WorldWideScience

Sample records for auxin-induced cucumber adventitious

  1. Nitric oxide is involved in hemin-induced cucumber adventitious rooting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Wei; Xu, Sheng; Li, Meiyue; Han, Bin; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Yuting; Huang, Jingjing; Shen, Wenbiao; Cui, Jin

    2012-07-15

    Hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducer, was shown to exert numerous beneficial physiological functions in animals. Our previous study suggests that HO-1/carbon monoxide (CO) acts as a novel downstream signal system in the auxin-induced adventitious rooting. The objective of this study was to test whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in hemin-induced cucumber adventitious rooting. Applications of hemin or CO aqueous solution to auxin-depleted cucumber explant induced up-regulation of cucumber HO-1 transcripts (CsHO1), NO production, and thereafter adventitious root formation, and some above responses were blocked by the combination treatment with two nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzyme inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, a HO-1 specific inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX, and a specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt. However, these blocking responses were not observed using tungstate, an inhibitor of nitrate reductase, another NO producing enzyme in plants. Furthermore, the guanylate cyclase inhibitors 1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one and 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione reduced root development induced by hemin, whereas the cell-permeable cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) derivative 8-Br-cGMP reversed this effect. Together, our results indicated that at least in our experimental conditions, NO might operate downstream of hemin promoting adventitious root formation probably in a cGMP-dependent manner. PMID:22579358

  2. Stimulation of auxin-induced elongation of cucumber hypocotyl sections by dihydroconiferyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism by which dihydroconiferyl alcohol (DCA) stimulates indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-induced elongation of cucumber hypocotyl sections was studied. Although DCA did not affect the uptake of IAA-5-3H by hypocotyl sections, the endogenous level of IAA-5-3H in DCA-treated sections was much higher than in DCA-untreated ones. IAA-5-3H in the incubation medium was degraded in the presence of hypocotyl sections, and this degradation of IAA was inhibited by DCA. An in vitro experiment with horseradish peroxidase revealed that DCA inhibited the IAA-degrading activity of the oxidase, as did caffeic acid and ferulic acid. These results suggested that DCA enhances IAA-induced cucumber hypocotyl elongation by acting as an antioxidant of IAA. (auth.)

  3. Adventitious staminate flower formation in gibberellin treated gynoecious cucumber plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single gibberellin (A sub(4 + 7)) treatments induced the appearance of staminate floral buds in several consecutive nodes on the main stem of genetically female cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). The staminate buds appeared next to pistillate buds which showed various degrees of degeneration. Similarly, repeated GA treatments induced the appearance of staminate flowers in otherwise strictly hermaphrodite plants, next to bisexual flowers. However, the bisexual buds, unlike the pistillate ones, did not show any deleterious effects of the GA treatment. Therefore, it is inferred that the hormonally induced staminate buds did not develop by sexual reversion of would-be pistillate or bisexual buds, but rather, represent adventitious buds which, in normally grown female or hermaphrodite plants, never develop. It thus seems that predetermined pistillate or bisexual buds do not change into staminate ones, while change in the reverse direction has been demonstrated in the past (at least for the gynoecious ones). The effectiveness of the GA treatment in the gynoecious plants showed an acropetal gradient both within the affected region, as well as along the main stem. Autoradiographic histological examinations showed that the course of development of the induced staminate floral bud did not differ from that of normally developing buds. (auth.)

  4. Nitric oxide is required for hydrogen gas-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongchao; Liao, Weibiao; Wang, Meng; Niu, Lijuan; Xu, Qingqing; Jin, Xin

    2016-05-20

    Hydrogen gas (H2) is involved in plant development and stress responses. Cucumber explants were used to study whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in H2-induced adventitious root development. The results revealed that 50% and 100% hydrogen-rich water (HRW) apparently promoted the development of adventitious root in cucumber. While, the responses of HRW-induced adventitious rooting were blocked by a specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), NO synthase (NOS) enzyme inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methylester hydrochloride (l-NAME) and nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor NaN3. HRW also increased NO content and NOS and NR activity both in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Moreover, molecular evidence showed that HRW up-regulated NR genes expression in explants. The results indicate the importance of NOS and NR enzymes, which might be responsible for NO production in explants during H2-induced root organogenesis. Additionally, peroxidase (POD) and indoleacetic acid oxidase (IAAO) activity was significantly decreased in the explants treated with HRW, while HRW treatment significantly increased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. In addition, cPTIO, l-NAME and NaN3 inhibited the actions of HRW on the activity of these enzymes. Together, NO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting, and NO may be acting downstream in plant H2 signaling cascade. PMID:27010347

  5. Light inhibits gravity-regulated peg formation and asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible CsIAA1 in the cortex of the transition zone in cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Saito, Yuko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    When cucumber seedlings are grown horizontally, a specialized protuberance, termed the peg, develops on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Gravimorphogenesis regulates the lateral positioning of the peg in the transition zone and it has been suggested that auxin plays an important role in peg formation in cucumber seedlings. Here, we found that light inhibited auxin-regulated peg formation. In the transition zone of horizontally positioned cucumber seedlings grown in the dark, we detected an asymmetric accumulation of mRNA from the auxin-inducible gene CsIAA1 in the epidermis and cortex. However, in seedlings grown under illumination, this asymmetry was greatly reduced. In dark- and light-grown seedlings, application of 10 -3 M indole-3-acetic acid induced peg formation on both the lower and upper sides of the transition zone. These results suggest that light inhibits peg formation via modification of auxin distribution and/or levels in the transition zone of cucumber seedlings.

  6. Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne

    2011-01-01

    There is a reason for the saying "cool as a cucumber." Cucumbers can be 20 degrees cooler on the inside than the outside temperature. It loves sunshine and is one of summer's favorite fruits (yes, it is a fruit because it has seeds. Interesting). Cucumbers are a member of the gourd family, which also includes pumpkins, zucchini, watermelon, and other squashes. Cucumbers are available year round, but honestly I wouldn't touch a cucumber until summertime, which is about August in Logan. If you ...

  7. Auxin Control in the Formation of Adventitious Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberia I. POP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious rooting is a complex process and a key step in the vegetative propagation of economically important woody, horticultural and agricultural species, playing an important role in the successful production of elite clones. The formation of adventitious roots is a quantitative genetic trait regulated by both environmental and endogenous factors. Among phytohormones, auxin plays an essential role in regulating roots development and it has been shown to be intimately involved in the process of adventitious rooting. Great progress has been made in elucidating the auxin-induced genes and auxin signaling pathway, especially in auxin response Aux/IAA and Auxin Response Factor gene families. Although some important aspects of adventitious and lateral rooting signaling have been revealed, the intricate signaling network remains poorly understood. This review summarizes some of the current knowledge on the physiological aspects of adventitious root formation and highlights the recent progress made in the identification of putative molecular players involved in the control of adventitious rooting. Despite much has been discovered regarding the effects and regulation of auxins on plant growth since the Darwin experiments, there is much that remains unknown.

  8. Protein synthesis and auxin-induced growth: inhibitor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, G.T.; Cleland, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    We have compared the effects of cycloheximide (CHI) and two other rapid and effective inhibitors of protein synthesis, pactamycin and 2-(4-methyl-2,6-dinitroanilino)-N-methyl proprionamide (MDMP), on protein synthesis, respiration, auxin-induced growth and H/sup +/-excretion of Avena sativa L. coleoptiles. All three compounds inhibit protein synthesis without affecting respiration. The effectiveness of the inhibitors against H/sup +/-excretion and growth correlates with their ability to inhibit protein synthesis. Both CHI and MDMP inhibit auxin-induced H/sup +/-excretion after a latent period of 5 to 8 min, and inhibit growth after a 8 to 10 min lag. These results support the idea that continued protein synthesis is required in the initial stages of the growth-promoting action of auxin.

  9. Improvement of adventitious root formation in flax using hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takáč, Tomáš; Obert, Bohuš; Rolčík, Jakub; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-09-25

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of oil and fiber. In vitro manipulations of flax are used for genetic improvement and breeding while improvements in adventitious root formation are important for biotechnological programs focused on regeneration and vegetative propagation of genetically valuable plant material. Additionally, flax hypocotyl segments possess outstanding morphogenetic capacity, thus providing a useful model for the investigation of flax developmental processes. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and auxin with respect to reprogramming flax hypocotyl cells for root morphogenetic development. Exogenous auxin induced the robust formation of adventitious roots from flax hypocotyl segments while the addition of hydrogen peroxide further enhanced this process. The levels of endogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) were positively correlated with increased root formation in response to exogenous auxin (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; NAA). Histochemical staining of the hypocotyl segments revealed that hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase, but not superoxide, were positively correlated with root formation. Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that endogenous levels of hydrogen peroxide were controlled by peroxidases during root formation from hypocotyl segments. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide positively affected flax adventitious root formation by regulating the endogenous auxin levels. Consequently, this agent can be applied to increase flax regeneration capacity for biotechnological purposes such as improved plant rooting. PMID:26921706

  10. Inhibition of auxin-induced ethylene production by lycoricidinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lycoricidinol, a natural growth inhibitor isolated from bulbs of Lycoris radiata Herb. strongly suppressed auxin-induced ethylene production from the hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilczek) seedlings. The inhibitor did not significantly inhibit ethylene formation from its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), during short-term (up to 4h) incubation. The ACC content in tissue treated with IAA was reduced by lycoricidinol in close parallel with the inhibition of ethylene production. Examination of radioactive metabolites in tissues labeled with 3,4-14C-methionine indicated that reduction of the ACC content was not due to any possible promotive effect of lycoricidinol on conjugation of ACC with malonate. Lycoricidinol showed no inhibitory effect on the activity of ACC synthase if applied in vitro, but it almost completely abolished the increase in the enzyme activity when applied in vivo during incubation of the tissue with IAA. Lycoricidinol also strongly inhibited incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein in the tissue. The suppression of the enzyme induction and, in turn, that of ethylene production by lycoricidinol were interpreted as being due to the inhibition of protein synthesis. (author)

  11. Inhibition of auxin-induced ethylene production by lycoricidinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bin-G.; Lee, June-S.; Oh, Seung-Eun (Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Horiuchi, Yuko; Imaseki, Hidemasa

    1984-03-01

    Lycoricidinol, a natural growth inhibitor isolated from bulbs of Lycoris radiata Herb. strongly suppressed auxin-induced ethylene production from the hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilczek) seedlings. The inhibitor did not significantly inhibit ethylene formation from its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), during short-term (up to 4h) incubation. The ACC content in tissue treated with IAA was reduced by lycoricidinol in close parallel with the inhibition of ethylene production. Examination of radioactive metabolites in tissues labeled with 3,4-/sup 14/C-methionine indicated that reduction of the ACC content was not due to any possible promotive effect of lycoricidinol on conjugation of ACC with malonate. Lycoricidinol showed no inhibitory effect on the activity of ACC synthase if applied in vitro, but it almost completely abolished the increase in the enzyme activity when applied in vivo during incubation of the tissue with IAA. Lycoricidinol also strongly inhibited incorporation of /sup 14/C-leucine into protein in the tissue. The suppression of the enzyme induction and, in turn, that of ethylene production by lycoricidinol were interpreted as being due to the inhibition of protein synthesis.

  12. Evidence that auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyls involves proton excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayle, D.L. (San Diego State Univ., CA); Cleland, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    The role of H/sup +/ excretion in auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyl tissues has been investigated, using tissues whose cuticle was rendered permeable to protons or buffers by scarification (scrubbing). Indoleacetic acid induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion after a lag of 10 to 12 minutes. Cycloheximide inhibits growth and causes the tissues to remove protons from the medium. Neutral buffers (pH 7.0) inhibit auxin-induced growth of scrubbed but not intact sections; the inhibition increases as the buffers strength is increased. Both live and frozen-thawed sections, in the absence of auxin, extend in response to exogenously supplied protons. Fusicoccin induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion at rates greater than does auxin. These results indicate that H/sup +/ excretion is involved in the initiation of auxin-induced elongation in soybean hypocotyl tissue.

  13. A chemical pollen suppressant inhibits auxin-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesper, M.J. (Univ. of Dayton, OH (USA)); Cross, J.W. (Sogetal, Inc., Hayward, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Chemical inhibitors of pollen development having a phenylcinnoline carboxylate structure were found to inhibit IAA- and 1-NAA-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections. The inhibitor (100 {mu}M) used in these experiments caused approx. 35% reduction in auxin-induced growth over the auxin concentration range of 0.3 to 100 {mu}M. Growth inhibition was noted as a lengthening of the latent period and a decrease in the rate of an auxin-induced growth response. An acid growth response to pH 5 buffer in abraded sections was not impaired. The velocity of basipetal transport of ({sup 3}H)IAA through the coleoptile sections also was not inhibited by the compound, nor was uptake of ({sup 3}H)IAA. Similarly, the inhibitor does not appear to alter auxin-induced H{sup +} secretion. We suggest that the agent targets some other process necessary for auxin-dependent growth.

  14. Auxin-induced modifications of cell wall polysaccharides in cat coleoptile segments. Effect of galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced cell elongation in oat coleoptile segments. Cell elongation induced by exogenously applied auxin is controlled by factors such as auxin uptake, cell wall loosening, osmotic concentration of sap and hydraulic conductivity. However, galactose does not have any effect on these factors. The results discussed in this paper led to the conclusion that galactose does not affect cell wall loosening which controls rapid growth, but inhibits cell wall synthesis which is required to maintain long-term growth

  15. Regulated protein depletion by the auxin-inducible degradation system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Martina; Blattner, Ariane C; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of consequences resulting after experimental elimination of gene function has been and will continue to be an extremely successful strategy in biological research. Mutational elimination of gene function has been widely used in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference is used extensively as well. In the fly, exceptionally precise temporal and spatial control over elimination of gene function can be achieved in combination with sophisticated transgenic approaches and clonal analyses. However, the methods that act at the gene and transcript level cannot eliminate protein products which are already present at the time when mutant cells are generated or RNA interference is started. Targeted inducible protein degradation is therefore of considerable interest for controlled rapid elimination of gene function. To this end, a degradation system was developed in yeast exploiting TIR1, a plant F box protein, which can recruit proteins with an auxin-inducible degron to an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, but only in the presence of the phytohormone auxin. Here we demonstrate that the auxin-inducible degradation system functions efficiently also in Drosophila melanogaster. Neither auxin nor TIR1 expression have obvious toxic effects in this organism, and in combination they result in rapid degradation of a target protein fused to the auxin-inducible degron. PMID:27010248

  16. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  17. Cucumber cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for business and development personnel who want to use Cucumber for behavior-driven development and test automation. Readers with some familiarity with Cucumber will find this book of most benefit. Since the main objective of this book is to create test automation frameworks, previous experience in automation will be helpful.

  18. Adventitious Roots and Secondary Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy; Eun Joo Hahn; Kee Yoeup Paek

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a rich source of valuable secondary metabolites and in the recent years plant cell, tissue and organ cultures have been developed as an important alternative sources for the production of these compounds. Adventitious roots have been successfully induced in many plant species and cultured for the production of high value secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial importance. Adoption of elicitation methods have shown improved synthesis of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. Development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors has opened up feasibilities of production of secondary metabolites at the industrial levels. In the present review we summarize the progress made in recent past in the area of adventitious root cultures for the production of secondary metabolites.

  19. Rapid Protein Depletion in Human Cells by Auxin-Inducible Degron Tagging with Short Homology Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoaki Natsume

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying the role of essential proteins is dependent upon a method for rapid inactivation, in order to study the immediate phenotypic consequences. Auxin-inducible degron (AID technology allows rapid depletion of proteins in animal cells and fungi, but its application to human cells has been limited by the difficulties of tagging endogenous proteins. We have developed a simple and scalable CRISPR/Cas-based method to tag endogenous proteins in human HCT116 and mouse embryonic stem (ES cells by using donor constructs that harbor synthetic short homology arms. Using a combination of AID tagging with CRISPR/Cas, we have generated conditional alleles of essential nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in HCT116 cells, which can then be depleted very rapidly after the addition of auxin to the culture medium. This approach should greatly facilitate the functional analysis of essential proteins, particularly those of previously unknown function.

  20. The epidermis coordinates auxin-induced stem growth in response to shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procko, Carl; Burko, Yogev; Jaillais, Yvon; Ljung, Karin; Long, Jeff A; Chory, Joanne

    2016-07-01

    Growth of a complex multicellular organism requires coordinated changes in diverse cell types. These cellular changes generate organs of the correct size, shape, and functionality. In plants, the growth hormone auxin induces stem elongation in response to shade; however, which cell types of the stem perceive the auxin signal and contribute to organ growth is poorly understood. Here, we blocked the transcriptional response to auxin within specific tissues to show that auxin signaling is required in many cell types for correct hypocotyl growth in shade, with a key role for the epidermis. Combining genetic manipulations in Arabidopsis thaliana with transcriptional profiling of the hypocotyl epidermis from Brassica rapa, we show that auxin acts in the epidermis in part by inducing activity of the locally acting, growth-promoting brassinosteroid pathway. Our findings clarify cell-specific auxin function in the hypocotyl and highlight the complexity of cell type interactions within a growing organ. PMID:27401556

  1. Rapid Protein Depletion in Human Cells by Auxin-Inducible Degron Tagging with Short Homology Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Kiyomitsu, Tomomi; Saga, Yumiko; Kanemaki, Masato T

    2016-04-01

    Studying the role of essential proteins is dependent upon a method for rapid inactivation, in order to study the immediate phenotypic consequences. Auxin-inducible degron (AID) technology allows rapid depletion of proteins in animal cells and fungi, but its application to human cells has been limited by the difficulties of tagging endogenous proteins. We have developed a simple and scalable CRISPR/Cas-based method to tag endogenous proteins in human HCT116 and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by using donor constructs that harbor synthetic short homology arms. Using a combination of AID tagging with CRISPR/Cas, we have generated conditional alleles of essential nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in HCT116 cells, which can then be depleted very rapidly after the addition of auxin to the culture medium. This approach should greatly facilitate the functional analysis of essential proteins, particularly those of previously unknown function. PMID:27052166

  2. Auxin-induced acidification is not due to the hydration of respiratory CO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbauer, S.; Rayle, D.; Johnson, K.; Cleland, R.

    1978-01-01

    Sloane and Sadava, in 1975, proposed that auxin-induced cell wall acidification is largely due to carbonic acid derived from respired CO/sub 2/. In this paper we show that the pH values calculated by Sloane and Sadava from measured CO/sub 2/ concentrations do not agree with either theoretical or measured pH values. In addition we show that in an open beaker system the speed with which CO/sub 2/ escapes to the atmosphere is too rapid to allow any substantial accumulation of carbonic acid. Lastly, vigorous bubbling with N/sub 2/ of the acidified medium surrounding auxin-treated pea stem segments does not cause a substantial increase in the pH of the medium. For these reasons we feel that the hypothesis which states that growth-regulator-enhanced wall acidification arises largely from the hydration of respiratory-derived CO/sub 2/ is disproved.

  3. Changes in glycosidase activities during galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide inhibition of auxin induced growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilisics, Ladislav; Vojtassák, Jozef; Capek, Peter; Kollárová, Karin; Lisková, Desana

    2004-07-01

    The inhibition of 2,4-D-induced elongation growth by galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) in pea stem segments (Pisum sativum L. cv. Tyrkys) after 18 h of incubation results in changes of extracellular, intracellular and cell wall glycosidase activities (beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-mannosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-D-xylosidase, alpha-D-galactosidase, and alpha-L-arabinosidase). GGMOs lowered the glycosidase activities in the extracellular fraction, while in the cell wall fractions their activities were markedly increased. The intracellular enzyme alpha-d-galactosidase increased while the beta-d-galactosidase decreased in activity in response to the GGMO treatment. Extracellular enzymes showed low values of activities in comparison with intracellular and cell wall glycosidases. It is evident that GGMOs can alter auxin induced elongation and glycosidase activities in different compartments of the cell, however, the mode and site of their action remains unclear. PMID:15279996

  4. Two distinct signaling pathways participate in auxin-induced swelling of pea epidermal protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Mutsumi; Haga, Ken; Napier, Richard M; Iino, Moritoshi

    2004-02-01

    Protoplast swelling was used to investigate auxin signaling in the growth-limiting stem epidermis. The protoplasts of epidermal cells were isolated from elongating internodes of pea (Pisum sativum). These protoplasts swelled in response to auxin, providing the clearest evidence that the epidermis can directly perceive auxin. The swelling response to the natural auxin IAA showed a biphasic dose response curve but that to the synthetic auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) showed a simple bell-shaped dose response curve. The responses to IAA and NAA were further analyzed using antibodies raised against ABP1 (auxin-binding protein 1), and their dependency on extracellular ions was investigated. Two signaling pathways were resolved for IAA, an ABP1-dependent pathway and an ABP1-independent pathway that is much more sensitive to IAA than the former. The response by the ABP1 pathway was eliminated by anti-ABP1 antibodies, had a higher sensitivity to NAA, and did not depend on extracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, the response by the non-ABP1 pathway was not affected by anti-ABP1 antibodies, had no sensitivity to NAA, and depended on extracellular Ca(2+). The swelling by either pathway required extracellular K(+) and Cl(-). The auxin-induced growth of pea internode segments showed similar response patterns, including the occurrence of two peaks in the dose response curve for IAA and the difference in Ca(2+) requirements. It is suggested that two signaling pathways participate in auxin-induced internode growth and that the non-ABP1 pathway is more likely to be involved in the control of growth by constitutive concentrations of endogenous auxin. PMID:14764902

  5. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  6. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.

  7. Auxins Induce Tryptophan Decarboxylase Activity in Radicles of Catharanthus Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Rob J.; Alarco, Anne-Marie; De Luca, Vincenzo

    1992-01-01

    Germinating seedlings of Catharanthus roseus produce monoterpenoid indole alkaloids as a result of a transient increase of tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) activity. The influence of auxins on this transient rise of TDC activity was studied. External application of indolebutyric acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at a concentration of 20 to 40 μm enhanced and prolonged the rise in TDC activity in developing seedlings. Auxin treatment also influenced the morphology of the seedlings; it induced a shortening and thickening of the hypocotyl and the radicle and promoted the initiation of lateral roots in the radicle. During development, the radicles of auxin-treated seedlings displayed a gradual increase in TDC activity that was absent in the radicles of untreated controls. Examination of immunoblots revealed anti-TDC reactive proteins in extracts from radicles of auxin-treated seedlings, but none in extracts from radicles of control seedlings. In contrast, TDC activity and immunoreactive protein levels in the aerial parts of controls and auxin-treated seedlings were comparable. Our results indicate that externally applied auxins induce both abnormal development and TDC activity in the radicles of Catharanthus seedlings. Although auxins slightly delayed the light-mediated induction of the cotyledon-specific last step in vindoline biosynthesis (i.e. acetylcoenzyme A: deacetylvindolin-O-acetyltransferase activity), seedlings still synthesized vindoline, one of the major alkaloid end products. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653009

  8. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-12-30

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III-IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III-IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼ 10- to ∼ 100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes. PMID:25512488

  9. Auxin-induced changes in the incorporation of /sup 3/H-amino acids into soybean ribosomal proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, R.L.; Key, J.L.

    1976-06-01

    Auxin-induced activation of 80S ribosomes and polyribosome formation in mature soybean (Glycine max var. Hawkeye) hypocotyl (R. L. Travis, J. M. Anderson, and J. L. Key. 1973. Plant Physiol. 52: 608-612) in the presence of a mixture of radioactive amino acids correlates with an increased specific radioactivity of at least three ribosomal proteins; the labeling of one of these increased severalfold above the control level. Results of experiments with 5-fluorouracil and cycloheximide indicated that the proteins in question were synthesized in response to auxin and became associated with pre-existing ribosomes. Ribosome dissociation experiments indicated that these proteins were associated with the 60S ribosome subunit.

  10. Canopy shade causes a rapid and transient arrest in leaf development through auxin-induced cytokinin oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabelli, Monica; Possenti, Marco; Sessa, Giovanna; Ciolfi, Andrea; Sassi, Massimiliano; Morelli, Giorgio; Ruberti, Ida

    2007-08-01

    A plant grown under canopies perceives the reduction in the ratio of red (R) to far-red (FR) light as a warning of competition, and enhances elongation growth in an attempt to overgrow its neighbors. Here, we report that the same low R/FR signal that induces hypocotyl elongation also triggers a rapid arrest of leaf primordium growth, ensuring that plant resources are redirected into extension growth. The growth arrest induced by low R/FR depends on auxin-induced cytokinin breakdown in incipient vein cells of developing primordia, thus demonstrating the existence of a previously unrecognized regulatory circuit underlying plant response to canopy shade. PMID:17671088

  11. Inhibition of strigolactones promotes adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Beveridge, Christine A; Geelen, Danny

    2012-06-01

    Roots that form from non-root tissues (adventitious roots) are crucial for cutting propagation in the forestry and horticulture industries. Strigolactone has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of these roots in both Arabidopsis and pea using strigolactone deficient mutants and exogenous hormone applications. Strigolactones are produced from a carotenoid precursor which can be blocked using the widely available but broad terpenoid biosynthesis blocker, fluridone. We demonstrate here that fluridone can be used to promote adventitious rooting in the model species Pisum sativum (pea). In addition, in the garden species Plumbago auriculata and Jasminium polyanthum fluridone was equally as successful at promoting roots as a commercial rooting compound containing NAA and IBA. Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of strigolactone signaling has the potential to be used to improve adventitious rooting in commercially relevant species. PMID:22580687

  12. Transcription of TIR1-Controlled Genes Can be Regulated within 10 Min by an Auxin-Induced Process. Can TIR1 be the Receptor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labusch, Corinna; Effendi, Yunus; Fulda, Martin; Scherer, Günther F E

    2016-01-01

    ABP1 and TIR1/AFBs are known as auxin receptors. ABP1 is linked to auxin responses several of which are faster than 10 min. TIR1 regulates auxin-induced transcription of early auxin genes also within minutes. We use transcription of such TIR1-dependent genes as indicator of TIR1 activity to show the rapid regulation of TIR1 by exogenous auxin. To this end, we used quantification of transcription of a set of fifteen early auxin-induced reporter genes at t = 10 and t = 30 min to measure this as a TIR1-dependent auxin response. We conducted this study in 22 mutants of auxin transporters (pin5, abcb1, abcb19, and aux1/lax3), protein kinases and phosphatases (ibr5, npr1, cpk3, CPK3-OX, d6pk1, d6pkl1-1, d6pkl3-2, d6pkl1-1/d6pkl2-2, and d6pkl1-1/d6pkl3-2), of fatty acid metabolism (fad2-1, fad6-1, ssi2, lacs4, lacs9, and lacs4/lacs9) and receptors (tir1, tir1/afb2, and tir1/afb3) and compared them to the wild type. After 10 min auxin application, in 18 out of 22 mutants mis-regulated expression of at least one reporter was found, and in 15 mutants transcription of two-to-three out of five selected auxin reporter genes was mis-regulated. After 30 min of auxin application to mutant plants, mis-regulation of reporter genes ranged from one to 13 out of 15 tested reporter genes. Those genes chosen as mutants were themselves not regulated in their expression by auxin for at least 1 h, excluding an influence of TIR1/AFBs on their transcription. The expression of TIR1/AFB genes was also not modulated by auxin for up to 3 h. Together, this excludes a feedback or feedforward of these mutant genes/proteins on TIR1/AFBs output of transcription in this auxin-induced response. However, an auxin-induced response needed an as yet unknown auxin receptor. We suggest that the auxin receptor necessary for the fast auxin-induced transcription modulation could be, instead, ABP1. The alternative hypothesis would be that auxin-induced expression of a protein, initiated by TIR1/AFBs receptors

  13. Effect of benzyladenine (BA on auxin-induced stem elongation and thickening in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that stem elongation in tulip is induced by the auxin produced in the leaves and gynoecium. Excision of the flower bud and all the leaves in an early stage of tulip growth resulted in almost total inhibition of stem growth, but the inhibition was completely recovered by the exogenous application of auxin to the place from which the flower bud had been removed. Hormonal control of stem thickening in tulip is much less known. Additional application of benzyladenine (BA to the tulip stem by soaking a cotton wick wrapped around all the internodes only slightly inhibited stem growth induced by IAA at a concentration of 0.1 and 2.0%, but substantially stimulated the thickening of all the internodes. The treatment of the tulip stem with benzyladenine enabled direct contact of the cytokinin with the epidermis, which is an important factor in stem elongation. The experiment conducted in field conditions also showed that BA only slightly inhibited the elongation of the fourth internode induced by IAA, but stimulated the thickening of that internode. IAA applied at a concentration of 2.0% stimulated ethylene production to a much higher extent than IAA at a concentration of 0.1%, and BA affected the auxin-induced ethylene production only to a small extent. Metabolic significance of these findings is discussed.

  14. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation. PMID:22323776

  15. Inhibition of strigolactones promotes adventitious root formation

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Beveridge, Christine A.; Geelen, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Roots that form from non-root tissues (adventitious roots) are crucial for cutting propagation in the forestry and horticulture industries. Strigolactone has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of these roots in both Arabidopsis and pea using strigolactone deficient mutants and exogenous hormone applications. Strigolactones are produced from a carotenoid precursor which can be blocked using the widely available but broad terpenoid biosynthesis blocker, fluridone. We demonstrate her...

  16. Adventitial Cystic Disease of the Popliteal Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Kawarai, Shun-ichi; Fukasawa, Manabu; Kawahara, Yu

    2012-01-01

    We describe a patient with adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery with intermittent claudication involving the right calf during exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) revealed a cystic lesion that encircled and compressed the popliteal artery. Resection of the cyst involving a segment of the affected popliteal artery and interposing an autologous vein graft resolved the symptoms, and the postoperative course was uneventful. The cyst was histologic...

  17. Gravity-induced modification of auxin transport and distribution for peg formation in cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Higashitani, A.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone between hypocotyl and root, whereas seedlings grown in a horizontal position on the ground developed a peg on the concave (lower) side of the gravitropically bending transition zone. Using an auxin-inducible gene, CS-IAA1, we showed that upon gravistimulation the auxin concentration on the upper side of the horizontally placed transition zone is reduced to a level below the threshold necessary for peg formation. In this study, to elucidate the role of auxin in the lateral placement of peg formation, we measured the contents of endogenous auxin in the transition zone. The content of free IAA was lower and conjugated IAA was more abundant on the upper side of the transition zone of the gravistimulated seedlings compared with the lower side. These results support the idea that a decrease in auxin level due to a modification of auxin transport or metabolism causes the suppression of peg formation on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. Cucumber seedlings treated with auxin transport inhibitors exhibited agravitropic growth and developed a peg on each side of the transition zone. Application of auxin transport inhibitors caused an increase in CS-IAA1 mRNA (an auxin-inducible gene) at the transition zone. To analyze auxin transport system for peg formation, we isolated auxin influx carrier, CS-AUX1, and auxin efflux carrier, CS-PIN1, from cucumber plants. The accumulation of CS-AUX1 and CS-PIN1 mRNAs was observed at vascular tissue and epidermis in the transition zone. The level of CS-AUX1 mRNA was lower on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. The results suggest that the transition zone is an additional source of auxin, and that both influx and efflux of auxin in the cells of the transition zone control cytoplasmic concentration of auxin for peg formation.

  18. Thiometon residues in cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Islamic Republic of Iran, vegetables are treated repeatedly with pesticides to control pests and diseases. Crops harvested shortly after pesticide application are probably contaminated by pesticides that are toxic to humans. Pesticide residues in vegetables are especially important, since these crops are ingested directly by humans. In recent years, farmers have been using more persistent pesticides to protect their crops because of increasing pesticide prices. Field trials were carried out to determine the residues of thiometon, a systemic insecticide used on cucumber. In 1993 and 1994, Ekatin (a 25% thiometon emulsifiable concentrate) was applied with a knapsack sprayer to cucumber (var. Daminus) at late flowering at dilutions of 1:1000 and 2:1000. Plots were 25 m2 in three replicates and were sampled 3, 6, 10, 15, 19 and 24 days after application. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleanup was carried out using thin layer chromatography. Thiometon and two metabolites (thiometon sulphide and thiometon sulphone) were analyzed by gas chromatography. In 1994, the amount of thiometon sulphide determined 24 days treatment was 2 ppm in the peeled cucumber, which exceeded the maximum residue limit of 0.5 ppm. The total thiometon residues were higher in the peeled cucumber than those in the cucumber peel. Thus, peeling is ineffective for reducing the systemic residues of thiometon. Likewise, in this experiment lower dilution caused higher rather than lower thiometon residues in cucumber. The rapid disappearance of thiometon residues 2 weeks after treatment suggests that storing cucumbers at room temperature may be a better strategy for reducing excessive thiometon residues. Alternatively, a contact insecticide could be used. Thus, the bulk of the surface residues could be removed by washing or peeling. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  19. Auxin Control in the Formation of Adventitious Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberia I. POP; Pamfil, Doru; Bellini, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Adventitious rooting is a complex process and a key step in the vegetative propagation of economically important woody, horticultural and agricultural species, playing an important role in the successful production of elite clones. The formation of adventitious roots is a quantitative genetic trait regulated by both environmental and endogenous factors. Among phytohormones, auxin plays an essential role in regulating roots development and it has been shown to be intimately involved in the pro...

  20. An Integrated Strategy to Identify Key Genes in Almond Adventitious Shoot Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic transformation usually depends on efficient adventitious regeneration systems. In almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), regeneration of transgenic adventitious shoots was achieved but with low efficiency. Histological studies identified two main stages of organogenesis in almond explants that ...

  1. Adventitious sprouting of Pinus leiophylla in response to salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Casas, Marcos; Zwiazek, Janusz J.

    2014-01-01

    & Context Although adventitious shoots are produced in many tree species in response to injury, little is known about the effects of salinity on sprouting. & Aims The main objective was to examine the sprouting capacity of Pinus leiophylla seedlings in relation to injury and physiological changes induced by NaCl. & Methods Seedlings were grown in controlled-environment growth rooms and treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 mM NaCl. Numbers of adventitious shoots were recorded and growth and physi...

  2. The auxin-inducible GH3 homologue Pp-GH3.16 is downregulated in Pinus pinaster root systems on ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S M; Hitchin, S; Melayah, D; Pandey, A K; Raffier, C; Henderson, J; Marmeisse, R; Gay, G

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to determine whether auxin-regulated plant genes play a role in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment, we screened a Pinus pinaster root cDNA library for auxin-upregulated genes. This allowed the identification of a cDNA, Pp-GH3.16, which encodes a polypeptide sharing extensive homologies with GH3 proteins of different plants. Pp-GH3.16 was specifically upregulated by auxins and was not affected by cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid or ethylene, or by heat shock, water stress or anoxia. Pp-GH3.16 mRNAs were quantified in pine roots inoculated with two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Hebeloma cylindrosporum and Rhizopogon roseolus. Surprisingly, Pp-GH3.16 was downregulated following inoculation with both fungal species. The downregulation was most rapid on establishment of symbiosis with an indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-overproducing mutant of H. cylindrosporum, which overproduced mycorrhizas characterized by a hypertrophic Hartig net. This indicates that, despite being auxin-inducible, Pp-GH3.16 can be downregulated on establishment of symbiosis with a fungus that releases auxin. By contrast, Pp-GH3.16 was not downregulated in pine root systems inoculated with a nonmycorrhizal mutant of H. cylindrosporum, suggesting that the downregulation we observed in mycorrhizal root systems was a component of the molecular cross-talk between symbiotic partners at the origin of differentiation of symbiotic structures. PMID:16608463

  3. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Yun Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Nah, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Do-Soon; Natesan, Senthil; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng Meyer is a traditional medicinal plant famous for its strong therapeutic effects and serves as an important herbal medicine. To understand and manipulate genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways including ginsenosides, transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng is essential. Methods RNA-seq analysis of adventitious roots of two P. ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Cheongsun (CS), was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. After transcripts were assembled, expression profiling was performed. Results Assemblies were generated from ∼85 million and ∼77 million high-quality reads from CP and CS cultivars, respectively. A total of 35,527 and 27,716 transcripts were obtained from the CP and CS assemblies, respectively. Annotation of the transcriptomes showed that approximately 90% of the transcripts had significant matches in public databases. We identified several candidate genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis. In addition, a large number of transcripts (17%) with different gene ontology designations were uniquely detected in adventitious roots compared to normal ginseng roots. Conclusion This study will provide a comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of ginseng adventitious roots, and a way for successful transcriptome analysis and profiling of resource plants with less genomic information. The transcriptome profiling data generated in this study are available in our newly created adventitious root transcriptome database (http://im-crop.snu.ac.kr/transdb/index.php) for public use. PMID:25379008

  4. Lymphocytes and the Adventitial Immune Response in Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kirsti A.; Lipinski, Michael J.; Doran, Amanda C.; Skaflen, Marcus D.; Fuster, Valentin; McNamara, Coleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Though much of the research on atherosclerosis has focused on the intimal accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells, there is an increasing amount of interest in the role of the adventitia in coordinating the immune response in atherosclerosis. In this review of the contributions of the adventitia and adventitial lymphocytes to the development of atherosclerosis, we discuss recent research on the formation and structural nature of adventitial immune aggregates, potential mechanisms of crosstalk between the intima, media, and adventitia, specific contributions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, and the role of the vasa vasorum and surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Furthermore, we highlight techniques for the imaging of lymphocytes in the vasculature. PMID:22427326

  5. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Yun Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Nah, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Do-Soon; Natesan, Senthil; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng Meyer is a traditional medicinal plant famous for its strong therapeutic effects and serves as an important herbal medicine. To understand and manipulate genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways including ginsenosides, transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng is essential. Methods RNA-seq analysis of adventitious roots of two P. ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Cheongsun (CS), was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. After transcripts were assembled, e...

  6. Phenotype change and migration of adventitial fibroblasts during postangioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To verify fibroblasts translocation from adventitia into neointima by labeling adventitia cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU) after angioplasty, and to explore the relationship of adventitial fibroblast with restenosis. Methods: Vascular restenosis model was created by injured intima of common carotid artery (CCA) of mouse with guide wire, adventitial fibroblasts were labeled with BrDU, and dynamic distribution of myofibroblasts in adventitia, media and neoitima was observed at different times (3 d, 7 d, 14 d and 28 d) by means of single/double-label immunohistochemistry, light microscope, electronic microscope and image analysis system. Results: 1.Immunohistochemistry: More adventitial fibroblasts combined with BrDU could be found in adventitia on the 3rd day of postangioplasty, and the number of this kind of cells reached the peak on 7th day, and at the same time fibroblasts changed their phenotypes and became myofibroblasts, which produced α-actin and extracellular matrix (ECM). On 14th day, the number of the positive cells decreased in adventitia, increased in media and neointima associated with intima thickening; on 28th day, while the number of fibroblasts labeled by BrDU returned to the basic-line in adventitia, media and intima, nevertheless, intima thickening and vascular stenosis and intimal ELM precipitation were still present. There were significant differences in the number of fibroblasts labeled with BrDU located in three layers of artery (P<0.05). 2. Electronic microscope: After angioplasty, the plasm of fibroblasts became rich, mitochondrious and increase of Golgi apparatus; and the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulums rose with more secretory granules, together with a great amount of collagen synthesized forming the microfilaments; on days of 7th and 14th, the wide pseudopodia of myofibroblasts could be found extending into the windows on the external elastic lamina (ELL) and the internal elastic lamina (ILL); and showing the tendency

  7. Resistance to Root-knot Nematodes in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, Todd C.; Walters, S. Alan; Barker, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the greenhouse. In one experiment, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and horned cucumber (C. metuliferus) cultigens were evaluated for resistance to four root-knot nematode species (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica), and, in a second experiment, a standard (12-week) test was compared with a rapid (6-week) test. In the first experiment, horned cucumber cultigens varied in response to the Meloidogyne species. 'Sumter' cucumber was more sus...

  8. Adventitious shoot formation on leaf cuttings in vivo, a tool in horticulture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adventitious shoot formation implies the regeneration or development of shoots from fully differentiated tissue. Its application has, after the rise of in vitro culture, assumed large proportions. Then the question arose whether in vivo adventitious shoot formation could not be applied more widely i

  9. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVerstraeten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound-induced adventitious root (AR formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LR. In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are

  10. Didymella bryoniae on glasshouse cucumbers.

    OpenAIRE

    Steekelenburg, van, M.G.N.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing incidence of fruit rot, caused by Didymella bryoniae , in glasshouse cucumbers in the Netherlands gave rise to a study of the biology of the pathogen, the epidemiology of the disease, and control methods. Stems, leaves and growing tips may be attacked, and fruits may be infected internally as well as externally. Internal infection of fruits starts at the blossom end and is initially hard to observe externally. With external fruit rot, lesions occur on any place of the fruit, pr...

  11. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    OpenAIRE

    Aminin, Dmitry L.; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S.; Pisliagin, Evgeny A.; Silchenko, Alexandra S.; Avilov, Sergey A.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The a...

  12. 2008 Public Sector Cucumber Research Priority Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    In December 2008, a national wide survey was conducted to identify priorities for cucumber research in the public sector. The questions in the survey were in four categories: diseases, insects, abiotic stresses and other issues. The survey was sent to cucumber-related researchers in the public insti...

  13. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Adventitious bud regeneration from the stigma of Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stigmas isolated from flower buds of 'Nakielska' variety of Sinapis alba were used to develop a micropropagation method suitable for breeding of new cultivars. The origin of adventitious bud regeneration was studied on MS medium, under stimulation by bezylaminopurine (BAP in combination with 2,4-D - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Histological analysis showed the structure of Sinapis stigma (composed from four types of tissue: papillae, transmitting tissue, parenchyma and vascular bundles and revealed that numerous meristematic centers developed from parenchyma cells in close vicinity of vascular bundles. Buds very quickly appeared on the surface of initial explants and later formed multiplantlets that were easily rooted in the soil.

  15. Adventitious Reinforcement of Maladaptive Stimulus Control Interferes with Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kathryn J; Hine, Kathleen; Hayashi, Yusuke; Williams, Dean C

    2016-09-01

    Persistent error patterns sometimes develop when teaching new discriminations. These patterns can be adventitiously reinforced, especially during long periods of chance-level responding (including baseline). Such behaviors can interfere with learning a new discrimination. They can also disrupt already learned discriminations, if they re-emerge during teaching procedures that generate errors. We present an example of this process. Our goal was to teach a boy with intellectual disabilities to touch one of two shapes on a computer screen (in technical terms, a simple simultaneous discrimination). We used a size-fading procedure. The correct stimulus was at full size, and the incorrect-stimulus size increased in increments of 10 %. Performance was nearly error free up to and including 60 % of full size. In a probe session with the incorrect stimulus at full size, however, accuracy plummeted. Also, a pattern of switching between choices, which apparently had been established in classroom instruction, re-emerged. The switching pattern interfered with already-learned discriminations. Despite having previously mastered a fading step with the incorrect stimulus up to 60 %, we were unable to maintain consistently high accuracy beyond 20 % of full size. We refined the teaching program such that fading was done in smaller steps (5 %), and decisions to "step back" to a smaller incorrect stimulus were made after every 5-instead of 20-trials. Errors were rare, switching behavior stopped, and he mastered the discrimination. This is a practical example of the importance of designing instruction that prevents adventitious reinforcement of maladaptive discriminated response patterns by reducing errors during acquisition. PMID:27622128

  16. Reducing Meloidogyne incognita Injury to Cucumber in a Tomato-Cucumber Double-Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, P. D.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Vernon, P. R.; Barham, J. D.; Bateman, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop...

  17. Adventitious Bursitis Overlying an Osteochondroma of the Humerus Facing the Thoracic Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Maras Ozdemır; Mustafa Karakaplan; Aysegul Sagir Kahraman; Nese Karadag

    2013-01-01

    One of the complications of osteochondromas is the development of a bursa over the cartilaginous cap. We report a 15-year-old boy with a rapidly expanded adventitious bursitis overlying an osteochondroma of the humerus facing the thoracic wall, a location not previously reported for such bursa formation. Magnetic resonance imaging readily showed adventitious bursitis overlying the osteochondroma, thereby dispelling concerns for malignant transformation.

  18. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: features on 3T cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelabert Hugh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cystic adventitial disease (CAD of the popliteal artery is a rare vascular disease of unknown etiology in which a mucin-containing cyst develops in the adventitial layer of the artery. We report the case of a 26-year-old male with CAD of the right popliteal artery diagnosed non-invasively with 3 Tesla cardiovascular magnetic resonance and confirmed on post-operative histopathology.

  19. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: features on 3T cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Gelabert Hugh; Finn J Paul; Lai Chi; Tomasian Anderanik; Krishnam Mayil S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) of the popliteal artery is a rare vascular disease of unknown etiology in which a mucin-containing cyst develops in the adventitial layer of the artery. We report the case of a 26-year-old male with CAD of the right popliteal artery diagnosed non-invasively with 3 Tesla cardiovascular magnetic resonance and confirmed on post-operative histopathology.

  20. Adventitious shoot formation on leaf cuttings in vivo, a tool in horticulture.

    OpenAIRE

    Custers, J.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adventitious shoot formation implies the regeneration or development of shoots from fully differentiated tissue. Its application has, after the rise of in vitro culture, assumed large proportions. Then the question arose whether in vivo adventitious shoot formation could not be applied more widely in commercial horticulture. To answer this question investigations were made on the regeneration of leaf cuttings and the results are presented in this thesis.It was found that the majority of a lar...

  1. Adventitial Cystic Disease of the Common Femoral Artery: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Chung Eun; Park, Hyun Oh; Kim, Jong Woo; Choi, Jun Young; Lee, Jeong Hee

    2013-01-01

    Arterial adventitial cystic disease is an uncommon type of non-atherosclerotic peripheral vessel disease. Most cases of arterial adventitial cystic disease occur in the popliteal arteries; however, fewer cases have been reported in the femoral arteries. A 59-year-old male patient visited the hospital with a complaint of a swelling on the lower extremity that had begun two months earlier. Suspecting deep vein thrombosis based on a physical examination and ultrasonography from another hospital,...

  2. Mutation breeding of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ram. using in vivo and in vitro adventitious bud techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During experiments, which are being carried out to study the factors which control the process of adventitious bud formation in vivo on detached leaves of Chrysantemum morifolium RAM, adventitious shoots were produced from leaves, irradiated with 500 rad of X-rays. The most important but disadvantageous result was that the majority of the adventitious shoots proved to be of a chimeral nature and obviously developed from more than one cell. An in vitro adventitious bud technique was developed using different types of explants. Pedicel segments regenerated the highest number of adventitious shoots and, moreover, they developed faster as compared to explants of young flower heads or leaves. The mutants produced by irradiating the various explants were almost exclusively of a solid (non-chimeral) nature. In addition, histological observations suggest that single epidermal cells are involved in the initiation of the adventitious shoot apices. The optimum dose for mutant production is approximately 800 rad X-rays. Rather often, more than one phenotypically identical mutant was found, which was always derived from the same explant. They could for instance originate from a multi-apical meristem formed by a single mutated cell

  3. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  4. [Cucumber diseases diagnosis using multispectral imaging technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ning-Fang; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yong-Dao; Li, Bao-Ju

    2009-02-01

    For a reliable diagnosis of plant diseases and insect pests, spectroscopy analysis technique and mutispectral imaging technique are proposed to diagnose five cucumber diseases, namely Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola and Pseudoperonospora cubensis. In the experiment, the cucumbers' multispectral images of 14 visible lights channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation environment. And the 5 cucumber diseases, healthy leaves and reference white were classified using their multispectral information, the distance, angle and relativity. The discrimination of Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, and reference white was 100%, and that of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and healthy leaves was 80% and 93.33% respectively. The mean correct discrimination of diseases was 81.90% when the distance and relativity were used together. The result shows that the method realized good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis. PMID:19445229

  5. Decreased adventitial neovascularization after intracoronary irradiation in swine: a time course study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Intracoronary radiation (IR) suppresses the formation of neointima after arterial injury in swine, through mechanisms incompletely understood. Neointimal development appears related to expansion of adventitial microvessels; we therefore examined the hypothesis that IR inhibits neointima formation through an anti-angiogenic effect. Methods and Results: Juvenile swine were treated with either 0 or 15 Gy 192Ir (γ-source) and euthanized 3, 7, or 14 days later or treated with 18 Gy 90Y (β-source) and euthanized after 14 days. Adventitial area (AA), intimal area (IA), IA corrected for medial fracture length, and adventitial vessel area were assessed in both injured and uninjured segments by computer-aided histomorphometry on Verhoeff-Von Giesson stained sections. Adventitial vessel count (AVC) was enumerated visually on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and confirmed by anti-factor VIII-associated antigen immunostaining for endothelial cells. AA and IA were reduced in injured arteries subjected to IR as compared to controls. The AVC was significantly lower in injured irradiated arterial segments as well as all uninjured segments as compared with injured control segments. In the injured and irradiated arteries, the AVC remained unchanged at 3, 7, and 14 days. The injured segments of arteries treated with IR demonstrated a significantly lower adventitial microvessel density (AVC/AA) as compared to the injured control segments. Comparison of γ- and β-irradiation at 14 days did not show any differences for vessel parameters and measurements of adventitial microvessels. IA and AVC were correlated positively (R2 = 0.63, α = 0.79, p < 0.01). Conclusion: IR induced an early and sustained anti-angiogenic effect between 3 and 14 days. The relation between IA and AVC may indicate an antiproliferative effect associated with an anti-angiogenic effect independent of the type of radiation. CONDENSED ABSTRACT Intracoronary radiation suppresses neointima formation

  6. Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2013-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family like melon, squash and pumpkins. It is a popular vegetable crop used in Indian traditional medicine since ancient times. This vegetable is very high in water content and very low in calories. It has potential antidiabetic, lipid lowering and antioxidant activity. Cucumber has a cleansing action within the body by removing accumulated pockets of old waste materials and chemical toxins. Fresh fruit juice is used for nourishing the skin. It gives a soothing effect against skin irritations and reduces swelling. Cucumber also has the power to relax and alleviate the sunburn's pain. The fruit is refrigerant, haemostatic, tonic and useful in hyperdipsia, thermoplegia etc. The seeds also have a cooling effect on the body and they are used to prevent constipation. Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from cucumber including cucurbitacins, cucumegastigmanes I and II, cucumerin A and B, vitexin, orientin, isoscoparin 2″-O-(6‴-(E)-p-coumaroyl) glucoside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) etc. Despite huge exploration of cucumber in agricultural field, comparatively very few studies have been published about its chemical profile and its therapeutic potential. This article reviews the therapeutic application, pharmacological and phytochemical profile of different parts of C. sativus. In this review we have explored the current phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge available with this well known plant and several promising aspects for research on cucumber. PMID:23098877

  7. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), in the genus Tobamovirus and family Virgaviridae, is a seed-borne pathogen on cucurbits. In early 2013, serious viral disease outbreaks on greenhouse cucumber crops were experienced by greenhouse vegetable growers in Alberta, Canada. CGMMV was detected i...

  8. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina seedlings exposed to flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Polanco Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi K. Koch produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack

  9. Lipopolysaccharide promotes lipid accumulation in human adventitial fibroblasts via TLR4-NF-κB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic degenerative disease of the arteries and is thought to be one of the most common causes of death globally. In recent years, the functions of adventitial fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis and tissue repair have gained increased interests. LPS can increase the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerosis-associated cardiovascular disease. Although LPS increases neointimal via TLR4 activation has been reported, how LPS augments atherogenesis through acting on adventitial fibroblasts is still unknown. Here we explored lipid deposition within adventitial fibroblasts mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to imitate inflammatory conditions. Results In our study, LPS enhanced lipid deposition by the up-regulated expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP as the silencing of ADRP abrogated lipid deposition in LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts. In addition, pre-treatment with anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 antibody diminished the LPS-induced lipid deposition and ADRP expression. Moreover, LPS induced translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, which could markedly up-regulate lipid deposition as pre-treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, significantly reduced lipid droplets. In addition, the lowering lipid accumulation was accompanied with the decreased ADRP expression. Furthermore, LPS-induced adventitial fibroblasts secreted more monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, compared with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that LPS promotes lipid accumulation via the up-regulation of ADRP expression through TLR4 activated downstream of NF-κB in adventitial fibroblasts. Increased levels of MCP-1 released from LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts and lipid accumulation may accelerate monocytes recruitment and lipid-laden macrophage foam cells formation. Here, our study provides a new explanation as to how bacterial

  10. Recurrence of cystic adventitial disease in an interposed vein graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T; Kato, R; Sugimoto, I; Kondo, M; Tsuchioka, H

    1994-09-01

    A case of cystic adventitial disease (CAD) of the popliteal artery with intermittent claudication in the left calf is reported. This patient was first treated by total excision of the cyst and the involved artery followed by graft interposition with an autogenous saphenous vein. Recurrence of CAD in the interposed vein graft was noted after 6 months, and excision of the cyst with the involved graft and graft interposition with an autogenous saphenous vein was again required. We consider that the definitive evidence from early recurrence in the interposed vein graft shown in this case will close the discussion of the cause of CAD. The cystic lesion is thought by some to originate from the adventitia; traumatic, embryologic, or systemic abnormality theories were proposed. We assume that the mucin-secreting synovial cells originating from the neighboring joint capsule, tendon sheath, or, in some cases, from the ganglion itself, directly invade the adventitia through any rough or injured crack caused by trauma to the adventitia or simply attach to and encircle the adventitia. Total resection of the lesion with grafting is the recommended treatment for CAD because of the excellent results. However, as shown in our case, complete removal of the synovial cells even by resection technique may be difficult; therefore intensive follow-up is fundamentally necessary in this disease. PMID:8079189

  11. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyi Ji; Yuan Wu; Xingzhu Wu; Yonghua Lin; Weiwei Xu; Hui Ruan; Guoqing He

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF) cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF) cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucum...

  12. Development of applied genomics tools for cucumber breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The past three years have witnessed rapid accumulation of whole genome sequences and other genomics resources in cucumber. So far, draft genomes of three cucumber inbred lines have been released; many cucumber lines are being re-sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies; nearly three m...

  13. The breeding of mini-cucumber line by space mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucumber self-line was boarded on satellite in order to induce mutation. Mini-cucumber self-line CHA03-10-2-2 with fruit length of 8 cm, and female flower rate 99.5% was obtained by selection and purification. The new line can be used directly for mini-cucumber variety breeding. (authors)

  14. Comparison between Adventitial and Intimal Inflammation of Ruptured and Nonruptured Atherosclerotic Plaques in Human Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuchi Maria L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the possible role of adventitial inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and coronary artery remodelling. METHODS: We compared the mean numbers of lymphocytes in the adventitia and in the plaque of ruptured thrombosed and stable equi-stenotic coronary segments of 34 patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. We also analysed adventitial microvessels, adventitial fibrosis and the external elastic membrane. RESULTS: In the adventitia, the numbers of lymphocytes and microvessels/mm² were 69.5±88.3 and 60.9± 32.1 in culprit lesions and 16.4 ± 21.1 and 44.3±16.1 in stable lesions (p<0.05; within the plaques, the mean number of lymphocytes was 24±40.8 in culprit lesions and 10.9±13.2 in stable ones (p=0.17. The mean percent area of adventitial fibrosis/cross-sectional area of the vessel was significantly lower in unstable plaques (p<0.001. The confocal images showed holes in the external elastic membrane. CONCLUSION: Unstable plaques exhibit chronic pan-arteritis, accompanied by enlargement, medial thinning, and less fibrosis than in stable lesions, which is compatible with vessel aneurysm. Adventitial inflammation may contribute significantly to atheroma instability.

  15. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Edward T Mee; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; ,; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtai...

  16. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  17. Determination of Metalaxyl Residues in Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Kh. Talebi

    2002-01-01

    In this research, the presence of metalaxyl residues was studied in field-grown cucumber. Two different formulations of metalaxyl were used in the experiments. In the first experiment, cucumber plants were sprayed once and repeatedly by Ridomil-MZ 72 WP at 2.5 g/litre. In the second experiment, single and double applications of metalaxyl granule 5G were carried out at 5 g/m2. Leaves and fruits were sampled at different times after each treatment and analyzed for metalaxyl residues by HPLC. In...

  18. rDNA-ITS sequence analysis of pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na WANG; Yajun MA; Cuiyun YANG; Guanghui DAI; Zhezhi WANG

    2008-01-01

    To determine the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew by molecular marker,we amplified and sequenced the rDNA-ITS region of the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew collected from the Shanghai region.The intra-/interspecific sequence difference was analyzed by rDNA-ITS sequence.The results show that the length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber downy mildew's pathogen was 141 bp and 406 bp,respectively,with GC contents of 41.13% in ITS1 and 46.8% (Minhang and Jinshan District,sml and sm2) or 46.55% (Pudong District,sm3) in ITS2.The rDNA-ITS sequence was intraspecific conservation.The interspecific difference was related with their kin relationship.The pathogen of cucumber downy mildew was identified as Pseudoperonospora cubensis by molecular marker.The length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber powdery mildew's pathogen was 136 bp and 89 bp,respectively,with GC contents being 59.56% and 66.29%,and rDNA-ITS sequence being highly conservative in this study that was the same as Sphaerotheca cucurbitae.But the sequence difference between the strains in the Shanghai region in this study with S.fuliginea was 4.5%,which was identified by morphology.It is suggested that the pathogen of cucumber powdery mildew should be further clarified and determined.

  19. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting. PMID:24117983

  20. Bilateral Adventitial Cystic Disease of the Popliteal Artery: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD) of the popliteal artery is an uncommon vascular condition of unknown etiology. In the present case report, we describe a case of bilateral ACD of the popliteal artery in a 58-year-old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral ACD of the popliteal artery reported in the literature

  1. Mutation breeding in sweet potato with fast neutrons by inducing hypocotyl adventitious buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid sweet potato seeds were irradiated by fast neutrons. After the irradiation, adventitious buds were induced from the epidermal cells of the hypocotyls of the seedlings. The adventitious buds appeared from the hypocotyls 2 - 3 cm below the cotyledonary node. Detailed observations of cell division and tissue dissection showed that some adventitious buds emerged in 20 - 45 days after seedling emergence. Most of them originated from a single cell. These adventitious bud clones showed a wide mutation spectrum at high frequency, mostly non-chimeric. The mutant characters included the color of leaf, vine, vein, root-tuber skin and the leaf shape, yield, root-tuber dry matter rates, root-tuber numbers, sprouting, early tuber formation, resistance to black rot, root rot, nematodes etc. The results were confirmed in the field; the observed mutant characters were stable and non-chimeric. Such a method of inducing mutations is advantageous for the improvement of economic characters. Actually, there were examples of increasing the dry matter content of the tubers by 1.0 - 5.5%, the yield of tubers increased by 3.6 - 53.8%, and tubers per plant increased by 0.6 - 4.2%. The resistances to black rot, root rot, nematodes etc. were also improved. Three multiple resistance varieties Yanshu 568, Yanshu 571-1, 84-C-2 and two good quality varieties Yanshu 759 and 781 have been selected. (author). 9 refs, 3 tabs

  2. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeneration of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of s...

  3. The Unique Mitochondrial Genetics of Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant cells typically contain two organelles, plastids and mitochondria. For the vast majority of plants, both of these organelles are maternally transmitted. Cucumber and melon are exceptions to this rule because the mitochondria are paternally transmitted. These two plants also possess mitochon...

  4. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  5. Mapping of Mitochondrial Sorting Locus in Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plants, DNA is located in three different places, the chloroplast, mitochondrion, and nucleus. Most angiosperms transmitted their organellar DNA through the egg (mitochondrial DNA), and through the egg and/ or pollen (chloroplast DNA). Transmission of the organellar DNA in cucumber is unique beca...

  6. Low temperature, IBA concentrations and optimal time for adventitious rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii mini-cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani; Francisco José Benedini Baccarin; Heron Wilhelmus de Wit Ondas; José Luiz Stape; Antonio Natal Gon(c)alves; Marcilio de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus benthamii is a forest species of economic interest that has difficulty with seed production and also is considered to have difficulty with adventitious rooting using propagation techniques,such as cutting or mini-cutting.We aimed to assess the adventitious rooting percentage under different storage times in low temperatures and at various IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) concentrations to determine the optimal time of permanence for rooting Eucalyptus benthamii minicuttings in a greenhouse.Shoots collected from mini-stumps cultivated in a semi-hydroponic system were used to obtain the mini-cuttings.For the first experiment,the mini-cuttings were stored at 4℃ for 0 (immediate planting),24,48,72,96 and 120 h.The second experiment evaluated the rooting dynamic to determine the optimal time of permanence for minicuttings in a greenhouse.The basal region of the mini-cutting was treated with various 1BA solutions:0 (free of IBA),1,000,2,000,3,000 and 4,000 mg·L-1.Every seven days (0 (immediate planting),7,14,21 and 28days),destructive sampling of the mini-cuttings was performed to evaluate the histology of the adventitious rooting.Eucalyptus benthamii minicuttings should be rooted immediately after the collection of the shoots.The 2,000 mg·L-1 IBA concentration induced a greater speed and percentage of adventitious rooting,and an interval of 35 to 42 days was indicated for permanence of the mini-cuttings in the greenhouse.Exposure to low temperature induced adventitious root formation with diffuse vascular connections.

  7. Effects of 6-BA and MET on the induction of adventitious buds from rice seedlings and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Different levels of 6-BA (6-Benezyla-mino purine) and MET (Paclobutra-zol) were added into MS media to culture the mature seeds of six varieties and two F2 populations of Nanjing11 ( indica ) / Balilla (japoni-ca) and Dular( indica)/Balilla( japonica) . Results were as follows:1) 6-BA was effective in inducing the formation of adventitious buds (Table 1).Only using MET could not induce adventitious buds formation. Compared with the use of 6-BA only, it was more useful for inducing the adventitious buds by using MET and 6-BA together, especially for japonica rice.

  8. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Altaf Mohammed; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimu...

  9. Phase Characterization of Cucumber Growth: A Chemical Gel Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Li; Xuejing Liu; Junshi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber grows with complex phenomena by changing its volume and shape, which is not fully investigated and challenges agriculture and food safety industry. In order to understand the mechanism and to characterize the growth process, the cucumber is modeled as a hydrogel in swelling and its development is studied in both preharvest and postharvest stages. Based on thermodynamics, constitutive equations, incorporating biological quantities, are established. The growth behavior of cucumber foll...

  10. Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. a pathogen of greenhouse cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    The infection of mature cucumber plants by Pythium aphanidermatum was stated in two greenhouses. Young cucumber plants from the stage of young seedling until the beginning of cropping were easily infected by the fungus when artificially inoculated. The mature plants were effectively infected only when high temperature (above 30°C) and high moisture conditions were provided. All 17 cucumber varieties tested were susceptible to infection. Morphology of the fungus is described for the first time...

  11. Dissipation kinetics of metalaxyl in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, G S; Sharma, Neeraj

    2012-05-01

    Residues of metalaxyl were estimated in cucumber fruits using Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) with Nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD). Following three applications of Ridomil-MZ @ 0.3% and 0.6%, the average initial deposits of metalaxyl were observed to be 0.19 and 0.24 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 10 days at both the dosages. The half-life values (T(1/2)) of metalaxyl was worked out to be 3.5 and 3.0 days, respectively at 0.3% and 0.6% concentration. Thus, a waiting period of 1 day was suggested for the safe consumption of metalaxyl treated cucumber. PMID:22392008

  12. Doppler ultrasonography and exercise testing in diagnosing a popliteal artery adventitial cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, Maurizio; Rizzo, Luigi; Stella, Nazzareno; Mastroddi, Massimo; Conteduca, Fabio; Maggiore, Claudia; Faraglia, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    We describe popliteal arterial adventitial cystic disease which causes intermittent claudication in a young athletic man, with atypical manifestation, without loss of foot pulses on knee flexion nor murmur in the popliteal fossa. The findings obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging were non-diagnostic. The diagnosis resulted from Echo-Doppler ultrasonography along with peak exercise testing. Ultrasonography also provided useful physiopathological informations suggesting that a popliteal artery adventitial cyst can become symptomatic if muscle exertion increases fluid pressure within the cyst, enough to cause hemodynamically significant endoluminal stenosis. Rapid diagnosis is essential to prevent progressive claudication threatening limb viability. To guarantee this professional sportsman a reliable and durable outcome, instead of less aggressive management, we resected the involved arterial segment and interposed an autologous saphenous-vein graft. PMID:19473494

  13. Influences of polar auxin transport on polarity of adventitious bud formation in hybrid populas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Won (Yonsei Univ. Kangwondo (Korea)); Hackett, W. (Univ of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The role of auxin and cytokinin distribution of polar regeneration of adventitious bud has been investigated. Explants from leaf midvein were labelled with {sup 14}C-NAA and {sup 14}C-BA and the radioactivity in proximal, mid, and distal portions was counted after 24h and 48h. Explants showing polar regeneration of buds on the proximal end showed a clear polar distribution of {sup 14}CNAA. Auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA) eliminated polar distribution of auxin and reduced polarity of bud formation and the total number of buds formed, but did not reduce callus formation. Increased concentration of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} decreased polarity of bud formation and increased the number of buds formed but did not affect the distribution of auxin of cytokinin. Some factor in addition to polar distribution of auxin or cytokinin-auxin ratio appears to influence the polarity of adventitious bud formation.

  14. Adventitious rooting in cuttings of croton and hibiscus in response to indolbutyric acid and humic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Raíssa Rezende Soares; Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez; Vitor Hugo Alvarez Venegas

    2012-01-01

    Adventitious rooting of ornamental plants can be accelerated by the application of growth regulators, such as auxin. Humic acids, organic matter in soil and organic compounds also have a biostimulant effect. This work evaluated the rooting in cuttings of croton (Codianeum variegatum L. Rumph) and hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L) in response to the application of different concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA) and humic acid (HA). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse. Apical s...

  15. The role of strigolactones in photomorphogenesis of pea is limited to adventitious rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Shelley; Foo, Eloise; Reid, James B

    2015-03-01

    The recently discovered group of plant hormones, the strigolactones, have been implicated in regulating photomorphogenesis. We examined this extensively in our strigolactone synthesis and response mutants and could find no evidence to support a major role for strigolactone signaling in classic seedling photomorphogenesis (e.g. elongation and leaf expansion) in pea (Pisum sativum), consistent with two recent independent reports in Arabidopsis. However, we did find a novel effect of strigolactones on adventitious rooting in darkness. Strigolactone-deficient mutants, Psccd8 and Psccd7, produced significantly fewer adventitious roots than comparable wild-type seedlings when grown in the dark, but not when grown in the light. This observation in dark-grown plants did not appear to be due to indirect effects of other factors (e.g. humidity) as the constitutively de-etiolated mutant, lip1, also displayed reduced rooting in the dark. This role for strigolactones did not involve the MAX2 F-Box strigolactone response pathway as Psmax2 f-box mutants did not show a reduction in adventitious rooting in the dark compared with wild-type plants. The auxin-deficient mutant bushy also reduced adventitious rooting in the dark, as did decapitation of wild-type plants. Rooting was restored by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to decapitated plants, suggesting a role for auxin in the rooting response. However, auxin measurements showed no accumulation of IAA in the epicotyls of wild-type plants compared with the strigolactone synthesis mutant Psccd8, suggesting that changes in the gross auxin level in the epicotyl are not mediating this response to strigolactone deficiency. PMID:24962787

  16. Effect of plant growth regulators on adventitious roots of Panax ginseng

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Fišerová, Darina

    Bratislava: IPGB SAS, 2005, s. 25-27. [Final Conference COST 843 and COST 851 Joint Meeting. Stará Lesná (SK), 28.06.2005-03.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 843.10; GA ČR(CZ) GP521/02/P064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Panax ginseng * adventitious roots * growth regulators Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  17. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding genetic variation in germplasm collection is essential for the conservation and their efficient use in plant breeding. Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Previous studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop’s genetic structu...

  19. Cucumber Beetle Antifeedants: Laboratory Screening of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, D. K.; Jacobson, M.; Warthen, J. D. Jr; Uebel, E. C.; Tromley, N. J.; Jurd, L.; Freedman, B

    1981-01-01

    Cucumber beetles are destructive pests of melons in the Midwest both because of their feeding and transmission of bacterial wilt disease. Because an effective antifeedant would be an ideal control measure, more than 350 materials of biological origin have been screened against striped cucumber beetle. Such materials as neem derivatives, neriifolin, -tung, and napthoquinones appear promising and will be tested more extensively.

  20. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children…

  1. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  2. Effects of chronic gamma irradiation on adventitious plantlet formation of Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet) detached leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of adventitious plantlets on unrootedly detached leaves of two African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) cultivars, pink and violet flowers, chronically gamma-irradiated in gamma room at The Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Research Center, Kasetsart University was compared. Detached leaves were immediately planted after detachment in plastic trays containing peat moss, 18 leaves per treatment with 3 replications. Three dose rates (rad/h) with 3 doses (rad)/dose rate, were applied to the irradiated samples while the controls were placed outside the gamma room. Three months after irradiation, the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf were recorded. After that, the young plantlets were transferred to the new pots for further observation on plant growth and mutation characters. The results revealed that the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf varied slightly with radiation doses but were not significantly different at different dose rates. Radiosensitivity was noticed to be higher in pink flower cultivar than the violet one. M 1 V 1 plantlets will be followed up for growth and mutation character observations

  3. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  4. Carbon monoxide-induced adventitious rooting of hypocotyl cuttings from mung bean seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the regulatory role of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) during the generation and development of adventitious roots in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L. cv. Mingguang) hypocotyl cuttings was surveyed. The results indicated that, like nitric oxide (NO), CO donor Hematin induced adventitious rooting in dose- and time-de- pendent manners. These responses were also prov- en by the addition of gaseous CO aqueous solution with different concentrations. Additionally, the above CO-mediated effect was differently reversed when CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb), CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX, the auxin transport inhibitor NPA and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME were added with Hematin, respectively. Furthermore, after being treated with CO for 36 h, NO fluorescence was significantly enhanced and mainly distributed in the zone of vascular bundles whereas the specific NO scavenger cPTIO significantly inhibited NO fluorescence induced by CO, indicating that CO induces adventitious rooting of hypocotyl cuttings from mung bean seedling probably mediated by NO/NOS pathway.

  5. Is there a Relationship between the Level of Plant Metabolites in Cucumber and Globe Cucumber and the Degree of Insect Infestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Mohamed KAMEL; Soad Esawey EL-GENGAIHI

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber plant was infested by three major insect pests, i.e., cotton aphid, white fly nymph and green bugs while globe cucumber, the wild cucumber species was kept healthy without any remarkable infestation. In addition, globe cucumber had higher ratios of T.S.S over T.N, T.S.S over T.C.A.A., T.S.S over T.F.A.A., higher content of cucurbitacins and phenolic compounds than cucumber in the two successive seasons. Lower values of these markers rendered cucumber susceptible to pests under study,...

  6. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2015-11-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  7. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  8. Diagnosis method of cucumber downy mildew with NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Youwen; Li, Tianlai; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-11-01

    This study was carried out to develop a hyperspectral imaging system in the near infrared (NIR) region (900-1700 nm) to diagnose cucumber downy mildew. Hyperspectral images were acquired from each diseased cucumber leaf samples with downy mildew and then their spectral data were extracted. Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the high dimensionality of the data and for selecting some important wavelengths. Out of 256 wavelengths, only two wavelengths (1426 and 1626nm) of first PC were selected as the optimum wavelengths for the diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew. The data analysis showed that it is possible to diagnose cucumber downy mildew with few numbers of wavelengths on the basis of their statistical image features and histogram features. The results revealed the potentiality of NIR hyperspectral imaging as an objective and non-destructive method for the authentication and diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew.

  9. Mechanism of auxin-induced ethylene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.G.; Newcomb, W.; Burg, S.P.

    1971-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene production and growth in excised segments of etiolated pea shoots (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska) parallels the free indoleacetic acid level in the tissue which in turn depends upon the rate of indoleacetic acid conjugation and decarboxylation. Both ethylene synthesis and growth require the presence of more than a threshold level of free endogenous indoleacetic acid, but in etiolated tissue the rate of ethylene production saturates at a high concentration and the rate of growth at a lower concentration of indoleacetic acid. Auxin stimulation of ethylene synthesis is not mediated by induction of peroxidase; to the contrary, the products of the auxin action which induce growth and ethylene synthesis are highly labile. 33 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Improvement of Growth and Periplocin Yield of Periploca sepium Adventitious Root Cultures by Altering Nitrogen Source Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; GAO Wen-yuan; WANG Juan; LI Xing-lin; XIAO Pei-gen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To increase the ultimate yield of periplocin in Periploca sepium adventitious root cultures by a two-stage culture based on nitrogen source.Methods Firstly,the effects of nitrogen source(NH-NO-)at different ratios and different total initial nitrogen amounts on the accumulation of biomass and secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures of P sepium were investigated,and growth and production media for the two-stage culture based on the above results were established.Results The highest biomass and periplocin content were obtained in the culture medium of 15 mmol/L total nitrogen amount with NH-NO(1:2)and 30 mmol/L total nitrogen amount with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source.By adopting a fed-batch cultivation strategy,the dry weight adventitious root,periplocin content and yield were increased by 136%,108%,and 389%,respectively when compared with those of the control,reaching up to 8.13 g/L,157.15 μg/g,and 1277.63 μg/L,respectively.Furthermore,it was found that in the process of two-stage culture,the adventitious roots grew thicker significantly after they were transferred into production medium directly.Conclusion The ultimate yield of periplocin in P.sepium adventitious root cultures could be significantly increased by a two-stage culture based on nitrogen source.

  11. A comparative analysis of coronary adventitial T-lymphocytes - an autopsy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Recent clinical and histopathologic data suggests that inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery plaque instability and subsequent occlusive thrombosis. The intima has received much attention as a site of inflammation, while the adventitia has remained relatively unexplored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of inflammatory activity in the cap and shoulder region of un ruptured, atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries and to correlate these findings with distribution of inflammatory cells in adventitia. Methods: The study was carried out in Histopathology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from August 2008 to July 2009. Sixty-seven autopsy cases performed at Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan were selected. The cases were divided into study group and control group. Case group (n=35) included those where cause of death was ischemic heart disease. Those coronary arteries were taken as control (n=32) where atherosclerotic changes were found by chance (death without history of ischemic heart disease). Plaques in each group were assessed by light microscopy and by immunohistochemistry. Results: The ages of the deceased ranged from 38 to 49 years. Within study group, adventitial lymphocytes exhibited strong correlation with erosion, thrombus formation in culprit plaque (p=0.001). No correlation was found between adventitial T-lymphocytes and erosion of plaque (p=0.700) in control group. In 72% of culprit plaques moderate staining for T-lymphocytes was observed in adventitia as well as intima. In control group, most of the cases contained scattered cells. Few cases of stable plaques revealed lymphocytes as clusters, both in adventitia and in intima. Conclusion: Adventitial inflammation may play a pivotal role for atherosclerotic lesion histology and atheroma instability. With the help of these autopsy findings, we hope to be able to reduce the

  12. Adventitious rhizogenesis in Bambusa nutans and Bambusa tulda: Influence of seasonal variation, IBA and cutting type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Singh; S. Yadav; P. K. Patel; S.A.Ansari

    2011-01-01

    The influence of seasonal variation,indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and type of cuttings wasexamined on induction and growth of adventitious roots in Bambusa nutans Wall.and Bambusa tulda Roxb.Singlenode culm and culm-branch cuttings from the mature culms were provided with immersion treatment for 24 h of either water (control) or 2 mM IBA in four different seasons,i.e.,spring (mid February),summer (mid May),rainy (mid July),and winter (mid November) and maintained for two months in the mist chamber at the relative humidity of (70±5)%and the temperature of (30±2)℃.In B.nutans,adventitious rooting occuffed in both types of cuttings in all the seasons with the best rooting in the summer season i.e.,May (88% in culm cuttings) and the least in winter.On the contrary,adventitious rooting was recorded only in culm cuttings in spring and summer season in B.tulda.IBA treatment significantly enhanced rooting,root number and root length; registering 14 to 17 times improvement over control in the best rooting season.Three factor- interactions (season × cutting type × IBA treatment) were significant for rooting in B.nutans and all characteristics,except sprouting in B.tulda.Thus,single-node culm and culm-branch cuttings in B.nutans and culm cuttings in B.tulda treated with 2 mM IBA during spring (February)to summer (May) season are recommended for their clonal multiplication.

  13. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry L. Aminin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata. They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt (protein kinase B, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FAK (focal adhesion kinase, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  14. Cucumber: a model angiosperm for mitochondrial transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, Michael J; Lilly, Jason W; Bohanec, Borut; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Malepszy, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Plants possess three major genomes, carried in the chloroplast, mitochondrion, and nucleus. The chloroplast genomes of higher plants tend to be of similar sizes and structure. In contrast both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes show great size differences, even among closely related species. The largest plant mitochondrial genomes exist in the genus Cucumis at 1500 to 2300 kilobases, over 100 times the sizes of the yeast or human mitochondrial genomes. Biochemical and molecular analyses have established that the huge Cucumis mitochondrial genomes are due to extensive duplication of short repetitive DNA motifs. The organellar genomes of almost all organisms are maternally transmitted and few methods exist to manipulate these important genomes. Although chloroplast transformation has been achieved, no routine method exists to transform the mitochondrial genome of higher plants. A mitochondrial-transformation system for a higher plant would allow geneticists to use reverse genetics to study mitochondrial gene expression and to establish the efficacy of engineered mitochondrial genes for the genetic improvement of the mitochondrial genome. Cucumber possesses three unique attributes that make it a potential model system for mitochondrial transformation of a higher plant. Firstly, its mitochondria show paternal transmission. Secondly, microspores possess relatively few, huge mitochondria. Finally, there exists in cucumber unique mitochondrial mutations conditioning strongly mosaic (msc) phenotypes. The msc phenotypes appear after regeneration of plants from cell culture and sort with specific rearranged and deleted regions in the mitochondrial genome. These mitochondrial deletions may be a useful genetic tool to develop selectable markers for mitochondrial transformation of higher plants. PMID:12084966

  15. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  16. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography. PMID:27108314

  17. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Edward T.; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; Schepelmann, Silke; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira; Simonyan, Vahan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Alin, Voskanian-Kordi; Mermod, Nicolas; Hill, Christiane; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Richter, Daniel C.; Tehrani, Arman; Jacqueline, Weber-Lehmann; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Letellier, Carine; Vandeputte, Olivier; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Deyati, Avisek; La Neve, Fabio; Modena, Chiara; Mee, Edward; Schepelmann, Silke; Preston, Mark; Minor, Philip; Eloit, Marc; Muth, Erika; Lamamy, Arnaud; Jagorel, Florence; Cheval, Justine; Anscombe, Catherine; Misra, Raju; Wooldridge, David; Gharbia, Saheer; Rose, Graham; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent; Dorange, Fabien; Chiu, Charles; Naccache, Samia; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matt; Mitchell, Christine; Baier, Brian S.; Sun, Wenping; Malicki, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4–14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. PMID:26709640

  18. Adventitious shoot regeneration in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) (Pedaliaceae) via deembryonated cotyledonary explants

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa V. Malaghan; Ramappa Lokesha; Revadi Savitha; Ajjanavara R. G. Ranganatha

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious shoot regeneration in sesame, via de-embryonated cotyledonary explants, was attempted using six diverse genotypes; two were land races (Kankapura Local – KNL and Tamil Nadu Local- TNL), three were released varieties (DS-1, DSS-9 and WII) and a breeding line (RT-273). Three media compositions (½ MS basal media supplemented with 20 μM TDZ + 2.5 μM IAA and with or without 25 μM BAP and full MS basal media supplemented with only 25 μM BAP) were used of which highest shoot regeneratio...

  19. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  20. Genetic Analysis on Bent Characters of Cucumber Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; QIN Zhiwei; WANG Lili; ZHOU Xiuyan

    2011-01-01

    Bent varieties and straight varieties were made as parents for the genetic analysis to investigate cucumber bending genetic mechanism. The results showed that the bent characters of the cucumber fruit (BCCF) were quantitative inheritance controlled by multiple genes and major genes. The additive effect played the main role and the dominance effect played the lesser role. Compared with the additive environmental variance, the dominant-environmental variance was more important and the cucumber fruit was more easily affected by the additive effect. The broad heritability and the narrow heritability of BCCF were both higher. The varieties of D0455 and D07299 could be used as parents which were benefit for improving the straight characters of the cucumber fruit

  1. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  2. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES I. SALAD CUCUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    PEVICHAROVA, Galina; VELKOV, Nikolay

    2007-01-01

    During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of six salad cucumber varieties was carried out. The aim of this experiment was to assess the influence of the harvest time on the fruit sensory properties. Flesh colour was the most stable character while appearance, skin colour, aroma, texture, taste and total sensory evaluation varied during the three investigated harvest periods. Two-way analysis of variance proved significant effect of the varieties, harvest time and its interaction on all sen...

  3. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alhana; Pipih Suptijah; Kustiariyah tarman

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus) is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis), produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3C...

  4. Culture of tropical sea cucumbers for stock restoration and enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglene, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Severe overfishing of sea cucumbers has occurred in most countries of the tropical Indo-Pacific. The release of juveniles is being examined at the ICLARM Coastal Aquaculture Centre in the Solomon islands as a means of restoring and enhancing tropical sea cucumber stocks. Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) are the tropical species that show the best potential for stock enhancement. Sandfish are of high value, widely distributed and relatively easy to culture in simple systemss at a low cost. This pa...

  5. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an altern...

  6. Design of Automatic Recognition of Cucumber Disease Image

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Guo; Tonghai Liu; Naixiang Li

    2014-01-01

    An automatic recognition method for cucumber disease images is presented. Threshold for image segmentation was generated with 2 dimensional maximum entropy principle and optimized with differential evolution algorithm. With threshold values generated, we segmented cucumber disease images and picked up the lesion with maximum area from segmentation results as representative lesion. Then we analyzed representative lesions of disease images and extracted theirs color features and texture feature...

  7. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-05-01

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts. PMID:25984989

  8. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena B. Janakiram

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  9. Adventitious match probability for autosomal profiles when primer binding site mutation is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Susan; Evett, Ian; Puch-Solis, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    This paper considers the situation where two DNA systems with differing primers have been used to produce DNA profiles for loading and searching of a DNA Database. With any profiling system there exists the possibility of a "primer binding site mutation" (PBSM). When such a mutation occurs at one of the loci in a profile, it has the effect that the associated allele is not visible in the profile. In the case where a person has two different alleles at a given locus (heterozygous) the effect of a PBSM would be that the profile would appear to be that of an individual with only one allele at that locus (homozygous). The paper investigates the potential for an adventitious match as a result of a PBSM when, for example, a crime profile and person profile that have originated from two different individuals are found to be the same as a result of a PBSM in one of the profiles. It is demonstrated, both by theory and using simulations, that the effect of PBSMs is to slightly decrease the adventitious match probability from what it would had the same DNA system been used. PMID:27420391

  10. Role of housing modalities on management and surveillance strategies for adventitious agents of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, William R

    2008-01-01

    Specific pathogen-free (SPF) rodents for modern biomedical research need to be free of pathogens and other infectious agents that may not produce disease but nevertheless cause research interference. To meet this need, rodents have been rederived to eliminate adventitious agents and then housed in room- to cage-level barrier systems to exclude microbial contaminants. Because barriers can and do fail, routine health monitoring (HM) is necessary to verify the SPF status of colonies. Testing without strict adherence to biosecurity practices, however, can lead to the inadvertent transfer of unrecognized, inapparent agents among institutions and colonies. Microisolation caging systems have become popular for housing SPF rodents because they are versatile and provide a highly effective cage-level barrier to the entry and spread of adventitious agents. But when a microisolation-caged colony is contaminated, the cage-level barrier impedes the spread of infection and so the prevalence of infection is often low, which increases the chance of missing a contamination and complicates the corroboration of unexpected positive findings. The expanding production of genetically engineered mutant (GEM) rodent strains at research institutions, where biosecurity practices vary and the risk of microbial contamination can be high, underscores the importance of accurate HM results in mitigating the risk of the introduction and spread of microbial contaminants with the exchange of mutant rodent strains among investigators and institutions. PMID:18506065

  11. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannone, Alfonso; Di Cesare, Fabio; Bartolucci, Roberto; Maritati, Gabriele; Lucchetti, Giuseppe; Rabitti, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease is a rare form of non-atherosclerotic stenosis and one of the main causes of claudication in young and middle-aged men. Approximately 200 case reports are available in the literature to date. It is generally located in the popliteal artery, although it may be found in other arteries and even in veins. The aetiology is still unclear: most authors believe that the cyst may originate from a synovial ganglion close to the adjacent hip joint capsule. Patients affected by adventitial cystic degeneration are often young male non-smokers with intermittent calf claudication. The treatment of choice is surgical removal of the cyst or reconstruction with autologous vein or synthetic graft interposition. Percutaneous US-guided cystic aspiration is a recent easy and safe alternative method for treating the disease but may result in local recurrence. We report the case of a 51-year-old male patient with clinically intermittent claudication of the right leg. The arteriogram showed complete occlusion of the right proximal popliteal artery and no evidence of atherosclerotic disease in other vessels. The diagnosis was made at the time of surgery. Surgical exploration revealed a gelatinous material involving the popliteal artery. It was excised and evacuated and a segment of greater saphenous vein interposed. Ultrasound examination 12 months later showed graft patency and absence of local recurrence. PMID:18389761

  12. Establishment of Aquilaria malaccensis Callus, cell suspension and adventitious root systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilaria malaccensis is a tropical forest tree from the family Thymelaeaceae, an endangered forest species and was listed in CITES since 1995. Locally known as Pokok Karas, this tree produces agar wood or gaharu, a highly valuable, resinous and fragrant forest product. Karas has been highly recognized for its vast medicinal values and gaharu has been widely use for perfumery, incense and religious purposes. The phyto chemical studies of agar wood showed that Sesqui terpenoid and Phenyl ethy chromone derivatives are the principal compounds that have anti allergic and anti microbe activities. Cell and organ culture systems provide large scale production of biomass and offers feasibilities for the production of secondary metabolites. This paper describes the work done for establishing reproducible systems for callus initiation and production of cell suspension cultures as well as production of adventitious roots that will later be amenable for the production of secondary metabolites of A. malaccensis. Hence, further manipulation with Methyl Jasmonate, a chemical elicitor could be done to induce secondary metabolites using callus, cell suspension and adventitious roots systems. (author)

  13. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling temperatures (Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  14. Diallel crossing among doubled haploids of cucumber reveals significant reciprocal-cross differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is an excellent plant for studying organellar effects on phenotypes because chloroplasts show maternal and mitochondria paternal transmission. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured fresh and d...

  15. Economic Feasibility of Organic Greenhouse Cucumber Production: The Case of�Menderes

    OpenAIRE

    Sait Engindeniz

    2002-01-01

    The cost and return of organic greenhouse cucumber production was determined. An organic greenhouse cucumber budget was developed for growers in a selected area from Turkey. In this study, total costs were subtracted from total gross revenue to calculate the net return of organic greenhouse cucumber production. The cost items of organic greenhouse cucumber production were the initial investment costs to construct, variable costs, fixed costs and land rent. According to study, net return...

  16. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Rm 0626 Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: > Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. > Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. > [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  17. Biochemical investigations during in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration in leaflet explants from nodal segments of a mature Albizia procera tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekta Rai; Sulochna Bouddha; Shamim Akhtar Ansari

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro adventitious shoot differentiation in leaflet explants of an adult tree differed from that of leaflet explants of seedlings of Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. reported previously elsewhere. The leaflet explants from an adult tree passed through an initial callus phase for 30 days on MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 2.5 lM 2,4-D followed by a subsequent adventitious shoot differentiation phase for another 30 days on half MS medium supplemented with 0.25 lM each of BA and IBA. The regeneration rate of in vitro adventitious shoots in explants from the adult tree, i.e.1.66 shoots/callus, was lower than that from seedlings, i.e. [10 shoots/callus, which was reported elsewhere. Correspondingly, the activities of nitrate reductase and peroxidase, and endogenous phenol content remained very low during in vitro adventitious shoot differentiation in leaflet explants of an adult tree possibly due to lower availability of competent stem (juvenile) cells for the process.

  18. Regulation of tissue differentiation by plant growth regulators on tTCLs of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2012), s. 154-159. ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550705; GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Adventitious roots * Panax ginseng * Ginsenosides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.468, year: 2012

  19. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 μg g-1). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: → Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. → Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. → [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  20. Applying prior knowledge to model batch keeping-quality of cucumber batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.; Jongbloed, G.

    2004-01-01

    Keeping-quality of individual cucumbers is limited by the green colour; the keeping-quality of batches of cucumbers is limited by the time it takes before 5␘f the cucumbers in the batch reach a predefined colour limit. From literature concerning the synthesis and degradation of chlorophyll and a pub

  1. De novo assembly of a draft genome for Cucumis hystrix, the closest relative of cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, HH) is the only known species that is cross-compatible with cucumber and has a great potential for cucumber improvement, To facilitate introgression of C. hystrix chromatins into cucumber genetic background through development of introgression library, we sequenced two...

  2. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  3. Potential Role of Axonal Chemorepellent Slit2 in Modulating Adventitial Inflammation in a Rat Carotid Artery Balloon Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Xiao, Yan; Subramanian, Romesh R; Okamoto, Ei-Ichi; Wilcox, Josiah N; Anderson, Leonard; De Leon, Hector

    2016-05-01

    Leukocyte infiltration of adventitial and perivascular tissues is an early event in the development of vascular remodeling after injury. We investigated whether Slit/Robo-an axonal chemorepellent system in vertebrate and invertebrate development-is activated during the inflammatory phase that follows endothelial denudation. Using the rat carotid artery model of angioplasty, we conducted a time course analysis of mRNAs encoding Slit ligands (Slit2 and Slit3) and Robo receptors (Robo1, Robo2, and Robo4), as well as proinflammatory cell adhesion molecule (CAM) genes. Adventitial inflammatory cells were counted in immunostained arterial sections. E-selectin, vascular CAM-1, and intercellular CAM-1 were upregulated 2-3 hours after injury, followed by infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes as evidenced by real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Slit2, Slit3, and Robo genes exhibited no expression changes at 3 hours; however, they were markedly upregulated 1 day after angioplasty. Intercellular CAM-1 expression was reduced by 50%, and the number of adventitial neutrophils decreased by >75% 1 day after angioplasty. Slit2 has been shown to be a potent chemorepelent of leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Thus, we decided to further investigate the localization of Slit2 in injured vessels. Immunohistochemical stainings revealed the presence of Slit2 within the vessel wall and in the perivascular vasa vasorum of naive and injured arteries. Double immunohistochemical analyses showed that infiltrating monocytes expressed Slit2 in the perivascular and adventitial tissues of injured arteries 1 and 3 days postangioplasty. In addition, recombinant full-length Slit2 and Slit2-N/1118, an N-terminal fragment of Slit2, inhibited stromal cell-derived factor 1-mediated migration of circulating rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In summary, adventitial activation of CAM genes and neutrophil infiltration preceded

  4. Influence of Fertilization System on the Quality of Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CÎMPEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Different types of cucumbers culture, respectively organic system and the system of chemical and organic fertilization can influence vegetable quality. The present study was carried out in a solarium on a farm, in six experimental variants, three replications. Three variants for fertilization systems with two cucumbers cultivars were used. The biological material used in the experiments consisted of the cultivars ‘Triumf’ F1 and ‘Mirabelle’ F1. Fertilization systems used were organic with manure, classic with chemical fertilizers and soluble complex fertilizers with fertigation. In the present research agrochemical and biochemical characteristics were analysed and also weight of fruits and yield on plants and kg/m2 were measured. Agrochemical characteristics were: contents of nitrates, phosphorus and potassium from cucumbers and the biochemical characteristics measured were: acidity, soluble carbohydrates, vitamin C and dry matter. The results showed that the fertilization with soluble complex fertilizers in addition with fertigation assured the entire necessary for the growth and fructification of cucumbers. The presence of chemical fertilizers do not influence in a negative way the nitrates, phosphorus and potassium content and the quality of consumption of cucumbers was assured. Regarding the cultivars the best yield and quality results were obtained to ‘Mirabelle’ F1.

  5. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an alternative source of first quality protein and considered a putative functional food, like hypocholesterolemic proprieties and contain many other bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare the protein content of two sea cucumber species, Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the crude protein through the measurement of nitrogen amount in each sample. The obtained results demonstrated that both species contain high protein levels, with higher results for S. regalis, which revealed values between 19,1% and 20,4%. H. forskali showed a protein level among 12,1% and 15,4%. Holothurian protein levels reveal great potential for human consumption. Those resources can be used as a partial substitute of fish meal (eg. sea bream nutrition, either to intern market as well as for exportation to Asian countries. Sea cucumber farming could have lucrative potential in the Mediterranean, converting sea cucumbers into aquaculture value-added products bringing to this region profitable economic benefits.

  6. Enhanced Segmentation Procedure for Intima- Adventitial Layers of Common Carotid Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Savithri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— This paper presents an enhanced Segmentationtechnique for use on noisy B-mode ultrasound images of thecarotid artery. This method is based on ImageEnhancement, Edge detection and Morphological operationsin boundary detection. This procedure may simplify the jobof the practitioner for analyzing accuracy and variability ofsegmentation results. Possible plaque regions are alsohighlighted. A thorough evaluation of the method in the clinicalenvironment shows that inter observer variability is evidentlydecreased and so is the overall analysis time. Theresults demonstrate that it has the potential to performqualitatively better than applying existing methods inintima and adventitial layer detection on B-mode images.Keywords— Artery, boundary detection, imaging, Ultrasonic,parallel programming

  7. Ethyl Acetate Extract from Tissue-Cultured Mountain Ginseng Adventitious Roots Inhibits In Vitro Platelet Aggregation in Whole Human Blood and Augments Peripheral Blood Flow in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, In Sun; Kim, Seul-Ki; Jeon, Min Hwa; Jeon, Won Kyung

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that in vitro anti-platelet activity of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (TCMG) ethanol extracts show improved efficacy when compared with commercial ginseng products such as Korean red ginseng and Panax ginseng. However, information on the anti-platelet activity of the ethyl acetate fraction from TCMG adventitious roots is limited. Therefore, in this study, we further investigated the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of TCMG (EA-TCMG) adventitious roots on in vitro ...

  8. Coexisting secondary intraneural and vascular adventitial ganglion cysts of joint origin: a causal rather than a coincidental relationship supporting an articular theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Anatomy, Rochester, MN (United States); Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Desy, Nicholas M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rock, Michael G. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States); Holdt, Frederik C. [University of Pretoria, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2006-10-15

    To introduce the clinical entity of an intraneural ganglion cyst coexisting with a vascular adventitial cyst arising from the same joint. Retrospective review. Two patients presented with predominantly deep peroneal neuropathy due to complex superior tibiofibular joint-related cysts. In addition to having peroneal intraneural ganglion cysts, these patients had vascular adventitial cysts: one involving a capsular arterial branch, the other a capsular vein [as well as a large, recurrent, intramuscular (extraneural) ganglion]. We then reviewed MRIs of 12 other consecutive cases of intraneural ganglia (10 peroneal and 2 tibial) arising from the superior tibiofibular joint that we treated, as well as other reported cases in the literature to determine if there were other (unrecognized) examples supporting the combination of clinical findings and radiographic patterns. Retrospective analysis of MRIs in the two surgically proven cases of peroneal intraneural ganglia with vascular adventitial cyst extension showed a common imaging pattern that we have termed ''the wishbone sign,'' consisting of the connection of the ascending limb of the peroneal intraneural ganglion and the longitudinal limb of the vascular adventitial cyst in the axial plane. Our review suggests that vascular adventitial cyst extension occurs in a large proportion of cases of peroneal intraneural ganglia. A similar growth pattern was noted in a case of a tibial intraneural ganglion. The combination of intraneural and vascular adventitial cysts is understandable given our knowledge of normal and pathologic anatomy of para-articular cysts. The combination of intraneural ganglia and vascular adventitial cysts broadens the spectrum of clinical presentations of these cysts and suggests that cysts and their content can dissect from a joint along neurovascular bundles. These cases provide important evidence to support the articular theory for the pathogenesis of not only neural but vascular

  9. Coexisting secondary intraneural and vascular adventitial ganglion cysts of joint origin: a causal rather than a coincidental relationship supporting an articular theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To introduce the clinical entity of an intraneural ganglion cyst coexisting with a vascular adventitial cyst arising from the same joint. Retrospective review. Two patients presented with predominantly deep peroneal neuropathy due to complex superior tibiofibular joint-related cysts. In addition to having peroneal intraneural ganglion cysts, these patients had vascular adventitial cysts: one involving a capsular arterial branch, the other a capsular vein [as well as a large, recurrent, intramuscular (extraneural) ganglion]. We then reviewed MRIs of 12 other consecutive cases of intraneural ganglia (10 peroneal and 2 tibial) arising from the superior tibiofibular joint that we treated, as well as other reported cases in the literature to determine if there were other (unrecognized) examples supporting the combination of clinical findings and radiographic patterns. Retrospective analysis of MRIs in the two surgically proven cases of peroneal intraneural ganglia with vascular adventitial cyst extension showed a common imaging pattern that we have termed ''the wishbone sign,'' consisting of the connection of the ascending limb of the peroneal intraneural ganglion and the longitudinal limb of the vascular adventitial cyst in the axial plane. Our review suggests that vascular adventitial cyst extension occurs in a large proportion of cases of peroneal intraneural ganglia. A similar growth pattern was noted in a case of a tibial intraneural ganglion. The combination of intraneural and vascular adventitial cysts is understandable given our knowledge of normal and pathologic anatomy of para-articular cysts. The combination of intraneural ganglia and vascular adventitial cysts broadens the spectrum of clinical presentations of these cysts and suggests that cysts and their content can dissect from a joint along neurovascular bundles. These cases provide important evidence to support the articular theory for the pathogenesis of not only neural but vascular adventitial cysts as

  10. Modeling gene flow distribution within conventional fields and development of a simplified sampling method to quantify adventitious GM contents in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Enric Melé; Anna Nadal; Joaquima Messeguer; Marina Melé-Messeguer; Montserrat Palaudelmàs; Gisela Peñas; Xavier Piferrer; Gemma Capellades; Joan Serra; Maria Pla

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been commercially grown for two decades. GM maize is one of 3 species with the highest acreage and specific events. Many countries established a mandatory labeling of products containing GM material, with thresholds for adventitious presence, to support consumers’ freedom of choice. In consequence, coexistence systems need to be introduced to facilitate commercial culture of GM and non-GM crops in the same agricultural area. On modeling adventitious GM cro...

  11. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jennifer E; Åslund, Melissa L Whitfield; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2011-03-01

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 μg g(-1)). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. PMID:21168941

  12. Changes in trace amounts of elements due to plant hormone treatment in the adventitious root growth process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography using imaging plates was applied to obtain transport information of selected elements in trace amounts in plant morphologic establishment. Growth of adventitious root stemming from epicotyl (upper part of axis) of vigna angularis (red-bean) affects changes in spatial distribution of neutron activated short-lived radioisotopes which are determined by a sensitive and wide-latitude radiation detector and by a use of gamma-ray spectroscopy for the identification. Sprouts of vigna angularis grown in water, indole acetate (IAA, 1 ppm) and gibberellin (GA, 1 ppm) were irradiated in KUR reactor for 10 min, covered with milar film, exposed to imaging plate (SR-2025), and analyzed to obtain auto-radiographic images. It was found that radioactivity increased at adventitious root growth, especially by the treatment with IAA activity due to Ca and Al increased. Behaviors of Mn, Mg, Al, Na, Ca, K, and Cl were studied qualitatively. (S. Ohno)

  13. Histological changes during the adventitious shoot formation in seedling explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gatz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious shoots differentiated directly from explant tissue without intermediate callus on all types of examined explants (shoot tip, cotyledonary node, cotyledon and hypocotyl of Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bryza. First cell divisions took place as early as after 3 days of explant culture within epidermal and subepidermal layers of explants, and in the case of cotyledon also within mesophyll cells located near epidermis. Mitotic activity in these layers led to the formation of meristemoids (meristematic centres. In all types of studied explants, meristematic centres appeared approximately at the same time (after about 7 days of culture. In the second week bud primordia began to differentiate from meristematic centres. Subsequently some of shoot primordia developed into leaves and leaf-like structures (mainly on cotyledon explants, and also into adventitious buds with well developed apical meristem and leaf primordia.

  14. Chemical characterization and prebiotic activity of fructo-oligosaccharides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches Lopes, Sheila Mara; Francisco, Mariane Grigio; Higashi, Bruna; de Almeida, Rafaela Takako Ribeiro; Krausová, Gabriela; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; Oliveira, Arildo José Braz de

    2016-11-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is widely studied because of its foliar steviol glycosides. Fructan-type polysaccharides were recently isolated from its roots. Fructans are reserve carbohydrates that have important positive health effects and technological applications in the food industry. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) from S. rebaudiana roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures and evaluate the potential prebiotic effect of these molecules. The in vitro adventitious root cultures were obtained using a roller bottle system. Chemical analyses (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and off-line electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) revealed similar chemical properties of FOSs that were obtained from the different sources. The potential prebiotic effects of FOSs that were isolated from S. rebaudiana roots enhanced the growth of both bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, with strains specificity in their fermentation ability. PMID:27516323

  15. Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xi-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) is an important medicinal plant which is widely used in the treatment for depression and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used as a dietary supplement. Major bioactive phytochemicals of H. perforatum are phenolics and flavonoids. Quality of these phytochemicals is dramatically influenced by environmental and biological factors in the field grown plants. As an alternative, we have developed adventitious root cultures in large-scale bioreactors for the production of useful phytochemicals. Adventitious roots of H. perforatum were cultured in 500 l pilot-scale airlift bioreactors using half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an ammonium and nitrate ratio of 5:25 mM and supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) kinetin, and 3 % sucrose for the production of bioactive phenolics and flavonoids. Then 4.6 and 6.3 kg dry biomass were realized in the 500 l each of drum-type and balloon-type bioreactors, respectively. Accumulation of 66.9 mg g(-1) DW of total phenolics, 48.6 mg g(-1) DW of total flavonoids, 1.3 mg g(-1) DW of chlorogenic acid, 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of hyperin, 0.04 mg g(-1) DW of hypericin, and 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of quercetin could be achieved with adventitious roots cultured in 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities of using H. perforatum adventitious root cultures for the production of useful phytochemicals to meet the demand of pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:25096393

  16. Promoting Roles of Melatonin in Adventitious Root Development of Solanum lycopersicum L. by Regulating Auxin and Nitric Oxide Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Dan eWen; Biao eGong; Shasha eSun; Shiqi eLiu; Xiufeng eWang; Min eWei; Fengjuan eYang; Yan eLi; Qinghua eShi

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (MT) plays integral roles in regulating several biological processes including plant growth, seed germination, flowering, senescence and stress responses. This study investigated the effects of MT on adventitious root formation (ARF) of de-rooted tomato seedlings. Exogenous MT positively or negatively influenced ARF, which was dependent on the concentration of MT application. In the present experiment, 50 µM MT showed the best effect on inducing ARF. Interestingly, exogenous MT prom...

  17. Promoting Roles of Melatonin in Adventitious Root Development of Solanum lycopersicum L. by Regulating Auxin and Nitric Oxide Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Dan; Gong, Biao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Shiqi; Wang, Xiufeng; Min WEI; Yang, Fengjuan; Li, Yan; Shi, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (MT) plays integral roles in regulating several biological processes including plant growth, seed germination, flowering, senescence, and stress responses. This study investigated the effects of MT on adventitious root formation (ARF) of de-rooted tomato seedlings. Exogenous MT positively or negatively influenced ARF, which was dependent on the concentration of MT application. In the present experiment, 50 μM MT showed the best effect on inducing ARF. Interestingly, exogenous MT pro...

  18. Endogenous cytokinin profiles and their relationships to between-family differences during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinea cotyledons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cuesta, C.; Novák, Ondřej; Ordas, R. J.; Fernandez, B.; Strnad, Miroslav; Doležal, Karel; Rodriguez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 18 (2012), s. 1830-1830-1837. ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Natural cytokinins * Adventitious shoot organogenesis * Pinus pinea Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.699, year: 2012

  19. Primisulfuron herbicide-resistant tobacco plants: mutant selection in vitro by adventitious shoot formation from cultured leaf discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple procedure has been developed for the rapid and direct selection of herbicide-resistant mutant plants. The procedure uses adventitious shoot formation from suitable explants, such as leaf discs, on a shoot-inducing culture medium containing a toxic herbicide concentration. Resistant green shoots were thus isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf explants cultured on medium containing 100 μg 1−1 primisulfuron, a new sulfonylurea herbicide. Resistant shoots were recovered from both haploid and diploid explants after UV mutagenesis, as well as without mutagenic treatment. Three mutant plants of separate origin were further analyzed biochemically and genetically. Their acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) enzyme activity was less inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides than that of unselected, sensitive wild type plants. The extent of inhibition of the AHAS enzyme among the three mutants was different for different sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides suggesting different sites were affected by each mutation. Herbicide tolerance was scored for germinating seedling populations and was found to be inherited as a single dominant nuclear gene. Adventitious shoot formation from cultured leaf discs was used to determine the cross tolerance of mutant plants to various herbicidal AHAS inhibitors. The usefulness of this rapid and direct scheme for mutant selection based on adventitious shoot formation or embryogenesis is discussed. (author)

  20. Production of biomass and useful compounds from adventitious roots of high-value added medicinal plants using bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Md Abdullahil; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    The increasing global demand for biomass of medicinal plant resources reflects the issues and crisis created by diminishing renewable resources and increasing consumer populations. Moreover, diverse usage of plants and reduced land for cultivation in the world accelerated the deficiency of plant resources. In addition, the preparation of safety of plant based medicine whips up demand for biomass of valuable medicinal plants. As one of alternative approach to upswing the productivity of plant-based pharmaceutical compounds, automation of adventitious root culture system in air-lift bioreactor was adopted to produce cosmic amount of root biomass along with enriched diverse bioactive molecules. In this review, various physiological, engineering parameters, and selection of proper cultivation strategy (fed-batch, two-stage etc.) affecting the biomass production and secondary metabolite accumulation have been discussed. In addition, advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up as well as recent research aimed at maximizing automation of the bioreactor production processes are also highlighted. Examples of the scale-up of cultures of adventitious roots of Morinda citrifolia, Echinacea purpurea and angustifolia, Hypericum perforatum and Panax ginseng by applying 20 L to 10,000 L bioreactors in our lab were demonstrated with a view of commercial application. PMID:22123438

  1. Regulation of phytohormones on root primordium initiation and adventitious root formation in the etiolated shoots of Paeonia suffruticosa 'Yinfen Jinlin'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Duan-xiang; Yin Wei-lun; Zhao Xiao-qing; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Tree peony is well known and sought after for its large, colorful flowers. Its propagation is via vegetative methods. Mechnisms of the adventitious rooting and the regulation of rooting processes are the principles and techniques of plant propagation and improvement. Microstmctures and fluctuations of phytohormones in the adventitious rooting were studied with the etiolated softwood shoots of Paeonia suffruticosa 'Yinfen Jinlin'. There are no pre-primordia in the shoots of the cultivar. Adventitious roots are produced in five stages: shoot selection, primordium initiation, primordium growth, conducting tissue differentiation and root protrusion. Primordia initiated in the cortex. The contents of the endogenous hormones, IAA, ABA and GA, were 5.842, 0.873 and 1.043to GA, CTK and ABA clearly increased at the stage of primordium initiation, while they showed low levels at the stages of primordium growth. The ratios were restored at the shoot levels at the stage of root protrusion. IBA provoked primordia initiation in the cortex, the vascular cambium, the pith and even in the callus induced on the base of shoots. IAA levels in the treated shoots increased gradually to its highest level (three times of control) at the stage of conducting tissue differentiation. The ratios of IAA to GA, CTK and ABA clearly decreased at the stage of primordium initiation. The ratio of IAA to ABA is regulated at 10:1.

  2. Biotransformation of ceria nanoparticles in cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Zhi; Tai, Renzhong; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-11-27

    Biotransformation is a critical factor that may modify the toxicity, behavior, and fate of engineered nanoparticles in the environment. CeO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) are generally recognized as stable under environmental and biological conditions. The present study aims to investigate the biotransformation of CeO(2) NPs in plant systems. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show needlelike clusters on the epidermis and in the intercellular spaces of cucumber roots after a treatment with 2000 mg/L CeO(2) NPs for 21 days. By using a soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy (STXM) technique, the needlelike clusters were verified to be CePO(4). Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XANES) spectra show that Ce presented in the roots as CeO(2) and CePO(4) while in the shoots as CeO(2) and cerium carboxylates. Simulated studies indicate that reducing substances (e.g., ascorbic acids) played a key role in the transformation process and organic acids (e.g., citric acids) can promote particle dissolution. We speculate that CeO(2) NPs were first absorbed on the root surfaces and partially dissolved with the assistance of the organic acids and reducing substances excreted by the roots. The released Ce(III) ions were precipitated on the root surfaces and in intercellular spaces with phosphate, or form complexes with carboxyl compounds during translocation to the shoots. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report confirming the biotransformation and in-depth exploring the translocation process of CeO(2) NPs in plants. PMID:23098040

  3. Genome Wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whole genome sequence of the cucumber cultivar Gy14 was recently sequenced at 15× coverage with the Roche 454 Titanium technology. The microsatellite DNA sequences (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) in the assembled scaffolds were computationally explored and characterized. A total of 112,073 SSRs ...

  4. Neiella marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sea cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel strain, designated J221**T, was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, collected from earthen ponds in Qingdao, China. The strain is Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic, and rod-shaped cell. Growth of strain J221T was observed at temperatures between 10...

  5. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...

  6. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  7. In vitro flowering and pollen viability of cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers were produced on sterile cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown in vitro from seed or from micropropagated shoots from stem fragments. Highest numbers of flowers on plants from both sources were produced on hormone-free MS medium as well as with 6 µM of kinetin (MSK). Plants cultured on ...

  8. The Pickling Cucumbers Cultivated from Seedlings and Direct Sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Žutić

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The start of infection with downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk et Curt. coincides with the picking period start of pickling cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. cultivated through direct sowing, while the application of fungicide is being limited through frequent harvests. The larger portion of cucumber crop grown from the seedlings could be harvested prior to the onset of intense downy mildew infection without fungicide application in the picking period. Cultivar Levina growth was investigated in a two years experiment from two and three weeks old seedlings, with a root's substratum volume of 100 and 200 cm 3 , in comparison with the direct sowing as a standard cultivation. In the cultivation method from the seedlings the plants were ready for harvest for two or three weeks earlier than obtainable from the direct sowing. As a consequence the harvest period by the seedlings method lasted for two weeks longer, whereby a higher market product yield was materialized. It was established that the seedling age, and root's substratum volume have no substantial influence on an earlier picking period or the height of market cucumber product yields either. In the picking period by the cucumber cultivation from the seedlings method and with a three times/week harvest, it becomes possible without fungicide application to get 75 % of the yield until the onset of the intense downy mildew infection.

  9. Glass foam granulate as growing medium for tomato and cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Winkel, van A.; Chizhmak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Glass foam granulate was evaluated for use as a horticultural rooting medium with laboratory tests and cultivation experiments. The laboratory tests included moisture characteristics, rehydration rate and pH buffering analyses. Cucumbers and later on tomatoes were propagated in rockwool propagation

  10. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  11. The Genome of the Cucumber, Cucumis Sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen...

  12. An integrated genetic and cytogenetic map of the cucumber genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular linkage maps. We report herein the development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers originated from whole genome shotgun sequencing and the subsequent construction of a high-density genetic linkage map. This map includes 995 SSRs in seven linkage groups which spans in total 573 cM, and defines approximately 680 recombination breakpoints with an average of 0.58 cM between two markers. These linkage groups were then assigned to seven corresponding chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. FISH assays also revealed a chromosomal inversion between Cucumis subspecies [C. sativus var. sativus L. and var. hardwickii (R. Alef], which resulted in marker clustering on the genetic map. A quarter of the mapped markers showed relatively high polymorphism levels among 11 inbred lines of cucumber. Among the 995 markers, 49%, 26% and 22% were conserved in melon, watermelon and pumpkin, respectively. This map will facilitate whole genome sequencing, positional cloning, and molecular breeding in cucumber, and enable the integration of knowledge of gene and trait in cucurbits.

  13. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES I. SALAD CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of six salad cucumber varieties was carried out. The aim of this experiment was to assess the influence of the harvest time on the fruit sensory properties. Flesh colour was the most stable character while appearance, skin colour, aroma, texture, taste and total sensory evaluation varied during the three investigated harvest periods. Two-way analysis of variance proved significant effect of the varieties, harvest time and its interaction on all sensory characters. Depending on the harvest time some of the varieties changed their places one toward other by total sensory evaluation. Therefore, it could not be made reliable conclusions of data obtained from one harvest time. The number of harvest times as well as the number of vegetations should be more then one in order to receive more accurate information for sensory characteristics.

  14. Study on the Methods of Detecting Cucumber Downy Mildew Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Youwen; Zhang, Lin

    Hyperspectral imaging technology, which can integrate the advantages of spectral detection and image detection, meets the need of detecting the cucumber diseases fast and nondestructively. In this paper, hyperspectral imaging technology is adopted to detect the cucumber downy mildew fast and nondestructively. Firstly, hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves infected downy mildew are acquired by the hyperspectral image acquisition system. And optimum wavelengths are collected by the principal component analysis to get the featured images. Then the image fusion technology is adopted to combine collected images with the featured images to form new images by pixel-level image fusion. Finally, the methods of the image enhancement, binarization, corrosion and dilatation treatments are carried out, so the cucumber downy mildew is detected. The result shows that the accuracy rate of the algorithm for detecting cucumber disease can reach nearly 90%. Studies have shown that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to detect cucumber downy mildew.

  15. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  16. Vibrotactile stimulation for the adventitiously deaf: an alternative to cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, S B; Spitzer, J B; Milner, P; Flevaris-Phillips, C; Richardson, F

    1986-10-01

    Acoustic correlates of the prosodic features identifying English contrastive stress, ie, fundamental frequency (Fo), duration and intensity, and listener perceptions were investigated in a profoundly adventitiously deaf subject (D) pre/postvibrotactile stimulation, and in an age-peer normally-hearing person as a control (N). Stimuli were a group of general American English words in which a change of function from noun to verb was associated with a shift of stress from initial to final syllable, eg, CON'test vs conTEST'. Prior to vibrotactile stimulation, D was unable to produce contrastive stress correctly. Only final syllable intensity differences were noted, but proved to be inadequate cues for contrastive stress. Vibrotactile stimulation resulted in changes, specifically significantly higher Fo for initial stressed vs unstressed syllables, significantly louder intensity for final stressed vs unstressed syllables, and significantly longer duration for final stressed vs unstressed syllables. Perceptually, listeners judged D's contrastive stress placement as always occurring on the final syllable previbrotactile stimulation and as 78% correct postvibrotactile stimulation. N's contrastive stress placement was always correct. It was concluded that use of vibrotactile stimulation enhanced D's production and resulted in listeners' perceptions of correct prosody. PMID:3767627

  17. Excessive Adventitial Remodeling Leads to Early Aortic Maladaptation in Angiotensin-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersi, Matthew R; Bellini, Chiara; Wu, Jing; Montaniel, Kim R C; Harrison, David G; Humphrey, Jay D

    2016-05-01

    The primary function of central arteries is to store elastic energy during systole and to use it to sustain blood flow during diastole. Arterial stiffening compromises this normal mechanical function and adversely affects end organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys. Using an angiotensin II infusion model of hypertension in wild-type mice, we show that the thoracic aorta exhibits a dramatic loss of energy storage within 2 weeks that persists for at least 4 weeks. This diminished mechanical functionality results from increased structural stiffening as a result of an excessive accumulation of adventitial collagen, not a change in the intrinsic stiffness of the wall. A detailed analysis of the transmural biaxial wall stress suggests that the exuberant production of collagen results more from an inflammatory response than from a mechano-adaptation, hence reinforcing the need to control inflammation, not just blood pressure. Although most clinical assessments of arterial stiffening focus on intimal-medial thickening, these results suggest a need to measure and control the highly active and important adventitia. PMID:27001298

  18. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil M; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Rane, Niraj R; Khandare, Rahul V; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-04-01

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. PMID:26803212

  19. Determination of the Variations of Metalaxyl Residue in Cucumbers Grown under Modern and Traditional Greenhouse Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    L. Mosaffa; Kh. Talebi; J. Keramat

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable crops are exposed to repeated spraying against the pests and diseases during the growing sessions. Crops such as greenhouse cucumber are usually harvested a short time after spraying, bearing a high level of pesticides with them. This fact justifies a research on this problem. This research was carried out to determine the effects of metalaxyl (a fungicide commonly used in greenhouse) residue in cucumbers grown under traditional and modern greenhouse conditions. Cucumber plants were...

  20. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nazamid Saari; Farooq Anwar; Sara Bordbar

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thia...

  1. A Review of Recent Developments in the World Sea Cucumber Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Conand, Chantal; Bryne, Maria

    1993-01-01

    Sea cucumbers (Holothuridae and Stichopodidae) have been harvested commercially for at least 1,000 years. The world fisheries for sea cucumbers, however, are not well documented and in general are poorly managed. Depending upon the species exploited, there are two processing procedures for the sea cucumber product. Some species are eaten raw, while most commercial species are processed into a dry product called beche-de-mer or trepang. This dry product is exported to a central market such as ...

  2. Sea Cucumber Aquaculture in the Western Indian Ocean: Challenges for Sustainable Livelihood and Stock Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Hampus; Robinson, Georgina; Slater, Matthew J.; Troell, Max

    2011-01-01

    The decline in sea cucumber fisheries that serve the Asian dried seafood market has prompted an increase in global sea cucumber aquaculture. The tropical sandfish (Holothuria scabra) has, in this context, been reared and produced with mixed success. In the Western Indian Ocean, villagers often participate in the export fishery for sea cucumbers as a source of income. However, with a growing concern of depleted stocks introduction of hatcheries to farm sandfish as a community livelihood and to...

  3. QTL mapping of cucumber fruit flesh thickness by SLAF-seq

    OpenAIRE

    Xuewen Xu; Lu Lu; Biyun Zhu; Qiang Xu; Xiaohua Qi; Xuehao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber is an agriculturally and economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Fruit flesh thickness is an important trait for cucumber and also a central determinant of yield, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism of this trait. In this study, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) combined with specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was applied to finely map the gene that underlies fruit flesh thickness in cucumber. A 0.19-Mb-long quantitative trait locus on chro...

  4. The effect of storage temperature of cucumber fruit on chlorophyll fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-01-01

    The effect of three storage temperature levels: 12,5°C, 20°C, and 1,5°C on basic indexes of chlorophyll fluorescence of cucumber fruits was studied. The greenhouse grown cucumber fruits cv. Wiktor F1 were stored in perforated polyethylene bags or without packages. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo), maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm), variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv) and relative variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm) of the cucumber peel were measured. Relative variable fluorescence ...

  5. Sea Cucumber Resources At Tanjung Pai Waters Padaido Biak Numfor Papua

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy Yusron

    2004-01-01

    Observation on sea cucumber diversity was carried out at coastal waters of Pai and Imbeyomi Islands in the Padaido Island Biak Numfor. Sampling was done by using a transect quadrant of 1 m x 1 m. This sampling and observation on its microhabitat were conducted by snorkling. Analyses on the sea cucumber community structure were based on its frequency of occurance, diversity, and density. The results showed that at both locations 10 species of sea cucumber were found where Holothuria edulis, H....

  6. Silicon Application Effects on Yield and Growth of Two Cucumber Genotypes in Hydroponics System

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mohaghegh; Shirvani, M; Ghasemi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has beneficial effects on the growth, yield, and tolerance of some crops against biotic and abiotic stresses. Considering the absence of Si in the nutrient solutions used in hydroponically-grown cucumber, the present study was conducted to investigate the influence of Si on the growth and yield of two cucumber genotypes (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Dominus GRC and Super Dominus). In a hydroponic experiment, two cucumber cultivars were exposed to three Si levels (0, 100, and 200 mg L-...

  7. Development of Four Populations of Meloidogyne hapla on Two Cultivars, of Cucumber at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Z. A.; Trudgill, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The infectivity and development of four populations of Meloidogyne hapla were compared, at three temperatures, on tomato and two varieties of cucumber. A population from Canada produced few root-galls on cucumber and, except at 24 C, no larvae developed into adult females and produced egg masses. In contrast, a population with 45 chromosomes from America produced many galls on cucumber and small proportions of larvae became females and produced egg masses at 20 and 24 C. At 18 C this populati...

  8. A high-resolution cucumber cytogenetic map integrated with the genome assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianying; Zhang, Zhonghua; Zong, Xu; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Zongyun; Han, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    Background High-resolution cytogenetic map can provide not only important biological information on genome organization but also solid foundation for genetic and genomic research. The progress in the molecular and cytogenetic studies has created the basis for developing the cytogenetic map in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Results Here, the cytogenetic maps of four cucumber chromosomes (chromosomes 1, 3–5) were constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on cucumber pach...

  9. Progresses in the Mechanism of Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xingang; WU Fengzhi; WANG Xuezheng; YUAN Ye

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum (Owen) is one of the most devastating diseases in cucumber production worldwide.Recent progresses in the mechanism of resistance to Fusarium wilt in cucumber were reviewed in this paper,including pathogenic mechanism of Fusarium oxysporum,the resistance mechanism of cucumber,the heredity of resistance,and the location of resistance genes.Following works should be the location and cloning of resistance genes with molecular biologic methods.

  10. PROSPECT OF SEA CUCUMBER CULTURE IN INDONESIA AS POTENTIAL FOOD SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Henneke Pangkey; Sartje Lantu; Lusia Manuand; Jeffrie Fredrik Mokolensang

    2012-01-01

    Sea cucumber is one of the sea treasures which has been used not only as luxury food for certain countries but also as medicines. Sea cucumber has become one of the most important products and it has high price in international market.For this reason, the exploitation of sea cucumber turns out to be excessive and disturbs its sustainability. Aquaculture is the best way to prevent this problem. The success of sea cucumber culture is very depend on seed availability and suitable food for larvae...

  11. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on adventitious root development of rice under low and normal soil nitrogen levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengming; Sun; Lijian; Wang; Tao; Liu; Doudou; Guo; Yingying; Chen; Wei; Wu; Yulong; Wang; Jianguo; Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Free air CO2 enrichment(FACE) and nitrogen(N) have marked effects on rice root growth,and numerical simulation can explain these effects. To further define the effects of FACE on root growth of rice, an experiment was performed, using the hybrid indica cultivar Xianyou63. The effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2], 200 μmol mol-1higher than ambient, on the growth of rice adventitious roots were evaluated, with two levels of N: low(LN, 125 kg ha-1) and normal(NN, 250 kg ha-1). The results showed a significant increase in both adventitious root number(ARN) and adventitious root length(ARL) under FACE treatment. The application of nitrogen also increased ARN and ARL, but these increases were smaller than that under FACE treatment. On the basis of the FACE experiment, numerical models for rice adventitious root number and length were constructed with time as the driving factor. The models illustrated the dynamic development of rice adventitious root number and length after transplanting, regulated either by atmospheric [CO2] or by N application.The simulation result was supported by statistical tests comparing experimental data from different years, and the model yields realistic predictions of root growth. These results suggest that the models have strong predictive potential under conditions of atmospheric [CO2] rises in the future.

  12. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on adventitious root development of rice under low and normal soil nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE and nitrogen (N have marked effects on rice root growth, and numerical simulation can explain these effects. To further define the effects of FACE on root growth of rice, an experiment was performed, using the hybrid indica cultivar Xianyou 63. The effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2], 200 μmol mol− 1 higher than ambient, on the growth of rice adventitious roots were evaluated, with two levels of N: low (LN, 125 kg ha− 1 and normal (NN, 250 kg ha− 1. The results showed a significant increase in both adventitious root number (ARN and adventitious root length (ARL under FACE treatment. The application of nitrogen also increased ARN and ARL, but these increases were smaller than that under FACE treatment. On the basis of the FACE experiment, numerical models for rice adventitious root number and length were constructed with time as the driving factor. The models illustrated the dynamic development of rice adventitious root number and length after transplanting, regulated either by atmospheric [CO2] or by N application. The simulation result was supported by statistical tests comparing experimental data from different years, and the model yields realistic predictions of root growth. These results suggest that the models have strong predictive potential under conditions of atmospheric [CO2] rises in the future.

  13. Liquid Culture of Adventitious Roots is a Potential Alternative to Field Cultivation for Psammosilene tunicoides, a Rare and Endangered Endemic Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongshen Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish an adventitious roots culture system for sterile plantlet segments of P. tunicoides and improved the accumulation of total saponins in cultured roots. Psammosilene tunicoides is a native Chinese plant with high commercial value as medicinal herb. Combination of NAA and IBA significantly affected the adventitious roots formation on agar-solided B5 media and a maximal induction rate of 83% was obtained at 24±2°C with a photoperiod of 12 h. With a shaking of 110 rpm in darkness, transferring the detached adventitious roots to the growth regulator free 1/2 B5 liquid media notably increased the biomass production compared to that on solid media over a 30-day-culture period. Further analyses showed that more saponins could be accumulated in the liquid culture than in the solid culture and the addition of exogenous oxalic acid to the liquid media could enhance the accumulation of total saponins in adventitious roots. These results suggested that adventitious roots culture will be an efficient alternative to the field cultivation of intact plants for the production of useful natural compounds from P. tunicoides.

  14. Change of Nitric Oxide and NADPH-diaphorase During the Generation and the Development of Adventitious Roots in Mung Bean Hypocotyl Cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEXiao-Ping; HUANGAi-Xia

    2004-01-01

    Effects of nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NO specific scavenger c-PTIO and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME on the rooting of mung bean ( Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl cuttings were studied. The spatio-temporal changes of NO and NADPH-diaphorase in the basal part of cutting were also detected during the adventitious rooting process. The results showed that SNP significantly enhanced the adventitious rooting in the range of concentrations tested. NADPH-diaphorase activity (commonly employed as a marker for NOS) and the fluorescence of NO were respectively observed in the zone between the vascular bundles of the basal part of cuttings at 24h and 36h after cutting. The root primordium became discernible at 48h after cutting in the same region, and became more elongate at 60h. NADPH-diaphorase activity and NO fluorescence gradually increased during 48-60h and mainly distributed in root meristem. L-NAME treatment delayed adventitious root emergency and significantly reduced the NADPH-diaphorase staining and the fluorescence of NO. The specific NO scavenger, c-PTIO, also suppressed the fluorescence and inhibited the formation of adventitious roots. These results suggest that endogenous NO appears to play a key role in the generation and development of adventitious roots, and the production of NO in this process may be catalyzed by NOS-like enzyme.

  15. Cucumber metal transport protein MTP8 confers increased tolerance to manganese when expressed in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Migocka, Magdalena; Papierniak, Anna; Maciaszczyk-Dziubińska, Ewa; Poździk, Piotr; Posyniak, Ewelina; Garbiec, Arnold; Filleur, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The family of genes encoding metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) in cucumber is identified and described. The cucumber Mn transporter CsMTP8 is biochemically and functionally characterized in yeast and A. thaliana.

  16. Construction of a Fosmid Library of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Comparative Analyses of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E Regions from Cucumber and Melon (Cucumis melo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber and melon are the most economically important plants in the family Cucurbitaceae and are members of distinct subgenera in the genus Cucumis. We undertook comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes. A fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as...

  17. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  18. Progression Rates of Carotid Intima-media Thickness and Adventitial Diameter during the Menopausal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The authors assessed whether the levels and progression rates of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adventitial diameter (AD) vary by menopausal stage. Methods 249 Women (42–57 years old, premenopausal (49%) or early peri-menopausal (46%)) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation were included in the current analysis. Participants were followed for up to 9 years (median=3.7 years) and had up to 5 carotid scans. Linear mixed models were used for analysis. Results The overall rate of change in IMT was 0.007 mm/year. Independent of age and race, progression rate of IMT increased substantially in late peri-menopausal stage (0.017 mm/year) compared to both premenopausal (0.007 mm/year) and early peri-menopausal (0.005 mm/year) stages; (P≤0.05). For AD, while the overall rate of change was negative (−0.009 mm/year), significant positive increases in the rate of change were observed in late peri-menopausal (0.024 mm/year) and postmenopausal (0.018 mm/year) stages compared to premenopausal stage (−0.032 mm/year); (P<0.05). In final models, postmenopausal stage was independently associated with higher levels of IMT and AD (P<0.05) compared to premenopausal stage. Conclusions During the menopausal transition, the carotid artery undergoes an adaptation that is reflected in adverse changes in IMT and AD. These changes may impact the vulnerability of the vessel to disease in older women. PMID:22990755

  19. Improved Correlation of Strain Indices with Cognitive Dysfunction with Inclusion of Adventitial Layer with Carotid Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Mitchell, C C; Varghese, T; Jackson, D C; Rocque, B G; Hermann, B P; Dempsey, R J

    2016-05-01

    Plaque instability may lead to chronic embolization, which in turn may contribute to progressive cognitive decline. Accumulated strain tensor indices over a cardiac cycle within a pulsating carotid plaque may be viable biomarkers for the diagnosis of plaque instability. Using plaque-only carotid artery segmentations, we recently demonstrated that impaired cognitive function correlated significantly with maximum axial and lateral strain indices within a localized region of interest in plaque. Inclusion of the adventitial layer focuses our strain or instability measures on the vessel wall-plaque interface hypothesized to be a region with increased shearing forces and measureable instability. A hierarchical block-matching motion tracking algorithm developed in our laboratory was used to estimate accumulated axial, lateral, and shear strain distribution in plaques identified with the plaque-with-adventitia segmentation. Correlations of strain indices to the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Total score were performed and compared with previous results. Overall, correlation coefficients (r) and significance (p) values improved for axial, lateral, and shear strain indices. Shear strain indices, however, demonstrated the largest improvement. The Pearson correlation coefficients for maximum shear strain and cognition improved from the previous plaque-only analyses of -0.432 and -0.345 to -0.795 and -0.717 with the plaque-with-adventitia segmentation for the symptomatic group and for all patients combined, respectively. Our results demonstrate the advantage of including adventitia for ultrasound carotid strain imaging providing improved association to parameters assessing cognitive impairment in patients. This supports theories of the importance of the vessel wall plaque interface in the pathophysiology of embolic disease. PMID:26025578

  20. Adventitious rooting in cuttings of croton and hibiscus in response to indolbutyric acid and humic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious rooting of ornamental plants can be accelerated by the application of growth regulators, such as auxin. Humic acids, organic matter in soil and organic compounds also have a biostimulant effect. This work evaluated the rooting in cuttings of croton (Codianeum variegatum L. Rumph and hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L in response to the application of different concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA and humic acid (HA. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse. Apical stem cuttings were treated with solutions at concentrations of: 0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg L-1 IBA and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mmol L-1 HA carbon isolated from vermicomposting. Forty-five days after the applications, the cuttings were removed from the pots containing carbonized rice hull and the following variables were measured: rooting number, length and width of leaves, fresh and dry matter of root and aerial part and root area. The results were subjected to analysis of variance and the qualitative and quantitative effects of the treatments were compared by contrast and regression, respectively. Regression equations were used to determine the maximum efficiency level of root dry matter according to IBA and HA. Higher accumulation of root dry matter was recorded for the treatments with the doses 579 mg L-1 IBA and 14 mmol L-1 HA and 970 mg L-1 IBA and 50 mmol L-1 HA for root cuttings of croton and hibiscus, respectively. It was found that the application of eiher IBA or HA at the indicated doses accelerates rooting in cuttings of croton and hibiscus and contributes to the formation of vigorous plants.

  1. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  2. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (Pjaponicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion. PMID:25449414

  3. Triterpene glycosides from the Far Eastern sea cucumber Cucumaria conicospermium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilov, Sergey A; Antonov, Alexandr S; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Stonik, Valentin A; Riguera, Ricardo; Jimenez, Carlos

    2003-07-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, cucumariosides A(2)-5 (1), A(3)-2 (2), A(3)-3 (3), and isokoreoside A (4), along with the previously isolated koreoside A (5), have been found in the sea cucumber Cucumariaconicospermium. Glycoside 1 was isolated as a native substance, while glycosides 2-5 were identified through their desulfated derivatives. Their structures have been deduced by extensive spectral analysis (NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. All the glycosides contain the same branched pentasaccharide carbohydrate chain but differ in the number and positions of the sulfate groups. Glycoside 1 has one, glycosides 2 and 3 have two, and glycosides 4 and 5 have three sulfate groups. Glycosides 2-5 are non-holostane derivatives; their aglycons lack the 18(20)-lactone and are characterized by shortened side chains, which is a very rare feature among the sea cucumber glycosides. PMID:12880305

  4. Low temperature 57Fe Moessbauer study of cucumber root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron uptake and distribution in cucumber root were studied with the help of 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy at low temperature applying external magnetic field. Cucumber was grown in iron sufficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution. Moessbauer spectra of the frozen roots taken at 4.2 and 1.5 K, at 5 T external magnetic field support the identification of the main iron species (FeIII-carboxylates, hydrous ferric oxides, FeIII-sulfate-hydroxide) suggested according to its Moessbauer spectra taken between 35-200 K [1]. The magnetic ordering temperature of the hydrous ferric oxide and FeIII-sulfate-hydroxide was found to be in the range of 4.2-1.5 K, which suggests the incorporation of H3O+, PO43- and citrate into these minerals.

  5. Low temperature {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer study of cucumber root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, K; Kuzmann, E; Homonnay, Z; Vertes, A [Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, PO Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Fodor, F [Department of Plant Physiology and Molecular Plant Biology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, PO Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Machala, L, E-mail: kkriszti@chem.elte.h [Centre for Nanomaterial Research, Palacky University, Svobody 26, Olomouc 771 46 (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-01

    Iron uptake and distribution in cucumber root were studied with the help of {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy at low temperature applying external magnetic field. Cucumber was grown in iron sufficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution. Moessbauer spectra of the frozen roots taken at 4.2 and 1.5 K, at 5 T external magnetic field support the identification of the main iron species (Fe{sup III}-carboxylates, hydrous ferric oxides, Fe{sup III}-sulfate-hydroxide) suggested according to its Moessbauer spectra taken between 35-200 K [1]. The magnetic ordering temperature of the hydrous ferric oxide and Fe{sup III}-sulfate-hydroxide was found to be in the range of 4.2-1.5 K, which suggests the incorporation of H{sub 3}O{sup +}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and citrate into these minerals.

  6. Variation of Plant Electrophysiology in Cucumber under Different Water Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; YU Hai-ye; MA Cheng-lin; WANG Rui

    2005-01-01

    AP and VP were measured in cucumbers under water sufficiency and water stress. The results indicated that, the AP would be evoked by electrical impulse, for water-stressed cucumber, its amplitude could reached more than 40 mV which was obviously greater than that (about 10-20 mV) of plant under well-watered,and no VP came out. Along with the intensity of light increased, the VP appeared going-up trend, and accompanied by evidently spiking electrical signal, for plant under water stress, the VP increased more clearly, but the change of spiking amplitude of AP (about 3 mY) was rather smaller than that (8-10 mY) of plant under well-watered.

  7. Role of selected oxidative yeasts and bacteria in cucumber secondary fermentation associated with spoilage of the fermented fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes during the spoilage of fermented cucumber pickles have been attributed to the metabolism of different yeasts and bacteria. In this study six organisms isolated from commercial spoiled cucumber pickles were evaluated for their possible role in primary and secondary cucumber fermentations. The...

  8. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  9. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  10. Large vessel adventitial vasculitis characterizes patients with critical lower limb ischemia with as compared to without human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brand

    Full Text Available Whether a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated vasculitis in-part accounts for occlusive large artery disease remains uncertain. We aimed to identify the histopathological features that characterize large vessel changes in HIV sero-positive as compared to sero-negative patients with critical lower limb ischemia (CLI.Femoral arteries obtained from 10 HIV positive and 10 HIV negative black African male patients admitted to a single vascular unit with CLI requiring above knee amputation were subjected to histopathological assessment. None of the HIV positive patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy.As compared to HIV negative patients with CLI, HIV positive patients were younger (p<0.01 and had a lower prevalence of hypertension (10 vs 90%, p<0.005 and diabetes mellitus (0 vs 50%, p<0.05, but a similar proportion of patients previously or currently smoked (80 vs 60%. 90% of HIV positive patients, but no HIV negative patient had evidence of adventitial leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the vasa vasorum (p<0.0001. In addition, 70% of HIV positive, but no HIV negative patient had evidence of adventitial slit-like vessels. Whilst T-lymphocytes were noted in the adventitia in 80% of HIV positive patients, T-lymphocytes were noted only in the intima in HIV negative patients. The presence of femoral artery calcified multilayered fibro-atheroma was noted in 40% of HIV positive and 90% of HIV negative patients with CLI.An adventitial vasculitis which characterizes large artery changes in CLI in HIV-infected as compared to non-infected patients, may contribute toward HIV-associated occlusive large artery disease.

  11. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuai; Wang, YuanHong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristi...

  12. Study on the Resistance of Cucumber to Temperature Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Dehua; Pang Jin'an; Huo Zhenrong; Li Shuju; Du Shengli

    2000-01-01

    Four cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) inbred lines with different resistances to temperature stress were used in this experiment. The seedlings of line Q10 and Q21 that have high resistance to chilling stress also have high resistance to heat stress. The seedlings of line T94 and T55 that have lower resistance to chilling stress also have lower resistance to heat stress. It seems that the resistance of cucumber seedlings to different temperature stresses was similar. The influences of chilling and heat stress on the germination ability of cucumber seeds were different. Under the chilling stress, the germination percentage decreased less, and the germination velocity decreased more,so the germination index decreased significantly. Under the heat stress, the germination percentage and velocity of the seeds with high resistance decreased less and those of the seeds with lower resistance decreased more. The differences among the lines became more evident under the extreme heat condition. The content of chlorophyll decreased under the different temperature stresses, the content of chlorophyll a decreased more than that of chlorophyll b, so the value of chlorophyll a/b decreased.The temperature stress inhibited the photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings significantly. After chilling or heat treatment, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased remarkably. With the stomatal conductance (Gs) decreased, the stomatal limited value (Is) decreased, the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased, and both the apparent quantum efficiencies (AQE) and the carboxylation efficiencies (CE) decreased. Results showed that the non-stomatal factors were the main causes of Pn decrease, and the photosynthetic mechanism was destroyed remarkably.

  13. Susceptibility level of cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) to metalaxyl

    OpenAIRE

    Bagi Ferenc F.; Balaž Ferenc F.; Stojšin Vera B.; Budakov Dragana B.; Sokolovski Tatjana V.; Radonić Bojana K.

    2009-01-01

    Level of susceptibility of Pseudoperonospora cubensis isolate from Ratkovo to metalaxyl in concentrations 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml was investigated. The trials were conducted on cotyledon and fully developed young leaves using cucumber cultivar Haroš. Reduced level of susceptibility was detected in metalaxyl concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml because the intensity of sporulation in these treatments was on the same level as in control. Sporulation was also observed on developed lea...

  14. Occurrence of Sclerotium Rot of Cucumber Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon; Sang-Dae Lee; Okryun Choi; Shun-Shan Shen; Hong-Sik Shim

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotium rot of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) occurred at the experimental field of Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services in July 2012. The typical symptoms included wilt, rot, and water-soaking on stems and fruits and severely infected plants eventually died. White mycelial mats spread over lesions, and then sclerotia were formed on fruit and near soil line. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, white to brown in color and 1−3 mm in size and the hyphal wi...

  15. Sea cucumber exploitation in the Toliara region of southwest Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Rasolofonirina, R.; Conand, Chantal

    1998-01-01

    Sea cucumber harvesting is a traditional activity in Madagascar (Conand et al., 1997) and is very actively pursued in the south-west (Toliara). Several sources (e.g. Provincial Trade Department, Provincial Marine Fisheries Service) indicate that, between 1979 and 1986, exports fluctuated between 10 and 56 t. Data on recent exports show a very large increase, with volumes of more than 500 t. However, available data are insufficient to diagnose and analyse current over-exploitation, as the fish...

  16. The oldest synallactid sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Aspidochirotida)

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Aspidochirote holothurian ossicles were discovered in Upper Ordovician-aged Öjlemyr cherts from Gotland, Sweden. The well-preserved material allows definitive assignment to the family Synallactidae, a deep-sea sea cucumber group that is distributed worldwide today. The new taxon Tribrachiodemas ordovicicus gen. et sp. nov. is described, representing the oldest member of the Aspidochirotida. The further fossil record of Synallactidae and evolutionary implications are also discussed.

  17. Predator Defense Mechanisms in Shallow Water Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Jessica A.

    2006-01-01

    The various predator defense mechanisms possessed by shallow water sea cucumbers were surveyed in twelve different species and morphs. While many defense mechanisms such as the presence of Cuverian tubules, toxic secretions, and unpalatability have been identified in holothurians, I hypothesized that the possession of these traits as well as the degree to which they are utilized varies from species to species. The observed defense mechanisms were compared against a previously-derived phylogen...

  18. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua;

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA...... a valuable resource for developing elite cultivars and for studying the evolution and function of the plant vascular system....

  19. Uptake and distribution of trace elements in growing cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multitracer technique was used to study the uptake and distribution of some relatively long half-life radionuclides Be, Na, Mn, Co, Sc to growing cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) with two different treatments. In Hoagland solution, only 54Mn and 60Co accumulated in the every part of plants. 54Mn, 60Co and other radionuclides were absorbed in distilled water. The results indicate that there were major differences in the accumulation of trace elements between the two different treatments. (author)

  20. The influence of fertilization on quality of inflorescences of easy pot freesia (Freesia Eckl. ex Klatt) grown from adventitious corms

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Żurawik; Monika Placek

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were carried out in 2006-2007, in the spring-summer season, in an unheated plastic tunnel. Adventitious corms of Easy Pot Freesia: 'Gompey', 'Popey' and 'Suzy', were the plant material. The influence of a traditional fertilizer Azofoska and slow-release fertilizers, Osmocote Plus 5/6, Osmocote Exact and Polyon 5/6, on the ornamental value of plants was evaluated. All fertilizers were applied at rates of 2.5 and 5.0 g × dm-3. Freesias cultivated without fertilizer were the cont...

  1. Subtropical Modern Greenhouse Cucumber Canopy Transpiration Under Summer Climate Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wei-hong; WANG Xiao-han; DING Wei-min; CHEN Yu-qing; DAI Jian-feng

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse canopy transpiration not only has effects on greenhouse air temperature and humidity, but also is important for determining the set-point of fertigation. In this study, Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate the greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition.The effects of greenhouse environmental factors on canopy transpiration were analyzed based on the measurements of greenhouse microclimate factors and canopy transpiration. The results showed that Penman-Monteith equation was reliable and robust in estimating greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition. Greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration rate increased linearly with the increase of net radiation and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) above the canopy. But the maximum value of the canopy transpiration rate occurred at the same time as that of VPD whereas about two hours later than that of net radiation. Based on the results, it was concluded that in addition to radiation, air humidity should also be considered when determine the set-point of fertigation.

  2. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor. The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  3. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins. PMID:27322290

  4. Enantioselective degradation of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiyun; Zhang, Qing; Cong, Lujing; Yin, Wei; Wang, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective degradation behaviors of the acylamino acid fungicide metalaxyl in vegetables (cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi) under field and greenhouse conditions were elucidated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl carbamate) chiral column (Lux Cellulose-2) was used for the chiral separation of the enantiomers using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution (40:60, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The two enantiomers could be completely separated with a resolution (Rs) of 5.2. The linearity range, matrix effect, precision and recovery were evaluated. The method was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi under different conditions. The results showed that R-enantiomer dissipated faster than S-enantiomer in cucumber of greenhouse. Inversely, a preferential degradation of S-form was found in spinach and pakchoi under field and greenhouse conditions. No stereoselective degradation in cabbage was observed. These results can be applied for evaluating the environmental risk and food safety. PMID:24080002

  5. Comparisons of dioxin levels of cucumber varieties and cultivation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.; Watanabe, E.; Ishii, Y.; Ueji, M. [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Narita, I.; Nakamura, K. [Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    According to a 2001 survey on Daily Intake in Japan, the total dioxins intake of a person in Japan amounts to 1.68 pg-TEQ per kg of body weight/day on average. The sharing a percentage of agricultural crops was about 3%in Japanese TDI amounts. However, all cases collect samples from supermarkets to estimate TDI of dioxins, which make it difficult to understand under what environment, food samples were pretreated and cultivated. Especially, TDI values in agricultural crops are probably dependent on the collection situation. In the agricultural environment, some reports indicate that dioxins have accumulated in paddy and upland in Japan due to the past use of some types of agricultural chemicals, which contained dioxins as impurities. Furthermore, taking the atmospheric pathway, for example, dioxins in the ambient air are associated with particulate matter and fall to the ground, contaminating agricultural land. Thus, it has been emphasized that dioxin compounds have a possibility to have adverse effect on vegetables. However, there is little understanding related to this fact in the country and worldwide. Empirical studies conducted in Japan and abroad have reported low residual concentrations of dioxins in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), a member of the gourd family. However, there have been extremely few instances of research involving overall comparisons of cultivation environments. Thus, we studied the persistence of dioxins in cucumbers of different varieties cultivated outdoors over varying cultivation periods, conducting thorough experiments to elucidate the actual conditions and mechanisms of dioxin contamination of cucumbers.

  6. Proteomics analysis of compatibility and incompatibility in grafted cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Guo, Shi-Rong; Li, Lin; An, Ya-Hong; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Graft compatibility between rootstock and scion is the most important factor influencing the survival of grafted plants. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to investigate differences in leaf proteomes of graft-compatible and graft-incompatible cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)/pumpkin (Cucurbita L.) combinations. Cucumber seedlings were used as the scions and two pumpkin cultivars with strongly contrasting grafting compatibilities were used as the rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted cucumber seedlings served as control groups. An average of approximately 500 detectable spots were observed on each 2-DE gel. A total of 50 proteins were differentially expressed in response to self-grafting, compatible-rootstock grafting, and incompatible-rootstock grafting and were all successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The regulation of Calvin cycle, photosynthetic apparatus, glycolytic pathway, energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and degradation, and reactive oxygen metabolism will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in graft-compatible combinations. The improved physiological and growth characteristics of compatible-rootstock grafting plants are the result of the higher expressions of proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and protein metabolism. At the same time, the compatible-rootstock grafting regulation of stress defense, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic functions also plays important roles in improvement of plant growth. PMID:27070289

  7. 大叶黄杨无芽茎段不定芽再生及其起源%Regenerating and Origin of Adventitious Shoots from Inter-Node Explants of Euonymus japonicus in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂良; 任桂芳; 王建红; 冯慧; 赵梁军

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the resistance of Euonymus japonicus, its ability of adventitious shoots regenerating from internode stem-segment were researched on MS medium in vitro. The effect of both plant growth regulators and carbon resources in media on adventitious shoots differentiating was studied. Regenerating system of E. japonicus was established successfully.Adventitious shoots were highly obtained from inter-node explants inoculated on MS media supplemented with 6-BA 1.7 mg·L-1+ IBA 0.005 mg·L-1 or 6-BA 1.9 mg·L-1 + IBA 0.03 mg·L-1. The regenerating ratio reached to 52.4% and 46.7% respectively. Media for inducing adventitious roots were I/2MS + IAA 0.5 mg·L-1. Adventitious shoots originated from surface tissue of inter-node stem-segment.

  8. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( Pjaponicus. The present result implies that there are obvious genetic differences among the sea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  9. Bag-in-box technology: Temperature prediction during blanching and cooling of cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the bag-in-box procedure cucumbers are blanched before brining to inactivate the natural microflora and enzymes present in them. In addition, it is desired that the temperature of the cucumbers after blanching and brining should not exceed 32 deg C (90 deg F), so as to minimize textural loss due ...

  10. Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of a highly pathogenic Shewanella marisflavi infected sea cucumber (Apostichopus uaponicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewanella marisflavi isolate AP629 was characterized as a novel pathogen of sea cucumber. The LD50 values (14 days) in sea cucumber and swordtail fish were 3.89 × 106 and 4.85 × 104 CFU g-1 body weight, respectively. Studies on S. marisflavi had been conducted, including morphology, physiological a...

  11. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  12. Genome-wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide, but progress in genetic and genomics research in this crop is slow. Recently the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced, (ibred line ‘9930’ and pickling cultivar ‘Gy14’), which provides a powerful tool for developing markers in large scale...

  13. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  14. Genome sequencing, genetic diversity and field detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using LAMP technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent outbreaks of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus on cucumber, melon and watermelon in Australia, Canada, and the U.S. highlight the importance in implementing a cleaned seed program to manage this seed-borne virus from introduction. Both Canadian and Australian isolates were closely relate...

  15. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  16. Bag-in-box technology: Pilot system for process-ready, fermented cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot system was designed, constructed, and tested for preserving fermented cucumbers without generation of excess salt and organic wastes. The cucumbers are washed, blanched, cooled, aseptically transferred to a bag-in-box (250-330 gal) containing cover brine (salt to equalize at ca. 4%), inocul...

  17. Effect of pesticide mixture on value of fresh, fermented and pickles cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna WElkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In years 1998-1999 effects of fungicides (azoxystrobin and copper hydroxide, insecticides (etafenproks and pirimicarb and their mixtures on chemical composition and organoleptic quality of fresh, fermented and pickled cucumbers were studied_ To analyses fruits were taken after 7 and 12 days from treatment. Fresh cucumber fruits after 7 days from treatment with investigated pesticides contained less carbohydrates and ascorbic acids and higher level of nitrates in compare to untreated fruits (control. After 12 days from treatment the differences between treated and untreated fruits dissapeared. Cucumber fruits harvested 7 and 12 days after treatment were processed separately. Quality evaluation of fermented and pickled cucumbers was carried out 4 months after processing. In most of cucumber fruits (7 days after treatment with pesticides treated with pesticides empty cavities were found, and not in control (untreated. Number of cavities was highest in fresh and pickled cucumbers treated with mixture of fungicide and insecticide. In case of fermented cucumbers highest number of empty cavities occurred in fruits treated with fungicide azoxystrobin. Cucumber fruits taken to fermentation process 7 days after day of treatment had darker green colour, lowered haIdness, and larger empty cavities than untreated fruits. In fruits harvested 12 days after pesticides application such differencess were not observed.

  18. Effect of integrated application of Biopolitsyd and Fosfoenteryn on root rot infestation and productivity of cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    N. Opryshko; Y. Ternovyi; N. Pasichnyk

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with environmental and agronomic feasibility of integrated application of Biopolitsyd and Fosfoenteryn for preplant treatment of cucumber seeds. It has been found, that the complex inoculation enhances a yield of cucumber, reduces the number of micromycetes in the root zone of plants, improves a phytosanitary condition of crops

  19. First Complete Genome Sequence of an Emerging Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Isolate in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rugang; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nucleotides [nt]) of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of small (sRNA) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The virus shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity with the Asian genotype but only 90% with the European genotype.

  20. Partial suppression by uv irradiation of the mechanism of resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in a resistant cucumber cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortwave uv (2540 A) significantly enhanced cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) multiplication in cotyledons of a resistant cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivar (Elem) when applied 1 to 3 days after inoculation. Compared with nonirradiated controls, infectivity increased 4 to 8 times when cotyledons were irradiated with dosages of 11,000 to 18,000 ergs mm-2 at a distance of 10 cm, 1 to 2 days after inoculation. Irradiations after longer intervals were less effective and irradiations with longwave uv (3600 A) had no effect. Irradiations before inoculation reduced extractable infectivity markedly. No difference in infectivity titer was obtained when cotyledons of a susceptible cucumber variety were irradiated. The number of virions, observed with an electron microscope, in extracts of cotyledons irradiated 48 hr after inoculation, was also significantly higher than in control extracts. The action spectrum for the suppression of the resistance (dose scale factor of 28 to 42) was between that of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) (40 to 60) and that of TMV-RNA (15 to 20), used as biological dosimeters for nucleoproteins and nucleic acids, respectively, and differed markedly from that of a protein (4 to 5). It is suggested that the resistance mechanism is activated by the virus, and suppressed by shortwave uv, which probably blocks transcription by the formation of thymine dimers. (U.S.)

  1. The effect of storage temperature of cucumber fruit on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three storage temperature levels: 12,5°C, 20°C, and 1,5°C on basic indexes of chlorophyll fluorescence of cucumber fruits was studied. The greenhouse grown cucumber fruits cv. Wiktor F1 were stored in perforated polyethylene bags or without packages. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm, variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv and relative variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm of the cucumber peel were measured. Relative variable fluorescence was decTeasing when cucumbers were stored at temperature lower or higher than optimum level. The chlorophyll fluorescence measurements can be helpful for determination of appropriate temperature parameters of cucumber storage.

  2. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  3. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  4. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants. PMID:27094118

  5. Plant hormone homeostasis, signaling and function during adventitious root formation in cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Druege

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF- and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling via ERFs and early

  6. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  7. Growth and mebrane lipid composition in cucumber: Morphological and physiological differences between two low temperature tolerant cucumber lines and a control

    OpenAIRE

    Bulder, Hermana Adriana Maria

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to get more insight into the physiological background of a better fuctioning of cucumber plants under a suboptimal temperature regime (20/12˚C day/night instead of 25/20˚C day/night) and low light condtitions. Young cucumber platns were uesd with the goals of creating a selection criterion procedure of genotypes with better growth capacity at suboptimal conditions. Zie: Summary and conclusions

  8. Two WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX genes, PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b, are involved in adventitious root formation of poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Xie, Wenfan; Huang, Minren

    2015-12-01

    The plant-specific WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX (WOX) transcription factors play important roles in key developmental processes, but knowledge regarding functional characterization of WOX genes in poplar remains limited. To reveal genes and signaling pathways associated with adventitious rooting in poplar, here we isolated and characterized two WOX genes through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), sequence aligning, expression profiling, protoplast transfection and poplar transformation. Detailed information about the sequence similarity, structural features, evolutionary relationships, expression patterns and subcellular localization of the two genes were revealed. Overexpression of either PeWOX11a or PeWOX11b not only increased the number of adventitious roots on the cuttings but also induced ectopic roots in the aerial parts of transgenic poplars. Meanwhile, their overexpression in transgenic poplars affected axillary bud and leaf development. These results suggest that PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b were involved in multiple developmental processes of poplar, especially in adventitious root formation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying adventitious root formation of poplar. PMID:25998748

  9. Factors affecting adventitious regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of 'Improved French' plum, the most important dried plum cultivar in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adventitious shoot regeneration protocol from leaves of the most important dried plum cultivar in the U.S., 'Improved French', has been established. Factors affecting regeneration were studied, and relatively high percentages have been obtained. The proliferation medium were shoots, used as the...

  10. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting. PMID:22350175

  11. Study on Relationship Between Cucumber Germplasm and Propa-mocarb Residue Using Subjective Rating Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Peng; Qin Zhi-wei; Zhou Xiu-yan; Wu Tao; Xin Ming; Guo Qian-qian

    2014-01-01

    Propamocarb (PM) residue in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) receives little attention. As is well known to all, high PM residue of cucumber could lead to increase in the violation rates of maximum residue limits and ultimately cause harm to human health. Knowledge of PM residue could help cucumber breeders in developing cultivars with low PM residue and improving cucumber quality. In this study, 32 representative cucumber accessions (26 breeding lines and six cultivars) from different regions of China were evaluated for their PM residue in fruit and leaf to provide meaning to the subjective rating, which was highly correlated with PM residual content of fruit (r=0.97) and leaf (r=0.94). In addition, PM residual content of North China ecotype was the highest and Pickling ecotype was the lowest in fruit and leaf of cucumber. The leaf had significantly higher (P<0.01) PM residual content than the fruit, and poor correlation between leaf and fruit was represented. This study verified PM residual relationship between fruit and leaf, and laid the foundation for further identification of germplasm resources and breeding of new varieties for low PM residue of cucumber.

  12. Growth and yield of cucumber under no-tillage cultivation using rye as a cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jelonkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first two years of study, method of cultivation did not affect the emergence of cucumber seedlings. In the third year, a drought occurring during the spring was the cause of poor seedling emergence on no-tilled plots. Six weeks after seed sowing, the shoots of cucumbers grown on the no-tilled plots were much shorter, especially in the last study year. At the time of cucumber seed sowing, no-tilled soil contained less phosphorus and potassium and in the middle of the fructification period the content of these elements in cucumber leaves was higher under no-tillage cultivation. Additional spring fertilization of rye with ammonium nitrate resulted in a higher N-NO3 content in soil and later in a higher nitrogen content of cucumber leaves. The content of calcium and magnesium in soil and than in cucumber leaves was independent of the cultivation method. In the first two years, method of cultivation did not affect the yield of cucumber fruits and in the third year the yield was much lower under no-tillage because of poor seedling emergence. Moreover, in the third year the fruits were smaller and dry matter content of the fruit was significantly higer under no-tillage cultivation.

  13. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables. PMID:27097058

  14. Susceptibility level of cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis to metalaxyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagi Ferenc F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Level of susceptibility of Pseudoperonospora cubensis isolate from Ratkovo to metalaxyl in concentrations 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml was investigated. The trials were conducted on cotyledon and fully developed young leaves using cucumber cultivar Haroš. Reduced level of susceptibility was detected in metalaxyl concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml because the intensity of sporulation in these treatments was on the same level as in control. Sporulation was also observed on developed leaves treated with metalaxyl in concentrations of 400 and 800 μg/ml.

  15. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins. PMID:11676424

  16. A method to obtain mutants in outcrossing cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Due to the chimerism within the apical meristem in the seed embryo, seed irradiation is not an efficient method of mutation breeding in the outcrossing cucumber, which develops male and female flowers separately. To solve the problem, the pollen irradiation method was examined, expecting non-chimeric mutant genotypes among the seeds. Pollen irradiated with 1kR to 10kR of gamma rays was used to pollinate the same variety. The M1 plants were self-pollinated. Examination of these selfed lines revealed several mutants. (author)

  17. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  18. Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients. PMID:24861368

  19. A new indicator in early drought diagnosis of cucumber with chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Li, Haifeng; Xu, Liang; Liu, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Crop population growth information can more fully reflect the state of crop growth, eliminate individual differences, and reduce error in judgment. We have built a suitable plant population growth information online monitoring system with the plant chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral scanning imaging to get the crop growth status. On the basis of the fluorescence image detection, we have studied the early drought diagnosis of cucumber. The typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters can not reflect the drought degree significantly. We define a new indication parameter (DI). With the drought deepening, DI declines. DI can enlarge the early manifestation of cucumber drought (3-5 days), indicate more significantly in the early drought diagnosis of cucumber.

  20. Diets Containing Sea Cucumber (Isostichopus badionotus) Meals Are Hypocholesterolemic in Young Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Olivera-Castillo, Leticia; Davalos, Alberto; Grant, George; Valadez-Gonzalez, Nina; Montero, Jorge; Barrera-Perez, Hirian Alonso Moshe; Chim-Chi, Yasser; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel Angel; Ceja-Moreno, Víctor; Acereto-Escoffie, Pablo; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; Rodriguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2013-01-01

    Sea cucumber is widely consumed as a putative functional food. It contains many biologically-active substances, but only limited research on its properties in vivo has been done. The effects of different meals containing Isostichopus badionotus, a sea cucumber from southeast Mexico, on growth performance and body lipid profile in young rats were analyzed. Sea cucumber body wall was either lyophilized, cooked (100 °C, 1 h in water) and lyophilized, or oven-dried (70 °C for 12 h). It was then g...

  1. Growth and yield of cucumber under no-tillage cultivation using rye as a cover crop

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Jelonkiewicz; Andrzej Borowy

    2012-01-01

    In the first two years of study, method of cultivation did not affect the emergence of cucumber seedlings. In the third year, a drought occurring during the spring was the cause of poor seedling emergence on no-tilled plots. Six weeks after seed sowing, the shoots of cucumbers grown on the no-tilled plots were much shorter, especially in the last study year. At the time of cucumber seed sowing, no-tilled soil contained less phosphorus and potassium and in the middle of the fructification peri...

  2. Sea Cucumber Resources At Tanjung Pai Waters Padaido Biak Numfor Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Yusron

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation on sea cucumber diversity was carried out at coastal waters of Pai and Imbeyomi Islands in the Padaido Island Biak Numfor. Sampling was done by using a transect quadrant of 1 m x 1 m. This sampling and observation on its microhabitat were conducted by snorkling. Analyses on the sea cucumber community structure were based on its frequency of occurance, diversity, and density. The results showed that at both locations 10 species of sea cucumber were found where Holothuria edulis, H. atra, and H. nobilis were predominant common and more evenly distributed than the other species.

  3. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumber and Botrytis cinerea during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Weiwen; Chen, Nan; Liu, Tingting; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Jingqi; He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered one of the most serious cucumber diseases. With the advent of Hi-seq technology, it is possible to study the plant–pathogen interaction at the transcriptome level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RNA-seq to identify cucumber and B. cinerea differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after the plant–pathogen interaction. In total, 248,908,688 raw reads were generated; after removing low-quality read...

  4. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Pozderec; Karmen Pažek; Martina Bavec

    2010-01-01

    The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L.) and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in t...

  5. Chain conformational and physicochemical properties of fucoidans from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Kunhao

    2016-11-01

    Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7.4). Based on the worm-like cylinder model and atomic force microscopy, the chain stiffness of SC-FUCs was further evaluated as Am-FUC≈Ib-FUC>Aj-FUC. It was suggested that the existence of branch structure increased the chain flexibility, while sulfated pattern exerted limited influence. SC-FUCs demonstrated shear-thinning rheological behavior and negative charge. Am-FUC possessed a higher thermostability than Ib-FUC and Aj-FUC. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular characteristics of SC-FUCs, which could facilitate their further application. PMID:27516290

  6. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Durachko, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  7. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  8. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use. PMID:16011179

  9. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  10. Stress stimulus induced resistance to Cladosporium cucumerinum in cucumber seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huan; Wang, Bo-Chu; Zhao, Hu-Cheng; Wang, Jing Bo

    2005-07-25

    Up to date, the studies of plant induced resistance have become the focus in plant pathology and physiology. During the course of pathogens penetrating the plant cell, besides of chemical secretion, the pathogens may generate mechanical signal caused by the physical pressure on the plant cell. In the non-host resistance, both the chemical signal and the mechanical stress signal are considered to have contribution to the entire defense reaction acted by the plant. The penetration of pathogen Cladosporium cucumerinum to cucumber is thought to be one of the model in research of plant induced resistance. In the current study, as a mechanical signal elicitor, the appropriate stress stimulus was proved to effectually induce the resistance of cucumber seedling to C. cucumerinum. After the treatment of the stress stimulus on leaves, the activities of resistance-related enzymes were significantly increased, such as phenylanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD). Also, we found that stress stimulation may cause synthesis of lignin, which acts as the physical barrier to defense the pathogens. The results suggest that stress stimulation may not only enhance ability of the plant cell resistance to pathogen penetration but also elicit the accumulation of pathogens suppression or antimicrobial chemical substance in the plant cell. PMID:16002268

  11. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  12. The Physiologic Reaction of Cucumber to Low Temperature and Low Light Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-jun; ZHANG Fu-man; WANG Yong-jian; Kurata Kenji

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of chlorophyll content, leaf area and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings were studied under sole stress of two low temperatures and low light intensity as well as combined stresses of low light intensity and the two low temperatures. The results showed that low light intensity reduced sensitivity of cucumber to low temperature and improved chlorophyll content, leaf area and chlorophyll fluorescence quantum yield. The photosynthesis rate was reduced under low light intensity. The intensity of light played the leading role in growth of cucumber under the low temperature condition, while the low temperature played the leading role under the critical low temperature condition. There were differences in reaction to light and temperature among different varieties. The tolerance to low temperature and low light intensity was not always synergetic for the same cucumber variety.

  13. Current status of genetic transformation technology developed in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shun-li; Seong Sub Ku; YE Xing-guo; HE Cong-fen; Suk Yoon Kwon; Pil Son Choi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation is an important technique for functional genomics study and genetic improvement of plants. Until now, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods using cotyledon as explants has been the major approach for cu-cumber, and its frequency has been up to 23%. For example, signiifcantly enhancement of the transformation efifciency of this plant species was achieved from the cotyledon explants of the cultivar Poinsett 76 infected by Agrobacterium strains EHA105 with efifcient positive selection system in lots of experiments. This review is to summarize some key factors in-lfuencing cucumber regeneration and genetic transformation, including target genes, selection systems and the ways of transgene introduction, and then to put forward some strategies for the increasing of cucumber transformation efifciency. In the future, it is high possible for cucumber to be potential bioreactor to produce vaccine and biomaterials for human beings.

  14. Echinoside-B from the Lakshadweep sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy and Gaimard)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Brine-shrimp assay guided purification of the methanolic extract of the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana yields echinoside-B as a major toxic constituent. The compound has been characterized based on its spectral data....

  15. Use of species-specific PCR for the identification of 10 sea cucumber species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling

    2014-11-01

    We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.

  16. Genetic Differentiation among Populations and Color Variants of Sea Cucumbers (Stichopus Japonicus) from Korea and China

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyong; Kim, Mi-Jung; Park, Jung-Yeon; An, Chul-Min; Kim, Bong-Seok; Jun, Je-Cheon; Kim, Sang-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The Far Eastern sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus, is a favored food in Eastern Asia, including Korea, Japan, and China. Aquaculture production of this species has increased because of recent declines in natural stocks and government-operated stock release programs are ongoing. Therefore, the analyses of genetic structure in wild and hatchery populations are necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this valuable marine resource. In addition, given that sea cucumber color affects market ...

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Cui, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,...

  18. Dynamics of Microbial Communities in Bulk and Developing Cucumber Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-sen; WU Kun; LIU Na; CHEN Hong-ge; JIA Xin-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The microbial population dynamics in bulk and developing cucumber rhizospheres were studied by cultivation and cultivation-independent approach based on directly extracted DNA to provide baseline data. Soil and rhizosphere samples were taken from tested field 2, 4, 7 and 10 weeks after the seeds were planted, which was positively related to the corresponding date of cucumber growth stages. The plate culture amount showed that total number of bacteria,fungi and actinomyces began to rise when cucumber planted and quickly reached peak at seedling or blossom period, but decreased slightly later. Bacterial population in rhizosphere was higher by comparison with that of counterpart except for seedling and flowering stages, but the shift trend of them were quite similar all the time. Nitrogen fixating, nitrobacter and ammonifying bacteria showed the same change tendency in population as bacteria and actinomyces did, however, cellulose-decomposing bacteria had the contrary rhizosphere effect as cucumber developed. Data revealed that positive relevance existed between the dominant rhizosphere microbe population and cucumber development. PCR was employed to amolify the V3 region of 16S rDNA, then the products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE). DGGE profile indicated that a few microbe species lived stable in farmland soil, but some were influenced by population due to cucumber roots growth. Significant difference was observed in bulk and rhizosphere soils especially for the seedling and flowering samples. Few prominent bands in DGGE patterns, which displayed stronger or less illumination, means the representative bacteria had great population variation in that period. These phenomena indicated that flowering cucumber heavily affected rhizosphere bacteria, or the bacteria, most probably the uncultured bacteria, functioned specially to cucumber blossom. Most detected bands with no illumination change in DGGE quite possibly represent the indigenous

  19. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt. PMID:26250808

  20. A study of tagging methods for the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa in the waters off Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshenbaum, Sheril; Feindel, Scott; Chen, Yong

    2006-01-01

    The sea cucumber fishery in waters off Maine is developing and has recently experienced great increases in landings, corresponding to expanding export markets. Between 1994 and 1996, reported landings ranged from one to three million pounds (Fig. 1). In 1999, reported landings were over eight million pounds and rose to over nine million in 2000 (Feindel1). Like other developing fisheries, we have little information about the biology and ecology of the sea cucumber off Maine, limited data on t...

  1. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato–Cucumber Double Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Kelly A.; Langston, David B.; DICKSON, Donald W.; Davis, Richard F.; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato–cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased r...

  2. Spectral Changes of Cucumber Leaf During Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus to Led Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazau, Y. V.; Kozel, N. V.; Domanski, V. P.; Shalygo, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    A direct correlation between the change of fluorescence at 77 K in leaves of cucumber plants growing under LED lighting and the change of the quantitative composition of structural proteins of PS1 and PS2 was established. It was shown that light absorption and the utilization of its energy during the long-term action of narrow-band light on cucumber plants could affect considerably spectra of the leaves because of changes in the synthesis of photosystem structural proteins.

  3. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    OpenAIRE

    Yadollah Bahrami; , Wei Zhang; Tim Chataway; Chris Franco

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain...

  4. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    OpenAIRE

    Yadollah Bahrami; , Wei Zhang; Chris Franco

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid...

  5. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qing-lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose par...

  6. Effects of Crop Stubble on Physicochemical Properties of Continuous Cropping Soil and Cucumber Yield and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Yuyan Wang; Zhongwei Wang; Guichun Yang; Li Wang; Yi Zheng

    2012-01-01

    By a pot experiment, two kinds of crop stubble (wheat, soybean) were added into continuous cropping soil of cucumber according to different quantity (0.5%, 1% and 2%), the effects of different kinds of stubble and quantity on the continuous cropping soil and growth of cucumber were investigated. The results showed that two kinds of crop stubble significantly decreased soil bulk density, and increased total porosity of soil. Each of all treatments significantly decreased the accumulation of sa...

  7. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Eman S.H. FARRAG; Moustafa H.A. MOHARAM

    2012-01-01

    Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizocto...

  8. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Yajuan; Zhou Xueping; Xie Yan; Shang Haili; Wu Jianxiang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA), triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA), direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) and immuno...

  9. Nutritional status of greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province

    OpenAIRE

    F. Aghili; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni; M. Mobli; M. Pirzadeh; A. Sanaei Ostovar

    2011-01-01

    Despite of increasing request for greenhouse vegetables, there is quite limited information on their nutritional quality. This study was carried out to investigate nutritional status of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, P and K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province. After selecting 25 greenhouses, the concentration of macronutrients and micronutrients was measured in soil and edible parts of cucumbers and bell peppers. The results showed that...

  10. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Marciniak; Grażyna Kłobus; Józef Buczek; Tadeusz Stefaniak; Jarosław Mazur

    2014-01-01

    Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L.) was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR) from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  11. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was inc...

  12. The reaction of seeds of some cucumber cultivars to pre-sowing laser biostimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material for the investigation were four cucumber cultivars: Delicious, Hela F1, Krak F1, Racibor F1. In laboratory conditions, in two-factor experiment sowing value and early phases of seedling development were tested, after application of pre-sowing of differented laser doses. Significant stimulation of germination energy and germination capacity were observed. Cucumber cultivars reaction were differentiated (on morphological characters). It was stated that three doses were stimulated of roots and first leaft length

  13. Small, repetitive DNAs contribute significantly to the expanded mitochondrial genome of cucumber.

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, J W; Havey, M J

    2001-01-01

    Closely related cucurbit species possess eightfold differences in the sizes of their mitochondrial genomes. We cloned mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments showing strong hybridization signals to cucumber mtDNA and little or no signal to watermelon mtDNA. The cucumber mtDNA clones carried short (30-53 bp), repetitive DNA motifs that were often degenerate, overlapping, and showed no homology to any sequences currently in the databases. On the basis of dot-blot hybridizations, seven repetitive DN...

  14. Determination of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of cucumber by using microlysimeter in greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    F. Fathalian; M.R. Nouri-Emamzadei

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water resources are limited and optimal use of water resources in agriculture requires accurate determination of water consumed by plant species in different circumstances. This situation is necessary more than ever due to fast development of greenhouse cultivation. In this regard, to determine evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (KC) of greenhouse cucumber, two microlysimeters were installed for growing cucumber and grass. Daily evapotranspiration rate of both plants was measure...

  15. Cucumber Rhizosphere Microbial Community Response to Biocontrol Agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

    OpenAIRE

    Lihua Li; Jincai Ma; A. Mark Ibekwe; Qi Wang; Ching-Hong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum cucumerinum. Cucumber was grown in three soils with strain B068150 inoculated in a greenhouse for 90 days, and the colonization ability of strain B068150 in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils was determined. Changes in total bacteria and fungi community composition and structures using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing were determ...

  16. Export of Cucumber and Gherkin from India: Performance, Destinations, Competitiveness and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Nalini Ranjan; Rai, A. B.; Rai, Mathura

    2008-01-01

    The performance, competitiveness, major destinations and determinants of cucumber and gherkin export from India have been studied. Export performance ratio has been used to estimate the competitiveness, and log linear type of demand function has been used to determine the export determinants. It has been observed that India has made tremendous progress in the export of cucumber and gherkin products during the past 15 years (1990-2005). The export has increased by about 128.5- times with an im...

  17. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUXIN INDUCED IN VITRO ROOT CULTURE IN CHICORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nandagopal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient protocol has been developed for the root culture of (Cichorium intybus L. cv. Focus, the leaf and hypocotyl explants from 25 days old in vitro raised seedlings were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, α-Napthalenacetic acid (NAA. 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.1 mg/l IBA induced highest percentage of rooting from matured leaf explants, under total dark condition. After three weeks well established roots were separated. Fresh root tissue, in amount of 0.5 was subcultured in half-strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l IBA, under continuous agitation at 110 rpm and total dark condition. The biomass of root culture was increased to 5.820 g after 6 weeks of culture. The root culture was maintained up to the 8 weeks.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUXIN INDUCED IN VITRO ROOT CULTURE IN CHICORY

    OpenAIRE

    Nandagopal, S.; B Ranjitha Kumari

    2007-01-01

    An efficient protocol has been developed for the root culture of (Cichorium intybus L. cv. Focus), the leaf and hypocotyl explants from 25 days old in vitro raised seedlings were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), α-Napthalenacetic acid (NAA). 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.1 mg/l IBA induced highest percentage of rooting from matured leaf explants, under total da...

  20. Influence of lead on auxin-induced cell elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Burzyński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of lead chloride on plant tissue growth is described. Lead reduced elongation of etiolated wheat coleoptile segments, green pea epicotyl fragments and etiolated and green sunflower hypocotyls. Green tissues were more susceptible to lead than etiolated ones. PbCl2 in a 10-4 M concentration significantly reduced plastic and elastic extensibility of the wheat coleoptile cell walls and diminished the hydration of sunflower hypocotyl segments. Auxin (indolyl-3-acetic acid - IAA applied in concentration optimal for growth of the particular tissues partly attenuated the inhibitory action of lead on elongation, plastic and elastic extensibility and water absorption. Auxin applied in supraoptimal concentrations did not abolish the inhibitory action of lead on tissue growth.

  1. Managing sea cucumber fisheries and aquaculture : Studies of social-ecological systems in the Western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Hampus

    2012-01-01

    Collecting sea cucumbers to supply the high value Chinese dried seafood market is a livelihood activity available to many people in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), making it an important part of local economies. These fisheries are generally not successfully managed and tropical sea cucumber fisheries show continuing signs of decline. This thesis takes a social-ecological systems approach to guide better management of sea cucumber fisheries and aquaculture in the WIO. Papers 1 and 2 analyse t...

  2. Study of antibacterial effect of the extracts of the sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota) of Persian Gulf on the Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Farjami; Mohammad Ali Nematollahi; Yazdan Noradi; Gholamreza Irajian; Melika Nazemi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Sea cucumber has different properties through having different biological compounds. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the extracts of the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota was investigated on Escherichia coli. Materials and Methods: Sea cucumber fishery samples after washing were crushed and powdered. The methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts of body wall, gonads and intestine were prepared. The antibacterial effect of the extr...

  3. The effect of pre-sowing irradiation of seeds with γ-rays on the biology and crop of cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of pre-sowing irradiation of dry cucumber seeds with doses in the range of 500 to 2000 :r has been studied. A 15.5 to 18.6 per cent increase in the crop of cucumbers has been observed, which is perhaps due to the increased ratio of male and female flower and to the augmented number of cucumbers and of dry sudstance quantity in them

  4. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Staub Jack E; Zalapa Juan; Garcia-Mas Jordi; Li Yuhong; Yang Luming; Cuevas Hugo E; Li Dawei; Luan Feishi; Reddy Umesh; He Xiaoming; Gong Zhenhui; Weng Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2 × = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2 × = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon through chromosome fusion, but the details of this process are largely unknown. In this study, comparative genetic mapping between cucumber and melon was conducted to examine synt...

  5. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  6. Compositional characteristics and antioxidant properties of fresh and processed sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Khan, Muhammad Ahmad; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2007-02-21

    The antioxidant activity of fresh and rehydrated sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa) samples with/without internal organs was evaluated for the first time. In addition, their proximate, amino acid, and fatty acid compositions were examined. Rehydrated sea cucumber samples in distilled water were prepared from oven-dried products. All samples contained 83-90% moisture, but showed a significant difference among groups in their protein and lipid contents. Glutamic acid was the predominant amino acid in sea cucumber, followed by glycine and aspartic acid. Essential amino acids such as leucine and lysine were also present at high levels. The trend for free amino acid was different from that of total amino acids and varied among groups. Lipids in sea cucumber were dominated by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), ranging from 43.2 to 56.7% of the total fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) was present at a much lower concentration of 2.0-5.8%. All sea cucumber samples exhibited radical scavenging property against 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, with rehydrated samples, especially those with internal organs, possessing higher antioxidant activity than their fresh counterparts. No correlation existed between radical scavenging capacity and total phenolics content, suggesting that other components, in addition to phenolic compounds, contribute to the antioxidant activity of sea cucumber. PMID:17243707

  7. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  8. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazamid Saari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine, Vitamin B2 (riboflavin, Vitamin B3 (niacin, and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs, sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates, phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  9. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  10. Nutritional status of greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aghili

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite of increasing request for greenhouse vegetables, there is quite limited information on their nutritional quality. This study was carried out to investigate nutritional status of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, P and K and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province. After selecting 25 greenhouses, the concentration of macronutrients and micronutrients was measured in soil and edible parts of cucumbers and bell peppers. The results showed that mean concentration of P and K in the soils was much higher than their critical deficiency level. Mean concentration of DTPA-extractable Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn of the soils was 12.0, 4.9, 1.9, and 14.5 mg kg-1. Mean fruit Mg, P and K concentrations in the cucumber and bell pepper were greater than their sufficiency level, while more than 75% of the greenhouse cucumbers were Ca deficient. Also more than half of the greenhouse cucumbers and about 20% of greenhouse bell peppers had Mn deficiency. Also more than 60% of greenhouse cucumbers were Fe and Zn deficient. According to the results, high concentration of some macronutrients such as P and K, and widespread deficiency of Ca and micronutrients in greenhouse production, is probably due to nutritional mismanagement, unbalanced fertilizer application, unstable greenhouse conditions and environmental pollution risks.

  11. Determination of nitrogenase activity of induced cucumber nodules by 15N Trace method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports the determination results of nitrogenase activity of induced cucumber root nodules by 15N trace method. The root systems bearing induced nodules of cucumber were exposed to a gas mixture containing 15N2 for 48 h and partial root systems soaked in free-nitrogen culture solution simultaneously. After exposure the 15N content in the modulated root systems of cucumber is 0.431 Atom % 15N by mass spectrometric analysis, whereas in the contrast samples without exposure to 15N is 0.369 Atom % 15N. The statistical t test for the results of 15N trace experiments is: t = 3.15 > t0.01 = 2.819. It has been demonstrated that the nitrogenase activity in cucumber nodules is at a remarkable level of 99.9%. The nitrogenase activity in detached nodules of cucumber was also determined by conventional acetylene reduction method. In both methods clear evidences of nitrogenase activity were obtained for the induced nodules of cucumber

  12. Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Omid, Mahmoud [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    This paper studies the energy balance between the input and the output per unit area for greenhouse cucumber production. For this purpose, the data on 43 cucumber production greenhouses in the Tehran province, Iran, were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that a total energy input of 148836.76 MJ ha{sup -1} was consumed for cucumber production. Diesel fuel (with 41.94%) and chemical fertilizers (with 19.69%) were amongst the highest energy inputs for cucumber production. The energy productivity was estimated as 0.80 kg MJ{sup -1}. The ratio of energy output to energy input was approximately 0.64. Results indicate 10.93% and 89.07% of total energy input was in renewable and non-renewable forms, respectively. The regression results revealed that the contribution of energy inputs on crop yield (except for fertilizers and seeds energies) was significant. The human labour energy had the highest impact (0.35) among the other inputs in greenhouse cucumber production. Econometric analysis indicated that the total cost of production for one hectare of cucumber production was around 33425.70$. Accordingly, the benefit-cost ratio was estimated as 2.58. (author)

  13. Silicon Application Effects on Yield and Growth of Two Cucumber Genotypes in Hydroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mohaghegh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si has beneficial effects on the growth, yield, and tolerance of some crops against biotic and abiotic stresses. Considering the absence of Si in the nutrient solutions used in hydroponically-grown cucumber, the present study was conducted to investigate the influence of Si on the growth and yield of two cucumber genotypes (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Dominus GRC and Super Dominus. In a hydroponic experiment, two cucumber cultivars were exposed to three Si levels (0, 100, and 200 mg L-1 Si in the form of sodium silicate. The results showed that supplement of Si in the nutrient solution increased Si concentration in cucumber root and shoot. The root and shoot dry weight, crop height, and root length of cucumber plants were significantly (P< 0.05 greater in the presence of Si in comparison with the free- Si treatments. Most of the growth parameters, did not have significant difference at the 100 and 200 mg L-1 silicate levels. According to the results of the present study, it seems that the application of 100 mg/L Si in the nutrient solution could improve the growth and yield of cucumber.

  14. The Syndrome of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Infected by Virus and Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan DENG; Zun-chun ZHOU; Nian-bin WANG; Chang LIU

    2008-01-01

    A outbreak of disease with symptoms of evisceration and skin ulteration led to mass mortality in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus cultivated in indoor ponds near the Dalian coast from December 2004 to April 2005. Spherical virus particles with a diameter of 75-200 nm were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the water-system, the alimentary canal and in the respiratory trees of the diseased and dying sea cucumber individuals by electron microscopic observation of ultrathin sections. Examination by negative stained samples revealed that all the diseased sea cucumbers were infected by the virus, while the healthly ones cultivated outside the contagious area were not. Two bacterial strains were also isolated from the diseased animals. When exposed to a medium containing the virus particles, regardless of whether the bacterial suspension was added,healthy sea cucumbers exhibited identical disease symptoms as the ones in the indoor ponds, and had a mortality of 90%-100%. However, when exposed to a medium in which there was only one of the two bacterial strains, 30%-80% of the sea cucumbers were infected and nearly 20% died. Negative staining showed that the viral particles were detected only in the bodies of the tested animals that were exposed to the viral medium. Histopathologically, the diseased sea cucumbers are characterized by karyopycnosis, and disintegration of the endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria in the epithelial cells in the water-system, the respiratory tree and the alimentary canal.

  15. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  16. Modeling gene flow distribution within conventional fields and development of a simplified sampling method to quantify adventitious GM contents in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melé, Enric; Nadal, Anna; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé-Messeguer, Marina; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Peñas, Gisela; Piferrer, Xavier; Capellades, Gemma; Serra, Joan; Pla, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been commercially grown for two decades. GM maize is one of 3 species with the highest acreage and specific events. Many countries established a mandatory labeling of products containing GM material, with thresholds for adventitious presence, to support consumers' freedom of choice. In consequence, coexistence systems need to be introduced to facilitate commercial culture of GM and non-GM crops in the same agricultural area. On modeling adventitious GM cross-pollination distribution within maize fields, we deduced a simple equation to estimate overall GM contents (%GM) of conventional fields, irrespective of its shape and size, and with no previous information on possible GM pollen donor fields. A sampling strategy was designed and experimentally validated in 19 agricultural fields. With 9 samples, %GM quantification requires just one analytical GM determination while identification of the pollen source needs 9 additional analyses. A decision support tool is provided. PMID:26596213

  17. Triterpene Glycosides from Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra with Cytotoxic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hua; LI Ling; YI Yang-hua; WANG Xiao-hua; PAN Min-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the new triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra with cytotoxic activity.Methods Triterpene glycosides from H.scabra were separated and purified by chromatography on DA-101,silica gel,and reversed-phase silica gel column,as well as RP-HPLC.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence.Results Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside D (1),fuscocineroside C (2),and 24-dehydroechinoside A (3).Their inhibition on P-388,A549,MKN-28,HCT116,and MCF-7 cells were significant.Conclusion Scabraside D (1) is a new triterpene glycoside,and compounds 2 and 3 are isolated from H.scabra for the first time.The glycosides 1-3 show the in vitro cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines in comparison to 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

  18. [Co-crystallization of cucumber concentrate (Cucumis sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A; Beristain, C I

    1998-09-01

    A sucrose syrup of 70 degrees Brix was concentrated until a concentration greater than 95 degrees Brix was attained. It was studied the effect of concentration (20, 25 and 35 degrees Brix) on the physical properties of the cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) granules. Moisture content, solubility, and density were determined. The best results were found for the concentrated at 30 degrees Brix. Lemon juice was added to the concentrated to decrease pH from 5.5 to 4.0 to improve flavor and to avoid growth of molds and yeast. No significant differences in the higroscopicity were found between both pH (s). Sensory evaluation shows that 30 judges of 45 preferred the sample made with the co-crystallizate containing lemon juice. PMID:9951539

  19. Diploidization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. haploids by colchicine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Nikolova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Haploid cucumber plants are totally infertile and do not undergo spontaneous diploidization. The use of haploids depends on the possibility of doubling the chromosome number and the obtaining of stable doubled haploids (DH. Four haploids of different genotypes propagated vegetatively were treated with colchicine in order to obtain DH. The following procedures were used: 1 apical shoot meristem treatment, 2 soaking of shoot explants, 3 placing of shoot explants on medium with colchicine. Plants of the C1 generation were evaluated in respect to morphological and cytological characters and fertility. The best result of 20.9% DH was obtained after repeated treatment of the meristem with colchicine. A large group of chimeras (28.5% was also distinguished as were haploids and tetraploids. DH plants were fertile and gave uniform progeny. Chimeras had a decreased fertility and showed disturbances in meiotic divisions.

  20. Crop modelling and water use efficiency of protected cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop modelling is considered an essential tool of planning. The automation of irrigation scheduling using crop models would contribute to an optimisation of water and fertiliser use of protected crops. To achieve this purpose, two experiments were carried. The first one aimed at determining water requirements and irrigation scheduling using climatic data. The second experiment was to establish the influence of irrigation interval and fertigation regime on water use efficiency. The results gave a simple model for the determination of the water requirements of protected cucumber by the use of climatic data: ETc=K* Ep. K and Ep are calculated using climatic data outside the greenhouse. As for water use efficiency, the second experiment highlighted the fact that a high frequency and continuous feeding are highly recommended for maximising yield. (author)

  1. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Poni, Stefano; Farinelli, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different...

  2. Adventitious root formation in olive (Olea europaea L.) microshoots: anatomical evaluation and associated biochemical changes in peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Mecedo, E.; Vieira, C.; Carrizo, D.; Porfirio, S.; Hegewald, H.; Arnholdt-Schmitt, B.; Calado, M.L.; A. Peixe

    2013-01-01

    Trials were performed using in vitro-cultured microshoots of the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar ‘Galega vulgar’, as initial explants, to identify histological events and modifications in peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities during adventitious root formation. Explant bases were submitted to a 10 s quick-dip treatment to promote rooting, using a sterile solution of 14.7 mM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Samples for histology and quantification of enzyme activities were collected at pr...

  3. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  4. Sex Determination in Sea Cucumbers: Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Pinheiro Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber aquaculture is underexploited in temperate regions, and it is inexistent in Portugal. However, there are some species with a large potential for this sector, namely Stichopus regalis and Holothuria forskali, as it their nutritional value. S. regalis is a common sea cucumber that is found in a wide depth range and is currently consumed all over the world, majority in Asia, with a high commercial value. On the other hand, H. forskali is the most plentiful specie of the Portuguese coast. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sex ratio on both species through biopsy method, using biopsy needle to collect a piece of gonad. Holothurian specimens were sampled coastwise in Peniche, Portugal (39° 21′ 32″ N, 9° 22′ 40″ W. A total of 45 H. forskali were collected in the low tide and 48 S. regalis were caught by trawl method. Both species were kept in captivity during 8 months, the rearing conditions are maintained close as possible to the natural habitat, and they were placed in a sand bottom. Mortality was evaluated during conditioning period, and it was verified approximately 19% of mortality in S. regalis, although in H. forskali it was not observed. Sex identification was performed with success only in H. forskali, and sexual ratio found was 1:1. All S. regalis specimens arrived eviscerated to the Aquaculture Laboratory and it was caused by the trawl capture method. For that reason, it was not possible to assess the sexual ratio. The possibility to distinguish holothurian genre is essential to realize sexual behavior, and to ease the understanding of reproductive cycle in attempt to introduce these new species for aquaculture rearing.

  5. Gene expression profiling of intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez-Merced Ana T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among deuterostomes, the regenerative potential is maximally expressed in echinoderms, animals that can quickly replace most injured organs. In particular, sea cucumbers are excellent models for studying organ regeneration since they regenerate their digestive tract after evisceration. However, echinoderms have been sidelined in modern regeneration studies partially because of the lack of genome-wide profiling approaches afforded by modern genomic tools. For the last decade, our laboratory has been using the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima to dissect the cellular and molecular events that allow for such amazing regenerative processes. We have already established an EST database obtained from cDNA libraries of normal and regenerating intestine at two different regeneration stages. This database now has over 7000 sequences. Results In the present work we used a custom-made microchip from Agilent with 60-mer probes for these ESTs, to determine the gene expression profile during intestinal regeneration. Here we compared the expression profile of animals at three different intestinal regeneration stages (3-, 7- and 14-days post evisceration against the profile from normal (uneviscerated intestines. The number of differentially expressed probes ranged from 70% at p actins, and developmental genes, such as Wnt and Hox genes, show interesting expression profiles during regeneration. Conclusion Our findings set the base for future studies into the molecular basis of intestinal regeneration. Moreover, it advances the use of echinoderms in regenerative biology, animals that because of their amazing properties and their key evolutionary position, might provide important clues to the genetic basis of regenerative processes.

  6. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is defined as a substance which contains living organisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are well recognized as an important component of integrated plant nutrient management for sustainable agriculture and hold a great promise improve crop yield. The present study for the sake of evaluating the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produced by Pseudomonas sp. and phosphate bio fertilizers produced by Pseudomonas putida strain P13 and Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and chemical fertilizers in the separate treatments on yield and yield components of cucumber by using a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design with three repetition were performed in the field. The symbol of P represents chemical fertilizer by amount of respectively (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, B1 shows plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and B2 indicates bio fertilizer-2. The results showed that P1B0 has the most yield, and control treatments has the least yield. P100B1 has the most length of plant and P100B0 has the least length of plant, P25B1 has the most amount of chlorophyll and P75B2 has the least chlorophyll. P75B2 has the most shoots dry weight and P100B0 has the least shoots dry weight. B1P50 has the most shoots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least shoots fresh weight. B1P50 has the most roots dry weight and P100B0 has the least roots dry weight. B1P50 has the most roots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least roots fresh weight. So the results indicate that use of biological fertilizers have caused increase yield and components yield of cucumber.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis and Discovery of Genes Involved in Immune Pathways from Coelomocytes of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) after Vibrio splendidus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Qiong Gao; Meijie Liao; Yingeng Wang; Bin Li,; Zheng Zhang; Xiaojun Rong; Guiping Chen; Lan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is identified as one of the major pathogenic factors for the skin ulceration syndrome in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), which has vastly limited the development of the sea cucumber culture industry. In order to screen the immune genes involving Vibrio splendidus challenge in sea cucumber and explore the molecular mechanism of this process, the related transcriptome and gene expression profiling of resistant and susceptible biotypes of sea cucumber with Vibrio splendi...

  8. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on the Adventitious Rooting in Shoot Cuttings of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Wall. ex Nees: An Important Therapeutical Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanower Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is one of the most important therapeutical herbs, widely used in traditional medical systems for the treatment of diverse diseases for thousands of years. This study was carried out to assess the effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on adventitious rooting in A. paniculata shoot cuttings. The cuttings were treated with six concentrations of NAA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mM by applying soaking method and cuttings without hormone (soaking in distilled water were considered as control. The cuttings were then inoculated into peat moss in the planting tray and incubated under complete shade for root induction. Water was sprayed on peat moss once daily to moisten it. The results showed that different concentrations of NAA significantly (P≤0.05 affected the rooting characteristics of A. paniculata and 2.5 mM of NAA was found to be more effective to induce rooting in young apical shoot (YAS cuttings compared to other concentrations and old apical shoot (OAS. This study also postulates that adventitious rooting response depends on the juvenility of plant material and concentration of growth regulator. This report describes a technique for adventitious rooting in A. paniculata, which could be feasible to use for commercial scale propagation of this plant.

  9. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Methyl Jasmonate-Elicited Panax ginseng Adventitious Roots to Discover Putative Ginsenoside Biosynthesis and Transport Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer belonging to the Araliaceae has long been used as an herbal medicine. Although public databases are presently available for this family, no methyl jasmonate (MeJA elicited transcriptomic information was previously reported on this species, with the exception of a few expressed sequence tags (ESTs using the traditional Sanger method. Here, approximately 53 million clean reads of adventitious root transcriptome were separately filtered via Illumina HiSeq™2000 from two samples treated with MeJA (Pg-MeJA and equal volumes of solvent, ethanol (Pg-Con. Jointly, a total of 71,095 all-unigenes from both samples were assembled and annotated, and based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 56,668 unigenes was obtained. Out of these annotated unigenes, 54,920 were assigned to the NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr database, 35,448 to the Swiss-prot database, 43,051 to gene ontology (GO, and 19,986 to clusters of orthologous groups (COG. Searching in the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway database indicated that 32,200 unigenes were mapped to 128 KEGG pathways. Moreover, we obtained several genes showing a wide range of expression levels. We also identified a total of 749 ginsenoside biosynthetic enzyme genes and 12 promising pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR genes related to ginsenoside transport.

  11. The influence of fertilization on quality of inflorescences of easy pot freesia (Freesia Eckl. ex Klatt grown from adventitious corms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Żurawik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in 2006-2007, in the spring-summer season, in an unheated plastic tunnel. Adventitious corms of Easy Pot Freesia: 'Gompey', 'Popey' and 'Suzy', were the plant material. The influence of a traditional fertilizer Azofoska and slow-release fertilizers, Osmocote Plus 5/6, Osmocote Exact and Polyon 5/6, on the ornamental value of plants was evaluated. All fertilizers were applied at rates of 2.5 and 5.0 g × dm-3. Freesias cultivated without fertilizer were the control plants. The cultivar 'Gompey' was characterized by longer inflorescence shoots and flowers of greater diameter, while the cultivar 'Suzy' had more flowers than the plants of the other cultivars evaluated. Plants with the greatest number of flowers and the longest inflorescences and shoots were obtained when slow-release fertilizers Osmocote Plus 5/6 and Osmocote Exact were used, regardless of cultivar and fertilizer dose. Polyon was useless for freesia fertilization, since it resulted in a decrease of the ornamental value of plants. Plants fertilized with Polyon had fewer flowers, additionally with a smaller diameter, and their inflorescences were shorter and deformed.

  12. Effect of naphthalene acetic acid on adventitious root development and associated physiological changes in stem cutting of Hemarthria compressa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hong Yan

    Full Text Available In order to find a way to induce rooting on cuttings of Hemarthria compressa cv. Ya'an under controlled conditions, a project was carried out to study the effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA on rooting in stem cuttings and related physiological changes during the rooting process of Hemarthria compressa. The cuttings were treated with five concentrations of NAA (0, 100, 200 300, 400 mg/l at three soaking durations (10, 20, 30 minutes, and cuttings without treatment were considered as control. Samples were planted immediately into pots after treatment. IAA-oxidase (IAAO activity, peroxidase (POD activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity were determined after planting. Results showed that NAA had positive effect on rooting at the concentration of 200 mg/l compared to other concentrations at 30 days after planting (DAP. Among the three soaking durations, 20 minutes (min of 200 mg/l NAA resulted in higher percentages of rooting, larger numbers of adventitious roots and heavier root dry weight per cutting. The lowest IAAO activity was obtained when soaked at 200 mg/l NAA for 20 min soaking duration. This was consistent with the best rooting ability, indicating that the lower IAAO activity, the higher POD activity and PPO activity could be used as an indicator of better rooting ability for whip grass cuttings and might serve as a good marker for rooting ability in cuttings.

  13. Evidence for vocal learning in juvenile male killer whales, Orcinus orca, from an adventitious cross-socializing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Jessica L; Bowles, Ann E; Garver, Alan

    2014-04-15

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are thought to learn their vocal dialect. Dispersal in the species is rare, but effects of shifts in social association on the dialect can be studied under controlled conditions. Individual call repertoires and social association were measured in three adult female killer whales and three males (two juveniles and an adult) during two periods, 2001-2003 and 2005-2006. Three distinct dialect repertoires were represented among the subjects. An adventitious experiment in social change resulted from the birth of a calf and the transfer of two non-focal subjects in 2004. Across the two periods, 1691 calls were collected, categorized and attributed to individuals. Repertoire overlap for each subject dyad was compared with an index of association. During 2005-2006, the two juvenile males increased association with the unrelated adult male. By the end of the period, both had begun producing novel calls and call features characteristic of his repertoire. However, there was little or no reciprocal change and the adult females did not acquire his calls. Repertoire overlap and association were significantly correlated in the first period. In the second, median association time and repertoire similarity increased, but the relationship was only marginally significant. The results provided evidence that juvenile male killer whales are capable of learning new call types, possibly stimulated by a change in social association. The pattern of learning was consistent with a selective convergence of male repertoires. PMID:24744421

  14. Adventitious root formation in rice requires OsGNOM1 and is mediated by the OsPINs family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiping Liu; Jirong Wang; Lu Wang; Xiaofei Wang; Yanhong Xue; Ping Wu; Huixia Shou

    2009-01-01

    The fibrous root system in cereals comprises primarily adventitious roots (ARs), which play important roles in nu-trient and water uptake. Current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying AR development is still limited. We report here the isolation of four rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutants, from different genetic backgrounds, all of which were defective in AR formation. These mutants exhibited reduced numbers of lateral roots (LRs) and partial loss of gravitropism. The mutants also displayed enhanced sensitivity to N-1-napbthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport (PAT), indicating that the mutations affected auxin transport. Positional cloning using one of the four mutants revealed that it was caused by loss-of-function of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor (OsGNOM1). RT-PCR and analysis of promoter::GUS transgenic plants showed that OsGNOM1 is expressed in AR primordia, vascular tissues, LRs, root tips, leaves, anthers and lemma veins, with a distribution pattern similar to that of auxin. In addition, the expressions of OsPIN2, OsPINSb and OsPIN9 were altered in the mu-tants. Taken together, these findings indicate that OsGNOM1 affects the formation of ARs through regulating PAT.

  15. Adventitious shoot regeneration of the medicinal aquatic plant water hyssop (Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell using different internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatas M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hyssop (Bacopa monnieri L. is an important medicinal plant due to its active compounds. The plant is also used in ornamental aquaria mainly due to its appearance and adaptability. This study reports on the adventitious shoot regeneration of water hyssop by culturing different internodes and leaf explants on MS media supplemented with various combinations of BA and NAA. All explants induced calli and shoots on all combinations of BA+NAA. The maximum number of shoots per explant on all explants was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l BA+0.25 mg/l NAA. A higher concentration of NAA inhibited shoot regeneration with all concentrations of BA. Shoots obtained from leaf explants were longer than those from other explants. Regenerated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with IBA. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized in water of various pH levels between 4.0-10.00. It was found that plants can be established on slightly acidic to slightly alkaline media. However, pH 8.0 was found to be more suitable for plant growth under aquatic conditions.

  16. P depletion and activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Magid, J.; Gahoonia, T.S.; Jakobsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was set up to test the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots and hyphae to produce extracellular phosphatases and to study the relationship between phosphatase activity and soil organic P (P-o). Non-mycorrhizal cucumber and cucumber in symbiosis with either of two mycorrhizal...

  17. Combined transcript and metabolite analysis reveals genes involved in spider mite induced volatile formation in cucumber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercke, P.; Kappers, I.F.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Dicke, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Many plants have an indirect defense against herbivores by emitting volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus) the production of carnivore attractants can be induced by herbivory or jasmonic acid spraying. From the leaves of cucumber plants with and w

  18. A method of genotyping by pedigree-based training-set for identification of QTLs associated with cucumber fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large sets of genomic data are becoming available for cucumber (Cucumis sativus), yet there is no tool for whole genome genotyping. Creation of saturated genetic maps depends on development of good markers. The present cucumber genetic maps are based on several hundreds of markers. However they are ...

  19. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  20. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  1. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Philipp W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Until very recently, cucumber genetic and genomic resources, especially molecular markers, have been very limited, impeding progress of cucumber breeding efforts. Microsatellites are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences, which are frequently favored as genetic markers due to their high level of polymorphism and codominant inheritance. Data from previously characterized genomes has shown that these repeats vary in frequency, motif sequence, and genomic location across taxa. During the last year, the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced including the Chinese fresh market type inbred line '9930' and the North American pickling type inbred line 'Gy14'. These sequences provide a powerful tool for developing markers in a large scale. In this study, we surveyed and characterized the distribution and frequency of perfect microsatellites in 203 Mbp assembled Gy14 DNA sequences, representing 55% of its nuclear genome, and in cucumber EST sequences. Similar analyses were performed in genomic and EST data from seven other plant species, and the results were compared with those of cucumber. Results A total of 112,073 perfect repeats were detected in the Gy14 cucumber genome sequence, accounting for 0.9% of the assembled Gy14 genome, with an overall density of 551.9 SSRs/Mbp. While tetranucleotides were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, dinucleotide repeats, which had more repeat units than any other SSR type, had the highest cumulative sequence length. Coding regions (ESTs of the cucumber genome had fewer microsatellites compared to its genomic sequence, with trinucleotides predominating in EST sequences. AAG was the most frequent repeat in cucumber ESTs. Overall, AT-rich motifs prevailed in both genomic and EST data. Compared to the other species examined, cucumber genomic sequence had the highest density of SSRs (although

  2. Effects of Grafting on Root Exudates of Cucumber and Rhizosphere Environment under Copper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua LI; Hongjun HE; Tengfei LI; Xin LI; Zikun ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study to aimed to investigate the effects of Cu stress on root exudates and microbial activities in rhizosphere of grafted and ungrafted cucum-ber seedlings, and therefore to elucidate the microbial mechanism of grafting for in-creasing cucumber plants tolerance to Cu stress [Method] Four treatments: (1) un-grafted seedlings + test soil (U0); (2) ungrafted seedlings + test soil + CuSO4·5H2O (U1); (3) grafted seedlings + test soil (G0); (4) grafted seedlings + test soil + Cu-SO4·5H2O (G1) were set in the pot culture experiment. The contents of free amino acids, organic acids, phenolic acid and sugars, microbial population and enzyme ac-tivity in the four treatment were measured, respectively. [Result] The secretion of amino acids and organic acids were increased under Cu stress. The amino acids secretions of grafted seedlings roots were obviously higher than ungrafted seedlings except for Phe and Val. At the same time, the secretion of oxalic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, cinnamic acid, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid and benzoic acid of grafted seedlings were significantly higher than ungrafted seedlings as wel . There-fore, more Cu2+ were restricted in soil by chelating, complexing and precipitation with root exudates, and its toxicity was decreased. The soil microbial biomass C and N in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significantly higher than those in ungrafted cu-cumber rhizosphere, whereas basal respiration and metabolic quotient were signifi-cantly lower. Under Cu stress, the numbers of actinomyces and nitrogen fixing bac-teria decreased and the number of fungi increased significantly, whereas there was no significant difference in amounts of bacteria. The numbers of bacteria, actino-myces, and nitrogen fixing bacteria in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significant-ly higher than those in ungrafted cucumber rhizosphere, but the number of fungi was opposite. The activities of soil urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in grafted

  3. Growth, Metabolism and Physiological Response of the Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka During Periods of Inactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Rongbin; ZANG Yuanqi; TIAN Xiangli; DONG Shuanglin

    2013-01-01

    The growth,metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus,were investigated during periods of inactivity.The body weight,oxygen consumption rate (OCR),activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP),alkaline phosphatase (AKP),catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD),and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A.japonicus were measured during starvation,experimental aestivation and aestivation.The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period (P<0.05).The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments,but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment.The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments,whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment.The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24℃.To some extent,the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response.These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism ofA.japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  4. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chang-Long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber. PMID:26979661

  5. Changes in soil chemical characters and enzyme activities during continuous monocropping of cucumber (cucumis sativus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil sickness, a phenomenon of negative plant-soil feedback in continuous monocropping systems, can cause severe yield penalty in agricultural production. Changes in soil chemical and biological characters are thought to account for soil sickness. However, changes in soil properties in continuous monocropping systems and links between these changes and plant growth performance are still not clear. In this study, dynamics of soil chemical characters and enzyme activities were monitored in a continuously monocropped cucumber system, in which cucumber was successively monocropped in pots for nine croppings under greenhouse conditions from 2005 to 2009 in the experimental station of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China. Cucumber showed an obvious stunted growth behavior in the seventh cropping and turned better in the ninth cropping. Soil pH decreased from the first cropping to the seventh cropping and increased in the ninth cropping. Contents of soil available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were the highest while activities of soil urease, neutral phosphatase and catalase were the lowest in the seventh cropping. Our results suggested that cucumber in the seventh cropping did not absorb enough soil nutrients, which may lead to the decrease in soil pH and changed soil biological properties. Changes in soil chemical and biological characters may be linked to the soil sickness of cucumber. (author)

  6. Reliable reference genes for normalization of gene expression in cucumber grown under different nitrogen nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Warzybok

    Full Text Available In plants, nitrogen is the most important nutritional factor limiting the yield of cultivated crops. Since nitrogen is essential for synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins, studies on gene expression in plants cultivated under different nitrogen availability require particularly careful selection of suitable reference genes which are not affected by nitrogen limitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qPCR analysis of target cucumber genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. Among twelve candidate cucumber genes used in this study, five are highly homologous to the commonly used internal controls, whereas seven novel candidates were previously identified through the query of the cucumber genome. The expression of putative reference genes and the target CsNRT1.1 gene was analyzed in roots, stems and leaves of cucumbers grown under nitrogen deprivation, varying nitrate availability or different sources of nitrogen (glutamate, glutamine or NH3. The stability of candidate genes expression significantly varied depending on the tissue type and nitrogen supply. However, in most of the outputs genes encoding CACS, TIP41, F-box protein and EFα proved to be the most suitable for normalization of CsNRT1.1 expression. In addition, our results suggest the inclusion of 3 or 4 references to obtain highly reliable results of target genes expression in all cucumber organs under nitrogen-related stress.

  7. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m-2) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50 degrees C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50 degrees were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37 degrees C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  9. Mosaic (MSC) cucumbers regenerated from independent cell cultures possess different mitochondrial rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Malepszy, Stefan; Havey, Michael J

    2004-02-01

    Passage of the highly inbred cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) line B through cell culture produces progenies with paternally transmitted, mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. Because the mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission, we evaluated for structural polymorphisms by hybridizing cosmids spanning the entire mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana L. to DNA-gel blots of four independently generated MSC and four wild-type cucumbers. Polymorphisms were identified by cosmids carrying rrn18, nad5-exon2, rpl5, and the previously described JLV5 deletion. Polymorphisms revealed by rrn18 and nad5-exon2 were due to one rearrangement bringing together these two coding regions. The polymorphism revealed by rpl5 was unique to MSC16 and was due to rearrangement(s) placing the rpl5 region next to the forward junction of the JLV5 deletion. The rearrangement near rpl5 existed as a sublimon in wild-type inbred B, but was not detected in the cultivar Calypso. Although RNA-gel blots revealed reduced transcription of rpl5 in MSC16 relative to wild-type cucumber, Western analyses revealed no differences for the RPL5 protein and the genetic basis of the MSC16 phenotype remains enigmatic. We evaluated 17 MSC and wild-type lines regenerated from independent cell-culture experiments for these structural polymorphisms and identified eight different patterns, indicating that the passage of cucumber through cell culture may be a unique mechanism to induce or select for novel rearrangements affecting mitochondrial gene expression. PMID:14586555

  10. Effects of Different Preceding Crops on Soil Micro-ecological Environment and Yield of Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shouwei; LIU Shuqin; PAN Kai; WANG Lili; WU Fengzhi

    2011-01-01

    Pepper, celery, eggplant and tomato were used as preceding crops to study their effects on the yield, soil microorganism quantity and soil enzyme activities of cucumber. Results showed that four preceding crops all increased soil microorganism quantity in cucumber, but decreased population of Fusarium oxysporum. The effect of pepper was more significant than that of the others Populations of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomyces of pepper treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, except that the populations of fungi had no significant difference with celery and eggplant treatments on 50 days after transplanting, while that of Fusarium oxysporum was fewer than that of the other treatments. The soil microorganism quantity in celery and eggplant treatment was more significant than tomato, but lower population of Fusarium oxysporum. Four preceding crops all increased sol enzyme activities, lnvertase and urease activities of pepper treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, catalase activities of pepper, celery and eggplant treatments were significantly higher than those of tomato and the control treatments All preceding crops remarkably increased cucumber yield, with pepper as the highest. Comparing with the control, cucumber yields of pepper, celery and eggplant treatments increased by 24.9%, 13.6% and 11.9%, respectively. Results suggested that four preceding crops all improved soil microbial ecology and increased cucumber yield. The pepper was the most suitable preceding crop, then followed by celery and eggplant. Tomato had the similar effect as the control.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis reveals distinct resistant response by physcion and chrysophanol against cucumber powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Tian, Shilin; Yang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    Physcion and chrysophanol induce defense responses against powdery mildew in cucumbers. The combination of these two compounds has synergistic interaction against the disease. We performed RNA-seq on cucumber leaf samples treated with physcion and chrysophanol alone and with their combination. We generated 17.6 Gb of high-quality sequencing data (∼2 Gb per sample) and catalogued the expressions profiles of 12,293 annotated cucumber genes in each sample. We identified numerous differentially expressed genes that exhibited distinct expression patterns among the three treatments. The gene expression patterns of the Chr and Phy treatments were more similar to each other than to the Phy × Chr treatment. The Phy × Chr treatment induced the highest number of differentially expressed genes. This dramatic transcriptional change after Phy × Chr treatment leaves reflects that physcion combined with chrysophanol treatment was most closely associated with induction of disease resistance. The analysis showed that the combination treatment caused expression changes of numerous defense-related genes. These genes have known or potential roles in structural, chemical and signaling defense responses and were enriched in functional gene categories potentially responsible for cucumber resistance. These results clearly demonstrated that disease resistance in cucumber leaves was significantly influenced by the combined physcion and chrysophanol treatment. Thus, physcion and chrysophanol are appealing candidates for further investigation of the gene expression and associated regulatory mechanisms related to the defense response.

  12. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  13. Effect of Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 supplemented in diets on growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fajun; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a potential probiotic on the growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 isolated from sea cucumber culturing ponds was added to sea cucumber basal feed as a probiotic in different doses (0, the control; 1×104 (YD134), 1×106 (YD136) and 1×108 (YD138) CFU g-1 of diet), and administered orally to A. japonicus (initial mean wet weight 5.44 g ± 0.17 g). The sea cucumbers were fed in 20 aquaria, 5 each treatment, for 60 d. At the end of growth trial, 20 sea cucumbers from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio splendidus. A. japonicus in YD134 and YD136 exhibited significantly better growth performance than control ( P japonicus to the probiotics. Results showed that all parameters were significantly improved when YD11 was supplemented in the dose of 1×106 CFU g-1 ( P japonicus.

  14. Difference of Low Temperature and Low Irradiance-Resistance between Figleaf Gourd and Cucumber Seedlings Related to Mineral Elements Uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-Yong; GUO Shang-Jing; LI Xin-Guo; MENG Jing-Jinga; HE Qi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    We have repotted that the roots of fig, leaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to 6 h stress at low temperature and low irradiance [1]. In this experiment, the relationship between the mineral elements uptake and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings were to be studied during low temperature (8 C) stress under low irradiance (100 μ. mol m-2 s-1 PFD) for 5 days. Compared with control seedlings, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS2 (Fv/Fm) and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings decreased, and beth Fv/Fm and P700+ were lower in cucumber leaves than in figleaf gourd seedlings at the end of the stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in beth leaves and roots of figleaf gourd than in leaves and roots of cucumber at both room temperature and low temperature. However, the product rate of O 2 was lower in figleaf gourd leaves than in cucumber leaves. Upon ex-posure to the stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased markedly in leaves and roots of figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings, and it grew faster in cucumber seedlings than that in figleaf gourd seedlings. Under adaptive conditions, some mineral elements (Such as Cu, Zn, Mn and Mg) have different contents in leaves and roots between figleaf gourd seedlings and cucumber seedlings. However, at the end of the stress these elements were accumulated apparently in both leaves and roots of figleaf gourd accompanied by no obvious change in cucumber seedlings.

  15. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  16. Assessment of the sea cucumber resource and fishery in the Bolinao-Anda reef system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Dionnie D. Olavides

    Full Text Available Fishery-independent and -dependent surveys were conducted to assess the status of the sea cucumber resource and fishery in Bolinao and Anda, Pangasinan. Thirty-five species of holothurians were recorded in 25 sampling stations within seagrass beds, coral reefs and mixed habitats. The estimated total population density of all aspidochirote sea cucumber species is 63 ind. ha-1. The artisanal multi-species fishery is at present primarily based on Holothuria scabra, Stichopus horrens and Bohadschia marmorata although there are indications that other high-value species were fished to local extinction. Taken together, the small sizes (<20 cm body length of the majority of aspidochirote sea cucumbers, their low population densities, and the continuous decrease in catches are clear signs of an overexploited fishery that will likely collapse without management intervention. Adaptive management strategies for Bolinao and Anda are recommended based on the findings of this survey.

  17. Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber During Germination is Related to Expression of Lysine Decarboxylase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming-hui; LI Xiao-ming; CHEN Jin-feng; CHEN Long-zheng; QIAN Chun-tao

    2005-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP technique, a specific fragment was isolated from cucumber cultivar Changchun mici possessing chilling tolerance induced at low temperature (15℃). This fragment, named cctr 132, could not be induced in the chilling sensitive cucumber cultivar Beijing jietou. After recovering the fragment, sequencing and translating, the results of blastx and blastp in GenBank of NCBI indicated that CCTR132 had 88.37% identities and 100% positives with Oryza sativa putative lysine decarboxylase-like protein respectively, and PGGXGTXXE, the putative conserved domain of lysine decarboxylase family, was detected from CCTR132, suggesting the cucumber chilling tolerance during germination is related to the expression of the lysine decarboxylase gene.

  18. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow. PMID:25727024

  19. Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) to 3 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber. PMID:26527842

  20. Effect of cypermethrin insecticide on the microbial community in cucumber phyllosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baoguo; ZHANG Hongxun; JIN Bo; TANG Ling; YANG Jianzhou; LI Baoju; ZHUANG Guoqiang; BAI Zhihui

    2008-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is one of the most widely used vegetable in the world, and different pesticides have been extensively used for controlling the insects and disease pathogens of this plant. However, little is known about how the pesticides affect the microbial community in cucumber phyllosphere. This study was the first attempt to assess the impact of pyrethroid insecticide cyperemethrin on the microbial communities of cucumber phyllosphere using biochemical and genetic approaches. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) assay indicated that cyperemethrin insecticide treatment led to a significant increase in both total and bacterial biomass and a decrease in fungal biomass and the ratio of Gram-positive (GP) bacteria to Gram-negative (GN) bacteria within the cucumber phyllosphere. Principal-component analyses (PCA) suggested that the number of unsaturated and cyclopropane PLFAs (16:1ω9t,18:1ω7, cy17:0, cy19:0) increased with the insecticide treatment, whereas the saturated PLFA i16:0, i17:0 decreased. The increase of GN bacteria implied that the cypermethrin insecticide might be a nutrient for the growth of these phyllosphere microbes. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) reinforced the PLFA results. A significant change of bacterial community structure was observed in the separate dendrogram cluster between control and treated samples with the cucumber phyllosphere following cypermethrin insecticide treatment. Moreover, the increased terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) (58, 62, 89, 99, 119, 195, 239,311,340, and 473 bp) indicated that some bacteria might play a significant role in the insecticide degradation within the cucumber phylosphere, whereas the disappeared T-RFs (44, 51, 96, 223, 306, and 338 bp) implied that some other bacteria might potentially serve as microbial indicator of cyperemethrin insecticide exposure.

  1. Biocontrol activity and primed systemic resistance by compost water extracts against anthracnoses of pepper and cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of compost water extracts (CWEs) from Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 for the control of anthracnoses caused by Colletotrichum coccodes on pepper and C. orbiculare on cucumber. All tested CWEs significantly (P anthracnose severities; Iljuk-3, Shinong-9, and BABA for pepper and Iljuk-7 for cucumber had more protective activities than curative activities. In addition, root treatment of CWEs suppressed anthracnoses on the plants by the pathogens; however, CWE treatment on lower leaves failed to reduce the diseases on the upper leaves of the plants. The CWE root treatments enhanced not only the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, and CaPR-10 in pepper and PR1-1a, PR-2, PR-3, and APOX in cucumber but also the activity of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in pepper and cucumber under pathogen-inoculated conditions. However, the CWE treatments failed to induce the plant responses under pathogen-free conditions. These results indicated that the CWEs had direct effects, reducing anthracnoses by C. coccodes on pepper leaves and C. orbiculare on cucumber leaves through protective and curative effects. In addition, CWE root treatments could induce systemic resistance in the primed state against pathogens on plant leaves that enhanced PR gene expression, defense-related enzyme production, and hydrogen peroxide generation rapidly and effectively immediately after pathogen infection. Thus, the CWEs might suppress anthracnoses on leaves of both pepper and cucumber through primed (priming-mediated) systemic resistance. PMID:21281115

  2. Ethylene Production by Chilled Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y; Adams, D O

    1980-11-01

    Chilling at 2.5 C accelerated the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and C(2)H(4) production in cucumber fruit. Skin tissue contained higher levels of ACC and was more sensitive to chilling than was cortex tissue. Accumulation of ACC in chilled tissue was detected after 1 day of chilling and remained elevated even after C(2)H(4) production started to decline. These data suggest that ACC synthesis is readily stimulated by chilling, whereas the system that converts ACC to C(2)H(4) is vulnerable to chilling injury. Chilling-induced C(2)H(4) production was inhibited by amino-ethoxyvinylglycine, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and cycloheximide. The utilization of methionine for ACC formation and chilling-induced C(2)H(4) biosynthesis was established using l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine. Chilled tissue had a higher capacity to convert l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine to ACC and C(2)H(4) than did nonchilled tissue. PMID:16661538

  3. Ammonium and potassium effect on nitrate assimilation in cucumber seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buczek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ammonium present in the induction medium toghether with nitrate on the activity of nitrate reductase (NR, nitrite reductase (NiR, glutamic acid dehydrogenase (GDH and absorption and accumulation of NO3- in cucumber seedlings were investigated. Maximum NR and NiR activity in the cotyledons was observed when seedlings were supplied with KNO3 as the sole source of nitrogen. When plants were supplied with NH4NO3 the presence of NH4+ in the induction medium repressed by about 50 per cent the activity of both reductases in the cotyledons. Addition of K+ to this medium abolished completely the inhibitory effect of NH4+. The effect of K+ cannot be replaced by that Na+ ions. On the other hand, ammonium has no effect on the level of NR activity in roots, while NiR was almost completely repressed. Under the experimental conditions ammonium, in the presence of nitrates, decreased the activity of GDH, but this diminution did not occur when the plants were supplied with K+ simultaneously. It has found that NH4+ ions reduced NO3- absorption but at the same time, the ratio of NO3- absorbed to that reduced was increased more than twice. The presumable mechanism of these phenomena is discussed.

  4. Moessbauer study of iron uptake in cucumber root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the uptake and distribution of iron in the root of cucumber plants grown in iron-deficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution and put into iron-containing solution with 10 μM Fe citrate enriched with 57Fe (90%) only before harvesting. The Moessbauer spectra of the frozen roots exhibited two Fe3+ components with typical average Moessbauer parameters of δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 0.46 mm s-1 and δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 1.2 mm s-1 at 78 K and the presence of an Fe2+ doublet, assigned to the ferrous hexaaqua complex. This finding gives a direct evidence for the existence of Fe2+ ions produced via root-associated reduction according to the mechanism proposed for iron uptake for dicotyledonous plants. Monotonous changes in the relative content of the components were found with the time period of iron supply. The Moessbauer results are interpreted in terms of iron uptake and transport through the cell wall and membranes.

  5. Nitrogen Requirements and Balance of Protected Cucumber in Coastal Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protected cultures are widespread along the Lebanese narrow coastline, encouraged by mild winter conditions. Although one of the most intensive production systems, water and nutrients managements are mostly empirical, based on the experience of the grower himself or of his workers. So far, water has been available in Lebanon, but it will become scarce within ten years. The conservation of water quality by a rational addition of nutrients is particularly relevant to protected cultures. This is important as greenhouses are developed on imported shallow soils that could be fragile and highly vulnerable to pollution. Sound management includes the amount and the forms of fertilizers as well as the modality of fertigation. An experiment was conducted during two spring seasons in a location along the northern coast in a typical unheated greenhouse. The cucumber response to two frequencies and modalities of fertigation was followed: continuous T2C and T3C and discontinuous T2D and T3D every two and three days respectively. Nitrogen recovery by the crop was possible through the use of 15N-labeled fertilizers. An evaluation of the nitrogen fertilizer fate in the plant-soil system was undertaken in 1999, despite large proportions of Ndff(%) plant N fertilizer recovery was smaller than in the previous season and did not exceed 55% of N inputs

  6. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  7. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  8. Studies on the diversity and growth of moulds in the cucumber pickle

    OpenAIRE

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH; SURANTO; HAPSARI SETIA PUTRI

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this research were to study about the growth and diversity of moulds in the cucumber pickle and the influences of acetic acid concentration and long storage as well as additional of onion on the growth of moulds. Cucumber pickle was treated in different acetic acid concentrations (0,8%, 1,4%, 2,0%), long storage and with or without additional of onion. The used method to isolate of mould was dilution planting. For enumerating moulds, 0,1 ml samples were blended and diluted after t...

  9. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  10. Development of genome viewer (Web Omics Viewer) for managing databases of cucumber genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, M.; RóŻ, P.; Pawełkowicz, M.; Nowak, R.; Przybecki, Z.

    Cucumber is an important plant in horticulture and science world. Sequencing projects of C. sativus genome enable new methodological aproaches in further investigation of this species. Accessibility is crucial to fully exploit obtained information about detail structure of genes, markers and other characteristic features such contigs, scaffolds and chromosomes. Genome viewer is one of tools providing plain and easy way for presenting genome data for users and for databases administration. Gbrowse - the main viewer has several very useful features but lacks in managing simplicity. Our group developed new genome browser Web Omics Viewer (WOV), keeping functionality but improving utilization and accessibility to cucumber genome data.

  11. Effects of Exogenous Cinnamic Acids on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exogenous cinnamic acids on plant growth, contents of photosynthetic pigment, root activities and ATPase activities of root membrane at cucumber seedling stage, the seedlings of Shandong Mici cucumber were tested. The results showed that seedlings growth, contents of photosynthetic pigment, root activities and ATPase activities of root membrane were inhibited by cinnamic acids. The growth and root activities of seedlings were significantly cinnamic acids, whereas ATPase activities exhibited a higher sensitivity and greatly decreased in the soil amended with 50 mg kg-1 cinnamic acids. These results suggested that cinnamic acids could induce a stress condition, and the stress intensities increased with enhanced cinnamic acid concentration.

  12. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Juan Dong

    Full Text Available Fatty acid desaturases (FADs introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber.

  13. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877

  14. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD gen...

  15. Cytotoxic and antifungal triterpene glycosides from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chludil, Hugo D; Muniain, Claudia C; Seldes, Alicia M; Maier, Marta S

    2002-06-01

    Two new sulfated triterpene glycosides, hemoiedemosides A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis. Their structures have been established by a combination of spectroscopic analysis (NMR and FABMS) and chemical transformations. Both glycosides present the same aglycon and differ in the degree of sulfation of the tetrasaccharide chain. Hemoiedemoside B (2) is a new example of a small number of trisulfated triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers belonging to the family Cucumariidae. Glycosides 1 and 2 exhibit considerable antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum, while the semisynthetic desulfated derivative 1a is less active. PMID:12088428

  16. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Septennial ionahta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.B. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China)]. E-mail: libinzhou@impcas.ac.cn; Li, W.J. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, S. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong, X.C. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, L.X. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Q. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, G.M. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, Q.X. [Institute of Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Southern Tianshui Road 222, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2006-03-15

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  17. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L. B.; Li, W. J.; Ma, S.; Dong, X. C.; Yu, L. X.; Li, Q.; Zhou, G. M.; Gao, Q. X.

    2006-03-01

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe eDruege

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled

  19. Promoting Roles of Melatonin in Adventitious Root Development of Solanum lycopersicum L. by Regulating Auxin and Nitric Oxide Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dan; Gong, Biao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Shiqi; Wang, Xiufeng; Wei, Min; Yang, Fengjuan; Li, Yan; Shi, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (MT) plays integral roles in regulating several biological processes including plant growth, seed germination, flowering, senescence, and stress responses. This study investigated the effects of MT on adventitious root formation (ARF) of de-rooted tomato seedlings. Exogenous MT positively or negatively influenced ARF, which was dependent on the concentration of MT application. In the present experiment, 50 μM MT showed the best effect on inducing ARF. Interestingly, exogenous MT promoted the accumulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) by down-regulating the expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). To determine the interaction of MT and NO in ARF, MT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine, NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt as well as GSNOR-overexpression plants with low NO levels were used. The function of MT was removed by NO scavenger or GSNOR-overexpression plants. However, application of MT synthesis inhibitor did little to abolish the function of NO. These results indicate that NO, as a downstream signal, was involved in the MT-induced ARF. Concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, as well as the expression of several genes related to the auxin signaling pathway (PIN1, PIN3, PIN7, IAA19, and IAA24), showed that MT influenced auxin transport and signal transduction as well as auxin accumulation through the NO signaling pathway. Collectively, these strongly suggest that elevated NO levels resulting from inhibited GSNOR activity and auxin signaling were involved in the MT-induced ARF in tomato plants. This can be applied in basic research and breeding. PMID:27252731

  20. Promoting Roles of Melatonin in Adventitious Root Development of Solanum lycopersicum L. by Regulating Auxin and Nitric Oxide Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eWen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MT plays integral roles in regulating several biological processes including plant growth, seed germination, flowering, senescence and stress responses. This study investigated the effects of MT on adventitious root formation (ARF of de-rooted tomato seedlings. Exogenous MT positively or negatively influenced ARF, which was dependent on the concentration of MT application. In the present experiment, 50 µM MT showed the best effect on inducing ARF. Interestingly, exogenous MT promoted the accumulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO by down-regulating the expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR. To determine the interaction of MT and NO in ARF, MT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine, NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt as well as GSNOR-overexpression plants with low NO levels were used. The function of MT was removed by NO scavenger or GSNOR-overexpression plants. However, application of MT synthesis inhibitor did little to abolish the function of NO. These results indicate that NO, as a downstream signal, was involved in the MT-induced ARF. Concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, as well as the expression of several genes related to the auxin signaling pathway (PIN1, PIN3, PIN7, IAA19 and IAA24, showed that MT influenced auxin transport and signal transduction as well as auxin accumulation through the NO signaling pathway. Collectively, these strongly suggest that elevated NO levels resulting from inhibited GSNOR activity and auxin signaling were involved in the MT-induced ARF in tomato plants. This can be applied in basic research and breeding.

  1. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  2. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Sun Lee

    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  3. Protective effect of heat-treated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) juice on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, heat-treated cucumber juice was assessed for its protective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats. Initially, during detoxification of alcohol, all groups were orally dosed to 22% alcohol (6ml/kg body weight) along with different concentrations of heat-treated cucumber juice (10, 100 and 500mg/kg) and commercial goods for hangover-removal on sale (2ml/kg). Cucumber juice was dosed before 30 min, and simultaneously after 30min of alcohol administration, and its hepatoprotective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats was evaluated. As a result, after 7h, remarkable reduction was found in the blood alcohol levels for all concentrations of cucumber juice treatment. Treatment with cucumber juice resulted in increasing dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activities in rat liver at 9h after alcohol administration thereby stimulated blood alcohol metabolism as compared with control group. The effect of heat-treated cucumber juice on alcohol detoxification was observed only in the rats treated before 30min from alcohol administration. These findings indicate that heat-treated cucumber juice has significant protective effect on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of liver injury caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:27383492

  4. Study on the effect of different fertilizer on the stable nitrogen isotope of soil, leaf and cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on stable nitrogen isotope abundance (δ15N-%), nitrate and nitrate reductase active was studied for the soil, cucumber and leaf,respectively. The results showed that the δ15N of cucumber was with the trend of low, high and low as the application rate of organic manure decreased, and it was significantly different (P0.05) for the other treatments. The δ15N of cucumber was not significantly different during different harvest time (P>0.05) for the same treatment. The correlation of δ15N between the cucumber and the leaf was 0.9836 for the different treatment, whose δ15N was more affected more by the fertilizer and less by the soil. The content of nitrate in cucumber was reducing with the rate of organic manure decreasing, which had a bad correlation (r=0.6568) with the δ15N of cucumber; however the active of nitrate reductase was increasing which had a positive correlation with the treatments of control treatment, 100%, 80% and 60% of organic manure applied (r=0.9187), and a negative correlation with the treatments of 60%, 40%, 20% of organic manure and 100% chemical fertilizer applied (r=-0.9773). To sum up, the δ15N can be used as marks to discriminate the cucumbers grown with organic manure and chemical fertilizer, but the pattern of fractionation and distribution of the stable nitrogen isotope should be further studied. (authors)

  5. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  6. Application of Wet Waste from Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with or Without Sea Mud to Feeding Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; HU Chaoqun; RENChunhua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) (P>0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no sig-nificant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments (P>0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  7. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on the Adventitious Rooting in Shoot Cuttings of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees: An Important Therapeutical Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Sanower Hossain; Zannat Urbi

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is one of the most important therapeutical herbs, widely used in traditional medical systems for the treatment of diverse diseases for thousands of years. This study was carried out to assess the effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious rooting in A. paniculata shoot cuttings. The cuttings were treated with six concentrations of NAA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mM) by applying soaking method and cuttings without hormone (soaking in distilled water)...

  8. Adventitious Shoot Organogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Cotyledons of Diploid Diyarbakır Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. "Sürme")

    OpenAIRE

    PİRİNÇ, Vedat

    2003-01-01

    Adventitious shoots were obtained from the diploid Diyarbakır watermelon cultivar "Sürme" by culturing cotyledons on shoot regeneration medium for 3 weeks. The effects of two cytokinins, benzyl amino purine (BA) and kinetine (Kin), on shoot organogenesis were examined. The number of shoots per explant were approximately more than 50% higher when 0.5 mg/l BA was used compared to the most effective kinetin concentration (1 mg/l). Plants were obtained by transferring 1 to 2 cm shoots t...

  9. Use of auxin, fungicides and rooting cofactors to induce adventitious root formation in softwood cuttings of apple, gooseberry and some ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Piątkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuttings of apple rootstocks MM 106, Alnarp 2, M VII and M 26, of the ornamental plants Pyracantha coccinea Roem., Syringa Meyeri Schneid., and Weigela cv. Vanhouttei formed a larger numbers of adventitious roots with a mixture of naphthaleneacetic acid and the fungicide Captan than with auxin alone. Boric acid, vitamin B1 as well as pyrogallol and vanilic acid in rather high concentrations showed no effect on rooting when used separately or in a mixture with an auxin. Intermittent mist and bottom heat were used.

  10. Residual behavior and risk assessment of the mixed formulation of benzene kresoxim-methyl and fluazinam in cucumber field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quansheng; Wei, Peng; Cao, Mengchao; Liu, Yanan; Wang, Mengcen; Guo, Yirong; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-06-01

    Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is a new strobilurin fungicide mixed with fluazinam (Flu) into 40 % suspension concentrate (SC) formulation to improve fungicidal efficacy and to reduce the risk of resistance on cucumber. However, the fate of the fungicide residues in a cucumber plantation remains unclear. Thus, an efficient method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation was developed to simultaneously determine the BKM and Flu residues in cucumber and soil samples to investigate their residual behavior and risk assessment in the cucumber plantation. This analytical method revealed that the detection limits of BKM and Flu were 1.64 × 10(-3) and 1.82 × 10(-3) mg L(-1), respectively, and their average recoveries in the cucumber and soil samples were 77.5-106.9 %. The respective half-lives of BKM and Flu were 2.2-3.4 and 1.0-2.5 days in cucumber; in soil, the half-lives of BKM and Flu were 2.6-5.0 and 2.4-5.3 days, respectively. Seven days after application, the terminal residues of BKM and Flu in cucumber were less than 0.02 mg kg(-1). The residual profiles of BKM and Flu suggested that these fungicides could rapidly degrade in cucumber plantations. Their hazard quotient values were all less than 1 on the preharvest intervals of 3, 5, and 7 days, indicating that the dietary risk of BKM and Flu 40 % SC with the recommended usage on cucumber is negligible. PMID:27168328

  11. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map for Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF) Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Ying; Huang, Long; Chen, Long; Yang, Jian-Tao; Wu, Jia-Ni; Qu, Mei-Ling; Yao, Dan-Qing; Guo, Chun-Li; Lian, Hong-Li; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000 × S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on seven chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19 cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35 cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected. PMID:27148281

  12. AGROBOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION OF TURBAN FORMS OF CUCUMBER, AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION OF DISTRIBUTION, EVOLUTION AND USE OF THIS CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers turban cucumber forms, we have also described the origin of this characteristic, briefly overviewed turban forms in species of the family of Cucurbitaceae. We have given the agro-botanical iconography of this trait in pumpkin cultures for cucumis. In Europe, China and America turbanoformis cucumber forms are used as a vegetable, there are some varieties. It is shown that turbanoformis forms are found in the fruit of the cucumber with hermaphrodite flower, polunina ovaries, short or shareplace the melon, and also in forms with the ongoing evolutionary process

  13. Optimising Nitrogen utilization by fertigated protected cucumber in coastal Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.In Lebanon, protected cultures are in expansion with indications of new greenhouses installed every year, particularly at altitudes between 400 and 500 m. In these intensive systems, few studies looked at the crop requirements, the management practices and their consequences on the soil and water. This study was carried out under field conditions in Jbeil (lebanon) at 100 m of altitude for a spring cucumber. For the follow-up of the nitrogen use efficiency, labelled nitrogen fertilizer (with the heavy isotope 15N) was used. Treatments consisted of combining two irrigation frequencies: every 2 or 3 days with two modalities of fertigation: continuous and discontinuous, with every other irrigation. Otherwise, the levels of water and nutrients were equal among all treatments. Results focused on the plant performance under these modalities and also on the nitrogen balance in the plant-soil system. The plants fertigated continuously, every two days, presented higher fresh fruit yield and above-ground dry ,matter production. In addition, the number of non-commercial fruits were significantly smaller than in the other treatments. This suggests less stressful conditions under the continuous input of nutrients and the stable EC of the fertigation solution. Concerning the nitrogen balance, it was calculated by the difference between input removal for each treatment. These values were compared with the nitrate-nitrogen build-up in the soil. Very close correspondence was found, which indicates minimal nitrogen losses for all treatments which could be related to the amount accumulated in the soil as nitrates. Overall, under the experimental conditions the continuous fertigation at a 2-day frequency was the most adequate in promoting plant production and minimizing losses from the soil-plant system

  14. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  15. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Lin Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50, less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change.

  16. QTL mapping for downy mildew resistance in WI7120B (PI 330628) cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Downy mildew (DM) is the most devastating fungal diseases of cucumber worldwide. Several plant introduction (PI) lines have been identified to be highly resistant to the post-2004 DM strain in the US including PI 197088 and PI 330628 (WI7120B). However, the genetic basis of resistance i...

  17. USDA, ARS EOM 402-10 high B-carotene cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high B-carotene cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) line EOM 402-10 is being released. This line was derived from a cross between the "Xishuangbanna gourd" (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) that bears orange fruit and the non-orange-fruited cultivated c...

  18. Bag-in-box technology: Storage stability of process-ready, fermented cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process-ready, fermented cucumbers were microbiologically stable for up to 6 months when held at 4% salt, and up to 12 months when 0.1% sodium benzoate also was present. At 2% salt, some fermentations were unstable at 6 months of storage. Microbial instability was associated with a rise in brine p...

  19. Rootstock-scion interactions in the cucumber: implications for cultivation and breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Grafting cucumbers onto low temperature tolerant rootstocks Cucurbita ficifolia and Sicyos angulatus promoted vegetative growth and early fruit production at suboptimal temperatures in winter. The positive effect of grafting. onto C. ficifolia on length growth and leaf initiation depended on the gen

  20. Determination of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of cucumber by using microlysimeter in greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fathalian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water resources are limited and optimal use of water resources in agriculture requires accurate determination of water consumed by plant species in different circumstances. This situation is necessary more than ever due to fast development of greenhouse cultivation. In this regard, to determine evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (KC of greenhouse cucumber, two microlysimeters were installed for growing cucumber and grass. Daily evapotranspiration rate of both plants was measured by weighing method. Also, by using meteorological data, recorded inside the greenhouse, the reference crop evapotranspiration was calculated with Penman-Monteith-FAO, Hargreaves-Samani and Makkink methods. Evapotranspiration of cucumber plants, with plant spacing of 40×70 cm, during the 4-month growth period was measured as 273.2 mm. Mean values of KC for cucumber in greenhouse was 0.14 in the initial stage of growth, 0.78 in the development stage, 1.37 in the middle stage and 0.86 in the last stage. Also, crop coefficient values for reference crop evapotranspiration estimated by the Hargreaves-Samani and Makkink methods were closer to the actual values. The Penman-Monteith-FAO equation estimated Kc value about 1.6 to 5 times higher than the actual value.

  1. Asynchronous meiosis in Cucumis hystrix-cucumber synthetic tetraploids resulting in low male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide hybridization is an important tool for crop improvement. Recently, we successfully developed a synthetic allotetraploid from interspecific cross between cucumber and its relative Cucumis hystrix-(2n = 2x =24) followed by chemical induction of chromosome doubling. The resulting allotetraploid wa...

  2. Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmin Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS, were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral α-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides.

  3. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato-Cucumber Double Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kelly A; Langston, David B; Dickson, Donald W; Davis, Richard F; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P

    2015-12-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased root galling by 91%, 73%, and 97%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Tomato plots from the spring were divided into split plots for the fall where the main plots were the spring treatment and the subplots were cucumber either treated with fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha. via drip irrigation) or left untreated. The fall application of fluensulfone improved cucumber vigor and reduced gall ratings compared to untreated subplots. Fluensulfone reduced damage from root-knot nematodes when applied to the first crop as well as provided additional protection to the second crop when it was applied through a drip system. PMID:26941459

  4. Non-destructive detection of pesticide residues in cucumber using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Bahareh; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jamshidi, Jamshid; Minaei, Saeid; Sharifi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was assessed for non-destructive detection of diazinon residues in intact cucumbers. Vis/NIR spectra of diazinon solution and cucumber samples without and with different concentrations of diazinon residue were analysed at the range of 450-1000 nm. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed based on different spectral pre-processing techniques to classify cucumbers with contents of diazinon below and above the MRL as safe and unsafe samples, respectively. The best model was obtained using a first-derivative method with the lowest standard error of cross-validation (SECV = 0.366). Moreover, total percentages of correctly classified samples in calibration and prediction sets were 97.5% and 92.31%, respectively. It was concluded that Vis/NIR spectroscopy could be an appropriate, fast and non-destructive technology for safety control of intact cucumbers by the absence/presence of diazinon residues. PMID:25789964

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Isolate Causing Soft Rot of Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkendi, Edward M; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kwenda, Stanford; Naidoo, Sanushka; Moleleki, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potatoes, ornamentals, and other crops of economic importance. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a highly virulent P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain, PcbHPI01, isolated from a cucumber in South Africa. PMID:26744374

  6. A tiling microarray for global analysis of chloroplast genome expression in cucumber and other plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pląder Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastids are small organelles equipped with their own genomes (plastomes. Although these organelles are involved in numerous plant metabolic pathways, current knowledge about the transcriptional activity of plastomes is limited. To solve this problem, we constructed a plastid tiling microarray (PlasTi-microarray consisting of 1629 oligonucleotide probes. The oligonucleotides were designed based on the cucumber chloroplast genomic sequence and targeted both strands of the plastome in a non-contiguous arrangement. Up to 4 specific probes were designed for each gene/exon, and the intergenic regions were covered regularly, with 70-nt intervals. We also developed a protocol for direct chemical labeling and hybridization of as little as 2 micrograms of chloroplast RNA. We used this protocol for profiling the expression of the cucumber chloroplast plastome on the PlasTi-microarray. Owing to the high sequence similarity of plant plastomes, the newly constructed microarray can be used to study plants other than cucumber. Comparative hybridization of chloroplast transcriptomes from cucumber, Arabidopsis, tomato and spinach showed that the PlasTi-microarray is highly versatile.

  7. Functional imaging of plants: A nuclear magnetic resonance study of a cucumber plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, T.; Heemskerk, A.; Jager, de A.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study transients of biophysical parameters in a cucumber plant in response to environmental changes. Detailed flow imaging experiments showed the location of xylem and phloem in the stem and the response of the following flow characteristics to the i

  8. Bacterial Diversity of Gut Content in Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and Its Habitat Surface Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fei; TAN Jie; SUN Huiling; YAN Jingping

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the bacterial diversity of gut content of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and its habitat surface sediment in a bottom enhancement area using PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. Bacte-rial diversity evaluation showed that the value of the Shannon-Wiener index of gut content in different intestinal segments of A. ja-ponicus varied between 2.88 and 3.00, lower than that of the surrounding sediment (3.23). Phylogenetic analysis showed that bacte-rial phylotypes in gut content and the surrounding sediment of A. japonicus were closely related to Proteobacteria includingγ-,α-,δ-andε-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicute, and Actinobacteria, of whichγ-proteobacteria were predominant. These results sug-gested that the sea cucumber A. japonicus was capable of feeding selectively, and PCR-DGGE was applicable for characterizing the bacterial community composition in gut content and the surrounding sediment of sea cucumber. Further investigation targeting longer 16S rDNA gene fragments and/or functional genes was recommended for obtaining more information of the diversity and function of bacterial community in the gut content of sea cucumber.

  9. Inter- and Intramolecular Recombinations in the Cucumber Mosaic Virus Genome Related to Adaptation to Alstroemeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.K; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3′ nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that these recombined RNA 2 and 3 segments increased the biological fitness of CMV in alstroemeria.

  10. Inter- and intramolecular recombinations in the cucumber mosaic virus genome related to adaptation to alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Kun; Goldbach, Rob; Prins, Marcel

    2002-04-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3' nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that these recombined RNA 2 and 3 segments increased the biological fitness of CMV in alstroemeria. PMID:11907253

  11. TAXONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS OF A RARE CUCUMIS SPECIES (C. HYSTRIX CHAKR.) AND ITS INTERSPECIFIC HYBRID WITH CUCUMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the current Cucumis taxonomic classification, Cucumis hystrix Chakr. is placed in subgen. Cucumis based on its morphological similarities to cucumber (C. sativus L., 2n = 14). However, the chromosome number of C. hystrix was identified as 2n = 24, the same number as in subgen. Melo. C. hystrix ...

  12. Bag-in-box technology: Membrane filtration of cucumber fermentation brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major goal in producing process-ready, brined cucumbers is the reclaiming of the brine obtained from the fermentation for use in other products. This article summarizes research results obtained from the use of membrane filtration technology to remove microbial cells and other sediments from cucu...

  13. QTL mapping of downy mildew resistance in PI 197088 and PI 330628 cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy mildew (DM, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is a devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. Several plant introduction lines have been identified with high resistance to the post-2004 new DM strain found in the U.S. However, the inheritance of DM resistance is still not well defined. Molecu...

  14. Technique and effects of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of cucumber seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser treatment of seeds before sowing at selected irradiation doses was described. Particular attention was paid to determining energy doses for biostimulation. Results obtained at experimental irradiation of short green-house cucumber seeds, Pasandra and Picobello cultivars, were presented. Considerable increase in yields was observed as a result of applied method

  15. Detection and characterization of a lytic Pediococcus bacteriophage from the fermenting cucumber brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the twelve lytic bacteriophages recovered from five different fermenting cucumber tanks that were inoculated with Pediococcus sp. LA0281, a lytic phage, 'ps05, was characterized in the present study. The plaques were mostly clear and round-shaped on the lawn of starter strain, indicating lytic ph...

  16. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg-1 of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg-1, and total uptake from 2 to 1 μg in the 800 mg kg-1 AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  17. Population studies of echinoderms and growth and mortality of sea cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following studies: methods of collecting sea cucumbers; determination of growth rates of plates of the calcareous ring; use of growth parameters and a length-frequency distribution to estimate mortality and population turnover; movement of materials through the atoll ecosystem; and autoradiographic studies on spines of sea urchins

  18. Stimulation of growth and yield of cucumber plant through seeds treatments with x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of seed irradiation with low doses of x rays on several growth and yield indicators of cucumbers plants was studied in laboratory and in organoponic conditions. The results showed that the stimulation doses for this crop were between 6-18 Gy, and the better dose for the stimulation of plant yield was 8.58 Gy

  19. Gladiolus plants transformed with single-chain variable fragment antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus ‘Peter Pears’ or ‘Jenny Lee’ were developed that contain single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I or II. The CMV subgroup I heavy and light chain scFv fragments were placed under control of either the duplicated CaMV 35S or suga...

  20. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilber, Isabel [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Wyss, Gabriela S., E-mail: gabriela.wyss@fibl.or [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Maeder, Paul [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg{sup -1} of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg{sup -1}, and total uptake from 2 to 1 mug in the 800 mg kg{sup -1} AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  1. The Psm locus controls paternal sorting of the cucumber mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, M J; Park, Y H; Bartoszewski, G

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission and there are no reports of variation for mitochondrial transmission in cucumber. We used a mitochondrially encoded mosaic (MSC) phenotype to reveal phenotypic variation for mitochondrial-genome transmission in cucumber. At least 10 random plants from each of 71 cucumber plant introductions (PIs) were crossed as the female with an inbred line (MSC16) possessing the MSC phenotype. Nonmosaic F1 progenies were observed at high frequencies (greater than 50%) in F1 families from 10 PIs, with the greatest proportions being from PI 401734. Polymorphisms near the mitochondrial cox1 gene and JLV5 region revealed that nonmosaic hybrid progenies from crosses of PI 401734 with MSC16 as the male possessed the nonmosaic-inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the paternal parent. F2) F3, and backcross progenies from nonmosaic F1 plants from PI 401734 x MSC16 were testcrossed with MSC16 as the male parent to reveal segregation of a nuclear locus (Psm for Paternal sorting of mitochondria) controlling sorting of mtDNA from the paternal parent. Psm is a unique locus at which the maternal genotype affects sorting of paternally transmitted mtDNA. PMID:15475394

  2. Soil respiration in cucumber field under crop rotation in solar greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinli Liang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues are the primary source of carbon input in the soil carbon pool. Crop rotation can impact the plant biomass returned to the soil, and influence soil respiration. To study the effect of previous crops on soil respiration in cucumber (Cucumis statirus L. fields in solar greenhouses, soil respiration, plant height, leaf area and yield were measured during the growing season (from the end of Sept to the beginning of Jun the following year from 2007 to 2010. The cucumber was grown following fallow (CK, kidney bean (KB, cowpea (CP, maize for green manure (MGM, black bean for green manure (BGM, tomato (TM, bok choy (BC. As compared with CK, KB, CP, MGM and BGM may increase soil respiration, while TM and BC may decrease soil respiration at full fruit stage in cucumber fields. Thus attention to the previous crop arrangement is a possible way of mitigating soil respiration in vegetable fields. Plant height, leaf area and yield had similar variation trends under seven previous crop treatments. The ratio of yield to soil respiration revealed that MGM is the crop of choice previous to cucumber when compared with CK, KB, CP, BGM, TM and BC.

  3. [Salt resistance and its mechanism of cucumber under effects of exogenous chemical activators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiqing; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shirong; Shang, Qingmao; Zhang, Zhigang

    2006-10-01

    With root injection and foliar spray, this paper studied the effects of different concentrations salicylic acid, brassinolide, chitosan and spermidine on the growth, morphogenesis, and physiological and biochemical characters of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) seedlings under 200 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress. The results showed that at proper concentrations, these four exogenous chemical activators could markedly decrease the salt stress index and mortality of cucumber seedlings, and the decrement induced by 0. 01 mg x L (-1) brassinolide was the largest, being 63. 0% and 75. 0% , respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly, resulting in a marked decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage. The dry weight water content and morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings improved, and the stem diameter, leaf number, and healthy index increased significantly. All of these suggested that exogenous chemical activators at proper concentrations could induce the salt resistance of cucumber, and mitigate the damage degree of salt stress. The salt resistance effect of test exogenous chemical activators decreased in the sequence of 0.005 -0.05 mg (L-1) brassinolide, 150 -250 mg x L (-1) spermidine, 100 -200 mg x L(-1) chitosan, and 50 -150 mg x L(-1) salicylic acid. PMID:17209385

  4. Sampling plan for Diaphania spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and for hymenopteran parasitoids on cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Picanço, Marcelo C; Moura, Marcelo F; Della Lucia, Terezinha M C; Semeão, Altair A

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the best technique, sampling unit, and the number of samples to compose a conventional sampling plan for the cucurbit borers, Diaphania spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and for hymenopteran parasitoids on cucumber. This research was carried out in 10 commercial cucumber crops fields from July to December 2000 in Tocantins, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (21 degrees 11' 15" S; 42 degrees 03' 45" W; altitude 363 m). The sampling methods studied were beating on a tray, direct counting of insects on the lower leaf surface, and whole leaf collection. Three sampling units also were studied: leaves from a branch located in the apical, median, or basal third of the canopy. The best sampling systems, which included the best technique and sampling unit, were determined based on the relative variance and the economic precision of the sampling. Once the best sampling systems were established, the numbers of samples to compose the conventional sampling plans were determined. The more suitable sampling system for the larvae of Diaphania spp. in cucumber plants was beating a leaf of the median third of the canopy on a plastic tray. One leaf must be sampled for every 50 plants in a crop. The more suitable sampling system for hymenopteran parasitoids in cucumber plants was to directly count the adults on one leaf of the median third of the canopy. One leaf must be sampled for every 74 plants in a crop. PMID:17195691

  5. Effect of (+)-pulegone and other oil components of Mentha x piperita on cucumber respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Camusso, W.; Bertea, C.M.; Bossi, S.; Maffei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) essential oil and main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant respiratory functions. Tests were conducted on both root segments and mitochondria isolated by etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Total essential oil inhibited

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Isolate Causing Soft Rot of Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Onkendi, Edward M.; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kwenda, Stanford; Naidoo, Sanushka; Moleleki, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potatoes, ornamentals, and other crops of economic importance. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a highly virulent P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain, PcbHPI01, isolated from a cucumber in South Africa.

  7. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380-1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS. PMID:27283050

  8. Grafting cucumber onto luffa improves drought tolerance by increasing ABA biosynthesis and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanshan; Li, Hao; Lv, Xiangzhang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Balancing stomata-dependent CO2 assimilation and transpiration is a key challenge for increasing crop productivity and water use efficiency under drought stress for sustainable crop production worldwide. Here, we show that cucumber and luffa plants with luffa as rootstock have intrinsically increased water use efficiency, decreased transpiration rate and less affected CO2 assimilation capacity following drought stress over those with cucumber as rootstock. Drought accelerated abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in roots, xylem sap and leaves, and induced the transcript of ABA signaling genes, leading to a decreased stomatal aperture and transpiration in the plants grafted onto luffa roots as compared to plants grafted onto cucumber roots. Furthermore, stomatal movement in the plants grafted onto luffa roots had an increased sensitivity to ABA. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in luffa roots decreased the drought tolerance in cucumber and luffa plants. Our study demonstrates that the roots of luffa have developed an enhanced ability to sense the changes in root-zone moisture and could eventually deliver modest level of ABA from roots to shoots that enhances water use efficiency under drought stress. Such a mechanism could be greatly exploited to benefit the agricultural production especially in arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:26832070

  9. Fine Genetic Mapping Localizes Cucumber Scab Resistance Gene Ccu into an R Gene Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The scab caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum, is an important disease of cucumber, Cucumis sativus. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of the single dominant scab resistance gene, Ccu, with 148 F9 recombination inbreeding lines (RILs) and 1,944 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucum...

  10. Silicon alleviates iron deficiency in cucumber by promoting mobilization of iron in the root apoplast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, Jelena; Samardzic, Jelena; Maksimović, Vuk;

    2013-01-01

    Root responses to lack of iron (Fe) have mainly been studied in nutrient solution experiments devoid of silicon (Si). Here we investigated how Si ameliorates Fe deficiency in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) with focus on the storage and utilization of Fe in the root apoplast. A combined approach was p...

  11. Use of phages to control Vibrio splendidus infection in the juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Cao, Zhenhui; Xu, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we isolated 3 bacteriophages with the ability to control Vibrio splendidus, a bacterium known to cause disease in the juvenile sea cucumber. These bacteriophages were designated as vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-1 (PVS-1), vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-2 (PVS-2) and vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-3 (PVS-3). The ability of the 3 phages to inhibit the growth of V. splendidus VS-ABTNL was tested in vitro using each of the 3 phages individually or in the form of a cocktail of all 3 phages in the proportion of 1:1:1. All treated cultures produced a significant (P  0.05). The levels of nitric oxide synthase and acid phosphatase of sea cucumbers fed phage-containing diets were significantly (P  0.05) were detected among the 4 phage-fed treatments. An additional study was conducted in which 60 healthy sea cucumbers (23 ± 2 g) were randomly assigned to a control, an untreated group and a test group to investigate the effects of injecting phages by coelomic injection on the survival rate and enzyme activities in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. The control was injected with 1 ml of sterilized seawater while the untreated group and the test group were injected with the same volume of V. splendidus-ABTNL culture (3 × 10(5) CFU/mL). Then, the test group was injected with 1 ml of the 3 phage cocktail (MOI = 10). After 48 h, the activities of lysozyme, acid phosphatase and superoxide dismutase were elevated in the untreated group while the levels of these enzymes in the test group were similar to the blank control. After 10-day observation, the survival rate of the sea cucumber was 100% for the blank control, 80% for the test group and 20% for the negative control. The overall results of this experiment indicate that phage therapy increased the survival of sea cucumber infected with V. splendidus VS-ABTNL. The above results demonstrate that using phages, especially a combination of different phages, may be a feasible way to control Vibrio infection in the sea cucumber

  12. De novo adventitious root formations in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica in response to different rooting media and auxin treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehlot A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is a multipurpose Indian tree important to local economy. Conservation of the genetic resources of neem is essential for the adaptability of this tree species to projected climate change impacts. Here, the effect of type and concentration of auxins in different rooting media on adventitious root formation (ARF in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica is depicted. Three different rooting media (i.e., sand, vermiculite and soil were used, and the experiment was established using three types of auxin (IBA, IAA and NAA and 6 concentration treatment combinations (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg l-1, in a complete randomized block design (CRBD. Significant effects of different auxin types, concentration treatments and rooting media on adventitious root formation of neem mini-cuttings were observed. Mini-cuttings were assessed for rooting percentage, number of roots, root length and number of leaves. IBA resulted in higher rooting percentage (90%, number of roots (149.56, root length (14.83 cm and number of leaves per rooted mini-cuttings (12.78, when growing in sand. The determination of proper rooting protocols and the use of mini-cuttings were proved important for improving mass propagation of A. indica.

  13. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  14. Effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on lead-treated sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid, AsA) on lead (Pb) accumulation and toxicity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Three hundred sea cucumbers (10.02±0.02g) fed a basal diet containing 100mg Pb/kg were subjected to 5 levels of l-ascorbate-2-polyphosphate (LAPP) supplementation to achieve 5 AsA treatment levels of 0, 2727, 4630, 9171, 13,893mg AsA/kg. After 30 days, specific growth rate (SGR) and body weight gain (BWG) of supplementation groups were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the control group. Pb contents of the intestine significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 20 days to 30 days in all supplementation groups. Pb contents of the respiratory tree in sea cucumbers in the 2727 and 4630mg AsA/kg treatment groups significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 10 days to 30 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the sea cucumber body wall in supplementation groups increased after 30 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the body wall significantly (P<0.05) declined with increasing AsA level. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that vitamin C could mitigate the effects of Pb on sea cucumber and the optimum levels ranged from 2727mg AsA/kg to 4630mg AsA/kg when Pb levels were 100mg/kg. PMID:25890051

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Cui, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber. PMID:26989617

  16. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianasi, Bruno L; Verkaik, Katie; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality). The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days). Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d). Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects. PMID:26011165

  17. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Gianasi

    Full Text Available The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality. The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days. Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d. Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects.

  18. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wyrwicka

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot, while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx, catalase (CAT and guaiacol peroxidase (POx, were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  19. Roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Shimizu, M.; Hotta, T.; Dai-Hee, K.; Yanai, K.; Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Miyazawa, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber Cucumis sativus L seedlings develop a specialized protuberance peg on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root when seeds germinate in a horizontal position The peg plays an important role in pulling seedling out from the seed coat We have reported that cucumber seedlings potentially develop a peg on each side of the transition zone but peg development on the upper side is suppressed in response to gravity Auxin is the primary factor responsible for the induction or the suppression of peg formation Here we investigated the roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated formation suppression of the peg in cucumber seedlings When cucumber seedlings were treated with inhibitors of auxin efflux carrier a peg was formed not only on the lower side but also on the upper side of the gravistimulated transition zone suggesting that activation of auxin efflux carriers is required for the suppression of peg formation To identify auxin efflux carriers involved in the suppression of peg formation by graviresponse we isolated six cucumber cDNAs of PIN auxin efflux carrier genes and investigated their mRNA accumulation and protein expression Our results show that CsPIN1 and CsPIN6 could play a role in the redistribution of auxin in the transition zone To understand auxin action on peg formation suppression we next examined the transcriptional regulators for the expressions of auxin-responsive genes The results suggest that a higher level of auxin in the lower side of the

  20. Identification of fucans from four species of sea cucumber by high temperature 1H NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Li, Guoyun; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Changhu

    2014-10-01

    Acidic polysaccharide, which has various biological activities, is one of the most important components of sea cucumber. In the present study, crude polysaccharide was extracted from four species of sea cucumber from three different geographical zones, Pearsonothuria graeffei ( Pg) from Indo-Pacific, Holothuria vagabunda ( Hv) from Norwegian Coast, Stichopus tremulu ( St) from Western Indian Ocean, and Isostichopus badionotu ( Ib) from Western Atlantic. The polysaccharide extract was separated and purified with a cellulose DEAE anion-exchange column to obtain corresponding sea cucumber fucans (SC-Fucs). The chemical property of these SC-Fucs, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and sulfate content, was determined. Their structure was compared simply with fourier infrared spectrum analyzer and identified with high temperature 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum analyzer (NMR) and room temperature 13C NMR. The results indicated that Fuc- Pg obtained from the torrid zone mainly contained 2,4-O-disulfated and non-sulfated fucose residue, whereas Fuc- Ib from the temperate zone contained non-, 2-O- and 2,4-O-disulfated fucose residue; Fuc- St from the frigid zone and Fuc- Hv from the torrid zone contained mainly non-sulfated fucose residue. The proton of SC-Fucs was better resolved via high temperature 1H NMR than via room temperature 1H NMR. The fingerprint of sea cucumber in different sea regions was established based on the index of anomer hydrogen signal in SC-Fucs. Further work will help to understand whether there exists a close relationship between the geographical area of sea cucumber and the sulfation pattern of SC-Fucs.

  1. Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    OpenAIRE

    Beibei Bie; Jin Sun; Junsong Pan; Huanle He; Run Cai

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1) was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant C...

  2. Effects of washing, peeling, storage, and fermentation on residue contents of carbaryl and mancozeb in cucumbers grown in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Cucumbers grown in two different greenhouses were exposed to mancozeb and carbaryl at different times. The effects of 10-day preharvest period, water and detergent washing, peeling, predetermined storage period at 4°C (refrigeration), and fermentation on the reduction of residue levels in the plant tissues were investigated. Mancozeb and carbaryl residues in cucumbers were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Results showed that residue levels in samples, which were collected after 10 days following the pesticide application, were significantly lower than the samples collected after 2 h subsequent to the pesticide application. The culinary applications were effective in reducing the residue levels of the pesticides in cucumbers. As a result, non-fermentative pickling in sodium chloride and acetic acid was the most effective way to reduce the mancozeb and carbaryl residues of the cucumbers. PMID:25342670

  3. Ecological effects of co-culturing sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) with scallop Chlamys farreri in earthen ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yichao; Dong, Shuanglin; Qin, Chuanxin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Monthly changes in sedimentation and sediment properties were studied for three different culture treatments: sea cucumber monoculture (Mc), sea cucumber and scallop polyculture (Ps-c) and scallop monoculture (Ms). Results indicated that the survival rate of sea cucumber was significantly higher in Ps-c cultures than in Mc cultures. Sea cucumber yield was 69.6% higher in Ps-c culture than in Mc culture. No significant differences in body weight and scallop shell length were found between Ps-c and Ms cultures. The mean sedimentation rate of total particulate matter (TPM) was 72.2 g/(m2·d) in Ps-c cultures, with a maximum of 119.7 g/(m2·d), which was markedly higher than that of Mc (mean value). Sedimentation rates of organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Ps-c cultures were also significantly higher than those in Mc cultures. TOC and TN contents of sediment increased rapidly in the first 5 months in Ms cultures and remained at a high level. TOC and TN contents in Mc and Ps-c cultures decreased during sea cucumber feeding seasons and increased during sea cucumber dormancy periods (summer and winter). The study demonstrates that co-culture of sea cucumber and scallop in earthen ponds is an alternative way to alleviate nutrient loads and improve water quality in coastal aquaculture systems. Moreover, it provides the additional benefit of an increased sea cucumber yield.

  4. Studies on biological control of powdery mildew in cucumber (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) and rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa) by means of mycoparasites.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaar, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew on rose ( Sphaerotheca pannosa ) and cucumber ( Sphaerotheca fuliginea ) are two serious diseases in glasshouses. Intensive control by fungicides is needed. The research presented here deals with biocontrol of powdery mildew on cucumber and rose by means of mycoparasites.The mycoparasites Ampelomyces quisqualis , Sporothrix rugulosa and Tilletiopsis minor and Verticillium lecanii were tested on rose powdery mildew. V. lecanii produced the best results. For biocontrol at glassho...

  5. Ultrahigh-Density Linkage Map for Cultivated Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Using a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping Array

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, Mor; Katzenellenbogen, Mark; Eshed, Ravit; Rozen, Ada; Katzir, Nurit; Colle, Marivi; Yang, Luming; Grumet, Rebecca; Weng, Yiqun; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping arrays are tools for high-throughput genotyping, which is beneficial in constructing saturated genetic maps and therefore high-resolution mapping of complex traits. Since the report of the first cucumber genome draft, genetic maps have been constructed mainly based on simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) or on combinations of SSRs and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP). In this study, we developed the first cucumber genotyping array consisting of 32,864 single-nucleotide poly...

  6. Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Yi-li; Wang, Xue-Min; Cui, Jin-xia; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Kai SHI; Yu, Jing-quan

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH4 +) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO3 −)-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH4 +-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) level, transpiration rate, maximum phot...

  7. Sea Cucumber Fishery and Trade in Sta. Cruz, Davao Del Sur, Philippines: Supply Chains and Cost-Benefit Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Shuck, Vlademir A.; Mondoyo, Rod Norbert D.; Thaddeus R. Acuňa; Gamboa, Ruth U.

    2013-01-01

    In the country, sea cucumbers are exploited almost exclusively for export. It is harvested in three ways; commercial fishing, artisanal fishing and gleaning. These methods provide disproportionate economic benefits to these players in the supply chain. In this study, sea ranching, a new culture system for sea cucumber was analyzed in terms of its economic and commercial viability. Under the sea ranching system Holothuriascabra(sandfish) is the species being raised mainly due to its high econo...

  8. The breeding pattern and variations in timing and reproductive output of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogilva in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Muthiga, N.A.; Kawaka, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogilva is currently one of the most commercially valuable species of sea cucumber worldwide. This study investigated reproduction of this species in order to characterize the reproductive pattern and evaluate the relationship with temperature, light and lunar periodicity. Individuals were collected monthly, between 1998 and 2007, at Shimoni, Kenya and processed using standard gonad index methods and macroscopic and microscopic observations of the...

  9. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the seedling growth of four hybrid cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    TÜFENKÇİ, Şefik; DEMİR, Semra; ŞENSOY, SUAT; ÜNSAL, Hüsameddin; DEMİRER, Emre

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on different hybrid cucumber cultivars has not been well documented, even under normal seedling conditions. The present study therefore aimed to evaluate colonization, nutrient uptake, dependency, and other seedling traits of 4 cucumber hybrids (Ceren F1, Beta F1, Silyon F1 and Maraton F1) inoculated by 3 different AMF [Glomus intraradices (Gi), Glomus etunicatum (Ge) and Gigaspora margarita (Gm)]. Traits were evaluated in a gr...

  10. Phylogeny and Cross-infectivity of Powdery Mildew Isolates (Podosphaera fuliginea s. lat.) on Cosmos and Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between the phylogeny and infectivity of isolates of Podosphaera fuliginea s. lat. (= Sphaerotheca fuliginea s. lat.) from cosmos and cucumber, more than 50 powdery mildew isolates from these two plants were subjected to nucleotide sequencing or PCR-RFLP analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and cross-inoculation tests. The isolates from both cosmos and cucumber are genetically monotypic, and there are six nucleotide substitutions in the rDN...

  11. Induction of Drought Tolerance in Cucumber Plants by a Consortium of Three Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Juan Wang; Wei Yang; Chao Wang; Chun Gu; Dong-Dong Niu; Hong-Xia Liu; Yun-Peng Wang; Jian-Hua Guo

    2012-01-01

    Our previous work showed that a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) strains (Bacillus cereus AR156, Bacillus subtilis SM21, and Serratia sp. XY21), termed as BBS for short, was a promising biocontrol agent. The present study investigated its effect on drought tolerance in cucumber plants. After withholding watering for 13 days, BBS-treated cucumber plants had much darker green leaves and substantially lighter wilt symptoms than control plants. Compared to the cont...

  12. Antifungal effectiveness of potassium sorbate incorporated in edible coatings against spoilage molds of apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Abu-Blan, Hifzi A; Swanson, Barry G

    2011-04-01

    Predominant spoilage molds of fresh apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes stored at 4 °C were isolated and examined for resistance to potassium sorbate (PS) incorporated in polysaccharide edible coatings. The isolated molds were Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Aspergillus niger from apples. P. oxalicum and C. cucumerinum were isolated from cucumbers and P. expansium and C. fulvum from tomatoes. Guar gum edible coating incorporated with PS was the most effective mold inhibitor, significantly (P<0.05) reducing the isolated spoilage molds for 20, 15, and 20 d of storage at 4 °C on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes, respectively. PS incorporated into pea starch edible coating was less effective and selectively inhibited the isolated mold species, causing significant (P<0.05) reduction in mold on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes counts for 20, 10 to 15, and 15 to 20 d of storage at 4 °C, respectively. The isolated mold species exhibited different resistances to PS incorporated in the edible coatings. The greatest inhibition (2.9 log CFU/g) was obtained with C. herbarum on apples and the smallest (1.1 log CFU/g) was with P. oxalicum on cucumbers and the other isolated mold species exhibited intermediate resistance. The coatings tested, in general, inhibited molds more effectively on apples than on tomatoes and cucumbers. Addition of PS to pea starch and guar gum, edible coatings improved the antifungal activity of PS against isolated spoilage molds on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes. PS inhibition was most effective against C. herbarum on apples and least effective against P. oxalicum on cucumbers. PMID:21535846

  13. Quality of Norwegian cucumbers: effect of greenhouse praxis on taste and taste related constituents, and GC-FID analysis on content of fatty acids and aldehydes

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Linda Renate

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that sugars (SSC), salts (EC) and the relationships between sugars/salts and sugars/acids (TTA- total titratable acids) may impact taste in cucumber. In this study, the impacts of environmental conditions in greenhouses on appearance, taste, and content of taste related constituents in cucumber are examined. Cucumber were sampled from eight different greenhouses, and analyzed regarding appearance of morphological featur...

  14. Characterization of phenoloxidase from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a crucial immune-related enzyme in invertebrates. In this study, three POs of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were detected in coelomic fluid using linear-gradient native-PAGE combined with catechol staining and then partially purified by gel excising. The results showed that the three POs had a color of mahogany (AjPO1), yellow (AjPO2) and purple (AjPO3) respectively with molecular weights smaller than 21kDa in native-PAGE after staining with catechol. Enzymatic activities analysis revealed that AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3 had optimal temperature of 45, 95 and 85°C and pH of 5.0, 8.0 and 8.0, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Km values of AjPO1 for catechol, l-DOPA, dopamine and hydroquinone were 3.23, 0.86, 3.98 and 1.20mmol/l, respectively, those of AjPO2 were 0.31, 0.38, 2.05 and 1.30mmol/l, respectively, and those of AjPO3 were 5.95, 1.28, 5.81 and 0.62mmol/l, respectively. These results suggest that the three POs are laccase-type phenoloxidase. The activities of all three A. japonicus POs were significantly promoted by Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), and strongly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) and some common antioxidants. The inhibitions by EDTA and DETC suggest that the three A. japonicus POs are copper-containing metalloenzymes. Immune-responsive analysis showed that the total PO activities in coelomocytes (TPAC) increased greatly after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and declined significantly after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) challenge, implying that A. japonicus PO immune system, which is composed of several isoenzymes with different characteristics, is closely involved in the defense against the infection of Gram-negative bacteria and double-stranded RNA viruses. PMID:24631331

  15. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  16. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  17. Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquali Giancarlo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR; however, reliable use of this technique requires reference genes for normalization. There is no single reference gene that can be regarded as universal for all experiments and biological materials. Thus, the identification of reliable reference genes must be done for every species and experimental approach. The present study aimed at identifying suitable control genes for normalization of gene expression associated with adventitious rooting in E. globulus microcuttings. Results By the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes in E. globulus: 18S, ACT2, EF2, EUC12, H2B, IDH, SAND, TIP41, TUA, UBI and 33380. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in microccuttings rooted in vitro, in presence or absence of auxin, along six time-points spanning the process of adventitious rooting. Overall, the stability profiles of these genes determined with each one of the algorithms were very similar. Slight differences were observed in the most stable pair of genes indicated by each program: IDH and SAND for geNorm, and H2B and TUA for NormFinder. Both programs indentified UBI and 18S as the most variable genes. To validate these results and select the most suitable reference genes, the expression profile of the ARGONAUTE1 gene was evaluated in relation to the most stable candidate genes indicated by each algorithm. Conclusion Our study showed that expression stability varied between putative reference genes

  18. Physiologic responses and gene diversity indicate olive alternative oxidase as a potential source for markers involved in efficient adventitious root induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Macedo, Elisete; Cardoso, Hélia G; Hernández, Alejandro; Peixe, Augusto A; Polidoros, Alexios; Ferreira, Alexandre; Cordeiro, António; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are mainly propagated by adventitious rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings. However, efficient commercial propagation of valuable olive tree cultivars or landraces by semi-hardwood cuttings can often be restricted by a low rooting capacity. We hypothesize that root induction is a plant cell reaction linked to oxidative stress and that activity of stress-induced alternative oxidase (AOX) is importantly involved in adventitious rooting. To identify AOX as a source for potential functional marker sequences that may assist tree breeding, genetic variability has to be demonstrated that can affect gene regulation. The paper presents an applied, multidisciplinary research approach demonstrating first indications of an important relationship between AOX activity and differential adventitious rooting in semi-hardwood cuttings. Root induction in the easy-to-root Portuguese cultivar 'Cobrançosa' could be significantly reduced by treatment with salicyl-hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX activity. On the contrary, treatment with H2O2 or pyruvate, both known to induce AOX activity, increased the degree of rooting. Recently, identification of several O. europaea (Oe) AOX gene sequences has been reported from our group. Here we present for the first time partial sequences of OeAOX2. To search for polymorphisms inside of OeAOX genes, partial OeAOX2 sequences from the cultivars 'Galega vulgar', 'Cobrançosa' and 'Picual' were cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA, including exon, intron and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) sequences. The data revealed polymorphic sites in several regions of OeAOX2. The 3'-UTR was the most important source for polymorphisms showing 5.7% of variability. Variability in the exon region accounted 3.4 and 2% in the intron. Further, analysis performed at the cDNA from microshoots of 'Galega vulgar' revealed transcript length variation for the 3'-UTR of OeAOX2 ranging between 76 and 301 bp. The identified polymorphisms and 3'-UTR

  19. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. PMID:27503728

  20. RESEARCH REGARDING THE WATER CONSUMPTION OF TOMATOES, GREEN PEPPER AND CUCUMBERS CULTIVATED IN SOLARIUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M DIRJA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In such conditions, saving water represents a very important aspect, both economically and socially. But in horticulture saving water must consider another very important aspect, that of providing food for a continuously growing population. So horticultors have the difficult task of obtaining big productions as well as saving water. Our research come to support the cultivators who grow tomatoes, green peppers and cucumbers in solariums. Determining precisely the water consumption of this species will create the possibility of avoiding both the excess and the lack of water of the tomatoes, green peppers and cucumbers grown in solariums, each of them having negative effects on production. Establishing the best water regime of this crop will lead to the application of optimum water quantities, at the right time and by the most efficient irrigation methods. This way, the cultivators will have the possibility of obtaining high productions, of superior quality, justified economically.

  1. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiuli; SHAN Xue; QIU Xuemei; MENG Xiangying; CHANG Yaqing

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian.Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for A J07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding,as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  2. Dietary Cordyceps militaris protects against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongxin; Du, Xingfan; Li, Shuying; Wen, Zhixin; Li, Yajie; Li, Xuejun; Meng, Nan; Mi, Rui; Ma, Shuhui; Sun, Aijie

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio splendidus is the common pathogen that causes infectious diseases widely spread in cultured sea cucumber in China. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Cordyceps militaris to protect against infection caused by V. splendidus. In this study, sea cucumbers were fed with a diet containing 0 (control), 1%, 2% or 3% C. militaris for 28 days, and subsequently challenged with V. splendidus by injection with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu per animal. Parameters of immune response such as phagocytosis (PC), lysozyme (LSZ) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after injection. The results showed that dietary C. militaris at a dose of 2% or 3% significantly up-regulated (P Apostichopus japonicus and improve its resistance to infection by V. splendidus. PMID:26099218

  3. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  4. Polyploidy induction by hydrostatic pressure shock and embryo development of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jun; CHANG Yaqing; WANG Zichen; SONG Jian

    2007-01-01

    The manipulation of the chromosome set for commercially valuable marine animals is important for enhancing aquacultural production. In this study, triploid and tetraploid sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were induced by hydrostatic pressure shock, and the conditions of appropriate induction were tested with different starting times, and hydrostatic pressure intensities and durations. The highest rate of triploid induction reached 20% and that of tetraploid was 60%. In consideration of the survival rate and hatch rate, the appropriate treatment for triploid was 55 Mpa of hydrostatic pressure for 5 min at 55 min after fertilization (a.f.), while for tetraploid it was 60 Mpa for 5 min at 61 min a.f. The triploid of the sea cucumber could survive through the pelagic larval stage and attachment stage, and develop like the control group of the experiment. The tetraploid, however, could not survive the attachment stage.

  5. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.;

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...... effects against Pythium damping-off compared with the corresponding treatments with P. aphanidermatum alone, but the biocontrol efficacy depended on the type of organic compounds added. Both BCAs counteracted damping-off in treatments with TSB and chitosan. However, P. polymyxa counteracted damping-off in...

  6. [Characterization of the Gut Bacterial Community of the Japanese Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatyrenko, E A; Buzoleva, L S

    2016-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the composition and abundance of the gut bacterial community of the Japanese sea cucumber (trepang) Apostichopus japonicus and the soil from its habitat was carried out. In spite of the presence of strictly aerobic bacteria in the soil, gut microflora of this holothurian was shown to be formed by facultative anaerobes from the environment. Irrespective of the geographical location of the habitat, the sea cucmber gut community had a constant composition considered its normal microflora. Capacity of bactreia isolated from the Japanese sea cucumber for decomposition of starch, sodium alginate, chitin, chondroitin sulfate, Tweens, olive oil, casein, and gelatin was studied. Various degrees of enzymatic activity were shown for 33% of the studied bacterial strains, which indicates a considerable role of the trepang gut microflora in processing and assimilation of organic matter arriving with food. PMID:27301133

  7. The influence of potassium and calcium ions on nitrogen metabolism of cucumber seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dobosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was found that K+ or Ca2+ deficiency in a nitrate or ammonium medium increased the amount of accumulated total and non-protein nitrogen in some organs of cucumber seedlings, as also caused changes in accumulated potassium and calcium. Lack of K+ or Ca2+ in a medium which did not contain nitrogen led to an increased level of glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the cotyledons and roots of cucumbers. Similar changes in the activity of these enzymes were noted in certain organs of seedlings growing in nitrate or ammonium medium with decreased K+ or Ca2+ contents, although the magnitude of these changes depended upon the applied dosage of these cations, the form of mineral nitrogen, developmental phase of plants and the plant organ dealt with.

  8. Rheological and Structural Properties of Sea Cucumber Stichopus japonicus During Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; XUE Dongmei; ZHANG Zhaohui; XU Jiachao; XUE Changhu

    2005-01-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25 ℃, 70 ℃ and 100 ℃ water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation)determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  9. Study on the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Sea Cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) Gelatin Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  10. Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuezheng; WANG Hua; WU Fengzhi; LIU Bo

    2007-01-01

    Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber(Shandong Mici)seedlings under salt stress were studied,and the best concentration and treatment time were ascertained.The results showed that cinnamic acid relatively increased the leaf relative water content and the chlorophyll content,decreased plasma membrane permeability,mitigated membrane damage,inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde(product of membrane lipid peroxidation),and promoted the activity of membrane protective enzymes such as super oxide dismutase and peroxidase,therefore improving the adaptabilities of cucumber to salt stress.It is concluded that the best treatment time of cinnamic acid is in the two euphylla period,and the best treatment concentration of cinnamic acid is 50 μmol/L.

  11. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  12. Assessment of Salicylic Acid Impacts on Seedling Characteristic of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein MARDANI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling characteristic were evaluated under different water stress levels by using a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications at experimental greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The studied factors included three water deficit levels (100% FC, 80% FC, and 60% FC considered as first factor and five levels of SA concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM as second factor. Results showed that foliar application of SA at the highest concentration enhanced leaf area, leaf and dry weight while decreased stomatal conductance under high level of water deficit stress. Though, severe water deficit stress sharply raised the SPAD reading values. In general, exogenous SA application could develop cucumber seedling characteristic and improve water stress tolerance.

  13. The catalase gene family in cucumber: genome-wide identification and organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lifang; Yang, Yingui; Jiang, Lunwei; Liu, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Catalase (CAT) is a common antioxidant enzyme in almost all living organisms. Currently, detailed reports on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) CAT (CsCAT) genes and tissue expression profiling are limited. In the present study, four candidate CsCAT genes were identified in cucumber. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsCAT1-CsCAT3 are closely related to Arabidopsis AtCAT1-AtCAT3, but no obvious counterpart was observed for CsCAT4. Intron/exon structure analysis revealed that only one of the 15 positions was completely conserved. Motif analysis showed that, unlike the CAT genes of other species, none of CsCAT genes contained all 10 motifs. Expression data showed that transcripts of all of the CsCAT genes, except CsCAT4, were detected in five tissues. Moreover, their transcription levels displayed differences under different stress treatments. PMID:27560990

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Sphingolipids Isolated from the Stems of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three antimicrobial sphingolipids were separated by bioassay-guided isolation from the chloroform fraction of the crude methanol extract of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. stems and identified as (2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxytetra-cosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (1, 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxy-tetracosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (2 and soya-cerebroside I (3 by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. They were evaluated to show antifungal and antibacterial activity on test microorganisms including four fungal and three bacterial species. Among them, compound 1, a relatively low polarity aglycone,  exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than its corresponding glycoside 2. The results indicated that sphingolipids could be the main antimicrobial compounds in the crude methanol extract of cucumber stems.

  15. Validation of a residue method to determine pesticide residues in cucumber by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a multi-residue method using ethyl acetate for extraction and gel permeation chromatography for clean-up was validated to determine chlorpyrifos, malathion and dichlorvos in cucumber by gas chromatography. For this purpose, homogenized cucumber samples were fortified with pesticides at 0.02 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg levels. The efficiency and repeatability of the method in extraction and cleanup steps were performed using 14C-carbaryl by radioisotope tracer technique. 14C-carbaryl recoveries after the extraction and cleanup steps were between 92.63-111.73 % with a repeatability of 4.85% (CV) and 74.83-102.22 % with a repeatability of 7.19% (CV), respectively. The homogeneity of analytical samples and the stability of pesticides during homogenization were determined using radio tracer technique and chromatographic methods, respectively.

  16. The Effect of Salt Priming on the Performance of Differentially Matured Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of salt priming (3% KNO3 for 3 days and 1% NaCl for 2 days at 20 degree on germination, seedling emergence and seedling dry weight of two Iranian cucumber cultivars of Basmenj and Varamin harvested at 25, 35 and 45 days after anthesis (DAA was investigated in an unheated glasshouse. Seed germination and seedling emergence and growth were significantly affected by seed maturity and priming. Maximum advantage of priming seedling vigour was observed in seeds harvested at 25 DAA. Smaller effects of priming were also seen in the decreased mean germination and emergence times and increased seedling dry weight of seeds harvested at 35 and 45 DAA. Priming reduced percentage of seeds that germinated, but failed to emerge. In all cases, KNO3 priming was more effective than NaCl priming. Therefore, KNO3 priming can be used to improve cucumber seedling emergence and establishment, particularly in early spring sowings at low temperatures.

  17. In vitro development and improvement of chromium (vi)-affected adventitious roots of solanum tuberosum l. with ga/sub 3/ and iaa application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken In vitro to investigate the inhibitory effects of Chromium (Cr) VI by using K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ on the growth of adventitious roots of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Desiree). Another objective was to determine possible reversal of the detrimental growth effects with suitable combinations of GA/sub 3/ and IAA. It was observed that the applied Cr VI (100 ppm) alone in MS media inhibited root growth. However, addition of selected combinations of GA/sub 3/ and IAA in the MS media along with Cr VI improved the root growth. The plants grown on MS medium + 100 ppm K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ resulted in reduction in number of adventitious roots up to 36.26%, number of rootlets (80.64%), diameter (37.27%), fresh and dry weights (72.96 and 84.74%, respectively) in comparison with control (MS medium). MS media containing 100 ppm K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ + 20 ppm GA/sub 3/ + 16 ppm IAA enhanced the average number of roots from 4.78 to 62.6, number of rootlets from 2.6 to 28.2, diameter from 0.13 mm to 0.68 mm, fresh weight from 34.4 mg to 1234.75 mg and dry weight from 1.8 mg to 80.40 mg compared with cultures grown on MS + 100 ppm Cr (VI). The results thus highlight the fact that the deleterious effects of Cr VI on potato growth In vitro can be reversed with suitable hormonal treatments. Furthermore, this research has possible implications on large scale potato cultivation under heavy metal stress in a broader sense. (author)

  18. RESEARCH REGARDING THE WATER CONSUMPTION OF TOMATOES, GREEN PEPPER AND CUCUMBERS CULTIVATED IN SOLARIUMS

    OpenAIRE

    DIRJA, M.; V BUDIU; I. PĂCURAR; M JURIAN

    2003-01-01

    In such conditions, saving water represents a very important aspect, both economically and socially. But in horticulture saving water must consider another very important aspect, that of providing food for a continuously growing population. So horticultors have the difficult task of obtaining big productions as well as saving water. Our research come to support the cultivators who grow tomatoes, green peppers and cucumbers in solariums. Determining precisely the water consumption of this spec...

  19. Physiological characterization of aerobic culturable bacteria in the intestine of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaochi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Murase, Shinji; Nakata, Hideaki; Inoue, Tetsushi; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Various aerobic culturable bacteria (1,133 isolates) were isolated from the gut of Apostichopus japonicus (black adult, green adult, black small, green small, black juvenile, and green juvenile sea cucumbers) and from the sea sediment and the seawater using different culture conditions and without enrichment culture. By molecular analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of 231 isolates, they were tentatively affiliated with 53 described species in the phyla Firmicutes (42 species), Proteob...

  20. Development of 101 Gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Lu; Shi Wang; Xiaoyu Mu; Meilin Tian; Huixia Du; Zhenmin Bao; Jingjing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are currently the marker of choice in a variety of genetic studies. Using the high resolution melting (HRM) genotyping approach, 101 gene-based SNP markers were developed for Apostichopus japonicus, a sea cucumber species with economic significance for the aquaculture industry in East Asian countries. HRM analysis revealed that all the loci showed polymorphisms when evaluated using 40 A. japonicus individuals col...

  1. Arabidopsis Pumilio protein APUM5 suppresses Cucumber mosaic virus infection via direct binding of viral RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Sung Un; Kim, Min Jung; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Posttranscriptional/translational regulation of gene expression is mediated by diverse RNA binding proteins and plays an important role in development and defense processes. Among the RNA-binding proteins, the mammalian Pumilio RNA-binding family (Puf) acts as posttranscriptional and translational repressors. An Arabidopsis Puf mutant, apum5-D, was isolated during a T-DNA insertional mutant screen for mutants with reduced susceptibility to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infection. Interestingly,...

  2. Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon

    OpenAIRE

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the ...

  3. Growth and yield of grafted cucumbers in soil infested with root-knot nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Goreta Ban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rootstocks on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants in soils infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Cucumber 'Adrian' was grown with its own roots or was grafted onto three rootstocks of Lagenariasiceraria (Molina Standi. ('Emphasis', 'S-1', and 'Gourd', two interspecific hybrid rootstocks of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne ('Strong Tosa' and 'RS 841 Improved' and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L. ('Romanesco Zucchini'. The experiments were conducted in commercial greenhouse, with cucumber grafted onto three rootstocks in the first season and onto six rootstocks in the second spring-summer season. The number of leaves was considerably affected by the rootstock in both seasons, and was the highest for the plants grafted onto interspecific rootstocks (28.0 in the first and 44.9 in the second season. The plants grafted onto 'Strong Tosa' had higher total number of fruits (19.9 and yield (5.38 kg compared to other rootstocks or non-grafted plants in first season, and the same result was found for two interspecific rootstocks in the second season (6.96 kg and more than 28.9 fruits per plant. The total soluble solids, pH and electrical conductivity of the fruit were not affected by rootstock, while titratable acidity changed with the rootstock type. The grafting of cucumber plants onto different rootstocks was confirmed as an acceptable non-chemical method to compete with the limitations of soils infected with root-knot nematodes, but the effect was highly dependent on the choice of the rootstock.

  4. Investigation of residues of metalaxyl+mancozeb and procymidone used in greenhouse cucumbers in Adana.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, M; Yücel, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine me'talaxyl + mancozeb and procymidone residues and pre-harvest intervals of these fungicides which are used against downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berkeley and Curtes) and white rot [Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary] and also gray mold (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) diseases in greenhouse cucumbers in Adana between 1997- 1999. After two applications of the metalaxyl + mancozeb at recommended dosage, the residues of metalaxyl were deter...

  5. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. PMID:23689747

  6. [Suppression of three soil-borne diseases of cucumber by a rhizosphere fungal strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Heng; Niu, Yong-chun; Deng, Hui; Lin, Xiao-min; Jin, Chun-li

    2015-12-01

    To understand the effect of rhizosphere fungi on soil-borne diseases of cucumber, 16 fungal, strains from rhizosphere soil were investigated for the antagonistic activity to three soilborne pathogenic fungi with dual culture method and for suppression of cucumber diseases caused by the pathogens in pot experiments. Four strains showed antagonism to one or more pathogenic fungi tested. The strain JCL143, identified as Aspergillus terreus, showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In greenhouse pot experiments, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided 74% or more of relative control effect to all the three diseases of cucumber seedling caused by the above three pathogenic fungi, and provided 85% or more of relative control effect to Rhizoctonia root rot and Sclerotinia root and stem rot in pot experiment with non-sterilized substrate. In pot experiment with natural soil as substrate, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided average 84.1% of relative control effect to Fusarium wilt of cucumber at vine elongation stage. The fermentation broth of strain JCL143 showed inhibitory effect in different degrees on the colonial growth of the three pathogenic fungi tested, and reached 63.3% of inhibitory rate of colonial growth to S. sclerotiorum. The inhibitory activity of the fermentation broth decreased with increasing treatment temperature, was liable to decrease to alkaline pH than acid pH, and stable to protease treatment. The results indicated that A. terreus is an important factor in suppression of plant soil-borne diseases, and strain JCL143 with stable disease suppression is potential in biocontrol application. PMID:27112016

  7. Partial purification of elicitors from Lentinula edodes basidiocarps protecting cucumber seedlings against Colletotrichum lagenarium

    OpenAIRE

    Di Piero Robson M.; Wulff Nelson A.; Pascholati Sérgio F.

    2006-01-01

    The shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) has been used in research involving the prevention and the control of human and plant diseases. In cucumber plants, treated with aqueous extracts from mushroom basidiocarps, there was a reduction in anthracnose severity caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium, and an increase in peroxidase activity in the leaves. With the aim of obtaining molecules of agronomic interest, the crude aqueous extract from L. edodes basidiocarp was fractioned with ammonium sulf...

  8. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus Infecting Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sevik, Mehmet Ali; Cemile AKCUCURA

    2011-01-01

    Parsley plants are grown throughout Turkey as summer and winter crops. Diseased plants having typical of a virus infection such as mosaic, mottling, and leaf distortion symptoms were frequently observed in most of the parsley fields and vegetable public markets in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey in 2010. Using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was detected on the diseased parsley plants. However, using farmers and commerc...

  9. Efek Antibakteri Sea Cucumber (Stichopus Variegatus) Terhadap Bakteri Enterococcus Faecalis Sebagai Bahan Medikamen Saluran Akar

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Gita

    2013-01-01

    Endodontic treatment goal is to eliminate microorganisms and their by products from root canal so that the teeth can be maintained as long as possible in the mouth. Bacteria that normally survive in the root canal is of anaerobic bacteria group. One of this bacteria is Enterococcus faecalis which is most commonly found in failed root canal treatment case. Calcium hydroxide is mostly used medicament for interappointment root canal dressing during endodontic therapy. Sea Cucumber is one of the ...

  10. Preparation and Characterization of O-Acylated Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate from Sea Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Na Gao; Mingyi Wu; Shao Liu; Wu Lian; Zi Li; Jinhua Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), a kind of complex glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber, has potent anticoagulant activity. In order to understand the relationship between structures and activity, the depolymerized FuCS (dFuCS) was chosen to prepare its derivates by selective substitution at OH groups. Its O-acylation was carried out in a homogeneous way using carboxylic acid anhydrides. The structures of O-acylated derivatives were characterize...

  11. Hatchery and culture technology for the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra Jaeger, in India

    OpenAIRE

    James, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    The seed of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra jaeger is being produced at the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute in India. This article describes the techniques being used in the production of seed and the experiments being carried out for the rearing of juveniles. Trials to grow juveniles in hatcheries on prawn farms have shown spectabular results that are both cost efficient and environmentally friendly.

  12. Patagonicosides B and C, two Antifungal Sulfated Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Psolus patagonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Careaga, Valeria P.; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Marta S.

    2011-01-01

    Two new triterpene glycosides, patagonicosides B (2) and C (3), together with the known patagonicoside A (1), have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the sea cucumber Psolus patagonicus. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopy (1H and13C NMR,1H–1H COSY, HMBC, HSQC, TOCSY, and NOESY), HRESIMS, and chemical transformations. Compounds 1–3 and their desulfated analogs showed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cla...

  13. Variegatusides: New Non-Sulphated Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Stichopus variegates Semper

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Hua Wang; Zheng-Rong Zou; Yang-Hua Yi; Hua Han; Ling Li; Min-Xiang Pan

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, variegatusides C–F (1–4), together with three structurally known triterpene glycosides, variegatusides A and B (5, 6), and holothurin B (7), were isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus variegates Semper (Holothuriidae), collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral analysis (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS)) and chemical evidence. Variegatusides C–F...

  14. Leucospilotaside C, a new sulfated triterpene glycoside from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new triterpene glycoside, leueospilotaside C, along with two known saponin, was isolated from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota collected from the South China Sea, and its structure was elucidated as 3-O-{4'-O-sodiumsulfate-β-D-xylopyranosyl }-holosta-22,25-epoxy-9-ene-3β, 12a, 17a-triol (1) by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. The glycosides have the same triterpene aglycone, but differ in the oligosaccharide moieties.

  15. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P preference tests indicated that the taste of CaCl2 was not the factor affecting consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. PMID:25981784

  16. Penggunaan ELISA untuk Mendeteksi Cucumber Mosaic Virus dan Tobacco Mosaic Virus pada Tanaman Cabai

    OpenAIRE

    Taufik, Muhammad; Khaeruni, Andi; Rombe, Wau S.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Haluoleo University Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, from November 2010 to January 2011. The objective of this experiment was to detect the presence of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) on pepper in Southeast Sulawesi by using an ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique. A survey was conducted to collect chili leaf samples in several locations in the Prov...

  17. Aphid performance changes with plant defense mediated by Cucumber mosaic virus titer

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xiaobin; Gao, Yang; Yan, Shuo; Tang, Xin; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Deyong; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes appreciable losses in vegetables, ornamentals and agricultural crops. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Aphididae) is one of the most efficient vectors for CMV. The transmission ecology of aphid-vectored CMV has been well investigated. However, the detailed description of the dynamic change in the plant-CMV-aphid interaction associated with plant defense and virus epidemics is not well known. Results In this report, we investigated the...

  18. Plant-microorganism-soil interactions influence the Fe availability in the rhizosphere of cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pii, Youry; Penn, Alexander; Terzano, Roberto; Crecchio, Carmine; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Iron (Fe) is a very important element for plants, since it is involved in many biochemical processes and, often, for the low solubility of the natural Fe sources in soil, plants suffer from Fe - deficiency, especially when grown on calcareous soils. Among the numerous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that colonize the rhizosphere of agronomically important crops, Azospirillum brasilense has been shown to exert strong stimulating activities on plants, by inducing alterations of the root architecture and an improvement of mineral nutrition, which could result from an enhancement of ion uptake mechanisms as well as by increased bioavailability of nutrients. Some studies have also established that A. brasilense can act as biocontrol agent, by preventing the growth and/or virulence of phytopathogens, most likely through the production of microbial siderophores that sequester Fe from the soil. Despite microbial siderophores complexed with Fe could be an easily accessible Fe source for plants, the possible involvement of A. brasilense in improving Fe nutrition in plants suffering from the micronutrient deficiency has not been investigated yet. Within the present research, the characterization of the physiological and biochemical effects induced by Fe starvation and PGPR inoculation in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese Long) was carried out. The analyses of root exudates released by hydroponically grown plants highlighted that cucumber plants respond differently depending on the nutritional status. In addition, following the cultivation period on calcareous soil, also the root exudates found in the extracts suggested a peculiar behaviour of plants as a function of the treatment. Interestingly, the presence of the inoculum in soil allowed a faster recovery of cucumber plants from Fe-deficiency symptoms, i.e. increase in the chlorophyll content, in the biomass and in the Fe content of leaves. These observations might suggest a feasible application of

  19. RNA-Seq improves annotation of protein-coding genes in the cucumber genome

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Zhangjun; Yan Pengcheng; Huang Sanwen; Zhang Zhonghua; Li Zhen; Lin Kui

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background As more and more genomes are sequenced, genome annotation becomes increasingly important in bridging the gap between sequence and biology. Gene prediction, which is at the center of genome annotation, usually integrates various resources to compute consensus gene structures. However, many newly sequenced genomes have limited resources for gene predictions. In an effort to create high-quality gene models of the cucumber genome (Cucumis sativus var. sativus), based on the EV...

  20. Characterization of a satellite RNA associated with strain K8 of cucumber mosaic virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Fraile, Aurora; Moriones, E.; Garcia-Arenal, Fernando

    1990-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus strain K8 (K8-CMV), originally isolated in NW Italy from Cucumis metuliferus, was sent to us by Dr. Lisa after being passaged and multiplied in tobacco. Northern blots to probes against Fny-CMV (subgroup I) and Ls-CMV (subgroup II) showed K8-CMV to belong to subgroup I of CMV isolates (1). In agarose gel electrophoresis of virion encapsidated RNAs a fifth RNA was found, shown to be a satellite RNA (K8-sat RNA).