basis of MR examinations, namely: thickening in nerve roots; and contrast enhancement in nerve roots. The aim of this study was to assess contrast enhancement in nerve roots in a standardised way, and to evaluate the clinical significance of contrast enhancement and of nerve-root thickening in the symptomatic post-operative lumbar spine. Material and Methods: A total of 121 patients (who had previously been operated on for lumbar disc herniation) underwent 152 MR examinations, mainly on a 1.5 T system. Focal nerve-root enhancement was identified by visual assessment. Intradural enhancement was also quantified by pixel measurements that compared the affected nerve roots before and after contrast administration. Non-affected nerve roots were used as reference. Results: Enhanced nerve roots in the dural sac increased at least 40-50% in signal intensity after contrast administration compared to pre-contrast images and also compared to non-affected nerve roots. Intradural nerve-root enhancement was seen in 10% of the patients and focal enhancement in the root sleeve was seen in a further 26%. Nerve-root thickening was seen in 30%. Good correlation with clinical symptoms was found in 59% of the patients with intradural enhancement, in 84% with focal enhancement, and in 86% with nerve-root thickening. The combination of thickening and enhancement in the nerve root correlated with symptoms in 86% of the patients. Conclusion: Nerve-root enhancement (whether focal or intradural) and thickening in the nerve root are significant MR findings in the post-operative lumbar spine. In conbination with disc herniation or nerve-root displacement, these two signs may strengthen the indication for repeat surgery. However, root enhancement within 6 months of previous surgery may be a normal post-operative finding. (orig.).

  6. Systematic review and evidence based recommendations on texture modified foods and thickened liquids for adults (above 17 years) with oropharyngeal dysphagia - An updated clinical guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Kjærsgaard, Annette; Hansen, Tina

    2017-01-01

    to three critical outcomes (aspiration, pneumonia and death) and seven important outcomes (dehydration, weight loss, mealtime performance, patient preferences, intervention adherence and quality of life). METHODS: Three steps were used. First: An updated systematic literature search. Second: An assessment......: The body of evidence consisted of two RCTs for review question 1 both using nectar thickened liquids or honey-thickened liquids. No evidence was found for two important outcomes, mealtime performance and quality of life. With regard to risk of pneumonia, death, aspiration, dehydration, weight loss...

  7. Cartilage Thickening in Early Radiographic Human Knee Osteoarthritis –Within-Person, Between-Knee Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotofana, Sebastian; Buck, Robert; Wirth, Wolfgang; Roemer, Frank; Duryea, Jeff; Nevitt, Michael; Eckstein, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the presence of definite osteophytes (in absence of joint space narrowing [JSN]) by radiograph is associated with (subregional) increases in cartilage thickness, in a within-person, between-knee cross-sectional comparison of participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Based on previous results, external medial (ecMF) and external lateral weight-bearing femoral (ecLF) subregions were selected as primary endpoints. Methods Both knees of 61 (of 4798) OAI participants displayed definite tibial or femoral marginal osteophytes and no JSN in one knee, and no signs of radiographic OA in the contra-lateral knee; this being confirmed by an expert central reader. In these participants, cartilage thickness was measured in 16 femorotibial subregions of each knee, based on sagittal DESSwe magnetic resonance images. Location-specific joint space width from fixed flexion radiographs was determined using dedicated software. Location-specific associations of osteophytes with cartilage thickness were evaluated using paired t-tests and mixed effect models. Results Of the 61 participants, 48% had only medial, 36% only lateral, and 16% bi-compartmental osteophytes. Osteophyte knees had significantly thicker cartilage than contra-lateral non-osteophyte knees in the ecMF (+71±223μm, equivalent to +5.5%, p=0.015) and ecLF (+64±195μm, +4.1%, p=0.013). No significant differences between knees were noted in other subregions, nor in joint space width. Cartilage thickness in ecMF and ecLF was significantly associated with tibial osteophytes in the same (medial or lateral) compartment (p=0.003). Conclusion Knees with early radiographic OA display thicker cartilage than (contra-lateral) knees without radiographic findings of OA, specifically in the external femoral subregions of compartments with marginal osteophytes. PMID:22556039

  8. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  9. Differential diagnosis of gallbladder wall thickening by two phase spiral CT : gallbladder carcinoma versus cholicystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Mi Young; Woo, Je Hong; Shin, Seok Hwan; Lee, Kykung Hee; Suh, Chang Hae [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether an analysis of two-phase CT features provides a sound basis for differential diagnosis between gallbladder carcinoma and cholecystitis. We reviewed a total of 89 cases of gallbladder carcinoma (n=35) or cholecystitis (n=54) in patients who had undergone two-phase spiral CT. For this, a GE Highspeed Advantage scanner (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, U . S . A .) was used. A total of 120ml of contrast material was injected at a rate of 2-3 ml/sec. Arterial and venous phase scans were obtained 35 and 65 seconds, respectively, after the initiation of contrast infusion. All cases of gallbladder carcinoma and 468 of cholecystitis (of a total of 482) were confirmed by histopathology. We reviewed the two phase spiral CT features, analyzing and assessing thickness of the lesion, the enhancement pattern seen during the arterial and the venous phase, invasion of liver, pericholecystic fat infiltration, dilatation of intrahepatic ducts, and other associated findings. Mean wall thickness was 12.6 mm in the gallbladder carcinoma group, and 7.2 mm in the cholecystitis group. The common enhancement patterns seen in gallbladder carcinoma were 1) a highly enhanced thick inner wall layer during the arterial phase which became iso attenuated with adjacent liver parenchyma during the venous phase (16/35; 45.7%) and 2) highly enhanced thick inner wall layer during both the arterial and venous phase (8/35; 22.9%). The most common enhancement pattern in cholecystitis cases was an iso attenuated thin inner wall layer during both the arterial and the venous phase (44/54; 81.5%). Findings of intrahepatic mass formation by direct invasion (9/35), lymph node enlargement (12/35), and metastasis to other organs (7/35) occurred only in cases of gallbladder carcinoma (18/35, 51.4%) than of cholecystitis (10/54, 18.5%). The incidence of pericholecystic fat infiltration and fluid collection was not significantly different between the gallbladder cancer and cholecystitis groups

  10. Humero-spinal dysostosis: report of the fourth case with emphasis on generalized skeletal involvement, abnormal craniofacial features, and mitral valve thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B D

    1997-01-01

    The fourth reported case of humero-spinal dysostosis is notable in that (a) it confirms the unique combination of bifid distal humeri and coronal clefts, (b) involves a third unique feature as being mitral valve thickening. (c) suggests a more generalized involvement of bone in the form of a dysplasia, and (d) raises the possibility of repetitive craniofacial features.

  11. Meristematic activity of the Endodermis and the Pericycle in the primary thickening in monocotyledons: considerations on the "PTM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanuza L. de Menezes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new interpretation for primary thickening in monocotyledons. The anatomy of the vegetative organs of the following species was examined: Cephalostemon riedelianus (Rapataceae, Cyperus papyrus (Cyperaceae, Lagenocarpus rigidus, L. junciformis (Cyperaceae, Echinodorus paniculatus (Alismataceae and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae. The endodermis with meristematic activity was observed in the root of all the species, in the stem of Cyperus, Cephalostemum and Lagenocarpus rigidus, and in the leaf trace of Cyperus and leaf of Echinodorus. Considering the continuity of tissues through the root, stem and leaf, the authors conclude that in the stem the pericycle remains active throughout the life of the plant as the generator of the vascular tissue. The "Primary Thickening Meristem" is in fact the pericycle plus the endodermis and its derivatives (or only the pericycle. Close to the stem apex, the assemblage of seems to be a unique meristem, giving rise to the inner cortex and vascular tissues.A proposta deste trabalho é mostrar uma nova interpretação do meristema de espessamento primário em monocotiledôneas. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos das seguintes espécies foi examinada: Cephalostemon riedelianus (Rapataceae, Cyperus papyrus (Cyperaceae, Lagenocarpus rigidus, L. Junciformis (Cyperaceae, Echinodorus paniculatus (Alismataceae and Zingiberofficinale (Zingiberaceae. A atividade meristemática da endoderme foi observada nas raizes de todas as espécies, no caule de Cyperus, Cephalostemum e Lagenocarpus rigidus, e no traço foliar de Cyperus e folha de Echinodorus. Considerando a continuidade dos tecidos através da raiz, caule e folha, as autoras concluem que no caule o periciclo permanece ativo durante a vida da planta, como um gerador de tecidos vasculares. O "Meristema de Espessamento Primário" é o periciclo em fase meristemática, juntamente com a endoderme e suas derivadas (ou apenas o periciclo. Próximo ao

  12. Research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in situ burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Morrison, J. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The severe limitations of conventional containment and recovery systems for oil spills in pack ice have been demonstrated during skimmer tests conducted in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. In-situ burning may be one of the few viable alternatives to quickly remove oil spilled in pack ice, but the slicks are often too thin, preventing effective ignition or burning. This study examined ways to thicken the slicks to the 2- to 5-mm range so that effective burns could be carried out. Specific chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders or oil collecting agents can be used to clear and contain oil slicks on water surfaces. Since these agents can spread quickly on water, only a small quantity is needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water. Applying a chemical herder around the periphery of spilled oil can contract the oil into a thicker slick. Two chemical products were developed and tested in the 1970s and 1980s: Shell Herder and Exxon OC-5 Oil Collector. However, they are no longer used because they were effective only in very calm conditions. Corexit EC9580 which exhibits similar slick herding abilities and which has a spreading pressure of 39.5 mN/m is still commercially available. This study tested formulations of herding agents for use in pack ice. Concerns regarding the potential toxicity risk of using these agents in pack ice were also addressed. The agents should not harm the environment because they have low toxicity and only very small quantities are used. Two series of tests conducted to assess the potential for herding agents to help ignite and effectively burn thin oil slicks in loose pack ice conditions. The agents proved to be effective on cold water and on thick slicks. The composition of the oil played an important role in determining potential efficiency. It was concluded that applying herders to thin oil slicks in pack ice shows considerable promise for thickening them for in-situ burning. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 17 figs.

  13. Barents Sea field test of herder to thicken oil for in-situ burning in drift ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S. [SL Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sorstrom, S.E. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    Thick oil slicks are the key to effective in situ burning. Pack ice can enable in situ burning by keeping slicks thick. Oil spills in drift ice conditions can rapidly spread and become too thin to ignite. The application of chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders are commonly used in open waters to clean and contain oil slicks. Herders result in the formation of a monolayer of surfactants on the water surface and reduce the surface tension on the surrounding water considerably. When the surfactant monolayer reaches the edge of a thin oil slick, it changes the balance of interfacial forces acting on the slick edge and allows the interfacial tensions to contract the oil into thicker layers. This study examined the use of chemical herding agents to thicken oil spills in broken ice to allow them to be ignited and burned in situ. Two meso-scale field burn tests were conducted in May 2008 with crude oil slicks of about 0.1 and 0.7 m{sup 3} in open drift ice off Svalbard in the Barents Sea. Prior to the field experiments, 2 series of small laboratory tests were conducted using Heidrun and Statfjord crudes to determine the ability of the U.S. Navy herding agent to contract slicks of the oil. In the first field experiment involving 102 litres of fresh Heidrun, the slick was unexpectedly carried by currents to a nearby ice edge where the oil was ignited and burned. Approximately 80 per cent of the oil was consumed in the burn. In the second field experiment involving 630 litres of fresh Heidrun, the free-drifting oil was allowed to spread for 15 minutes until it was much too thin to ignite. When the herding agent was applied, the slick contracted and thickened for about 10 minutes and was then ignited using a gelled gas igniter. A 9-minute long burn consumed about 90 per cent of the oil. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 34 figs.

  14. The First Normal Stress Difference in Waterborne Paints Thickened by Hydrophobically Ethoxylated Urethane (HEUR) Rheology Modifier: A Simplified Phase Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tirtha; van Dyk, Antony; Ginzburg, Valeriy; Nakatani, Alan

    Since their invention in the 1970s, hydrophobically ethoxylated urethane (HEUR) associative thickeners are widely used to modify the rheology of waterborne paints. While their flow curves (viscosity vs. shear rate) and microstructure have been studied extensively in recent years, there is surprisingly little information on the paint normal stress under application conditions. However, understanding of normal stress behavior is critical for many applications such as brush drag and spatter. In this work we will demonstrate that in HEUR-based paints the first normal stress difference (N1) is controlled by two factors: (a) adsorption of HEUR molecules on latex particles and (b) ability of non-adsorbed HEUR to form transient bridges between particles with HEUR shells. By controlling these two effects, one can design a paint formulation with targeted N1 behavior (positive or negative N1 under high shear). Finally, a simplified phase diagram will be presented connecting formulation composition-microstructure- and N1 behavior. The results would serve as guidelines to formulate paints to meet the specific customer needs.

  15. Food Grade Grease Berbahan Baku Minyak Sawit Crude Palm Oil (Cpo Off Grade Dengan Variasi Konsentrasi Thickening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martanto Totok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food grade grease (FGG is a kind of lubricant made from vegetable oil. Food Grease isconsidered safe for healthy and it does not pollute the environment so that it can be veryimportant for particular industries such as pharmaceutical, animal feeding, cosmetic, andespecially food industry. This study is aiming at obtaining optimum basic formulation ofthickening agent (LiOH that can produce qualified food grade grease. It is a kind of factorialexperimental study by using complete random sampling. Based on Fisher test, the treatmentshows a different result significantly. Then, it is continued by conducting Duncan’s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. 2% of activated charcoal is the best treatment because it results FFAscore, lower water content, and the bright yellow color that is shown by the score of 5.48%,0.0498 %, and 3 % that successively obtained. The treatment on thickening agent (LiOH(P1 and the revious one (L1 are the best treatment which produce qualified food gradegrease, corrosion resistance value 12.0, dropping point 130C, lubricating texture value 1,pH value 9.45, water content 0.19%, and ash content value 0.76%.

  16. An experimental study on shock wave mitigation capability of polyurea and shear thickening fluid based suspension pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Haris

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study investigates shock wave mitigation capability of potentially new personal protective equipment (PPE suspension pads made from polyurea and shear thickening fluid (STF. The shock tube test results show that when placed behind Twaron fabric systems with thickness ranging from 2 mm to 18 mm, the replacement of conventional flexible foam pad with STF and STF-infused foam pads with the same thickness of 20 mm greatly reduces the normalized peak pressure (by about 72% for each pad. However, this benefit is partially offset by a large increase in the normalized impulse (by about 78% for the STF pad and 131% for the STF-infused foam pad which may cause the shock wave mitigation performance of these two pads to become less effective. Interestingly, the use of 4 mm thick polyurea pad can greatly reduce the normalized peak pressure and impulse as well (by about 74% and 49%, respectively. These results reveal that among the potentially new suspension pads tested, the polyurea pad displays the best shock wave mitigation performance. Therefore, polyurea has potential for use as a suspension pad in personal protective equipment requiring shock wave mitigation capability such as fabric ballistic vests, bomb suits and combat helmets.

  17. Does the routine echocardiographic exam have a role in the detection and evaluation of cholelithiasis and gallbladder wall thickening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, David D; El-Shurafa, Haytham; Nanda, Navin C; Dumaswala, Bhavin; Dumaswala, Komal; Kumar, Nilay; Mutluer, Ferit Onur

    2012-09-01

    Cholelithiasis is a very common disease in the United States. Most cases remain asymptomatic but a fraction of these patients can develop serious complications such as cholecystitis which may lead to gallbladder perforation and gallbladder cancer which is much less common. Here, we present three cases of cholelithiasis where transthoracic echocardiography was performed routinely. In each case, echocardiography detected cholelithiasis which prompted three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic evaluation. Three-dimensional echocardiography allowed for more comprehensive examination of the gallbladder shape, size, and wall thickening and the measurement and composition of the stones in three dimensions, measurement of stone volumes, and minimized shadowing produced by stone calcifications. These cases suggest that routine echocardiography has value in detecting gallstones and that 3D echocardiography has incremental value over two-dimensional echocardiography due to pyramidal data sets which allow sequential slicing through the gallbladder and full gallbladder examination without a technologist who is trained in gallbladder imaging. These pyramidal data sets can be further viewed and cropped by a radiologist specialized in abdominal ultrasound. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Structure of a shear-thickening polysaccharide extracted from the New Zealand black tree fern, Cyathea medullaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, May S M; Matia-Merino, Lara; Carnachan, Susan M; Sims, Ian M; Goh, Kelvin K T

    2014-09-01

    A shear-thickening water-soluble polysaccharide was purified from mucilage extracted from the fronds of the New Zealand black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris or 'mamaku' in Māori) and its structure characterised. Constituent sugar analysis by three complementary methods, combined with linkage analysis (of carboxyl reduced samples) and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) revealed a glucuronomannan comprising a backbone of 4-linked methylesterified glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 2-linked mannopyranosyl residues, branched at O-3 of 45% and at both O-3 and O-4 of 53% of the mannopyranosyl residues with side chains likely comprising terminal xylopyranosyl, terminal galactopyranosyl, non-methylesterified terminal glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 3-linked glucopyranosyl uronic acid residues. The weight-average molecular weight of the purified polysaccharide was ∼1.9×10(6) Da as determined by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). The distinctive rheological properties of this polysaccharide are discussed in relation to its structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Airway malacia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence, morphology and relationship with emphysema, bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Rastelli, Andrea; Schembri, Valentina; Filippo, Massimo de [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Chetta, Alfredo [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Respiratory Diseases, Parma (Italy); Fasano, Luca; Pacilli, Angela Maria [Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Unita Operativa di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria, Bologna (Italy); Di Scioscio, Valerio; Bartalena, Tommaso; Zompatori, Maurizio [University of Bologna, Department of Radiology, Cardiothoracic Institute, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airway malacia and its relationship with ancillary morphologic features in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of patients with COPD who were imaged with inspiratory and dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Airway malacia was defined as {>=}50% expiratory reduction of the airway lumen. Both distribution and morphology of airway malacia were assessed. The extent of emphysema, extent of bronchiectasis and severity of bronchial wall thickness were quantified. The final study cohort was comprised of 71 patients. Airway malacia was seen in 38 of 71 patients (53%), and such proportion was roughly maintained in each stage of COPD severity. Almost all tracheomalacia cases (23/25, 92%) were characterised by an expiratory anterior bowing of the posterior membranous wall. Both emphysema and bronchiectasis extent did not differ between patients with and without airway malacia (p > 0.05). Bronchial wall thickness severity was significantly higher in patients with airway malacia and correlated with the degree of maximal bronchial collapse (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated a strong association between airway malacia and COPD, disclosing a significant relationship with bronchial wall thickening. (orig.)

  20. Diffuse omental cake as an initial presentation of plasma cell leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shen Ko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Omental cake is a term to describe peritoneal thickening caused by different processes. Metastatic malignancy is the most common cause. Plasma cell leukemia is a rare hematological malignancy involving plasma cells and differ from multiple myeloma in its aggressiveness, initial presentation, and dismal prognosis. Herein, we reported a case of primary plasma cell leukemia initially presented with diffuse omental cake and ascites and subsequent systemic capillary leak syndrome.

  1. Thickening the Plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brian

    1979-01-01

    Examines the content of daytime serial dramas to determine how the narrative structure promotes a sense of involvement in viewers. Competing plot lines, the lack of a concrete sense of resolution, the pattern of episodes, and the audience's awareness of information kept secret from characters all contribute to audience involvement. (JMF)

  2. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tejos, R.; Sauer, M.; Vanneste, S.; Palacios-Gomez, M.; Li, H.; Heilmann, M.; van Wijk, R.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Heilmann, I.; Munnik, T.; Friml, J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the

  3. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejos, Ricardo; Sauer, Michael; Vanneste, Steffen; Palacios-Gomez, Miriam; Li, Hongjiang; Heilmann, Mareike; van Wijk, Ringo; Vermeer, Joop E M; Heilmann, Ingo; Munnik, Teun; Friml, Jiří

    2014-05-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the importance of cell polarity, its underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, including the definition and distinctiveness of the polar domains within the PM. Here, we show in Arabidopsis thaliana that the signaling membrane components, the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P 2 ] as well as PtdIns4P 5-kinases mediating their interconversion, are specifically enriched at apical and basal polar plasma membrane domains. The PtdIns4P 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 are redundantly required for polar localization of specifically apical and basal cargoes, such as PIN-FORMED transporters for the plant hormone auxin. As a consequence of the polarity defects, instructive auxin gradients as well as embryonic and postembryonic patterning are severely compromised. Furthermore, auxin itself regulates PIP5K transcription and PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P 2 levels, in particular their association with polar PM domains. Our results provide insight into the polar domain-delineating mechanisms in plant cells that depend on apical and basal distribution of membrane lipids and are essential for embryonic and postembryonic patterning. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Function of type-2 Arabidopsis hemoglobin in the auxin-mediated formation of embryogenic cells during morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim; Wang, Aiming

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the Arabidopsis GLB2, a type-2 nonsymbiotic hemoglobin, enhances somatic embryogenesis by increasing auxin production. In the glb2 knock-out line (GLB2 -/-) polarization of PIN1 proteins and auxin maxima occurred at the base of the cotyledons of the zygotic explants, which are the ...... undescribed functions for plant hemoglobins....

  5. Na+, K+/H+ antiporters regulate the pH of endoplasmic reticulum and auxin-mediated development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fan, B. H.; Zhao, L; Hu, X.; Li, W.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Simon, S.; Friml, J.; Shen, J.; Jiang, L.; Qiu, Q. S.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2018), s. 850-864 ISSN 0140-7791 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis * AtNHX5 * AtNHX6 * endosomal Na ,K /H antiporters * pH * pin5 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 6.173, year: 2016

  6. Complex, multilayered azimuthal anisotropy beneath Tibet: evidence for co-existing channel flow and pure-shear crustal thickening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Matthew R.; Lebedev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Of the two debated, end-member models for the late-Cenozoic thickening of Tibetan crust, one invokes 'channel flow' (rapid viscous flow of the mid-lower crust, driven by topography-induced pressure gradients and transporting crustal rocks eastward) and the other 'pure shear' (faulting and folding in the upper crust, with viscous shortening in the mid-lower crust). Deep-crustal deformation implied by each model is different and would produce different anisotropic rock fabric. Observations of seismic anisotropy can thus offer a discriminant. We use broad-band phase-velocity curves-each a robust average of tens to hundreds of measurements-to determine azimuthal anisotropy in the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range and constrain its amplitude. Inversions of the differential dispersion from path pairs, region-average inversions and phase-velocity tomography yield mutually consistent results, defining two highly anisotropic layers with different fast-propagation directions within each: the middle crust and the asthenosphere. In the asthenosphere beneath central and eastern Tibet, anisotropy is 2-4 per cent and has an NNE-SSW fast-propagation azimuth, indicating flow probably driven by the NNE-ward, shallow-angle subduction of India. The distribution and complexity of published shear wave splitting measurements can be accounted for by the different anisotropy in the mid-lower crust and asthenosphere. The estimated splitting times that would be accumulated in the crust alone are 0.25-0.8 s; in the upper mantle-0.5-1.2 s, depending on location. In the middle crust (20-45 km depth) beneath southern and central Tibet, azimuthal anisotropy is 3-5 and 4-6 per cent, respectively, and its E-W fast-propagation directions are parallel to the current extension at the surface. The rate of the extension is relatively low, however, whereas the large radial anisotropy observed in the middle crust requires strong alignment of mica crystals, implying large finite strain and

  7. Association between poor glycemic control, impaired sleep quality, and increased arterial thickening in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Yoda

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the association between glycemic control and objective sleep architecture and its influence on arteriosclerosis in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The present study examined the association of objective sleep architecture with both glycemic control and arteriosclerosis in type-2 DM patients.Cross-sectional study in vascular laboratory.The subjects were 63 type-2 DM inpatients (M/F, 32/31; age, 57.5±13.1 without taking any sleeping promoting drug and chronic kidney disease. We examined objective sleep architecture by single-channel electroencephalography and arteriosclerosis by carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT.HbA1c was associated significantly in a negative manner with REM sleep latency (interval between sleep-onset and the first REM period (β=-0.280, p=0.033, but not with other measurements of sleep quality. REM sleep latency associated significantly in a positive manner with log delta power (the marker of deep sleep during that period (β=0.544, p=0.001. In the model including variables univariately correlated with CA-IMT (REM sleep latency, age, DM duration, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c as independent variables, REM sleep latency (β=-0.232, p=0.038, but not HbA1c were significantly associated with CA-IMT. When log delta power was included in place of REM sleep latency, log delta power (β=-0.257, p=0.023 emerged as a significant factor associated with CA-IMT.In type-2 DM patients, poor glycemic control was independently associated with poor quality of sleep as represented by decrease of REM sleep latency which might be responsible for increased CA-IMT, a relevant marker for arterial wall thickening.

  8. Risk factors of carotid plaque and carotid common artery intima-media thickening in a high-stroke-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ChunFang; Lv, GaoPeng; Zang, DaWei

    2017-11-01

    To analyze the risk factors of carotid plaque (CP) and carotid common artery intima-media thickening (CCAIMT) and the association between the risk factors and CP numbers and the side of the CCAIMT in a high-stroke-risk population. Carotid ultrasonography was conducted in 2025 participants with high stroke risk. Participants were divided into different groups according to the results of the ultrasound. The risk factors and blood biochemical indices were recorded. The presence of CP and CCAIMT were 38.9% and 24.8% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the risk factors of CP were age, high LDL-C and FBG levels, male gender, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and tobacco use. Compared with participants without CPs, the participants who were male, and older in age, with risk factors of tobacco use, diabetes, high LDL-C levels, and a family history of hypertension were likely to have a single CP, whereas the participants with risk factors of tobacco use, diabetes, hypertension, male gender, older age, high LDL-C levels, stroke and AF or valvulopathy were prone to have multiple CPs. The risk factors of CCAIMT were male gender, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, AF or valvulopathy, tobacco use and age. Compared with the N-CCAIMT subgroup, the risk factors of left CCAIMT were tobacco use, diabetes, male gender, and age. The risk factors of right CCAIMT were male gender, high FBG levels, age, AF or valvulopathy. The risk factors of dual CCAIMT were high frequency of drinking milk, tobacco use, male gender, age, stroke, and hypertension. These findings revealed the risk factors of CP and CCAIMT, and an association between the risk factors and the CP numbers and the side of the CCAIMT.

  9. Determining the limits of anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge with grease interceptor waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Aziz, Tarek N; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with grease interceptor waste (GIW) from a food service establishment was conducted in lab scale semi-continuous digesters. GIW included the entire contents of the grease interceptor (GI) including fat, oil, and grease (FOG), food residuals, and associated wastewater. GIW was added in step increases to identify the maximum methane production and the corresponding threshold input of GIW that led to inhibition of methanogenesis. The experiment was performed at mesophilic conditions (37 °C) with a solids retention time (SRT) of 20 days. The highest GIW addition rate achieved without digester failure was 20% (v/v), or 65.5% (w/w) of volatile solids (VS) added, enhancing the methane yield from 0.180 to 0.752 m3(CH4)/kg(VS added), biogas production from 2.2 × 10(-3) to 1.4 × 10(-2) m(3)/d, and methane content from 60.2% to 70.1%. The methane yield of 0.752 m3(CH4)/kg(VS added) is the highest value reported to date for co-digestion of GIW. Stepwise increases in co-substrate addition led to better microbial acclimation and reduced the GIW inhibitory effect. The limit for GIW addition leading to an inhibited digestion process was identified to be between 20 and 40% (v/v) or 65.5 and 83.5% (w/w) of VS added. The results show the significant benefits of anaerobic co-digestion of GIW and the positive impacts of gradual addition of GIW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the thickened peritoneal reflections: efficacy and diagnostic role in the differential diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis and peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Chung, Tae Gyun; Park, Hyo Yong; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duck Sik [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and safety of ultrasound-guided biopsy of the thickened peritoneal reflections and to determine the efficacy and diagnostic role of this procedure in the differential diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Twenty-seven patients with only mildly thickened (25 mm or less) peritoneal reflections without apparent mass formations, and in whom imaging findings were not diagnostic, underwent ultrasound-guided biopsy. Five-MHz linear or convex linear array transducers were used for ultrasound guidance, and an automated gun with 18-gauge (n=3D23) or 20-gauge (n=3D4) needles for tissue sampling. biopsies were performed on the thickened parietal peritoneum (n=3D9), greater omentum (n=3D11), and small bowel mesentery (n=3D7), and the results were compared with the final diagnosis determined by radiologic/clinical follow-up (n=3D17) or laparoscopic biopsy (n=3D10). Complications and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after the procedure were evaluated. Specimens adequate for pathologic examination were obtained in all 27 patients. The histopathologic results were metastatic carcinomatosis (n=3D15), peritoneal tuberculosis (n=3D8), and chronic granulomatous inflammation (n=3D4). Specific pathologic diagnosis was obtained in all patients except the four with chronic granulomatous inflammation. Differentiation between benignancy and malignancy was possible in all patients and the histopathologic specific accuracy rate was 100%. No clinically significant complications were observed. In 24 patients with ascites at the site of the biopsy, transient bleeding was observed immediately after the procedure, but this stopped spontaneously within a few minutes. Post-procedural hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were only minimally lower (mean values of 0.9 g/dL and 3.0%, respectively) than pre-procedurally. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of thickened peritoneal reflections is a safe and effective diagnostic procedure and is useful in

  11. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the thickened peritoneal reflections: efficacy and diagnostic role in the differential diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis and peritoneal carcinomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Chung, Tae Gyun; Park, Hyo Yong; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duck Sik

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and safety of ultrasound-guided biopsy of the thickened peritoneal reflections and to determine the efficacy and diagnostic role of this procedure in the differential diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Twenty-seven patients with only mildly thickened (25 mm or less) peritoneal reflections without apparent mass formations, and in whom imaging findings were not diagnostic, underwent ultrasound-guided biopsy. Five-MHz linear or convex linear array transducers were used for ultrasound guidance, and an automated gun with 18-gauge (n=3D23) or 20-gauge (n=3D4) needles for tissue sampling. biopsies were performed on the thickened parietal peritoneum (n=3D9), greater omentum (n=3D11), and small bowel mesentery (n=3D7), and the results were compared with the final diagnosis determined by radiologic/clinical follow-up (n=3D17) or laparoscopic biopsy (n=3D10). Complications and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after the procedure were evaluated. Specimens adequate for pathologic examination were obtained in all 27 patients. The histopathologic results were metastatic carcinomatosis (n=3D15), peritoneal tuberculosis (n=3D8), and chronic granulomatous inflammation (n=3D4). Specific pathologic diagnosis was obtained in all patients except the four with chronic granulomatous inflammation. Differentiation between benignancy and malignancy was possible in all patients and the histopathologic specific accuracy rate was 100%. No clinically significant complications were observed. In 24 patients with ascites at the site of the biopsy, transient bleeding was observed immediately after the procedure, but this stopped spontaneously within a few minutes. Post-procedural hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were only minimally lower (mean values of 0.9 g/dL and 3.0%, respectively) than pre-procedurally. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of thickened peritoneal reflections is a safe and effective diagnostic procedure and is useful in

  12. Long-term follow-up of oral administration of flavonoids, Centella asiatica and Melilotus, for diabetic cystoid macular edema without macular thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Raimondo; Cennamo, Gilda; Bonavolontà, Paola; Pascotto, Arduino; de Crecchio, Giuseppe; Cennamo, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate long-term follow-up of the orally administered combination of flavonoids with Centella asiatica and Melilotus for treatment of diabetic cystoid macular edema (CME) without macular thickening. Seventy consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes and CME without macular thickening at optical coherence tomography (OCT) were prospectively and randomly enrolled in two groups of 35 subjects each (treatment and control groups). Patients in the treatment group were treated with an oral combination of diosmin (300 mg/day), with C. asiatica (15 mg/day) and Melilotus (160 mg/day). All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, OCT (Spectralis HRA-OCT), and central microperimetry (SD-SLO/OCT) at baseline, month 3, month 6, month 12, month 24, and month 36. No differences in HbAc1 percentage, blood pressure, microalbuminuria, visual acuity, mean central retinal thickness, and stability of fixation were present between the two groups during follow up (p>0.05). Retinal sensitivity reduced in the control group only from month 6 until month 36 (pasiatica and Melilotus, in patients with CME without macular thickening provided preservation of retinal sensitivity during 36 months of follow up when compared with untreated patients.

  13. The efficiency of apparent diffusion coefficient quantification in diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and in differentiation of cholecystitis from extrinsic benign gallbladder wall thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazal, Mehmet; Avcu, Serhat; Celiker, Fatma Beyazal; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Toktaş, Osman

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the efficiency of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and in differentiation of cholecystitis from extrinsic benign gallbladder wall thickening. Forty patients who were diagnosed to have acute cholecystitis by ultrasonographic examination were included in this study. The control group consisted of 18 patients without symptoms of gallstones and cholecystitis whose gallbladder walls were thickened due to cirrhotic ascites. Both groups were examined using diffusion weighted imaging, and the mean ADC values were compared using Student's t-test. The diagnoses of the 40 patients were proven by histopathological examination. The mean ADC values of patients diagnosed with cholecystitis (1.68 ± 0.36 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were significantly lower than the mean ADC values of the control group (2.35 ± 0.24 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) (p cholecystitis, with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 89.7%. ADC value quantification may be an efficient method for making a diagnosis of cholecystitis and in differential diagnosis of cholecystitis from the extrinsic benign gallbladder wall thickening that can be seen during the course of cirrhotic ascites.

  14. Comparison of dairy desserts produced with a potentially probiotic mixed culture and dispersions obtained from Gracilaria birdiae and Gracilaria domingensis seaweeds used as thickening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; de Almeida, Michele Correia; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2017-09-20

    Dairy desserts have emerged as interesting options for the incorporation of probiotics, bioactive ingredients and alternative sources of thickeners. This shows an opportunity to investigate the use of Gracilaria seaweeds in the formulation of potentially probiotic dairy desserts. This study aimed to compare the effects of dispersions obtained from Gracilaria domingensis and Gracilaria birdiae used as thickening agents on texture properties of dairy desserts fermented with SAB 440-A, composed of the starter Streptococcus thermophilus and the potential probiotics Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and also to study their physicochemical characteristics, microbial viability and sensory acceptability. No significant differences between desserts with G. birdiae or G. domingensis dispersions regarding total solids, ash and fat content, as well as pH, titratable acidity, the viability of the microorganisms of the mixed culture and sensory acceptability were verified (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the dessert with G. domingensis dispersion showed higher dietary fibre content and significantly increased firmness than the one produced with G. birdiae (P < 0.05). Moreover, B. animalis was able to maintain higher populations, above 7 log cfu g -1 during 21 days of storage of desserts, in the presence of either G. birdiae or G. domingensis dispersions, despite the fact that L. acidophilus has shown low viability in the final products. Therefore, the G. domingensis dispersion is suitable to be used as a thickening agent to produce dairy desserts with enhanced firmness and good sensory acceptability, it being also advisable to use only B. animalis as a probiotic for this product.

  15. Gluten-free pasta incorporating chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as thickening agent: An approach to naturally improve the nutritional profile and the in vitro carbohydrate digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menga, Valeria; Amato, Mariana; Phillips, Tim D; Angelino, Donato; Morreale, Federico; Fares, Clara

    2017-04-15

    A gluten-free pasta was prepared adding chia at rice flour for testing the thickening and nutritional properties of this specie. Chemical analysis showed chia is a source of protein (19.52% and 15.81%, seeds and mucilage respectively), insoluble/soluble dietary fiber ratio (4.3 and 1.79 seeds and mucilage respectively), fat and ash content. The total phenolic acids content ranged from 734.5μg/g to 923.9μg/g for seeds and mucilage respectively. Chia was a good thickening agent and, improved the nutritional profile of enriched samples compared to CGF. After cooking TPAs increased in all samples, ranging from 5.3% in DW to 52.8% in CM5. The addition of chia seeds also increased the slowly digestible starch fraction of rice flour, commonly known to have a high glycemic index. Results suggest that chia should be added as thickening agent in the formulation of GF pasta for conferring healthier characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Congestion is a major problem in most cities and the problem is growing (Quiroga, 2000) (Faghri & Hamad, 2002). When the congestion level is increased the drivers notice this as delays in the traffic (Taylor, Woolley, & Zito, 2000), i.e., the travel time for the individual driver is simply...... increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  17. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  18. Design and Manufacturing of a Novel Shear Thickening Fluid Composite (STFC) with Enhanced out-of-Plane Properties and Damage Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F.; Meo, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ability to absorb a large amount of energy during an impact event without generating critical damages represents a key feature of new generation composite systems. Indeed, the intrinsic layered nature of composite materials allows the embodiment of specific hybrid plies within the stacking sequence that can be exploited to increase impact resistance and damping of the entire structure without dramatic weight increase. This work is based on the development of an impact-resistant hybrid composite obtained by including a thin layer of Non-Newtonian silica based fluid in a carbon fibres reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate. This hybrid phase is able to respond to an external solicitation by activating an order-disorder transition that thickens the fluid increasing its viscosity, hence dissipating the energy impact without any critical failure. Several Shear Thickening Fluids (STFs) were manufactured by changing the dimensions of the particles that constitute the disperse phase and their concentrations into the continuous phase. The dynamic viscosity of the different STFs was evaluated via rheometric tests, observing both shear thinning and shear thickening effects depending on the concentration of silica particles. The solutions were then embedded as an active layer within the stacking sequence to manufacture the hybrid CFRP laminates with different embedded STFs. Free vibration tests were carried out in order to assess the damping properties of the different laminates, while low velocity impact tests were used to evaluate their impact properties. Results indicate that the presence of the non-Newtonian fluid is able to absorb up to 45 % of the energy during an impact event for impacts at 2.5 m/s depending on the different concentrations and particles dimensions. These results were confirmed via C-Scan analyses to assess the extent of the internal delamination.

  19. The Impact of Axillary Lymph Node Surgery on Breast Skin Thickening During and After Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Mylin A., E-mail: matorre@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Yang, Xiaofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Noreen, Samantha [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Chen, Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Provision Center for Proton Therapy, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States); Han, Tatiana; Henry, Simone; Mister, Donna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Andic, Fundagal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cukurova University School of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Long, Qi [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Tian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: This prospective study was conducted to determine predictors of epidermal thickening during and after whole-breast radiation therapy (XRT) using objective measurements acquired with ultrasound. Methods and Materials: After breast-conserving surgery, 70 women received a definitive course of whole-breast XRT (50 Gy plus boost). Prior to XRT, at week 6 of XRT, and 6 weeks after XRT, patients underwent objective ultrasound measurements of epidermal thickness over the lumpectomy cavity and all 4 quadrants of the treated breast. A skin thickness ratio (STRA) was then generated normalizing for corresponding measurements taken of the untreated breast. Results: Baseline measurements indicated that 87% of patients had skin thickening in the treated versus untreated breast (mean increase, 27%; SD, 0.29) prior to XRT. The STRA increased significantly by week 6 of XRT (mean, 25%; SD, 0.46) and continued to increase significantly 6 weeks after XRT (mean, 33%; SD, 0.46) above baseline measurements (P<.001 for both time points). On multivariate analysis, breast volume (P=.003) and surgical evaluation of the axilla with full lymph node dissection (P<.05) predicted for more severe changes in the STRA 6 weeks after XRT compared with baseline. STRA measurements correlated with physician ratings of skin toxicity according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grading criteria. Conclusions: This is one of the first studies to objectively document that lymph node surgery affects XRT-induced skin thickening in patients with breast cancer. Surgical evaluation of the axilla with complete lymph node dissection was associated with the most severe XRT-induced skin changes after XRT completion. These results may inform future studies aimed at minimizing side effects of XRT and surgery, particularly when surgical lymph node assessments may not alter breast cancer management or outcome.

  20. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein associated cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions correlates with intimal thickening in thoracic aortas of juvenile rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that calcifying vesicles play an important role in aortic calcification and that cholesterol content in the isolated vesicle fraction is increased when rabbits are fed supplemental cholesterol diets. Whether lipoprotein-associated cholesterols and other lipids are also increased in the vesicle fraction and whether the increase correlates with atherosclerosis remain unknown. Results Fourteen juvenile male rabbits fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil for 3 months developed varying degrees of hypercholesterolemia and intimal thickening in the ascending thoracic aorta. The correlation between these two parameters was insignificant, and likely attributable to the use of small numbers of rabbits in this study. Despite this lack of correlation, we demonstrate that the accumulation of cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions obtained from the collagenase-digested aorta fragments correlates well with intimal thickening (r2 = 0.98, p Conclusion When limited numbers of rabbits are used, LDL-C accumulation in calcifying vesicle fractions is a better biomarker for atherosclerosis than LDL-C levels in the serum. The close association of LDL-C with calcifying vesicles may play an important role in atherosclerosis and calcification.

  1. Localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis captured on an X-ray before alendronate therapy in two cases of atypical femoral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Yoichi; Takechi, Rumi; Iizuka, Haku; Omodaka, Takuya; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    We herein report two cases of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-ray examinations at the first visit of these two female patients showed a complete fracture of the femoral diaphysis diagnosed as an atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-rays of these two cases also showed localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis. Both patients had been taking alendronate for more than 3 years because of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We assumed that both of the fractures were associated with the long-term use of alendronate. However, we retrospectively identified localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis on an X-ray taken before the alendronate therapy in both of these cases. Therefore, we suspected a pathogenesis of AFFs in which preexisting stress or an insufficient fracture unrelated to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy and subsequent suppression of bone turnover due to BP administration led to the occurrence of an AFF. The patient underwent surgery using intramedullary nails in both of these cases, followed by the administration of teriparatide, and they were able to walk without any support at the final follow-up examination.

  2. Localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis captured on an X-ray before alendronate therapy in two cases of atypical femoral fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Yoichi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shibukawa General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shibukawa, Gunma (Japan); Takechi, Rumi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Cardiovascular Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Omodaka, Takuya [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Central Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    We herein report two cases of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-ray examinations at the first visit of these two female patients showed a complete fracture of the femoral diaphysis diagnosed as an atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-rays of these two cases also showed localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis. Both patients had been taking alendronate for more than 3 years because of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We assumed that both of the fractures were associated with the long-term use of alendronate. However, we retrospectively identified localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis on an X-ray taken before the alendronate therapy in both of these cases. Therefore, we suspected a pathogenesis of AFFs in which preexisting stress or an insufficient fracture unrelated to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy and subsequent suppression of bone turnover due to BP administration led to the occurrence of an AFF. The patient underwent surgery using intramedullary nails in both of these cases, followed by the administration of teriparatide, and they were able to walk without any support at the final follow-up examination. (orig.)

  3. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  4. Tracheal wall thickening is associated with the granulation tissue formation around silicone stents in patients with post-tuberculosis tracheal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jung Seop; Kim, Hojoong; Jeon, Kyeongman; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-07-01

    Tracheal restenosis due to excessive granulation tissue around a silicone stent requires repeated bronchoscopic interventions in patients with post-tuberculosis tracheal stenosis (PTTS). The current study was conducted to identify the risk factors for granulation tissue formation after silicone stenting in PTTS patients. A retrospective study was conducted between January 1998 and December 2010. Forty-two PTTS patients with silicone stenting were selected. Clinical and radiological variables were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Tracheal restenosis due to granulation tissue formation were found in 20 patients (47.6%), and repeated bronchoscopic interventions were conducted. In multivariate analysis, tracheal wall thickness, measured on axial computed tomography scan, was independently associated with granulation tissue formation after silicone stenting. Furthermore, the degree of tracheal wall thickness was well correlated with the degree of granulation tissue formation. Tracheal wall thickening was associated with granulation tissue formation around silicone stents in patients with post-tuberculosis tracheal stenosis.

  5. Ectopic expression of a novel OsExtensin-like gene consistently enhances plant lodging resistance by regulating cell elongation and cell wall thickening in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunfen; Li, Ying; Hu, Zhen; Hu, Huizhen; Wang, Guangya; Li, Ao; Wang, Youmei; Tu, Yuanyuan; Xia, Tao; Peng, Liangcai; Feng, Shengqiu

    2018-01-01

    Plant lodging resistance is an important integrative agronomic trait of grain yield and quality in crops. Although extensin proteins are tightly associated with plant cell growth and cell wall construction, little has yet been reported about their impacts on plant lodging resistance. In this study, we isolated a novel extensin-like (OsEXTL) gene in rice, and selected transgenic rice plants that expressed OsEXTL under driven with two distinct promoters. Despite different OsEXTL expression levels, two-promoter-driven OsEXTL-transgenic plants, compared to a rice cultivar and an empty vector, exhibited significantly reduced cell elongation in stem internodes, leading to relatively shorter plant heights by 7%-10%. Meanwhile, the OsEXTL-transgenic plants showed remarkably thickened secondary cell walls with higher cellulose levels in the mature plants, resulting in significantly increased detectable mechanical strength (extension and pushing forces) in the mature transgenic plants. Due to reduced plant height and increased plant mechanical strength, the OsEXTL-transgenic plants were detected with largely enhanced lodging resistances in 3 years field experiments, compared to those of the rice cultivar ZH11. In addition, despite relatively short plant heights, the OsEXTL-transgenic plants maintain normal grain yields and biomass production, owing to their increased cellulose levels and thickened cell walls. Hence, this study demonstrates a largely improved lodging resistance in the OsEXTL-transgenic rice plants, and provides insights into novel extensin functions in plant cell growth and development, cell wall network construction and wall structural remodelling. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mesozoic Crustal Thickening of the Longmenshan Belt (NE Tibet, China) by Imbrication of Basement Slices: Insights From Structural Analysis, Petrofabric and Magnetic Fabric Studies, and Gravity Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhenhua; Martelet, Guillaume; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Wei, Wei; Li, Shuangjian; Wang, Qingchen

    2017-12-01

    This work first presents field structural analysis, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements, and kinematic and microstructural studies on the Neoproterozoic Pengguan complex located in the middle segment of the Longmenshan thrust belt (LMTB), NE Tibet. These investigations indicate that the Pengguan complex is a heterogeneous unit with a ductilely deformed NW domain and an undeformed SE domain, rather than a single homogeneous body as previously thought. The NW part of the Pengguan complex is constrained by top-to-the-NW shearing along its NW boundary and top-to-the-SE shearing along its SE boundary, where it imbricates and overrides the SE domain. Two orogen-perpendicular gravity models not only support the imbricated shape of the Pengguan complex but also reveal an imbrication of high-density material hidden below the Paleozoic rocks on the west of the LMTB. Regionally, this suggests a basement-slice-imbricated structure that developed along the margin of the Yangtze Block, as shown by the regional gravity anomaly map, together with the published nearby seismic profile and the distribution of orogen-parallel Neoproterozoic complexes. Integrating the previously published ages of the NW normal faulting and of the SE directed thrusting, the locally fast exhumation rate, and the lithological characteristics of the sediments in the LMTB front, we interpret the basement-slice-imbricated structure as the result of southeastward thrusting of the basement slices during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This architecture makes a significant contribution to the crustal thickening of the LMTB during the Mesozoic, and therefore, the Cenozoic thickening of the Longmenshan belt might be less important than often suggested.

  7. Roles of sonography and hysteroscopy in the detection of premalignant and malignant polyps in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Ceran, Ufuk; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Sirvan, Levent; Doganay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    To assess the role of sonographic endometrial thickness and hysteroscopic polyp size in predicting premalignant and malignant polyps in postmenopausal women. A total of 328 postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding and thickened endometrium underwent operative hysteroscopy due to detection of endometrial polyps were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative endometrial thickness measured by transvaginal ultrasonography and polyp size on hysteroscopy were noted. Hysteroscopic resection with histology was performed for endometrial polyps. Endometrial thickness and polyp size were evaluated on the basis of final diagnosis established by histologic examination. Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of endometrial thickness and polyp size for detecting premalignant and malignant polyps. Premalignant and malignant polyps were identified in 26 (7.9%) of cases. Sonographic measurement showed a greater endometrial thickness in cases of premalignant and malignant polyps when compared to benign polyps. On surgical hysteroscopy, premalignant and malignant polyps were also larger. Endometrial thickness demonstrated a sensitivity of 53.8%, specificity of 85.8%, PPV of 24.6% and NPV of 95.6% at a cut-off limit of 11.5 mm with diagnostic accuracy of 83.2%. Polyp size has a diagnostic accuracy of 94.8% with a sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 95.0%, PPV of 61.5% and NPV of 99.3% at a cut-off point of 19.5mm. Endometrial thickness measured by transvaginal ultrasonography is not sufficient in predicting premalignant and malignant endometrial polyps in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding and thickened endometrium. Polyp size on hysteroscopy is a more accurate parameter, because of better sensitivity and specificity. However, while polyp size ≥ 19.5mm seems to have a great accuracy for predicting premalignancy and

  8. Field research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in-situ burning. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Nedwed, T. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Mullin, J. [Minerals Management Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Herndon, VA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed in recent years to determine the capability of herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in situ burning. In loose pack ice conditions where booms are not practical, effective in situ burns may be possible if thin slicks could be thickened to the 2 to 5 mm range. However, specific chemical surface-active agents known as herders are need to clear and contain oil slicks on an open water surface. The agents spread quickly over a water surface into a monomolecular layer due to their high spreading coefficients. The best agents have spreading pressures in the mid 40 mN/m range. As such, only small quantities of these surfactants are needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water surface, and to contract it into thicker slicks. This paper summarized the previous studies that evaluated shoreline-cleaning agents with oil herding properties. However, the main focus of this paper was on the final phase of testing conducted at the Prudhoe Bay Fire Training Grounds in November 2006 in which a series of outdoor burns were conducted at the scale of 30 m{sup 2} with herders and crude oil in a test pool containing pieces of ice. The tests revealed that when a herder was used on crude oil slicks that were otherwise unignitable, the slicks could be ignited and burned in situ in brash and slush ice conditions at temperatures as low as -17 degrees C. Both the removal rate and efficiencies for the herded slicks were comparable to the theoretical maximum achievable for mechanically contained slicks on open water. 13 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs.

  9. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cação-Benedini, L.O.; Ribeiro, P.G. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Departamento de Biomecânica, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Prado, C.M.; Chesca, D.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mattiello-Sverzut, A.C. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Departamento de Biomecânica, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres.

  10. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Cação-Benedini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68 and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin. Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days, an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres.

  11. Immobilization and therapeutic passive stretching generate thickening and increase the expression of laminin and dystrophin in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cação-Benedini, L O; Ribeiro, P G; Prado, C M; Chesca, D L; Mattiello-Sverzut, A C

    2014-06-01

    Extracellular matrix and costamere proteins transmit the concentric, isometric, and eccentric forces produced by active muscle contraction. The expression of these proteins after application of passive tension stimuli to muscle remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of laminin and dystrophin in the soleus muscle of rats immobilized with the right ankle in plantar flexion for 10 days and subsequent remobilization, either by isolated free movement in a cage or associated with passive stretching for up to 10 days. The intensity of the macrophage response was also evaluated. One hundred and twenty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: free for 10 days; immobilized for 10 days; immobilized/free for 1, 3, or 10 days; or immobilized/stretched/free for 1, 3, or 10 days. After the experimental procedures, muscle tissue was processed for immunofluorescence (dystrophin/laminin/CD68) and Western blot analysis (dystrophin/laminin). Immobilization increased the expression of dystrophin and laminin but did not alter the number of macrophages in the muscle. In the stretched muscle groups, there was an increase in dystrophin and the number of macrophages after 3 days compared with the other groups; dystrophin showed a discontinuous labeling pattern, and laminin was found in the intracellular space. The amount of laminin was increased in the muscles treated by immobilization followed by free movement for 10 days. In the initial stages of postimmobilization (1 and 3 days), an exacerbated macrophage response and an increase of dystrophin suggested that the therapeutic stretching technique induced additional stress in the muscle fibers and costameres.

  12. Effect of the yarn pull-out velocity of shear thickening fluid-impregnated Kevlar fabric on the coefficient of friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikarami, Sh [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kordani, N. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadough, Vanini A. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, H. [Technical Campus, Tehran South Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran(Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This study explains the yarn pull-out process behavior of woven fabrics in relation to their mechanical properties. Empirical research on the relationship between the yarn pull-out behavior and fabric properties are evaluated, along with a detailed comparison of friction between the fabric fibers in static and dynamic modes. Samples are tested in three modes, namely, neat, dissolved liquid, and silica particle- based Shear thickening fluid (STF)-treated fabric. Accordingly, the presence of STF increases friction between the fabrics and the warp and weft yarns, as well as prevents the displacement of the yarns. Increased friction also leads to an increase in the energy absorption of the yarn pull-out process. In this research, the pull-out test has been performed at three different velocities: 50, 250 and 500 mm/min. Results show that increases in the pull-out velocity increase the pull-out force of the neat and dissolved liquid samples. By contrast, the behavior is completely opposite in the STF-treated sample. Comparing the yarn pull-out values indicates that the STF-treated samples have the highest value, which is approximately three times higher than that of the neat sample.

  13. Arterial diffuse intimal thickening associated with enzootic calcinosis of sheep Espessamento intimal difuso das artérias na calcinose enzoótica dos ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Oliveira Vasconcelos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were carried out on the diffuse intimal thickening (DIT in arteries of 7 sheep with clinical signs of naturally occurring enzootic calcinosis due to ingestion of the plant Nierembergia veitchii. Arterial lesions consisted of medial deposition of calcium salts and DIT. Calcification of the intima was rare, mild and located near the elastic lamina. By immunohistochemistry a-actin was detected in cells of the media and in cells forming the intimal thickening. Receptors for 1,25(OH2 vitamin D3 were detected in nuclei of intimal, medial and endothelial cells. DIT was irregularly distributed and was neither proportionally related to the intensity of the underlying mineralization area nor to the thickening of the remaining media. Ultrastructural morphometry in smooth muscle cells (SMCs of the media and thickened intima revealed, in the latter, an increase of 318% in the volumetric fraction of those organelles involved in synthesis and a proportional decrease in contractile elements when compared to normal values of media cells. There were histological and ultrastructural evidences of modification of SMCs and their migration to the intima, where they proliferated causing DIT. It was concluded that DIT is a consistent component of arteriosclerotic lesions in N. veitchii induced calcinosis of sheep and that the predominant cell in this process is the SMCs originated from its predecessors of the media. It is suggested that the inducing factor for the arterial changes is 1,25(OH2 D3 present in N. veitchii.Foram feitos estudos morfométrico, imunoistoquímico e ultra-estrutural do espessamento intimal difuso (DIT das artérias de 7 ovinos com sinais clínicos de calcinose enzoótica espontânea causada pela ingestão da planta Nierembergia veitchii. As lesões caracterizavam-se por deposição de sais de cálcio na média como placas e estrias que, com frequência faziam saliência para a luz

  14. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  15. Thickening the Global SOF Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and long-term/short-term orientations, scholars generally distinguish between individualistic and collectivistic cultural orientations.163 This...difference alone is said to influence worldviews, expectations, and preferences. To highlight the difference between individualistic and collectivistic ...Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, are culturally collectivistic , emphasizing “conformity to group norms, interconnectedness, relational harmony, and

  16. Chronic Hippocampal Expression of Notch Intracellular Domain Induces Vascular Thickening, Reduces Glucose Availability, and Exacerbates Spatial Memory Deficits in a Rat Model of Early Alzheimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Leal, María C; Ferrari, Carina C; Dalmasso, María C; Martino Adami, Pamela V; Farías, María I; Casabona, Juan C; Puntel, Mariana; Do Carmo, Sonia; Smal, Clara; Arán, Martín; Castaño, Eduardo M; Pitossi, Fernando J; Cuello, A Claudio; Morelli, Laura

    2018-03-26

    The specific roles of Notch in progressive adulthood neurodegenerative disorders have begun to be unraveled in recent years. A number of independent studies have shown significant increases of Notch expression in brains from patients at later stages of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the impact of Notch canonical signaling activation in the pathophysiology of AD is still elusive. To further investigate this issue, 2-month-old wild-type (WT) and hemizygous McGill-R-Thy1-APP rats (Tg(+/-)) were injected in CA1 with lentiviral particles (LVP) expressing the transcriptionally active fragment of Notch, known as Notch Intracellular Domain (NICD), (LVP-NICD), or control lentivirus particles (LVP-C). The Tg(+/-) rat model captures presymptomatic aspects of the AD pathology, including intraneuronal amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation and early cognitive deficits. Seven months after LVP administration, Morris water maze test was performed, and brains isolated for biochemical and histological analysis. Our results showed a learning impairment and a worsening of spatial memory in LVP-NICD- as compared to LVP-C-injected Tg(+/-) rats. In addition, immuno histochemistry, ELISA multiplex, Western blot, RT-qPCR, and 1 H-NMR spectrometry of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) indicated that chronic expression of NICD promoted hippocampal vessel thickening with accumulation of Aβ in brain microvasculature, alteration of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and a decrease of CSF glucose levels. These findings suggest that, in the presence of early Aβ pathology, expression of NICD may contribute to the development of microvascular abnormalities, altering glucose transport at the BBB with impact on early decline of spatial learning and memory.

  17. Association between proximal internal carotid artery steno-occlusive disease and diffuse wall thickening in its petrous segment: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Li, Dongye [Capital Medical University and Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Brain Disorders Research, Beijing (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Zhao, Huilin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Zhensen; Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le; Li, Rui [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zechen [Philips Research China, Healthcare Department, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Zhao, Xihai [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Stroke, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Significant stenosis or occlusion in carotid arteries may lead to diffuse wall thickening (DWT) in the arterial wall of downstream. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease and DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. Symptomatic patients with atherosclerotic stenosis (>0%) in proximal ICA were recruited and underwent carotid MR vessel wall imaging. The 3D motion sensitized-driven equilibrium prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D-MERGE) was acquired for characterizing the wall thickness and longitudinal extent of the lesions in petrous ICA and the distance from proximal lesion to the petrous ICA. The stenosis degree in proximal ICA was measured on the time-of-flight (TOF) images. In total, 166 carotid arteries from 125 patients (mean age 61.0 ± 10.5 years, 99 males) were eligible for final analysis and 64 showed DWT in petrous ICAs. The prevalence of severe DWT in petrous ICA was 1.4%, 5.3%, 5.9%, and 80.4% in ipsilateral proximal ICAs with stenosis category of 1%-49%, 50%-69%, 70%-99%, and total occlusion, respectively. Proximal ICA stenosis was significantly correlated with the wall thickness in petrous ICA (r = 0.767, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that proximal ICA stenosis was independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA (odds ratio (OR) = 2.459, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.896-3.189, P < 0.001). Proximal ICA steno-occlusive disease is independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. (orig.)

  18. Influence of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment on Anaerobic Digestion of Secondary Thickened Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery in Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hephzibah, D.; Kumaran, P.; Saifuddin, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of secondary thickened sludge (STS) for enhancement of biogas production that has great potential to generate energy for the utilization of the sewage treatment plant (STP) itself. Microwave pre-treatment has been adopted for this study. Experiment works have been designed and conducted to examine the effectiveness of continuous flow microwave pre-treatment on the solubility of STS, digestibility of STS and biogas production at a power level of 80 W for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. A few characteristics of the sewage sludge were monitored daily to identify the effect of pre-treatment on the sludge. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)/total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ratio increased by 0.1, 1.0 and 1.8%, while the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of the pre-treated sludge improved by 4.4, 5.1, 5.9% at the irradiation time of 5, 10 and 15 minutes, respectively at a microwave power level of 80 W. Besides that, the digestate also indicates that the pre-treated sludge undergoes efficient VS removal and TCOD removal after anaerobic digestion compared to the untreated sludge. Moreover, the biogas quantity increased by an average of 19.2, 24.1 and 32.2% in 5, 10 and 15 minutes irradiation time respectively compared to the untreated sludge. The additional quantity of biogas generated has shown a great potential for sustainable energy generation that can be utilized internally by the STP.

  19. Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dioxin Exposure Initiative (DEI) is no longer active. This page contains a summary of the dioxin exposure initiative with illustrations, contact and background information.Originally supported by scientist Matthew Lorber, who retired in Mar 2017.

  20. Auxin-mediated relationships between apple plants and root inhabiting fungi: impact on root pathogens and potentialities of growth-promoting populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the symbiotic relationship between plant hosts and endophytic fungi recovered in multi-generation replanted apple orchard soils. Based upon results obtained, subsequent studies were oriented toward investigating fungal populations showing a mutualistic symbiotic rel...

  1. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejos, Ricardo; Sauer, Michael; Vanneste, Steffen; Palacios-Gomez, Miriam; Li, Hongjiang; Heilmann, Mareike; van Wijk, Ringo; Vermeer, Joop E.M.; Heilmann, Ingo; Munnik, Teun; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the importance of cell polarity, its underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, including the definition and distinctiveness of the polar domains within the PM. Here, we show in Arabidopsis thaliana that the signaling membrane components, the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] as well as PtdIns4P 5-kinases mediating their interconversion, are specifically enriched at apical and basal polar plasma membrane domains. The PtdIns4P 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 are redundantly required for polar localization of specifically apical and basal cargoes, such as PIN-FORMED transporters for the plant hormone auxin. As a consequence of the polarity defects, instructive auxin gradients as well as embryonic and postembryonic patterning are severely compromised. Furthermore, auxin itself regulates PIP5K transcription and PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, in particular their association with polar PM domains. Our results provide insight into the polar domain–delineating mechanisms in plant cells that depend on apical and basal distribution of membrane lipids and are essential for embryonic and postembryonic patterning. PMID:24876254

  2. Salicylic acid alleviates cadmium-induced stress responses through the inhibition of Cd-induced auxin-mediated reactive oxygen species production in barley root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Ladislav; Mistrík, Igor; Alemayehu, Aster; Zelinová, Veronika; Bočová, Beáta; Huttová, Jana

    2015-01-15

    Auxin is a master regulator of root growth by modulating its development under the constantly changing environment. Recently, an antagonistic interaction was suggested between SA and IAA signaling. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to analyze and compare the effect of the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signaling inhibitor p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) and salicylic acid (SA) as a potential IAA signaling inhibitor on the root growth, enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Cd- and IAA-treated barley root tips. Exposure of plants to Cd resulted in a more than threefold increase of IAA content in the root apex even 3h after the treatment. In addition, exogenously applied IAA evoked root responses such as root growth inhibition and swelling, ROS generation and activation of lipoxygenase or glutathione peroxidase identical to those induced by Cd. Furthermore, both Cd- and IAA-induced stress responses were markedly reversed by PCIB or SA post-treatment. Similarly to PCIB, SA did not affect the IAA content of root tips, suggesting the action of SA on the IAA signaling pathway in barley roots. SA probably does not alleviate the Cd toxicity in roots, but rather prevents or partially inhibits the root defense response to the presence of Cd through the inhibition of Cd-induced IAA-mediated ROS generation in roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Distinguishing possible mechanisms for auxin-mediated developmental control in Arabidopsis: models with two Aux/IAA and ARF proteins, and two target gene-sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, L J; Mirams, G R; Kieffer, M L; King, J R; Kepinski, S

    2012-01-01

    New models of gene transcriptional responses to auxin signalling in Arabidopsis are presented. This work extends a previous model of auxin signalling to include networks of gene-sets which may control developmental responses along auxin gradients. Key elements of this new study include models of signalling pathways and networks involving two Aux-IAA proteins (IAAs), auxin response factors (ARFs) and gene targets. Hypotheses for the gene network topologies which may be involved in developmental responses have been tested against experimental observations for root hair growth in particular. In studying these models, we provide a framework for the analysis of auxin signalling with multiple IAAs and ARFs, and discuss the implications of bistability in such systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Asymmetrically thickened posterior wall is associated with decline of ejection fraction after stress on adenosine stress/rest thallium-201 gated myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Lee, Won Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    LV parameters (LVEF. ESVI and EDVI) on adenosine stress/rest thallium-201 gated myocardial SPECT (gSPECT) are various from stress to rest. We investigated the reason why they were various in patients without coronary artery disease. Seventy-one patients(M:F=32:39, age 58.1{+-}9.7yrs), who underwent gSPECT and coronary angiography (CAG) due to chest pain or preoperative evaluation were included. CAG results were normal or insignificant. Exclusion criteria were atrial fibrillation, thyroid disease, primary cardiomyopathy, myocardial bridge, LBBB, MI, and valvular heart disease. Patients were calssified into 3 groups by EF difference ({delta}EF=rest-stress EF) on gSPECT : group1 ({delta}EF{>=}10), group2 (0 {<=}{delta}EF<10), and group3 ({delta}EF<0). LV parameters on gSPECT and thicknesses of IVS (interventricular septum) and LVPW (left ventricular posterior wall) on echocardiography were compared among the 3 groups. Myocardial perfusion status were normal or mild reversible/persistent perfusion defect in 76.1% (54/71). LVEFs at stress were not different among all 3 groups : 59.3{+-}8.54% in group 1 (61.3{+-}10.22% in group 2 and 64.8{+-}7.58% in group 3 (p>0.05). But LVEF at rest was smaller in group 3 (58.7{+-}8.38%) than the other groups (72.5{+-}8.77% in group1 and 66.7{+-}10.6% in group2) (p<0.01). EDVIs and ESVI at stress were larger than those at rest in all groups (p<0.05) except ESVI in group 3 (16.2{+-}6.21ml at stress and 17.5{+-}6.41ml at rest, p<0.01), and that was attributed to EF<0 in group 3. In echocardiographical analysis, group 3 had significantly increased wall thickness of LVPW (10.7{+-}1.2mm versus 9.4{+-}1.6mm, p=0.01) and decreased wall thickness ratio of IVS/LVPW (0.963{+-}0.102 versus 1.048{+-}0.104, p=0.035) than group 1. In patients without coronary artery disease, LVEF, EDVI and ESVI on gSPECT were various and decline of LVEF from stress to rest was caused by unnormalized ESVI . Asymmetrically thickened LVPW may play a crucial role and

  5. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  6. Winning with Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    A common complaint among high school coaches is the lack of initiative shown by some of their players. Coaches expect a certain level of decision-making and independence, and more so from team captains and senior players. Developing leadership skills is a major benefit to athletes who participate at a competitive level, and taking initiative can…

  7. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  8. 1996 environmental initiatives report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Progress by Consumers Gas in addressing environmental challenges were reviewed. Proposed environmental initiatives for the next fiscal year and beyond were introduced. Proposed initiatives were placed into three priority categories, high, medium or low, which together with the environmental management framework form the the utility's overall environmental agenda. High on the list of environmental priorities for the company are atmospheric air emissions, planning and construction practices, energy conservation and efficiency, environmental compliance, and methane emissions. The present state of the initiatives by the various company divisions and regions, compiled from the respective business plans, were reported. 21 figs

  9. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  10. Global Methane Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Methane Initiative promotes cost-effective, near-term methane recovery through partnerships between developed and developing countries, with participation from the private sector, development banks, and nongovernmental organizations.

  11. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  12. Research Programs & Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH develops international initiatives and collaborates with other NCI divisions, NCI-designated Cancer Centers, and other countries to support cancer control planning, encourage capacity building, and support cancer research and research networks.

  13. Nursing Home Quality Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) website provides consumer and provider information regarding the quality of care in nursing homes. NHQI discusses quality...

  14. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  15. Collaborative Procurement Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPP's Clean Energy Collaborative Procurement Initiative provides a platform for deploying clean energy technologies across multiple government and educational organizations for maximum impact on installed solar system capacity and local economic activity.

  16. Quality Initiatives - General Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a standardized approach for the development of quality measures that it uses in its quality initiatives. Known as the Measures Management System...

  17. Initial external events: floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumond, M.M.

    1989-12-01

    The initial external event, specifically flood in a Nuclear power plant, and the calculation necessary to determine the contribution of this type of event in a Probabilistic Safety Analysis, are presented. (M.I.)

  18. The Zambia Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Watabe

    2005-01-01

    In rural Zambia refugees and host communities are working together to move from relief dependence to self reliance. Could UNHCR’s Zambia Initiative (ZI) be a model for other countries struggling to cope with the protracted presence of refugees?

  19. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  20. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  1. Thrust initiation and propagation during shortening of a 2-layer model lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Fernando O.

    2008-01-01

    Analogue modelling was used to investigate thrust initiation and propagation in the lithosphere. The model comprised a top layer of light sand (model brittle crust) overlying a layer of heavy silicone putty (model ductile lower crust), both resting upon higher density and lower viscosity natural honey (model ductile mantle). The experiments show the following. (1) Thrust initiation may occur in two main modes: fold-first or fault-first. They seem to be the result of presence or absence of an initial perturbation close to the piston, respectively. The fault-first mode eventually goes into a fold-first mode after a certain amount of deformation. (2) In both modes, thrusts localized around the inflection points of both fore and back-limbs of buckles as a result of tectonic (horizontal), gravitational (vertical) and elastic forces. (3) Thrust propagation in the fault-first mode occurred by thrust wedge thickening and downward flexure due to isostatic compensation, which led to forward formation of bulges and subsequent amplification by buckling. Continued shortening increased the stresses that reached the brittle yield of sand and new thrusts originated. (4) Bulging ahead of thrusts tended to develop into asymmetric buckles with the shorter limb (back-limb) steeper towards the piston. (5) As a whole, thrust initiation and propagation seem to depend mostly on how stresses evolve and propagate through the model and how material strength varies with progressive deformation. The main stresses at play are born at the moving piston (model horizontal tectonic force), from thickening and isostatic compensation in the model (gravitational forces), and from elastic resistance to buckling.

  2. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  3. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  4. Self-initiated expatriates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by further studies, this exploratory research project may contribute to the understanding of the adjustment of adult third-culture kids as well as the role of experience and multicultural abilities. Few, if any, prior studies, have examined adjustment of this group of self-initiated expatriates....

  5. Global healthy backpack initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Kapila; Jacobs, Karen; Fernando, Dulitha

    2012-01-01

    Schoolbag use by children is a global common concern.. Children carry school books and other amenities in their school bags. Global evidence indicates that daily load carried by school children may have negative health implications. Backpack as a school bag model, is the healthiest way of load carriage for school children. Several initiatives have been launched world over to minimize unhealthy consequences resulting from schoolbags. Based on a situation analysis, Sri Lanka implemented a national healthy schoolbag campaign by joint efforts of Ministries of Health and Education. Actions were contemplated on; strategies for bag weight reduction, introduction of an ergonomically modeled schoolbag and bag behaviour change. New strategies were introduced with awareness campaigns to policy makers, bag manufacturers, parents, teachers and children. Four million schoolchildren benefitted. In 2000, the backpack strategy of "Pack it Light, Wear it Right" was started as a public health initiative in the United States by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). Over the last eleven years, thousands of occupational therapy practitioners and students participated in educational programs and outreach activities. In 2004, modeled after the success AOTA initiative, the Icelandic Occupational Therapy Association launched a national backpack awareness initiative. This article shares examples of practices that could be implemented in any context to the promote health of children.

  6. Funds Fuel Graduation Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    In the first wave of funding under a revitalized high school graduation initiative, the U.S. Department of Education is betting nearly $50 million that it can help states and school districts find better ways to hang onto students who might drop out and bring back those who have disappeared without diplomas. Twenty-nine states and districts won…

  7. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  8. The Zambia Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Watabe

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In rural Zambia refugees and host communities are working together to move from relief dependence to self reliance. Could UNHCR’s Zambia Initiative (ZI be a model for other countries struggling to cope with the protracted presence of refugees?

  9. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  10. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  11. Mexico: health promotion initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, D

    2000-01-01

    Mexico is currently undergoing a Health Sector Reform to address the country's epidemiologic and demographic changes, deep socio-economic inequalities and their consequences on health. The Government and a diversified set of actors, mainly NGOs, are taking up health promotion initiatives.

  12. Joint Programming Initiative Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Berkhout, F.; Deelen, van C.L.; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, Knowledge for Climate contributed to the development of the Joint Programming Initiative “Connecting Climate Knowledge for Europe” (JPI Climate). In 2010, a proposal was developed and accepted, followed in 2011 by the development and adoption of a governance structure and a

  13. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  14. Better Births Initiative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring that health professionals practise according to evidence-based standards is important since it affects the quality and cost of care patients receive. The purpose of this research was to use a focused change programme (the Better Births Initiative) to influence obstetric practice at 10 hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa.

  15. Transformative Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, D. D.; Kirby, C.; Witt, M. A.; Richie, D.; Mix, S.; Feldbaum, M.; Liu, S.; Mason, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Transformative Change Initiative (TCI) is dedicated to assisting community colleges to scale up innovation in the form of guided pathways, programs of study, and evidence-based strategies to improve student outcomes and program, organization, and system performance. The impetus for TCI is the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and…

  16. Initial management of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinusas, K; Gagliardi, A

    2001-09-15

    Breast milk is widely accepted as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. In order to ensure success in breastfeeding, it is important that it be initiated as early as possible during the neonatal period. This is facilitated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and infant immediately following birth. When possible, the infant should be allowed to root and latch on spontaneously within the first hour of life. Many common nursery routines such as weighing the infant, administration of vitamin K and application of ocular antibiotics can be safely delayed until after the initial breastfeeding. Postpartum care practices that improve breastfeeding rates include rooming-in, anticipatory guidance about breastfeeding problems and the avoidance of formula supplementation and pacifiers.

  17. The Yekaterinburg headache initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Olesen, Jes; Osipova, Vera V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As major causes of global public ill-health and disability, headache disorders are paradoxically ignored in health policy and in planning, resourcing and implementing health services. This is true worldwide. Russia, where the prevalence of headache disorders and levels of attributed...... for a demonstrational interventional project in Russia, undertaken within the Global Campaign against Headache. The initiative proposes three actions: 1) raise awareness of need for improvement; 2) design and implement a three-tier model (from primary care to a single highly specialized centre with academic affiliation......) for efficient and equitable delivery of headache-related health care; 3) develop a range of educational initiatives aimed at primary-care physicians, non-specialist neurologists, pharmacists and the general public to support the second action. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We set these proposals in a context...

  18. Global Marshall Plan initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkbeiner, F. [Global Contract Foundation, German Association of the Club of Rome (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The idea of a worldwide Marshall Plan is not new. The concept has already been promoted for a decade by personalities from a variety of backgrounds such as Franz Alt, Kofi Annan, Al Gore, Hans Kueng, Susan George, Mikhail Gorbachev, HRH Prince El Hassan of Jordan, George Soros, Lutz Wicke, and many more. On May 16{sup th}, 2003, 16 politicians and representatives from non-governmental organizations and business associations met in Frankfurt to start the Global Marshall Plan Initiative. This circle gave mandates to Franz Josef Radermacher for the scientific coordination and to the Global Contract Foundation for the organizational coordination of the Initiative to be started. The design the scientific concept was started in November 2003. It is an ongoing process where everyone is invited to contribute to. (orig.)

  19. Quantum Optics Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-30

    Quantum Cascade Laser", M. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, M.G. Allen, and F. K. Tittel, Am. Acad. of Allergy , Asthma and Immunology...34Interactions of Nickel Phthalocyanine Molecules on řx20" Au(001) During the Initial Formation of Heteroepitaxy," Ken T. Park, Trinity Ellis, Steve L...Poster Presentation by Trinity Ellis. The following manuscripts have been either submitted or prepared for publication: * [4] "Interactions of Nickel

  20. Initial conditions for inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Artymowski, Michał

    2017-09-01

    Within the α-attractors framework we investigate scalar potentials with the same pole as the one featured in the kinetic term. We show that, in field space, this leads to directions without a plateau. Using this, we present a proposal, which manages to overcome the initial conditions problem of inflation with a plateau. An earlier period of proto-inflation, beginning at Planck scale, accounts for the Universe expansion and arranges the required initial conditions for inflation on the plateau to commence. We show that, if proto-inflation is power-law, it does not suffer from a sub-Planckian eternal inflationary stage, which would otherwise be a problem. A simple model realisation is constructed in the context of α-attractors, which can both generate the inflationary plateau and the exponential slopes around it, necessary for the two inflation stages. Our mechanism allows to assume chaotic initial conditions at the Planck scale for proto-inflation, it is generic and it is shown to work without fine-tuning.

  1. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  2. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text...

  3. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  4. UNLV Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechanova, Anthony E.; Johnson, Allen; O' Toole, Brendan; Trabia, Mohamed; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-25

    Evaluation of the Crack growth rate (CGR) of Alloy 617 and Alloy 276 under constant K at ambient temperature has been completed. Creep deformation of Alloy 230 at different temperature range and load level has been completed and heat to heat variation has been noticed. Creep deformation study of Alloy 276 has been completed under an applied initial stress level of 10% of yield stress at 950ºC. The grain size evaluation of the tested creep specimens of Alloy 276 has been completed.

  5. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  6. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  7. Initiation of slug flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanratty, T.J.; Woods, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The initiation of slug flow in a horizontal pipe can be predicted either by considering the stability of a slug or by considering the stability of a stratified flow. Measurements of the shedding rate of slugs are used to define necessary conditions for the existence of a slug. Recent results show that slugs develop from an unstable stratified flow through the evolution of small wavelength waves into large wavelength waves that have the possibility of growing to form a slug. The mechanism appears to be quite different for fluids with viscosities close to water than for fluids with large viscosities (20 centipoise)

  8. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  9. The LHCb Starterkit initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of high-energy physicists use and produce software every day. Software skills are usually acquired on the go and dedicated training courses are rare. The LHCb Starterkit is a new training format for getting LHCb collaborators started in effectively using software to perform their research. The initiative, combining courses and online tutorials, focuses on teaching basic skills for research computing, as well as LHCb software specifics. Unlike traditional tutorials we focus on starting with basics, performing all the material live, with a high degree of interactivity, giving priority to understanding the tools as opposed to handing out recipes that work “as if by magic”. The LHCb Starterkit was started by young members of the collaboration inspired by the principles of Software Carpentry, and the material is created in a collaborative fashion using the tools we teach. Three successful entry-level workshops, as well as two advanced ones, have taken place since the start of the initiative i...

  10. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  11. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  12. Acute diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon: value of ultrasound as an initial diagnostic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Aguayo, F. J.; Gil, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the value of ultrasound as an initial diagnostic method in cases of acute diverticulitis. Ultrasound was carried out in 76 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute sigmoid diverticulitis. The final diagnosis was based on the clinical course in every case, as well as on computed tomography (CT; n=46), histopathological examination (n=10), colonoscopy (n=4) and barium enema (n=2). The diagnostic criteria established for ultrasound was a thickening of the sigmoid colon wall of >4 mm and the presence of a least one of the following features: diverticular, phlegmon or abscess. The CT diagnosis was based on two indispensable findings: thickening of the sigmoid colon of>4 mm and inflammation of pericolonic fat. The final diagnosis was acute diverticulitis in 52 patients, some other disease in 18 and undetermined in 6. The sensitivities of ultrasound and CT were 81% and 94%, respectively, and their specificities were 79% and 83%, respectively. Of the 10 false negatives on ultrasound, seven corresponded to cases of simple diverticulitis and three to cases of complicated diverticulitis (two in patients with abscess and one in a patient with pneumoperitoneum). CT provided the correct diagnosis in eight of these cases, and resulted in false negatives in two cases of mild diverticulitis. Ultrasound is a valid test in the initial diagnosis of acute diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. CT should be performed when ultrasound fails to provide a diagnosis or in cases of negative results when there is a strong clinical suspicion of diverticulitis, as well as when the possibility of complicated diverticulitis exists. (Author) 14 refs

  13. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  14. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  15. The Ombudperson Initiative Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Laura Stewart

    Following many discussions that took place at some of the ATLAS Women's Network lunch gatherings, a few ATLAS women joined forces with similarly concerned CERN staff women to form a small group last Fall to discuss the need for a CERN-wide Ombudsperson. This has since evolved into the Ombudsperson Initiative Group (OIG) currently composed of the following members: Barbro Asman, Stockholm University; Pierre Charrue, CERN AB; Anna Cook, CERN IT; Catherine Delamare, CERN and IT Ombudsperson; Paula Eerola, Lund University; Pauline Gagnon, Indiana University; Eugenia Hatziangeli, CERN AB; Doreen Klem, CERN IT; Bertrand Nicquevert, CERN TS and Laura Stewart, CERN AT. On June 12, members of the OIG met with representatives of Human Resources (HR) and the Equal Opportunity Advisory Panel (EOAP) to discuss the proposal drafted by the OIG. The meeting was very positive. Everybody agreed that the current procedures at CERN applicable in the event of conflict required a thorough review, and that a professionnally trai...

  16. The climate technology initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Adam

    2000-01-01

    The CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) aims to promote those technologies which cause the minimum of harm to the environment: reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and supporting those countries most vulnerable to climate change are priorities. A strong case for cogeneration is made and it is pointed out that both the European Union and the USA aim to double their cogeneration capacity by 2010. The CTI holds training courses and seminars all over the world where the barriers to the expansion of climate-friendly technology are discussed. The article also mentions the CTI Co-operation Technology Implementation Plan, research and development, its website and search engine, its presence at all UNFCCC events and its awards programme

  17. Initial brain aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten; Yokota, Takashi; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Brain aging is accompanied by declining mitochondrial respiration. We hypothesized that mitochondrial morphology and dynamics would reflect this decline. Using hippocampus and frontal cortex of a segmental progeroid mouse model lacking Cockayne syndrome protein B (CSBm/m) and C57Bl/6 (WT) controls...... and comparing young (2–5 months) to middle-aged mice (13–14 months), we found that complex I-linked state 3 respiration (CI) was reduced at middle age in CSBm/m hippocampus, but not in CSBm/m cortex or WT brain. In hippocampus of both genotypes, mitochondrial size heterogeneity increased with age. Notably...... content was lower, and hypoxia-induced factor 1α mRNA was greater at both ages in CSBm/m compared to WT brain. Our findings show that decreased CI and increased mitochondrial size heterogeneity are highly associated and point to declining mitochondrial quality control as an initial event in brain aging....

  18. Evaluation Program initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Department of Energy's (DOE) safeguards and security community with some insights on an important management initiative by the Office of Security Evaluations (OSE). The paper will present the ''what, where, who, when, and why'' of a new Evaluation Program. The Evaluation Program will be comprised of a continuing series of regular and special evaluations of DOE safeguards and security programs and policies. The evaluations will be integrative and ''crosscutting,'' i.e. will extend across DOE organizational lines. Evaluations will be offered as positive advisories to DOE managers with safeguards and security responsibilities and will not be rated. They will complement the ongoing OSE Inspection Program of inspections conducted by OSE's Inspection Division. The purpose for the evaluations is to establish an accurate and current assessment of the effectiveness and status of safeguards and security programs and policies and to provide DOE managers with required information on program and policy effectiveness

  19. Green Power Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Patrick Barry [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2013-01-28

    National energy policy supports the gathering of more detailed and authoritative data on the introduction of renewable bio-based fuels into new and existing district energy systems via the application of biomass gasification. The University of Iowa developed a biomass-fueled, university-scale steam generation system based on biomass gasification technologies. The system serves as a state-of-the-art research and educational facility in the emerging application of gasification in steam generation. The facility, which includes a smaller down-draft gasifier and a larger multi-stage biomass boiler, was designed to operate primarily on wood-based fuels, but has provisions for testing other biomass fuel sources produced within a 100-mile radius, providing enough flexibility to meet the fluctuating local supply of biomass from industry and Midwest agriculture. The equipment was installed in an existing, staffed facility. The down-draft gasifier unit is operated by College of Engineering staff and students, under the direct technical supervision of qualified Utilities plant staff. The Green Power Initiative also includes a substantial, innovative educational component. In addition to an onsite, graduate-level research program in biomass fuels, the investigators have integrated undergraduate and graduate level teaching – through classroom studies and experiential learning – and applied research into a biomass-based, university-scale, functioning power plant. University of Iowa is unique in that it currently has multiple renewable energy technologies deployed, including significant biomass combustion (oat hulls) at its Main Power Plant and a new reciprocating engine based renewable district energy system. This project complements and supports the national energy policy and State of Iowa initiatives in ethanol and biodiesel. Byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel processes (distiller grains) as well as industry residues (oat hulls, wood chips, construction and demolition

  20. A Plant Phytosulfokine Peptide Initiates Auxin-Dependent Immunity through Cytosolic Ca2+ Signaling in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Hu, Zhangjian; Lei, Cui; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Jiao; Shao, Shujun; Li, Xin; Xia, Xiaojian; Cai, Xinzhong; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Foyer, Christine H; Shi, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that is an important signaling molecule. Although it has recently been implicated in plant defenses to pathogen infection, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Using surface plasmon resonance and gene silencing approaches, we showed that the tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) PSK receptor PSKR1, rather than PSKR2, functioned as the major PSK receptor in immune responses. Silencing of PSK signaling genes rendered tomato more susceptible to infection by the economically important necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea Analysis of tomato mutants defective in either defense hormone biosynthesis or signaling demonstrated that PSK-induced immunity required auxin biosynthesis and associated defense pathways. Here, using aequorin-expressing tomato plants, we provide evidence that PSK perception by tomato PSKR1 elevated cytosolic [Ca 2+ ], leading to auxin-dependent immune responses via enhanced binding activity between calmodulins and the auxin biosynthetic YUCs. Thus, our data demonstrate that PSK acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern and is perceived mainly by PSKR1, which increases cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] and activates auxin-mediated pathways that enhance immunity of tomato plants to B. cinerea . © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  2. Initial Egyptian ECMO experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Abdelbary

    2016-04-01

    Results: A total of twelve patients received ECMO between January 2014 and June 2015. The mean age was 35.9 years. (range 13–65 years, 8 males, with VV ECMO in 10 patients, and VA ECMO in 2 patients. Out of ten patients of VV ECMO, one had H1N1 pneumonia, one had advanced vasculitic lung, four had bacterial pneumonia, two traumatic lung contusions and one with organophosphorus poisoning, and one undiagnosed etiology leading to severe ARDS. Lung injury score range was 3–3.8, PaO2/FiO2 (20–76 mechanical ventilation duration before ECMO 1–14 days, Femoro-jugular cannulation in 7 patients and femoro-femoral in 2 patients and femoro-subclavian in 1 patient; all patients were initially sedated and paralyzed for (2–4 days and ventilated on pressure controlled ventilation with Pmax of 25 cm H2O and PEEP of 10 cm H2O. In VA ECMO patients were cannulated percutaneously using femoro-femoral approach. One patient showed no neurologic recovery and died after 24 h, the other had CABG on ECMO however the heart didn’t recover and died after 9 days. Heparin intravenous infusion was used initially in all patients and changed to Bivalirudin in 2 patients due to possible HIT. Pump flow ranged from 2.6 to 6.5 L/min. Average support time was 12 days (range 2–24 days. Seven patients (63.3% were successfully separated from ECMO and survived to hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay ranged from 3 to 42 days, tracheostomy was done percutaneously in 5 patients and surgically in 3. Gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 6 patients, VAP in 7 patients, neurologic complications in 1 patient with complete recovery, cardiac arrhythmias in 3 patients, pneumothorax in 9 patients, and deep venous thrombosis in 2 patients.

  3. Reflexiones iniciales = Initial Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Romanos de Tiratel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se establece el significado de los sustantivos que forman el título de la revista: información, cultura y sociedad. Luego se reflexiona sobre la significación e importancia que tiene la creación de una revista especializada para el Instituto de Investigaciones Bibliotecológicas de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires y se delinean sus principales características. Para finalizar se presentan los artículos del fascículo inicial y se agradece a personas e instituciones que posibilitaron la publicación de la revista = The editor provides the meaning of nouns that form the title of the journal: information, culture and society. Then she reflects on the significance and importance of creating a scientific journal for the Instituto de Investigaciones Bibliotecológicas at the Facultad de Filosofía y Letras at the Universidad de Buenos Aires and outlines its main features. In the end, she presents the articles making up the initial issue and thanked individuals and institutions that made possible the publication of the journal

  4. Moon-Mars Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    On 27 May, the AGU Council unanimously adopted a position statement on NASA's strategic plan released in February 2005:: "A New Age of Exploration: NASA's Direction for 2005 and Beyond". This strategy incorporates U.S. President Bush's vision for manned space flight to Moon and Mars as described in "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration" announced in January 2004. The statement was drafted by a panel chaired by Eric Barron of Penn State University. AGU calls for the U.S. Administration, Congress, and NASA to continue their commitment to innovative Earth and space science programs. This commitment has placed the U.S. in an international leadership position. It enables environmental stewardship, promotes economic vitality, engages the next generation of scientists and engineers, protects life and property, and fosters exploration. It is, however, threatened by new financial demands placed on NASA by the return to human space flight using the space shuttle, finishing the space station, and launching the Moon-Mars initiative.

  5. ALOS-2 initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  6. The new childcare initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    Cigdem Issever

    The ATLAS Women's Network recently sent out a general mailing to all ATLAS and CMS members to announce a new initiative aimed at improving childcare facilities for Users coming to CERN. Several people have expressed the need that CERN should provide or facilitate affordable day care for children of temporary visitors at CERN. The ATLAS Women's Network is now forming a child care task force from concerned people and invites all those interested to join this effort. You can do so by either adding your name to the mailing list cern-users-childcare@cern.ch in Simba or by contacting Cigdem.Issever@cern.NOSPAM.ch and Pauline.Gagnon@cern.NOSPAM.ch. More than 50 people have already joined this effort. Those who have joined the mailing list will soon receive all the details about the next conference call meeting which has been scheduled for Thursday October 25th from 16:30 to 18:00 CERN time. The preliminary agenda is the following: Summary of our first contact of ATLAS and CMS (5 min) Discussion about the co-conv...

  7. AECL's new environmental initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    AECL's research and development expenditures in environmental sciences and waste management technology are about $50 M per year. The main focus of these programs is the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. This research is supplemented by activities in support of laboratory, Environmental Authority and internal waste management requirements, as well as provision of non-nuclear services. AECL intends to become more involved in performing environmental research and development with broader application. The goal is to achieve a relationship with Canadian industry that would involve a substantial portion of AECL's environmental research capabilities. The research directions and priorities of the resulting partnership would be set by the private sector in accordance with their needs and requirements. It is expected that the activities associated with this new environmental initiative will start small and grow in response to perceived needs. AECL is now increasing its non-nuclear research efforts by targeting those markets that appear most attractive. The thrust can be divided into three broad categories: environmental research, environmental services, and environmental products. (Author)

  8. Achados histeroscópicos em mulheres na pós-menopausa com diagnóstico de espessamento endometrial por ultra-sonografia transvaginal Hysteroscopic findings in postmenopausal women with endometrial thickening diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bittencourt Campaner

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: correlacionar espessamento endometrial diagnosticado por ultra-sonografia com os achados histeroscópicos, em mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: foi realizado estudo transversal com avaliação histeroscópica em 121 mulheres na pós-menopausa, com diagnóstico de espessamento do endométrio por ultra-sonografia transvaginal. Das pacientes incluídas, 23 (19% recebiam diferentes esquemas de hormonioterapia e 98 não referiam uso de reposição hormnonal.; 55 pacientes queixavam-se de sangramento por via vaginal e as restantes apresentavam-se sem esta condição. Os exames endoscópicos foram realizados ambulatorialmente, utilizando-se histeroscópio rígido de 4 mm. Para a distensão da cavidade uterina empregou-se gás carbônico (CO2. Biópsia foi praticada em todas as pacientes, com auxílio de cureta tipo Novak, de 3 mm, e o material obtido submetido a estudo histopatológico. RESULTADOS: a espessura do endométrio variou entre 6 e 38 mm, com média de 10,7 ± 5,3 mm. Os achados histeroscópicos foram: lesão polipóide, em 51 pacientes (42,1%; endométrio atrófico, em 15 (12,4%; sinéquia senil, em 15 (12,4%; espessamento focal, em 13 (10,7%; lesão cerebróide, em 6 (5,0%; endométrio proliferativo, em 5 (4,1%; muco, em 5 (4,1%; mioma, em 4 (3,3%; endométrio secretor, em 3 (2,5%; hiperplasia endometrial, em 3 (2,5% e atrofia cística, em 1 (0,8%. Observou-se correlação entre os achados histeroscópicos e os resultados da histopatologia em 30 dos 51 casos de pólipo, em 12 dos 15 de endométrio atrófico e na totalidade dos casos sugestivos de hiperplasia endometrial e de adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSÃO: na maioria das pacientes, o exame histeroscópico revelou que não se tratava de real espessamento endometrial, mas sim de outras variedades de lesão da cavidade uterina.PURPOSE: to correlate endometrial thickening diagnosed by ultrasonography with hysteroscopic findings in postmenopausal women. METHODS: a transversal study

  9. European nuclear education initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Whatever option regarding their future nuclear energy development is chosen by European Union Member States, the availability of a sufficient number of well trained and experienced staff is key for the responsible use of nuclear energy. This is true in all areas including design, construction, operation, decommissioning, fuel cycle and waste management as well as radiation protection. Given the high average age of existing experts leading to a significant retirement induce a real risk of the loss of nuclear competencies in the coming years. Therefore the demand of hiring skilled employees is rising. The challenge of ensuring a sufficient number of qualified staff in the nuclear sector has been acknowledged widely among the different stakeholders, in particular the nuclear industry, national regulatory authorities and Technical Support Organisations (TSOs). Already the EURATOM Treaty refers explicitly to the obligation for the Commission to carry out training actions. Recently initiatives have been launched at EU level to facilitate and strengthen the efforts of national stakeholders. The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association aims at preservation and further development of expertise in the nuclear field by higher education and training. The goal of the European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy (ENELA) is to educate future leaders in the nuclear field to ensure the further development of sustainable European nuclear energy solutions The European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF) is a platform operated by the European Commission for a broad discussion on the opportunities and risks of nuclear energy. The nuclear programs under investigation in the Joint Research Center (JRC) are increasingly contributing to Education and Training (E and T) initiatives, promoting a better cooperation between key players and universities as well as operators and regulatory bodies in order to mutually optimise their training programmes. Another objective is to increase

  10. Initial Cladding Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the condition of commercial Zircaloy clad fuel as it is received at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site. Most commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. This analysis is developed to describe cladding degradation from the expected failure modes. This includes reactor operation impacts including incipient failures, potential degradation after reactor operation during spent fuel storage in pool and dry storage and impacts due to transportation. Degradation modes include cladding creep, and delayed hydride cracking during dry storage and transportation. Mechanical stresses from fuel handling and transportation vibrations are also included. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) does not address any potential damage to assemblies that might occur at the YMP surface facilities. Ranges and uncertainties have been defined. This analysis will be the initial boundary condition for the analysis of cladding degradation inside the repository. In accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning'', a work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000c) was developed, issued, and utilized in the preparation of this document. There are constraints, caveats and limitations to this analysis. This cladding degradation analysis is based on commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel with Zircaloy cladding but is applicable to Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel. Reactor operating experience for both PWRs and BWRs is used to establish fuel reliability from reactor operation. It is limited to fuel exposed to normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences (i.e. events which are anticipated to occur within a reactor lifetime), and not to fuel that has been exposed to severe accidents. Fuel burnup projections have been limited to the current commercial reactor licensing environment with restrictions on fuel enrichment, oxide coating thickness and rod plenum pressures. The information provided in this analysis will be used in

  11. The MEGAPIE Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatores, M. [CEA Cadarache (France); Bauer, G.S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (Switzerland); Heusener, G. [Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    MEGAPIE (Megawatt Pilot Experiment) is a joint initiative by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), France, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Germany, and Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland, to design, build, operate and explore a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target for 1MW of beam power, taking advantage of the existing spallation neutron facility SINQ at PSI. Such a target based on an eutectic mixture with a melting point as low as 125 {sup o}C and a boiling point as high as 1670 {sup o}C is the preferred concept in several studies aiming at utilising accelerators to drive subcritical assemblies in order to transmute long lived nuclear waste into shorter lived isotopes in an effort to ease problems of long term storage and final disposal. MEGAPIE will be an essential step towards demonstrating the feasibility of the coupling of a high power accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical assembly. It will specifically address one of the most critical issues, namely the behaviour of a liquid metal target under realistic operating conditions. As an intensely instrumented pilot experiment it will provide valuable data for benchmarking of frequently used computer codes and will allow to gain important experience in the safe handling of components that have been irradiated with PbBi. It will be installed at the ring cyclotron at PSI with 590 MeV proton energy and a continuous current of 1.8 mA. The basic concept of the MEGAPIE target as well as the definition of the project phases and of the supporting research and development activities at the participating laboratories are described in the present report.

  12. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  13. National Take-Back Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physicians Drug Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices ... Physicians Drug Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices ...

  14. Nursing Facility Initiative Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This annual report summarizes impacts from the Initiative to Reduce Avoidable Hospitalizations among Nursing Facility Residents in 2014. This initiative is designed...

  15. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  16. Evaluation of the selective pressure and of the addition of lyophilized bacteria like alternative of improvement of a seed of raw activated mud thickened for the outburst of reactors UASB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra C, Jorge H; Saldarriaga M, Julio C

    2001-01-01

    A sample of thickened activated sludge, from El Retiro sewage treatment plant, was acclimated under anaerobic conditions in a batch reactor. Two types of treatment were tested to check effectiveness in the start up time and granule formation. This would enhance the anaerobic treatment technology for UASB (up flow anaerobic sludge blanket) systems. Three UASB pilot reactors were used, with 7,6 I capacity each: a control reactor inoculated with acclimated sludge; a reactor inoculated with acclimated sludge to which lyophilised bacteria were added; and a reactor inoculated with acclimated sludge that was previously run under selective pressure mode. The substrate used was prepared with brown sugar to render a solution with a DQO of 800 mg/1. It was always necessary to add sodium bicarbonate (1 g/ l feed) for alkalinity control. Reactors operated under different decreasing hydraulic retention times. This was aimed at accelerating system acclimation. Applied up flow rates gradually varied from 0,1 m/h to 0,42 m/h. It was observed that, when the relative rate was increased, organic load dramatically increased, the system went out of equilibrium; when this latter condition was reached it was not possible to restore it. In that situation DQO removal fell from 75 to 28% (control), 18% (lyophilised) and 26% (washed), values that increased to 39% (control), 43% (Lyophilises) and 40% (washed) at the end of the experimentation period, which reveals some recuperation

  17. Crustal shortening and thickening in Neoarchean granite-greenstone belts: A case study from the link between the ∼2.7 Ga Elu and Hope Bay belts, northeast Slave craton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvondo, Hubert; Lentz, Dave; Bardoux, Marc

    2017-11-01

    The Elu Link between the ∼2.7 Ga Hope Bay and Elu belts in the northeast Bathurst Block of the Slave craton comprises supracrustal and intrusive rocks variably deformed by three tectono-metamorphic events (D1-D3). The geometry of D1 structures formed during prograde metamorphism is uncertain, because of subsequent overprint. D2 occurred in two stages predating (D2a) and postdating (D2b) peak metamorphism. D1 and D2a were thrusting events inferred from peak metamorphic pressures of ∼6.7 kbar (670 MPa) retained by a garnet orthogneiss. The latter is diagnostic of thrust tectonism in Archean granite-greenstone belts with no characteristic thrust faults. Unlike D2a, D2b was a vertical general flattening event prevailing during the formation of magmatic domes and interdomal folds that form the main strain patterns of the belts. This was followed by the formation of buckled F3 folds associated with D3 vertical constriction. The switch from thrust to vertical tectonics during peak metamorphism and subsequent deformation resulted in intense recrystallization that explains the poor preservation and scarcity of early-formed shears, including thrust zones. A tectonic process, combining D1+D2a thrust stacking, sagduction, and vertical stretching during D2b and D3, is suggested to explain crustal thickening in the Elu Link and terrains of similar ages.

  18. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  19. Inflation with generalized initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Matzner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In many current models of the early Universe a scalar field phi which is only very weakly coupled to other quantum fields is used to generate inflation. In such models there are no forces which could thermalize the scalar field, and previous assumptions about its preinflation ''initial'' conditions must be abandoned. In this paper the onset of inflation is studied classically for more general initial conditions of the scalar field configuration. In particular, initial conditions with a nonvanishing spatial average of phi, with phi chosen at random in each initial horizon volume, and with random initial momenta are considered. We identify and discuss several mechanisms that can drive these more general initial conditions toward an inflationary state. The analysis is done in one spatial dimension

  20. EXPERIENCES WITH IDEA PROMOTING INITIATIVES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv

    2011-01-01

    In new product development a central activity is to provide new ideas. Over the last decades experiences with stimulating employee creativity and establishing idea promoting initiatives have been made in industrial practice. Such initiatives are often labeled Idea Management – a research field...... with a growing interest. In this paper I examine three different idea promoting initiatives carried out in Grundfos, a leading pump manufacturer. In the analysis I address what understandings of idea work are inscribed in the initiatives and what role these initiatives play in the organization with respect...... to idea work. Furthermore I look into what makes these initiatives ‘work’ or ‘not work’. The analysis builds on an in-depth case study made in Grundfos based on 40 interviews with R&D professionals and managers. The managerial implications of the study are that managers should be aware of what...

  1. Funding Initiatives | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Funding Initiatives. Women Scientists Fellowship Scheme (WOS - B). The Fellowship Scheme for Women Scientists for societal programmes is initiative of the Department of Science & Technology. This scheme is addressed to women scientists and technologists who have “break in their careers” due to social ...

  2. Distributed Pyro Initiation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Evaluate Current State of the Art; Define Critical Performance Requirements; Select Components; Smart Initiator or Smart Connector; Perform Detailed Cost/Benefit...

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pseudoplastic paint thickener (hydroxyethyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The fungal isolate was identified as Aspergillus niger which showed a DNA monomorphism of 86% to A. niger ATCC 16404 by RAPD. A Plackett–Burman design was performed to determine the factors influencing endoglucanase activity.

  4. Waterflooding process using mucilage gum thickeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummus, J.L.

    1967-08-29

    According to the described process, the viscosity of water in a water drive can be increased with a mucilage gum derived from flax meal. This substance has less tendency to be absorbed on clay surfaces than some high molecular weight polymers that have been studied. The water-extracted flax gum can be deactivated with clay to remove the absorbable fraction and the residual solution be used for the ''pusher flood.'' This is said to avoid decreasing permeability around the well bore and keep the solution in contact with the oil at essentially the same viscosity as the injected fluid. (7 claims)

  5. CT appearance of thickened nerves in neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneman, A.; Mancer, K.; Sonley, M.

    1983-11-01

    In neutrofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen disease), peripheral nerves may develop enlarged diameters or focal fusiform enlargement due to neurofibromatous involvement. Their appearance on computed tomography (CT) forms the basis of this report.

  6. Thickening compositions, and related materials and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Michael Joseph; Perry, Robert James; Enick, Robert Michael; Lee, Jason Jiwoo

    2017-10-03

    A silicone polymer is provided, modified with at least one functional group from the class of anthraquinone amide groups; anthraquinone sulfonamide groups; thioxanthone amide groups; or thioxanthone sulfone amide groups. The polymer can be combined with a hydrocarbon solvent or with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), and is very effective for increasing the viscosity of either medium. A process for the recovery of oil from a subterranean, oil-bearing formation is also described, using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with the functionalized silicone polymer. A process for extracting natural gas or oil from a bedrock-shale formation is also described, again using the modified silicone polymer.

  7. 25-year old male with pleural thickening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuja Abhilasha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of some of the adenocarcinomas is virtually identical to that of ma-lignant mesothelioma, also known as pseudomesotheliomatous adenocarcinoma of lung. Their differentiation on the basis of histopathology can pose diagnostic difficulties; hence immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy may be required for further differentiation.

  8. Student initiative: A conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the description and scientific consideration of the attitude of children and youth towards their education and development, the concept of student initiative has been gaining ground lately, and it is hence the subject of analysis in this paper. The analysis is important because of the discrepancy between the increased efforts of the key educational policy holders to promote the idea about the importance of the development of student initiative and rare acceptance of this idea among theoreticians, researchers and practitioners dealing with the education and development of children and youth. By concretising the features of initiative student behaviour, our aim was, on the one hand, to observe the structural determinants and scientific status of the very concept of an initiative student, and, on the other, to contribute to the understanding of the initiative behaviour in practice. In the first part of the paper we deal with different notions and concretisations of the features of initiative behaviour of children and youth, which includes the consideration of: basic student initiative, academic student initiative, individual student initiative, the capacity for initiative and personal development initiative. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the relations of the concept of student initiative with the similar general concepts (activity/passivity, proactivity, agency and the concepts immediately related to school environment (student involvement, student participation. The results of our analysis indicate that the concept of student initiative has: particular features that differentiate it from similar concepts; the potential to reach the status of a scientific concept, bearing in mind the initial empirical specifications and general empirical verifiability of the yet unverified determinants of the concept. In the concluding part of the paper, we discuss the implications of the conceptual analysis for further research, as well as for

  9. Behavioral Initiatives in Broad Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This booklet is a technical assistance sampler addressing the issues of student misbehavior, discipline problems, and behavioral initiatives. The term behavioral initiative is defined, disciplining children with disabilities is discussed, and a cautionary note concerning ignoring students' reasons for misbehavior is presented. A brief entitled…

  10. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (referred to as the Initiative in this report), which became law in 2005, brings together community colleges, K-12 school districts, employers, organized…

  11. Initial conditions for chaotic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.; Kung, J.; Feldman, H.

    1991-01-01

    In contrast to many other inflationary Universe models, chaotic inflation does not depend on fine tuning initial conditions. Within the context of linear perturbation theory, it is shown that chaotic inflation is stable towards both metric and matter perturbations. Neglecting gravitational perturbations, it is shown that chaotic inflation is an attractor in initial condition space. (orig.)

  12. Heat fluctuations and initial ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Kwon, Chulan; Park, Hyunggyu

    2014-09-01

    Time-integrated quantities such as work and heat increase incessantly in time during nonequilibrium processes near steady states. In the long-time limit, the average values of work and heat become asymptotically equivalent to each other, since they only differ by a finite energy change in average. However, the fluctuation theorem (FT) for the heat is found not to hold with the equilibrium initial ensemble, while the FT for the work holds. This reveals an intriguing effect of everlasting initial memory stored in rare events. We revisit the problem of a Brownian particle in a harmonic potential dragged with a constant velocity, which is in contact with a thermal reservoir. The heat and work fluctuations are investigated with initial Boltzmann ensembles at temperatures generally different from the reservoir temperature. We find that, in the infinite-time limit, the FT for the work is fully recovered for arbitrary initial temperatures, while the heat fluctuations significantly deviate from the FT characteristics except for the infinite initial-temperature limit (a uniform initial ensemble). Furthermore, we succeed in calculating finite-time corrections to the heat and work distributions analytically, using the modified saddle point integral method recently developed by us. Interestingly, we find noncommutativity between the infinite-time limit and the infinite-initial-temperature limit for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the heat.

  13. Stochastic dynamics of cancer initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jasmine; Leder, Kevin; Michor, Franziska

    2011-02-01

    Most human cancer types result from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations in a single cell. Once the first change (or changes) have arisen, tumorigenesis is initiated and the subsequent emergence of additional alterations drives progression to more aggressive and ultimately invasive phenotypes. Elucidation of the dynamics of cancer initiation is of importance for an understanding of tumor evolution and cancer incidence data. In this paper, we develop a novel mathematical framework to study the processes of cancer initiation. Cells at risk of accumulating oncogenic mutations are organized into small compartments of cells and proliferate according to a stochastic process. During each cell division, an (epi)genetic alteration may arise which leads to a random fitness change, drawn from a probability distribution. Cancer is initiated when a cell gains a fitness sufficiently high to escape from the homeostatic mechanisms of the cell compartment. To investigate cancer initiation during a human lifetime, a 'race' between this fitness process and the aging process of the patient is considered; the latter is modeled as a second stochastic Markov process in an aging dimension. This model allows us to investigate the dynamics of cancer initiation and its dependence on the mutational fitness distribution. Our framework also provides a methodology to assess the effects of different life expectancy distributions on lifetime cancer incidence. We apply this methodology to colorectal tumorigenesis while considering life expectancy data of the US population to inform the dynamics of the aging process. We study how the probability of cancer initiation prior to death, the time until cancer initiation, and the mutational profile of the cancer-initiating cell depends on the shape of the mutational fitness distribution and life expectancy of the population.

  14. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    is to provide a systematic analysis of the spectrum of these initiatives in Europe in terms of patterns of organisation, participants, resources, problems, and landscape values addressed. This review collects examples of integrated landscape initiatives from all over Europe through systematic internet key word...... (acting in multifunctional landscapes and combining different objectives), the involvement and coordination of different sectors and stakeholders at many levels, and the role as agents of awareness raising and learning hubs. Integrated landscape initiatives mainly depend on impulses of local civil society...

  15. Self-initiated expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we examine self-initiated expatriate academics. Universities are to an increasing extent looking for talent beyond national boundaries. Accordingly, self-initiated expatriate academics represent a fast growing group of highly educated professionals who gain employment abroad....... Nonetheless, little research has focused on this group. We investigate if personal characteristics such as age, gender, marital status and seniority affect work outcomes such as work adjustment, work performance, work effectiveness, job satisfaction and time to proficiency. This is done by using data which...... were collected from 428 self-initiated expatriate academics from 60 countries employed in 35 universities in five northern European countries. Results confirm that there are differences in terms of work outcomes among the different types of self-initiated expatriate academics, especially regarding...

  16. Smart roadside initiative : user manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document provides the user instructions for the Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) applications including : mobile and web-based SRI applications. These applications include smartphone-enabled information : exchange and notification, and software c...

  17. The Luxembourg Space Resources Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, M.

    2017-09-01

    This keynote talk by M. Link from the Directorate of ICT and Space Affairs, Ministry of the Economy, The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, will provide an overview of Luxembourg's ins-space resource utilization initiative.

  18. FY 10 Multifamily Initial Endorsements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In FY 2010, HUD's Multifamily's 18 Hubs initially endorsed 1011 loans totaling $11.3 billion and providing 170,672 units/ beds. FY 10's $11.3 billion is the highest...

  19. Research Development Techniques and Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barry

    1986-01-01

    The growth and development of research activities at a state psychiatric research and training institute while under the new management of a local medical school is described, and specific techniques and initiatives to enhance research are outlined. (MSE)

  20. Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim-Mitchell, Elena

    2005-01-01

    .... In terms of manpower, the initiative aims at deploying 75,000 peace support operations (PSO) troops worldwide over the next 5 years, primarily to Africa, but also to Latin America, Europe, and Asia...

  1. Jet initiation of PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAfee, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report details the progress of an effort to determine the quantitative aspects of the initiation of PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F 800) by copper jets. The particular jet used was that produced by the LAW warhead (66-mm diameter, 42/sup 0/ angle cone, copper-lined, conical shaped charge). Fifteen experiments, in various configurations, have been fired to define the essential parameters for quantitatively measuring the jet performance and initiation of bare PBX 9502. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Improving biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) using a dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic semi-continuous reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaralleh, Rania Mona; Kennedy, Kevin; Delatolla, Robert

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility and advantages of using a dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic semi-continuous reactor system for the co-digestion of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge (TWAS) and Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) to produce biogas in high quantity and quality. The performance of the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic (70°C)/thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic co-digestion system is evaluated and compared to the performance of a single-stage thermophilic (55°C) reactor that was used to co-digest the same FOG-TWAS mixtures. Both co-digestion reactors were compared to a control reactor (the control reactor was a single-stage thermophilic reactor that only digested TWAS). The effect of FOG% in the co-digestion mixture (based on total volatile solids) and the reactor hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the biogas/methane production and the reactors' performance were thoroughly investigated. The FOG% that led to the maximum methane yield with a stable reactor performance was determined for both reactors. The maximum FOG% obtained for the single-stage thermophilic reactor at 15 days HRT was found to be 65%. This 65% FOG resulted in 88.3% higher methane yield compared to the control reactor. However, the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic co-digestion reactor proved to be more efficient than the single-stage thermophilic co-digestion reactor, as it was able to digest up to 70% FOG with a stable reactor performance. The 70% FOG in the co-digestion mixture resulted in 148.2% higher methane yield compared to the control at 15 days HRT. 70% FOG (based on total volatile solids) is so far the highest FOG% that has been proved to be useful and safe for semi-continuous reactor application in the open literature. Finally, the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic co-digestion reactor also proved to be efficient and stable in co-digesting 40% FOG mixtures at lower HRTs (i.e., 9 and 12 days) and still produce high methane yields and Class A effluents

  3. Comparison of radiographic joint space width and magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of knee replacement: A longitudinal case-control study from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Felix; Wirth, Wolfgang; Cotofana, Sebastian [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg Austria and Chondrometrics GmbH, Institute of Anatomy, Ainring (Germany); Boudreau, Robert [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Zhijie; Hannon, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh and Pittsburgh VAHS, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Duryea, Jeff [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), LLC, Boston, MA (United States); Roemer, Frank [Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), LLC, Boston, MA (United States); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Nevitt, Michael [OAI Coordinating Ctr., UCSF, San Francisco, CA (United States); John, Markus R. [Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Ladel, Christoph [Merck KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany); Sharma, Leena [Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Hunter, David J. [University Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital and Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kwoh, C.K. [University of Arizona, Division of Rheumatology and the University of Arizona Arthritis Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Collaboration: OAI Investigators

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate whether change in fixed-location measures of radiographic joint space width (JSW) and cartilage thickness by MRI predict knee replacement. Knees replaced between 36 and 60 months' follow-up in the Osteoarthritis Initiative were each matched with one control by age, sex and radiographic status. Radiographic JSW was determined from fixed flexion radiographs and subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness from 3 T MRI. Changes between the annual visit before replacement (T{sub 0}) and 2 years before T{sub 0} (T{sub -2}) were compared using conditional logistic regression. One hundred and nineteen knees from 102 participants (55.5 % women; age 64.2 ± 8.7 [mean ± SD] years) were studied. Fixed-location JSW change at 22.5 % from medial to lateral differed more between replaced and control knees (case-control [cc] OR = 1.57; 95 % CI: 1.23-2.01) than minimum medial JSW change (ccOR = 1.38; 95 % CI: 1.11-1.71). Medial femorotibial cartilage loss displayed discrimination similar to minimum JSW, and central tibial cartilage loss similar to fixed-location JSW. Location-independent thinning and thickening scores were elevated prior to knee replacement. Discrimination of structural progression between knee pre-placement cases versus controls was stronger for fixed-location than minimum radiographic JSW. MRI displayed similar discrimination to radiography and suggested greater simultaneous cartilage thickening and loss prior to knee replacement. (orig.)

  4. Diabatic initialization using recursive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Huang, Xiang-Yu

    1994-10-01

    Several initialization schemes based on recursive filters are formulated and tested with a numerical weather prediction model, HIRLAM. These have an advantage over schemes which use non-recursive filters in that they derive the initialized values from a diabatic trajectory passing through the original analysis. The changes to the analysed fields are comparable in size to typical observational errors. A non-recursive implementation of the recursive filters makes the new initialization schemes as easy to use as the original non-recursive filter schemes. It also allows use of higher-order filters without added cost. An initialization method using a 6th order filter is compared to a scheme based on an non-recursive optimal filter, and is found to produce similar results for less than half the computational cost. If the sole aim is noise suppression, a filter whose output validates later than the initial time may be used. The advantage of this is that computation time is further reduced and phase error completely eliminated.

  5. Resistances et initiatives a Madagascar (Resistance and Initiatives in Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Claude

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the cultural, political, and institutional barriers to population education in Madagascar and the strategies and initiatives that have been adopted to overcome them, including emphasizing the national character of a project, accommodating the values and ideals of the people involved, and assuring teachers of their classroom autonomy.…

  6. Marketing of initial public offering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić-Mihajlov Ksenija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial public offering offers the ability to obtain additional capital through the mechanism of the primary capital market and represents an important milestone in the life-cycle of privately-held corporations. The value and the number of realized IPO transactions at the global level are increasing. At the same time, due to IPO underpricing problem, the companies that are going public fail to collect requested amount of capital to fund future growth. Given the limited importance granted to marketing, and especially promotion, in the theory and practice in the process of evaluating and trading securities, the author addresses two subjects in this paper. Firstly, the author emphasizes the importance of defining and implementing appropriate marketing strategies in the initial public offering process, and secondly, discusses the impact of marketing expenditures in various instruments to reduce IPO underpricing and create value for shareholders of the company that is going public through the initial public offering.

  7. Initiation of HIV Reverse Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Marquet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes into double stranded DNA is a key event for viral replication. The very first stage of HIV reverse transcription, the initiation step, involves viral and cellular partners that are selectively packaged into the viral particle, leading to an RNA/protein complex with very specific structural and functional features, some of which being, in the case of HIV-1, linked to particular isolates. Recent understanding of the tight spatio-temporal regulation of reverse transcription and its importance for viral infectivity further points toward reverse transcription and potentially its initiation step as an important drug target.

  8. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF A GEL FORMER (THICKENER TYPE ON THE SORBTION KINETIC OF LONG-LIVING RADIONUCLIDES AND HEAVY METALS BY NATURAL ZELOLITE PASTE FROM AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybachuk, V. D.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The deterioration of the population health, due to the chemicalization of many aspects of life, requires the development and introduction of new healing technologies. One of the modern areas of efferent therapy is the oral administration of sorbents. An alternative to solid dosage forms, in some acute cases, is using enterosorbents in the form of paste, but in the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market, the range of such medicines has only several positions. The promising sources for the creation of such medicines is the natural zeolite. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of a gel former (thickener type on the sorption kinetics of long-living 90Sr and 137Cs radionuclides and Pb2+ and Hg2+ heavy metals by natural zeolite paste from an aqueous solution in vitro. Materials and methods. As objects for the study we used experimental pastes containing 25% natural zeolite each and different gel formers: 7% silicon dioxide, 3% apple pectin and 0.5% sodium alginate. As sorption medium, we used solutions 7.25 mg/l Hg(NO32·H2O and 6.74 mg/l Pb(NO32 and radionuclide solutions 90Sr (1.8 × 107 Bq/dm3 and 137Cs (3.2 × 107 Bq/dm3. The sorption capacity for heavy metals was investigated by a limited volume method at pH = 2 and pH = 6. The concentration of lead was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (atomic absorption spectrophotometer C-115 PCS in a flame of acetylene-air (λ = 283.3 nm. The concentration of mercury was determined by the flame atomization method using mercury device PR-115 (λ = 253.7 nm. The sorption capacity of the samples against radionuclides was studied by the static sorption method at pH values 2.0, 5.5 and 8.0. The radioactivity were measured by a α-β-automaton NRR-610 "Tesla" radiometer. Concentration of ions and radioactivity of solutions were controlled after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours of experiment. The equilibrium capacity of sorbents coefficient (Aeq., mg/g, the coefficient of sorption (Ks

  9. Initial conditions for noncanonical inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franche, Paul; Underwood, Bret; Wissanji, Alisha; Gwyn, Rhiannon

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of homogeneous phase space for single-field models of inflation. Inflationary trajectories are formally attractors in phase space, but since in practice not all initial conditions lead to them, some degree of fine-tuning is required for successful inflation. We explore how the dynamics of noncanonical inflation, which is driven by the potential energy but has additional kinetic terms that are powers of the kinetic energy, can play a role in ameliorating the initial-conditions fine-tuning problem. We present an analysis of inflationary phase space based on the dynamical behavior of the scalar field. This allows us to construct the flow of trajectories, finding that they generically decay towards the inflationary solution at a steeper angle for noncanonical kinetic terms, in comparison to canonical kinetic terms, so that a larger fraction of the initial-conditions space leads to inflation. Thus, noncanonical kinetic terms can be important for removing the initial conditions fine-tuning problem of some small-field inflation models.

  10. Intelligent vehicle initiative : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) is embarking on a new program called the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The USDOT intends to jointly define the program plan and conduct the IVI in cooperation with the motor vehicle, trucking, and...

  11. Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…

  12. Research Award: Think Tank Initiative

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    achieve its mission, the Initiative provides organizations with a mix of long‐term general support grants. (core funding) and ... Research proposals should address one or more key dimensions of “success” for policy research organizations ... What is the nature of the applied research market in (some) developing countries?

  13. Smoking Initiation: Peers and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-S. Hsieh (Chih-Sheng); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSocial interactions are widely recognized to play an important role in smoking initiation among adolescents. In this paper we hypothesize that individual with `stronger' personalities (i.e. emotionally stable, conscientious individuals) are better able to resist peer pressure in the

  14. The Tourism Education Futures Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Schott, Christian; Daniele, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    . Simultaneously, rapid socio-cultural and economic changes are afoot, which are rendering the future increasingly uncertain. The jobs of today are markedly different from those of yesterday, and it seems certain that those of tomorrow will be different still. Students entering the tourism sector, with its high...... Futures Initiative (TEFI) was born....

  15. Big Data Initiatives for Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAL has developed a workspace for research groups associated with the i5k initiative, which aims to sequence the genomes of all insesct species known to be important to worldwide agriculture, food safety, medicine, and energy production; all those used as models in biology; the most abundant in worl...

  16. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  17. Nuclear materials facility safety initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peddicord, K.L.; Nelson, P.; Roundhill, M.; Jardine, L.J.; Lazarev, L.; Moshkov, M.; Khromov, V.V.; Kruchkov, E.; Bolyatko, V.; Kazanskij, Yu.; Vorobeva, I.; Lash, T.R.; Newton, D.; Harris, B.

    2000-01-01

    Safety in any facility in the nuclear fuel cycle is a fundamental goal. However, it is recognized that, for example, should an accident occur in either the U.S. or Russia, the results could seriously delay joint activities to store and disposition weapons fissile materials in both countries. To address this, plans are underway jointly to develop a nuclear materials facility safety initiative. The focus of the initiative would be to share expertise which would lead in improvements in safety and safe practices in the nuclear fuel cycle.The program has two components. The first is a lab-to-lab initiative. The second involves university-to-university collaboration.The lab-to-lab and university-to-university programs will contribute to increased safety in facilities dealing with nuclear materials and related processes. These programs will support important bilateral initiatives, develop the next generation of scientists and engineers which will deal with these challenges, and foster the development of a safety culture

  18. Initial heating in cold cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de

    2012-01-01

    During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating

  19. Initiatives | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of ...

  20. Russian Initiatives in Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of Russian initiatives concerning its participation in international system of Internet governance. In the research, conceptual and theoretic basis for participation of state governments in Internet governance is given, academic discourse of this issue is assessed, the review of main Russian initiatives made from 2005 (since the second stage of the World Summit on Information Society till the present day is carried out. The conclusion is made that the most successful Internet governance initiative of Russia is the implementation of cyrillic top level domains. Much less successful are Russian attempts to reconstruct existing organizational structure of Internet governance. Russian policy is assessed as a policy of preferring loud statements and PR rather than real influence on development of Internet technologies. Russia consideres Internet as political resource and tries to increase its influence on decision making process on a political, not operational level of Internet governance. The author states that federal government of the United States of America has fully lost the control on the domain name systems. These functions are going to be given to the private sector, while ICANN, which was established according to the Memorandum of Understanding/Joint Project Agreement with U.S. Department of Commerce, is becoming a truly independent international organization. Considering this, the author comes to the conclusion that political transformations for the sake of Russia are already made. He also forecast that next initiatives of Russia will be directed to the segmentation of the Internet.

  1. Vacuum type D initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso

    2016-09-01

    A vacuum type D initial data set is a vacuum initial data set of the Einstein field equations whose data development contains a region where the space–time is of Petrov type D. In this paper we give a systematic characterisation of a vacuum type D initial data set. By systematic we mean that the only quantities involved are those appearing in the vacuum constraints, namely the first fundamental form (Riemannian metric) and the second fundamental form. Our characterisation is a set of conditions consisting of the vacuum constraints and some additional differential equations for the first and second fundamental forms These conditions can be regarded as a system of partial differential equations on a Riemannian manifold and the solutions of the system contain all possible regular vacuum type D initial data sets. As an application we particularise our conditions for the case of vacuum data whose data development is a subset of the Kerr solution. This has applications in the formulation of the nonlinear stability problem of the Kerr black hole.

  2. Light-initiated detonation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stafford S.; Malone, Philip G.; Bartholomew, Stephen W.; Necker, William J.

    1986-09-01

    Numerous light sources could be employed in detonation systems, but lasers have the most efficient coupling to optical fibers and can generate energetic light pulses required for detonation. Flash lamp-pumped, solid state lasers are presently the most useful light source for explosive initiation. Laser diodes in current production cannot generate enough energy for practical applications. The most useful optical fiber for blast line application is a step index fiber with a large core-to-cladding ratio. The large core minimizes energy losses due to misalignment core of fibers in connectors. Couplers that involve mechanically crimped connectors and cleaved fibers, rather than the epoxy-cemented connectors with polished fibers, provide superior energy transmission due to the reduced carbonization at the fiber end. Detonators for optical initiation systems are similar in basic construction to those employed in electrical initiation systems. Explosive and pyrotechnic charges can also be similar. Either primary or secondary explosives can be initiated in present laser-based systems. Two laser detonation systems are presently accessible; a multiple-shot laser with a single-shot, single fiber system designed for use with detonators containing primary explosives. Additional research related to development of low-energy, photoreactive detonators, continuity checking techniques and improved connectors and fibers can produce significant improvements in presently fielded systems.

  3. Initial drug resistance in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Initial drug resistance in India. There is gradual increase in primary MDR all over India : Pondi= Pondicherry 1985; Bangalore =1986; Jaipur = 1991; Jaipur =2000. Overall the MDR is less than 3% (TRC studies).

  4. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  5. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capella, Arthur [County of Fayette, Uniontown, PA (United States)

    2015-03-04

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

  6. Initiation disruptor systems and methods of initiation disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Dennis W

    2014-09-23

    A system that may be used as an initiation disruption system (IDS) according to one embodiment includes an explosive charge; a plurality of particles in a layer at least partially surrounding the explosive charge; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles. A method for disabling an object according to one embodiment includes placing the system as recited above near an object; and causing the explosive charge to initiate, thereby applying mechanical loading to the object such that the object becomes disabled. Additional systems and methods are also presented. A device according to another embodiment includes a plurality of particles bound by a binder thereby defining a sidewall having an interior for receiving an explosive; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles and binder. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  7. Climatic triggers for peatland initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Valdes, Paul J.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Smith, Mark W.; Tarasov, Lev; Haywood, Alan M.; Bacon, Karen L.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are carbon-dense wetlands characterised by waterlogged, organic-rich soils. Modern-day peatlands have formed mainly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and despite covering only 3 % of the Earth's land surface are thought to store more than a third of all global soil carbon in the form of poorly decomposed plant detritus. Concern exists that this globally important carbon store may be vulnerable to near-future warming and changes in precipitation patterns, although the links between peatland development and climate are contested. The climatic and other environmental conditions that facilitate the initiation of peat are particularly poorly understood. We present the results of a novel, global study into the climate space of peat initiation since the LGM. We compiled a catalogue of radiocarbon dates of peat initiation from 942 sites that span a range of latitudes and biomes. We used the locations and ages of these peatlands to interrogate downscaled climate hindcasts at 500-yr intervals from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model, HadCM3. This powerful combination of modelling and observational data provides a globally-consistent, temporally-extensive estimate of the climate spaces of peat initiation. In particular, it allows us to identify local and regional climatic changes that may have acted as triggers for peat formation. Peatlands in mid- and high-latitudes of both hemispheres, particularly in maritime locations, developed shortly after local increases in the time integral of growing season temperatures, and were seemingly not influenced by rainfall regime. Peat initiation at such sites appears to have been stimulated by temperature-driven increases in plant productivity in cold, postglacial landscapes, and was not water limited. The exception is the large peatland complex of the Western Siberian Lowlands, which was not glaciated during the last glacial period, and which appears to have been prompted instead by a strong

  8. Nitric oxide is required for, and promotes auxin-mediated activation of, cell division and embryogenic cell formation but does not influence cell cycle progression in alfalfa cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvös, Krisztina; Pasternak, Taras P; Miskolczi, Pál; Domoki, Mónika; Dorjgotov, Dulguun; Szucs, Attila; Bottka, Sándor; Dudits, Dénes; Fehér, Attila

    2005-09-01

    It is now well established that nitric oxide (NO) serves as a signaling molecule in plant cells. In this paper experimental data are presented which indicate that NO can stimulate the activation of cell division and embryogenic cell formation in leaf protoplast-derived cells of alfalfa in the presence of auxin. It was found that various NO-releasing compounds promoted auxin-dependent division (as shown by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine) of leaf protoplast-derived alfalfa cells. In contrast, application of NO scavenger or NO synthesis inhibitor inhibited the same process. Both the promotion and the inhibition of cell cycle activation correlated with the amount and activity of the cognate alfalfa p34cdc2 protein Medsa;CDKA;1,2. The effect of l-NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) was transient, and protoplast-derived cells spending more than 3 days in culture become insensitive to the inhibitor as far as cell cycle progression was concerned. L-NMMA had no effect on the cell cycle parameters of cycling suspension-cultured cells, but had a moderate transient inhibitory effect on cells re-entering the cell cycle following phosphate starvation. Cycling cultured cells, however, could respond to NO, as indicated by the sodium nitroprusside (SNP)- and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)-dependent accumulation of the ferritin protein. Based on these observations, it is hypothesized that L-NMMA-sensitive generation of NO is involved in the activation, but not the progression of the plant cell division cycle. In addition, SNP promoted and L-NMMA delayed the exogenous auxin [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] concentration-dependent formation of embryogenic cell clusters expressing the MsSERK1 gene; this further supports a link between auxin- and NO-dependent signaling pathways in plant cells.

  9. Global nuclear cleanout initiative 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, J.; Gruber, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During more than 50 years of Atoms for Peace programmes nuclear materials were spread out worldwide. Stranded nuclear materials from nuclear research are left over without any safe back-end solution. 'Dirty Bombs' or so-called 'Radioactive Dispersal Devices (RDD)' are no longer science fiction since the world experienced the 9/11 attack. Governmental, NGO's and private industry organizations having discussed Global Nuclear Cleanout since then and start to take actions. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has announced to establish a dedicated organization in cooperation with IAEA and start the 'Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)'. The US government will allocate to that program USD 450 M over the next 10 years. Besides the historical development the paper will focus on the progress of the different initiatives and perspectives to threat reduction. (author)

  10. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groisman, Pavel; Shugart, Herman; Kicklighter, David

    2017-01-01

    prepare societies for future developments. A key principle of NEFI is that these developments must now be secured through science-based strategies codesigned with regional decision-makers to lead their societies to prosperity in the face of environmental and institutional challenges. NEESPI scientific......During the past several decades, the Earth system has changed significantly, especially across Northern Eurasia. Changes in the socio-economic conditions of the larger countries in the region have also resulted in a variety of regional environmental changes that can have global consequences....... The Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI) has been designed as an essential continuation of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which was launched in 2004. NEESPI sought to elucidate all aspects of ongoing environmental change, to inform societies and, thus, to better...

  11. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  12. Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Abhisek [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gerhard, Jochen [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Germany; Torrieri, Giorgio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física " Gleb Wataghin" (IFGW), Sao Paulo, Brazil; Read jr, Kenneth F. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2

  13. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-01-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations . (paper)

  14. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  15. Local initiative extrapolated to nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper; Brøgger, Morten

    In the municipality of Sønderborg, in the southern part of Jutland, there is a shining example initiated in 2007, ProjectZero, of a local initiative that have resulted in extensive energy savings in residential buildings and at the same time created local workplaces. The intension with the pilot...... is to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach was made for the entire Danish building stock. Deployment of this methodology on national scale will not be straight forward as it requires strong local support. In Sønderborg the local business and clean-tech companies have strongly...... supported the project. Additionally, one of the driving forces has been the creation of something unique among the local residents and feeling to be able to create local unity. This cannot easily be made nationally. Never the less, playing with the idea about a nationwide dissemination will demonstrate...

  16. Blasting agents and initiation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although blasting differs between and within each industry, as a whole, the mines and quarries are making a shift from a purely ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) mixture to a blend of emulsion and ANFO on a straight emulsion. Non-electric (shock tube) initiation systems have provided a viable alternative to the electric detonator (blasting cap). Explosives manufacturers are seeing their roles changes to being blasting contractors or consultants rather than just suppliers. The article discusses these trends and gives examples of typical blasting techniques and amounts of blasting agent used at large USA surface coal mines. Electric caps are still used in blasting underground coal. The Ensign Bickford Co. (EBCo) is developing electronic detonators and has been field testing an electronic initiator, the DIGIDET detonator, for the last four years. When commercially available, electronic detonators will be accurate but will come with a hefty price tag. 2 photos.

  17. Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.; Haase, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; McNutt, P.

    2011-04-01

    Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's (DOI) Office of Insular Affairs (OIA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the island of Guam by conducting an island initial technical assessment that would lay out energy consumption and production data and establish a baseline. This assessment will be used to conduct future analysis and studies by NREL that will estimate energy efficiency and renewable energy potential for the island of Guam.

  18. Benzodiazepine Initiation and Dose Escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian W; Johnston, Elizabeth V; Saum, Lindsay M

    2017-04-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) place patients at a significant risk of falling. The current literature does not address if this risk is increased during initiation or dose escalations of BZDs. To determine if initiation or dose escalations of BZD regimens are associated with an increased risk of falls in hospitalized patients compared with patients maintained on their home dose or who had their dose decreased from baseline. This retrospective case-control study evaluated hospitalized patients aged 45 years or older who received a BZD. Patients who did not fall were collected in a 3:1 ratio to patients who fell. Comparisons were made between BZD regimens prior to admission and those 48 hours prior to the index date. The date of fall served as the index date for patients who fell, and the median time-to-fall served as the index date for all other patients. A total of 132 patients were included in the study (33 falls and 99 without a fall). No significant differences were noted in demographics, baseline mobility, or past medical history. Patients who fell had a significantly longer median length of stay (15 vs 10 days; P = 0.025). Additionally, patients who fell were more likely to have had their BZD regimen initiated or dose escalated compared with patients who did not fall (63.6% vs 41.4%; P = 0.043). The risk of falling while on a BZD is increased on initiation and dose escalations. Hospitals should ensure judicious use of BZDs in inpatients to reduce the risk of falls.

  19. Nevada Training Initiative Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Training Initiative dB Decibels O3 Ozone DNL Average Day-Night Sound Level or Ldn PM Particulate Matter DOE Department of Energy PSD Prevention...power stations) Railroad Station Humanitarian Buildings (multi-storied hospitals, schools, sports fields, churches, mosques ) Office Buildings...the decibel (dB). Sound on the decibel scale is referred to as a sound level. The threshold of human hearing is approximately 0 dB, and the

  20. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  1. Initiation of HIV Reverse Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Isel, Catherine; Ehresmann, Chantal; Marquet, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes into double stranded DNA is a key event for viral replication. The very first stage of HIV reverse transcription, the initiation step, involves viral and cellular partners that are selectively packaged into the viral particle, leading to an RNA/protein complex with very specific structural and functional features, some of which being, in the case of HIV-1, linked to particular isolates. Recent understanding of the tight spatio-temporal regulation of...

  2. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  3. The next generation safeguards initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobey, William

    2008-01-01

    NGSI or the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is designed to revitalize the U.S. safeguards technical base, as well as invest in human resources, and to mobilize our primary asset - the U.S. National Laboratories - as well as industry and academia to restore capabilities. While NGSI is a U.S. effort it is intended to serve as a catalyst for a much broader commitment to international safeguards in partnership with the IAEA and other countries. Initiatives over the last years include such as the Proliferation Security Initiative, UN Security Council Resolution 1540, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and initiatives of the G-8 and NSG to discourage the spread of enrichment and reprocessing. NGSI augments this agenda by providing a means to strengthen the technical and political underpinnings of IAEA safeguards. Priorities and envisioned activities under NGSI are the following. (1) Cooperation with IAEA and others to promote universal adoption of safeguards agreements and the Additional Protocol including greater information sharing between member states and the IAEA, investigation of weaponization and procurement activities, and options to strengthen the state-level approach to safeguards. (2) NGSI anticipates the deployment of new types of reactors and fuel cycle facilities, as well as the need to use limited safeguards resources effectively and efficiently, especially in plants that pose the largest burden specifically complex, bulk-handling facilities. (3) NGSI will encourage a generational improvement in current safeguards technologies including improvement of precision and speed of nuclear measurements, performance of real-time process monitoring and surveillance in unattended mode, enabling in-field, pre-screening and analysis of nuclear and environmental samples, and collection, integration, analysis and archiving safeguards-relevant information from all available sources.(4) NGSI will address human capital management. Training and

  4. NASA's Climate Data Services Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, M.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; Webster, W. P.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the Earth's processes is based on a combination of observational data records and mathematical models. The size of NASA's space-based observational data sets is growing dramatically as new missions come online. However a potentially bigger data challenge is posed by the work of climate scientists, whose models are regularly producing data sets of hundreds of terabytes or more. It is important to understand that the 'Big Data' challenge of climate science cannot be solved with a single technological approach or an ad hoc assemblage of technologies. It will require a multi-faceted, well-integrated suite of capabilities that include cloud computing, large-scale compute-storage systems, high-performance analytics, scalable data management, and advanced deployment mechanisms in addition to the existing, well-established array of mature information technologies. It will also require a coherent organizational effort that is able to focus on the specific and sometimes unique requirements of climate science. Given that it is the knowledge that is gained from data that is of ultimate benefit to society, data publication and data analytics will play a particularly important role. In an effort to accelerate scientific discovery and innovation through broader use of climate data, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Office of Computational and Information Sciences and Technology has embarked on a determined effort to build a comprehensive, integrated data publication and analysis capability for climate science. The Climate Data Services (CDS) Initiative integrates people, expertise, and technology into a highly-focused, next-generation, one-stop climate science information service. The CDS Initiative is providing the organizational framework, processes, and protocols needed to deploy existing information technologies quickly using a combination of enterprise-level services and an expanding array of cloud services. Crucial to its effectiveness, the CDS

  5. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  6. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  7. [Initial stages of steel biocorrosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigletsova, S K; Rodin, V B; Kobelev, V S; Aleksandrova, N V; Rasulova, G E; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    Initial stages of corrosion of mild steel induced by Klebsiela rhinoscleromatis BO2 were studied in various media. The effect of the microorganism was detected 8-10 h after inoculation. The number of viable cells were virtually unchanged within one month in all media, but the corrosive activity of the strain decreased. The corrosive activity of microorganisms can be determined by spectrophotometry even only after incubation for 24 h. At a low level of organic substrate, even strong colonization with microorganisms does not inevitably result in a significant damage to metals.

  8. Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Alkesh

    1999-01-01

    This summer at NASA/MSFC, I have contributed to two projects: Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design and Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstration. In the Web Design Project, I worked on an Outline. The Web Design Outline was developed to provide a foundation for a Hierarchy Tree Structure. The Outline would help design a Website information base for future and near-term missions. The Website would give in-depth information on Propulsion Systems and Interstellar Travel. The Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstrator is discussed in this volume by Russell Lee.

  9. Radiation safety without borders initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblee, Martha; Dickson, Howard; Krieger, Ken; Lopez, Jose; Waite, David; Weaver, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources

  10. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  11. TeraScale Supernova Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, A.; TeraScale Supernova Initiative Collaboration

    2002-05-01

    The TeraScale Supernova Initiative is a national collaboration centered at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and involves eight universities. TSI has as its central focus to ascertain the explosion mechanism(s) for core collapse supernovae and to understand and predict their associated phenomenology, including neutrino signatures, gravitational radiation emission, and nucleosynthesis. TSI is an interdisciplinary effort of astrophysicists, nuclear physicists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists. Multidimensional hydrodynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, and radiation hydrodynamics simulations that implement state of the art nuclear and weak interaction physics are planned in order to understand the roles of neutrino transport, stellar convection and rotation, and magnetic fields in the supernova mechanism. Scalable algorithms for the solution of the large sparse linear systems of equations that arise in radiation transport applications and a customized collaborative visualization environment will be developed also. TSI's latest results and future efforts will be discussed. The TeraScale Supernova Initiative is funded by grants from the DoE (1) High Energy and Nuclear Physics and (2) Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences SciDAC Programs.

  12. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  13. Initiation of the Andean orogeny by lower mantle subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, C.; Oncken, O.; Holt, A.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Cordillera of the Andes is a double-vergent orogenic belt built up by thickening of South American plate crust. Several models provide plausible explanations for the evolution of the Andes, but the reason why shortening started at 50 Ma is still unclear. We explore the evolution of the subduction zone through time by restoring the position of the Nazca trench in an absolute reference frame, comparing its position with seismic tomography models and balancing the evolution of the subducting slab. Reconstructions show that the slab enters into the lower mantle at 50+10 Ma, and then progressed, moving horizontally at shallow lower mantle depth while thickening and folding in the transition zone. We test this evolutionary scenario by numerical models, which illustrate that compression in the upper plate emerges once the slab is anchored in the lower mantle. We conclude that onset of significant shortening and crustal thickening in the Andes and its sustained action over tens of million years is related to the penetration of the slab into the lower mantle, producing a slowdown of lateral slab migration, and dragging the upper plate against the subduction zone by large-scale return flow.

  14. Acute diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon: value of ultrasound as an initial diagnostic test; Diverticulitis aguad de sigma: valor de la ecografia como test diagnostico inicial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aguayo, F. J.; Gil, P. M. [Hospital de Sagunto. Valencia (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the value of ultrasound as an initial diagnostic method in cases of acute diverticulitis. Ultrasound was carried out in 76 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute sigmoid diverticulitis. The final diagnosis was based on the clinical course in every case, as well as on computed tomography (CT; n=46), histopathological examination (n=10), colonoscopy (n=4) and barium enema (n=2). The diagnostic criteria established for ultrasound was a thickening of the sigmoid colon wall of >4 mm and the presence of a least one of the following features: diverticular, phlegmon or abscess. The CT diagnosis was based on two indispensable findings: thickening of the sigmoid colon of>4 mm and inflammation of pericolonic fat. The final diagnosis was acute diverticulitis in 52 patients, some other disease in 18 and undetermined in 6. The sensitivities of ultrasound and CT were 81% and 94%, respectively, and their specificities were 79% and 83%, respectively. Of the 10 false negatives on ultrasound, seven corresponded to cases of simple diverticulitis and three to cases of complicated diverticulitis (two in patients with abscess and one in a patient with pneumoperitoneum). CT provided the correct diagnosis in eight of these cases, and resulted in false negatives in two cases of mild diverticulitis. Ultrasound is a valid test in the initial diagnosis of acute diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. CT should be performed when ultrasound fails to provide a diagnosis or in cases of negative results when there is a strong clinical suspicion of diverticulitis, as well as when the possibility of complicated diverticulitis exists. (Author) 14 refs.

  15. The OpenPlanetary initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, Nicolas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Hare, Trent; Aye, Michael; Galluzzi, Valentina; van Gasselt, Stephan; Martinez, Santa; McAuliffe, Jonathan; Million, Chase; Nass, Andrea; Zinzi, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    "Open" has become attached to several concepts: science, data, and software are some of the most obvious. It is already common practice within the planetary science community to share spacecraft missions data freely and openly [1]. However, this is not historically the case for software tools, source code, and derived data sets, which are often reproduced independently by multiple individuals and groups. Sharing data, tools and overall knowledge would increase scientific return and benefits [e.g. 2], and recent projects and initiatives are helping toward this goal [e.g. 3,4,5,6].OpenPlanetary is a bottom-up initiative to address the need of the planetary science community for sharing ideas and collaborating on common planetary research and data analysis problems, new challenges, and opportunities. It started from an initial participants effort to stay connected and share information related to and beyond the ESA's first Planetary GIS Workshop [7]. It then continued during the 2nd (US) Planetary Data Workshop [8], and aggregated more people.Our objective is to build an online distributed framework enabling open collaborations within the planetary science community. We aim to co-create, curate and publish resource materials and data sets; to organise online events, to support community-based projects development; and to offer a real-time communication channel at and between conferences and workshops.We will present our current framework and resources, developing projects and ideas, and solicit for feedback and participation. OpenPlanetary is intended for research and education professionals: scientists, engineers, designers, teachers and students, as well as the general public that includes enthusiasts and citizen scientists. All are welcome to join and contribute at openplanetary.co[1] International Planetary Data Alliance, planetarydata.org. [2] Nosek et al (2015), dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aab2374. [3] Erard S. et al. (2016), EGU2016-17527. [4] Proposal for a PDS

  16. 36 CFR 902.60 - Initial determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial determination. 902.60... INFORMATION ACT Time Limitations § 902.60 Initial determination. (a) An initial determination whether or not... workdays in accordance with § 902.62. (b) Upon making initial determination, the Administrative Officer...

  17. 42 CFR 405.803 - Initial determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial determination. 405.803 Section 405.803....803 Initial determination. (a) Carriers make initial determinations regarding claims for benefits under Medicare Part B. (b) An initial determination for purposes of this subpart includes determinations...

  18. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katula, Denise [County of Somerset, Somervile, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  19. The Global Spine Care Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz, Eric L; Randhawa, Kristi; Torres, Paola

    2018-01-01

    spinal disorders and their burden on individuals and communities in most rural places of the developing world. These findings should be a call to action to devote resources for high-quality research to fill these knowledge gaps in medically underserved areas and low and middle-income countries......PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to synthesize literature on the burden of spinal disorders in rural communities to inform the Global Spine Care Initiative care pathway and model of care for their application in medically underserved areas and low- and middle-income countries. METHODS...... and in those with less education, psychological factors (stress, anxiety, depression), and alcohol consumers. The literature is inconsistent as to whether back pain is more common in rural or urban areas. High risk of bias in many studies, lack of data on disability and other burden measures and few studies...

  20. Teaching Evaluation: Waiting for Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales Sánchez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this text, it is sustained that, despite the fact that the teaching activity is one of the main functions of higher education institutions or even the only one in most of them, it hasn’t been reflected in the leading initiatives that have been set in motion in this area for the last two decades. In particular, it points out that the wide evaluation politics established in the education system during the late eighties, didn’t consider the teaching activity as a concern issue for the mechanisms or rewards in the evaluation system. Even though the implementation of new actions tried to repair the situation, mainly by improving the quality of working time and the qualifications of the personnel performing these activities; teaching, in strict sense, and the design or application of a new evaluation scheme to strengthen it, didn’t get better.

  1. Nuclear processes initiated by electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, S. F.; Muromtsev, V. I.; Akovantseva, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Possible reasons for nuclear transformations upon powerful electric discharges in tubes containing deuterium-inert gases mixtures, along with the transmutation of various elements upon the laser excitation of metal nanoparticles or local explosions in liquid media are discussed. It is shown that the observed phenomena, particularly the fixation of neutrons and hard X-ray photons upon electrical discharges in mixtures with deuterium and the transformation of the stable 196Hg isotope into 197Au upon the laser excitation of Hg nanodrops in D2O, along with the detected increase in the decay rate of 238U with violations of the secular fraction of 234Th after laser excitation of Au nanoparticles (˜20 nm) in UO2Cl2 in D2O and H2O, could be related to the initiated interactions between electrons and nuclei.

  2. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  3. Initial acidity of dental cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, D; Evje, D M

    1984-04-01

    The acidity in aqueous solutions following release of acid components from glass ionomer, silicate, zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate cements has been registered by pH measurements. One brand of each type was studied. Initial setting was accomplished at two different temperatures; 23 degrees C and in the interval from 23 degrees C to about 60 degrees C. In the latter case external heat was transferred to the samples by infrared radiation for a period of 2 min. The highest acidity was associated with the silicate specimen, while the lowest acidity was recorded for the zinc polycarboxylate specimen. Exposure to infrared radiation resulted in a reduced acidity for all types of cements. The effect of infrared exposure was most pronounced for the silicate specimens, resulting in a reduction of acid release by a factor of about 10 compared to the nontreated samples. The resistance to acid release was found to be improved by a factor of about 5 for the glass ionomer and about 3 for the zinc phosphate cement treated in a similar way. Clinically, it seems possible considerably to reduce the risk of pulpal injuries associated with the insertion of silicate restorations by using a moderate infrared radiation treatment. Furthermore, the susceptibility of glass ionomer cements to a high initial erosion should be reduced by the use of such a technique. After exposure of the glass ionomer and silicate specimens to infrared radiation at the temperature interval applied, the samples had a more glossy, tooth-like appearance compared to the nonexposed samples, improving the aesthetic properties.

  4. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  5. Cultural initiation of medical doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsinkó-Szabó, Zoltán; Lázár, Imre

    2013-12-01

    Eighteen years experience of teaching medical anthropology at a Hungarian medical school offers insight into the dynamics of interference between the rationalist epistemological tradition of biomedicine as one of the central paradigms of modernism and the cultural relativism of medical anthropology, as cultural anthropology is considered to be one of the generators of postmodern thinking. Tracing back the informal "prehistory" of our Institute, we can reveal its psychosomatic, humanistic commitment and critical basis as having represented a kind of counterculture compared with the technocrats of state-socialist Hungary's health ideology. The historical change and socio-cultural transition in Hungary after 1989 was accompanied by changes in the medical system as well as in philosophy and in the structure of the teaching of social sciences. The developing pluralism in the medical system together with the pluralism of social ideologies allowed the substitution of the dogmatic Marxist-Leninist framework with the more pragmatic and empiricist behavioral sciences including medical sociology and medical anthropology. The conflict between the initiation function of the hard preclinical training of the first two years, and the reflective, relativistic and critical narrative on "biomedicine as culture bound entity" constructed by medical anthropology during the second year of medical training is discussed. We also submit our fieldwork data gained as a result of a two year investigation period focusing on diverse initiation types of "would be" physicians. The main proportion of our data derives from individual semi structured deep interviews together with focus group interviews carried out with medical students of upper years. Finally, the role of medical anthropology in the "rite of passage" of becoming a medical doctor is summarized, paying attention to their field work reports and the risks and gains in this process.

  6. Recurrent left colonic diverticulitis episodes: more severe than the initial diverticulitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Olivier; Kotzampassakis, Nikos; Schmidt, Sabine; Denys, Alban; Demartines, Nicolas; Calmes, Jean-Marie

    2009-03-01

    Until recently, it was accepted that the rate of complications and failure of medical therapy were higher during recurrent episodes of diverticulitis. New data and new interpretation of older studies have challenged this opinion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether recurrent diverticulitis in comparison with the initial episode has a different short-term outcome after medical or surgical treatment. This was a retrospective cohort study of 271 consecutive patients admitted for diverticulitis confirmed by computed tomography (CT) between 2001 and 2004. Altogether 202 patients had an initial episode (group I), and 69 had recurrent diverticulitis (group R). A total of 20 clinical and 15 radiologic parameters were analyzed and compared between the two groups, including need for surgery, clinical presentation at admission, response to treatment, complications, laboratory parameters, and pathologic CT features (colonic wall thickening, abscess, pneumoperitoneum, free intraperitoneal fluid). An unpaired Student's t-test and Fisher's and Wilcoxon's tests were applied for statistical analysis. None of the clinical or radiologic parameters was statistically different between the two groups. Regarding surgery, 15.8% of the group I patients needed surgery at admission compared to 5.8% in group R (p = 0.04). Conservative treatment failure was similar in the two groups (10.7% vs. 10.0%; p = 0.84). There was 3% mortality at 30 days in group I compared to 0% in group R. Recurrent episodes of diverticulitis do not lead to more complications and more conservative treatment failure. Moreover, surgery at admission was less frequent among patients who presented with a recurrence.

  7. Initial report of the osteogenesis imperfecta adult natural history initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Laura L; Oetgen, Matthew E; Floor, Marianne K; Huber, Mary Beth; Kennelly, Ann M; McCarter, Robert J; Rak, Melanie F; Simmonds, Barbara J; Simpson, Melissa D; Tucker, Carole A; McKiernan, Fergus E

    2015-11-14

    A better understanding of the natural history of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in adulthood should improve health care for patients with this rare condition. The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation established the Adult Natural History Initiative (ANHI) in 2010 to give voice to the health concerns of the adult OI community and to begin to address existing knowledge gaps for this condition. Using a web-based platform, 959 adults with self-reported OI, representing a wide range of self-reported disease severity, reported symptoms and health conditions, estimated the impact of these concerns on present and future health-related quality of life (QoL) and completed a Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) survey of health issues. Adults with OI report lower general physical health status (p report generally similar mental health status. Musculoskeletal, auditory, pulmonary, endocrine, and gastrointestinal issues are particular future health-related QoL concerns for these adults. Numerous other statistically significant differences exist among adults with OI as well as between adults with OI and the referent PROMIS® population, but the clinical significance of these differences is uncertain. Adults with OI report lower general health status but are otherwise more similar to the general population than might have been expected. While reassuring, further analysis of the extensive OI-ANHI databank should help identify areas of unique clinical concern and for future research. The OI-ANHI survey experience supports an internet-based strategy for successful patient-centered outcomes research in rare disease populations.

  8. Initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso Garcia-Parrado; Kroon, Juan A. Valiente

    2007-01-01

    A characterization of initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime is provided. This characterization is obtained by performing a 3+1 decomposition of a certain invariant characterization of the Schwarzschild spacetime given in terms of concomitants of the Weyl tensor. This procedure renders a set of necessary conditions--which can be written in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor and their concomitants--for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set. Our approach also provides a formula for a static Killing initial data set candidate--a KID candidate. Sufficient conditions for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set are obtained by supplementing the necessary conditions with the requirement that the initial data set possesses a stationary Killing initial data set of the form given by our KID candidate. Thus, we obtain an algorithmic procedure of checking whether a given initial data set is Schwarzschildean or not

  9. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  10. Simulation of Initiation in Hexanitrostilbene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aidan; Shan, Tzu-Ray; Yarrington, Cole; Wixom, Ryan

    We report on the effect of isolated voids and pairs of nearby voids on hot spot formation, growth and chemical reaction initiation in hexanitrostilbene (HNS) crystals subjected to shock loading. Large-scale, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed using the reactive force field (ReaxFF) as implemented in the LAMMPS software. The ReaxFF force field description for HNS has been validated previously by comparing the isothermal equation of state to available diamond anvil cell (DAC) measurements and density function theory (DFT) calculations. Micron-scale molecular dynamics simulations of a supported shockwave propagating in HNS crystal along the [010] orientation are performed (up = 1.25 km/s, Us =4.0 km/s, P = 11GPa.) We compare the effect on hot spot formation and growth rate of isolated cylindrical voids up to 0.1 µm in size with that of two 50nm voids set 100nm apart. Results from the micron-scale atomistic simulations are compared with hydrodynamics simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lock- heed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  12. Initially Approximated Quasi Equilibrium Manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.; Arif, H.; Gulistan, M.; Sajid, M.

    2015-01-01

    Most commonly, kinetics model reduction techniques are based on exploiting time scale separation into fast and slow reaction processes. Then, a researcher approximates the system dynamically with dimension reduction for slow ones eliminating the fast modes. The main idea behind the construction of the lower dimension manifold is based on finding its initial approximation using Quasi Equilibrium Manifold (QEM). Here, we provide an efficient numerical method, which allow us to calculate low dimensional manifolds of chemical reaction systems. This computation technique is not restricted to our specific complex problem, but it can also be applied to other reacting flows or dynamic systems provided with the condition that a large number of extra (decaying) components can be eliminated from the system. Through computational approach, we approximate low dimensional manifold for a mechanism of six chemical species to simplify complex chemical kinetics. A reduced descriptive form of slow invariant manifold is obtained from dissipative system. This method is applicable for higher dimensions and is applied over an oxidation of CO/Pt. (author)

  13. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society

  14. Critical Initial Flaw Size Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawicke, David S.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Cheston, Derrick J.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The USS consists of several "tuna can" segments that are approximately 216 inches in diameter, 115 inches tall, and 0.5 inches thick. A 6 inch wide by 1 inch thick flange is welded to the skin and is used to fasten adjacent tuna cans. A schematic of a "tuna can" and the location of the flange-to-skin weld are shown in Figure 1. Gussets (shown in yellow in Figure 1) are welded to the skin and flange every 10 degrees around the circumference of the "tuna can". The flange-to-skin weld is a flux core butt weld with a fillet weld on the inside surface, as illustrated in Figure 2. The welding process may create loss of fusion defects in the weld that could develop into fatigue cracks and jeopardize the structural integrity of the Ares I-X vehicle. The CIFS analysis was conducted to determine the largest crack in the weld region that will not grow to failure within 4 lifetimes, as specified by NASA standard 5001 & 5019 [1].

  15. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  16. Initiation of protein synthesis in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian Søgaard; Sørensen, Hans Peter; Mortensen, Kim Kusk

    2005-01-01

    Valuable information on translation initiation is available from biochemical data and recently solved structures. We present a detailed description of current knowledge about the structure, function, and interactions of the individual components involved in bacterial translation initiation. The f...

  17. CPC Initiative - Participating Primary Care Practices

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative is a multi-payer initiative fostering collaboration between public and private health care payers to strengthen...

  18. Multifamily Hubs' Initial Endorsements FY12

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Describes the program, geographic & lender distribution of multifamily loans initially endorsed for FHA insurance or risk sharing in FY 12. A loan is initially...

  19. Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine; Hansen, Mette Weinreich

    2004-01-01

    Nielsen T, Kristensen NH, Hansen MW (2004): Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe. Chapter in: Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development. Volume 7, from the OMIaRD project. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. ISBN: 0-9543279-7-1......Nielsen T, Kristensen NH, Hansen MW (2004): Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe. Chapter in: Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development. Volume 7, from the OMIaRD project. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. ISBN: 0-9543279-7-1...

  20. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  1. Initiation of Coitus in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard; Billy, John O. G.

    1987-01-01

    White males' initiation of coitus in early adolescence is dominated by motivational hormone effects and social attractiveness. White females' initiation of coitus is dominated by the effects of social controls. Black females' initiation of coitus is dominated by their level of pubertal development, an attractiveness variable. (Author/BJV)

  2. 12 CFR 404.8 - Initial determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial determination. 404.8 Section 404.8... Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act. § 404.8 Initial determination. (a) Authority to..., review, and the initial determination. (b) Referrals to other government agencies. A requested record in...

  3. Motivation and Training Initiation: Evidence from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielniczuk, Emilia; Laguna, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the self-determination theory and the model of action phases, the present study aims to provide insight into motivational factors that are important for training initiation. It investigates the relations between three types of motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation) and training initiation: intention to initiate new…

  4. Initial value formulation of higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The initial value problem is considered for the conformally coupled scalar field and higher derivative gravity, by expressing the equations of each theory in harmonic coordinates. For each theory it is shown that the (vacuum) equations can take the form of a diagonal hyperbolic system with constraints on the initial data. Consequently these theories possess well-posed initial value formulations

  5. Initiation of CMEs by Magnetic Flux Emergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The initiation of solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is studied in the framework of numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The initial CME model includes a magnetic flux rope in spherical, axisymmetric geometry. The initial configuration consists of a magnetic flux rope embedded in a gravitationally stratified solar ...

  6. Initial value gravitational quadrupole radiation theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicour, J.

    1987-01-01

    A rigorous version of the quadrupole radiation formula is derived using the characteristic initial value formulation of a general relativistic fluid space-time. Starting from initial data for a Newtonian fluid, an algorithm is presented that determines characteristic initial data for a one-parameter family of general relativistic fluid space-times. At the initial time, a one-parameter family of space-times with this initial data osculates the evolution of the Newtonian fluid and has leading order news function equal to the third time derivative of the transverse Newtonian quadrupole moment

  7. Predicting Cigarette Initiation and Re-Initiation Among Active Duty Air Force Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From- To) 10/17/2017 Abstract 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Predicting Cigarette Initiation and Re...NOTES Nicotine and Tobacco Research 14. ABSTRACT PREDICTING CIGARETTE INITIATION AND RE-INITIATION AMONG ACTIVE DUTY AIR FORCE RECRUITS Little, M.A...nonsmokers initiate once the ban is lifted. Understanding the factors associated with cigarette smoking initiation among non-users and re-initiation

  8. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  9. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piltch, M.S.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  10. Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Otto; Sanders, Juern; Midmore, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Over recent decades, organic farmers have come together to form collective marketing initiatives. To begin with, such schemes were often essential as the only means of finding markets for organic products, but farmers today participate in them to pool ideas, capital and skills, and to collectively increase added value of products and market power in the supply chain. However, Organic Marketing Initiatives (OMIs) are not only initiated and managed by farmers but also by consumers, processors o...

  11. Subsidiary Initiative Taking in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörrenbacher, Christoph; Gammelgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the political maneuvering that accompanies subsidiary initiative taking in multinational corporations. On the basis of an explorative empirical investigation of subsidiary initiative taking in the French subsidiaries of six German MNCs, the paper explores the activities......, but it is hardly a sufficient condition for obtaining headquarters’ approval. This renders issue selling to a second-rank power in subsidiary initiative taking, as it only works in conjunction with subsidiary power....

  12. Pre-LBA ISLSCP Initiative I Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains hydrology, soils, radiation, cloud, and vegetation data from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Initiative...

  13. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  14. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files

  15. Implementing Patient Safety Initiatives in Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira; Tupper, Judith; Coburn, Andrew; Wakefield, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of patient safety initiatives can be costly in time and energy. Because of small volumes and limited resources, rural hospitals often are not included in nationally driven patient safety initiatives. This article describes the Tennessee Rural Hospital Patient Safety Demonstration project, whose goal was to strengthen capacity for…

  16. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    View all initiatives. You are looking at projects supported by The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Displaying 1 - 2 of 2. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women. Initiative. Women around the world increasingly participate in economic activities, but they continue to face significant challenges in pursuing better ...

  17. Health Care Provider Initiative Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Environmental Education & Training Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This document lays out the strategy for achieving the goals and objectives of NEETF's "Health Care Provider Initiative." The goal of NEETF's "Health Care Provider Initiative" is to incorporate environmental health into health professionals' education and practice in order to improve health care and public health, with a special emphasis on…

  18. Unraveling networked learning initiatives: an analytic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Prinsen, Fleur; Vermeulen, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Networked learning happens naturally within the social systems of which we are all part. However, in certain circumstances individuals may want to actively take initiative to initiate interaction with others they are not yet regularly in exchange with. This may be the case when external influences

  19. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (the Initiative) became law in 2005 with Senate Bills 70 and 1133 and provided more than $380 million over eight years to improve career technical education…

  20. 12 CFR 404.15 - Initial determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial determination. 404.15 Section 404.15... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.15 Initial determination. (a) Time for processing. The Freedom of... the requester of any processing fee. (2) A denial is a determination to withhold any requested record...

  1. 28 CFR 301.305 - Initial determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial determination. 301.305 Section... COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.305 Initial determination. A... determination, including the reasons therefore, together with notification of the right to appeal the...

  2. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  3. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijsselt, R.J.T.; Parkatti, T.; Troisi, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative

  4. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2... § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement which..., or origin of the product offered, or which may otherwise misrepresent the product in such a manner...

  5. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be

  6. Institutional Support : Agricultural and Rural Forecasting Initiative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rural (IPAR), Sénégal, began in 2004 and was formally registered in October 2008 as an independent, nonprofit research organization. The Initiative is committed to promoting dialogue and informing debate between policymakers, researchers and research users in the areas of agriculture, ...

  7. Embedding initial data for black hole collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Joseph D.; Price, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss isometric embedding diagrams for the visualization of initial data for the problem of the head-on collision of two black holes. The problem of constructing the embedding diagrams is explicitly presented for the best studied initial data, the Misner geometry. We present a partial solution of the embedding diagrams and discuss issues related to completing the solution.

  8. Managing Dualities in Planned Change Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, J. Kevin; Lee, Michael; Maddux, Kristy; Nabring, Richard; Townsend, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Dualities play an important role in creating the conditions for change and managing planned change initiatives. Building on Seo, Putnam, and Bartunek's (2003) work, this study focuses on the dualities associated with managing change processes. A case study of a planned change process called the Circle of Prosperity Initiative, a multi-stakeholder…

  9. Implementing a University-Wide Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Michaelsen, Larry K.; Styron, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the pilot and first year of a university improvement initiative, developed in response to a reaffirmation mandate from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The initiative focused on increasing student retention and enhancing learning through the campus-wide use of team-based…

  10. Initiation of anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, A.; Staerk, L.; Fosbøl, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing rapidly. We compared characteristics of AF patients initiated on NOACs versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Methods: Using Danish nationwide registry data, we...... identified AF patients initiating either a VKA or a NOAC from 22 August 2011 until 30 September 2016. We compared patient characteristics including age, gender, comorbidities, concomitant pharmacotherapy and CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores in patients initiated on a VKA, dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban....... Differences were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Results: The study population comprised 51 981 AF patients of whom 19 989 (38.5%) were initiated on a VKA, 13 242 (25.5%) on dabigatran, 8475 (16.3%) on rivaroxaban and 10 275 (19.8%) on apixaban. Those patients initiated on apixaban...

  11. Dynamics of an Overdriven Nitromethane Initiation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hároz, E. H.; Rae, P. J.; Armstrong, C. L.; Baca, E. V.; Campbell, C.; Gunderson, J. A.; Holmes, M.; Lopez-Pulliam, I.; Vaughan, L. D.; Dickson, P. M.

    2017-06-01

    For upcoming large-scale HE experiments, an initiation system is needed to ensure uniform and simultaneous burn. To that end, we developed an initiation system based on nitromethane. Initial, small-scale tests characterized the response of the nitromethane in the proposed cylindrical initiator geometry, indicating robust detonation under a variety of conditions such as a plane wave lenses & cylinders of PBX 9501 into a flyer plate or direct-drive. Detonation velocity, as measured by piezoelectric pin time-of-arrival measurements along the length and at bottom of vessel, shows an overdriven response. All cases show a detonation velocity faster than the literature value of 7.3 km s-1 for nitromethane, with the fastest velocity occurring for the 8-detonator, 8'' cylinder case with a velocity = 7.7 km s-1. Streak camera imaging characterized the curvature of the shock front as it arrived at the bottom of the vessel via spark gap. A final test of the initiator system looked at the expansion of the initiator vessel walls via PDV, showing velocities up to 3.5 km s-1. Finally, our initiator was placed inside a secondary vessel containing 1000 lbs of nitromethane. High-speed photography & pin data indicate complete symmetrical burn of the secondary nitromethane.

  12. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  14. Urban Social initiatives and Co-creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    to social class segregation. This paper will describe how interventions in Tilst, in collaboration with local residents, help devise social initiatives that aim at improving the local community identity. The project is concerned with examining the potentials of a place, and with initiating a new use......As part of the 2014 fall semester study programme, Studio Design and Social Innovation, from Aarhus School of Architecture, collaborated with DemokraCity on a community initiative project to revitalize TILST, a town located on the outskirts of Aarhus, Denmark. Demokracity focuses on urban social...

  15. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  16. Initial flux decline and initial rejection increase for swollen ionic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, P.M.; Smolders, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    During the initial stage of operation, membrance performance in hyperfiltration experiments will be time dependent. For swollen ionic membranes, fluxes show an initial decrease while rejections initially increase in magnitude. These phenomena, also referred to as compaction, can be described by a

  17. Fatigue Crack Initiation Properties of Rail Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Fatigue crack initiation properties of rail-steels were determined experimentally. One new and four used rail steels were investigated. The effects of the following parameters were studied: stress ratio (ratio of minimum to maximum stress in a cycle)...

  18. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - National Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  19. Partnering with the PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Landscaping Initiative works with its partners to educate do-it-yourself homeowners, lawn care customers, retailers and consumers at point-of-sale, and schools and school districts about pest management alternatives and proper pesticide use.

  20. 2009 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2009 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  1. 2010 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2010 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  2. Innovation Initiatives in Large Software Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edison, Henry; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jabangwe, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Context: To keep the competitive advantage and adapt to changes in the market and technology, companies need to innovate in an organised, purposeful and systematic manner. However, due to their size and complexity, large companies tend to focus on the structure in maintaining their business, which...... can potentially lower their agility to innovate. Objective:The aims of this study are to provide an overview of the current research on innovation initiatives and to identify the challenges of implementing those initiatives in the context of large software companies. Method: The investigation...... empirical studies on innovation initiative in the context of large software companies. A total of 7 studies are conducted in the context of large software companies, which reported 5 types of initiatives: intrapreneurship, bootlegging, internal venture, spin-off and crowdsourcing. Our study offers three...

  3. Implementing Knowledge Management as a Strategic Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiGiacomo, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    ... are: leadership, organization, technology and leaning. Knowledge management was one of five strategic initiatives in the overall strategic plan, which was developed using Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Scorecard methodology...

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  5. Cabozantinib for Initial Treatment of Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA has approved cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) as an initial treatment for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. The approval adds another tyrosine kinase inhibitor to the available options for patients with advanced kidney cancer.

  6. Data Center Optimization Initiative Strategic Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — On August 1, 2016, the Office of Management and Budget issued memorandum M-16-19, establishing the Data Center Optimization Initiative (DCOI). The DCOI, as described...

  7. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."

  8. Smart roadside initiative : system design document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the software design for the Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) for the delivery of : capabilities related to wireless roadside inspections, electronic screening/virtual weigh stations, universal : electronic commercial vehicle id...

  9. Profiles of an initially perturbed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelsalam, F.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the solutions for the profiles of an electron beam which is launched into a constant magnetic field with an initial boundary slope and injected with a radius which is greater or less than the cathode radius. It has been found that the outermost electron traces sine waves and executes limited excursions when the initial boundary slope corresponds to angles up to 1 degree, no matter whether the initial radius is 0.90 or 1.10 times the radius of the cathode. For initial inclination angles close to 2 degrees, the beam boundary does not preserve a sinusoidal shape, this statement holds true for focusing magnetic flux densities varying from 200x10 -4 to 700x10 -4 weber per square meter

  10. Nonpoint Source: National Water Quality Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Water Quality Initiative (NWQI) is a collaborative between EPA and Natural Resource Conservation Service ( NRCS) that began in 2012. NWQI provides a means to accelerate voluntary, private lands conservation practices

  11. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  12. Nonfasting Versus Initial Fasting Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective evaluation of the ketogenic diet (KD was conducted comparing efficacy and tolerability of the diet with or without initial fasting and fluid restriction and involving university centers in Seoul, Korea.

  13. Initiation of Meiotic Recombination in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is initiated by the induction of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. DSB repair promotes homologous interactions and pairing and leads to the formation of crossovers (COs, which are required for the proper reductional segregation at the first meiotic division. In mammals, several hundred DSBs are generated at the beginning of meiotic prophase by the catalytic activity of SPO11. Currently it is not well understood how the frequency and timing of DSB formation and their localization are regulated. Several approaches in humans and mice have provided an extensive description of the localization of initiation events based on CO mapping, leading to the identification and characterization of preferred sites (hotspots of initiation. This review presents the current knowledge about the proteins known to be involved in this process, the sites where initiation takes place, and the factors that control hotspot localization.

  14. Mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Bird, Eleanora R; Jones, Mikael

    2008-08-15

    To identify mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education, including how devices are obtained, supported, and utilized within the curriculum. An 18-item questionnaire was developed and delivered to academic affairs deans (or closest equivalent) of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Fifty-four colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a 55% completion rate. Thirteen of those schools have implemented mobile computing requirements for students. Twenty schools reported they were likely to formally consider implementing a mobile computing initiative within 5 years. Numerous models of mobile computing initiatives exist in terms of device obtainment, technical support, infrastructure, and utilization within the curriculum. Responders identified flexibility in teaching and learning as the most positive aspect of the initiatives and computer-aided distraction as the most negative, Numerous factors should be taken into consideration when deciding if and how a mobile computing requirement should be implemented.

  15. Network support for system initiated checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  16. Initial response of a rock penetrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcope, D.B.; Grady, D.E.

    1977-12-01

    An analysis based on elastic rod theory is given for the early-time axisymmetric response of pointed penetrators. Results of measurements by laser interferometry of the back surface particle velocity of laboratory scale penetrators impacted by sandstone targets are presented. Values of the initial pressure on the penetrator tip are determined which give good agreement between the analytical and experimental results. These initial tip pressures are found to be approximated by the stress-particle velocity Hugoniot for the target material

  17. Inhomogeneous inflation: The initial-value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, P.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Matzner, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    We present a spatially three-dimensional study for solving the initial-value problem in general relativity for inhomogeneous cosmologies. We use York's conformal approach to solve the constraint equations of Einstein's field equations for scalar field sources and find the initial data which will be used in the evolution. This work constitutes the first stage in the development of a code to analyze the effects of matter and spacetime inhomogeneities on inflation

  18. Merida Initiative: The Answer for Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t MÉRIDA INITIATIVE: THE ANSWER FOR MEXICO ? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL NANCY M. BOZZER United States Air...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mérida Initiative: The Answer for Mexico ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Professor Daniel Coulter Department of National Security and Strategy Walter Bedell

  19. Initial Evaluation of Patients with Presumed Syncope

    OpenAIRE

    Ilknur Can, MD; David G. Benditt, MD

    2008-01-01

    Syncope is a common clinical problem, but nevertheless is but one element of the broader issue of ‘transient loss of consciousness’ (TLOC). The first step is to ascertain whether the patient actually suffered a syncopal episode, and thereafter the goal must be to determine the basis of symptoms with sufficient confidence to assess prognosis and initiate an effective treatment strategy. The initial evaluation of these patients, which usually takes place in an emergency department (ED. or acute...

  20. Operational Initiative in Theory and Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    to your attack. –— Chess Grand Master Garry Kasparov, How Life Imitates Chess In chess , initiative is a dynamic advantage that belongs to the...No pawn weeps for the loss of its queen. Initiative is a mutually exclusive property derived from the turn-based closed-system structure of chess ...more a case of imprecise language than a truly nebulous concept. While the language and definitions change, the uniform of use of the concept